WorldWideScience

Sample records for standard cancer treatments

  1. Cancer Terms: After Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gallery Cancer Terms: Cancer Basics Cancer Terms: Research Statistics Cancer Terms: Treatment Cancer Terms: After Treatment Online Medical Dictionaries Diagnosing Cancer Managing Your Care Financial Considerations How ...

  2. Adverse breast cancer treatment effects: the economic case for making rehabilitative programs standard of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Kathryn H; DiSipio, Tracey; Gordon, Louisa G; Hayes, Sandra C

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the patient-borne financial cost of common, adverse breast cancer treatment-associated effects, comparing cost across women with or without these side effects. Two hundred eighty-seven Australian women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer were prospectively followed starting at 6 months post-surgery for 12 months, with three monthly assessments of detailed treatment-related side effects and their direct and indirect patient costs attributable to breast cancer. Bootstrapping statistics were used to analyze cost data, and adjusted logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between costs and adverse events from breast cancer. Costs were inflated and converted from 2002 Australian to 2014 US dollars. More than 90 % of women experienced at least one adverse effect (i.e., post-surgical issue, reaction to radiotherapy, upper-body symptoms or reduced function, lymphedema, fatigue, or weight gain). On average, women paid $5,636 (95 % confidence interval (CI), $4,694, $6,577) in total costs. Women with any one of the following symptoms (fatigue, reduced upper-body function, upper-body symptoms) or women who report ≥4 adverse treatment-related effects, have 1.5 to nearly 4 times the odds of having higher healthcare costs than women who do not report these complaints (p treatment-related health problems, which may persist beyond the treatment period. Improving breast cancer care by incorporating prospective surveillance of treatment-related side effects and strategies for prevention and treatment of concerns (e.g., exercise) has real potential for reducing patient-borne costs.

  3. Stereotactic radiation therapy: a second gold standard in the treatment of early-stage lung cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santini B, Alejandro; Valdez C, Cristian; Sepulveda A, Veronica; Baeza L, Ricardo; Bustos, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is still the leading cause of cancer death in the world. Although in Chile this is not the case, the northern regions of the country show higher incidence and mortality rates than the other Chilean regions. In recent years screening guides for lung cancer with low-dose scanner have begun to be established, and most of the medical societies involved in this subject have already settled the selection criteria. At the same time new techniques of treatment for these patients have developed, with highly sophisticated radiotherapy such as SBRT (Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy) and SBART (Stereotactic ablative body radiation therapy) that are revealing extremely encouraging results and augur significant changes in the coming years. In the present review we analyze the current work, their results, and the future of this treatment modality

  4. [Evaluation of the quality of life in patients with breast cancer at different TNM stages after standardized treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong; Huang, Yuan; Tao, Ping; Li, Hui; Wang, Qiong; Li, Hui; Li, Jia-yuan

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the quality of life (QOL) in patients with breast cancer at different TNM stages and to estimate the value of EuroQol Five Dimension Indicator (EQ-5D) in measuring QOL among Chinese breast cancer patients. A survey with Quality of Life Instruments for Cancer Patients-Breast Cancer (QLICP-BR) and EQ-5D was undertaken in breast cancer patients who had completed their standardized treatment (except for the endocrine treatment) six months ago. Chi-square test, one-way ANOVA, and covariance analysis were used to evaluate the possible factors influencing the QOL of breast cancer patients. Simultaneously, with the results of Quality of Life Instruments for Cancer Patients-General Module (QLICP-GM, which is included in QLICP-BR.) and the total scores of QLICP-BR as standard, we conducted Pearson correlation analysis to evaluate the value of EQ-5D. A total of 178 female breast cancer survivors were collected from March 2010 to September 2010. There were 47 cases (26.4%) at stage 0 and I, 81 cases (45.5%) at stage II, and 50 cases (28.1%) at stage III and IV. The total standardized score of QLICP-BR was 72.55 ± 3.10 in patients at stage 0 and I, 64.09 ± 2.69 in patients at stage II and 58.21 ± 3.00 in patients at stage III and IV. The total standardized score of QLICP-BR and social domain of patients at stage 0 and I were higher than patients at stage II (all P stage 0 and I were higher than patients at stage III and IV (all P stages when age, degree of education, birth place (metropolis or rural), occupation, domestic income, and medical insurance were controlled (P = 0.002). Correlation analysis indicated that EQ-5D has a positive correlation with QLICP-GM and QLICP-BR (all P stage breast cancer is better than those at late stage. Early diagnosis and treatment can improve QOL of breast cancer patients. Chinese version of EQ-5D can well detect the differences of QOL among patients with different TNM stages, which can be used for evaluating QOL in Chinese

  5. Total Mesorectal Excision, an erroneous anatomical term for the gold standard in rectal cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Luna, María Rita; Guarneros-Zárate, Joaquín E; Tueme-Izaguirre, Jorge

    2015-11-01

    In 1986 Professor R J Heald published in The Lancet his new technique which he called Total Mesorectal Excision; today this is the gold standard for the surgical management of rectal cancer. In Total Mesorectal Excision (TME), the mesorectum is the term used to describe all the peri-rectal connective tissue including the posterior sheath of the endopelvic fascia containing the peri-rectal neurovascular structures. However, the mesenterium is a defined structure composed of a double layer of peritoneum which does not include the endopelvic fascia and the lateral rectal stalks, so these should not be included in the term 'mesorectum'. In our globalized medical culture it is important to use anatomic terms approved by the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, as contained in the Terminologia Anatomica produced by the Federative International Programme for Anatomical Terminology (FIPAT). The term mesorectum is not listed in the Terminologia Anatomica. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Conformal treatment of prostate cancer with improved targeting: superior prostate-specific antigen response compared to standard treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corn, Benjamin W.; Hanks, Gerald E.; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Hunt, Margie A.; Lee, W. Robert; Coia, Lawrence R.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Conformal radiation therapy (CRT) decreases the morbidity of prostate cancer treatment, but no published data attest to the improved ability of CRT to control disease. Therefore, we compared Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) response at 1 year among similarly staged patients treated by conformal techniques to those treated with conventional approaches, looking for an early indicator of tumor response. Method and Materials: Patients with locally advanced disease were treated by pelvic fields followed by prostate field conedowns; those with early stage/low grade disease received only prostate field irradiation. Between October, 1987 and November, 1991, conventional treatments used rectangular beams with or without corner blocks. Neither urethrography nor immobilization casts were used for conventionally treated patients. Between April, 1989 and December, 1992, conformal treatments have used rigid immobilization and Computed Tomography-based, beams-eye-view field design. As such, our conformal approach allowed improved targeting. Median prescribed doses (minimal doses to the Planning Target Volume) were 70 Gy (66-73 Gy) and 70.2 Gy (64.8-75 Gy) for conventionally and conformally treated patients, respectively. Median daily fraction size was 1.8 Gy for conventional treatment and 2.0 Gy for conformal therapy. Baseline PSA data were available on 170 consecutive patients treated conformally and 90 consecutive patients treated conventionally. Results: Among those receiving only prostatic field irradiation, 12-month PSA values returned to normal in 96% and 85% of conformally and conventionally treated patients, respectively, when normalization was defined as ≤ 4 ng/ml (p 15), and the use of conformal irradiation were statistically significant prognostic discriminants of PSA normalization at 1 year while total irradiation dose, clinical stage, and the addition of pelvic fields were not significant. Conclusions: As measured by PSA normalization, conformal techniques

  7. Quality assurance in cancer management. Impact of quality standards on treatment accuracy: The experience of the EORTC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernier, J.

    1997-01-01

    There is thus a need to ensure that the same quality of treatment is offered to all cancer patients in Europe. A research of this kind must be aimed at identifying which steps in the complex treatment processes are more error prove, which of those can most effectively be corrected, and which procedures could be taken over by countries, or individual centers to monitor themselves the quality of their treatment procedures. To achieve this goals, the EORTC Radiotherapy Co-operative Group has put a major effort in the development of two Quality Assurance programs: the Physics Audit program (PAQ) and in the Assurance of Protocol Compliance Program (APCP). In the PAO, a first survey conducted in 1986, on the radiotherapy infrastructure in European Centers participating in clinical trials showed that 20% of the centers encountered difficulties to comply with the EORTC requirements due to imbalance in staff or equipment. Besides radiotherapy infrastructure, the beam output was checked in 50 centers: a major problem was detected in 30% of the checked electron beams. Dosimetric recommendations were sent out to all radio-oncology departments active in the EORTC and a mailed measurement procedure was developed for the verification of the beam output in photon beams. The EORTC Radiotherapy Group has demonstrated that multicenter QA programs permit, through the pooling of a large number of data, auditing by specialists of implemented Quality Standards both in radiation physics and in clinical oncology, contributing to the basis for the development of harmonized quality procedures and standards in the therapeutic management of cancer. This type of QA program should also foster the interaction between several medical disciplines and promote the application of Quality Standards in community level hospitals. Current efforts are also put forth to develop common research instruments, such as the processing of database and MRI or CT-scan images through teleconferencing and the set up

  8. Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancer Clinical Trials Global Health Key Initiatives Cancer Moonshot Genomic Data Commons National Clinical Trials ...

  9. Cancer treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mouth or into a blood vessel (IV). Different types of drugs may be given together at the same time or one after the other. Radiation Radiation therapy uses x-rays, particles, or radioactive seeds to kill cancer cells. Cancer cells grow and ...

  10. Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  11. Impact of third-line treatment with irinotecan plus cetuximab on non-tumor standardized uptake values in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kim Francis; Skougaard, Kristin; Nielsen, Anne Lerberg

    2012-01-01

    The correct interpretation of metabolic response in cancer cells to therapy requires knowledge of how tumor-free tissue responds to the same treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate standardized uptake values (SUVs) in tumor-free regions of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer prior...... body mass were registered. The procedure was repeated for a follow-up scan two weeks following a single administration of the third-line treatment with irinotecan plus cetuximab. The mean differences in SUV prior to and following therapy were non-significant (P>0.05) in all the registered tumor...

  12. Systemic Chemotherapy as Salvage Treatment for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Patients Who Fail to Respond to Standard Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, Francesco; Brown, Gina; Cunningham, David; Rao, Sheela; Tekkis, Paris; Tait, Diana; Morano, Federica; Baratelli, Chiara; Kalaitzaki, Eleftheria; Rasheed, Shahnawaz; Watkins, David; Starling, Naureen; Wotherspoon, Andrew; Chau, Ian

    2017-06-01

    The potential of chemotherapy as salvage treatment after failure of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) has never been explored. We conducted a single-center, retrospective analysis to address this question. Patients with newly diagnosed LARC who were inoperable or candidates for extensive (i.e., beyond total mesorectal excision [TME]) surgery after long-course chemoradiotherapy and who received salvage chemotherapy were included. The primary objective was to estimate the proportion of patients who became suitable for TME after chemotherapy. Forty-five patients were eligible (39 candidates for extensive surgery and 6 unresectable). Previous radiotherapy was given concurrently with chemotherapy in 43 cases (median dose: 54.0 Gy). Oxaliplatin- and irinotecan-based salvage chemotherapy was administered in 40 (88.9%) and 5 (11.1%) cases, respectively. Eight patients (17.8%) became suitable for TME after chemotherapy, 10 (22.2%) ultimately underwent TME with clear margins, and 2 (4.4%) were managed with a watch and wait approach. Additionally, 13 patients had extensive surgery with curative intent. Three-year progression-free survival and 5-year overall survival in the entire population were 30.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15.0-46.0) and 44.0% (95% CI: 26.0-61.0), respectively. For the curatively resected and "watch and wait" patients, these figures were 52.0% (95% CI: 27.0-73.0) and 67.0% (95% CI: 40.0-84.0), respectively. Systemic chemotherapy may be an effective salvage strategy for LARC patients who fail to respond to chemoradiotherapy and are inoperable or candidates for beyond TME surgery. According to our study, one out of five patients may become resectable or be spared from an extensive surgery after systemic chemotherapy. High-quality evidence to inform the optimal management of rectal cancer patients who are inoperable or candidates for beyond total mesorectal excision surgery following standard chemoradiotherapy is

  13. Lasers in Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Off-Label Drug Use in Cancer Treatment Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) CAM for Patients CAM for Health Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Lasers in Cancer Treatment On This Page What is laser light? What is laser therapy, and how is it used in cancer treatment? ...

  14. The renal handling of sodium and water is not affected by the standard-dose cisplatin treatment for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, G; Strandgaard, S; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1987-01-01

    Renal clearances of 51Cr-EDTA, lithium, sodium and potassium were measured before and after each of four consecutive treatment series with cisplatin in 15 men with testicular cancer. Since lithium is reabsorbed like sodium and water in the proximal tubules, but not reabsorbed to any measurable...... and all other parameters of glomerular filtration and renal sodium handling remained normal throughout the study (with the exception of a fall in fractional sodium excretion after the first treatment series). Plasma magnesium declined during all four treatment periods, signifying renal magnesium wasting....

  15. A natural pharma standard supplement formulation to control treatment-related toxicity and oxidative stress in genitourinary cancer: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledda, A; Belcaro, G; Dugall, M; Luzzi, R; Hosoi, M; Feragalli, B; Cotellese, R; Cosentino, V; Cosentino, M; Eggenhoffner, R; Pellizzato, M; Fratter, A; Giacomelli, L

    2017-09-01

    Oncological treatments are associated with toxicities that may decrease compliance to treatment in most genitourinary cancer patients. Supplementation with pharmaceutical-standardized supplement may be a supplementary method to control the side effects after chemo- and radiotherapy and the increased oxidative stress associated to treatments. This registry study evaluated a natural combination of supplements containing curcumin, cordyceps, and astaxanthin (Oncotris™) used as supplementary management in genitourinary cancer patients who had undergone oncological therapy. Patients with genitourinary cancers (prostate or bladder malignancies) who had undergone and completed cancer treatments (radiotherapy, chemotherapy or intravesical immunotherapy with increased oxidative stress and residual symptoms) were recruited in this registry, supplement study. Registry subjects (n = 61) freely decided to follow either a standard management (SM) (control group = 35) or SM plus oral daily supplementation (supplement group = 26). Evaluation of severity of treatment-related residual side effects, blood count test, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and plasma free radicals (oxidative stress) were performed at inclusion and at the end of the observational period (6 weeks). Two patients dropped out during the registry. Therefore, the analysis included 59 participants: 26 individuals in the supplementation group and 33 in the control group. In the supplement group, the intensity of signs and symptoms (treatment-related) and residual side effects significantly decreased at 6 weeks: minimal changes were observed in controls. Supplementation with Oncotris™ was associated with a significant improvement in blood cell count and with a decreased level of plasmatic PSA and oxidative stress. Naturally-derived supplements, specifically Oncotris™ (patent pending), could support the body to overcome the treatment-related toxicities - and the relative oxidative stress in cancer patients.

  16. Prostate cancer - treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000403.htm Prostate cancer - treatment To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treatment for your prostate cancer is chosen after a thorough evaluation. Your doctor ...

  17. Bleeding during cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... meals. Talk with your doctor about using stool softeners or laxatives if you are straining when you ... flushing Chemotherapy - what to ask your doctor Drinking water safely during cancer treatment Dry mouth during cancer ...

  18. Cancer treatment - early menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premature menopause; Ovarian insufficiency - cancer ... Cancer treatments that can cause early menopause include: Surgery. Having both ovaries removed causes menopause to happen right away. If you are age 50 or younger, your provider may ...

  19. A randomized, open, parallel group, multicenter trial to investigate analgesic efficacy and safety of a new transdermal fentanyl patch compared to standard opioid treatment in cancer pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kress, H.G.; Laage, D. Von der; Hoerauf, K.H.

    2008-01-01

    A new 72-hour transdermal fentanyl matrix patch has been designed, which has a 35%-50% reduction of the absolute fentanyl content compared with other currently available transdermal fentanyl patches that are using the matrix technology. The new patch has previously been shown...... to be pharmacokinetically bioequivalent to the marked fentanyl patch. To determine noninferiority in efficacy in cancer patients and to compare safety, a clinical trial comparing the new fentanyl patch with standard oral or transdermal opioid treatment was planned. The design was an open, parallel group, multicenter trial......, in which 220 patients were randomized to receive either the fentanyl patch or standard opioid treatment for 30 days. The primary efficacy variable, pain intensity (PI) on a 0-10-point numerical rating scale, was recorded once daily. The primary endpoint was the relative area under the curve of PI expressed...

  20. Hyperthermia in Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer Types A to ...

  1. Randomized Phase III Trial of Low Molecular Weight Heparin Enoxaparin in Addition to Standard Treatment in Small Cell Lung Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, L; Gezelius, E; Bergman, B

    2018-01-01

    Background: Coagulation activation and venous thromboembolism (VTE) are hallmarks of malignant disease and represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer. Coagulation inhibition with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) may improve survival specifically in small cell lung cancer (SCLC...

  2. Parathyroid Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sign of disease. Sestamibi scan : A type of radionuclide scan used to find an overactive parathyroid gland. ... speech problems caused by this nerve damage. Radiation therapy Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses ...

  3. The development of an ICF-based clinical guideline and screening tool for the standardized assessment and evaluation of functioning after head and neck cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisser, Ulrich; Adderson-Kisser, Christine; Coenen, Michaela; Stier-Jarmer, Marita; Becker, Sven; Sabariego, Carla; Harréus, Ulrich

    2017-02-01

    The assessment and evaluation of functioning and quality of life after tumor treatment in head and neck cancer (HNC) are considered as essential aspects of clinical routine and studies. A huge number of instruments are available that have been designed to evaluate functioning and quality of life after HNC treatment. The diversity of these instruments in terms of content, response options and administration hinders the comparability of available studies and the performance of meta-analyses. The objective of this paper is to inform about the development of a screening tool for the standardized assessment and evaluation of functioning based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Set for HNC. We followed a multi-step approach including (1) preparatory studies to identify and preselect suitable instruments for the assessment of functioning, (2) a decision-making process to agree on an ICF-based clinical guideline including instruments assessing functioning and (3) the development of a computer-based standardized screening tool to assess and evaluate functioning based on this guideline in clinical routine. Twenty-one experts participated in a consensus meeting and decided on instruments to be included in an ICF-based clinical guideline and screening tool for the assessment and evaluation of functioning in HNC patients in cancer treatment. The chosen instruments cover all aspects of the ICF Core Set for HNC addressing therapy control, pain, food intake/swallowing, voice/speech/breathing, other somatic complaints and psychosocial aspects. The screening tool contains patient-reported outcome measures and a clinician's checklist. It has to be further tested in clinical practice.

  4. Treatment Option Overview (Rectal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Rectal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Rectal Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Rectal ...

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  6. Encounters in cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2014-01-01

    Based on extensive ethnographic material from in-depth interviews with Danish cancer patients after treatment, this study analyzes their stories to explore how interactions with the physician configures and situates a need for rehabilitation. We identify three themes in the illness stories: (1...... by this encounter. The significance of the social encounters in cancer treatment is elucidated through this analysis, and we demonstrate how the need for recognition of the complex effects of cancer on one's life is central to counter experiences of objectification and dehumanization....

  7. Surgery and postoperative brachytherapy for treatment of small volume uterine cervix cancer: an alternative to the standard association of utero vaginal brachytherapy + surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallocher, O.; Thomas, L.; Pigneux, J.; Stocke, E.; Bussieres, E.; Avril, A.; Floquet, A.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose. -Evaluate the results of the treatment of small uterine cervix cancer with the association of surgery and postoperative vaginal brachytherapy, without unfavourable prognostic factors. Patients and methods. -After radical hysterectomy with lymphadenectomy, 29 women (mean age: 44 years) with carcinoma < 25 mm (26 stage IB1, 3 IIA, mean size: 15 mm) were treated by post-operative prophylactic vaginal brachytherapy using low dose rate. Ovarian transposition was performed at the surgical time in 14 young women (mean age 35 years). Results. - The actuarial specific survival rates at 5 and 10 years were 100% and 90% respectively, with a mean follow-up 75 months. Only one local recurrence was observed. The rate of grade 1 post-operative complication was 7%. The conservation rate of the ovarian function was 85% for young women. Conclusion. -Treatment of small volume uterine cervix cancer using first surgery and post-operative vaginal brachytherapy is a reliable therapeutic option. The results in terms of specific survival and complications are the same with those after standard association of preoperative utero-vaginal brachytherapy and surgery. (authors)

  8. Standard of Care Versus Metastases-directed Therapy for PET-detected Nodal Oligorecurrent Prostate Cancer Following Multimodality Treatment: A Multi-institutional Case-control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuber, T; Jilg, C; Tennstedt, P; De Bruycker, A; Tilki, D; Decaestecker, K; Zilli, T; Jereczek-Fossa, B A; Wetterauer, U; Grosu, A L; Schultze-Seemann, W; Heinzer, H; Graefen, M; Morlacco, A; Karnes, R J; Ost, P

    2018-03-10

    Most prostate cancer (PCa) patients with a biochemical failure following primary multimodality treatment (surgery and postoperative radiotherapy) relapse in the nodes. To perform a matched-case analysis in men with lymph node recurrent PCa comparing standard of care (SOC) with metastasis-directed therapy (MDT). PCa patients with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression following multimodality treatment were included in this retrospective multi-institutional analysis. The SOC cohort (n=1816) received immediate or delayed androgen deprivation therapy administered at PSA progression. The MDT cohort (n=263) received either salvage lymph node dissection (n=166) or stereotactic body radiotherapy (n=97) at PSA progression to a positron emission tomography-detected nodal recurrence. The primary endpoint, cancer-specific survival (CSS), was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test, Cox proportional hazards models, and propensity score-matched analyses. At a median follow-up of 70 (interquartile range: 48-98) mo, MDT was associated with an improved CSS on univariate (p=0.029) and multivariate analysis (hazard ratio: 0.33, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.17-0.64) adjusted for the year of radical prostatectomy (RP), age at RP, PSA at RP, time from RP to PSA progression, Gleason score, surgical margin status, pT- and pN-stage. In total, 659 men were matched (3:1 ratio). The 5-yr CSS was 98.6% (95% CI: 94.3-99.6) and 95.7% (95% CI: 93.2-97.3) for MDT and SOC, respectively (p=0.005, log-rank). The main limitations of our study are its retrospective design and lack of standardization of systemic treatment in the SOC cohort. MDT for nodal oligorecurrent PCa improves CSS as compared with SOC. These retrospective data from a multi-institutional pooled analysis should be considered as hypothesis-generating and inform future randomized trials in this setting. Prostate cancer patients experiencing a lymph node recurrence might benefit from local treatments directed at

  9. New Cancer Pain Treatment Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candido, Kenneth D; Kusper, Teresa M; Knezevic, Nebojsa Nick

    2017-02-01

    Cancer pain is often incapacitating and discouraging to patients; is demoralizing to family members and care takers; and is taxing and difficult to subdue for the pain specialists. The consequences of implementing suboptimal treatment are far-reaching; therefore, effective treatment methods are in a great demand. The face of cancer pain management has changed in considerable ways, and interventional procedures have become an integral part of providing multimodal analgesia in cancer pain treatment. The goals of this review are to draw attention to the critical role that regional anesthetic nerve blocks and interventional pain management techniques play in treating malignancy-related pain and emphasize the benefits provided by the aforementioned treatment strategies. A large proportion of cancer patients continues to struggle with an inadequately treated pain despite a strict adherence to the WHO analgesic step ladder. The previous pain treatment algorithm has been modified to include peripheral neural blockade, neuro-destructive techniques, neuromodulatory device use, and intrathecal drug delivery systems. The accumulated evidence highlights the opioid-sparing qualities and other benefits afforded by these modalities: decreasing medication-induced side effects, reducing economic burden of poor analgesia, and overall improvement in quality of life of the patients afflicted with a painful neoplastic disease. The rising prevalence of cancer-related pain syndromes is paralleled by an unmatched growth of innovative treatment strategies. Modified WHO analgesic ladder represents one of the greatest paradigm shifts within the domain of oncologic pain treatment. The cancer patient population requires a prompt and liberal, albeit judicious, delivery of unorthodox pain treatment options freed from the rigid bonds of conventional guidelines and standard practices.

  10. Women with breast cancer report substantially more disease- and treatment-related side or late effects than registered by clinical oncologists: a cross-sectional study of a standard follow-up program in an oncological department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Mai Britt Bjørklund; Grau, Cai; Zachariae, Robert

    2017-01-01

    cancer or recurrent disease, (2) Disease- and treatment-related physical and psychosocial side or late effects, and (3) relevant actions by oncology staff. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 194 women who came for follow-up visit after treatment for primary surgery were included......BACKGROUND: Follow-up after breast cancer treatment is standard due to the risk of development of new primary cancers and recurrent disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a standard follow-up program in an oncological department by assessing: (1) Symptoms or signs of new primary....... The clinical oncologists registered symptoms and signs of recurrent disease or new primary cancer. Side or late effects were both assessed by patient and the clinical oncologists. RESULTS: Loco-regional or distant signs of recurrent disease were suspected in eight (5%) patients. Further examinations revealed...

  11. Nanotechnology in cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironidou-Tzouveleki, Maria; Imprialos, Konstantinos; Kintsakis, Athanasios

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the current evolutions on nanotechnology and its applications on cancer theragnostics.Rapid advances and emerging technologies in nanotechnology are having a profound impact on cancer treatment. Applications of nanotechnology, which include liposomes, nanoparticles, polymeric micelles, dendrimers, nanocantilever, carbon nanotubes and quantum dots have significantly revolutionized cancer theragnostics. From a pharmaceutical viewpoint, it is critical that the biodistribution of active agents has to be controlled as much as possible. This aspect is vital in order to assure the proper efficiency and safety of the anticancer agents. These biocompatible nanocomposites provide specific biochemical interactions with receptors expressed on the surface of cancer cells. With passive or active targeting strategies, an increased intracellular concentration of drugs can be achieved in cancer cells , while normal cells are being protected from the drug simultaneously. Thus, nanotechnology restricts the extent of the adverse effects of the anticancer therapy. Treatment for metastatic breast cancer, sarcoma in AIDS patients, ovarian and lung cancer is already on market or under final phases of many clinical trials, showing remarkable results. As nanotechnology is perfected, side effects due to normal cell damage will decrease, leading to better results and lengthening patient's survival.

  12. Ayahuasca and cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenberg, Eduardo E

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensively review the evidence regarding the use of ayahuasca, an Amerindian medicine traditionally used to treat many different illnesses and diseases, to treat some types of cancer. An in-depth review of the literature was conducted using PubMed, books, institutional magazines, conferences and online texts in nonprofessional sources regarding the biomedical knowledge about ayahuasca in general with a specific focus in its possible relations to the treatment of cancer. At least nine case reports regarding the use of ayahuasca in the treatment of prostate, brain, ovarian, uterine, stomach, breast, and colon cancers were found. Several of these were considered improvements, one case was considered worse, and one case was rated as difficult to evaluate. A theoretical model is presented which explains these effects at the cellular, molecular, and psychosocial levels. Particular attention is given to ayahuasca's pharmacological effects through the activity of N,N-dimethyltryptamine at intracellular sigma-1 receptors. The effects of other components of ayahuasca, such as harmine, tetrahydroharmine, and harmaline, are also considered. The proposed model, based on the molecular and cellular biology of ayahuasca's known active components and the available clinical reports, suggests that these accounts may have consistent biological underpinnings. Further study of ayahuasca's possible antitumor effects is important because cancer patients continue to seek out this traditional medicine. Consequently, based on the social and anthropological observations of the use of this brew, suggestions are provided for further research into the safety and efficacy of ayahuasca as a possible medicinal aid in the treatment of cancer.

  13. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Head and neck cancer ... there any new developments in treating my disease? Head and neck cancer overview The way a particular ...

  14. Economy of Standards: European Association of Urology Guideline Changes Influence Treatment Costs in Stage I Testicular Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Axel; Baumgart, André; Worst, Thomas; Heinzelbecker, Julia

    2018-01-01

    The study aimed to calculate direct medical costs (DMC) during the first year of diagnosis and to evaluate the impact of guideline changes on treatment costs in clinical stage (CS) I testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) patients in a German healthcare system. Healthcare expenditures as DMC during the first year of diagnosis for 307 TGCT patients in CS I treated at our institution from 1987 to 2013 were calculated from the statutory health insurance perspective using patient level data. Three periods were defined referring to the first European Association of Urology (EAU) guideline in 2001 as well as to subsequent major guideline changes in 2005 and 2010. Data source for cost calculations were the German Diagnosis Related Groups system for inpatient stays (version 2014) and the German system for reimbursement of outpatient care (EBM - Einheitlicher Bewertungsmaßstab, edition 2014). During our 25 years of study period, mean DMC in the first year after diagnosis for the entire cohort of TGCT patients in CS I almost halved from EUR 13.000 to EUR 6.900 (p < 0.001). From 1987 to 2001, DMC for CS I seminomatous germ cell tumor (SGCT) patients were EUR 13.790 ± 4.700. From 2002 to 2010, mean costs were EUR 10.900 ± 5.990, and from 2011 to 2013, mean costs were EUR 5.190 ± 3.700. For CS I non-seminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT) patients, from 1987 to 2001, mean DMC were EUR 11.650 ± 5.690. From 2002 to 2010, mean costs were EUR 11.230 ± 5.990, and from 2011 to 2013, mean costs were EUR 11.170 ± 7.390. Follow-up examinations became less frequent over time, which caused a significant cost reduction for NSGCT (p = 0.042) while costs remained stable for SGCT. When adding costs of relapse treatment, active surveillance (AS) was the most cost-effective adjuvant treatment option in CS I NSGCT whereas one course carboplatin or AS caused similar expenditures in SGCT patients. The introduction of the EAU guidelines in 2001 caused a decrease in DMC in CS I seminoma patients

  15. Stereotactic radiotherapy reduces treatment cost while improving overall survival and local control over standard fractionated radiation therapy for medically inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanni, Thomas B; Grills, Inga S; Kestin, Larry L; Robertson, John M

    2011-10-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is the standard alternative curative treatment option for medically inoperable early stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Recently, stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has shown substantial promise to improve local control rates as compared with conventional fractionated RT [external beam RT (EBRT)]. We compare treatment outcomes and costs between SBRT and EBRT in this patient population. A total of 86 patients with Stage I (Tl-2 N0) NSCLC were treated with either EBRT (n=41) or SBRT (n=45) between January 2002 and April 2008. EBRT patients were treated to a median dose of 70 Gy with 3-dimensional conformal RT (n=39) or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (n=2). SBRT was delivered in 4 or 5 fractions to 48 (Tl, n=44) or 60 (T2, n=1) Gy. The actual cost was calculated using 2010 Medicare hospital-based Ambulatory Payment Classification and hospital-based physician fee screen reimbursement rates for both the technical and professional components. On the basis of a median number of fractions for this patient population, SBRT was significantly less expensive ($13,639 EBRT vs. $10,616 SBRT, P < 0.01). Survival analysis demonstrated superior 36-month overall survival using SBRT, 71% versus 42% for EBRT (P < 0.05). SBRT also reduced local failure by nearly 3 times compared with EBRT (12% vs. 34%, P=0.10). In this study of Stage I NSCLC patients, SBRT was found to be less expensive than standard fractionated EBRT, with the cost savings highly dependent on the number of SBRT fractions and EBRT technique (3-dimensional conformal RT vs. intensity-modulated radiation therapy). SBRT was also associated with superior local control and overall survival.

  16. [Treatments for Pancreatic Cancer with Oligometastasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuse, Junji

    2017-10-01

    Pancreatic cancer, adenocarcinoma, generally rapidly progresses, and if a metastatic lesion is detected, chemotherapy is applied even in solitary metastasis. However, surgical resection for solitary metastasis have been reported to achieve long survival in some pancreatic cancer patients. In a prospective study of surgery for hepatic and lymph node oligometastasis of pancreatic cancer, long survival of 5 years or more was reported around 10%. Furthermore, longer survival and fewer rerecurrence were achieved with surgery in lung metastasis than in liver metastasis and loco-regional recurrence. Although there has been no establishment of concept or no consensus of treatment strategy for oligometastasis in pancreatic cancer, some patients with pancreatic cancer have long disease-free survival by surgery for oligometastasis. A population of pancreatic cancer patients who have benefits of surgery for oligometastasis should be identified, and it is necessary to establish treatments for oligometastasis as standard treatments in pancreatic cancer.

  17. TRAILs towards improved cervical cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maduro, John

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a life threatening disease occurring world-wide, but affecting especially women in developing countries. Standard treatment for cevical cancer varies per FIGO stage and patient related factors. In general patients with non bulky (<4 cm) FIGO stage IB and IIA are treated with a

  18. Life After Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    FACTS FOR LIFE Life After Breast Cancer Treatment Once breast cancer treatment ends, you may face a new set of issues and concerns. ... fear. If fear starts to disrupt your daily life, talk with your doctor. Getting the support and ...

  19. Precision Medicine in Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision medicine helps doctors select cancer treatments that are most likely to help patients based on a genetic understanding of their disease. Learn about the promise of precision medicine and the role it plays in cancer treatment.

  20. Laetrile treatment for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Stefania; Horneber, Markus

    2015-04-28

    Laetrile is the name for a semi-synthetic compound which is chemically related to amygdalin, a cyanogenic glycoside from the kernels of apricots and various other species of the genus Prunus. Laetrile and amygdalin are promoted under various names for the treatment of cancer although there is no evidence for its efficacy. Due to possible cyanide poisoning, laetrile can be dangerous. To assess the alleged anti-cancer effect and possible adverse effects of laetrile and amygdalin. We searched the following databases: CENTRAL (2014, Issue 9); MEDLINE (1951-2014); EMBASE (1980-2014); AMED; Scirus; CINAHL (all from 1982-2015); CAMbase (from 1998-2015); the MetaRegister; the National Research Register; and our own files. We examined reference lists of included studies and review articles and we contacted experts in the field for knowledge of additional studies. We did not impose any restrictions of timer or language. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs. We searched eight databases and two registers for studies testing laetrile or amygdalin for the treatment of cancer. Two review authors screened and assessed articles for inclusion criteria. We located over 200 references, 63 were evaluated in the original review, 6 in the 2011 and none in this update. However, we did not identify any studies that met our inclusion criteria. The claims that laetrile or amygdalin have beneficial effects for cancer patients are not currently supported by sound clinical data. There is a considerable risk of serious adverse effects from cyanide poisoning after laetrile or amygdalin, especially after oral ingestion. The risk-benefit balance of laetrile or amygdalin as a treatment for cancer is therefore unambiguously negative.

  1. Ayahuasca and cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo E Schenberg

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Comprehensively review the evidence regarding the use of ayahuasca, an Amerindian medicine traditionally used to treat many different illnesses and diseases, to treat some types of cancer. Methods: An in-depth review of the literature was conducted using PubMed, books, institutional magazines, conferences and online texts in nonprofessional sources regarding the biomedical knowledge about ayahuasca in general with a specific focus in its possible relations to the treatment of cancer. Results: At least nine case reports regarding the use of ayahuasca in the treatment of prostate, brain, ovarian, uterine, stomach, breast, and colon cancers were found. Several of these were considered improvements, one case was considered worse, and one case was rated as difficult to evaluate. A theoretical model is presented which explains these effects at the cellular, molecular, and psychosocial levels. Particular attention is given to ayahuasca’s pharmacological effects through the activity of N,N-dimethyltryptamine at intracellular sigma-1 receptors. The effects of other components of ayahuasca, such as harmine, tetrahydroharmine, and harmaline, are also considered. Conclusion: The proposed model, based on the molecular and cellular biology of ayahuasca’s known active components and the available clinical reports, suggests that these accounts may have consistent biological underpinnings. Further study of ayahuasca’s possible antitumor effects is important because cancer patients continue to seek out this traditional medicine. Consequently, based on the social and anthropological observations of the use of this brew, suggestions are provided for further research into the safety and efficacy of ayahuasca as a possible medicinal aid in the treatment of cancer.

  2. Safety and tolerability of combination therapy vs. standard treatment alone for patients with previously treated non-small cell lung cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. James Gulley is leading a team to test the safety and tolerability of the combination of nivolumab and CV301 to see if it can improve the survival for patientis with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer.  Learn more...

  3. Oral metronomic scheduling of anticancer therapy-based treatment compared to existing standard of care in locally advanced oral squamous cell cancers: A matched-pair analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, P S; Vaidya, A D; Prabhash, K; Banavali, S D

    2013-01-01

    Head and neck cancers in developing countries present with advanced disease, compounded by poor access to tertiary care centers. We evaluated oral metronomic scheduling of anticancer therapy (MSAT) in advanced operable oral cancers, in conjunction with standard therapy. This was a retrospective matched-pair analysis carried out in a tertiary referral cancer center. Advanced operable oral cancer patients having a waiting period for surgery > 3 weeks were administered MSAT. Patients then underwent standard therapy (surgery +/- adjuvant radiation/chemoradiation) as warranted by the disease, followed by MSAT maintenance therapy. Outcomes of the MSAT group were compared with stage-matched controls with similar waiting periods. Survivals were found using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared between groups using the log rank test. Response was seen in 75% of 32 patients. Two-year disease-free survivals (DFS) in MSAT and control groups were 86.5 and 71.6%, respectively. Two-year DFS in MSAT group who received at least three months of MSAT was 94.6% (P = 0.03). Oral MSAT is an economical, effective, and safe adjuvant therapy for oral cancers. It has the potential for preventing progression of the disease and improving DFS.

  4. [Prostate cancer. Treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, G; Valeri, A; Mangin, P; Cussenot, O

    2004-10-01

    The discovery and the utilisation of the prostate specific antigen (PSA) that allows early diagnosis of prostate cancer, have considerably improved the management of this disease. Before the PSA era, prostate cancer was just a disease of the old man, generally detected at an advanced stage and incurable, with a fatal outcome delayed by the androgenic deprivation. Since early 1990's, prostate cancer has become primarily a disease of the man of 60 years, detectable earlier, and curable provided no extraprostatic dissemination has occurred. Early treatment of prostate cancer has benefited from important advances in surgical and radio-therapeutic techniques (conformational irradiation, brachytherapy), with, as principal goal, the combination of a better survival and the reduction of the potential adverse effects that alter quality of life. A better definition of the characteristics of the tumours in terms of progression regarding various parameters (clinical stage, PSA, tumoral differentiation) have resulted, despite the heterogeneity of the disease, in the determination of subgroups of tumours with different prognosis, which leads to an improved therapeutic strategy. The assessment of men's life expectancy ( 10 years) is the second primary parameter on which is based the indication for curative or non curative therapy in case of localized tumour. Roughly, before the age of 75, a curative therapy is indicated whereas after this age a surveillance is reasonable as first-line treatment, followed by hormone therapy in case of onset of symptoms indicating some progression of the disease (urinary symptoms, bone lesion). At a Later stage, in case of a metastatic or locally advanced cancer, hormone therapy by androgenic deprivation is highly indicated. The hormone sensitivity characterizes prostate cancer; it has been discovered more than 50 years ago by Charles Huggins (Nobel prize-winner). This hormone therapy is a palliative treatment since its efficacy is transient

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Thyroid Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of cancer. Tracheostomy : Surgery to create an opening ( stoma ) into the windpipe to help you breathe. The ... information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come ...

  6. Impact of a combined multimodal-aerobic and multimodal intervention compared to standard aerobic treatment in breast cancer survivors with chronic cancer-related fatigue - results of a three-armed pragmatic trial in a comprehensive cohort design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröz, Matthias; Reif, Marcus; Glinz, Augustina; Berger, Bettina; Nikolaou, Andreas; Zerm, Roland; Brinkhaus, Benno; Girke, Matthias; Büssing, Arndt; Gutenbrunner, Christoph

    2017-03-02

    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) and insomnia are major complaints in breast cancer survivors (BC). Aerobic training (AT), the standard therapy for CRF in BC, shows only minor to moderate treatment effects. Other evidence-based treatments include cognitive behavioral therapy, e.g., sleep education/restriction (SE) and mindfulness-based therapies. We investigated the effectiveness of a 10-week multimodal program (MT) consisting of SE, psycho-education, eurythmy- and painting-therapy, administered separately or in combination with AT (CT) and compared both arms to AT alone. In a pragmatic comprehensive cohort study BC with chronic CRF were allocated randomly or by patient preference to (a) MT, (b) CT (MT + AT) or (c) AT alone. Primary endpoint was a composite score of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Cancer Fatigue Scale after 10 weeks of intervention (T1); a second endpoint was a follow-up assessment 6 months later (T2). The primary hypothesis stated superiority of CT and non-inferiority of MT vs. AT at T1. A closed testing procedure preserved the global α-level. The intention-to-treat analysis included propensity scores for the mode of allocation and for the preferred treatment, respectively. Altogether 126 BC were recruited: 65 were randomized and 61 allocated by preference; 105 started the intervention. Socio-demographic parameters were generally balanced at baseline. Non-inferiority of MT to AT at T1 was confirmed (p < 0.05), yet the confirmative analysis stopped as it was not possible to confirm superiority of CT vs. AT (p = 0.119). In consecutive exploratory analyses MT and CT were superior to AT at T1 and T2 (MT) or T2 alone (CT), respectively. The multimodal CRF-therapy was found to be confirmatively non-inferior to standard therapy and even yielded exploratively sustained superiority. A randomized controlled trial including a larger sample size and a longer follow-up to evaluate multimodal CRF-therapy is highly warranted. DRKS-ID: DRKS

  7. Women with breast cancer report substantially more disease- and treatment-related side or late effects than registered by clinical oncologists: a cross-sectional study of a standard follow-up program in an oncological department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellegaard, Mai-Britt Bjørklund; Grau, Cai; Zachariae, Robert; Jensen, Anders Bonde

    2017-08-01

    Follow-up after breast cancer treatment is standard due to the risk of development of new primary cancers and recurrent disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a standard follow-up program in an oncological department by assessing: (1) Symptoms or signs of new primary cancer or recurrent disease, (2) Disease- and treatment-related physical and psychosocial side or late effects, and (3) relevant actions by oncology staff. In a cross-sectional study, 194 women who came for follow-up visit after treatment for primary surgery were included. The clinical oncologists registered symptoms and signs of recurrent disease or new primary cancer. Side or late effects were both assessed by patient and the clinical oncologists. Loco-regional or distant signs of recurrent disease were suspected in eight (5%) patients. Further examinations revealed no disease recurrence. Most patients (93%) reported some degree of side or late effects. Statistically significant more side or late effects were reported by the women (average: 6.9) than registered by the clinical oncologists (average: 2.4), p effects were hot flushes (35%), fatigue (32%), and sleep disturbance (31%). None of the scheduled or additional visits resulted in detection of recurrent disease. Furthermore, the majority of patients reported side or late effects. Statistically significant more women reported side or late effects than registered by the clinical oncologists. This suggests the need for rethinking of the follow-up programs with more emphasis upon side or late effects of the treatment.

  8. Early breast cancer: diagnosis, treatment and survivorship.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Meade, Elizabeth

    2013-01-11

    Breast cancer is the most common female cancer and globally remains a major public health concern. The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer continues to develop. Diagnosis is now more precise, surgery is less mutilating and women now have the option of breast conserving therapy with better cosmesis, and without sacrificing survival. Radiotherapy is more targeted and the selection of patients for adjuvant chemotherapy is based not only on prognostic and predictive factors, but also on newer molecular profiling that will ensure that chemotherapy is given to the patients who need and respond to it. These developments all provide a more tailored approach to the treatment of breast cancer. Management now involves a multidisciplinary team approach in order to provide the highest standard of care for patients throughout their cancer journey from diagnosis through treatment and into follow-up care.

  9. [Treatment of tuberculosis. Current standards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaberg, T

    2015-12-01

    The treatment of drug-sensitive tuberculosis consists of 2 months of isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol, followed by 4 months of isoniazid and rifampin. These drugs are well tolerated and cure rate are above 95 %. In contrast the treatment of drug-resistent tuberculosis is difficult, mostly due to side effects of the drugs used under these circumstances. Therefore, any treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis has to be done by experts.

  10. Anal Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body to send radiation toward the cancer. Internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds , ... stage of the cancer being treated. External and internal radiation therapy are used to treat anal cancer. Chemotherapy Chemotherapy ...

  11. Treatment Option Overview (Endometrial Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uterus. See the PDQ summary on Uterine Sarcoma Treatment for more information about uterine sarcoma . Obesity and having metabolic syndrome may increase the risk of endometrial cancer. Anything ...

  12. Systemic treatment of breast cancer in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szegheoova, O.

    2016-01-01

    Incidence of breast cancer in pregnancy is increasing due to trend of postponing child-bearing to later age. Breast cancer diagnosed during lactation has different biologic behaviour and worse prognosis than when diagnosed during pregnancy. Pregnancy does not constitute a negative prognostic factor per se for outcomes of breast cancer in pregnancy, therefore breast cancer should be treated while containing pregnancy. Pregnancy should not delay treatment. Therapy should follow standard procedures as closely as possible, though with different timing of treatment modalities. Experienced multidisciplinary team is crucial for achieving good treatment results and involvement of an informed patient in decision-making is a must. Properly managed treatment during pregnancy does not carry detrimental effect on development and well-being of children. (author)

  13. Evaluation of patients with head and neck cancer performing standard treatment in relation to body composition, resting metabolic rate, and inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Thalyta Morandi Ridolfi; Miguel Marin, Daniela; da Silva, Conceição Aparecida; de Souza, Aglécio Luiz; Talamoni, Maristela; Lima, Carmen Silvia Passos; Monte Alegre, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) usually emerges as a set of signs and symptoms that, either alone or in combination with standard treatment, may lead to malnutrition and weight loss. This study evaluated patients with SCCHN before day 0 and 30 days after the end of treatment, with/without tumor resection. Each individual patient underwent analyses of body composition and resting metabolic rate, as well as assessment of serum glucose, insulin, leptin, adiponectin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), IL-1β, and insulin sensitivity. There was body mass loss during treatment and significant reduction in body fat and free fat mass. Early nutritional monitoring and tumor resection before treatment led to a better nutritional status and reduced inflammatory state. Early nutritional monitoring and resection of the tumor by surgery may be important factors for patients to better tolerate treatment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  15. Small Intestine Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... all of an organ that contains cancer. The resection may include the small intestine and nearby organs (if the cancer has spread). The doctor may remove the section of the small intestine that contains cancer and perform an anastomosis (joining the cut ends of the intestine together). ...

  16. Resveratrol and cancer treatment: updates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhengdong; Chen, Ke; Cheng, Liang; Yan, Bin; Qian, Weikun; Cao, Junyu; Li, Jie; Wu, Erxi; Ma, Qingyong; Yang, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Cancer, a growing health problem worldwide, affects millions of people every year. The overall survival rates of most cancers have been prolonged owing to the efforts of clinicians and scientists. However, some tumors develop resistance to chemoradiotherapeutic agents, and the cancer research community continues to search for effective sensitizers. Resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic phytoalexin, has shown promising effects in inhibiting proliferation and cancer progression in several tumor models. However, its molecular mechanisms and applications in chemotherapy and radiotherapy have yet to be fully determined. In this concise review, we highlight the role and related molecular mechanisms of resveratrol in cancer treatment. In particular, we focus on the role of resveratrol in the tumor microenvironment and the sensitization of cancer cells for chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Resveratrol shows promising efficacies in cancer treatment and may be applied in clinical therapy, but it requires further clinical study. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  17. Fertility effects of cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Donald E; Hacker, Neville

    2003-01-01

    Cancer sufferers are a subfertile group, and most treatments have the potential to adversely affect gonadal function. As cancer treatment becomes more effective and survival rates improve there are more cancer survivors in the reproductive age group for whom parenting is an important consideration. This article outlines the effects on fertility of cancer treatments and techniques to minimise the risk of infertility. The overall prospects for younger cancer sufferers to either retain their fertility or have genetic offspring is now better than ever before, due to advances in assisted reproductive technology, the appropriate use of fertility sparing surgery and other techniques to reduce the toxicity of therapy on the reproductive organs. These advances raise new moral and ethical concerns that must be considered before advising cancer sufferers of the options for preserving reproductive capacity.

  18. 24 CFR 35.1335 - Standard treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Lead-Paint Hazard Evaluation and Hazard Reduction Activities § 35.1335 Standard treatments. Standard..., such as metal coil stock, plastic, polyurethane, or linoleum. (c) Correcting dust-generating conditions... incorporate the use of safe work practices in accordance with § 35.1350. (f) Clearance. A clearance...

  19. Standard or hypofractionated radiotherapy in the postoperative treatment of breast cancer: a retrospective analysis of acute skin toxicity and dose inhomogeneities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortorelli, Grazia; Morelli, Pasquale; Murgia, Alessandra; Ponti, Elisabetta; Terenzi, Sara; Tolu, Barbara; Santoni, Riccardo; Di Murro, Luana; Barbarino, Rosaria; Cicchetti, Sara; Cristino, Daniela di; Falco, Maria Daniela; Fedele, Dahlia; Ingrosso, Gianluca; Janniello, Dania

    2013-01-01

    To identify predictive factors of radiation-induced skin toxicity in breast cancer patients by the analysis of dosimetric and clinical factors. 339 patients treated between January 2007 and December 2010 are included in the present analysis. Whole breast irradiation was delivered with Conventional Fractionation (CF) (50Gy, 2.0/day, 25 fractions) and moderate Hypofractionated Schedule (HS) (44Gy, 2.75Gy/day, 16 fractions) followed by tumour bed boost. The impact of patient clinical features, systemic treatments and, in particular, dose inhomogeneities on the occurrence of different levels of skin reaction has been retrospectively evaluated. G2 and G3 acute skin toxicity were 42% and 13% in CF patients and 30% and 7.5% in HS patients respectively. The retrieval and revaluation of 200 treatment plans showed a strong correlation between areas close to the skin surface, with inhomogeneities >107% of the prescribed dose, and the desquamation areas as described in the clinical records. In our experience dose inhomogeneity underneath G2 – G3 skin reactions seems to be the most important predictor for acute skin damage and in these patients more complex treatment techniques should be considered to avoid skin damage. Genetic polymorphisms too have to be investigated as possible promising candidates for predicting acute skin reactions

  20. Treatment Option Overview (Parathyroid Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sign of disease. Sestamibi scan : A type of radionuclide scan used to find an overactive parathyroid gland. ... speech problems caused by this nerve damage. Radiation therapy Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses ...

  1. Treatment Option Overview (Vaginal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nearby lymph nodes are also removed. Artificial openings ( stoma ) are made for urine and stool to flow ... information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come ...

  2. Treatment Option Overview (Vulvar Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nearby lymph nodes are also removed. Artificial openings ( stoma ) are made for urine and stool to flow ... information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come ...

  3. Integrative medicine for cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000932.htm Integrative medicine for cancer treatment To use the sharing features ... This is why many people turn to integrative medicine. Integrative medicine (IM) refers to any type of ...

  4. Treatment Option Overview (Bladder Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cyclophosphamide or ifosfamide . Taking Aristolochia fangchi , a Chinese herb . Drinking water from a well that has high ... patients may be given chemotherapy after surgery to kill any cancer cells that are left. Treatment given ...

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Prostate Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of bisphosphonate drugs to prevent or slow the growth of bone metastases is being studied in clinical trials. There are treatments for bone pain caused by bone metastases or hormone therapy. Prostate cancer that has spread to the ...

  6. Paradigm shift in cancer treatment: Cancer treatment as a metabolic disease – fusion of Eastern and Western medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reo Hamaguchi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Current standard therapies for cancer, including surgery, anti-cancer drugs, and radiotherapy, are thought to contribute to the improvement in the survival rates of cancer patients. However, such standard therapies have 3 major problems: in advanced cancers, it is unlikely that standard cancer treatments will cure the disease; adverse side effects that accompany standard cancer treatments put many patients in distress; and a large amount of medical expenditure is required for new and expensive anti-cancer drugs. These problems may be viewed as a result of establishing treatments without any consideration regarding the root cause of the cancer. Otto Warburg suggested that particular changes in the energy metabolism of cells, which are associated with a shortage of oxygen, are the root cause of cancer. Cancer cells have unique metabolic characteristics, and thus we believe that it is important to treat cancer as a metabolic disease. More specifically, not only is it important to suppress cancer cell metabolism, but it is also important to improve the chronic inflammation that is associated with the development and progression of cancer, and to support the functions of immune cells. This type of view of cancer treatment coincides with the principles of Chinese medicine, which has a history of 4000 years, such as “fuzheng quxie” and “zhibing qiuben”, which can assist in the establishment of cancer treatments for patients. In this article, we discuss cancer treatments from the view of cancer as a metabolic disease and their association with Chinese medicine, and introduce some clinical cases along with a review of the literature.

  7. Treatment Options by Stage (Rectal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Rectal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Rectal Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Rectal ...

  8. Treatment Options for Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  9. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product that claims to treat or cure cancer? According to the Federal Trade Commission, consumers should ...

  10. European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Pathobiology Group standard operating procedure for the preparation of human tumour tissue extracts suited for the quantitative analysis of tissue-associated biomarkers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, M.; Mengele, K.; Schueren, E. van der; Sweep, C.G.J.; Foekens, J.A.; Brunner, N.; Laabs, J.; Malik, A.; Harbeck, N.

    2007-01-01

    With the new concept of 'individualized treatment and targeted therapies', tumour tissue-associated biomarkers have been given a new role in selection of cancer patients for treatment and in cancer patient management. Tumour biomarkers can give support to cancer patient stratification and risk

  11. Edoxaban for the Treatment of Cancer-Associated Venous Thromboembolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raskob, Gary E.; van Es, Nick; Verhamme, Peter; Carrier, Marc; Di Nisio, Marcello; Garcia, David; Grosso, Michael A.; Kakkar, Ajay K.; Kovacs, Michael J.; Mercuri, Michele F.; Meyer, Guy; Segers, Annelise; Shi, Minggao; Wang, Tzu-Fei; Yeo, Erik; Zhang, George; Zwicker, Jeffrey I.; Weitz, Jeffrey I.; Büller, Harry R.; Beyer-Westendorf, Jan; Boda, Zoltan; Chlumsky, Yaromir; Gibbs, Harry; Kamphuizen, P. W.; Monreal, Manuel; Ockleford, Paul; Pabinger-Fasching, Ingrid; Sinnaeve, Peter; Beenen, Ludo; Gerdes, Victor; Laleman, Wim; Larrey, Dominiqe; van Mechelen, Rob; Roos, Yvo; Scheerder, Maeke; Slagboom, Ton; Thijs, Vincent; Eikelboom, John W.; Crowther, Mark; Roberts, Robin S.; Vanassche, Thomas; Vandenbriele, Christophe; Debaveye, Barbara; Dani, Vidhi; Schwocho, Lee; Duggal, Anil; Baker, R.; Carroll, P.; Chan, N.; Coughlin, P.; Crispin, P.; Gallus, A.; Hugman, A.; Tran, H.; Brodmann, M.; Mathies, R.; Rossmann, D.; Deeren, D.; Hainaut, P.; Jochmans, K.; Vercauter, P.; Wautrecht, J.-C.; Champion, P.; Gross, P.; Lee, A.; Shivakumar, S.; Tagalakis, V.; Zed, E.; Kovarova, K.; Lastuvka, J.; Matoska, P.; Prosecky, R.; Achkar, A.; Aquilanti, S.; Chatellain, P.; Cony-Makhoul, P.; del Piano, F.; Elias, A.; Falvo, N.; Ferrari, E.; Mahé, I.; Merle, P.; Mismetti, P.; Muron, T.; Pernod, G.; Quere, I.; Schmidt, J.; Stephan, D.; Espinola-Klein, C.; Horacek, T.; Kröning, R.; Oettler, W.; Schellong, S.; Schön, N.; Zwemmrich, C.; Farkas, K.; Gurzo, M.; Nyirati, G.; Pecsvarady, Z.; Riba, M.; Becattini, C.; Cattaneo, M.; Falanga, A.; Ghirarduzzi, A.; Imberti, D.; Lodigiani, C.; Parisi, R.; Porreca, E.; Squizzato, A.; Tassoni, M. I.; Villalta, S.; Visonà, A.; Beeker, A.; Boersma, W.; Brouwer, R.; Dees, A.; Huisman, M.; Kuijer, P.; Mairuhu, R.; Meijer, K.; Middeldorp, S.; Otten, H. M.; van Marwijk-Kooy, M.; van Wissen, S.; Westerweel, P.; Harper, P.; Merriman, E.; Ockelford, P.; Royle, G.; Smith, M.; Cereto Castro, F.; de Oña Navarrete, R.; Font Puig, C.; Gallardo Díaz, E.; Garcia-Bragado Dalmau, F.; Ruiz Artacho, P.; Santamaria, A.; Baumann Kreuziger, L.; de Sancho, M.; Gaddh, M.; Metjian, A.; Rojas Hernandez, C. M.; Shah, V.; Smith, W.; Wun, T.; Xiang, Z.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND Low-molecular-weight heparin is the standard treatment for cancer-associated venous thromboembolism. The role of treatment with direct oral anticoagulant agents is unclear. METHODS In this open-label, noninferiority trial, we randomly assigned patients with cancer who had acute

  12. Antimatter cancer treatment

    CERN Multimedia

    Van Noorden, Richard

    2006-01-01

    "The idea that antimatter beams could treat cancer might seem ridiculous. But researchers working at Cerns particle accelerator laboratory in Geneva don't think so. They have just reported a successful first experiment into the biological effects of antiprotons radiation on living cells."

  13. European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Pathobiology Group standard operating procedure for the preparation of human tumour tissue extracts suited for the quantitative analysis of tissue-associated biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Manfred; Mengele, Karin; Schueren, Elisabeth; Sweep, Fred C G J; Foekens, John A; Brünner, Nils; Laabs, Juliane; Malik, Abha; Harbeck, Nadia

    2007-03-01

    With the new concept of 'individualized treatment and targeted therapies', tumour tissue-associated biomarkers have been given a new role in selection of cancer patients for treatment and in cancer patient management. Tumour biomarkers can give support to cancer patient stratification and risk assessment, treatment response identification, or to identifying those patients who are expected to respond to certain anticancer drugs. As the field of tumour-associated biomarkers has expanded rapidly over the last years, it has become increasingly apparent that a strong need exists to establish guidelines on how to easily disintegrate the tumour tissue for assessment of the presence of tumour tissue-associated biomarkers. Several mechanical tissue (cell) disruption techniques exist, ranging from bead mill homogenisation and freeze-fracturing through to blade or pestle-type homogenisation, to grinding and ultrasonics. Still, only a few directives have been given on how fresh-frozen tumour tissues should be processed for the extraction and determination of tumour biomarkers. The PathoBiology Group of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer therefore has devised a standard operating procedure for the standardised preparation of human tumour tissue extracts which is designed for the quantitative analysis of tumour tissue-associated biomarkers. The easy to follow technical steps involved require 50-300 mg of deep-frozen cancer tissue placed into small size (1.2 ml) cryogenic tubes. These are placed into the shaking flask of a Mikro-Dismembrator S machine (bead mill) to pulverise the tumour tissue in the capped tubes in the deep-frozen state by use of a stainless steel ball, all within 30 s of exposure. RNA is isolated from the pulverised tissue following standard procedures. Proteins are extracted from the still frozen pulverised tissue by addition of Tris-buffered saline to obtain the cytosol fraction of the tumour or by the Tris buffer supplemented with

  14. Tackling ageism in cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffin, Christian

    2013-02-01

    Evidence shows that older patients are discriminated against when it comes to cancer treatment. A pilot project was commissioned by the Department of Health in partnership with Macmillan Cancer Support and Age UK. The project involved staff, including nurses, from five cancer networks in England examining ways to improve care for this patient group. Drawing on approaches used in geriatric medicine, patients' needs in accessing treatment were explored by conducting assessments and, for example, providing taxis for hospital appointments and practical support from voluntary organisations. Challenges for nurses included lack of training in patient screening and the extra workload caused by the assessments. The report on the pilot project concluded that involving elderly care specialists and using comprehensive geriatric assessments were useful approaches in the care of older cancer patients.

  15. What should be the gold standard for the surgical component in the treatment of locally advanced esophageal cancer: transthoracic versus transhiatal esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutup, Asad; Nentwich, Michael F; Bollschweiler, Elfriede; Bogoevski, Dean; Izbicki, Jakob R; Hölscher, Arnulf H

    2014-12-01

    To analyze survival differences between transthoracic esophagectomy (TTE) and limited transhiatal esophagectomy (THE) in clinically (cT3) and pathologically (pT3) staged advanced tumors without neoadjuvant treatment. Debate exists whether in the type of resection in locally advanced cancer plays a role in prognosis and whether THE is a valuable alternative to TTE regarding oncological doctrine and overall survival. In a retrospective study of 2 high-volume centers, 468 patients with cT3NXM0 esophageal cancer, including 242 (51.7%) squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and 226 (48.3%) adenocarcinomas (ACs), were analyzed. A total of 341 (72.9%) TTE and 127 (27.1%) THE were performed. We used the propensity score matching to build comparable groups. Primary endpoint was the overall survival; secondary endpoints included resection status and lymph node yield. TTE achieved a higher rate of R0 resections (86.2% vs 73.2%; P = 0.001) and a higher median lymph node yield (27.0 ± 12.4 vs 17.0 ± 6.4; P TTE and 7.4% (9/121) for THE (P = 0.600). In the matched groups, TTE was beneficial for pT3 SCC (P = 0.004), pT3 AC (P = 0.029), cT3 SCC (P = 0.018), and cT3 AC (P = 0.028) patients. TTE was either beneficial in pN2 disease for cT3 AC + SCC or pT3 SCC but not for pT3 AC patients, without nodal stratification in pT3 and cT3 SCC node-positive patients. On multivariable analysis, TTE remained an independent factor for survival. Extended TTE achieved a higher rate of R0 resections, a higher lymph node yield, and resulted in a prolonged survival than THE in pT3, cT3, and node-positive patients.

  16. Brachytherapy in treatment of vaginal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Kaprin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of diagnosis and treatment of different types of primary vaginal cancer are highlighted, the role and place of brachytherapy as independent method or combined treatment modality for this pathology is shown in the review. Epidemiological data on incidence of vaginal cancer in Russia are represented, presumptive mechanisms for development of the disease, risk factors, histological types, features of the course, clinical presentation, diagnostic algorithm are described. Treatment methods for primary vaginal cancer according to world standards such as surgery, radiotherapy and systemic drug therapy are covered. Specifics of radiological methods of treatment (low-dose rate and high-dose rate brachytherapy, including the combination with external beam radiotherapy according to the stage of the disease, are shown in details. The results of several large foreign clinical trials for efficiency of different methods of radiotherapy are discussed. The combination of brachytherapy on primary tumor with external radiation therapy to the lymph nodes was confirmed to be the most effective modality. The conclusion on opportunities of different methods of radiotherapy in treatment of vaginal cancer was made.

  17. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product ... and should not stop or delay their conventional treatment. Category: Scam Watch Health Download File Related Videos ...

  18. Effects of 5-fluorouracil adjuvant treatment of colon cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelder, Wendy; Hospers, Geke A. P.; Plukker, John T. M.

    Since the late 1980s and early 1990s, 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy has been the standard adjuvant treatment for Stage III colon cancer. After the initial introduction of 5-fluorouracil in standard treatment protocols, several changes have been made based on results of randomized studies on

  19. Impact of surgery and chemotherapy on cellular immunity in pancreatic carcinoma patients in view of an integration of standard cancer treatment with immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellone, Graziella; Novarino, Anna; Vizio, Barbara; Brondino, Gabriele; Addeo, Alfredo; Prati, Adriana; Giacobino, Alice; Campra, Donata; Fronda, Gian Ruggero; Ciuffreda, Libero

    2009-06-01

    As surgery and chemotherapy may act as adjuvants providing antitumor immunity benefits, we ran phenotypical and functional immunomonitoring in patients with resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma and advanced metastatic disease receiving combined treatment (cisplatin, gemcitabine, 5-FU). Blood was taken before/one month after resection; before/during chemotherapy. Controls were age- and gender-matched. Circulating lymphocyte, myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cell (MDC and PDC) subsets were examined by flow cytometry; functional activity by mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) for DC allostimulation, through 4-h 51Cr-release assay for Natural Killer (NK) and lymphokine-activated-killer (LAK) cell cytotoxicity; ELISA for spontaneous/activated cytokine release by PBMC and T cells. Significant differences occurred in several parameters between pretreatment patient and control values: fewer CD8+ cells and increased apoptosis-prone CD3+/CD95+ lymphocytes, higher frequency of MDC, reduced allostimulatory activity by ex vivo-generated DC, depressed LAK activity, elevated IL-10 and IL-12p40 production; impaired IL-12p70 and IFN-gamma production by stimulated PBMC and T cells. Only IL-12p70 level was correlated with survival. One month after radical, but not palliative surgery, the percentage of T-lymphocytes coexpressing CD3/CD95 decreased significantly, the stimulatory capacity of DC increased, and LPS-induced IL-12p70 release by PBMC rose concomitantly with the anti-CD3 stimulated-IFN-gamma production by T cells. In patients with locally advanced or metastatic disease, one and/or two combined drug cycles increased percentage of CD4+ cells and LAK cell cytotoxicity and decreased PDC frequency and spontaneous/LPS-stimulated IL-10 by PBMC. Results suggest immunological changes induced by surgical resection/combined chemotherapy indicate specific precisely-timed windows of opportunity for introducing immunotherapy in pancreatic cancer, possibly improving survival in this highly

  20. Struggling with cancer and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, L; Andersen, C; Midtgaard, J

    2009-01-01

    Cancer and treatment can negatively affect the body's performance and appearance. Exercise has been tested in a few studies for altered body image among middle-aged women with breast cancer. The aim of the study was to explore how young pre-cancer athletes of both genders experience disease...... patients (median age 28 years). The young athletes experienced a change from a high level of physical activity, body satisfaction and a positive self-identity to a low level of physical activity, body denial and a negative self-identity. In the program, the patients experienced increased physical strength...... and self-identity. This should be taken into account when designing programs to rehabilitate and encourage these patients through the often-strenuous antineoplastic treatments....

  1. Treatment Option Overview (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... removed. These procedures are done using a low transverse incision or a vertical incision. Radical hysterectomy : Surgery ... tubes. Pelvic exenteration : Surgery to remove the lower colon , ... Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or ...

  2. Development of cancer treatment guidelines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Krystyna Kiel

    2011-05-26

    May 26, 2011 ... Development of cancer treatment guidelines. Krystyna Kiel *. Rush University Medical Center and Rush University Medical School, Chicago, IL, USA. Received 3 December 2010; accepted 5 January 2011 ... doi:10.1016/j.ajme.2011.01.002. Production and hosting by Elsevier. Alexandria Journal of ...

  3. Neoadjuvant Treatment in Rectal Cancer: Actual Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garajová, Ingrid; Di Girolamo, Stefania; de Rosa, Francesco; Corbelli, Jody; Agostini, Valentina; Biasco, Guido; Brandi, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Neoadjuvant (preoperative) concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has become a standard treatment of locally advanced rectal adenocarcinomas. The clinical stages II (cT3-4, N0, M0) and III (cT1-4, N+, M0) according to International Union Against Cancer (IUCC) are concerned. It can reduce tumor volume and subsequently lead to an increase in complete resections (R0 resections), shows less toxicity, and improves local control rate. The aim of this review is to summarize actual approaches, main problems, and discrepancies in the treatment of locally advanced rectal adenocarcinomas. PMID:22295206

  4. Bicalutamide 150 mg plus standard care vs standard care alone for early prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLeod, David G; Iversen, Peter; See, William A

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate, in the ongoing Early Prostate Cancer (EPC) trial programme, the efficacy and tolerability of bicalutamide 150 mg once daily in addition to standard care for localized or locally advanced, nonmetastatic prostate cancer....

  5. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Comment Report An Antitrust Violation File Documents in Adjudicative Proceedings You are here Home » News & Events » Audio/Video » Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam ...

  6. [Treatment Strategy for Liver Metastasis of Colorectal Cancer - Including Treatment for Oligometastasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takeo; Nakamura, Takatoshi; Yamanashi, Takahiro; Miura, Hirohisa; Tsutsui, Atsuko; Shimazu, Masashi; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2017-10-01

    The mainstay of treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer is surgery. Therefore, colorectal cancer metastasis is distinctive, compared to other cancer types in which chemotherapy is the main treatment. Initially, Japan experienced medical druglag compared with western countries. However, the use of oxaliplatin for unresectable recurrent metastatic colorectal cancer became available in Japan, as well as in western countries, in 2005. We have since shifted chemotherapeutic regimens from monotherapy to combination therapy with molecular targeted agents. The combination therapy has rapidly become a standard therapy for unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer, and prognosis has dramatically increased for patients with this condition. Herein, we describe the treatment of liver metastasis of colorectal cancer, and surgery and adjuvant or neoadjuvant therapy options for resectable cancer. Furthermore, we focus on conversion therapy for unresectable cancer.

  7. Treatment Options for Urethral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Cancer Feelings and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self-Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for Caregivers ... Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support for ...

  8. Communicative skills in treatmenting cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchay, Sanaullah

    2007-01-01

    Communication within oncology is a core clinical skill but one in which few oncologists or specialist cancer nurses have received much formal training. Inadequate communication may cause much distress for patients and their families, who often want considerably more information than is usually provided. Many patients leave consultations unsure about the diagnosis and prognosis, confused about the meaning of--and need for-further diagnostic tests, unclear about the management plan and uncertain about the true therapeutic intent of treatment. Additionally, communication difficulties may impede the recruitment of patients to clinical trials, delaying the introduction of efficacious new treatments into clinics

  9. Adverse effects of breast cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odle, Teresa G

    2014-01-01

    As breast cancer outcomes improve and more people with breast cancer survive longer following diagnosis, many survivors must deal with the effects of treatment. Some adverse effects last a short time and have little influence on breast cancer patients' quality of life, yet others can cause long-term complications and add to increased morbidity and mortality among survivors. This article reviews the adverse effects of breast cancer treatments and how they affect the health and quality of life of those receiving treatment. The article also explains how adverse effects can interrupt treatment and how physicians and survivors can manage adverse effects of breast cancer treatment.

  10. Current standard treatment for pediatric glioma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonoda, Yukihiko; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Saito, Ryuta; Kanamori, Masayuki; Yamashita, Yoji; Tominaga, Teiji

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we selected three representative disorders among pediatric gliomas and reviewed standard treatments for these diseases. The formation of this rare disease is involved with BRAF mutation as well as cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma. Radical resection is not recommended as initial therapy due to high morbidity. Despite its good tumor control, radiotherapy is not a standard therapy due to neuroendocrine and neurocognitive dysfunction. Several papers have reported the effectiveness of platinum-based chemotherapy, which is a useful for induction therapy. Recent progress in molecular analyses has suggested that some markers might be used for staging ependymoma. While total resection is considered to be strongly correlated with patients' survival, the majority of recurrence occurs in the primary site. Despite many clinical trials, chemotherapeutic agents were not found to be effective for this disease. Since whole brain radiation cannot prevent dissemination, local radiation is recommended for adjuvant therapy. The prognosis of this disease is still dismal, and median survival time is within 1 year. Although clinical trials have been conducted to assess the efficacy of chemotherapy prior to, concomitantly with, or after radiotherapy, an effective regimen has not yet been established. Therefore, only conventional local radiotherapy is the standard regimen for this disease. A new therapeutic approach, such as convection-enhanced drug delivery, would be required for improved outcomes in patients with this disease. (author)

  11. [Analysis of budgetary impact of moderate and high risk non muscle-invasive bladder cancer by means of neoadjuvant hyperthermia chemotherapy compared to the standard adjuvant treatment with BCG].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Alejandro; Piñeiro, Idelfonso; Aparici, Vicente; Neira, Pilar; Monserrat, Víctor; Uribarri, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    To study the relationship between cost-effectiveness and budgetary impact the application of a neoadjuvant chemo-hyperthermia treatment on 15 patients with NMI multi-recurrent bladder cancer and/or whose risk of recurrence and progression is medium-high, compared with the standard neoadjuvant BCG treatment, has had on the Hospital Comarcal de Monforte de Lemos (Lugo). A model was designed from an SNS perspective with a temporary horizon of three years to compare the costs of applying neoadjuvant chemo-hyperthermia on the patients of the clinical test (8 instillations weekly of 80 mg Mitomycin C recirculating at 43 C for an hour prior to carrying out a transurethral resection of the bladder tumor) with the costs of treating 15 patients with the same risk profile with the standard adjuvant treatment of BCG (control group). The effective available costs corresponding to drugs, disposables and those relative to TURBT, cold biopsy and tumor relapse were included. The costs of diagnostic tests and follow-up were discarded from the model because they did not vary between groups. The model built with effective and published cost data establishes a favourable difference in favour of the neoadjuvant treatment with chemo hyperthermia in terms of 3 year costs with a minimum global savings of 10,300€ and 687€ per patient, together with an improvement in the effectiveness of the treatment. These values could reach a minimum savings of 25,960€ and 1,731€ per patient, if a change in protocol is made after the neoadjuvant treatment, which uses the cold biopsy to check the results. Of the 15 patients pre-treated with chemo-hyperthermia, 11 high-risk and 4 medium-risk, 9 have responded completely (absence of residual tumor) and 6 partially (shrinking of the tumor). The number of expected relapses has been reduced from 8 to 2 and progression from 3 to 0. The neoadjuvant treatment with chemo hyperthermia constitutes a cost-effective therapeutic strategy.

  12. Treatment of intractable cancer by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Mitsuyuki

    1981-01-01

    Intraoperative irradiation, thermotherapy, hypoxic cell sensitizer, and neutron brachytherapy were used for locally advanced cancer and value and limitations of these therapies were discussed. Intraoperative irradiation was mainly used for cancers of the gastro-intestinal tract. In stage I gastric cancers, no difference in the five-year survival rates was found between the groups with and without intraoperative irradiation. In gastric cancers of stage II or more, intraoperative irradiation had a favourable effect. Thermotherapy was applied to superficial radio-resistant cancer by the use of a thermal system of microwave- and radio-frequency heating. This treatment induced disappearance of approximately 50% of tumor. For the treatment with hypoxic cell sensitizer, studies of phase I and II with Misonidazole were conducted; from these results, the protocol was made for phase III study of esophagus cancer, lung cancer, head and neck cancer, uterus cancer, and brain cancer. Brachytherapy using 252 Cf was also developed for locally advanced cancer. (Ueda, J.)

  13. Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT) with yttrium-90 resin microspheres plus standard systemic chemotherapy regimen of FOLFOX versus FOLFOX alone as first-line treatment of non-resectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer: the SIRFLOX study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Peter; Gebski, Val; Van Buskirk, Mark; Thurston, Kenneth; Cade, David N; Van Hazel, Guy A

    2014-12-01

    In colorectal cancer (CRC), unresectable liver metastases are linked to poor prognosis. Systemic chemotherapy with regimens such as FOLFOX (combination of infusional 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin and oxaliplatin) is the standard first-line treatment. The SIRFLOX trial was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of combining FOLFOX-based chemotherapy with Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT or radioembolisation) using yttrium-90 resin microspheres (SIR-SpheresR; Sirtex Medical Limited, North Sydney, Australia). SIRFLOX is a randomised, multicentre trial of mFOLFOX6 chemotherapy+/-SIRT as first-line treatment of patients with liver-only or liver-predominant metastatic CRC (mCRC). The trial aims to recruit adult chemotherapy-naive patients with proven liver metastases with or without limited extra-hepatic disease, a life expectancy of >=3 months and a WHO performance status of 0-1. Patients will be randomised to receive either mFOLFOX6 or SIRT+mFOLFOX6 (with a reduced dose of oxaliplatin in cycles 1-3 following SIRT). Patients in both arms can receive bevacizumab at investigator discretion. Protocol chemotherapy will continue until there is unacceptable toxicity, evidence of tumour progression, complete surgical resection or ablation of cancerous lesions, or the patient requests an end to treatment. The primary endpoint of the SIRFLOX trial is progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints include: PFS in the liver; tumour response rate (liver and any site); site of tumour progression; health-related quality of life; toxicity and safety; liver resection rate; and overall survival. Assuming an increase in the median PFS from 9.4 months to 12.5 months with the addition of SIRT to mFOLFOX6, recruiting >=450 patients will be sufficient for 80% power and 95% confidence. The SIRFLOX trial will establish the potential role of SIRT+standard systemic chemotherapy in the first-line management of mCRC with non-resectable liver metastases. SIRFLOX Clinical

  14. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product that claims to treat or cure cancer? ... Center Competition Guidance I Would Like To... Submit a Consumer Complaint to the FTC Apply for a ...

  15. Kidney Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  16. Bladder Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  17. [Radiolabeled antibodies for cancer treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbet, Jacques; Chatal, Jean-François; Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise

    2009-12-01

    The first treatment ever by radio-immunotherapy (RIT) was performed by William H. Beierwaltes in 1951 and was a success. Fifty years later, the main question is to find ways of extending the success of radiolabelled anti-CD20 antibodies in indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma to other forms of cancer. Solid tumours are much more radioresistant than lymphomas, but they respond to RIT if the lesions are small. Clinical situations of residual or minimal disease are thus the most likely to benefit from RIT in the adjuvant or consolidation settings. For disseminated disease, like leukemias or myelomas, the problem is different: beta- particles emitted by the radioactive atoms classically used for cancer treatment (iodine-131 or yttrium-90) disperse their energy in large volumes (ranges 1 mm to 1 cm) and are not very effective against isolated cells. Advances in RIT progress in two directions. One is the development of pretargeting strategies in which the antibody is not labelled but used to provide binding sites to small molecular weight radioactivity vectors (biotin, haptens). These techniques have been shown to increase tumour to non-target uptake ratios and anti-tumour efficacy has been demonstrated in the clinic. The other approach is the use of radionuclides adapted to the various clinical situations. Lutetium-177 or copper-67, because of the lower energy of their emission, their relatively long half-life and good gamma emission, may significantly improve RIT efficacy and acceptability. Beyond that, radionuclides emitting particles such as alpha particles or Auger electrons, much more efficient to kill isolated tumour cells, are being tested for RIT in the clinic. Finally, RIT should be integrated with other cancer treatment approaches in multimodality protocols. Thus RIT, now a mature technology, should enter a phase of well designed and focused clinical developments that may be expected to afford significant therapeutic advances.

  18. Treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, RA; Nieuwenhuijzen, GAP; Martijn, H; Rutten, HJT; Hospers, GAP; Wiggers, T

    2004-01-01

    Historically, locally advanced rectal cancer is known for its dismal prognosis. The treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer is subject to continuous change due to development of new and better diagnostic tools, radiotherapeutic techniques, chemotherapeutic agents and understanding of the

  19. Treatment Options by Stage (Thyroid Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of cancer. Tracheostomy : Surgery to create an opening ( stoma ) into the windpipe to help you breathe. The ... information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come ...

  20. Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Tests, and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Tests, and Treatment Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... Linkedin Pin it Email Print Risk factors for prostate cancer include family history, age and race; but new ...

  1. Cancer treatment: fertility and sexual side effects in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer Colorectal cancer Uterine cancer Vaginal cancer Breast cancer Bladder cancer Types of Sexual Side Effects For women, the ... used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed ...

  2. Comparative dosimetric and radiobiological assessment among a nonstandard RapidArc, standard RapidArc, classical intensity-modulated radiotherapy, and 3D brachytherapy for the treatment of the vaginal vault in patients affected by gynecologic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedicini, Piernicola, E-mail: ppiern@libero.it [Service of Medical Physics, IRCCS Regional Cancer Hospital (C.R.O.B.), Rionero in Vulture (Italy); Caivano, Rocchina [Service of Medical Physics, IRCCS Regional Cancer Hospital (C.R.O.B.), Rionero in Vulture (Italy); Fiorentino, Alba [U.O. of Radiotherapy, IRCCS Regional Cancer Hospital (C.R.O.B.), Rionero in Vulture (Italy); Strigari, Lidia [Laboratory of Medical Physics and Expert Systems, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Califano, Giorgia [Service of Medical Physics, IRCCS Regional Cancer Hospital (C.R.O.B.), Rionero in Vulture (Italy); Barbieri, Viviana; Sanpaolo, Piero; Castaldo, Giovanni [U.O. of Radiotherapy, IRCCS Regional Cancer Hospital (C.R.O.B.), Rionero in Vulture (Italy); Benassi, Marcello [Service of Medical Physics, Scientific Institute of Tumors of Romagna IRST, Meldola (Italy); Fusco, Vincenzo [U.O. of Radiotherapy, IRCCS Regional Cancer Hospital (C.R.O.B.), Rionero in Vulture (Italy)

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate a nonstandard RapidArc (RA) modality as alternative to high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BRT) or IMRT treatments of the vaginal vault in patients with gynecological cancer (GC). Nonstandard (with vaginal applicator) and standard (without vaginal applicator) RapidArc plans for 27 women with GC were developed to compare with HDR-BRT and IMRT. Dosimetric and radiobiological comparison were performed by means of dose-volume histogram and equivalent uniform dose (EUD) for planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs). In addition, the integral dose and the overall treatment times were evaluated. RA, as well as IMRT, results in a high uniform dose on PTV compared with HDR-BRT. However, the average of EUD for HDR-BRT was significantly higher than those with RA and IMRT. With respect to the OARs, standard RA was equivalent of IMRT but inferior to HDR-BRT. Furthermore, nonstandard RA was comparable with IMRT for bladder and sigmoid and better than HDR-BRT for the rectum because of a significant reduction of d{sub 2cc}, d{sub 1cc}, and d{sub max} (p < 0.01). Integral doses were always higher than HDR-BRT, although the values were very low. Delivery times were about the same and more than double for HDR-BRT compared with IMRT and RA, respectively. In conclusion, the boost of dose on vaginal vault in patients affected by GC delivered by a nonstandard RA technique was a reasonable alternative to the conventional HDR-BRT because of a reduction of delivery time and rectal dose at substantial comparable doses for the bladder and sigmoid. However HDR-BRT provides better performance in terms of PTV coverage as evidenced by a greater EUD.

  3. Metallated DNA Aptamers for Prostate Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    different cancers including a high percentage of bladder 8 , gastric and colorectal 9 , as well as hepatocellular, renal, breast and ovarian cancer ...12 and have been utilized for cancer imaging. PSMA inhibitors have been used to deliver theranostic NPs to cancer cells. 13 The A10-3 RNA...used as a chemotherapeutic for the treatment of diverse malignancies, including breast and prostate cancer . Serious toxicities, including an

  4. Image guided prostate cancer treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bard, Robert L. [Bard Cancer Center, Biofoundation for Angiogenesis Research and Development, New York, NY (United States); Fuetterer, Jurgen J. [Radboud Univ. Nijmegen, Medical Centre (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology; Sperling, Dan (ed.) [Sperling Prostate Center, Alpha 3TMRI, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Systematic overview of the application of ultrasound and MRI in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lower urinary tract. Detailed information on image-guided therapies, including focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, and microwave and laser ablation. Numerous high-quality illustrations based on high-end equipment. Represents the state of the art in Non Invasive Imaging and Minimally Invasive Ablation Treatment (MIAT). Image-Guided Prostate Cancer Treatments is a comprehensive reference and practical guide on the technology and application of ultrasound and MRI in the male pelvis, with special attention to the prostate. The book is organized into three main sections, the first of which is devoted to general aspects of imaging and image-guided treatments. The second section provides a systematic overview of the application of ultrasound and MRI to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lower urinary tract. Performance of the ultrasound and MRI studies is explained, and the normal and abnormal pathological anatomy is reviewed. Correlation with the ultrasound in the same plane is provided to assist in understanding the MRI sequences. Biopsy and interventional procedures, ultrasound-MRI fusion techniques, and image-guided therapies, including focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, microwave and laser ablation, are all fully covered. The third section focuses on securing treatment effectiveness and the use of follow-up imaging to ensure therapeutic success and detect tumor recurrence at an early stage, which is vital given that prompt focal treatment of recurrence is very successful. Here, particular attention is paid to the role of Doppler ultrasound and DCE-MRI technologies. This book, containing a wealth of high-quality illustrations based on high-end equipment, will acquaint beginners with the basics of prostate ultrasound and MRI, while more advanced practitioners will learn new skills, means of avoiding pitfalls, and ways of effectively

  5. Gastrointestinal cancers in India: Treatment perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Suresh Ghadyalpatil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available GI cancer is not one cancer but is a term for the group of cancers that affect the digestive system including gastric cancer (GC, colorectal cancer (CRC, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, esophageal cancer (EC, and pancreatic cancer (PC. Overall, the GI cancers are responsible for more cancers and more deaths from cancer than any other organ. 5 year survival of these cancers remains low compared to western world. Unlike the rest of the world where organ based specialities hepatobiliary, pancreatic, colorectal and esophagogastric exist , these cancers are managed in India by either a gastrointestinal surgeons, surgical oncologist, or a general surgeon with varying outcomes.The aim of this review was to collate data on GI cancers in indian continent. In colorectal cancers, data from tertiary care centres identifies the unique problem of mucinous and signet colorectal cancer. Results of rectal cancer resection in terms of technique (intersphincteric resection, extralevator aper, minimal invasive approach to be comparable with world literature. However long term outcome and data regarding colon cancers and nationally is needed. Gastric cancer at presentation are advanced and in surgically resected patients, there is need for a trial to compare chemoradiation vs chemotherapy alone to prevent loco regional recurrence. Data on minimal invasive gastric cancer surgery may be sparse for the same reason. Theree is a lot of data on surgical techniques and perioperatve outcomes in pancreatic cancer. There is a high volume of locally advanced gallbladder cancers with efforts on to decide whether neoadjuvant chemotherapy or neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is better for down staging. Considering GI cancers, a heterogeneous disease with site specific treatment options and variable outcomes, the overall data and outcomes are extremely variable. Young patients with pathology unique to the Indian subcontinent (for example, signet ring rectal cancer, GBCs need focussed

  6. Evaluation of age-standardized cancer burden in western Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janani Selvaraj

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The burden of cancer is growing globally and is one of the top leading causes of death. Information on cancer patterns is essential for effective planning of cancer control interventions. Aims and Objectives: The present cross sectional study aims to explore the patterns and trends of the cancer incidences in the western regions of Tamil Nadu, India including Coimbatore, Erode, Tiruppur, Salem, Namakkal and Nilgiris. Materials and Methods: A sum of 14392 cancer cases were recorded from the hospital based cancer registries of Coimbatore district. The cancer cases were segregated district-wise for specific cancer sites and the age-standardized incident rates were calculated for different age groups. Results: Coimbatore district recorded the highest number of incidences among all districts. Among all age-groups the adults aged 50-74 carry the highest burden of cancer. Among men, head and neck and gastrointestinal cancers are predominant while among women, breast and gynecological cancers are high. The age-standardized incidence rates were found to be higher in Coimbatore and least in Salem. Conclusion: Through this study, it is observed that Coimbatore district is under major threat and needs further investigation of risk factors for implementing optimized treatment and prevention strategies for reducing the adverse effects of cancer.

  7. Treatment Option Overview (Esophageal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body to send radiation toward the cancer. Internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds , ... stage of the cancer being treated. External and internal radiation therapy are used to treat esophageal cancer. A plastic ...

  8. Treatment Option Overview (Anal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body to send radiation toward the cancer. Internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds , ... stage of the cancer being treated. External and internal radiation therapy are used to treat anal cancer. Chemotherapy Chemotherapy ...

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Penile Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body to send radiation toward the cancer. Internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds , ... stage of the cancer being treated. External and internal radiation therapy are used to treat penile cancer. Chemotherapy Chemotherapy ...

  10. Cancer treatment - dealing with pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliative - cancer pain ... The pain from cancer can have a few different causes: The cancer. When a tumor grows it can press ... nerves, bones, organs, or the spinal cord, causing pain. Medical tests. Some medical tests, such as a ...

  11. Radiation treatment for breast cancer. Recent advances.

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, Edward

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review recent advances in radiation therapy in treatment of breast cancer. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: MEDLINE and CANCERLIT were searched using the MeSH words breast cancer, ductal carcinoma in situ, sentinel lymph node biopsy, and postmastectomy radiation. Randomized studies have shown the efficacy of radiation treatment for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and for invasive breast cancer. MAIN MESSAGE: Lumpectomy followed by radiation is effective treatment for DCIS. In early breast c...

  12. Pregnancy associated breast cancer and pregnancy after breast cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğer, Emek; Çalışkan, Eray; Mallmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and its frequency is increasing as more women postpone their pregnancies to their thirties and forties. Breast cancer diagnosis during pregnancy and lactation is difficult and complex both for the patient and doctors. Delay in diagnosis is frequent and treatment modalities are difficult to accept for the pregnant women. The common treatment approach is surgery after diagnosis, chemotherapy after the first trimester and radiotherapy after delivery. Even though early stage breast cancers have similar prognosis, advanced stage breast cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and lactation have poorer prognosis than similar stage breast cancers diagnosed in non-pregnant women. Women who desire to become pregnant after treatment of breast cancer will have many conflicts. Although the most common concern is recurrence of breast cancer due to pregnancy, the studies conducted showed that pregnancy has no negative effect on breast cancer prognosis. In this review we search for the frequency of breast cancer during pregnancy, the histopathological findings, risk factor, diagnostic and treatment modalities. We reviewed the literature for evidence based findings to help consult the patients on the outcome of breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy and lactation, and also inform the patients who desire to become pregnant after breast cancer according to current evidences. PMID:24592003

  13. Treatment Options by Stage (Endometrial Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uterus. See the PDQ summary on Uterine Sarcoma Treatment for more information about uterine sarcoma . Obesity and having metabolic syndrome may increase the risk of endometrial cancer. Anything ...

  14. Optimizing the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer using fluorescence cystoscopy and Raman spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draga, R.O.P.

    2013-01-01

    The gold standard for the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer is transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURBT). A relative high recurrence rate and the need for repeated treatments make bladder cancer one the most expensive cancers from diagnosis till death of the patient. The TURBT

  15. Palliative Treatment of Esophageal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad; Goosenberg; Frucht; Coia

    1994-07-01

    Palliative interventions for advanced esophageal cancer include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, chemoradiation, endoscopic procedures, and combinations of the above. Palliative esophagectomy or bypass procedures are difficult to justify in these patients because their life expectancy is so short. Palliative external beam radiation to doses of 50 to 60 Gy is successful in 50% to 70% of patients. The addition of brachytherapy may improve these results. One third to one half of patients treated with radiation develop benign or maglinant stricture. Although response rates to combination chemotherapy are only 50% at best, the majority of patients do have improvement of dysphagia. These regimens are commonly used as part of a multidisciplinary approach with radiation andøor surgery, rather than as a sole modality of treatment. Chemoradiation regimens results in better survival than treatment with radiation alone, and provide palliation of dysphagia in up to 90% of patients. Although acute toxicity of chemoradiation is more severe than radiation alone, this is of limited duration. Chemoradiation may be the treatment of choice for the majority of patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer. Endoscopic techniques are available that provide palliation of dysphagia. The most commonly used technique is esophageal dilatation, either alone or before performing other palliative procedures such as laser therapy or stent placement. The most significant limitation of dilatation alone is that palliation is short-lived and most patients require repeat dilatations. Esophageal stents offer a high degree of palliation, but procedure-related morbidity and mortality rates are not insignificant. Expandable metal stents are associated with few complications but tumor ingrowth through the metallic mesh is frequent. Conventional plastic stents are not affected by tumor ingrowth but can migrate. Endoscopic laser therapy also provides symptoms relief and complication rates are

  16. Progress in Rectal Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceelen, Wim P.

    2012-01-01

    The dramatic improvement in local control of rectal cancer observed during the last decades is to be attributed to attention to surgical technique and to the introduction of neoadjuvant therapy regimens. Nevertheless, systemic relapse remains frequent and is currently insufficiently addressed. Intensification of neoadjuvant therapy by incorporating chemotherapy with or without targeted agents before the start of (chemo)radiation or during the waiting period to surgery may present an opportunity to improve overall survival. An increasing number of patients can nowadays undergo sphincter preserving surgery. In selected patients, local excision or even a “wait and see” approach may be feasible following active neoadjuvant therapy. Molecular and genetic biomarkers as well as innovative imaging techniques may in the future allow better selection of patients for this treatment option. Controversy persists concerning the selection of patients for adjuvant chemotherapy and/or targeted therapy after neoadjuvant regimens. The currently available evidence suggests that in complete pathological responders long-term outcome is excellent and adjuvant therapy may be omitted. The results of ongoing trials will help to establish the ideal tailored approach in resectable rectal cancer. PMID:22970381

  17. Pregnancy associated breast cancer and pregnancy after breast cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Doğer, Emek; Çalışkan, Eray; Mallmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and its frequency is increasing as more women postpone their pregnancies to their thirties and forties. Breast cancer diagnosis during pregnancy and lactation is difficult and complex both for the patient and doctors. Delay in diagnosis is frequent and treatment modalities are difficult to accept for the pregnant women. The common treatment approach is surgery after diagnosis, chemotherapy after the first trimester and...

  18. A Chemopreventive Nanodiamond Platform for Oral Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Albert; Zhang, Kangyi; Daneshgaran, Giulia; Kim, Ho-Joong; Ho, Dean

    2016-02-01

    Standard oral cancer therapy generally includes a combination of surgery with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. This treatment paradigm has not changed in some time. In this paper, we propose a chemopreventive nanodiamond platform for the delivery of celecoxib (Celebrex) to oral cancer lesions. This innovative platform allows for sustained drug release under physiological conditions, potentially enhancing chemopreventive efficacy of celecoxib without the physical and toxicological damage associated with conventional means of drug delivery.

  19. Current treatment of metastatic endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, Sarah M; Fleming, Gini

    2009-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy. The majority of patients have disease confined to the uterus and have an excellent overall prognosis. However, subgroups of patients have advanced primary disease or recurrences following primary treatment. The management of metastatic disease is variable, depending on factors such as comorbidities, tumor grade, performance status, and prior treatments. Management options include hormonal therapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy, as well as targeted therapies that inhibit angiogenesis and the cellular signaling pathways involved in cell growth and proliferation. A comprehensive review of these treatments for metastatic endometrial cancer was conducted and is discussed. Hormonal therapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy have traditionally been used in the treatment of metastatic endometrial cancer. Advances in molecular biology have led to multiple potential targeted therapies to be used in the treatment of metastatic endometrial cancer. While several treatment modalities are now available to treat patients who present with metastatic endometrial cancer, overall prognosis remains poor.

  20. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Primary Liver Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... transplant Ablation therapy Embolization therapy Targeted therapy Radiation therapy New types of treatment are being tested in clinical trials. ... needles and tumor which kills cancer cells . Microwave therapy : A type of treatment in which the tumor is exposed ...

  1. Treatment Options for Adult Primary Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... transplant Ablation therapy Embolization therapy Targeted therapy Radiation therapy New types of treatment are being tested in clinical trials. ... needles and tumor which kills cancer cells . Microwave therapy : A type of treatment in which the tumor is exposed ...

  2. Treatment Option Overview (Male Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and improve quality of life . Strontium-89 (a radionuclide ) to relieve pain from cancer that has spread to bones throughout the body. Other treatment options Other treatment options for metastatic breast cancer include: Drug therapy with bisphosphonates or denosumab to reduce bone disease ...

  3. The conservative treatment of the breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souhami, L.

    1982-01-01

    Despite major achievements in the medical field, the survival rate of patients with breast cancer has not changed over the last 50 years. Certain treatments once taken as definitive are now being reviewed. The therapeutic evolution of breast cancer is studied and emphasis is given to new treatment modalities, particularly the conservative ones. (Author) [pt

  4. Phase III trial of two investigational schedules of ifosfamide compared with standard-dose doxorubicin in advanced or metastatic soft tissue sarcoma: a European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorigan, Paul; Verweij, Jaap; Papai, Zsuzsa; Rodenhuis, Sjoerd; Le Cesne, Axel; Leahy, Michael G.; Radford, John A.; van Glabbeke, Martine M.; Kirkpatrick, Anne; Hogendoorn, Pancras C. W.; Blay, Jean-Yves

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: Single-agent doxorubicin remains the standard treatment for advanced soft tissue sarcomas. Combining doxorubicin with standard-dose ifosfamide has not been shown to improve survival and is associated with a significantly increased toxicity; it is not known whether higher dose single-agent

  5. New Prostate Cancer Treatment Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have identified a potential alternative approach to blocking a key molecular driver of an advanced form of prostate cancer, called androgen-independent or castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  6. Treatment Results for Supraglottic Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyu Chan; Kim, Chul Yong; Choi, Myung Sun

    1994-01-01

    postoperative irradiation group(p=0.5103). Local control rate was 58.8%(10/17) for radiation therapy alone group and 73.1%(19/26) for surgery plus postoperative irradiation group. Three patients from surgery plus postoperative radiation therapy group developed distant metastasis in lungs. Conclusion: Treatment results of radiation therapy alone was excellent in early stage supraglottic cancer. In advanced stage, even the difference was statistically not significant, the result of postoperative radiation therapy group was superior compared with radiation therapy alone group. Since 1992, concomitant chemoradiotherapy with hyperfractionated radiotherapy is being used to improve the result of the treatment and preserve the laryngeal function in advanced stage supraglottic cancer

  7. Adjuvant treatment for resected rectal cancer: impact of standard and intensified postoperative chemotherapy on disease-free survival in patients undergoing preoperative chemoradiation-a propensity score-matched analysis of an observational database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlipp, Benjamin; Ptok, Henry; Benedix, Frank; Otto, Ronny; Popp, Felix; Ridwelski, Karsten; Gastinger, Ingo; Benckert, Christoph; Lippert, Hans; Bruns, Christiane

    2016-12-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy for resected rectal cancer is widely used. However, studies on adjuvant treatment following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and total mesorectal excision (TME) have yielded conflicting results. Recent studies have focused on adding oxaliplatin to both preoperative and postoperative therapy, making it difficult to assess the impact of adjuvant oxaliplatin alone. This study was aimed at determining the impact of (i) any adjuvant treatment and (ii) oxaliplatin-containing adjuvant treatment on disease-free survival in CRT-pretreated, R0-resected rectal cancer patients. Patients undergoing R0 TME following 5-fluorouracil (5FU)-only-based CRT between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2010, were selected from a nationwide registry. After propensity score matching (PSM), comparison of disease-free survival (DFS) using Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank test was performed in (i) patients receiving no vs. any adjuvant treatment and (ii) patients treated with adjuvant 5FU/capecitabine without vs. with oxaliplatin. Out of 1497 patients, 520 matched pairs were generated for analysis of no vs. any adjuvant treatment. Mean DFS was significantly prolonged with adjuvant treatment (81.8 ± 2.06 vs. 70.1 ± 3.02 months, p rectal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant CRT and TME surgery under routine conditions, adjuvant chemotherapy significantly improved DFS. No benefit was observed for the addition of oxaliplatin to adjuvant chemotherapy in this setting.

  8. Fertility preservation during cancer treatment: clinical guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny A; Oktay, Kutluk

    2014-01-01

    The majority of children, adolescents, and young adults diagnosed with cancer today will become long-term survivors. The threat to fertility that cancer treatments pose to young patients cannot be prevented in many cases, and thus research into methods for fertility preservation is developing, aiming at offering cancer patients the ability to have biologically related children in the future. This paper discusses the current status of fertility preservation methods when infertility risks are related to surgical oncologic treatments, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. Several scientific groups and societies have developed consensus documents and guidelines for fertility preservation. Decisions about fertility and imminent potentially gonadotoxic therapies must be made rapidly. Timely and complete information on the impact of cancer treatment on fertility and fertility preservation options should be presented to all patients when a cancer treatment is planned. PMID:24623991

  9. Evaluating eating behavior treatments by FDA standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Janet eTomiyama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral treatments for obesity are not evaluated by the same criteria as pharmaceutical drugs, even though treatments such as low-calorie dieting are widely prescribed, require the patients’ time and investment, and may have risks. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA has a procedure for evaluating drugs, in which drugmakers must answer the following questions: (1 Is the treatment safe? (2 How dangerous is the condition the intervention is treating? (3 Is the treatment effective? (4 Is the treatment safe and effective for large numbers of people? We argue that using this framework to evaluate behavioral interventions could help identify unanswered research questions on their efficacy and effectiveness, and we use the example of low-calorie dieting to illustrate how FDA criteria might be applied in the context of behavioral medicine.

  10. Hepatic toxicity resulting from cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, T.S.; Robertson, J.M. [Univ. of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Anscher, M.S. [Duke Univ. School of Medicine, Durham, NC (United States)] [and others

    1995-03-30

    Radiation-induced liver disease (RILD), often called radiation hepatitis, is a syndrome characterized by the development of anicteric ascites approximately 2 weeks to 4 months after hepatic irradiation. There has been a renewed interest in hepatic irradiation because of two significant advances in cancer treatment; three dimensional radiation therapy treatment planning and bone marrow transplantation using total body irradiation. RILD resulting from liver radiation can usually be distinguished clinically from the resulting from the preparative regime associated with bone marrow transplantation. However, both syndromes demonstrate the same pathological lesion; veno-occlusive disease. Recent evidence suggests that elevated transforming growth factor {beta} levels may play a role in the development of veno-occlusive disease. Three dimensional treatment planning offers the potential to determine the radiation dose and volume dependence of RILD, permitting the safe delivery of high doses of radiation to parts of the liver. The chief therapy for RILD is diuretics, although some advocate steroids of severe cases. The characteristics of RILD permit the development of a grading system modeled after the NCI Acute Common Toxicity Criteria, which incorporates standard criteria of hepatic dysfunction. 64 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. The biology and treatment of cancer: understanding cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stein, Gary S; Pardee, Arthur B. (Arthur Beck)

    2009-01-01

    ... 8 CANCER DETECTION AND BIOMARKERS Arthur B. Pardee and Peng Liang 145 vvi CONTENTS 9 CLINICAL CHALLENGES FOR TREATMENT AND A CURE Eleni Efstathiou and Christopher J. Logothetis 155 10 CLINICAL T...

  12. Maximizing outcomes in genitourinary cancers across the treatment continuum.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, John M

    2011-04-01

    Key controversies concerning the management of genitourinary cancers across the treatment continua were discussed at the second annual Interactive Genitourinary Cancer Conference (IGUCC) held in February 2010 in Athens, Greece. Prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer among western men and prevention strategies are needed. Trials evaluating 5α-reductase inhibitors have reported beneficial and clinically meaningful results, but uptake remains low for primary prostate cancer prevention. Prostate cancer detection programmes are also important as curative treatments for advanced disease are unavailable. Two large landmark randomized controlled trials reported conflicting results concerning screening efficacy and uncovered high levels of over-diagnosis and potential over-treatment. Tailored management strategies after diagnosis are important and predictive markers that distinguish between aggressive and indolent tumours are needed. The majority of newly diagnosed cases of prostate cancer are clinically localized. Active surveillance of favourable risk patients may be beneficial in the intermediate term, while an integrated approach of multi-modality therapy in patients with adverse features is recommended. The benefits of new technologies such as high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and robotic prostatectomy have not been established in prospective randomized trials vs current standards of care. A multidisciplinary approach is essential to evolving the management of advanced prostate cancer into a chronic disease paradigm. Docetaxel plus prednisone is the standard first-line chemotherapy for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), but the optimal timing of chemotherapy initiation has not been addressed in randomized clinical trials. Retrospective analyses suggest that asymptomatic patients with adverse prognostic factors for survival may also benefit from receiving chemotherapy. Bladder cancer is a common malignancy and the

  13. Radiofrequency treatment alters cancer cell phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Matthew J.; Tinger, Sophia; Colbert, Kevin L.; Corr, Stuart J.; Rees, Paul; Koshkina, Nadezhda; Curley, Steven; Summers, H. D.; Godin, Biana

    2015-07-01

    The importance of evaluating physical cues in cancer research is gradually being realized. Assessment of cancer cell physical appearance, or phenotype, may provide information on changes in cellular behavior, including migratory or communicative changes. These characteristics are intrinsically different between malignant and non-malignant cells and change in response to therapy or in the progression of the disease. Here, we report that pancreatic cancer cell phenotype was altered in response to a physical method for cancer therapy, a non-invasive radiofrequency (RF) treatment, which is currently being developed for human trials. We provide a battery of tests to explore these phenotype characteristics. Our data show that cell topography, morphology, motility, adhesion and division change as a result of the treatment. These may have consequences for tissue architecture, for diffusion of anti-cancer therapeutics and cancer cell susceptibility within the tumor. Clear phenotypical differences were observed between cancerous and normal cells in both their untreated states and in their response to RF therapy. We also report, for the first time, a transfer of microsized particles through tunneling nanotubes, which were produced by cancer cells in response to RF therapy. Additionally, we provide evidence that various sub-populations of cancer cells heterogeneously respond to RF treatment.

  14. Focal adhesion signaling in breast cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Yafeng

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms of survival and migratory pathways in cancer cells is essential to better comprehending cancer progression, metastasis formation and drug resistance, thereby benefiting the development of novel anticancer treatments. The overall goal of the work is to better

  15. LHRH analogs in treatment of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajec, J.; Dzurillova, L.

    2015-01-01

    Hormonal therapy is an important and effective part of treatment of the hormonal positive breast cancer. Drugs from the group of LHRH analogs cause reversible ovarian suppression in premenopausal women with breast cancer. The following article deals with actual possibilities of their usage in the adjuvant therapy as well as in the metastatic setting. (author)

  16. Diagnostic and treatment manual of urological cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz y Mino, Milton; Tafur, Fausto; Cornejo, Francisco; Gaibor, Jose; Bueno, Cesar; Basantes, Amparito

    2004-01-01

    This book compiles different opinions about researches, diagnosis, methods, procedures and treatment of urological cancer, which will be useful for physicians and specialists of this illness. This manual is well structured in eight chapters with references, illustrations, figures and tables about neoplasms of kidney, urinary tract, urogenital system. This document is a bibliographic revision about ecuadorian experience in urological cancer

  17. Treatment-associated leukemia following testicular cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travis, LB; Andersson, M; Gospodarowicz, M; van Leeuwen, FE; Bergfeldt, K; Lynch, CF; Curtis, RE; Kohler, BA; Wiklund, T; Storm, H; Holowaty, E; Hall, P; Pukkala, E; Sleijfer, DT; Clarke, EA; Boice, JD; Stovall, M; Gilbert, E

    2000-01-01

    Background: Men with testicular cancer are at an increased risk of leukemia, but the relationship to prior treatments is not well characterized. The purpose of our study was to describe the risk of leukemia following radiotherapy and chemotherapy for testicular cancer. Methods: Within a

  18. STATIN CONTAINING COMPOSITIONS FOR TREATMENT OF CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiffelers, Raymond M.; Metselaar, J.M.; Storm, Gerrit

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising statin, and especially to the use of such compositions in the treatment of cancer or in the inhibition of cancer growth. More specifically, the invention relates to a method for targeting a statin to tumor tissue.

  19. Treatment of locally recurrent rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kococik, Z.; Kococik, M.

    2007-01-01

    The suggested classifications of locally recurrent rectal cancer are based on the presence of symptoms and the degree of tumour fixation to the pelvic wall, or, otherwise, account for factor T in the TMN system. Although the results of rectal cancer treatment have improved, which may be attributed to total meso rectal excision and application of perioperative radiotherapy and radiochemotherapy, the ratio of cases of locally recurrent rectal cancer still amount from several to over a dozen percent. Among the available diagnostic methods for detecting locally recurrent rectal cancer after anterior rectal resection, endorectal sonography is of special importance. In the estimation of prognostic factors the lack of vascular invasion in recurrent cancer and the long period between the treatment of primary rectal cancer and the development of recurrence are a sign of good prognosis, while pain prior to recurrence treatment and male sex diminish the chances for cure. Locally recurrent rectal cancer impairs the patient's quality of life in all measurable aspects, but even after complete recovery we observe severe disturbances of sexual activity in most patients, and a number of patients require hygiene pads or suffer from chronic pain. Local recurrence of rectal cancer is more commonly qualified for excision after surgical treatment only, than after preoperative radiotherapy. The probability of total recurrent rectal cancer excision increases when the patient is younger, the primary tumours was less advanced and the first operation was sphincter-sparing surgery. Progress in the surgical treatment of recurrent rectal cancer was brought on by the introduction of the composite musculocutaneous flap to compensate the loss of perineal tissue. The application of intraoperative radiotherapy improves treatment results of recurrent rectal cancer, however at the cost of more frequent, serious postoperative complications and intense pain. In inoperable cases high dose regional

  20. Cabozantinib for Initial Treatment of Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    FDA has approved cabozantinib (Cabometyx®) as an initial treatment for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma. The approval adds another tyrosine kinase inhibitor to the available options for patients with advanced kidney cancer.

  1. Treatment Options by Stage (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nearby lymph nodes are also removed. Artificial openings ( stoma ) are made for urine and stool to flow ... information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come ...

  2. Treatment Options by Stage (Vaginal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nearby lymph nodes are also removed. Artificial openings ( stoma ) are made for urine and stool to flow ... information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come ...

  3. Treatment Options by Stage (Vulvar Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nearby lymph nodes are also removed. Artificial openings ( stoma ) are made for urine and stool to flow ... information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come ...

  4. Treatment Options by Stage (Bladder Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cyclophosphamide or ifosfamide . Taking Aristolochia fangchi , a Chinese herb . Drinking water from a well that has high ... patients may be given chemotherapy after surgery to kill any cancer cells that are left. Treatment given ...

  5. Treatment Options by Stage (Prostate Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of bisphosphonate drugs to prevent or slow the growth of bone metastases is being studied in clinical trials. There are treatments for bone pain caused by bone metastases or hormone therapy. Prostate cancer that has spread to the ...

  6. 40 CFR 268.44 - Variance from a treatment standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... disposal restriction treatment standards that, using a reasonable maximum exposure scenario: (A) For... Chromium .32 NA Lead .040 NA Nickel .44 NA CWM Chemical Services, LLC, Model City, New York K0889 Standards... Lead .040 NA Nickel .44 NA St. Gobain Containers, El Monte, CA 5,7 D010 Standards under § 268.40...

  7. Targeted treatments for cervical cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peralta-Zaragoza O

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Oscar Peralta-Zaragoza,1 Víctor Hugo Bermúdez-Morales,1 Carlos Pérez-Plasencia,2,3 Jonathan Salazar-León,1 Claudia Gómez-Cerón,1 Vicente Madrid-Marina11Direction of Chronic Infections and Cancer, Research Center in Infection Diseases, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México; 2Oncogenomics Laboratory, National Cancer Institute of Mexico, Tlalpan, México; 3Biomedicine Unit, FES-Iztacala UNAM, México City, MéxicoAbstract: Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in women worldwide and the development of new diagnosis, prognostic, and treatment strategies merits special attention. Although surgery and chemoradiotherapy can cure 80%–95% of women with early stage cancer, the recurrent and metastatic disease remains a major cause of cancer death. Many efforts have been made to design new drugs and develop gene therapies to treat cervical cancer. In recent decades, research on treatment strategies has proposed several options, including the role of HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, which are retained and expressed in most cervical cancers and whose respective oncoproteins are critical to the induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. Other efforts have been focused on antitumor immunotherapy strategies. It is known that during the development of cervical cancer, a cascade of abnormal events is induced, including disruption of cellular cycle control, perturbation of antitumor immune response, alteration of gene expression, and deregulation of microRNA expression. Thus, in this review article we discuss potential targets for the treatment of cervical cancer associated with HPV infection, with special attention to immunotherapy approaches, clinical trials, siRNA molecules, and their implications as gene therapy strategies against cervical cancer development.Keywords: Cervical cancer, clinical trials, gene therapy, HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, siRNAs

  8. Psychosocial Assessment as a Standard of Care in Pediatric Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kazak, Anne E.; Abrams, Annah N.; Banks, Jaime; Christofferson, Jennifer; DiDonato, Stephen; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Kabour, Marianne; Madan-Swain, Avi; Patel, Sunita K.; Zadeh, Sima; Kupst, Mary Jo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the evidence for a standard of care for psychosocial assessment in pediatric cancer. An interdisciplinary group of investigators utilized EBSCO, PubMed, PsycINFO, Ovid, and Google Scholar search databases, focusing on five areas: youth/family psychosocial adjustment, family

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Colon Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of surgery : Local excision or simple polypectomy . Resection and anastomosis . This is done when the tumor is too ... stage I colon cancer usually includes the following: Resection and anastomosis . Use our clinical trial search to find NCI- ...

  10. Treatment Option Overview (Gastric Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be at risk. Risk factors for gastric cancer include the following: Having any of the following medical conditions : Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection of the stomach. Chronic gastritis ( inflammation of the stomach). Pernicious anemia . Intestinal metaplasia ( ...

  11. Treatment Option Overview (Urethral Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nodes by the time it is diagnosed . A history of bladder cancer can affect the risk of ... can be described as distal or proximal . Enlarge Anatomy of the distal and proximal urethra. Urine flows ...

  12. ENDOSCOPIC TECHNOLOGIES IN EARLY RECTAL CANCER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Samsonov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Total mesorectal excision is the “golden standard” of surgical treatment for rectal cancer. Development of endoscopic technologies allowed to implement the benefits of minimally invasive surgery in early rectal cancer treatment, decrease morbidity and mortality, improve functional outcome and quality of life. Oncological safety of this method is still a subject for discussion due to lack of lymph node harvest. Endoscopic operations for early rectal cancer are being actively implemented in daily practice, but lack of experience does not allow to include this method in national clinical prac-tice guidelines.

  13. Exercise after breast cancer treatment: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieli-Conwright CM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Christina M Dieli-Conwright, Breanna Z Orozco Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy, Women's Health and Exercise Laboratory, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Over the past 2 decades, great strides have been made in the field of exercise-oncology research, particularly with breast cancer. This area of research is particularly important since there are >2.8 million breast cancer survivors who are in need of an intervention that can offset treatment-related side effects. Noticeable reductions in physical fitness (ie, cardiopulmonary fitness and muscular strength, negative changes in body composition (ie, increase in body mass, decrease in lean body mass, and increase in fat mass, increased fatigue, depression, or anxiety are some of the common side effects of cancer treatments that negatively impact overall quality of life and increase the risk for the development of comorbidities. Exercise plays a vital role in improving cardiopulmonary function, psychological events, muscular strength, and endurance in breast cancer survivors, and thus should be considered as a key factor of lifestyle intervention to reverse negative treatment-related side effects. The purpose of this review is to address current perspectives on the benefits of aerobic and resistance exercise after breast cancer treatments. This review is focused on the well-established benefits of exercise on physical and emotional well-being, bone health, lymphedema management, and the postulated benefits of exercise on risk reduction for recurrence of breast cancer. Keywords: breast cancer, exercise, physical well-being

  14. Fertility preservation during cancer treatment: clinical guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Wallberg KA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Kenny A Rodriguez-Wallberg,1,2 Kutluk Oktay3,4 1Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2Reproductive Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Innovation Institute for Fertility Preservation, Rye and New York, 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA Abstract: The majority of children, adolescents, and young adults diagnosed with cancer today will become long-term survivors. The threat to fertility that cancer treatments pose to young patients cannot be prevented in many cases, and thus research into methods for fertility preservation is developing, aiming at offering cancer patients the ability to have biologically related children in the future. This paper discusses the current status of fertility preservation methods when infertility risks are related to surgical oncologic treatments, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. Several scientific groups and societies have developed consensus documents and guidelines for fertility preservation. Decisions about fertility and imminent potentially gonadotoxic therapies must be made rapidly. Timely and complete information on the impact of cancer treatment on fertility and fertility preservation options should be presented to all patients when a cancer treatment is planned. Keywords: fertility preservation, cancer, cryopreservation, ovarian tissue transplantation, fertility-sparing surgery, cancer survival, quality of life

  15. Nanotechnologies in cancer treatment and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Stephanie A; Farrell, Dorothy; Grodzinski, Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Despite significant efforts toward research and treatment development, cancer continues to be a major health problem in the United States that is only further enhanced by the heterogeneous nature of the disease. Nanotechnology has evolved as a technology with applications to medicine and the potential to improve clinical outcomes, with its application to cancer garnering much attention recently. In particular, through the generation of novel nanoscale devices and therapeutic platforms, nanotechnologies have emerged as innovative approaches that enable the detection and diagnosis of cancer at its earliest stages, and the delivery of anticancer drugs directly to tumors. This article highlights recent advances in the development of nanotechnologies for cancer therapeutics and diagnostics, and focuses on the potential future of cancer nanotechnology and the challenges this young field faces as it continues to move toward clinical translation. Copyright © 2014 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  16. Pathological and Biological Aspects of Colorectal Cancer Treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosens, M.J.E.M.

    2008-01-01

    Pathological and biological aspects of colorectal cancer treatment. This thesis describes several pathological and biological aspects of colorectal cancer treatment. Different patient populations were investigated including patients with mobile rectal cancer enrolled in the Dutch TME trial, patients

  17. Pathological and biological aspects of colorectal cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosens, Marleen Johanna Elisabeth Maria

    2008-01-01

    Pathological and biological aspects of colorectal cancer treatment. This thesis describes several pathological and biological aspects of colorectal cancer treatment. Different patient populations were investigated including patients with mobile rectal cancer enrolled in the Dutch TME trial, patients

  18. Early prostate cancer: particularities of treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, F.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction of prostate cancer screening using PSA leads to a disproportional increase of cancer incidence. Most of those tumors are small and indolent in behavior. When diagnosed, they are usually managed by radical treatment modalities despite the growth of serious adverse events of such therapy. Active surveillance appears to be an alternative treatment approach for the majority of those patients. Author stresses on the particularities of the prostate cancer diagnosed in the PSA era. Show the importance of patient stratification and the utility of the use of nomograms in clinical praxis. The clinical importance of treatment choices based on life expectancy of patient, concomitant diseases on one side and cancer biological behavior in the other side is discussed. Critically discuss the new approach of radiation with proton beams advertising that it remains an experimental therapeutic choice. (author)

  19. Treatment of prostate cancer in unfit senior adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falci, Cristina; Morello, Elisabetta; Droz, Jean Pierre

    2009-10-01

    Prostate cancer is a disease typical of the elderly with a peak of incidence at 80 years. As most patients aged > or = 70 years show impairment of physical and/or cognitive performance, a complete geriatric assessment should be mandatory before planning any oncological treatment, in order to remove treatable conditions and to estimate the individual cancer-independent survival probability. In unfit patients with early prostate cancer watchful waiting represent the best strategy when the chance of living patients having high risk prostate cancer. Even in locally advanced prostate cancer active treatment could be deferred in asymptomatic patients, with short individual cancer-independent survival and well or moderately differentiated tumour. When hormonal deprivation therapy is administered a great attention should be paid to potential adverse events, that could precipitate the physical performance and accelerate the development of severe frailty. In the metastatic setting, the best supportive care, including bisphosphonates, should have the priority in the management of unfit patients. Chemotherapy, with Docetaxel as the standard regimen, should be reserved to patients showing diffuse symptoms, rapidly increasing PSA and/or presence of visceral metastasis, after all steps of endocrine therapy were covered. As regard the second line, a number of possibilities are available, but none have been tested in vulnerable and frail patients. At the present a number of issues about prostate cancer in unfit senior adults patients are still unsolved and should be debated in the light of results from dedicate prospective trials.

  20. Targeting mitochondria for cancer treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Jiří; Cifra, Michal; Jandová, Anna; Kučera, Ondřej; Šrobár, Fedor; Vrba, J.; Vrba, J.; Kobilková, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2012), s. 23-36 ISSN 1128-6598 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP102/11/0649; GA ČR GAP102/10/0120 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Electromagnetic fields * Cellular biophysics * Cancer Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.750, year: 2012

  1. Cancer-related fatigue treatment: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemanth Mohandas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer-related fatigue is a symptom of cancer where most patients or the general practitioners tend to misinterpret due to the insufficient understanding or knowledge of cancer-related fatigue (CRF. This paper will provide a better perspective for the patients and the health professionals on how to manage and handle CRF for both mild and severe fatigue patients. Articles were selected from the searches of PubMed database that had the terms “randomized controlled trials,” “cancer,” “fatigue,” “pharmacologic treatment,” and “nonpharmacologic treatment” using both Mesh terms and keywords. The authors have reviewed the current hypothesis and evidence of the detailed etiology of the CRF present in the literature for healthier management, directives, and strategies to improve the treatment of cancer-related fatigue. An algorithm has been blueprinted on screening, and management, of the CRF, and various kinds of effective treatments and assessment tools have been briefly studied and explained. Although many strategies seemed promising, the quality of randomized controlled trials is generally quite low in studies, making it difficult to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of each self-care strategies. Therefore, future studies require better design and reporting of methodological issues to ensure evidence-based self-care recommendations for people receiving cancer treatment.

  2. Gastric cancer: current and evolving treatment landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weijing; Yan, Li

    2016-08-31

    Gastric (including gastroesophageal junction) cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. In China, an estimated 420,000 patients were diagnosed with gastric cancer in 2011, ranking this malignancy the second most prevalent cancer type and resulting in near 300,000 deaths. The treatment landscape of gastric cancer has evolved in recent years. Although systemic chemotherapy is still the mainstay treatment of metastatic disease, the introduction of agents targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular endothelia growth factor receptor has brought this disease into the molecular and personalized medicine era. The preliminary yet encouraging clinical efficacy observed with immune checkpoint inhibitors, e.g., anti-programmed cell death protein 1/programmed death-ligand 1, will further shape the treatment landscape for gastric cancer. Molecular characterization of patients will play a critical role in developing new agents, as well as in implementing new treatment options for this disease.

  3. Carbon Nanomaterials for Breast Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Casais-Molina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, breast cancer is considered as a health problem worldwide. Furthermore, current treatments neither are capable of stopping its propagation and/or recurrence nor are specific for cancer cells. Therefore, side effects on healthy tissues and cells are common. An increase in the efficiency of treatments, along with a reduction in their toxicity, is desirable to improve the life quality of patients affected by breast cancer. Nanotechnology offers new alternatives for the design and synthesis of nanomaterials that can be used in the identification, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer and has now become a very promising tool for its use against this disease. Among the wide variety of nanomaterials, the scientific community is particularly interested in carbon nanomaterials (fullerenes, nanotubes, and graphene due to their physical properties, versatile chemical functionalization, and biocompatibility. Recent scientific evidence shows the potential uses of carbon nanomaterials as therapeutic agents, systems for selective and controlled drug release, and contrast agents for diagnosing and locating tumors. This generates new possibilities for the development of innovative systems to treat breast cancer and can be used to detect this disease at much earlier stages. Thus, applications of carbon nanomaterials in breast cancer treatment are discussed in this article.

  4. Cost of treatment for breast cancer in central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Hoang Lan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, cases of breast cancer have been on the rise in Vietnam. To date, there has been no study on the financial burden of the disease. This study estimates the direct medical cost of a 5-year treatment course for women with primary breast cancer in central Vietnam. Methods: Retrospective patient-level data from medical records at the Hue Central Hospital between 2001 and 2006 were analyzed. Cost analysis was conducted from the health care payers’ perspective. Various direct medical cost categories were computed for a 5-year treatment course for patients with breast cancer. Costs, in US dollars, discounted at a 3% rate, were converted to 2010 after adjusting for inflation. For each cost category, the mean, standard deviation, median, and cost range were estimated. Median regression was used to investigate the relationship between costs and the stage, age at diagnosis, and the health insurance coverage of the patients. Results: The total direct medical cost for a 5-year treatment course for breast cancer in central Vietnam was estimated at $975 per patient (range: $11.7–$3,955. The initial treatment cost, particularly the cost of chemotherapy, was found to account for the greatest proportion of total costs (64.9%. Among the patient characteristics studied, stage at diagnosis was significantly associated with total treatment costs. Patients at later stages of breast cancer did not differ significantly in their total costs from those at earlier stages however, but their survival time was much shorter. The absence of health insurance was the main factor limiting service uptake. Conclusion: From the health care payers’ perspective, the Government subsidization of public hospital charges lowered the direct medical costs of a 5-year treatment course for primary breast cancer in central Vietnam. However, the long treatment course was significantly influenced by out-of-pocket payments for patients without health insurance.

  5. Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom) for cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xingzhong; Ruiz Beguerie, Julieta; Sze, Daniel Man-Yeun; Chan, Godfrey C F

    2016-04-05

    -receptor subsets, and quality of life measured by the Karnofsky scale score. No trial had recorded long-term survival rates. Associated adverse events were reported in one study. A meta-analysis was performed to pool available data from the primary trials. Results were gauged using relative risks (RR) and standard mean differences (SMD) for dichotomous and continuous data respectively, with a 95% confidence interval (CI). The methodological quality of primary studies was generally unsatisfying and the results were reported inadequately in many aspects. Additional information was not available from primary trialists. The meta-analysis results showed that patients who had been given G. lucidum alongside with chemo/radiotherapy were more likely to respond positively compared to chemo/radiotherapy alone (RR 1.50; 95% CI 0.90 to 2.51, P = 0.02). G. lucidum treatment alone did not demonstrate the same regression rate as that seen in combined therapy. The results for host immune function indicators suggested that G. lucidum simultaneously increases the percentage of CD3, CD4 and CD8 by 3.91% (95% CI 1.92% to 5.90%, P effects, including nausea and insomnia. No significant haematological or hepatological toxicity was reported. Our review did not find sufficient evidence to justify the use of G. lucidum as a first-line treatment for cancer. It remains uncertain whether G. lucidum helps prolong long-term cancer survival. However, G. lucidum could be administered as an alternative adjunct to conventional treatment in consideration of its potential of enhancing tumour response and stimulating host immunity. G. lucidum was generally well tolerated by most participants with only a scattered number of minor adverse events. No major toxicity was observed across the studies. Although there were few reports of harmful effect of G. lucidum, the use of its extract should be judicious, especially after thorough consideration of cost-benefit and patient preference. Future studies should put emphasis on

  6. [Analysis on standardization of patient posture for acupuncture treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yonghui

    2018-02-12

    The standardization of patient posture for acupuncture treatment was discussed. According to the opinions in Neijing ( Inner Canon of Huangdi ), combined with the clinical practice of acupuncture, it was believed that the patient posture for acupuncture treatment should be standardized based on Neijing . The standardized patient posture was the foundation of acupuncture, the need of blood flow and requirement of acupuncture technique. The combination of three elements was beneficial for the traveling of spirit- qi through meridian-acupoint, which could regulate balance of yin and yang to treat disease. In addition, the principles and methods of standardization of patient posture was proposed, and the important clinical significance of standardization of patient posture for acupuncture treatment was highlighted.

  7. Radical treatment of localised prostate cancer in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaerts, Wouter; Van Rij, Simon; Reeves, Fairleigh; Costello, Anthony

    2015-12-01

    Elderly men are more likely to be diagnosed with aggressive cancer, but are often inappropriately denied curative treatment. Biological rather than chronological age should be used to decide if a patient will profit from radical treatment. Therefore, every man aged >70 years should undergo a health assessment using a validated tool before making treatment decisions. Fit elderly men with intermediate- or high-risk disease should be offered standard curative local treatment in keeping with guidelines for younger men. Vulnerable and frail elderly men warrant geriatric intervention before treatment. In the case of vulnerable patients, this intervention may render them suitable for standard care. When considering radical prostatectomy outcomes a 'bifecta' of oncological control and continence is appropriate, as erectile dysfunction (although prevalent) has a much smaller impact on quality of life than in younger patients. Radiotherapy is an alternative to radical prostatectomy in men with a life expectancy of <10 years. Primary androgen-deprivation therapy is not associated with improved survival in localised prostate cancer and should only be used for symptom palliation. Further elderly-specific research is needed to guide prostate cancer care. © 2015 The Authors. BJU International © 2015 BJU International.

  8. Hadron Therapy for Cancer Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennox, Arlene

    2003-01-01

    The biological and physical rationale for hadron therapy is well understood by the research community, but hadron therapy is not well established in mainstream medicine. This talk will describe the biological advantage of neutron therapy and the dose distribution advantage of proton therapy, followed by a discussion of the challenges to be met before hadron therapy can play a significant role in treating cancer. A proposal for a new research-oriented hadron clinic will be presented.

  9. Nanotechnology Cancer Therapy and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanotechnology offers the means to target therapies directly and selectively to cancerous cells and neoplasms. With these tools, clinicians can safely and effectively deliver chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and the next generation of immuno- and gene therapies to the tumor. Futhermore, surgical resection of tumors can be guided and enhanced by way of nanotechnology tools. Find out how nanotechnology will offer the next generation of our therapeutic arsenal to the patient.

  10. Vaginal Health During Breast Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Sandy J; Bober, Sharon

    2016-05-01

    There are increasing numbers of breast cancer survivors. Chemotherapy or endocrine therapy result in effects on vaginal health that may affect quality of life. These effects may impact sexual function, daily comfort, or the ability to perform a pelvic examination. Vulvovaginal atrophy, or genitourinary syndrome of menopause, may be treated with nonhormonal or hormonal measures. Breast cancer survivors who are menopausal and/or on endocrine therapy should be screened for issues with vaginal health and counseled about treatment options.

  11. GPU-based RFA simulation for minimally invasive cancer treatment of liver tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mariappan, P.; Weir, P.; Flanagan, R.; Voglreiter, P.; Alhonnoro, T.; Pollari, M.; Moche, M.; Busse, H.; Futterer, J.J.; Portugaller, H.R.; Sequeiros, R.B.; Kolesnik, M.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is one of the most popular and well-standardized minimally invasive cancer treatments (MICT) for liver tumours, employed where surgical resection has been contraindicated. Less-experienced interventional radiologists (IRs) require an appropriate planning tool

  12. Neoadjuvant twice daily chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer: Treatment-related mortality and long-term outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart E. Samuels, MD, PhD

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Neoadjuvant twice-daily chemoradiation for esophageal cancer is a safe and effective alternative to daily fractionation with low treatment-related mortality and long-term outcomes similar to standard fractionation courses.

  13. CONSERVATIVE TREATMENT OF BREAST CANCER, EXPERIENCE OF THE GENERAL SURGERY DEPARTMENT OF THE AVICENNE MILITARY HOSPITAL.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Lahkim; Mohammed Es-said Ramraoui; Mohammed Jaouad Fassi Fihri; Ahmed Elguezzar; Ahmed Elkhader; Rachid El Barni; Abdessamad Achour.

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is currently the most common cancer in women, and is a major diagnostic and therapeutic problem. The radio-surgical conservatrice therapeutic management has become a standard for most tumors : stages I and II. Furthermore, the use of preoperative treatment extends the indications of conservative treatment which was initiall limited to tumors less than 3cm, unifocal, and non-inflammatory to larger tumors. Our study reports 20 patients cases of breast cancer, collected at the surg...

  14. Radiation proctopathy in the treatment of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Amit K.; Mai Weiyan; McGary, John E.; Grant, Walter H.; Butler, E. Brian; Teh, B.S.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To compile and review data on radiation proctopathy in the treatment of prostate cancer with respect to epidemiology, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, risk factors, and treatment. Methods: Medical literature databases including PubMed and Medline were screened for pertinent reports, and critically analyzed for relevance in the scope of our purpose. Results: Rectal toxicity as a complication of radiotherapy has received attention over the past decade, especially with the advent of dose-escalation in prostate cancer treatment. A number of clinical criteria help to define acute and chronic radiation proctopathy, but lack of a unified grading scale makes comparing studies difficult. A variety of risk factors, related to either radiation delivery or patient, are the subject of intense study. Also, a variety of treatment options, including medical therapy, endoscopic treatments, and surgery have shown varied results, but a lack of large randomized trials evaluating their efficacy prevents forming concrete recommendations. Conclusion: Radiation proctopathy should be an important consideration for the clinician in the treatment of prostate cancer especially with dose escalation. With further study of possible risk factors, the advent of a standardized grading scale, and more randomized trials to evaluate treatments, patients and physicians will be better armed to make appropriate management decisions

  15. Radiation proctopathy in the treatment of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Amit K; Mai, Wei-Yuan; McGary, John E; Grant, Walter H; Butler, E Brian; Teh, Bin S

    2006-12-01

    To compile and review data on radiation proctopathy in the treatment of prostate cancer with respect to epidemiology, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, risk factors, and treatment. Medical literature databases including PubMed and Medline were screened for pertinent reports, and critically analyzed for relevance in the scope of our purpose. Rectal toxicity as a complication of radiotherapy has received attention over the past decade, especially with the advent of dose-escalation in prostate cancer treatment. A number of clinical criteria help to define acute and chronic radiation proctopathy, but lack of a unified grading scale makes comparing studies difficult. A variety of risk factors, related to either radiation delivery or patient, are the subject of intense study. Also, a variety of treatment options, including medical therapy, endoscopic treatments, and surgery have shown varied results, but a lack of large randomized trials evaluating their efficacy prevents forming concrete recommendations. Radiation proctopathy should be an important consideration for the clinician in the treatment of prostate cancer especially with dose escalation. With further study of possible risk factors, the advent of a standardized grading scale, and more randomized trials to evaluate treatments, patients and physicians will be better armed to make appropriate management decisions.

  16. Late effects of breast cancer treatment and potentials for rehabilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewertz, Marianne; Bonde Jensen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Background. Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant disease among women world wide. Survival has been improving leading to an increasing number of breast cancer survivors, in the US estimated to about 2.6 million. Material and methods. The literature was reviewed with focus on data from the Nordic countries. Results. Local therapies such as breast cancer surgery and radiotherapy may cause persistent pain in the breast area, arm, and shoulder reported by 30-50% of patients after three to five years, lymphedema in 15-25% of patients, and restrictions of arm and shoulder movement in 35%. Physiotherapy is the standard treatment for the latter while no pain intervention trials have been published. Chemotherapy may cause infertility and premature menopause, resulting in vasomotor symptoms, sexual dysfunction, and osteoporosis, which are similar to the side effects of endocrine treatment in postmenopausal women. Awareness of cardiotoxicity is needed since anthracyclines, trastuzumab, and radiotherapy can damage the heart. Breast cancer survivors have an increased risk of a major depression and far from all receive adequate anti-depressive treatment. Other psychological symptoms include fear of recurrence, sleep disturbances, cognitive problems, fatigue, and sexual problems. Discussion. To improve rehabilitation, specific goals have to be formulated into national guidelines and high priority directed towards research into developing and testing new interventions for alleviating symptoms and side effects experienced by breast cancer survivors

  17. Late effects of breast cancer treatment and potentials for rehabilitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewertz, Marianne (Dept. of Oncology, Odense Univ. Hospital, Odense (Denmark)); Bonde Jensen, Anders (Inst. of Clinical Research, Univ. of Southern Denmark (Denmark))

    2011-02-15

    Background. Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant disease among women world wide. Survival has been improving leading to an increasing number of breast cancer survivors, in the US estimated to about 2.6 million. Material and methods. The literature was reviewed with focus on data from the Nordic countries. Results. Local therapies such as breast cancer surgery and radiotherapy may cause persistent pain in the breast area, arm, and shoulder reported by 30-50% of patients after three to five years, lymphedema in 15-25% of patients, and restrictions of arm and shoulder movement in 35%. Physiotherapy is the standard treatment for the latter while no pain intervention trials have been published. Chemotherapy may cause infertility and premature menopause, resulting in vasomotor symptoms, sexual dysfunction, and osteoporosis, which are similar to the side effects of endocrine treatment in postmenopausal women. Awareness of cardiotoxicity is needed since anthracyclines, trastuzumab, and radiotherapy can damage the heart. Breast cancer survivors have an increased risk of a major depression and far from all receive adequate anti-depressive treatment. Other psychological symptoms include fear of recurrence, sleep disturbances, cognitive problems, fatigue, and sexual problems. Discussion. To improve rehabilitation, specific goals have to be formulated into national guidelines and high priority directed towards research into developing and testing new interventions for alleviating symptoms and side effects experienced by breast cancer survivors

  18. Updates in the treatment of bone cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, J Sybil

    2013-05-01

    Although extremely rare, primary bone cancers are often curable with proper treatment. Effective management of primary bone tumors hinges on the involvement of a multidisciplinary team of physicians with expertise in this area, both in the realms of diagnosis and treatment. In her presentation at the NCCN 18th Annual Conference, Dr. J. Sybil Biermann reviewed the changes to the 2013 NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for bone cancer, featuring the introduction of new sections on giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) and chordoma. The benefits of denosumab for the benign GCTB and the unique challenges associated with the malignant chordoma are also explored.

  19. New treatment guidelines for penile cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiess, Philippe E

    2013-05-01

    Although relatively rare in Western countries, penile cancer is associated with high morbidity and mortality. To achieve the most favorable outcomes in men with this malignancy, early medical or surgical treatment is required. Few data are available from prospective, randomized trials, and heterogeneous approaches to care have emerged. In this article, Dr. Spiess presents highlights from the inaugural NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for penile cancer, focusing primarily on treatment strategies for primary penile lesions and regional lymph nodes. NCCN recommendations regarding surveillance and the management of tumor recurrence and metastatic disease are briefly explored.

  20. Defining progression in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer: it is time for a new, standard definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Donald; Persad, Raj; Brausi, Maurizio; Buckley, Roger; Witjes, J Alfred; Palou, Joan; Böhle, Andreas; Kamat, Ashish M; Colombel, Marc; Soloway, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Despite being one of the most important clinical outcomes in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer, there is currently no standard definition of disease progression. Major clinical trials and meta-analyses have used varying definitions or have failed to define this end point altogether. A standard definition of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer progression as determined by reproducible and reliable procedures is needed. We examine current definitions of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer progression, and propose a new definition that will be more clinically useful in determining patient prognosis and comparing treatment options. The IBCG (International Bladder Cancer Group) analyzed published clinical trials and meta-analyses that examined nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer progression as of December 2012. The limitations of the definitions of progression used in these trials were considered, as were additional parameters associated with the advancement of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. The most commonly used definition of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer progression is an increase in stage from nonmuscle invasive to muscle invasive disease. Although this definition is clinically important, it fails to include other important parameters of advancing disease such as progression to lamina propria invasion and increase in grade. The IBCG proposes the definition of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer progression as an increase in T stage from CIS or Ta to T1 (lamina propria invasion), development of T2 or greater or lymph node (N+) disease or distant metastasis (M1), or an increase in grade from low to high. Investigators should consider the use of this new definition to help standardize protocols and improve the reporting of progression. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effectiveness of permethrin standard and modified methods in scabies treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleha Sungkar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Permethrin is the drug of choice for scabies with side effects such as erythema, pain, itching and prickling sensation. Whole-body (standard topical application of permethrin causes discomfort; thus, modified application of permethrin to the lesion only, followed with baths twice daily using soap was proposed. The objective of the study is to know the effectiveness of standard against lesion-only application of permethrin in scabies treatment.Methods: An experimental study was conducted in pesantren in East Jakarta and data was collected in May-July 2012. Diagnosis of scabies was made through anamnesis and skin examination. Subjects positive for scabies were divided into three groups: one standard method group (whole-body topical application and two modified groups (lesion-only application followed by the use of regular soap and antiseptic soap group. The three groups were evaluated weekly for three consecutive weeks. Data was processed using SPSS 20 and analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test.Results: Total of 94 subjects was scabies positive (prevalence 50% but only 69 subjects were randomly picked to be analyzed. The cure rate at the end of week III of the standard method group was 95.7%, modified treatment followed by the use of regular soap was 91.3%, and modified treatment followed by the use of antiseptic soap was 78.3% (p = 0.163. The recurrence rate of standard treatment was 8.7%,  modified treatment followed by the use of regular soap was 13% and modified treatment followed by the use of antiseptic soap was 26.1% (p = 0.250.Conclusion: The standard scabies treatment was as effective as the modified scabies treatment.

  2. Prevention and Treatment of Bone Metastases in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripamonti Carla

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In breast cancer patients, bone is the most common site of metastases. Medical therapies are the basic therapy to prevent distant metastases and recurrence and to cure them. Radiotherapy has a primary role in pain relief, recalcification and stabilization of the bone, as well as the reduction of the risk of complications (e.g., bone fractures, spinal cord compression. Bisphosphonates, as potent inhibitors of osteoclastic-mediated bone resorption are a well-established, standard-of-care treatment option to reduce the frequency, severity and time of onset of the skeletal related events in breast cancer patients with bone metastases. Moreover bisphosphonates prevent cancer treatment-induced bone loss. Recent data shows the anti-tumor activity of bisphosphonates, in particular, in postmenopausal women and in older premenopausal women with hormone-sensitive disease treated with ovarian suppression. Pain is the most frequent symptom reported in patients with bone metastases, and its prevention and treatment must be considered at any stage of the disease. The prevention and treatment of bone metastases in breast cancer must consider an integrated multidisciplinary approach.

  3. Repurposing Cationic Amphiphilic Antihistamines for Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Ellegaard

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide. In search for new NSCLC treatment options, we screened a cationic amphiphilic drug (CAD library for cytotoxicity against NSCLC cells and identified several CAD antihistamines as inducers of lysosomal cell death. We then performed a cohort study on the effect of CAD antihistamine use on mortality of patients diagnosed with non-localized cancer in Denmark between 1995 and 2011. The use of the most commonly prescribed CAD antihistamine, loratadine, was associated with significantly reduced all-cause mortality among patients with non-localized NSCLC or any non-localized cancer when compared with use of non-CAD antihistamines and adjusted for potential confounders. Of the less frequently described CAD antihistamines, astemizole showed a similar significant association with reduced mortality as loratadine among patients with any non-localized cancer, and ebastine use showed a similar tendency. The association between CAD antihistamine use and reduced mortality was stronger among patients with records of concurrent chemotherapy than among those without such records. In line with this, sub-micromolar concentrations of loratadine, astemizole and ebastine sensitized NSCLC cells to chemotherapy and reverted multidrug resistance in NSCLC, breast and prostate cancer cells. Thus, CAD antihistamines may improve the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy.

  4. Repurposing Cationic Amphiphilic Antihistamines for Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellegaard, Anne-Marie; Dehlendorff, Christian; Vind, Anna C; Anand, Atul; Cederkvist, Luise; Petersen, Nikolaj H T; Nylandsted, Jesper; Stenvang, Jan; Mellemgaard, Anders; Østerlind, Kell; Friis, Søren; Jäättelä, Marja

    2016-07-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide. In search for new NSCLC treatment options, we screened a cationic amphiphilic drug (CAD) library for cytotoxicity against NSCLC cells and identified several CAD antihistamines as inducers of lysosomal cell death. We then performed a cohort study on the effect of CAD antihistamine use on mortality of patients diagnosed with non-localized cancer in Denmark between 1995 and 2011. The use of the most commonly prescribed CAD antihistamine, loratadine, was associated with significantly reduced all-cause mortality among patients with non-localized NSCLC or any non-localized cancer when compared with use of non-CAD antihistamines and adjusted for potential confounders. Of the less frequently described CAD antihistamines, astemizole showed a similar significant association with reduced mortality as loratadine among patients with any non-localized cancer, and ebastine use showed a similar tendency. The association between CAD antihistamine use and reduced mortality was stronger among patients with records of concurrent chemotherapy than among those without such records. In line with this, sub-micromolar concentrations of loratadine, astemizole and ebastine sensitized NSCLC cells to chemotherapy and reverted multidrug resistance in NSCLC, breast and prostate cancer cells. Thus, CAD antihistamines may improve the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Lipoplatin Treatment in Lung and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantini, Manuela; Gianni, Lorenzo; Santelmo, Carlotta; Drudi, Fabrizio; Castellani, Cinzia; Affatato, Alessandra; Nicolini, Mario; Ravaioli, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of cisplatin in cancer treatment represents an important achievement in the oncologic field. Many types of cancers are now treated with this drug, and in testicular cancer patients major results are reached. Since 1965, other compounds were disovered and among them carboplatin and oxaliplatin are the main Cisplatin analogues showing similar clinical efficacy with a safer toxicity profile. Lipoplatin is a new liposomal cisplatin formulation which seems to have these characteristics. Lipoplatin was shown to be effective in NSCLC both in phase 2 and phase 3 trials, with the same response rate of Cisplatin, a comparable overall survival but less toxicity. A new protocol aiming to elucidate the double capacity of Lipoplatin to act as a chemotherapeutic and angiogenetic agent in triple-negative breast cancer patients is upcoming. PMID:22295201

  6. Lung cancer: diagnosis, treatment principles, and screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Kelly M; Mott, Timothy F

    2015-02-15

    Lung cancer is classified histologically into small cell and non-small cell lung cancers. The most common symptoms of lung cancer are cough, dyspnea, hemoptysis, and systemic symptoms such as weight loss and anorexia. High-risk patients who present with symptoms should undergo chest radiography. If a likely alternative diagnosis is not identified, computed tomography and possibly positron emission tomography should be performed. If suspicion for lung cancer is high, a diagnostic evaluation is warranted. The diagnostic evaluation has three simultaneous steps (tissue diagnosis, staging, and functional evaluation), all of which affect treatment planning and determination of prognosis. The least invasive method possible should be used. The diagnostic evaluation and treatment of a patient with lung cancer require a team of specialists, including a pulmonologist, medical oncologist, radiation oncologist, pathologist, radiologist, and thoracic surgeon. Non-small cell lung cancer specimens are tested for various mutations, which, if present, can be treated with new targeted molecular therapies. The family physician should remain involved in the patient's care to ensure that the values and wishes of the patient and family are considered and, if necessary, to coordinate end-of-life care. Early palliative care improves quality of life and may prolong survival. Family physicians should concentrate on early recognition of lung cancer, as well as prevention by encouraging tobacco cessation at every visit. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends lung cancer screening using low-dose computed tomography in high-risk patients. However, the American Academy of Family Physicians concludes that the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against screening. Whether to screen high-risk patients should be a shared decision between the physician and patient.

  7. Trans-identity - the Standards of Diagnostics and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessmann H.-V.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available German Society for Sexual Research, Academy of Sexual Medicine and Society of Sexology formulated standards for evaluation and treatment of transsexuals. The creation of the standards involved Sophinette Becker, Hartmut A. G. Bosinski, Ulrich Clement, Wolf Eicher, Thomas M. Goerlich, Uwe Hartmann, Götz Kockott, Dieter Langer, Wilhelm E. Preuss, Gunter Schmidt, Alfred Springer, Reinhard Wille. Since 1980, the Federal Republic of Germany has a law on transsexualism, which regulates the right of the individual to change the sex. However, until now there were no specifically defined standards of assessment and treatment of transsexuals. For the first time, in 1979 Harry Benjamin invited the International Medical Association of Germany to revise the standards of medical care for gender dysphoria. The following standards of assessment and treatment of transsexuals have been developed at a conference convened by the German Society for Research Expert Committee under the leadership of Sophinette Becker. The review of currently valid standards for evaluation and treatment of transgender is the subject of this article

  8. Treatment of Childhood Head and Neck Cancer - Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find diagnosis, staging, and treatment information for these head and neck cancers: hypopharynx, larynx, lip and oral cavity, neck cancer with occult primary, nasopharynx, oropharynx, paranasal sinus and nasal cavity, and salivary gland cancer.

  9. Treatment of Head and Neck Cancer in Adults - Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find diagnosis, staging, and treatment information for these head and neck cancers: hypopharynx, larynx, lip and oral cavity, neck cancer with occult primary, nasopharynx, oropharynx, paranasal sinus and nasal cavity, and salivary gland cancer.

  10. Dosimetry studies during breast cancer radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M. O. M.

    2005-06-01

    Previous studies indicated that breast cancer is wildly spread especially in women as compared to men. It is increased after an age of thirty five years in women so it is important to study the effect of exposure to the radiation on the intact breast during the treatment of the breast suffering from cancer. In this work the scattered doses for the intact breast during the treatment of the breast suffering from cancer were measured and also the probability of inducing cancer in it is also discussed. The study was performed for a group of patients composed of twenty five females. Also the backscattered doses to the intact breast were measured for thirteen female patients. During the treatment using gamma rays from Co-60 source the two tangential fields (lateral and medial) were selected for the measurements. The results of exposure to gamma radiation for the lateral and medial fields showed that the mean scattered and backscattered doses to the intact breast were (241.26 cGY,47.49 cGY) and (371.6 cGY,385.4 cGY), respectively. Beside that the somatic risk of induced cancer to the intact breast was found to be (6 .1X10 -3 ,1.2X10 -3 ) and (9.29X10 -3 , 9.63X10 -3 ), respectively. From the results obtained it was concluded that the intact breast received small amounts of radiation doses which may lead to breast cancer for the healthy breast. The recommendations from the present study are to take care of radiation protection to the patient, and also to take care of the patient treatment conditions like temperature, pressure and humidity during the radiation exposure.(Author)

  11. Cetuximab in treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guren, Tormod Kyrre; Thomsen, Maria Morandi; Kure, Elin H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The NORDIC-VII study is a randomised phase III trial of cetuximab plus continuous or intermittent fluorouracil, folinic acid, and oxaliplatin (Nordic FLOX) vs FLOX alone in first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. The present report presents an updated and final survival...

  12. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... All Events Weekly Calendar Weekly Calendar Archive Speeches Audio/Video Featured Videos FTC Events For Consumers For ... Adjudicative Proceedings You are here Home » News & Events » Audio/Video » Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy ...

  13. Intense neutron sources for cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in the development of small, solid-target, pulsed neutron sources for nuclear weapons applications. The feasibility of using this type of neutron source for cancer treatment is discussed. Plans for fabrication and testing of such a source is briefly described

  14. Treatment of liver metastases from colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, J.; Punt, C. J. A.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years several new local as well as systemic treatment options have become available for patients with advanced colorectal cancer. A survey among Dutch hospitals revealed considerable differences in the use of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Radiofrequency ablation is a promising

  15. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at the FTC Apply to the FTC Testimonials News & Events Press Releases Commission Actions Media Resources Consumer ... Documents in Adjudicative Proceedings You are here Home » News & Events » Audio/Video » Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment ...

  16. Medicinal plants in the treatment of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad M. Zlatić

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a review of highly developed medicinal usages of plants in the treatment of cancer. In the last decades, the cancer treatment has been included in this range of plant use, due to plant active substances. Active substances or secondary metabolites are generally known for their widespread application. When it comes to the cancer treatment, these substances affect the uncontrolled cell division. Therefore, the plants which are the source of these substances are proved to be irreplaceable in this field of medicine. This paper deals with some of the most significant plants well known for their multiple aspects of beneficial medicinal influence. The group of the plants described is comprised of the following species: Taxus brevifolia (Taxaceae, Catharanthus roseus (Apocynaceae, Podophyllum peltatum (Berberidaceae, Camptotheca accuminata (Cornaceae, and Cephalotaxus harringtonia (Cephalotaxaceae. The comprehensive description of the plants in this paper includes the morphological characteristics, the features and the representation of the molecular structures of active substances, the particular influence that these active substances have and the general importance of the substances as seen from the aspect of cancer treatment mostly with reference to the impacts on cell cycle.

  17. [Radioimmunotherapy in the treatment of cancers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahé, M; Chatal, J F

    1994-09-01

    Radioimmunotherapy is a special form of internal radiotherapy which uses radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies. Until now, best results were achieved in refractory lymphomas and in ovarian cancer with minimal tumor residues. Several approaches are now under investigation to enhance tumor uptake and to improve hematologic tolerance. Recent advances in radiobiology are helpful to select future indications of this new method of treatment.

  18. Treatment Options for Renal Cell Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... being treated. See Drugs Approved for Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer for more information. Biologic therapy Biologic therapy is a treatment that uses ... called biotherapy or immunotherapy. The following types of biologic therapy are being used or ... Nivolumab : Nivolumab is a monoclonal antibody that boosts ...

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Renal Cell Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... being treated. See Drugs Approved for Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer for more information. Biologic therapy Biologic therapy is a treatment that uses ... called biotherapy or immunotherapy. The following types of biologic therapy are being used or ... Nivolumab : Nivolumab is a monoclonal antibody that boosts ...

  20. Evolution: Its Treatment in K-12 State Science Curriculum Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, L. S.

    2001-12-01

    State standards are the basis upon which states and local schools build curricula. Usually taking the form of lists of what students are expected to learn at specified grades or clusters of grades, they influence statewide examinations, textbooks, teacher education and credentialing, and other areas in which states typically exercise control over local curriculum development. State science standards vary very widely in overall quality.1,2 This is especially true in their treatment of evolution, both in the life sciences and to a somewhat lesser extent in geology and astronomy. Not surprisingly, a detailed evaluation of the treatment of evolution in state science standards3 has evoked considerably more public interest than the preceding studies of overall quality. We here consider the following questions: What constitutes a good treatment of evolution in science standards and how does one evaluate the standards? Which states have done well, and which less well? What nonscientific influences have been brought to bear on standards, for what reasons, and by whom? What strategies have been used to obscure or distort the role of evolution as the central organizing principle of the historical sciences? What are the effects of such distortions on students' overall understanding of science? What can the scientific community do to assure the publication of good science standards and to counteract attacks on good science teaching? 1. Lerner, L. S., State Science Standards: An Appraisal of Science Standards in 36 States, The Thomas B. Fordham Foundation, Washington, D.C., March 1998. 2. Lerner, L. S. et al ., The State of State Standards 2000, ibid., January 2000. 3. Lerner, L. S., Good Science, Bad Science: Teaching Evolution In the States, ibid., September 2000.

  1. Late effects of cancer treatment in breast cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative radiation therapy (RT and chemotherapy,both reduces the risk of local recurrence and extends overall survival in patients with breast cancer (BC. Concerns have, however, been raised about the risk of acute and chronic side effects in breast cancer survivors as the number of treated individuals is large and their expected survival is long compared to most patients with other malignant diseases. Cardiac toxicity, reproductive dysfunction, pneumonitis (RP,arm lymph edema, neuropathy, skin changes are examples of the wide range of complications that has been associated with adjuvant treatment.

  2. The standardized surgical approach improves outcome of gallbladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igna Dorian

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to examine the extent of surgical procedures, pathological findings, complications and outcome of patients treated in the last 12 years for gallbladder cancer. Methods The impact of a standardized more aggressive approach compared with historical controls of our center with an individual approach was examined. Of 53 patients, 21 underwent resection for cure and 32 for palliation. Results Overall hospital mortality was 9% and procedure related mortality was 4%. The standardized approach in UICC stage IIa, IIb and III led to a significantly improved outcome compared to patients with an individual approach (Median survival: 14 vs. 7 months, mean+/-SEM: 26+/-7 vs. 17+/-5 months, p = 0.014. The main differences between the standardized and the individual approach were anatomical vs. atypical liver resection, performance of systematic lymph dissection of the hepaticoduodenal ligament and the resection of the common bile duct. Conclusion Anatomical liver resection, proof for bile duct infiltration and, in case of tumor invasion, radical resection and lymph dissection of the hepaticoduodenal ligament are essential to improve outcome of locally advanced gallbladder cancer.

  3. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF METACHRONOUS TESTICULAR CANCER: A CLINICAL CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kalpinsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of bilateral testicular cancer is 5% in the total cohort of patients. Synchronous and metachronous testicular cancers are detected in 1-2 and 3% of cases, respectively. The standard treatment for testicular cancer is orchifuniculectomy and that for synchronous or metachronous cancer is organ-saving treatment, testectomy.The paper describes a clinical case of multiple primary metachronous testicular cancer. A 24-year-old patient underwent surgery (orchifuniculectomy and received 4 courses of BEP polychemotherapy for embryonal carcinoma of the left testicle at the P.A. Herzen Moscow Oncology Research Institute. After 55 months, a dynamic control examination diagnosed a 9-mm tumor in his single right testis that was thereafter resected. Its histological examination revealed embryonal carcinoma with solitary structures in the immature teratoma. Following 22 months, a control examination showed a recurrence of the disease, for which orchifuniculectomy of the single right testis, followed by hormone replacement therapy, was performed. The follow-up period was 80 months; no recurrence is now observed.

  4. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF METACHRONOUS TESTICULAR CANCER: A CLINICAL CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kalpinsky

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of bilateral testicular cancer is 5% in the total cohort of patients. Synchronous and metachronous testicular cancers are detected in 1-2 and 3% of cases, respectively. The standard treatment for testicular cancer is orchifuniculectomy and that for synchronous or metachronous cancer is organ-saving treatment, testectomy.The paper describes a clinical case of multiple primary metachronous testicular cancer. A 24-year-old patient underwent surgery (orchifuniculectomy and received 4 courses of BEP polychemotherapy for embryonal carcinoma of the left testicle at the P.A. Herzen Moscow Oncology Research Institute. After 55 months, a dynamic control examination diagnosed a 9-mm tumor in his single right testis that was thereafter resected. Its histological examination revealed embryonal carcinoma with solitary structures in the immature teratoma. Following 22 months, a control examination showed a recurrence of the disease, for which orchifuniculectomy of the single right testis, followed by hormone replacement therapy, was performed. The follow-up period was 80 months; no recurrence is now observed.

  5. A silent crisis: Cancer treatment in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    IAEA in cancer control programmes has grown rapidly as radiotherapy and nuclear imaging become increasingly important for the management of cancer. The Agency is actively promoting the international exchange of information on the newest treatment technology and therapies, and has developed standards and codes of practice for safe and effective medical uses of radiation. The IAEA also works with the WHO to support a network of standard dosimetry laboratories that provide calibration services to hospitals throughout the developing world to assist their quality assurance programmes. This publication provides a brief overview of the IAEA's experiences and achievements in the radiotherapy field. In response to growing needs and the demands of Member States, and with the generous support from donor countries and organisations, we anticipate a steady increase in the extension of these services in developing countries in the early 21st century

  6. Vismodegib for the treatment of basal cell skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggi, Laura; Kolesar, Jill M

    2013-06-15

    The pharmacology, clinical efficacy, adverse effects, cost, and place in therapy of vismodegib are reviewed. Vismodegib, the first oral treatment for basal cell carcinoma (BCC), was recently approved for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic BCC whose cancer is refractory to standard treatments or who are not candidates for surgery or radiation. Vismodegib is a small molecule that potently inhibits signal transduction in the hedgehog signaling pathway, demonstrates nonlinear pharmacokinetics, and has a half-life of 13 days. Agents that increase gastrointestinal pH may reduce the solubility and bioavailability of vismodegib. It is effective in both locally advanced and metastatic BCCs, with response rates ranging from 30% to 60% in two clinical trials. Vismodegib is available as a 150-mg capsule, and the approved dosage is 150 mg orally once daily. The most common adverse effects of vismodegib include mild-to-moderate hair loss, muscle cramps, taste disturbance, and weight loss. The estimated cost of one month of treatment with vismodegib is $7500. Vismodegib was recently approved for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic BCC that is refractory to standard treatments or if patients are not candidates for surgery or radiation. Vismodegib may have little effect on the treatment of BCC, given its high cost, the high cure rates achieved with standard therapies, and its unacceptable toxicity profile in patients with a non-life-threatening disease. However, vismodegib's novel mechanism of action, oral dosage form, preliminary efficacy, and tolerability compared with cytotoxic chemotherapy may make it an attractive candidate for the treatment of other cancers.

  7. Biophysical insights into cancer transformation and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorný, Jiří; Foletti, Alberto; Kobilková, Jitka; Jandová, Anna; Vrba, Jan; Vrba, Jan; Nedbalová, Martina; Čoček, Aleš; Danani, Andrea; Tuszyński, Jack A

    2013-01-01

    Biological systems are hierarchically self-organized complex structures characterized by nonlinear interactions. Biochemical energy is transformed into work of physical forces required for various biological functions. We postulate that energy transduction depends on endogenous electrodynamic fields generated by microtubules. Microtubules and mitochondria colocalize in cells with microtubules providing tracks for mitochondrial movement. Besides energy transformation, mitochondria form a spatially distributed proton charge layer and a resultant strong static electric field, which causes water ordering in the surrounding cytosol. These effects create conditions for generation of coherent electrodynamic field. The metabolic energy transduction pathways are strongly affected in cancers. Mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer cells (Warburg effect) or in fibroblasts associated with cancer cells (reverse Warburg effect) results in decreased or increased power of the generated electromagnetic field, respectively, and shifted and rebuilt frequency spectra. Disturbed electrodynamic interaction forces between cancer and healthy cells may favor local invasion and metastasis. A therapeutic strategy of targeting dysfunctional mitochondria for restoration of their physiological functions makes it possible to switch on the natural apoptotic pathway blocked in cancer transformed cells. Experience with dichloroacetate in cancer treatment and reestablishment of the healthy state may help in the development of novel effective drugs aimed at the mitochondrial function.

  8. Biophysical Insights into Cancer Transformation and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Pokorný

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological systems are hierarchically self-organized complex structures characterized by nonlinear interactions. Biochemical energy is transformed into work of physical forces required for various biological functions. We postulate that energy transduction depends on endogenous electrodynamic fields generated by microtubules. Microtubules and mitochondria colocalize in cells with microtubules providing tracks for mitochondrial movement. Besides energy transformation, mitochondria form a spatially distributed proton charge layer and a resultant strong static electric field, which causes water ordering in the surrounding cytosol. These effects create conditions for generation of coherent electrodynamic field. The metabolic energy transduction pathways are strongly affected in cancers. Mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer cells (Warburg effect or in fibroblasts associated with cancer cells (reverse Warburg effect results in decreased or increased power of the generated electromagnetic field, respectively, and shifted and rebuilt frequency spectra. Disturbed electrodynamic interaction forces between cancer and healthy cells may favor local invasion and metastasis. A therapeutic strategy of targeting dysfunctional mitochondria for restoration of their physiological functions makes it possible to switch on the natural apoptotic pathway blocked in cancer transformed cells. Experience with dichloroacetate in cancer treatment and reestablishment of the healthy state may help in the development of novel effective drugs aimed at the mitochondrial function.

  9. [Extraperitoneal rectal cancer: chemo-radiotherapy treatments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortesi, Enrico; Tuzi, Alessandro; Musio, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    The determination of the best therapeutic approach in extraperitoneal rectal cancer patients is very complex both in the neoadjuvant/adjuvant and the metastatic setting. We tried to identify and summarize the current methods of diagnosis, staging and treatment from a multidisciplinary approach. Five sections can be indentified: diagnosis and staging; neoadjuvant treatment; adjuvant treatment; liver metastases treatment and local recurrence therapy Data were collected from international guidelines (NCCN) and MEDLINE search. The main aim was the identification of the beast diagnostic and therapeutic approach in extraperitoneal rectal cancer patients in case of local recurrence and metastatic disease. Data from 2010 NCCN guidelines and 48 articles published in major international oncologic reviews were collected and evaluated from 1993 up to 2009. Three articles dealt with staging procedures, 24 dealt with neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy; 18 were about with liver metastases and 3 about local recurrence treatment. The correct disease staging is necessary for pursuing the best therapeutic approach and it should involve different radiological techniques in order to evaluate the clinic TNM. Neoadjuvant treatment (chemo-radiotherapy) should be considered for stage II and stage III extraperitoneal rectal cancer patients, followed by post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients who underwent surgery and have a post-operative stage II or III disease, have to receive four months of adjuvant chemotherapy after surgical resection. Initial treatment options of asymptomatic patient with resectable liver metases include systemic chemotherapy in' order to obtain downstaging of the primary tumor and liver metastase shrinking followed by resection. The treatment of local recurrence is mainly surgical. If not previously administered, radiotherapy represents an alternative therapeutic treatment.

  10. Development of New Treatments for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPaola, R. S.; Abate-Shen, C.; Hait, W. N.

    2005-02-01

    The Dean and Betty Gallo Prostate Cancer Center (GPCC) was established with the goal of eradicating prostate cancer and improving the lives of men at risk for the disease through research, treatment, education and prevention. GPCC was founded in the memory of Dean Gallo, a beloved New Jersey Congressman who died tragically of prostate cancer diagnosed at an advanced stage. GPCC unites a team of outstanding researchers and clinicians who are committed to high-quality basic research, translation of innovative research to the clinic, exceptional patient care, and improving public education and awareness of prostate cancer. GPCC is a center of excellence of The Cancer Institute of New Jersey, which is the only NCI-designated comprehensive cancer center in the state. GPCC efforts are now integrated well as part of our Prostate Program at CINJ, in which Dr. Robert DiPaola and Dr. Cory Abate-Shen are co-leaders. The Prostate Program unites 19 investigators from 10 academic departments who have broad and complementary expertise in prostate cancer research. The overall goal and unifying theme is to elucidate basic mechanisms of prostate growth and oncogenesis, with the ultimate goal of promoting new and effective strategies for the eradication of prostate cancer. Members' wide range of research interests collectively optimize the chances of providing new insights into normal prostate biology and unraveling the molecular pathophysiology of prostate cancer. Cell culture and powerful animal models developed by program members recapitulate the various stages of prostate cancer progression, including prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, adenocarcinoma, androgen-independence, invasion and metastases. These models promise to further strengthen an already robust program of investigator-initiated therapeutic clinical trials, including studies adopted by national cooperative groups. Efforts to translate laboratory results into clinical studies of early detection and

  11. Radioisotopes for the treatment of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.B.G.

    1983-01-01

    Radiotherapy can be, in some favourable cases, entirely successful in the treatment of cancer. One method of treatment - teletherapy - is to implant a compact source of radiation on or within the tumour. Artificial radioisotopes are used as sources of radiation for this purpose. Several sources may be combined so that the resultant radiation field is matched to the shape and size of the tumour. An important example of such treatment is the radiotherapy of cancer of uterus cervix, which commonly occurs in young women. Recently, a loading technique has been developed which gives the therapist very little exposure to radiation. The feasibility of this technique in developing countries is being jointly studied by IAEA and WHO

  12. Cancer-related fatigue and associated disability in post-treatment cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer M; Olson, Karin; Catton, Pamela; Catton, Charles N; Fleshner, Neil E; Krzyzanowska, Monika K; McCready, David R; Wong, Rebecca K S; Jiang, Haiyan; Howell, Doris

    2016-02-01

    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is the most prevalent and distressing symptom among cancer patients and survivors. However, research on its prevalence and related disability in the post-treatment survivorship period remains limited. We sought to describe the occurrence of CRF within three time points in the post-treatment survivorship trajectory. A self-administered mail-based questionnaire which included the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Fatigue (FACT-F) and the World Health Organisation Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 was sent to three cohorts of disease-free breast, prostate or colorectal cancer survivors (6-18 months; 2-3 years; and 5-6 years post-treatment). Clinical information was extracted from chart review. Frequencies of significant fatigue by diagnostic group and time cohorts were studied and compared. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to examine the associations between CRF and demographic, clinical, and psychosocial variables. One thousand two hundred ninety-four questionnaire packages were returned (63 % response rate). A total of 29 % (95 % CI [27 % to 32 %]) of the sample reported significant fatigue (FACT-F ≤34), and this was associated with much higher levels of disability (p Breast (40 % [35 % to 44 %]) and colorectal (33 % [27 % to 38 %]) cancer survivors had significantly higher rates of fatigue compared with the prostate group (17 % [14 % to 21 %]) (p cancer survivors up to 6 years post-treatment, and this is associated with high levels of disability. Clinicians need to be aware of the chronicity of CRF and assess for it routinely in medical practice. While there is no gold standard treatment, non-pharmacological interventions with established efficacy can reduce its severity and possibly minimize its disabling impact on patient functioning. Attention must be paid to the co-occurrence and need for possible treatment of depression and other co-occurring physical symptoms as contributing factors.

  13. Nonsurgical treatment for cancer using radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogi, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    The number of people who are dying from cancer has been increasing in association with population aging. Radiation therapy is now one of the three major cancer treatment methods, along with surgery and chemotherapy. People used to consider radiation therapy only as a ''noninvasive cancer treatment''; however, with the ceaseless effort by medical experts and corporations, different radiation therapy types and techniques including the latest technical advances have come out one after another, and the improvements in radiation therapies have provided treatments that are not only less traumatizing to patients but also as effective and therapeutic as surgery in certain body regions. The importance of radiation therapy has become and will become even greater in the society with more elderly cancer patients who do not have the physical strength to undergo surgery. In this article, the history of radiation therapy, rapidly developed high-precision radiation therapy techniques, and unsolved issues are discussed, and then, ''MHI vero4DRT'', which is the high-precision image-guided radiation therapy equipment developed for solving such issues, is introduced. (author)

  14. Multidisciplinary team conferences promote treatment according to guidelines in rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brännström, Fredrik; Bjerregaard, Jon K; Winbladh, Anders

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multidisciplinary team (MDT) conferences have been introduced into standard cancer care, though evidence that it benefits the patient is weak. We used the national Swedish Rectal Cancer Register to evaluate predictors for case discussion at a MDT conference and its impact on treatment...

  15. Treatment tactics in patient with rectal cancer complicating ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Barsukov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A successful treatment of a young patient with a 15-year anamnesis of ulcerative colitis, who has been diagnosed with rectal cancer, is presented in this case report. A non-standard surgical intervention has been performed following all principles of oncologic surgery. A subtotal colectomy has been performed with ultra-low anterior resection of rectum. Ascendoanal anastomosis has been performed forming the neo-rectum. There were no complications in postoperative period. Considering disease stage (T3N1M0 adjuvant XELOX was administered for 6 months along with 2 cycles of prophylactic treatment with 5-aminosalycilic acid. During 2-years follow-up there are no signs of rectal cancer and ulcerative colitis progression. After pelvic electrostimulation defecation frequency decreased to 3–4 times per day, a patient has complete social rehabilitation.

  16. Antiangiogenesis in the treatment of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Vincent W; Li, William W

    2008-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the formation of new capillary blood vessels from existing vasculature. Cancers are dependent upon angiogenesis for their growth. Inhibition of angiogenesis can slow, halt, or regress tumors. Angiogenesis inhibition is now validated for the treatment of cancer using a variety of approved biologic, small molecule, multitargeting, and immunomodulatory agents. In the skin, strategies to inhibit angiogenesis-signaling pathways include blockade of COX-2, m-TOR, sonic hedgehog, growth factor receptor activation, and activation of Toll-like receptors (TLR). The agent with the most clinical experience as a topical antiangiogenic therapy is imiquimod. Imiquimod is a TLR agonist, with immune response modifying properties that also stimulates antiangiogenic cytokines, downregulates the expression of proangiogenic factors, upregulates the expression of endogenous inhibitors, and induces endothelial cell apoptosis. By titrating its dosing for angiogenesis inhibitory activity and not for gross inflammation, imiquimod can be applied in an efficacious and well-tolerated fashion to treat skin cancer.

  17. Basal cell carcinoma-treatments for the commonest skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berking, Carola; Hauschild, Axel; Kölbl, Oliver; Mast, Gerson; Gutzmer, Ralf

    2014-05-30

    With an incidence of 70 to over 800 new cases per 100 000 persons per year, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a very common disease, accounting for about 80% of all cases of non-melanoma skin cancer. It very rarely metastasizes. A variety of treatments are available for the different subtypes and stages of BCC. This review is based on pertinent literature retrieved by a selective search in the Medline database, as well as the American Cancer Society guidelines on BCC and the German guidelines on BCC and skin cancer prevention. The gold standard of treatment is surgical excision with histological control of excision margins, which has a 5-year recurrence rate of less than 3% on the face. For superficial BCC, approved medications such as imiquimod (total remission rate, 82-90%) and topical 5-fluorouracil (80%) are available, as is photodynamic therapy (71-87%). Other ablative methods (laser, cryosurgery) are applicable in some cases. Radiotherapy is an alternative treatment for invasive, inoperable BCC, with 5-year tumor control rates of 89-96%. Recently, drugs that inhibit an intracellular signaling pathway have become available for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic BCC. Phase I and II clinical trials revealed that vismodegib was associated with objective response rates of 30-55% and tumor control rates of 80-90%. This drug was approved on the basis of a non-randomized trial with no control arm. It has side effects ranging from muscle cramps (71%) and hair loss (65%) to taste disturbances (55%) and birth defects. The established, standard treatments are generally highly effective. Vismodegib is a newly approved treatment option for locally advanced BCC that is not amenable to either surgery or radiotherapy.

  18. Personalized nanomedicine: future medicine for cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiekh FA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Farooq A ShiekhAvalon University School of Medicine, Willemstad, CuracaoCancer as a grave disease is becoming a larger health problem,1 and the medicines used as treatments have clear limitations.2–4 Chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery, all of which are drastic treatments, wreak havoc on healthy cells and tissues as well as cancerous ones.5–7 Pathophysiologically, there are more than 200 types of cancers,8,9 each with many variants.10 Some are aggressive, some are not; some are easily treated, and others are always fatal.11Unlike previous "revolutions" in the "war" on cancer that raised hope, nanomedicine is not just one more tool, it is an entire field, and the science in this area is burgeoning, and benefiting from use of modern cutting edge molecular tools.12–14 These breakthrough advancements have radically changed the perception of future medicine. Importantly, they are enabling landmark research to combine all advances, creating nanosized particles that contain drugs targeting cell surface receptors and other potent molecules designed to kill cancerous cells.15–19 If there is a case to be made for personalized medicine, cancer is it. For example, the current literature reveals the need for a great scientific effort to be made in this field.20–22 However, new paradigms are needed to interpret toxicogenomic and nanotoxicological data in order to predict drug toxicities and gain a more indepth understanding of the mechanisms of toxicity, so that more specific therapeutic targets which are essentially devoid of side effects could be selected.23,24

  19. Compliance with standard treatment guidelines in the management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compliance with standard treatment guidelines in the management of hypertension: A review of practice of healthcare workers in Potchefstroom, North West Province, South ... Conclusions: As the adherence to hypertension guidelines in primary care by healthcare workers in general is suboptimal, continuous professional ...

  20. Utilization of standard treatment guidelines (STG) at primary health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a need to increase sensitization of the tools and supervision. Further studies on patient prescriptions from large sample size using exit interviews, and less reliance on self-reported use of STG by prescribers is recommended. Key words: Standard Treatment Guideline, Prescribers, Primary Health Facilities ...

  1. Three Good Reasons to See a Dentist Before Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Home Health Info Health Information Three Good Reasons to See a Dentist BEFORE Cancer Treatment Protect Your Mouth During Cancer Treatment Tips ... en la cabeza y el cuello Three Good Reasons to See a Dentist BEFORE Cancer Treatment Tres buenas razones para ver a un ...

  2. Cancer Treatment Disparities in HIV-Infected Individuals in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suneja, Gita; Shiels, Meredith S.; Angulo, Rory; Copeland, Glenn E.; Gonsalves, Lou; Hakenewerth, Anne M.; Macomber, Kathryn E.; Melville, Sharon K.; Engels, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose HIV-infected individuals with cancer have worse survival rates compared with their HIV-uninfected counterparts. One explanation may be differing cancer treatment; however, few studies have examined this. Patients and Methods We used HIV and cancer registry data from Connecticut, Michigan, and Texas to study adults diagnosed with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, or cervical, lung, anal, prostate, colorectal, or breast cancers from 1996 to 2010. We used logistic regression to examine associations between HIV status and cancer treatment, adjusted for cancer stage and demographic covariates. For a subset of local-stage cancers, we used logistic regression to assess the relationship between HIV status and standard treatment modality. We identified predictors of cancer treatment among individuals with both HIV and cancer. Results We evaluated 3,045 HIV-infected patients with cancer and 1,087,648 patients with cancer without HIV infection. A significantly higher proportion of HIV-infected individuals did not receive cancer treatment for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.67; 95% CI, 1.41 to 1.99), lung cancer (aOR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.80 to 2.64), Hodgkin's lymphoma (aOR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.33 to 2.37), prostate cancer (aOR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.31 to 2.46), and colorectal cancer (aOR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.38 to 3.72). HIV infection was associated with a lack of standard treatment modality for local-stage DLBCL (aOR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.50 to 2.72), non–small-cell lung cancer (aOR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.46 to 4.03), and colon cancer (aOR, 4.77; 95% CI, 1.76 to 12.96). Among HIV-infected individuals, factors independently associated with lack of cancer treatment included low CD4 count, male sex with injection drug use as mode of HIV exposure, age 45 to 64 years, black race, and distant or unknown cancer stage. Conclusion HIV-infected individuals are less likely to receive treatment for some cancers than uninfected people, which may affect survival

  3. Quality of online information on breast cancer treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Nadia; Ghezzi, Pietro

    2018-02-01

    Offering breast cancer patients treatment choice has become a priority as the involvement of patients in the decision-making process is associated with improved physical and psychological outcomes. As the Internet is increasingly being used by patients as a source of medical information, it is important to evaluate the quality of information relating to breast cancer on the Internet. We analysed 200 websites returned by google.co.uk searching "breast cancer treatment options" in terms of their typology and treatment options described. These were related to standard measures of health information quality such as the JAMA score and the presence of quality certifications, as well as readability. We found that health portals were of higher quality whilst commercial and professional websites were of poorer quality in terms of JAMA criteria. Overall, readability was higher than previously reported for other conditions, and Google ranked websites with better readability higher. Most websites discussed surgical and medical treatments. Few websites, with a large proportion being of commercial typology, discussed complementary and alternative medicine. Google ranked professional websites low whilst websites from non-profit organizations were promoted in the ranking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Active home-based cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordonaro S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sebastiano Bordonaro Fabio Raiti, Annamaria Di Mari, Calogera Lopiano, Fabrizio Romano, Vitalinda Pumo, Sebastiano Rametta Giuliano, Margherita Iacono, Eleonora Lanteri, Elena Puzzo, Sebastiano Spada, Paolo TralongoUOC Medical Oncology, RAO, ASP 8 Siracusa, ItalyBackground: Active home-based treatment represents a new model of health care. Chronic treatment requires continuous access to facilities that provide cancer care, with considerable effort, particularly economic, on the part of patients and caregivers. Oral chemotherapy could be limited as a consequence of poor compliance and adherence, especially by elderly patients.Methods: We selected 30 cancer patients referred to our department and treated with oral therapy (capecitabine, vinorelbine, imatinib, sunitinib, sorafenib, temozolomide, ibandronate. This pilot study of oral therapy in the patient’s home was undertaken by a doctor and two nurses with experience in clinical oncology. The instruments used were clinical diaries recording home visits, hospital visits, need for caregiver support, and a questionnaire specially developed by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC, known as the QLQ-C30 version 2.0, concerning the acceptability of oral treatment from the patient’s perspective.Results: This program decreased the need to access cancer facilities by 98.1%, promoted better quality of life for patients, as reflected in increased EORTC QLQ-C30 scores over time, allowing for greater adherence to oral treatment as a result of control of drug administration outside the hospital. This model has allowed treatment of patients with difficult access to care (elderly, disabled or otherwise needed caregivers that in the project represent the majority (78% of these.Conclusions: This model of active home care improves quality of life and adherence with oral therapy, reduces the need to visit the hospital, and consequently decreases the number of lost hours of work on

  5. Standard outcome indicators after colon cancer resection. Creation of a nomogram for autoevaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho-Muriel, Jorge; Frasson, Matteo; Hervás, David; Flor-Lorente, Blas; Ramos Rodriguez, José Luis; Romero Simó, Manuel; Escoll Rufino, Jordi; Santamaría Olabarrieta, Marta; Viñas Martinez, José; López Bañeres, Manolo; García-Granero, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Lately there has been an increasing interest in identifying quality standards in different pathologies, among them colon cancer due to its great prevalence. The main goal of this study is to define the quality standards of colon cancer surgery based on a large prospective national study dataset. Data from the prospective national study ANACO were used. This study included a consecutive series of patients operated on for colon cancer in 52 Spanish hospitals (2011-2012). Centers with less than 30 patients were excluded. The present analysis finally included 42 centers (2975 patients). Based on the results obtained in 4main indicators from each hospital (anastomotic leak, lymph-nodes found in the specimen, mortality and length of stay), a nomogram that allows the evaluation of the performance of each center was designed. Standard results for further 5 intraoperative and 5 postoperative quality indicators were also reported. Median of anastomotic leak and mortality rate was 8.5% (25 th -75 th percentiles 6.1%-12.4%) and 2.5% (25 th -75 th percentiles 0.6%-4.7%), respectively. Median number of nodes found in the surgical specimen was 15,1 (25 th -75 th percentiles 18-14 nodes). Median length of postoperative stay was 7.7 days (25 th -75 th percentiles 6.9-9.2 days). Based on these data, a nomogram for hospital audit was created. Standard surgical results after colon cancer surgery were defined, creating a tool for auto-evaluation and allowing each center to identify areas for improvement in the surgical treatment of colon cancer. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Gastrointestinal cancer after treatment of Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birdwell, Sandra H.; Hancock, Steven L.; Varghese, Anna K.; Cox, Richard S.; Hoppe, Richard T.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To quantify the risk of gastrointestinal cancer (GI) following Hodgkin's disease treatment according to type of therapy, age at treatment, latency interval, attained age, and specific GI cancer sites. Materials and Methods: Cases were identified from the records of 2441 patients treated for Hodgkin's disease between 1961 and 1994. The mean follow-up was 10.9 years, representing 26,590 person-years of observation. Relative risks (RR) for GI cancer incidence and mortality were computed by comparison with expected annualized rates for the general U.S. population from SEER data matched for age, sex, and race. Results: Twenty-five patients have developed invasive GI cancer, yielding a RR of 2.5 [95% confidence interval (CI)=1.5-3.5] and an absolute risk of 5.6 excess cases/10,000 person-years. The sites included: esophagus-1, stomach-8, small intestine-2, pancreas-4, colon-7, and rectum-3. There were 23 cases of adenocarcinoma, one SCCA, and one leiomyosarcoma. Second cancer risks were significantly increased for cancer of the stomach, RR 7.26 (CI=3.4-13.8), small intestine, RR 11.58 (CI=1.9-38.3), and pancreas, RR 3.5 (CI=1.1-8.5). Risk was not elevated for cancers of the esophagus, RR 1.69 (CI=0.0-8.3) or colorectum, RR 1.67 (CI=0.8-3.0). Combined modality therapy (CMT) for Hodgkin's disease was associated with significantly increased risk: RR 3.56 (CI=2.2-5.6). However, risk with radiotherapy alone was not significantly elevated: RR 1.97 (C.I.=1.0-3.4). There were no events in 86 patients treated with chemotherapy alone. This increased risk with CMT held consistent for gastric and colorectal cancer: In gastric cancer, RR with radiotherapy alone was 4.84 (CI=1.2-13.2), whereas for CMT it was 12.48 (CI=4.6-27.7); in colorectal cancer, RR with radiotherapy alone was 1.18 (CI=0.4-2.9), whereas for CMT it was 2.82 (CI=1.1-5.9). Age at time of Hodgkin's disease treatment influenced risk: patients treated before 25 years of age demonstrated a RR of 7

  7. [Dental abnormalities after treatment for childhood cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladosievičová, B; Jurkovič, R; Izakovičová Hollá, L

    2015-01-01

    Childhood cancer therapy often increases the risk of dental complications, such as tooth and roots agenesis, microdontia, abnormal development of tooth enamel, increased risk of cavity and other abnormalities. In a comparison with other late adverse effects of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantion, a relative small number of clinical stud-ies observing patients for more than two years after completion of anticancer treatment was published. In this article, we review the incidence of dental abnormalities caused by commonly used anticancer treatment modalities as well as discuss their risk factors. Early identification of high-risk patients, early detection and management of dental abnormalities and better education of patients or their guardians, may have an impact on quality of life of cancer survivors.

  8. The biology and treatment of oligometastatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Diane K; Pienta, Kenneth J

    2015-04-20

    Clinical reports of limited and treatable cancer metastases, a disease state that exists in a transitional zone between localized and widespread systemic disease, were noted on occasion historically and are now termed oligometastasis. The ramification of a diagnosis of oligometastasis is a change in treatment paradigm, i.e. if the primary cancer site (if still present) is controlled, or resected, and the metastatic sites are ablated (surgically or with radiation), a prolonged disease-free interval, and perhaps even cure, may be achieved. Contemporary molecular diagnostics are edging closer to being able to determine where an individual metastatic deposit is within the continuum of malignancy. Preclinical models are on the outset of laying the groundwork for understanding the oligometastatic state. Meanwhile, in the clinic, patients are increasingly being designated as having oligometastatic disease and being treated owing to improved diagnostic imaging, novel treatment options with the potential to provide either direct or bridging therapy, and progressively broad definitions of oligometastasis.

  9. New targets for immunotherapy-based treatment of HPV-related cancers | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists at the Center for Cancer Research and three other cancer research institutions show that immunotherapy treatments that resulted in complete regression of metastatic cervical cancer largely targeted two non-viral antigens. Read more…  

  10. Apoptosis in cancer: from pathogenesis to treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Rebecca SY

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Apoptosis is an ordered and orchestrated cellular process that occurs in physiological and pathological conditions. It is also one of the most studied topics among cell biologists. An understanding of the underlying mechanism of apoptosis is important as it plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of many diseases. In some, the problem is due to too much apoptosis, such as in the case of degenerative diseases while in others, too little apoptosis is the culprit. Cancer is one of the scenarios where too little apoptosis occurs, resulting in malignant cells that will not die. The mechanism of apoptosis is complex and involves many pathways. Defects can occur at any point along these pathways, leading to malignant transformation of the affected cells, tumour metastasis and resistance to anticancer drugs. Despite being the cause of problem, apoptosis plays an important role in the treatment of cancer as it is a popular target of many treatment strategies. The abundance of literature suggests that targeting apoptosis in cancer is feasible. However, many troubling questions arise with the use of new drugs or treatment strategies that are designed to enhance apoptosis and critical tests must be passed before they can be used safely in human subjects.

  11. [Treatment of pregnancy-associated breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajti, János; Pieler, József; Simonka, Zsolt; Paszt, Attila; Lázár, György

    2014-08-01

    A 25-year-old primipara, in the thirty-second week of her pregnancy observed a nodule in the upper outer quadrant of her left breast during self-examination. Complex breast examination revealed calcification with 4 cm of diameter. Ductal malignant cells (C5) were identified by fine-needle aspiration biopsy, while core biopsy verified invasive ductal carcinoma, grade III (B5b). No manifestations of metastases were presented. After pregnancy termination wide excision with additional axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed. Because of its positivity block dissection of axillary lymph nodes was carried out. The surgical therapy was followed by adjuvant chemo-, radio- and hormonal therapy. Later an angiomyxoma appeared in the right inguinal region, which was excised in toto. The incidence of pregnancy related malignant diseases is increasing, of which breast cancer predominates. Breast cancer, which is diagnosed during pregnancy or within the first year of delivery is called pregnancy-associated breast cancer. Because of the physiological changes in pregnancy the recognition of the disease is difficult. Therapy is complex, as besides the treatment of the mother, the safety of the fetus should be emphasized. The treatment strategies are different in the three trimesters. The surgical treatment can be performed during the whole pregnancy. The use of radiotherapy is controversial, because of teratogenic effects, while chemotherapy is permitted in the second and third trimesters. Nearly three years after the operation, our patient does not have any symptoms, her son is healthy.

  12. Cardiotoxicity of oncologic treatment of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosa, A.; Krigier, K.

    2004-01-01

    Cardiac affectation by neoplastic diseases may be due to the heart invasion produced by itself tumor, compression of the heart and / or great vessels by noncardiac neoplasms, most commonly embolization and therapeutic purposes antitumor. Cancer treatment has experienced significant progress in recent decades by the great expansion of chemotherapeutic agents and the refinement of radiotherapy techniques; however, many of the most effective drugs antineoplastic and thoracic irradiation cause both acute and chronic cardiotoxicity. Thus, the long-term monitoring of patients receiving anthracycline drugs Crucial in the therapy of many neoplasms, demonstrates clinical heart failure in 4.5 to 7% of patients, increasing the incidence of defects in the cardiac function over time. Its pathogenesis is likely included in the formation of free radicals, alterations calcium transport, dysfunction or adrenergic amines glass release active. Dex razoxane is the only clinically used cardio protective marketed for selected group of patients with breast cancer, it is necessary development of new agents that protect the cardiotoxicity of this group of drugs and reduce morbidity and secondary mortality to them. In this work, the tracking shows 4 patients with breast cancer who had received treatment with anthracyclines and the cardiotoxic manifestation suffered, resulting in changes in their treatment, and in one of the patients was used cardio protective medication

  13. Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer: A Review of Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govardhanan Nagaiah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC is an uncommon malignancy of the thyroid. Only 1-2% of thyroid cancers are anaplastic, but the disease contributes to 14–50% of the mortality with a median survival of 3 to 5 months. Most patients diagnosed with this disease are 65 years of age or older. The incidence of anaplastic thyroid cancer is decreasing worldwide. Most patients present with a rapidly growing neck mass, dysphagia, or voice change. We performed a comprehensive literature search using PubMed focusing on the treatment of anaplastic thyroid cancer including historical review of treatment and outcomes and investigations of new agents and approaches. A total of sixteen chart review and retrospective studies and eleven prospective studies and/or clinical trials were reviewed. The current standard therapeutic approach is to consider the disease as systemic at time of diagnosis and pursue combined modality therapy incorporating cytoreductive surgical resection where feasible and/or chemoradiation either concurrently or sequentially. Doxorubicin is the most commonly used agent, with a response rate of 22%. Several new agents are currently under investigation. Referral of patients for participation in clinical trials is needed.

  14. Triphala: The Thai traditional herbal formulation for cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariyaphong Wongnoppavich

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Thai herbal plants are widely accepted in alternative medicine for treatment patients suffering deleterious diseases such as cancer. Having a variety of indications, several herbal formulas including Triphala have been routinely used as health tonic in Thai traditional and Ayurvedic medicines. The formulation of Triphala is a mixture of fruits of three plants: Phyllanthus emblica Linn., Terminalia chebula Retz. and Terminalia bellerica (Gaertn. Roxb., all of which were reported to inhibit the growth and induce the death of cancer cells effectively. Therefore, anticancer activities inevitably turn out to be one of the essential properties of Triphala formula as well. It is likely that a number of active compounds in the formula, especially tannins, are the key agents that induce the apoptotic cell death via free radical production in cancer cells. On the other hand, all three fruits of these plants also contain high levels of antioxidants, capable of protecting normal cells from any free radical-mediated injuries effectively. Thus, the paradoxical role of Triphala is cell-type specific and becomes an advantage for usage of this formulation. Furthermore, Triphala has high potentials for inhibition and prevention of mutagenesis and metastasis of cancer cells. Finally, studies in the mechanism of action of Triphala and the product development as well as safety evaluation of the standard herbal extract are definitely required for future pharmacological applications of Triphala as anticancer agents for cancer therapy.

  15. [Consensus on clinical diagnosis, treatment and pedigree management of hereditary colorectal cancer in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-23

    Hereditary colorectal cancer can be divded into two categories based on the presence or absence of polyps. The first category is characterized by the development of polyposis, which includes familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP); The second category is nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, which is represented by Lynch syndrome. "Consensus on clinical diagnosis, treatment and pedigree management of hereditary colorectal cancer in China" developed by the Genetics Group of the Committee of Colorectal Cancer, Chinese Anti-cancer Association, is composed of three sections, including hereditary nonpolyposis syndrome, polyposis syndrome as well as genetic evaluation of hereditary colorectal cancer. The consensus aims to provide recommendations on management of the respective hereditary syndromes in terms of definition, clinical and pathological features, diagnostic standards, treatment, and follow-ups. In addition to describing diagnostic and treatment strategies, prophylactic treatment as well as genetic screening and pedigree monitoring is highly recommended. Through the establishment of this expert consensus, we hope to promote better understanding of hereditary colorectal cancer for clinicians and encourage standardized treatment through multidisciplinery approaches, eventually improving clinical treatment and pedigree management of hereditary colorectal cancer in China.

  16. Investigation of treatment strategy for advanced cancer according to treatment of pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Kecheng

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The majority of pancreatic cancer diagnoses are made at the advanced stage and when metastasis has already occurred, and the 1- and 5-year survival rates are extremely low. Cemcitabine remains the most frequently applied treatment option, yet the most effective chemotherapeutic agents and combinations with multiple agents and/or radiotherapy only marginally improve patient survival and may even establish an environment conducive to cancer cells with stem cell-like characteristics. An alternative treatment modality, cryoablation, is available and has been applied at our institute to patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer since 2001. In this article, we present our collective experience with patient outcome using cryoablation, alone or combined with other treatment modalities such as brachytherapy (125iodine seed implantation. The overall outcomes have been encouraging, suggesting that comprehensive therapy including cryoablation may prolong the survival of patients with advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer, and we are achieving particular success with a novel combination of percutaneous cryoablation, cancer microvascular intervention with 125iodine seed implantation, and combined immunotherapy (3C applied using an individualized patient strategy (P. The 1- through 10-year survival rates of 145 patients treated with the so-called “3C+P model” are presented in support of this new strategy as a promising new treatment for advanced and metastatic cancer

  17. Changes in standardized mortality rates from thyroid cancer in Korea between 1985 and 2015: Analysis of Korean national data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun Mi; Kim, Won Gu; Kwon, Hyemi; Jeon, Min Ji; Han, Minkyu; Kim, Tae Yong; Shong, Young Kee; Hong, Sang Mo; Hong, Eun-Gyoung; Kim, Won Bae

    2017-12-15

    The incidence of thyroid cancer has increased very rapidly in Korea; however, most previous studies suggested that the mortality rate for thyroid cancer remained stable. The objective of the current study was to evaluate recent changes in standardized thyroid cancer mortality using data from Statistics Korea. Population and mortality data from 1985 through 2015 were obtained from Statistics Korea. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) from thyroid cancer per 100,000 population were calculated based on the World Health Organization standard population. In Korea, the ASMRs from thyroid cancer increased from 0.17 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17-0.18) per 100,000 in 1985 to 0.85 (95% CI, 0.83-0.86) per 100,000 in 2004, which was the highest among all countries. Subsequently, the ASMRs continuously decreased to 0.42 (95% CI, 0.41-0.43) per 100,000 between 2004 and 2015. The estimated annual percent change (APC) from 1985 to 2004 was 7.94 (95% CI, 6.43-9.46), and the corresponding value from 2004 to 2015 was -4.10 (95% CI, -5.76 to -2.40). Changes in the ASMRs reflected similar patterns in men (1985-2003: APC, 8.51; 2003-2015: APC, -4.32) and women (1985-2004: APC, 7.62; 2004-2015: APC, -4.38) and were also observed in older patients (aged ≥ 55 years). Thyroid cancer mortality in Korea increased until 2004 and then continuously decreased until 2015. Increases in the early diagnosis of thyroid cancer, changes in exposure to risk factors, and standardization in diagnosis and treatment may be associated with the decrease in thyroid cancer mortality in Korea. Cancer 2017; 123:4808-14. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  18. Lung cancer in Brazil: epidemiology and treatment challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Sá VK

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Vanessa Karen de Sá,1,2 Juliano C Coelho,3 Vera Luiza Capelozzi,1 Sergio Jobim de Azevedo3 1Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, 2Department of Genomics and Molecular Biology, International Research Center, A.C. Camargo Cancer Center, São Paulo, 3Department of Oncology, Clinical Research – UPCO, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Abstract: Lung cancer persists throughout the world as a major cause of death. In 2014, data from the Brazilian National Cancer Institute (INCA estimated 16.400 new cases of lung cancer among men (second most common and 10.930 new cases among women (fourth most common. These data are consistent for all Brazilian regions and reflect the trends of cancer in the country over the last decade. Brazil is a continental country, the largest in Latin America and fifth in the world, with an estimated population of >200 million. Although the discrepancy in the national income between rich and poor has diminished in the last 2 decades, it is still huge. More than 75% of the Brazilian population do not have private health insurance and rely on the national health care system, where differences in standard of cancer care are evident. It is possible to point out differences from the recommendations of international guidelines in every step of the lung cancer care, from the diagnosis to the treatment of advanced disease. This review aims to describe and recognize these differences as a way to offer a real discussion for future modifications and action points toward delivery of better oncology care in our country. Keywords: NSCLC, screening, drivers mutations, diagnosis, Brazilian scenario

  19. THERANOSTIC ASPECTS: Treatment of Cancer by Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Bidisha; Paira, Priyankar

    2017-11-29

    Theranostic agents or theranostic imaging as its name suggests is a combination of two terms-'diagnosis' & 'therapy'. Efforts are being made to combine both the terms into clinical formulations. This theranostic imaging is found to be very much significant to complex diseases like cancer and proliferative tumors specially now that protionic and genomic profiling can provide an accurate 'fingerprint' of each tumor, with all such kinds of informations theranostic agents can be designed in such a way that it is specific in its action and selective towards the cancer cells only, without causing any adverse effects on the normal tissue cells. By means of nanoplatforms we can conveniently deliver cancer cell specific targeting ligand or peptide inside the human body. Main delivery approaches include prodrugs, dendrimers, liposomes, carbon nanotubes, polymersomes and polymeric micelles and nanoparticles. Diagnostic and therapeutic agents are physically conjugated to the nanocarriers or they are conjugated to designed polymers which together forms nanocarriers. This review highlights the advances of nanotechnology that have given us a platform for cancer detection and treatment and monitoring. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Cholelithiasis after treatment for childhood cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, H.; Schell, M.; Pui, C.H. (St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (USA))

    1991-03-01

    The authors evaluated the risk of development of cholelithiasis in 6050 patients treated at a single hospital for various childhood cancers with different therapeutic modalities, including chemotherapy, surgery, radiation therapy, and bone marrow transplantation, from 1963 to 1989. Patients with underlying chronic hemolytic anemia or preexisting gallstones were excluded. Nine female and seven male patients with a median age of 12.4 years (range, 1.2 to 22.8 years) at diagnosis of primary cancer had gallstones develop 3 months to 17.3 years (median, 3.1 years) after therapy was initiated. Cumulative risks of 0.42% at 10 years and 1.03% at 18 years after diagnosis substantially exceed those reported for the general population of this age group. Treatment-related factors significantly associated with an increased risk of cholelithiasis were ileal conduit, parenteral nutrition, abdominal surgery, and abdominal radiation therapy (relative risks and 95% confidence intervals = 61.6 (27.9-135.9), 23.0 (9.8-54.1), 15.1 (7.1-32.2), and 7.4 (3.2-17.0), respectively). There was no correlation with the type of cancer, nor was the frequency of conventional predisposing features (e.g., family history, obesity, use of oral contraceptives, and pregnancy) any higher among the affected patients in this study than in the general population. Patients with cancer who have risk factors identified here should be monitored for the development of gallstones.

  1. Cholelithiasis after treatment for childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, H.; Schell, M.; Pui, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    The authors evaluated the risk of development of cholelithiasis in 6050 patients treated at a single hospital for various childhood cancers with different therapeutic modalities, including chemotherapy, surgery, radiation therapy, and bone marrow transplantation, from 1963 to 1989. Patients with underlying chronic hemolytic anemia or preexisting gallstones were excluded. Nine female and seven male patients with a median age of 12.4 years (range, 1.2 to 22.8 years) at diagnosis of primary cancer had gallstones develop 3 months to 17.3 years (median, 3.1 years) after therapy was initiated. Cumulative risks of 0.42% at 10 years and 1.03% at 18 years after diagnosis substantially exceed those reported for the general population of this age group. Treatment-related factors significantly associated with an increased risk of cholelithiasis were ileal conduit, parenteral nutrition, abdominal surgery, and abdominal radiation therapy (relative risks and 95% confidence intervals = 61.6 [27.9-135.9], 23.0 [9.8-54.1], 15.1 [7.1-32.2], and 7.4 [3.2-17.0], respectively). There was no correlation with the type of cancer, nor was the frequency of conventional predisposing features (e.g., family history, obesity, use of oral contraceptives, and pregnancy) any higher among the affected patients in this study than in the general population. Patients with cancer who have risk factors identified here should be monitored for the development of gallstones

  2. ORGAN SAVING TREATMENT OF RECTAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Rasulov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the results of “watch and wait” approach for rectal cancer patients with complete clinical response after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT followed by consolidation chemotherapy.Materials and methods. Between 2013 and 2016, 130 patients who were diagnosed with stage T2N0–1M0–T3(CRM+–4N0–2M0 middle and low rectal cancer were treated by CRT (single dose 2 Gy to a total dose 50–54 Gy with concominant capecitabine 850 mg/m2 /day of radiotherapy with consolidation chemotherapy (CapOx (capecitabine 2000 mg/m2 14 days and oxaliplatin 130 mg/m2 intravenous once in 3 weeks.Results. 21 patient showed complete clinical response. During the time of observation (median 14.6 month all patients alive without signs of recurrence and progression.Conclusion. Preliminary results showed that organ saving treatment for rectal cancer patients with a complete clinical response is oncologically safe when followed by strict selection criteria and active follow-up, including endoscopy and magnetic resonance imagin. Future investigation is needed to justify this statement. Probability of complete response is higher for early stages of rectal cancer

  3. Furanyl Fatty Acid Inhibition of FABP5 as a Mechanism for Treatment and Prevention of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0699 TITLE: Furanyl Fatty Acid Inhibition of FABP5 as a Mechanism for Treatment and Prevention of Cancer PRINCIPAL...pharmacologic inhibition will prevent the oncogenic effects of FABP5 overexpression in highly relevant breast cancer models that display a high ratio of...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Furanyl Fatty Acid Inhibition of FABP5 as a Mechanism for Treatment and Prevention of

  4. Multimodal treatment for unresectable pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Kanji; Iida, Atsushi; Fujita, Takashi; Kobayashi, Taizo; Shinmoto, Syuichi; Hirose, Kazuo; Yamaguchi, Akio; Yoshida, Masanori

    1998-01-01

    In order to improve in prognosis and quality of life (QOL), the multimodal treatment for unresectable pancreatic cancers were performed. Bypass surgery was carried out for unresectable pancreatic cancer with intraoperative irradiation (IOR). After surgery, patients were treated with the combination of CDDP (25 mg) and MMC (4 mg) administration, intravenously continuous injection of 5-FU (250 mg for 24 hours), external radiation by the high voltage X-ray (1.5 Gy per irradiation, 4 times a week, and during hyperthermia 3 Gy per irradiation) and hyperthermia using the Thermotron RF-8 warmer. Six out of 13 patients received hyperthermia at over 40degC, were obtained PR, and their survival periods were 22, 21, 19, 18, 11 and 8 months and they could return to work. For all patients with pain, the symptom was abolished or reduced. The survival periods in cases of the multimodal treatment were longer than those of only bypass-surgery or of the resective cases with the curability C. The multimodal treatment combined with radiation, hyperthermia and surgery is more useful for the removal of pain and the improvement of QOL, and also expected the improvement of the prognosis than pancreatectomy. And hyperthermia has an important role on the effect of this treatment. (K.H.)

  5. Multimodal treatment for unresectable pancreatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Kanji; Iida, Atsushi; Fujita, Takashi; Kobayashi, Taizo; Shinmoto, Syuichi; Hirose, Kazuo; Yamaguchi, Akio; Yoshida, Masanori [Fukui Medical School, Matsuoka (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    In order to improve in prognosis and quality of life (QOL), the multimodal treatment for unresectable pancreatic cancers were performed. Bypass surgery was carried out for unresectable pancreatic cancer with intraoperative irradiation (IOR). After surgery, patients were treated with the combination of CDDP (25 mg) and MMC (4 mg) administration, intravenously continuous injection of 5-FU (250 mg for 24 hours), external radiation by the high voltage X-ray (1.5 Gy per irradiation, 4 times a week, and during hyperthermia 3 Gy per irradiation) and hyperthermia using the Thermotron RF-8 warmer. Six out of 13 patients received hyperthermia at over 40degC, were obtained PR, and their survival periods were 22, 21, 19, 18, 11 and 8 months and they could return to work. For all patients with pain, the symptom was abolished or reduced. The survival periods in cases of the multimodal treatment were longer than those of only bypass-surgery or of the resective cases with the curability C. The multimodal treatment combined with radiation, hyperthermia and surgery is more useful for the removal of pain and the improvement of QOL, and also expected the improvement of the prognosis than pancreatectomy. And hyperthermia has an important role on the effect of this treatment. (K.H.)

  6. Cancer Screening: How Do Screening Tests Become Standard Tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colonoscopy for colorectal cancer . Mammograms for breast cancer . Pap tests (Pap smears) for cervical cancer . Different types of ... follow a group of women who have regular Pap tests, and divide them into those who test positive ...

  7. Estimating Preferences for Treatments in Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ávila, Mónica [Health Services Research Unit, IMIM (Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute), Barcelona (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Becerra, Virginia [Health Services Research Unit, IMIM (Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute), Barcelona (Spain); Guedea, Ferran [Servicio de Oncología Radioterápica, Institut Català d' Oncologia, L' Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Suárez, José Francisco [Servicio de Urología, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L' Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Fernandez, Pablo [Servicio de Oncología Radioterápica, Instituto Oncológico de Guipúzcoa, San Sebastián (Spain); Macías, Víctor [Servicio de Oncología Radioterápica, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain); Servicio de Oncología Radioterápica, Institut Oncologic del Valles-Hospital General de Catalunya, Sant Cugat del Vallès (Spain); Mariño, Alfonso [Servicio de Oncología Radioterápica, Centro Oncológico de Galicia, A Coruña (Spain); and others

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Studies of patients' preferences for localized prostate cancer treatments have assessed radical prostatectomy and external radiation therapy, but none of them has evaluated brachytherapy. The aim of our study was to assess the preferences and willingness to pay of patients with localized prostate cancer who had been treated with radical prostatectomy, external radiation therapy, or brachytherapy, and their related urinary, sexual, and bowel side effects. Methods and Materials: This was an observational, prospective cohort study with follow-up until 5 years after treatment. A total of 704 patients with low or intermediate risk localized prostate cancer were consecutively recruited from 2003 to 2005. The estimation of preferences was conducted using time trade-off, standard gamble, and willingness-to-pay methods. Side effects were measured with the Expanded Prostate Index Composite (EPIC), a prostate cancer-specific questionnaire. Tobit models were constructed to assess the impact of treatment and side effects on patients' preferences. Propensity score was applied to adjust for treatment selection bias. Results: Of the 580 patients reporting preferences, 165 were treated with radical prostatectomy, 152 with external radiation therapy, and 263 with brachytherapy. Both time trade-off and standard gamble results indicated that the preferences of patients treated with brachytherapy were 0.06 utilities higher than those treated with radical prostatectomy (P=.01). Similarly, willingness-to-pay responses showed a difference of €57/month (P=.004) between these 2 treatments. Severe urinary incontinence presented an independent impact on the preferences elicited (P<.05), whereas no significant differences were found by bowel and sexual side effects. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that urinary incontinence is the side effect with the highest impact on preferences and that brachytherapy and external radiation therapy are more valued than radical

  8. Estimating Preferences for Treatments in Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ávila, Mónica; Becerra, Virginia; Guedea, Ferran; Suárez, José Francisco; Fernandez, Pablo; Macías, Víctor; Mariño, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Studies of patients' preferences for localized prostate cancer treatments have assessed radical prostatectomy and external radiation therapy, but none of them has evaluated brachytherapy. The aim of our study was to assess the preferences and willingness to pay of patients with localized prostate cancer who had been treated with radical prostatectomy, external radiation therapy, or brachytherapy, and their related urinary, sexual, and bowel side effects. Methods and Materials: This was an observational, prospective cohort study with follow-up until 5 years after treatment. A total of 704 patients with low or intermediate risk localized prostate cancer were consecutively recruited from 2003 to 2005. The estimation of preferences was conducted using time trade-off, standard gamble, and willingness-to-pay methods. Side effects were measured with the Expanded Prostate Index Composite (EPIC), a prostate cancer-specific questionnaire. Tobit models were constructed to assess the impact of treatment and side effects on patients' preferences. Propensity score was applied to adjust for treatment selection bias. Results: Of the 580 patients reporting preferences, 165 were treated with radical prostatectomy, 152 with external radiation therapy, and 263 with brachytherapy. Both time trade-off and standard gamble results indicated that the preferences of patients treated with brachytherapy were 0.06 utilities higher than those treated with radical prostatectomy (P=.01). Similarly, willingness-to-pay responses showed a difference of €57/month (P=.004) between these 2 treatments. Severe urinary incontinence presented an independent impact on the preferences elicited (P<.05), whereas no significant differences were found by bowel and sexual side effects. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that urinary incontinence is the side effect with the highest impact on preferences and that brachytherapy and external radiation therapy are more valued than radical

  9. Stomach cancer risk after treatment for hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, Lindsay M; Dores, Graça M; Curtis, Rochelle E

    2013-01-01

    Treatment-related stomach cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among the growing number of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors, but risks associated with specific HL treatments are unclear.......Treatment-related stomach cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among the growing number of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors, but risks associated with specific HL treatments are unclear....

  10. Maximum standardized uptake value from staging FDG-PET/CT does not predict treatment outcome for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Michael J; Stephans, Kevin L; Reddy, Chandana A; Djemil, Toufik; Srinivas, Shyam M; Videtic, Gregory M M

    2010-11-15

    To perform a retrospective review to determine whether maximum standardized uptake values (SUV(max)) from staging 2-deoxy-2- [(18)F] fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) studies are associated with outcomes for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Seventy-two medically inoperable patients were treated between October 17, 2003 and August 17, 2007 with SBRT for T1-2N0M0 NSCLC. SBRT was administered as 60 Gy in 3 fractions, 50 Gy in 5 fractions, or 50 Gy in 10 fractions using abdominal compression and image-guided SBRT. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to determine whether PET SUV(max) and other variables influenced outcomes: mediastinal failure (MF), distant metastases (DM), and overall survival (OS). Biopsy was feasible in 49 patients (68.1%). Forty-nine patients had T1N0 disease, and 23 had T2N0 disease. Median SUV(max) was 6.55 (range, 1.5-21). Median follow-up was 16.9 months (range, 0.1-37.9 months). There were 3 local failures, 8 MF, 19 DM, and 30 deaths. Two-year local control, MF, DM, and OS rates were 94.0%, 10.4%, 30.1%, and 61.3%, respectively. In univariate analysis, PET/CT SUV(max), defined either as a continuous or dichotomous variable, did not predict for MF, DM, or OS. On multivariable analysis, the only predictors for overall survival were T1 stage (hazard ratio = 0.331 [95% confidence interval, 0.156-0.701], p = 0.0039) and smoking pack-year history (hazard ratio = 1.015 [95% confidence interval, 1.004-1.026], p = 0.0084). Pretreatment PET SUV(max) did not predict for MF, DM, or OS in patients treated with SBRT for early-stage NSCLC. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Treatment strategy for elderly patients with esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Makoto; Doki, Yuichiro; Miyata, Hiroshi; Takiguchi, Shuji; Fujiwara, Yoshiyuki; Monden, Morito

    2008-01-01

    Short- and long-term outcomes of patients at least 75 years undergoing esophagectomy from 1986 to 2005 for Stage I to III esophageal cancer were compared with findings in definitive chemo-radiotherapy. 47 patients in esophagectomy and 18 in definitive chemo-radiotherapy were analyzed. Clinical presentation and morbidity rate in the two groups was similar. The morbidity rate and overall survival at 3 years in Stage II, III was 50.0 and 50.3% for all patients, 100 and 25.0% for patients with multiple comorbidities in esophagectomy group; meanwhile, in definitive chemo-radiotherapy group was 50.0 and 29.4% for all patients, 50.0 and 25.0% for patients with multiple comorbidities, respectively. We recommended esophagectomy in patients with one and less comorbidity and definitive chemo-radiotherapy with multiple comorbidities as standard treatment for elderly patients with Stage II, III esophageal cancer. (author)

  12. Pulsed Dose Rate (PDR - BT) brachytherapy in treatment of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skowronek, J.

    2007-01-01

    Breast conserving surgery (BCS) and radiotherapy (EBRT) of the conserved breast became widely accepted in the last decades for the treatment of early invasive breast cancer. The standard technique of RT after breast conservation is to treat the whole breast up to a total dose of 45 to 50 Gy. Initially brachytherapy for breast cancer was used in addition of external radiation to boost a portion of the breast to higher doses. However, over the past 10 years, the application of brachytherapy in breast cancer has changed. In early stage breast cancer, research has shown that the area that requires radiation treatment to prevent the cancer from returning is the breast tissue that surrounds the area where the initial cancer was removed. Because this typically includes only a part of the breast, brachytherapy is now being used to treat the targeted portion of the breast and as a result allows accelerated delivery of the radiation dose so that treatment is completed in four to five days. Another indications for PDR - BT as a part of treatment in locally advanced breast cancer or as a palliative treatment are discussed in the paper, too. Preliminary results with PDR - BT boost technique are promising. However, more experience and longer follow-up are required to define whether these methods might improve local tumor control for breast cancer patients. In this article the current status, indications, technical aspects and published results of PDR brachytherapy (PDR - BT) in breast cancer treatment are reviewed. (author)

  13. Clinico pathological presentation of tongue cancers and early cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najeeb, T.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To analyze clinico pathological presentation of tongue cancers and to calculate survival rates (SR) with disease free survival rates (DFSR) and recurrence rates (RR) in different treatment modalities and to compare the results of surgery alone and radiotherapy alone in stage I and stage II disease and to calculate better option of treatment in early tongue cancers. Design: A longitudinal study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad (PIMS) from January 1987 to June 1998. Patients and Methods: Case histories of 67 patients were collected from departmental record. Clinical data included age at diagnosis, gender of patient, location of tumor, presenting symptoms and their duration, biopsy report, predominant histological pattern of tumor, nodal status, stage of tumor, treatment modality employed, tumor recurrence, metastasis and survival rates with disease-free survival rates after 2 years' follow-up. Results: Among 67 patients there were 31 males and 36 females. Mean age was 50 years (range 20 - 80 years). Sixty seven patients with primary cancer of tongue constituted 38.8% of oral cavity cancers during period of 1987 - 1998 in PIMS. Smoking, poor oro dental hygiene (POOH) and betel nuts chewing were the main risk factors. Odynophagia and painful ulcers on lateral border of tongue were the main clinical symptoms with average duration of 7 months. Regional lymph nodes were palpable in 32.8%, 5.5% was in stage I, 35.8% in stage II, 29.8% in stage III, and 28.3% was in stage IV. No patient was found to have distant metastasis. Histopathology in 94% of cases was squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Recurrence and survival rates were determined in 49 patients. Average time of recurrence was 12.5 months. Recurrence was 100% loco regional (LR). It was 85.7% in patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) alone, 42.1% in patients treated with surgery alone and 31.2% in patients

  14. Is Mistletoe Treatment Beneficial in Invasive Breast Cancer? A New Approach to an Unresolved Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Peter; Dippon, Jürgen; Müller, Simon; Goletz, Sven; Trautmann, Christian; Pappas, Xenophon; Ott, German; Brauch, Hiltrud; Schwab, Matthias; Winter, Stefan; Mürdter, Thomas; Brinkmann, Friedhelm; Faisst, Simone; Rössle, Susanne; Gerteis, Andreas; Friedel, Godehard

    2018-03-01

    In this retrospective study, we compared breast cancer patients treated with and without mistletoe lectin I (ML-I) in addition to standard breast cancer treatment in order to determine a possible effect of this complementary treatment. This study included 18,528 patients with invasive breast cancer. Data on additional ML-I treatments were reported for 164 patients. We developed a "similar case" method with a distance measure retrieved from the beta variable in Cox regression to compare these patients, after stage adjustment, with their non-ML-1 treated counterparts in order to answer three hypotheses concerning overall survival, recurrence free survival and life quality. Raw data analysis of an additional ML-I treatment yielded a worse outcome (p=0.02) for patients with ML treatment, possibly due to a bias inherent in the ML-I-treated patients. Using the "similar case" method (a case-based reasoning approach) we could not confirm this harm for patients using ML-I. Analysis of life quality data did not demonstrate reliable differences between patients treated with ML-I treatment and those without proven ML-I treatment. Based on a "similar case" model we did not observe any differences in the overall survival (OS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and quality of life data between breast cancer patients with standard treatment and those who in addition to standard treatment received ML-I treatment. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  15. Hybrid Theranostic Platforms for Cancer Nanomedical Treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Julfakyan, Khachatur

    2015-10-01

    Cancer is a leading case of mortality worldwide. Governments spent multibillion expenses on treatment and palliative care of diseased people. Despite these generous funding and intensive research with aim to find a cure or efficient treatment for cancer, until now there is a lack in selective cancer management strategies. Conventional treatment strategies for cancer, such as surgery, cytotoxic chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone therapy don’t have selectivity toward cancer – the property of discrimination of healthy organs and tissues from the diseased site. Chemotherapy is very challenging as the difference between effective and lethal doses is very minuscule in most cases. Moreover, devastating side effects dramatically changes the quality of life for cancer patients. To address these issues two main strategies are intensively utilized in chemistry: (I) the design and synthesis of novel anticancer organic compounds with higher selectivity and low toxicity profiles and the second, design and preparation of biocompatible nanocarriers for imaging and anticancer compound selective delivery nanomedicine. The following dissertation combines the above two strategies as bellows: First project is related to the design and synthetic route development toward novel nature-inspired group of heterocyclic compounds – iso-Phidianidines. The second project focused on design, preparation and evaluation of hybrid theranostics (therapeutic and diagnostic in a single entity). Chapter 1 is a general background review of the major topics that will be discussed in this dissertation. The first efficient and high-yielding synthetic route toward iso-phidianidines, containing regioisomeric form of 1,2,4-oxadiazole linked to the indole via methylene bridge is reported in Chapter 2. In vitro test of the synthesized library of iso-phidianidines revealed micromolar range of cytotoxicity toward human cervical cancer cell line. Structure activity relationship revealed the importance of

  16. Psychosocial standards of care for children with cancer and their families: A national survey of pediatric oncology social workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Barbara; Currin-Mcculloch, Jennifer; Pelletier, Wendy; Sardi-Brown, Vicki; Brown, Peter; Wiener, Lori

    2018-04-01

    In 2015, an interdisciplinary group of psychosocial experts developed The Standards of Psychosocial Care for Children with Cancer and Their Families. This paper presents data from a national survey of pediatric oncology social workers and their experiences in delivering psychosocial care to children and families. In total, 107 social workers from 81 cancer institutions participated in a 25-item online survey that mirrored the 15 Standards for Psychosocial Care. Both closed and open-ended questions were included. Social work participants reported that psychosocial support is being provided at most cancer centers surveyed, primarily by social workers and child life specialists, addressing adaptation to the cancer diagnosis, treatment, and transitions into survivorship or end-of-life care and bereavement. While social workers reported offering comprehensive services throughout the cancer trajectory, many of the 2015 Standards are not being systematically implemented. Areas for improvement include funding for psychosocial support staff and programs, incorporation of standardized assessment measures, assessment for financial burden throughout treatment and beyond, consistent access to psychology and psychiatry, integrated care for parents and siblings, and more inclusion of palliative care services from time of diagnosis.

  17. [Recent Overview of Kidney Cancer Diagnostics and Treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenčák, J; Ondrušová, M; Ondruš, D

    The incidence of kidney cancer has increased in the majority of countries worldwide, and this disease has relatively high lethality. For many years, the Slovak Republic has been among the countries with the highest kidney cancer incidence, in particular in 2012 (according to global estimated values) in both genders, although mainly in females. In the last few years, the Czech Republic has had the highest incidence of kidney cancer worldwide. The use of imaging techniques such as ultrasound and computerized tomography has increased the detection of asymptomatic renal cell cancer. Etiological factors include lifestyle factors such as smoking, obesity, and hypertension. Nephrectomy and partial nephrectomy are the standard treatments. Locally confined tumors in stage T1 should be treated with kidney-preserving surgery. Minimally invasive surgery is often possible as long as the surgeon has the requisite experience. For patients with metastases, overall and progression-free survival can be prolonged by pharmacotherapy with VEGF and mTOR inhibitors. The resection or irradiation of metastases can be a useful palliative treatment for patients with brain or osseal metastases that are painful or increase the risk of fracture. Minimally invasive surgery and new systemic drugs have expanded the therapeutic options for patients with renal cell carcinoma. The search for new predictive and prognostic markers is now in progress.Key words: kidney cancer - epidemiology - risk factors - pathology - diagnosis - therapy The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or services used in the study. The Editorial Board declares that the manuscript met the ICMJE recommendation for biomedical papers.Submitted: 2. 12. 2016Accepted: 3. 1. 2017.

  18. Skin Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are the most common types of skin cancer. Find out about risk factors, symptoms, tests to diagnose, prognosis, staging, and treatment for skin cancer.

  19. Dietary Supplements and Cancer Treatment: A Risky Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some patients with cancer turn to dietary supplements advertised as having anticancer effects or being supportive of general health. But these biologically active compounds may interact dangerously with chemotherapy, radiation, or other cancer treatments.

  20. Treatment helps young women preserve fertility during breast cancer chemo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have found that young women with breast cancer were able to better preserve their fertility during cancer treatments by using hormone-blocking drug injections that put them into temporary menopause. The results announced today at the annual me

  1. Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urethral cancer occurs in men and women and can spread quickly to lymph nodes near the urethra. Find out about risk factors, symptoms, tests to diagnose, prognosis, staging, and treatment for urethral cancer.

  2. Endometrial Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endometrial cancer is usually diagnosed at an early stage and can be treated with surgery. Learn about the symptoms, diagnosis, prognosis, staging, and treatment for early- and advanced-stage endometrial cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  3. Molecular Mechanisms Linking Exercise to Cancer Prevention and Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojman, Pernille; Gehl, Julie; Christensen, Jesper F.

    2018-01-01

    The benefits of exercise training for cancer patients are becoming increasingly evident. Physical exercise has been shown to reduce cancer incidence and inhibit tumor growth. Here we provide the status of the current molecular understanding of the effect of exercise on cancer. We propose...... that exercise has a role in controlling cancer progression through a direct effect on tumor-intrinsic factors, interplay with whole-body exercise effects, alleviation of cancer-related adverse events, and improvement of anti-cancer treatment efficacy. These findings have wide-ranging societal implications......, as this understanding may lead to changes in cancer treatment strategies. Hojman et al. discuss the role of exercise in controlling cancer progression through direct effects on tumor-intrinsic factors, interplay with whole-body exercise effects, alleviation of cancer-related adverse events, and improvement of cancer...

  4. Ganoderma lucidum for cancer treatment: we are close but still not there.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shujie; Sliva, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The medicinal fungus Ganoderma lucidum has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for millennia to improve health and promote longevity. The idea of using G. lucidum for cancer treatment is based on numerous laboratory and preclinical studies with cancer and immune cells as well as animal models demonstrating various biological activities in vitro and in vivo. For example, G. lucidum possesses cytotoxic, cytostatic, antimetastatic, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulating activities. Limited clinical studies, including case reports and randomized controlled trials, suggest G. lucidum as an alternative adjunct therapy for stimulating the immune system in cancer patients. To confirm the efficacy of G. lucidum in cancer treatment, systematic translational research programs should be started worldwide. In addition, only standardized preclinically evaluated, biologically active G. lucidum extracts should be used in alternative treatments. This approach will lead to the development of standardized G. lucidum preparations with specific chemical fingerprint-associated anticancer activities. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. [Innovations in locoregional treatments of breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastos, G; Monnier, S; Vinh-Hung, V

    2010-10-27

    Breast conserving therapy including breast conserving surgery followed by radiation therapy is the treatment of choice for early breast cancer. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a minimally approach that allows to evaluate the axilla with less morbidity and avoid an axillary lymph node biopsy. This surgical technique is now evaluated in more specific situations. Modern surgical techniques such as oncoplastic surgery allow to excise larger tumors and obtain better cosmetic results. In a near future it is expected that intraoperative radiation therapy will remplace classicals approaches of radiotherapy for selected patients.

  6. Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    pregnant 1>2 (41) 1ɚ (42) Pregnant, Black Pregnant, White 1>2 (20) 1ɚ (43) Pregnant, lean Pregnant, obese 1>2 (20) 1ɚ (22) Pregnant, consuming no...pregnant rats with AFPep showed no disruption of the estrous cycle, no effect on fecundity or fertility , and no evidence of teratogencity. (87) While...Bennett JA, Andersen TT. AFPep, a novel drug for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer, does not disrupt the estrous cycle or fertility in

  7. Ultrasound-guided implantation techniques in treatment of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, S.S.; Torp-Pedersen, S.T.; Holm, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    Percutaneous ultrasound-guided interstitial radiotherapy is an attractive and elegant technique for the administration of high-dose local radiotherapy to the prostate. The complications of seed implantation are those associated with the radiation rather than with the technique of implantation. However, radiotherapy has not provided impressive local control of the disease or prolonged survival. The poor disease control was not attributed to poor seed placement, but rather to the inadequacy of 125 I in controlling the cancer. The essence of nonsurgical treatment for prostate cancer is the use of effective imaging. Experience in the field of minimally invasive surgery has shown that ultrasound is the ideal imaging system for targeting treatments because of its ease of use and the absence of adverse effects. As the newer techniques of implantation come to be accepted, it is hoped that the complications of rectal and bladder radiation injury will decrease and the therapeutic benefits increase. The clinical trials required to define the precise role of each of the modalities of treatment must take nodal staging into account and must be compared with the gold standard of radical prostatectomy in the treatment of early confined disease

  8. Docetaxel in prostate cancer: a familiar face as the new standard in a hormone-sensitive setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, Javier; Grande, Enrique; Medina, Ana; Maroto, Pablo; Lainez, Nuria; Arranz, Jose Angel

    2017-05-01

    The increasing knowledge of prostate cancer is leading to many questions about its natural history and to reconsider conventional therapeutic strategies. Androgen ablation therapy has been the standard therapy in the advanced setting. Although docetaxel has demonstrated increased survival in patients with metastatic prostate cancer who had progressed to hormone treatments, due to its potential toxicity the role of chemotherapy has been relegated to patients who were symptomatic or who had high tumor burden. Several studies have assessed whether docetaxel could have a role in hormone-sensitive disease or even in earlier stages with no distant metastases. In the CHAARTED and STAMPEDE studies, docetaxel provides an unprecedented increase in overall survival (OS). This review summarizes the evidence behind the paradigm shift to strengthening docetaxel as a new standard of treatment that prolongs survival in earlier stages of prostate cancer.

  9. Upper limb lymphedema after breast cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Salah, H.; Bahri, M.; Jbali, B.; Daoud, J.; Guermazi, M.; Frikha, M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. - To study the frequency and risk factors for upper limb lymphedema through a series of patients treated for breast cancer. Patients and methods. - It is a retrospective study about 222 patients treated for breast cancer during the period between February 1993 and December 2003 in Sfax hospitals. Average age was 51 years (27-92 years). Tumour was T2 in 59% of cases. All patients had surgery with lymph node dissection. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the most frequent histological type (80% of cases), with predominant SBR II grade (62%). The mean number of removed lymph nodes was 12 (2-33). Axillary lymph node metastasis was detected in 124 patients. Radiotherapy was delivered in 200 patients, including axillary irradiation in 30 cases. The mean follow-up was 68 months (12-120). Results. - Lymphedema appeared in 23% of cases (51 patients), 14 months after surgery (mean period). Lymphedema affected the brachium in 17% of cases, the forearm in 12% of cases and all upper limb in 71% of cases. Fifty percent of patients had rehabilitation. However, improvement of lymphedema was obtained in 18 cases. Parameters predicting lymphedema were studied. Significant risk factors were obesity, infection and a number of removed lymph node above 10. The type of surgery, axillary irradiation and shoulder abduction deficit did not predict lymphedema. Conclusion. - Lymphedema of the arm is a frequent consequence of breast cancer treatment. The risk of lymphedema is correlated with obesity, infection and a number of removed lymph node above 10. (authors)

  10. Axillary lymph node treatment in breast cancer: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Patrick A; Suggs, Jeanann; Mangana, Sophy H

    2014-05-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNbx) is the standard of care for staging of breast cancer. Patients with a negative sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNbx) do not undergo axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) or regional nodal irradiation (RNI). However, if a patient has a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNbx), then axillary lymph nodal dissection (ALND) is the standard treatment. Recent studies, notably the Z-0011 and MA-20 trials, have demonstrated that omission of axillary lymph nodal dissection (ALND) did not decrease overall survival. MA-20 demonstrated that inclusion of regional nodal irradiation (RNI) in addition to axillary lymph nodal dissection (ALND) did increase survival when compared to axillary lymph nodal dissection (ALND) without regional nodal irradiation (RNI). Ongoing studies are randomizing patients to axillary lymph nodal dissection (ALND) or regional nodal irradiation (RNI) after a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNbx).

  11. Recognition and Treatment of BCG Failure in Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Lightfoot

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with high-grade Ta, T1, or carcinoma in situ non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC are at high risk for recurrence and, more importantly, progression. Thus, both the American Urological Association and European Association of Urology recommend initial intravesical treatment with bacillus Calmette-Guerin(BCG followed by maintenance therapy for a minimum of 1 year. The complete response rate to BCG therapy in patients with high-risk NMIBC can be as high as ∼80%; however, most patients with high-risk disease suffer from recurrence. BCG failure can be further characterized into BCG refractory, BCG resistant, BCG relapsing, and BCG intolerant. Current recommendations include one further course of BCG or cystectomy. In patients who continue to fail conservative treatment and who refuse surgical therapy or are not surgical candidates, treatment options become even more complicated. In this setting, treatment options are limited and include repeat BCG treatment, an alternate immunotherapy regimen, chemotherapy, or device-assisted therapy. To date, however, further research is necessary for all secondary treatment options in order to determine which might be the most efficacious. All conservative treatments should be considered investigational. Currently, cystectomy remains the standard of care for high-risk patients who have failed BCG therapy.

  12. Oncologists' attitudes to treatment of cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbar, O; Cohen, B Z

    1995-01-01

    This study, based on questionnaire responses of 46 Israeli oncologists, explores the factors influencing these physicians' beliefs and decisions regarding chemo- and radiation therapy. A simple discriminant analysis identified five physician-related variables with a significant impact on the subjects' attitudes to treatment: age, sex, years of oncology experience, pity for the patient, and whether they believed all cancer patients suffer from pain. In the absence of an unambiguous clinical protocol, the major influences on decisions to treat with chemo- or radiation therapy include, in addition to diagnosis, the patient's overall health, the physician's perception of treatment effectiveness, and the stage to which the illness has progressed. The discussion of the findings centers on their implications for practice.

  13. Radium 223 dichloride for prostate cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshayes E

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Emmanuel Deshayes,1,2 Mathieu Roumiguie,3 Constance Thibault,4 Philippe Beuzeboc,5 Florent Cachin,6 Christophe Hennequin,7 Damien Huglo,8 François Rozet,9 Diana Kassab-Chahmi,10 Xavier Rebillard,11 Nadine Houédé1,12 1Radiobiology Unit, INSERM U1194, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier (ICM, 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier (ICM, Montpellier, 3Urology Department, Andrology and Renal Transplantation, CHU Rangueil, Toulouse, 4Medical Oncology Department, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, 5Oncology Department, Institut Curie, 6Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU, Clermont-Ferrand, 7Radiotherapy Department, Hôpital Saint Louis, Paris, 8Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHRU, Lille, 9Urology Department, Institut Mutualiste Montsouris, 10Intergroupe coopérateur francophone de recherche en onco-urologie, Paris, 11Urology Department, Clinique BeauSoleil, Montpellier, 12Medical Oncology Department, Institut de Cancérologie du Gard – CHU Caremeau, Nîmes, France Abstract: Prostate cancer is the most common malignant disease in men. Several therapeutic agents have been approved during the last 10 years. Among them, radium-223 dichloride (Xofigo® is a radioactive isotope that induces irreversible DNA double-strand breaks and consequently tumor cell death. Radium-223 dichloride is a calcium-mimetic agent that specifically targets bone lesions. Radium-223 dichloride has been approved for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer with symptomatic bone metastases, without known visceral metastases. In this review, first we summarize the interplay between prostate tumor cells and bone microenvironment; then, we discuss radium-223 dichloride mechanism of action and present the results of the available clinical trials and future developments for this new drug. Keywords: bone metastasis, mCRPC, mechanism, drug, agents, development 

  14. [Cancer treatment in Skane and in Sjaelland. Do differences concerning examination and treatment explain reduced survival among Danish cancer patients?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Lena; Landberg, T.

    2001-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Danish cancer patients generally have a poorer survival than Swedish cancer patients. The difference is most pronounced for certain tumour types, e.g. common types such as lung, breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer. The reasons are not clear. The present article examines...... if differences in the diagnostic workup and treatment can explain some of this variation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Aspects of the diagnostic workup and treatment of the above mentioned four cancer types are examined using data from cancer registry analyses and official reports. These data are seen in the context...... of counts of trained personnel and equipment in cancer diagnostics and treatment in the two countries. RESULTS: With regard to lung and breast cancer, the data seem to indicate that Danish patients are diagnosed later, and that Denmark lags behind in treatment capacity. With regard to rectal cancer...

  15. Irradiation techniques for the breast cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varon T, C.F.; Rojas C, E.L.

    2007-01-01

    The radiotherapy is a cancer treatment way based on the radiation employment. It acts on the tumor, destroying the wicked cells and impeding that this it grows and reproduce. With the radiotherapy the probability of cure of some types of cancer; among them the one of breast, it increases. The investigations in oncology have allowed to develop new technologies with which is possible, for example, to locate the tumors accurately and to adapt the irradiation fields to their form. This has allowed to improve the treatments since it can destroy the tumor applying an intense radiation dose without producing irreversible damages to other organs and healthy tissues of the body. In the underdeveloped countries or in development as Mexico, and almost all those of Latin America, it is not still possible to have several of these technologies in the main oncological centers of the country by their high cost. It is expected that their cost go lowering and that its going to develop technologies more cheap so that they can be applied in more general way to the population that suffers of this suffering. (Author)

  16. Treatment Options by Stage (Esophageal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body to send radiation toward the cancer. Internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds , ... stage of the cancer being treated. External and internal radiation therapy are used to treat esophageal cancer. A plastic ...

  17. Treatment Options by Stage (Penile Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body to send radiation toward the cancer. Internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds , ... stage of the cancer being treated. External and internal radiation therapy are used to treat penile cancer. Chemotherapy Chemotherapy ...

  18. Improving Access to Cancer Testing and Treatment in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise K. Makau-Barasa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In response to the increasing cancer burden in Kenya, this study identified barriers to patients seeking access to cancer testing and treatment and to clinicians in delivering these services. Policy recommendations based on findings are presented. Methods: This qualitative study used semistructured key informant interviews. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 14 participants: seven oncology clinicians and seven support and advocacy leaders for patients with cancer. Qualitative analysis was used to identify themes. Results: Seven barriers to cancer testing and treatment were identified: high cost of testing and treatment, low level of knowledge about cancer among population and clinicians, poor health-seeking behaviors among population, long distances to access diagnostic and treatment services, lack of decentralized diagnostic and treatment facilities, poor communication, and lack of better cancer policy development and implementation. Conclusion: Kenyans seeking cancer services face significant barriers that result in late presentation, misdiagnosis, interrupted treatment, stigma, and fear. Four policy recommendations to improve access for patients with cancer are (1 improve health insurance for patients with cancer; (2 establish testing and treatment facilities in all counties; (3 acquire diagnosis and treatment equipment and train health personnel to screen, diagnose, and treat cancer; and (4 increase public health awareness and education about cancer to improve diagnoses and treatment. Effective cancer testing and treatment options can be developed to address cancer in a resource-constrained environment like Kenya. An in-depth look at effective interventions and policies being implemented in countries facing similar challenges would provide valuable lessons to Kenya’s health sector and policymakers.

  19. A new standardized data collection system for interdisciplinary thyroid cancer management: Thyroid COBRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliaferri, Luca; Gobitti, Carlo; Colloca, Giuseppe Ferdinando; Boldrini, Luca; Farina, Eleonora; Furlan, Carlo; Paiar, Fabiola; Vianello, Federica; Basso, Michela; Cerizza, Lorenzo; Monari, Fabio; Simontacchi, Gabriele; Gambacorta, Maria Antonietta; Lenkowicz, Jacopo; Dinapoli, Nicola; Lanzotti, Vito; Mazzarotto, Renzo; Russi, Elvio; Mangoni, Monica

    2018-02-21

    The big data approach offers a powerful alternative to Evidence-based medicine. This approach could guide cancer management thanks to machine learning application to large-scale data. Aim of the Thyroid CoBRA (Consortium for Brachytherapy Data Analysis) project is to develop a standardized web data collection system, focused on thyroid cancer. The Metabolic Radiotherapy Working Group of Italian Association of Radiation Oncology (AIRO) endorsed the implementation of a consortium directed to thyroid cancer management and data collection. The agreement conditions, the ontology of the collected data and the related software services were defined by a multicentre ad hoc working-group (WG). Six Italian cancer centres were firstly started the project, defined and signed the Thyroid COBRA consortium agreement. Three data set tiers were identified: Registry, Procedures and Research. The COBRA-Storage System (C-SS) appeared to be not time-consuming and to be privacy respecting, as data can be extracted directly from the single centre's storage platforms through a secured connection that ensures reliable encryption of sensible data. Automatic data archiving could be directly performed from Image Hospital Storage System or the Radiotherapy Treatment Planning Systems. The C-SS architecture will allow "Cloud storage way" or "distributed learning" approaches for predictive model definition and further clinical decision support tools development. The development of the Thyroid COBRA data Storage System C-SS through a multicentre consortium approach appeared to be a feasible tool in the setup of complex and privacy saving data sharing system oriented to the management of thyroid cancer and in the near future every cancer type. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Treatment of Pediatric Head and Neck Cancer - Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find information about prognosis, staging, and treatment for the following head and neck cancer sites in children: esthesioneuroblastoma, larynx and papillomatosis, nasopharynx, oral cavity, and salivary gland.

  1. Systemic treatment of cancer of unknown primary origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reckova, M.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer of unknown primary origin (CUP) comprises a heterogenous group of cancers with distinct biology and prognosis. There is, however, a specific group of patients with curable diseases, or incurable diseases with good prognosis. The main aim of treatment in the group of patients with CUP is timely initiation of therapy in the cases of curable disease. There is no known standard of care in the cases of CUP with poor prognosis, but most frequently, platinum-based regimens are used. In the cases of specific immunohistochemistry (IHC) or molecular gene expression profile, there are used the treatment regimens similar to those used in the patients with known primary tumor and similar IHC or molecular profile. Currently, most of data in patients with CUP are from phase II clinical trials. Thus proficiently designed phase III randomized clinical trials with translation research is priority, with aim to improve our knowledge and personalize treatment of such heterogenous group of patients as is a group of patients with CUP. (author)

  2. Options for Second-Line Treatment in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James J; Sun, Weijing

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a major public health problem in the United States and worldwide. The majority of patients who have CRC eventually present with metastatic disease. The overall therapeutic goals for most patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC) are to control the disease, prolong life span, and maximize quality of life. Therefore, the ratio of efficacy to toxicity is one of the most important factors in choosing among treatment options and sequencing regimens. In addition, the choice of first-line systemic therapy will affect the options for second-line treatment. Several newer cytotoxic agents for the treatment of mCRC have been approved during the past 2 decades by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), including irinotecan, oxaliplatin, and capecitabine. The combination of a fluoropyrimidine (5-fluorouracil or capecitabine) with either oxaliplatin or irinotecan has been widely accepted as standard cytotoxic chemotherapy for either the first- or second-line treatment of mCRC. The FDA has approved several pathway-targeting agents for the treatment of mCRC; these include agents that target the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor pathway (bevacizumab, ziv-aflibercept, and ramucirumab) and those that target the epidermal growth factor receptor pathway (cetuximab and panitumumab). Here, we review the current clinical options for the second-line treatment of mCRC and the rationales for their use.

  3. Radiotherapy in the management of non-metastatic prostate cancer: Current standards and future opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forman, Jeffrey D.

    1997-01-01

    Objectives: The intent of this course is to review issues involved in the management of non-metastatic prostate cancer and to clarify the role of external beam radiotherapy, the use of neo-adjuvant and adjuvant hormonal therapy in conjunction with the radiation, the management of patients with regional metastases and recurrent disease following surgery and radiation. At the end of this course, participants should be able to fluently discuss management issues and strategies across the entire spectrum of non-metastatic prostate cancer. - Pre-treatment prognostic factors including clinical stage, grade, and pre-treatment PSA, will be presented and their relative value in determining therapeutic strategies will be discussed. Strategies to be discussed include standard dose radiation, escalated dose radiation, particle radiation and the use of adjuvant and neo-adjuvant hormonal therapy. - The process of simulation and field design will be presented, the value of CT-based treatment planning, beams-eye view design and the relative value of three-dimensional treatment planning will be discussed. - The significance of prostate and patient movement and strategies for dealing with this will also be presented so that what constitutes an adequate simulation and margin of treatment can be clarified. - The management of newly diagnosed patients, covering the range of low stage/low grade to locally advanced prostate cancer will be discussed. - The relative value of increasing dose, the relative value of using neo-adjuvant and/or adjuvant hormone therapy and the indications for escalated dose will be presented. - Strategies for managing post-prostatectomy patients will be reviewed. Data on adjuvant and therapeutic irradiation for biochemical failure will be presented and a strategy for management will be discussed. - How to deal with patients with residual disease post radiation will be discussed and the relative value of cryotherapy, salvage prostatectomy or hormonal therapy will

  4. Managing work and cancer treatment: Experiences among survivors of hematological cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Maria D; Siminoff, Laura A

    2018-04-16

    The current study was performed to characterize the employment status of survivors of hematological cancer who have an informal caregiver from the time of diagnosis through the first 6 months of treatment. Using a mixed methods approach, semistructured interviews with survivors of hematological cancer were conducted within 6 months of the initiation of cancer treatment. Interviews assessed cancer treatment status, barriers and facilitators to employment, financial and insurance status, and relationship with the primary caregiver. These results are part of a longitudinal study of cancer survivors and informal caregivers. A total of 171 patients were enrolled. Within 6 months of beginning cancer treatments, approximately 35% were no longer employed. Reasons to remain employed included financial need, employee benefits, and a sense of purpose and normalcy. Employer accommodations and supportive colleagues facilitated continued employment. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that having a higher household income, a desire to work, nonphysical job tasks, and congruent survivor-caregiver communication were associated with greater odds of remaining employed. Within 6 months of initiating cancer treatment, the majority of survivors of hematological cancer had maintained employment. Because of the limitations imposed by the physical stress of cancer treatments, as well as the need to maintain employment to continue receiving employee benefits to cover such treatments, survivors of hematological cancer likely would benefit from employment accommodations that are sensitive to their unique needs. Cancer 2018. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  5. Policy issues in setting de minimis standards for latent cancer risks of radiation and chemical carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangler, M.

    1984-01-01

    In the fuel cycles for the development and utilization of alternative energy resources, the risk of latent cancer arises from a number of sources. Included are ionizing radiation and the carcinogenic potential of polluting chemicals present in certain fuels or in materials associated with the construction, operation, maintenance or waste treatment processes of nuclear power, fossil fuels, synfuels, biomass, and other sources of energy. One aspect of developing a carcinogen guideline policy for a consistent and effective regulatory regime to use in dealing with these assorted carcinogenic risks is the setting of de minimis quantitative standards. In this report, 11 policy issues related to the setting of such regulatory standards are identified and a brief commentary is provided. 15 references, 1 table

  6. Osteopontin splice variants are differential predictors of breast cancer treatment responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zduniak, Krzysztof; Agrawal, Anil; Agrawal, Siddarth; Hossain, Md Monir; Ziolkowski, Piotr; Weber, Georg F

    2016-07-11

    Osteopontin is a marker for breast cancer progression, which in previous studies has also been associated with resistance to certain anti-cancer therapies. It is not known which splice variants may mediate treatment resistance. Here we analyze the association of osteopontin variant expression before treatment, differentiated according to immunohistochemistry with antibodies to exon 4 and to the osteopontin-c splice junction respectively, with the ensuing therapy responses in 119 Polish breast cancer patients who presented between 1995 and 2008. We found from Cox hazard models, logrank test and Wilcoxon test that osteopontin exon 4 was associated with a favorable response to tamoxifen, but a poor response to chemotherapy with CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, fluorouracil). Osteopontin-c is prognostic, but falls short of being a significant predictor for sensitivity to treatment. The addition of osteopontin splice variant immunohistochemistry to standard pathology work-ups has the potential to aid decision making in breast cancer treatment.

  7. Osteopontin splice variants are differential predictors of breast cancer treatment responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zduniak, Krzysztof; Agrawal, Anil; Agrawal, Siddarth; Hossain, Md Monir; Ziolkowski, Piotr; Weber, Georg F.

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin is a marker for breast cancer progression, which in previous studies has also been associated with resistance to certain anti-cancer therapies. It is not known which splice variants may mediate treatment resistance. Here we analyze the association of osteopontin variant expression before treatment, differentiated according to immunohistochemistry with antibodies to exon 4 and to the osteopontin-c splice junction respectively, with the ensuing therapy responses in 119 Polish breast cancer patients who presented between 1995 and 2008. We found from Cox hazard models, logrank test and Wilcoxon test that osteopontin exon 4 was associated with a favorable response to tamoxifen, but a poor response to chemotherapy with CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, fluorouracil). Osteopontin-c is prognostic, but falls short of being a significant predictor for sensitivity to treatment. The addition of osteopontin splice variant immunohistochemistry to standard pathology work-ups has the potential to aid decision making in breast cancer treatment

  8. Second cancer incidence risk estimates using BEIR VII models for standard and complex external beam radiotherapy for early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, E. M.; James, H.; Bonora, M.; Yarnold, J. R.; Evans, P. M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare organ specific cancer incidence risks for standard and complex external beam radiotherapy (including cone beam CT verification) following breast conservation surgery for early breast cancer.Method: Doses from breast radiotherapy and kilovoltage cone beam CT (CBCT) exposures were obtained from thermoluminescent dosimeter measurements in an anthropomorphic phantom in which the positions of radiosensitive organs were delineated. Five treatment deliveries were investigated: (i) conventional tangential field whole breast radiotherapy (WBRT), (ii) noncoplanar conformal delivery applicable to accelerated partial beast irradiation (APBI), (iii) two-volume simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) treatment, (iv) forward planned three-volume SIB, and (v) inverse-planned three volume SIB. Conformal and intensity modulated radiotherapy methods were used to plan the complex treatments. Techniques spanned the range from simple methods appropriate for patient cohorts with a low cancer recurrence risk to complex plans relevant to cohorts with high recurrence risk. Delineated organs at risk included brain, salivary glands, thyroid, contralateral breast, left and right lung, esophagus, stomach, liver, colon, and bladder. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VII cancer incidence models were applied to the measured mean organ doses to determine lifetime attributable risk (LAR) for ages at exposure from 35 to 80 yr according to radiotherapy techniques, and included dose from the CBCT imaging. Results: All LAR decreased with age at exposure and were lowest for brain, thyroid, liver, and bladder (<0.1%). There was little dependence of LAR on radiotherapy technique for these organs and for colon and stomach. LAR values for the lungs for the three SIB techniques were two to three times those from WBRT and APBI. Uncertainties in the LAR models outweigh any differences in lung LAR between the SIB methods. Constraints in the planning of the SIB methods ensured that

  9. Second cancer incidence risk estimates using BEIR VII models for standard and complex external beam radiotherapy for early breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donovan, E. M.; James, H.; Bonora, M.; Yarnold, J. R.; Evans, P. M. [Joint Department of Physics, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust and Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Physics Department, Ipswich Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Ipswich IP4 5PD (United Kingdom); Department of Academic Radiotherapy, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton SM2 5PT, United Kingdom and School of Radiotherapy, University of Milan, Milan 20122 (Italy); Department of Academic Radiotherapy, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Centre for Vision Speech and Signal Processing, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To compare organ specific cancer incidence risks for standard and complex external beam radiotherapy (including cone beam CT verification) following breast conservation surgery for early breast cancer.Method: Doses from breast radiotherapy and kilovoltage cone beam CT (CBCT) exposures were obtained from thermoluminescent dosimeter measurements in an anthropomorphic phantom in which the positions of radiosensitive organs were delineated. Five treatment deliveries were investigated: (i) conventional tangential field whole breast radiotherapy (WBRT), (ii) noncoplanar conformal delivery applicable to accelerated partial beast irradiation (APBI), (iii) two-volume simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) treatment, (iv) forward planned three-volume SIB, and (v) inverse-planned three volume SIB. Conformal and intensity modulated radiotherapy methods were used to plan the complex treatments. Techniques spanned the range from simple methods appropriate for patient cohorts with a low cancer recurrence risk to complex plans relevant to cohorts with high recurrence risk. Delineated organs at risk included brain, salivary glands, thyroid, contralateral breast, left and right lung, esophagus, stomach, liver, colon, and bladder. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VII cancer incidence models were applied to the measured mean organ doses to determine lifetime attributable risk (LAR) for ages at exposure from 35 to 80 yr according to radiotherapy techniques, and included dose from the CBCT imaging. Results: All LAR decreased with age at exposure and were lowest for brain, thyroid, liver, and bladder (<0.1%). There was little dependence of LAR on radiotherapy technique for these organs and for colon and stomach. LAR values for the lungs for the three SIB techniques were two to three times those from WBRT and APBI. Uncertainties in the LAR models outweigh any differences in lung LAR between the SIB methods. Constraints in the planning of the SIB methods ensured that

  10. Vinflunine in the treatment of bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bachner

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Mark Bachner, Maria De Santis3rd Medical Department – Center for Oncology and Hematology, Kaiser Franz Josef-Spital der Stadt Wien, and Ludwig Boltzmann-Institute for Applied Cancer Research Vienna (LBI-ACR VIEnna, Cluster Translational Oncology, Kaiser Franz Josef-Spital der Stadt Wien, and Applied Cancer Research – Institution for Translational Research Vienna (ACR-ITR VIEnna/CEADDP, Vienna, AustriaAbstract: Vinflunine (VFL is a third-generation bifluorinated semi-synthetic vinca alkaloid obtained by superacidic chemistry from its parent compound, vinorelbine. As with the other vinca alkaloids, the main antineoplastic effects of VFL arise from its interaction with tubulin, the major component of microtubules in mitotic spindles. In contrast to other vinca alkaloids, VFL shows some distinctive properties in terms of tubulin binding, possibly explaining its superior antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo compared with vinorelbine as well as its excellent safety profile. In transitional cell carcinoma (TCC, two single-agent phase II trials were performed testing VFL in platinum-pretreated patients, showing moderate response rates and promising disease control rates. Therefore, the first phase III trial in modern times for second-line TCC of the urothelium was designed in order to further investigate the activity of VFL. First results were presented at the 2008 ASCO conference. VFL appears to be a possible treatment option for patients with TCC progressing after first-line platinum-containing chemotherapy.Keywords: vinflunine, transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the bladder, bladder cancer, chemotherapy, second-line chemotherapy

  11. Psychosocial interventions for fatigue during cancer treatment with palliative intent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poort, Hanneke; Peters, Marlies; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Gielissen, Marieke Fm; Goedendorp, Martine Margaretha; Jacobsen, Paul; Verhagen, Stans; Knoop, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Background: Fatigue is a prevalent and burdensome symptom for patients with incurable cancer receiving cancer treatment with palliative intent and is associated with reduced quality of life. Psychosocial interventions seem promising for management of fatigue among cancer patients.Objectives: To

  12. Colorectal Cancer: Late Presentation and Outcome of Treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Colorectal cancer remains a major health problem especially in developed countries where it ranks as the third most common cause of cancer in both men and women. Though incidence of colorectal cancer is low in Nigeria and other developing countries, outcome of treatment remains poor due largely to late ...

  13. Breast cancer patients' presentation for oncological treatment: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Breast cancer patients are presenting at advanced stages for oncological treatment in Nigeria and World Health Organization predicted developing countries' breast cancer incidence and mortality to increase by year 2020. Methods: Prospective observational hospital based study that enrolled breast cancer ...

  14. Gastric cancer diagnosis and treatment guidelines 2008: Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Uganda most cancers to the exception of bladder and penis are increasing in incidence. The incidence of cancer of stomach is 5.6/100,000 from 0.8/100,000 in the 1960s a seven fold increase.The purpose of this guideline document is to highlight the salient points in gastric cancer diagnosis and treatment in the ...

  15. Effects of Prostate Cancer Screening and Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Wever (Elisabeth)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer of men worldwide. The number of new cases worldwide was estimated at 899,000 and accounted for 13.6% of all cancers in men in 2008. With an estimated 258,000 deaths in 2008, prostate cancer is the sixth leading cause of death

  16. Recurrence After Treatment of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chren, Mary-Margaret; Torres, Jeanette S.; Stuart, Sarah E.; Bertenthal, Daniel; Labrador, Remedios J.; Boscardin, W. John

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine long-term tumor recurrence rates after treatment of primary nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Data are currently insufficient to permit evidence-based choices among treatments for NMSC. Design Prospective study of an inception cohort observed for a median of 6.6 years after treatment. Setting Dermatology clinic at a Veterans Affairs hospital. Care was provided by dermatology resident or attending physicians. Patients Consecutive sample of all 495 patients with 616 primary NMSCs diagnosed in 1999 and 2000 and treated with electrodessication and curettage (ED&C), excision, or Mohs surgery. Follow-up was available for 608 tumors (99%). Main Outcome Measure Tumor recurrence, determined by medical record review, with validation by clinical examination. Results The mean age at diagnosis was 71 years; 97% were men. Overall, 127 tumors were treated with ED&C (20.9%); 309 with excision (50.8%); and 172 with Mohs surgery (28.3%). Over the course of the study, 21 tumors recurred (3.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.2%–5.2%]): 2 after ED&C (1.6% [95% CI, 0.2%–5.6%]), 13 after excision (4.2% [95% CI, 2.2%–7.1%]), and 6 after Mohs surgery (3.5% [95% CI, 1.3%–7.4%]) Conclusions Recurrence of primary NMSC after treatment occurred in less than 5% of tumors. The recurrence rate after ED&C was lower than expected, and the recurrence rate after Mohs surgery was higher than expected. These findings may be related to the risk for recurrence in the treatment groups. PMID:21576572

  17. Indications for and results of combined modality treatment of colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunderson, L.L.

    1999-01-01

    Combined modality chemoirradiation is commonly used as a component of treatment in combination with maximum resection for both high-risk resectable and locally advanced primary or recurrent rectal cancers. With surgically resected but high-risk rectal cancers, postoperative chemoirradiation has been shown to improve both disease control (local and distant) and survival (disease-free and overall) and was recommended as standard adjuvant treatment at the 1990 National Institute of Health (NIH) Consensus Conference on Adjuvant treatment for patients with rectal and colon cancers. Subsequent intergroup trials are being conducted to help define optimal combinations of postoperative chemoirradiation for resected high-risk rectal cancers and to test sequencing issues of preoperative versus postoperative chemoirradiation. With locally unresectable primary or recurrent colorectal cancers, standard therapy with surgery, external beam irradiation (EBRT) and chemotherapy is often unsuccessful. When intraoperative electron irradiation (IOERT) is combined with standard treatment, local control and survival appear to be improved in separate analyses from the Mayo Clinic and the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). However, routine use of systemic therapy is also needed as a component of treatment, in view of high rates of systemic failure. (orig.)

  18. Indications for and results of combined modality treatment of colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunderson, L.L. [Mayo Medical School and Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Combined modality chemoirradiation is commonly used as a component of treatment in combination with maximum resection for both high-risk resectable and locally advanced primary or recurrent rectal cancers. With surgically resected but high-risk rectal cancers, postoperative chemoirradiation has been shown to improve both disease control (local and distant) and survival (disease-free and overall) and was recommended as standard adjuvant treatment at the 1990 National Institute of Health (NIH) Consensus Conference on Adjuvant treatment for patients with rectal and colon cancers. Subsequent intergroup trials are being conducted to help define optimal combinations of postoperative chemoirradiation for resected high-risk rectal cancers and to test sequencing issues of preoperative versus postoperative chemoirradiation. With locally unresectable primary or recurrent colorectal cancers, standard therapy with surgery, external beam irradiation (EBRT) and chemotherapy is often unsuccessful. When intraoperative electron irradiation (IOERT) is combined with standard treatment, local control and survival appear to be improved in separate analyses from the Mayo Clinic and the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). However, routine use of systemic therapy is also needed as a component of treatment, in view of high rates of systemic failure. (orig.)

  19. Glucocorticoids and prostate cancer treatment: friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Bruce; Cheng, Heather H; Drechsler, James; Mostaghel, Elahe A

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids have been used in the treatment of prostate cancer to slow disease progression, improve pain control and offset side effects of chemo- and hormonal therapy. However, they may also have the potential to drive prostate cancer growth via mutated androgen receptors or glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). In this review we examine historical and contemporary use of glucocorticoids in the treatment of prostate cancer, review potential mechanisms by which they may inhibit or drive prostate cancer growth, and describe potential means of defining their contribution to the biology of prostate cancer. PMID:24625881

  20. Standard chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab for women with newly diagnosed ovarian cancer (ICON7)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oza, Amit M; Cook, Adrian D; Pfisterer, Jacobus

    2015-01-01

    of the trial. METHODS: ICON7 was an international, phase 3, open-label, randomised trial undertaken at 263 centres in 11 countries across Europe, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Eligible adult women with newly diagnosed ovarian cancer that was either high-risk early-stage disease (International Federation......), three grade 2 treatment-related events (cardiac failure, sarcoidosis, and foot fracture, all in bevacizumab-treated patients), and one grade 1 treatment-related event (vaginal haemorrhage, in a patient treated with standard chemotherapy) were reported. INTERPRETATION: Bevacizumab, added to platinum......-based chemotherapy, did not increase overall survival in the study population as a whole. However, an overall survival benefit was recorded in poor-prognosis patients, which is concordant with the progression-free survival results from ICON7 and GOG-218, and provides further evidence towards the optimum use...

  1. Investigating the Ketogenic Diet As Treatment for Primary Aggressive Brain Cancer: Challenges and Lessons Learned

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth A. Schwartz; Mary Noel; Michele Nikolai; Howard T. Chang; Howard T. Chang

    2018-01-01

    Survival of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) with the current recommended treatment is poor. Reported median survivals are approximately 8–15 months. Based on recent publications from animal models, combining cancer drugs, radiation, and diet-metabolic treatments may be a new route to better survivals. To investigate this possibility, we have begun a clinical trial that has enrolled 15 subjects using a ketogenic diet (KD) as an addition to current standard treatments that include surgery, radiat...

  2. Treatment of non-uptaking 131I thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yongli

    2005-01-01

    Normally, thyroid cancer is a disease with a good prognosis, but about 30% the of tumors dedifferentiate and may finally develop into highly malignant thyroid carcinoma with a mean survival time of less than 8 months. Due to the loss of thyroid-specific functions associated with dedifferentiation. These tumors are inaccessible to standard therapeutic procedures such as radioiodine therapy and thyroxine-mediated thyrotropin suppression. Medullary thyroid carcinomas are also highly aggressive. Here, therapy is limited to surgery, and no alternative is left if patients do not respond to this standard procedures. Several novel approaches are currently being tested for the treatment of thyroid cancer. Many of them utilize methods of gene therapy: 1) reintroduction of the tumor suppressor p53; 2) suicide gene therapy; 3) antitumor immune response by expression of an adenovirus-delivered interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene; 4) immune response by DNA vaccination against the tumor marker calcitonin; 5) transduction of the thyroid sodium/iodine transporter gene to make tissues that do not accumulate iodide treatable by radioiodide therapy; 6) blocking of the expression of the oncogene c-myc by antisense oligonuleotides; 7) radioimmunotherapy by a radiolabelled antibody; 8) retinoic acid is used for a redifferentiation therapy, and 9) somatostatin. (authors)

  3. Novel Approaches to the Treatment of Cancer in London UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Black

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An intensive and in-depth two-day conference providing an advanced level updateKEY TOPICS TO BE COVERED:New paradigms for targeted therapiesNew anti-cancer agents ~ industry viewpointNovel approaches to the treatment of breast cancer, melanoma and pancreatic cancerDrug development and precision radiotherapyEuropean drug development initiativesMarket access to novel cancer drugsRegulatory issues in marketing authorisation of anti-cancer productsGene and cell therapies and trial endpointsDeveloping cancer vaccinesCLICK HERE for more information 

  4. Current options for palliative treatment in patients with pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridwelski, K; Meyer, F

    2001-01-01

    Palliative treatment is often the only remaining option in the management of pancreatic carcinoma, but its efficacy is poor due to low tumor sensitivity and inadequate treatment protocols. There are several options of palliative treatment with antitumor or supportive intention. Classical end points of palliative treatment are survival, tumor response, and quality of life. A decade ago, palliative chemotherapy consisted mainly of 5-fluorouracil as the standard agent in combination with either other agents and/or radiotherapy. Only the new antineoplastic drug gemcitabine, which was introduced simultaneously with the definition of novel end points of chemotherapy such as clinical benefit, allowed to achieve some progress. However, while gemcitabine monotherapy appeared to be superior to 5-fluorouracil and improved important parameters of quality of life, it could not provide a significant improvement of survival. A novel concept, therefore, is to improve this beneficial cytostatic response in pancreatic carcinoma using a gemcitabine-based protocol by combining it with antineoplastic drugs such as taxanes or platin analogs. This strategy may have the potential to improve the outcome in palliative chemotherapy of pancreatic carcinoma patients with advanced tumor growth or metastases. Best supportive care in pancreatic cancer consists of the treatment of symptoms, such as pain, jaundice, duodenal obstruction, weight loss, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, and tumor-associated depression. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  5. Conservation irradiation in the treatment of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, S.L.; Chiminazzo Junior, H.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques of treatment and cosmetic results of 130 patients with breast cancer are presented. All patients received conservative treatment, with lumpectomy and radiotherapy at Centro de Oncologia Campinas. (M.A.C.) [pt

  6. Risk factors associated with treatment refusal in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Won Na; Kong, Kyoung Ae; Han, Yeji; Kim, Soo Jung; Lee, Su Hwan; Ryu, Yon Ju; Lee, Jin Hwa; Shim, Sung Shine; Kim, Yookyung; Chang, Jung Hyun

    2017-09-01

    The incidence of lung cancer is increasing with longer life expectancy. Refusal of active treatment for cancer is prone to cause patients to experience more severe symptoms and shorten survival. The purpose of this study was to define the factors related to refusal or abandonment of active therapy in lung cancer. We retrospectively reviewed the data of 617 patients from medical records from 2010 to 2014. Two groups were formed: 149 patients who refused anti-cancer treatment and allowed only palliative care were classified into the non-treatment group, while the remaining 468 who received anti-cancer treatment were classified into the treatment group. The groups differed significantly in age, employment, relationship status, number of offspring, educational status, body mass index, presence of chest and systemic symptoms, Charlson Comorbidity Index, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score, and tumor node metastasis stage ( P refusal of cancer treatment. Individual factors, such as old age, low educational status, low weight, and poor performance status can influence refusal of cancer treatment in patients with lung cancer, and should be considered prior to consultation with patients. © 2017 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Oral cryotherapy reduced oral mucositis in patients having cancer treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivakovsky, Sylvia

    2016-09-01

    Data sourcesCochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, CANCERLIT, CINAHL, the US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of oral cryotherapy in patients with cancer receiving treatment compared to usual care, no treatment or other interventions to prevent mucositis. The primary outcome was incidence of mucositis and its severity.Data extraction and synthesisTwo reviewers carried out study assessment and data extraction independently. Treatment effect for continuous data was calculated using mean values and standard deviations and expressed as mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval. Risk ratio (RR) was calculated for dichotomous data. Meta-analysis was performed.ResultsFourteen studies with 1280 participants were included. Subgroup analysis was undertaken according to the main cancer treatment type. Cryotherapy reduced the risk of developing mucositis by 39% (RR = 0.61; 95%CI, 0.52 to 0.72) on patients treated with fluorouracil (5FU). For melphalan-based treatment the risk of developing mucositis was reduced by 41% (RR =0.59; 95%CI, 0.35 to 1.01). Oral cryotherapy was shown to be safe, with very low rates of minor adverse effects, such as headaches, chills, numbness/taste disturbance and tooth pain. This appears to contribute to the high rates of compliance seen in the included studies.ConclusionsThere is confidence that oral cryotherapy leads to a large reduction in oral mucositis in adults treated with 5FU. Although there is less certainty on the size of the reduction on patients treated with melphalan, it is certain there is reduction of severe mucositis.

  8. Cancer Survivors: Managing Your Emotions After Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... effects years later. Be open about your fears. Express your concerns to your friends, family, other cancer ... other cancer survivors who are having the same emotions you are. Contact your local chapter of the ...

  9. Cancer Treatment Measures – PPS-Exempt Cancer Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Prospective Payment System (PPS)-Exempt Cancer Hospital Quality Reporting (PCHQR) Program currently uses three cancer specific measures. The resulting PPS-Exempt...

  10. Breast cancer treatment: historical review and current approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulakowski, A.

    1994-01-01

    The evolution and development of opinions on the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer since Galen to present time is presented. The concept of breast cancer as a local disease has been replaced by the understanding of its systemic character. On this background described are the methods of surgical treatment beginning from early - supraradical, to present -conservative approaches. The ''milestones'' in diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer of the last 40 years are presented. Current methods of breast cancer management include correct diagnosis (clinical examination, mammography, ultrasound, fine needle aspiration biopsy), TNM staging, adequate loco-regional therapy, systemic therapy, rehabilitation, reconstruction and careful follow-up. (author)

  11. Oil production enhancement through a standardized brine treatment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adewumi, A.; Watson, R.; Tian, S.; Safargar, S.; Heckman, S.; Drielinger, I.

    1995-08-01

    In order to permit the environmentally safe discharge of brines produced from oil wells in Pennsylvania to the surface waters of the Commonwealth and to rapidly brings as many wells as possible into compliance with the law, the Pennsylvania Oil and Gas Association (POGAM) approached the Pennsylvania State University to develop a program designed to demonstrate that a treatment process to meet acceptable discharge conditions and effluent limitations can be standardized for all potential stripper wells brine discharge. After the initial studies, the first phase of this project was initiated. A bench-scale prototype model was developed for conducting experiments in laboratory conditions. The experiments pursued in the laboratory conditions were focused on the removal of ferrous iron from synthetically made brine. Iron was selected as the primary heavy metals for studying the efficiency of the treatment process. The results of a number of experiments in the lab were indicative of the capability of the proposed brine treatment process in the removal of iron. Concurrent with the laboratory experiments, a comprehensive and extensive kinetic study was initiated. This study was necessary to provide the required data base for process modeling. This study included the investigation of the critical pH as well as the rate and order of reactions of the studied elements: aluminum, lead, zinc, and copper. In the second phase of this project, a field-based prototype was developed to evaluate and demonstrate the treatment process effectiveness. These experiments were conducted under various conditions and included the testing on five brines from different locations with various dissolved constituents. The outcome of this research has been a software package, currently based on iron`s reactivity, to be used for design purposes. The developed computer program was refined as far as possible using the results from laboratory and field experiments.

  12. DMTO: a realistic ontology for standard diabetes mellitus treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sappagh, Shaker; Kwak, Daehan; Ali, Farman; Kwak, Kyung-Sup

    2018-02-06

    Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex problem. A clinical decision support system (CDSS) based on massive and distributed electronic health record data can facilitate the automation of this process and enhance its accuracy. The most important component of any CDSS is its knowledge base. This knowledge base can be formulated using ontologies. The formal description logic of ontology supports the inference of hidden knowledge. Building a complete, coherent, consistent, interoperable, and sharable ontology is a challenge. This paper introduces the first version of the newly constructed Diabetes Mellitus Treatment Ontology (DMTO) as a basis for shared-semantics, domain-specific, standard, machine-readable, and interoperable knowledge relevant to T2DM treatment. It is a comprehensive ontology and provides the highest coverage and the most complete picture of coded knowledge about T2DM patients' current conditions, previous profiles, and T2DM-related aspects, including complications, symptoms, lab tests, interactions, treatment plan (TP) frameworks, and glucose-related diseases and medications. It adheres to the design principles recommended by the Open Biomedical Ontologies Foundry and is based on ontological realism that follows the principles of the Basic Formal Ontology and the Ontology for General Medical Science. DMTO is implemented under Protégé 5.0 in Web Ontology Language (OWL) 2 format and is publicly available through the National Center for Biomedical Ontology's BioPortal at http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/DMTO . The current version of DMTO includes more than 10,700 classes, 277 relations, 39,425 annotations, 214 semantic rules, and 62,974 axioms. We provide proof of concept for this approach to modeling TPs. The ontology is able to collect and analyze most features of T2DM as well as customize chronic TPs with the most appropriate drugs, foods, and physical exercises. DMTO is ready to be used as a knowledge base for

  13. Super p53 for Treatment of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    killing ovarian cancer cells in vitro. This is unreported, novel finding paves the way for using super p53 for ovarian cancer treatment. Main...This is unreported, novel finding paves the way for using super p53 for ovarian cancer treatment. Main activities and objectives completed to date...What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?  Now that the basic groundwork for the experimental assays has

  14. Persistent pain and sensory disturbances after treatment for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejdahl, Mathias Kvist; Andersen, Kenneth Geving; Gärtner, Rune

    2013-01-01

    To examine the development of persistent pain after treatment for breast cancer and to examine risk factors associated with continuing pain.......To examine the development of persistent pain after treatment for breast cancer and to examine risk factors associated with continuing pain....

  15. Knowledge and perception of breast cancer and its treatment among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the association between religiosity, perceptions, and knowledge of breast cancer and its treatment among women in Malaysia. Methods: Knowledge and perceptions of breast cancer and its treatment were determined via a questionnaire adapted from previous studies. The Duke Religion Index was ...

  16. Thyroid cancer treatment : Long-term effects and new developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is increasingly common. This is especially the case for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), which has a favorable prognosis. Treatment consists of surgical removal of the thyroid gland, radioiodine treatment, and life-long administration of relatively high doses of thyroid hormone.

  17. Cancer treatment induced metabolic syndrome : Improving outcome with lifestyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerink, M. D. N. L.; Nuver, J.; Lefrandt, J. D.; Vrieling, A. H.; Gietema, J. A.; Walenkamp, A. M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of long-term cancer survivors face important treatment related adverse effects. Cancer treatment induced metabolic syndrome (CTIMetS) is an especially prevalent and harmful condition. The aetiology of CTIMetS likely differs from metabolic syndrome in the general population, but

  18. Dose intensity of standard adjuvant CMF with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for premenopausal patients with node-positive breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deGraaf, H; Willemse, PHB; Bong, SB; Piersma, H; Tjabbes, T; vanVeelen, H; Coenen, JLLM; deVries, EGE

    1996-01-01

    The effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) on total dose and dose intensity of standard oral adjuvant CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil) chemotherapy were studied in premenopausal patients with node-positive breast cancer. Treatment consisted of standard CMF

  19. Minimum pathology reporting standard for gastro-intestinal cancers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To develop and adopt minimum pathology reporting checklists for gastric and colorectal cancers in Nigeria Methods: Three pathologists with special interest in Gastrointestinal (GI) pathology were mandated to develop minimum data to be included in pathology reporting of GI cancers in Nigeria. Their proposals were ...

  20. Treatment of initially metastatic small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohutek, F.; Bystricky, B.; Tamasova, M.

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer (LC) is the most common cause of death associated with neoplasms. The incidence of LC in 2007 was 71.3/100,000 men and 18.6/100,000 women in Slovakia. Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) includes 15 - 18% of all cases. The diagnosis of LC is based on patient's history, physical examination, basic laboratory tests, x-ray imaging and computed tomography (CT) imaging and histology. The material required for histology can be obtained by means of endoscopy or surgery. Ultrasonography (USG) and/or CT of abdomen is commonly performed as a part of staging process, along with CT or MRI of brain. Bone scan is performed in case of suspicion of bone involvement. According to TNM classification, seventh edition, the same classification can be used for SCLC and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are available for treatment of initially metastatic SCLC. First-line chemotherapy regimen should be based on combination of cisplatin or carboplatin with etoposide (PE). Alternatively, CAV regimen (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine) can be used. Newer regimens did not provide benefit when compared to standard regimens. If progression occurs later than 3 months after finishing first-line chemotherapy, the same regimen may be used in second-line chemotherapy. If progression occurs earlier than 3 months after finishing first-line chemotherapy, topotecan-based regimen is an option for second-line line chemotherapy. Despite promising outcomes of amrubicin-based second-line chemotherapy in Japan, amrubicin is not available in countries of E U. Standard therapy schedules do not include radiotherapy targeted on primary tumor and affected lymph-nodes. According to American and European guidelines, prophylactic cranial irradiation is recommended for patients with extensive disease-SCLC with good performance status after achieving complete or partial response to first-line chemotherapy. (author)

  1. Vectors for Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deisseroth, Albert B

    2005-01-01

    The objective is to design, build and study vectors which would be able to break tolerance to breast cancer associated TAA and be used to suppress the recurrence of metastatic breast cancer following surgical resection...

  2. Vectors for Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deisseroth, Albert

    2004-01-01

    The objective is to design, build and study vectors which would be able to break tolerance to breast cancer associated TAA and be used to suppress the recurrence of metastatic breast cancer following surgical resection...

  3. nab-Paclitaxel for the treatment of pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim G

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available George Kim 21st Century Oncology, University of Florida Health Oncology, Jacksonville, FL, USA Background: Nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-P plus gemcitabine (Gem became a standard treatment option for metastatic pancreatic cancer (MPC following positive results from a global phase III trial (MPACT. A large number of studies have now published results on the use of nab-P/Gem to treat advanced and early-stage disease, warranting a comprehensive review. The main goal of this systematic review is to summarize the efficacy and safety data of nab-P/Gem for the treatment of pancreatic cancer (PC.Methods: This systematic review includes results from studies that either published results in a peer-reviewed journal or presented the results at a major oncology conference. Results: Sixty-two studies were included (50 in the advanced/metastatic setting and 12 in the locally advanced setting. Most studies on the treatment of MPC were exclusively first line (33/50. Nevertheless, the studies in this review comprised a broad spectrum of patients, including those <65 and ≥65 years of age and those with a Karnofsky performance status of 70–100. Median overall survival (OS in studies of nab-P/Gem in the advanced/metastatic setting ranged from 8.7 to 13.5 months. In addition, 15 studies of patients with advanced/metastatic PC examined nab-P/Gem as a backbone on which to add a variety of agents, including cancer stem cell inhibitors, stromal disrupting agents, and immune-modulating agents (median OS, 6.9–17 months. Ongoing trials are investigating nab-P/Gem with or without other agents across disease settings.Discussion: Studies conducted after MPACT have demonstrated that nab-P/Gem is an effective regimen for the first-line treatment of MPC for a wide range of patients. Regimens using nab-P/Gem as a backbone on which to combine additional agents are being studied actively, particularly in the advanced disease setting. Ongoing studies will yield

  4. [Latest standards of muscle injury prophylactic activities, treatment and rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroszewski, Jacek; Bakowski, Paweł; Tabiszewski, Maciej

    2008-01-01

    Muscle injury represents the highest proportion of sport-linked contusions. Experimental and clinical studies aim at increasingly detailed recognition of muscle physiology and pathophysiology. It would allow to set up functional standards and permit to minimize risk of contusions associated with sport activities. In cases of such contusions it would restrict its sequele and would abbreviate the duration of treatment. In the study elements of prophylaxis, treatment and rehabilitation of injured muscles will be discussed, based on current scientific results. Review study includes data from studies investigating prophylactic activities, types of teratment and the effects of different rehabilitation strategy. Latest standards from First European Congress of Football Medicine, Munich 2004, were also taken into account. The prophylactic activities should focus on education attempting to popularize the knowledge of the role of warm-up activities which precede proper physical effort, muscle stretching and activities augmenting muscle strength. The treatment of muscle injury is related to the extent of their damage. First actions should be focused on the RICE principle (Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation). In case of torn tissues, local injections of anesthetics, anti-inflammatory agents and regeneration-promoting agents used to be applied. Application of NSAIDs and anti-thrombotic prophylaxis is sound but due to their side effects it is recommended as frequently as it is counterindicated by physicians. A threshold in the therapy, not always noted by therapeutists, involves rapid mobilization of the injured tissue. This involves mobility exercises starting at 3-5 days post-trauma, with no load at the beginning, but starting at days 4 to 6 asssociated with appropriate loading. The recently conducted studies aim at stimulation of rapid muscle regeneration, inhibition of scar formation in the site of injury and elimination of already existing scars. The latter seems most

  5. Traditional Chinese patent medicines for cancer treatment in China: a nationwide medical insurance data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Lu, Peng; Shi, Luwen; Li, Shao

    2015-01-01

    Based on the nationwide survey into inpatients' utilization of the health service covered by China's urban basic medical insurance from 2008 to 2010, we analyzed the use rate, cancer profile and combined use of anticancer Chinese patent medicines (CPMs) on 51,382 insured cancer patients by using statistical, bi-clustering and network methods. We found that 42.4% of 51,382 cancer patients used 33 anticancer CPMs, and 51.7% used 71 anticancer Western medicines (WMs). The CPMs were most often used in lung (52%) and nasopharynx (52%) cancer patients, and least in bladder cancer (21%) and leukemia of unspecified cell type (21%) patients. The cost per patient for all 33 anticancer CPMs was 2069RMB, lower than that of the WMs (3458RMB). The cancer profile of commonly used CPMs and WMs for the top 17 cancers (>500 sampled patients) were provided, indicating anticancer CPMs had a broad spectrum of cancers and lacked selectivity in cancer treatment (CPM mean CV = 49%; WM mean CV = 152%). Moreover, 24.8% of the cancer patients used both CPMs and WMs, and CPM-WM combined use networks were constructed for four major cancers. This first nationwide analysis revealed the use characteristics and herb-drug combined use patterns of insurance covered anticancer CPMs in China. The study offers valuable information to guide future studies of the precision, safety and standard use of CPMs. PMID:26513017

  6. A neutron irradiator applied to cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Tarcisio P.R.; Andrade, Ana P. de

    2000-01-01

    Cancer and the way of treating it with neutron capture therapy are addressed. This paper discusses also the type of neutron facilities used to treat cancer around the world, as follow: discrete neutron sources, accelerators, and nuclear reactors. The major features of an epithermal neutron irradiation facility applied to BNCT treatment are addressed. The main goal is to give another choice of neutron irradiators to be set in a hospital. The irradiation facility embeds a set of 252 Cf neutron source coupled with a homogeneous mixture of uranium-zirconium hydride alloy containing 8.4 wt % uranium enriched to 20% U 235 . The facility delivers an epithermal neutron beam with low background of fast neutron and gamma rays. The N particle transport code (MCNP-4A) has been used during the simulation in order to achieve the desired configurations and to estimate the multiplication factor, k eff . The present facility loaded with 30 mg of 252 Cf neutron source generates an external beam with an intensity of 10 7 n/cm 2 .s on the spectrum of 4 eV to 40 KeV. The 252 Cf - facility coupled with fissile material was able to amplify the epithermal flux to 10 8 n/cm 2 .s, maintaining the figure-of-merits represented by the ratios of the fast dose and gamma dose in air per epithermal neutron flux closed to those values presented by BMRR, MITR-II and Petten Reactor. The medical irradiation facility loaded with 252 Cf- 235 U can be a choice for BNCT. (author)

  7. Treatment Option Overview (Small Intestine Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... all of an organ that contains cancer. The resection may include the small intestine and nearby organs (if the cancer has spread). The doctor may remove the section of the small intestine that contains cancer and perform an anastomosis (joining the cut ends of the intestine together). ...

  8. Treatment Choices for Men with Early-Stage Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer Types A to ...

  9. Treatment of Endometrial Cancer in Association with Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asama Vanichtantikul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Uterine malignancy coexistent with pelvic organ prolapse (POP is uncommon and standardized treatment is not established. The objective of this case study was to highlight the management of endometrial cancer in association with pelvic organ prolapse. Case Report. An 87-year-old woman presented with POP Stage IV combined with endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterus: clinical Stage IV B. She had multiple medical conditions including stroke, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. She was treated with radiotherapy and pessary was placed. Conclusion. Genital prolapse with abnormal uterine bleeding requires proper evaluation and management. Concurrent adenocarcinoma and POP can be a difficult clinical situation to treat, and optimum management is controversial.

  10. Treatment Options Available for Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Failure in Non-muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yates, D.R.; Brausi, M.A.; Catto, J.W.; Dalbagni, G.; Roupret, M.; Shariat, S.F.; Sylvester, R.J.; Witjes, J.A.; Zlotta, A.R.; Palou-Redorta, J.

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT: Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is a standard conservative treatment for patients with high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Many patients will experience recurrence or progression following BCG and are termed BCG failures. OBJECTIVE: To summarise the current

  11. The Endocannabinoid System as a Target for Treatment of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    code) Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 The Endocannabinoid System as a Target for Treatment of Breast Cancer Dr...REFERENCES: 1 Ahn, K., McKinney, M. K. & Cravatt, B. F. Enzymatic pathways that regulate endocannabinoid signaling in the nervous system. Chem Rev

  12. Comprehensible knowledge model creation for cancer treatment decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad; Hussain, Maqbool; Ali Khan, Wajahat; Ali, Taqdir; Lee, Sungyoung; Huh, Eui-Nam; Farooq Ahmad, Hafiz; Jamshed, Arif; Iqbal, Hassan; Irfan, Muhammad; Abbas Hydari, Manzar

    2017-03-01

    A wealth of clinical data exists in clinical documents in the form of electronic health records (EHRs). This data can be used for developing knowledge-based recommendation systems that can assist clinicians in clinical decision making and education. One of the big hurdles in developing such systems is the lack of automated mechanisms for knowledge acquisition to enable and educate clinicians in informed decision making. An automated knowledge acquisition methodology with a comprehensible knowledge model for cancer treatment (CKM-CT) is proposed. With the CKM-CT, clinical data are acquired automatically from documents. Quality of data is ensured by correcting errors and transforming various formats into a standard data format. Data preprocessing involves dimensionality reduction and missing value imputation. Predictive algorithm selection is performed on the basis of the ranking score of the weighted sum model. The knowledge builder prepares knowledge for knowledge-based services: clinical decisions and education support. Data is acquired from 13,788 head and neck cancer (HNC) documents for 3447 patients, including 1526 patients of the oral cavity site. In the data quality task, 160 staging values are corrected. In the preprocessing task, 20 attributes and 106 records are eliminated from the dataset. The Classification and Regression Trees (CRT) algorithm is selected and provides 69.0% classification accuracy in predicting HNC treatment plans, consisting of 11 decision paths that yield 11 decision rules. Our proposed methodology, CKM-CT, is helpful to find hidden knowledge in clinical documents. In CKM-CT, the prediction models are developed to assist and educate clinicians for informed decision making. The proposed methodology is generalizable to apply to data of other domains such as breast cancer with a similar objective to assist clinicians in decision making and education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Metabolic syndrome induced by anticancer treatment in childhood cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Won Chueh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The number of childhood cancer survivors is increasing as survival rates improve. However, complications after treatment have not received much attention, particularly metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome comprises central obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance, and cancer survivors have higher risks of cardiovascular events compared with the general population. The mechanism by which cancer treatment induces metabolic syndrome is unclear. However, its pathophysiology can be categorized based on the cancer treatment type administered. Brain surgery or radiotherapy may induce metabolic syndrome by damaging the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, which may induce pituitary hormone deficiencies. Local therapy administered to particular endocrine organs directly damages the organs and causes hormone deficiencies, which induce obesity and dyslipidemia leading to metabolic syndrome. Chemotherapeutic agents interfere with cell generation and growth, damage the vascular endothelial cells, and increase the cardiovascular risk. Moreover, chemotherapeutic agents induce oxidative stress, which also induces metabolic syndrome. Physical inactivity caused by cancer treatment or the cancer itself, dietary restrictions, and the frequent use of antibiotics may also be risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Since childhood cancer survivors with metabolic syndrome have higher risks of cardiovascular events at an earlier age, early interventions should be considered. The optimal timing of interventions and drug use has not been established, but lifestyle modifications and exercise interventions that begin during cancer treatment might be beneficial and tailored education and interventions that account for individual patients' circumstances are needed. This review evaluates the recent literature that describes metabolic syndrome in cancer survivors, with a focus on its pathophysiology.

  14. Metabolic syndrome induced by anticancer treatment in childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueh, Hee Won; Yoo, Jae Ho

    2017-06-01

    The number of childhood cancer survivors is increasing as survival rates improve. However, complications after treatment have not received much attention, particularly metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome comprises central obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance, and cancer survivors have higher risks of cardiovascular events compared with the general population. The mechanism by which cancer treatment induces metabolic syndrome is unclear. However, its pathophysiology can be categorized based on the cancer treatment type administered. Brain surgery or radiotherapy may induce metabolic syndrome by damaging the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, which may induce pituitary hormone deficiencies. Local therapy administered to particular endocrine organs directly damages the organs and causes hormone deficiencies, which induce obesity and dyslipidemia leading to metabolic syndrome. Chemotherapeutic agents interfere with cell generation and growth, damage the vascular endothelial cells, and increase the cardiovascular risk. Moreover, chemotherapeutic agents induce oxidative stress, which also induces metabolic syndrome. Physical inactivity caused by cancer treatment or the cancer itself, dietary restrictions, and the frequent use of antibiotics may also be risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Since childhood cancer survivors with metabolic syndrome have higher risks of cardiovascular events at an earlier age, early interventions should be considered. The optimal timing of interventions and drug use has not been established, but lifestyle modifications and exercise interventions that begin during cancer treatment might be beneficial and tailored education and interventions that account for individual patients' circumstances are needed. This review evaluates the recent literature that describes metabolic syndrome in cancer survivors, with a focus on its pathophysiology.

  15. INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EFFICIENCY OF CANCER TREATMENT AND STATE OF IMMUNE SYSTEM IN PATIENTS WITH LARYNGEAL AND HYPOPHARYNGEAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Stakheyeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. We have studied possible interrelationships between immune system state and efficiency of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in patients with cancer of larynx and hypopharynx. The neoadjuvant treatment consisted of 2 courses of paclitaxel (175 mg/m2, carboplatin (AUC-6 in 3-4 weeks, followed by radiation therapy at a multifraction dose schedule (1.2 Gy 2 times daily in 4 h, total cumulated dose was estimated as isoeffective dose of 40 Gy. A better response to chemotherapy by paclitaxel and carboplatin in the patients with cancer of larynx and hypopharynx had been associated with higher percentage of CD56+ cells and IgM levels in peripheral blood, as measured before starting cancer treatment. After completing the neoadjuvant chemo- and radiotherapy, we noted an increase in total lymphocyte counts, CD4+, CD8+, CD56+ cell numbers and IgG levels in the patients with pronounced response to chemotherapy, thus suggesting some induction of immune response in cancer patients during cytostatic therapy. These data presume a relationship between the state of immune system in the patients with head-and-neck cancer, and their response to neoadjuvant chemo- and radiotherapy. On the basis of these findings, one may suggest that immunological mechanisms make take an important part in promotion of antitumor effects produced by standard cancer treatment.

  16. Cancer Prehabilitation for Patients Starting from Active Treatment to Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiow-Ching Shun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this brief summary is to introduce the concept of cancer prehabilitation and the role of oncology nurses in prehabilitation care. Cancer prehabilitation has been defined by Sliver and Baima (2013 as "a process on the cancer continuum of care that occurs between the time of cancer diagnosis and the beginning of acute treatment." The evidence supports the notion that prehabilitation programs can improve physical and psychological health outcomes and decrease overall health care costs. The care model for cancer prehabilitation should include timely and efficient assessment throughout the care continuum with a focus on improving outcomes in cancer at every stage. During the cancer journey, three types of assessment with different aims are included: (1 prehabilitation assessment pretreatment, (2 rehabilitation assessment at early post treatment, and (3 health promotion assessment at the end of treatment. Specific prehabilitation assessment and interventions for treatment-related complications or major side-effects should be considered. Teaching, counseling, discharge planning, and coordination should also be part of an oncology nurse′s role in cancer prehabilitation. It is suggested that cancer care managers or navigators be trained in the assessment of their patients′ physical and psychological status once the cancer diagnosis has been identified and the patient has decided to receive active treatment, especially for those waiting for surgery at home. Oncology nurses could increase their competence with prehabilitation care by gaining knowledge about cancer-related treatments and their outcomes for specific cancers and by strengthening the ability to assess the functional status and psychological distress of their patients.

  17. Skeletal manifestations of treatment of breast cancer on premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doo, Loomee; Shapiro, Charles L

    2013-12-01

    With increasing use of screening mammography and more effective adjuvant systemic therapies, the majority of women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer will be long-term survivors and experience personal cures. Among the common side effects of adjuvant therapies is treatment-related bone loss, primarily as a result of estrogen deprivation. Whereas this occurs in both postmenopausal and premenopausal women, this brief review will focus on pre- or perimenopausal women when initially diagnosed with breast cancer. An important distinction is between those women who retain ovarian function despite cancer or preventative treatments and the more common situation of premenopausal women who as result of cancer treatments undergo ovarian failure or early menopause. Some women with treatment-related ovarian failure will have sufficient treatment-related bone loss to be at increased risks of subsequent nontraumatic fractures and/or osteoporosis and will be candidates for antiresorptive treatments. The noncancer treatment risk factors, screening and treatments for the management of osteopenia and osteoporosis are generally the same in postmenopausal women with and without breast cancer. However, premenopausal women with relatively rapid onset of treatment-related ovarian failure and bone loss pose several challenges. Awareness of treatment-related bone loss and risks of subsequent osteoporosis is a high priority in an ever-increasing population of breast cancer survivors.

  18. Standardized assessment of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tramm, Trine; Di Caterino, Tina; Jylling, Anne Marie B.

    2018-01-01

    by the International TILs Working Group 2014, applied to a cohort of breast cancers reflecting an average breast cancer population. Material and methods: Stromal TILs were assessed using full slide sections from 124 breast cancers with varying histology, malignancy grade and ER- and HER2 status. TILs were estimated......Introduction: In breast cancer, there is a growing body of evidence that tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) may have clinical utility and may be able to direct clinical decisions for subgroups of patients. Clinical utility is, however, not sufficient for warranting the implementation of a new...... by nine dedicated breast pathologists using scanned hematoxylin–eosin stainings. TILs results were categorized using various cutoffs, and the inter-observer agreement was evaluated using the intraclass coefficient (ICC), Kappa statistics as well as individual overall agreements with the median value...

  19. Chemo-Immunotherapy Using Lentinan for the Treatment of Gastric Cancer with Liver Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Ina

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Systemic chemotherapy is the main treatment option for advanced gastric cancer when the tumor is inoperable. Despite recent advances in chemotherapeutic agents, the prognosis of unresectable or recurrent gastric cancer remains extremely poor. In Japan, combination therapy including S-1 and cisplatin is the standard first-line treatment for advanced gastric cancer; however, the five-year survival rate remains very low. Lentinan, the backbone of beta-(1,3-glucan with beta-(1,6 branches, an active ingredient purified from Shiitake mushrooms, has been approved as a biological response modifier for the treatment of gastric cancer. This agent has been used in combination with oral fluoropyrimidines to improve the overall survival of gastric cancer patients. A retrospective chart review on 138 metastatic gastric cancer patients receiving chemotherapy was performed in Nagoya Memorial Hospital from 1 September 2010 to 31 August 2015. 12 patients with liver metastases were treated by lentinan in combination with S-1-based chemotherapy. The rate of objective response was 42% (5/12 and the disease control rate was 83% (10/12 in response to chemo-immunotherapy using lentinan, with a median overall survival of 407 days (95% CI: 207–700 days.

  20. Carboplatin treatment of antiestrogen-resistant breast cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mathilde S; Yde, Christina Westmose; Christensen, Ib J

    2012-01-01

    Antiestrogen resistance is a major clinical problem in current breast cancer treatment. Therefore, biomarkers and new treatment options for antiestrogen-resistant breast cancer are needed. In this study, we investigated whether antiestrogen‑resistant breast cancer cell lines have increased...... sensitivity to carboplatin, as it was previously shown with cisplatin, and whether low Bcl-2 expression levels have a potential value as marker for increased carboplatin sensitivity. Breast cancer cells resistant to the pure antiestrogen fulvestrant, and two out of four cell lines resistant...... to the antiestrogen tamoxifen, were more sensitive to carboplatin treatment compared to the parental MCF-7 cell line. This indicates that carboplatin may be an advantageous treatment in antiestrogen‑resistant breast cancer; however, a marker for increased sensitivity would be needed. Low Bcl-2 expression...

  1. Phase 2 Neoadjuvant Treatment Intensification Trials in Rectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teo, Mark T W; McParland, Lucy; Appelt, Ane L

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: Multiple phase 2 trials of neoadjuvant treatment intensification in locally advanced rectal cancer have reported promising efficacy signals, but these have not translated into improved cancer outcomes in phase 3 trials. Improvements in phase 2 trial design are needed to reduce these false......-positive signals. This systematic review evaluated the design of phase 2 trials of neoadjuvant long-course radiation or chemoradiation therapy treatment intensification in locally advanced rectal cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for published...... among the reported effect sizes (I2 = 55.3%, Prectal cancer trials is urgently required. A significant increase...

  2. An update on the treatment of advanced prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngugi, P M

    2007-09-01

    To obtain an update of the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. Review of all published literature on advanced prostate cancer was carried out through medline and index medicus search. Published data on advanced prostate cancer from June 2005 to June 2007 was included in the review. Abstracts of articles identified were assessed, read and analysed to determine relevance to the title under review. After establishing relevance from the abstract, the entire paper was read, and significant points included in the review. The mainstay of treatment of advanced prostate cancer remains hormone withdrawal. The introduction of docetaxel based chemotherapy has caused a paradigm shift.

  3. Quality of Life and Cost Effectiveness of Prostate Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    measurement of satisfaction with treatment . AM J Man Care. 1997;3:579-594. 38. Borras JM, Sancez-Hernandez A, Navarro M, et al. Compliance...of Prostate Cancer Treatment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ravishankar Jayadevappa, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of...and Cost Effectiveness of Prostate Cancer Treatment 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-04-1-0257 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Ravishankar

  4. Screening for second primary lung cancer after treatment of laryngeal cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritoe, S.C.; Krabbe, P.F.M.; Janssen, M.L.H.; Festen, J.; Joosten, F.B.M.; Kaanders, J.H.A.M.; Hoogen, F.J.A. van den; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Marres, H.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: As a result of smoking, patients who have received curative treatment for laryngeal cancer run a high risk of developing lung cancer. Therefore, these patients enter a screening program that aims to detect lung cancer at an asymptomatic stage. The study evaluated whether

  5. Combined treatment of esophageal cancer: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesas, A.; Bagajevas, A.

    2004-01-01

    While still relatively uncommon in many countries, esophageal cancer is fatal in the vast majority of cases. In the USA, estimated 13,100 of new cases were diagnosed in 2002. In Lithuania, 163 new cases were diagnosed in 2001. Evidence for an association between environment, diet and esophageal cancer comes from the profound differences in incidence observed in different parts of the world. While the overall outlook for patients diagnosed with esophageal cancer has improved in the last 30 years, most patients are still present with advanced disease and their survival remains poor. Commonly etiology and risk factors of esophageal cancer are: cigarettes and alcohol, diet and other genetics factors. Only in 50% of patients with esophageal cancer clinically localized disease is present. National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines state that patients with clinically localized disease may be treated with resection or chemotherapy plus radiation. The overall survival rates for either surgery alone or combined chemotherapy and radiation appear equivalent. Chemoradiation as primary management of localized esophageal cancer has been shown to be superior in radiation alone. A series of randomized trials have demonstrated that adjuvant postoperative chemoradiation does not offer a survival advantage to patients with esophageal cancer. The superiority of preoperative chemoradiation over surgery alone in esophageal cancer has been demonstrated in a prospective trials. Recently published phase I and II studies have demonstrated moderate response rates to taxanes in esophageal cancer. Taxanes and irinotecan in combinations with platinum compounds and fluoropyrimidines are being tested in regimes with radiation. (author)

  6. Financial Burden of Cancer Drug Treatment in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Fadia; Khuri, Fadlo R; Adib, Salim M; Karam, Rita; Harb, Hilda; Awar, May; Zalloua, Pierre; Ammar, Walid

    2016-01-01

    The Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) in Lebanon provides cancer drugs free of charge for uninsured patients who account for more than half the total caseload. Other categories of cancer care are subsidized under more stringent eligibility criteria. MOPH's large database offers an excellent opportunity to analyze the cost of cancer treatment in Lebanon. Using utilization and spending data accumulated at MOPH during 20082013, the cost to the public budget of cancer drugs was assessed per case and per drug type. The average annual cost of cancer drugs was 6,475$ per patient. Total cancer drug costs were highest for breast cancer, followed by chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), colorectal cancer, lung cancer, and NonHodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), which together represented 74% of total MOPH cancer drug expenditure. The annual average cancer drug cost per case was highest for CML ($31,037), followed by NHL ($11,566). Trastuzumab represented 26% and Imatinib 15% of total MOPH cancer drug expenditure over six years. Sustained increase in cancer drug cost threatens the sustainability of MOPH coverage, so crucial for socially vulnerable citizens. To enhance the bargaining position with pharmaceutical firms for drug cost containment in a small market like Lebanon, drug price comparisons with neighboring countries which have already obtained lower prices may succeed in lowering drug costs.

  7. Micelles As Delivery System for Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Dilek; Tezcaner, Aysen

    2017-01-01

    Micelles are nanoparticles formed by the self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers in certain solvents above concentrations called critical micelle concentration (CMC). Micelles are used in different fields like food, cosmetics, medicine, etc. These nanosized delivery systems are under spotlight in the recent years with new achievements in terms of their in vivo stability, ability to protect entrapped drug, release kinetics, ease of cellular penetration and thereby increased therapeutic efficacy. Drug loaded micelles can be prepared by dialysis, oil-in-water method, solid dispersion, freezing, spray drying, etc. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the research on micelles (in vitro, in vivo and clinical) as delivery system for cancer treatment. Passive targeting is one route for accumulation of nanosized micellar drug formulations. Many research groups from both academia and industry focus on developing new strategies for improving the therapeutic efficacy of micellar systems (active targeting to the tumor site, designing multidrug delivery systems for overcoming multidrug resistance or micelles formed by prodrug conjugates, etc). There is only one micellar drug formulation in South Korea that has reached clinical practice. However, there are many untargeted anticancer drug loaded micellar formulations in clinical trials, which have potential for use in clinics. Many more products are expected to be on the market in the near future. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Risk of endometrial cancer after tamoxifen treatment of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.E. van Leeuwen (Flora); J. Benraadt (J.); J.W.W. Coebergh (Jan Willem); L.A.L.M. Kiemeney (Bart); C.H.F. Gimbrère (Charles); R. Otter (Renée); L.J. Scheuten (Leo); R.A. Damhuis (Ronald); M. Bontenbal (Marijke); A.I. Diepenhorst; A.W. van den Belt-Dusebout (Alexandra); H. van Tinteren (Harm)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractSince large trials have been set up to assess whether tamoxifen decreases the risk of breast cancer in healthy women, it has become important to investigate the drug's potential adverse effects, including occurrence of endometrial cancer. We undertook a case-control study in the

  9. [Touching cancer: shiatsu as complementary treatment to support cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argash, Oz; Caspi, Opher

    2008-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increase in the interest of cancer patients in receiving complementary medicine therapies as supportive measures to cure the disease. In response, medical units that combine conventional and complementary medicine (integrative medicine) have been established in leading cancer centers worldwide. In Israel, a special integrative medicine unit that combines mind-body, Chinese medicine, nutrition, herbs, supplements, and manual therapies (such as shiatsu) before, during and after conventional anti-cancer therapies has been established as an integral part of the Davidoff Comprehensive Cancer Center in 2006. Shiatsu represents a group of manual therapeutic techniques, including acupressure. Shiatsu offers cancer patients a non-pharmacologic method to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life throughout the course of illness. Research indicates that acupressure is relatively effective and safe for common cancer-related symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and insomnia. In our experience, shiatsu is also relatively effective and safe for other common symptoms such as fatigue, muscular pain and body image dissatisfaction. Yet, insufficient evidence exists to delineate the best means by which shiatsu and other manual therapies could or should be integrated into routine cancer care. The purpose of the present paper is to describe what is currently known about this topic in order to support decision-making that is based on facts, rather than on myths and misconceptions. We call for more research that examines the effectiveness and safety of shiatsu and other manual therapies in the care of cancer patients.

  10. National treatment in international trade: National law and international standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divljak Drago

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the paper is the principle of national treatment, namely one of the basic principles of international trade. The objective is to determine its outreach and contents set in the forms of international trade organising, primarily in the World Trade Organization, from a legal perspective, naturally, all in the context of the Serbian law. The analysis that has been carried out indicates that there is an obvious intention of our legislators to harmonise in principle our legislation with the WTO requirements and standards, which are incomplete themselves and cause disputes that are not resolved in the practice of dispute resolving either entirely or consistently. In our law, a step forward has been made in relation to the situation from the previous relevant legislation, because the application of this principle is extended not only to trade with goods but also to trade with services, and to industrial property rights. However, in the most significant, basic field, namely trade with goods, it is still being done in a general way, by simplifying the entire topic and bringing it down only to protection against discrimination and neglecting the sphere of protectionism. Such acting does not include all the complexity of this matter and it is not entirely harmonised with the WTO requirements. However, a good side of such an approach is that it gives the state more freedom for acting in this sphere, which may be acceptable in the transition period until full membership of Serbia in this organization.

  11. Treatment of locally advanced/locally recurrent breast cancer and inflammatory breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Masao [Tenri Hospital, Nara (Japan)

    2000-10-01

    This paper summarizes the treatment of locally advanced breast cancer, inflammatory breast cancer, and locally recurrent breast cancer. A multidisciplinary approach considering subclinical distant metastases is needed to treat these types of breast cancer. Subclinical distant metastasis is observed in about 80% of case of locally advanced cancer, and treatment of subclinical distant metastases, e.g., by endocrinotherapy and chemotherapy, is therefore essential to improving the prognosis. The standard therapy for unresectable locally advanced breast cancer consists of induction chemotherapy with anthracyclines and local treatment with mastectomy or irradiation. Previous reports have stated that induction chemotherapy was effective in 60-80% of the primary lesions or lymph node metastasis, and the CR rates were in the 10-20% range. Combination therapy with induction chemotherapy clearly improved the outcome over local treatment alone. The usual irradiation dose is 50 to 60 Gy/5 to 7 weeks to the whole breast or the thoracic wall. Boost irradiation at a dose of 10 to 25 Gy is performed in unresectable cases. The boost irradiation dose to the lymph node area is usually 45 to 50 Gy/5 to 6 weeks in cases without gross lesions and 10 to 15 Gy in cases with gross lesions. Combination therapy consisting of conservative pectoral mastectomy and postoperative adjuvant chemo- endocrino-therapy (i.e., adjuvant therapy) has become the standard regimen for treating resectable locally advanced breast cancer, because it significantly improves the recurrence rate and survival rate compared to local treatment alone. Some clinical have studies indicated that neoadjuvant therapy (i.e., induction chemotherapy + surgery/radiation therapy) is comparable or superior to adjuvant therapy in terms of improving the prognosis. However, the efficacy and most appropriate method of breast-conserving therapy after induction chemotherapy are still unclear. More clinical trials are needed. It has been

  12. Treatment of locally advanced/locally recurrent breast cancer and inflammatory breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Masao

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes the treatment of locally advanced breast cancer, inflammatory breast cancer, and locally recurrent breast cancer. A multidisciplinary approach considering subclinical distant metastases is needed to treat these types of breast cancer. Subclinical distant metastasis is observed in about 80% of case of locally advanced cancer, and treatment of subclinical distant metastases, e.g., by endocrinotherapy and chemotherapy, is therefore essential to improving the prognosis. The standard therapy for unresectable locally advanced breast cancer consists of induction chemotherapy with anthracyclines and local treatment with mastectomy or irradiation. Previous reports have stated that induction chemotherapy was effective in 60-80% of the primary lesions or lymph node metastasis, and the CR rates were in the 10-20% range. Combination therapy with induction chemotherapy clearly improved the outcome over local treatment alone. The usual irradiation dose is 50 to 60 Gy/5 to 7 weeks to the whole breast or the thoracic wall. Boost irradiation at a dose of 10 to 25 Gy is performed in unresectable cases. The boost irradiation dose to the lymph node area is usually 45 to 50 Gy/5 to 6 weeks in cases without gross lesions and 10 to 15 Gy in cases with gross lesions. Combination therapy consisting of conservative pectoral mastectomy and postoperative adjuvant chemo- endocrino-therapy (i.e., adjuvant therapy) has become the standard regimen for treating resectable locally advanced breast cancer, because it significantly improves the recurrence rate and survival rate compared to local treatment alone. Some clinical have studies indicated that neoadjuvant therapy (i.e., induction chemotherapy + surgery/radiation therapy) is comparable or superior to adjuvant therapy in terms of improving the prognosis. However, the efficacy and most appropriate method of breast-conserving therapy after induction chemotherapy are still unclear. More clinical trials are needed. It has been

  13. Enzyme targeting strategies for prevention and treatment of cancer: Implications for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Mohammad Hassan; Adil, Mohd; Khan, Rosina; Dhadi, Surendar; Ahmad, Khurshid; Rabbani, Gulam; Bashir, Tufail; Imran, Mohammad Azhar; Husain, Fohad Mabood; Lee, Eun Ju; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Choi, Inho

    2017-12-14

    Extensive growth of cancer in humans is a major cause of death. Numerous studies are being conducted to improve the early diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of cancer. Recent technological advancements in medical science and research indicate molecular target therapy holds much promise in cancer treatment. In the past, therapeutic and diagnostic targeting of non-glycolytic and glycolytic enzymes in cancer have been successful, and discoveries of biomarker enzymes in cancer hold promise for therapeutic treatments. In this review, we discuss the roles of several cancer-associated enzymes that could potentially act as therapeutic targets, and place special focus on non-glycolytic and glycolytic enzymes. This review indicates that the targeting of metabolic signaling offers a promising means of developing novel anti-cancer therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Selenium Containing Inhibitor for the Treatment of Hepatocellular Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hephzibah Rani S. Tagaram

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the third most deadly cancer in the world. New treatment strategies are desperately needed due to limited standard therapies. Activation of the Erk, Akt, and STAT3pathways is implicated in the prognosis of HCC. The Se,Se′-1,4-phenylenebis(1,2-ethanediyl bisisoselenourea (PBISe, is a selenium-containing MAPK and PI3 kinase inhibitor, effectively inhibit tumorigenesis in a variety of experimental models. The aim of our study is to demonstrate the potential role of PBISe in the treatment of HCC. The anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic ability of PBISe is studied in vitro in four human HCC cell lines and in vivo in a spontaneous murine HCC model. Inhibition of cancer growth was performed by cell viability assay and apoptosis by caspase 3/7, PARP cleavage, annexin-V, and TUNEL assays. Role of PBISe on PI3 kinase, MAPK and STAT3 signaling is determined by Western blotting. In vivo effects of PBISe on tumor sizes were monitored using MRI in a spontaneous murine HCC. Liver tissues from the PBISe-treated mice are analyzed for angiogenesis, proliferation, and signaling pathway markers. Overall, PBISe activated caspase-3/7 and increased DNA fragmentation, which is positively correlated with the increased PARP cleavage. PBISe promoted apoptosis by inhibiting PI3K, MAPK, and STAT3 signaling with significant reduction in the tumor sizes (p < 0.007. PBISe-treated tumors reduced survival marker PCNA, and angiogenesis markers Vegf-A, Vegf-R3 and CD34. These results demonstrate the chemotherapeutic effects of PBISe, by inhibiting tumor growth and facilitating tumor apoptosis for HCC treatment.

  15. Ketogenic Diet and The Treatment of Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Somayeh Zaminpira; Sorush Niknamian

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Researchers estimate that 595,690 Americans will die from cancer in 2017. That means approximately 1,600 deaths per day on average.39 Cancer is most commonly treated with a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and radiation. Many different diet strategies have been studied, but none have been particularly effective. Interestingly, there is some applied research suggesting that a very low-carb ketogenic diet may help.40, 41, 42 ...

  16. Repurposing Cationic Amphiphilic Antihistamines for Cancer Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Anne-Marie; Dehlendorff, Christian; Vind, Anna C.

    2016-01-01

    non-localized cancer, and ebastine use showed a similar tendency. The association between CAD antihistamine use and reduced mortality was stronger among patients with records of concurrent chemotherapy than among those without such records. In line with this, sub-micromolar concentrations...... of loratadine, astemizole and ebastine sensitized NSCLC cells to chemotherapy and reverted multidrug resistance in NSCLC, breast and prostate cancer cells. Thus, CAD antihistamines may improve the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy...

  17. Functional results after treatment for rectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrine Jossing Emmertsen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With improving survival of rectal cancer, functional outcome has become in- creasingly important. Following sphincter-preserving resection many patients suffer from severe bowel dysfunction with an impact on quality of life (QoL – referred to as low ante- rior resection syndrome (LARS. Study objective: To provide an overview of the current knowledge of LARS regarding symp- tomatology, occurrence, risk factors, pathophysiology, evaluation instruments and treat- ment options. Results: LARS is characterized by urgency, frequent bowel movements, emptying difficulties and incontinence, and occurs in up to 50-75% of patients on a long-term basis. Known risk factors are low anastomosis, use of radiotherapy, direct nerve injury and straight anasto- mosis. The pathophysiology seems to be multifactorial, with elements of anatomical, sen- sory and motility dysfunction. Use of validated instruments for evaluation of LARS is es- sential. Currently, there is a lack of evidence for treatment of LARS. Yet, transanal irrigation and sacral nerve stimulation are promising. Conclusion: LARS is a common problem following sphincter-preserving resection. All pa- tients should be informed about the risk of LARS before surgery, and routinely be screened for LARS postoperatively. Patients with severe LARS should be offered treatment in order to improve QoL. Future focus should be on the possibilities of non-resectional treatment in order to prevent LARS. Resumo: Introdução: Com o aumento da sobrevida após câncer retal, o resultado funcional se tornou cada vez mais importante. Após ressecção com preservação do esfíncter, muitos pacientes sofrem de disfunção intestinal com um impacto sobre a qualidade de vida (QdV – denomi- nada síndrome da ressecção anterior baixa (LARS. Objetivo do estudo: Fornecer uma visão geral do conhecimento atual da LARS com relação à sintomatologia, à ocorrência, aos fatores de risco, à fisiopatologia, aos

  18. Final height in survivors of childhood cancer compared with Height Standard Deviation Scores at diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knijnenburg, S. L.; Raemaekers, S.; van den Berg, H.; van Dijk, I. W. E. M.; Lieverst, J. A.; van der Pal, H. J.; Jaspers, M. W. M.; Caron, H. N.; Kremer, L. C.; van Santen, H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Our study aimed to evaluate final height in a cohort of Dutch childhood cancer survivors (CCS) and assess possible determinants of final height, including height at diagnosis. We calculated standard deviation scores (SDS) for height at initial cancer diagnosis and height in adulthood in a cohort of

  19. Classification of treatment-related mortality in children with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, Sarah; Pole, Jason D; Gibson, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Treatment-related mortality is an important outcome in paediatric cancer clinical trials. An international group of experts in supportive care in paediatric cancer developed a consensus-based definition of treatment-related mortality and a cause-of-death attribution system. The reliability...... and validity of the system was tested in 30 deaths, which were independently assessed by two clinical research associates and two paediatric oncologists. We defined treatment-related mortality as death occurring in the absence of progressive cancer. Of the 30 reviewed deaths, the reliability of classification...

  20. Palbociclib: A new hope in the treatment of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Priyadharsini Palanisamy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer being one of the common cancers has high morbidity and mortality. Despite the conventional treatment, the burden of the disease increases year after year. There is a need for newer drugs that target the different mechanisms in the pathogenesis. The interaction of cyclins with cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs plays a major role in the abnormal cell cycle in cancer and it is considered to be an important target. Palbociclib is a CDK inhibitor currently approved for the treatment of breast cancer. The preclinical studies with breast cancer lines were sensitive to palbociclib and the clinical trials phase I, phase II (PALOMA 1, and phase III (PALOMA 2, 3, PENTELOPE, PEARL showed that the drug was efficacious when combined other conventional drugs for breast cancer. Palbociclib was also been tested in various other germ cell tumors, melanoma, multiple myeloma, glioblastoma multiforme etc., The major adverse effect of the drug includes hematological toxicity mainly neutropenia, gastrointestinal adverse effects.

  1. Radiotherapy for cancer treatment: A growing priority for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo Evans, Rogelio

    2001-01-01

    , there was a deplorable accident with one of the cobalt units. In 1996, 115 patients were seriously over-irradiated. This sad event made cancer a very important political and medical issue in Costa Rica. As a consequence of this accident, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) made a comprehensive assessment that revealed deficiencies in quality assurance practices. The assessment also established that a) the radiotherapy equipment had exceeded its useful life, estimated at 15 years; b) the country lacked adequate treatment standards; c) there was a shortage of trained personnel; and d) some brachytherapy equipment had expired 10 years previously. Because of this situation, the Costa Rican Institute Against Cancer (known by the acronym ICCC in Spanish) was created in 1998. Its mission is to support and promote cancer prevention and control. An important fact is that the legislation creating the ICCC states as a priority the construction of a specialized hospital. Planning for the new facility was based on the estimated 7,000 new cancer cases every year in Costa Rica, of which 40% (2,800 patients) involve radio-sensitive tumors Of these, about 30% (840 patients) must receive linear accelerator therapy. Given that each linear accelerator may treat 400 patients a year, and taking into consideration that the construction of a specialized hospital must be through public contract (a very complicated and slow process in Costa Rica), the Costa Rican Social Security Fund (Spanish acronym CCSS) decided to purchase three new cobalt units (THERATON 780-E Model 2000), new brachytherapy equipment, two linear accelerators, and X-ray equipment for superficial therapy. Likewise, an early detection program was implemented for cancer of the uterine cervix, which now covers 96% of its target population. A pilot plan for breast cancer detection was started. There are also plans to implement a nationwide gastric cancer detection program, currently sponsored by the Japanese Government

  2. Validity of self-reported fertility-threatening cancer treatments in female young adult cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Samantha C; Knight, Amber; Whitcomb, Brian W; Gorman, Jessica R; Dietz, Andrew C; Irene Su, H

    2017-08-01

    Detailed cancer treatment information is important to fertility and pregnancy care of female young adult cancer survivors. Accuracy of self-report of treatments that impact fertility and pregnancy is unknown. This study assessed agreement between self-report and medical records on receipt of fertility-threatening treatments. A national cohort study of female young adult cancer survivors reported cancer treatments via Web-based questionnaires. Primary cancer treatment records were abstracted. Self-reported exposure to fertility-threatening therapies (alkylating chemotherapy, stem cell transplant, pelvic radiation, hysterectomy, and/or oophorectomy) was compared to medical records. Logistic regression models estimated odds ratios (OR) for characteristics associated with inaccurate self-report of fertility-threatening therapies. The study included 101 survivors (mean age 28.2, SD 6.3). Lymphoma (33%), breast cancer (26%), and gynecologic cancers (10%) were the most common cancers. Accuracy of self-report was 68% for alkylating chemotherapy and 92-97% for radiation, surgery, and transplant. Significant proportions of survivors who were treated with transplant (8/13, 62%), alkylating chemotherapy (18/43, 42%), pelvic radiation (4/13, 31%), or hysterectomy and/or oophorectomy (3/13, 23%) did not report undergoing these therapies. In adjusted analysis, age ≤ 25 at diagnosis (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.3-8.7) and recurrence (OR 6.0, 95% CI 1.5-24.4) were related to inaccurate self-report. Female young adult cancer survivors have limited recall of fertility-threatening cancer treatment exposures. Reproductive health providers and researchers who need this information may require primary medical records or treatment summaries. Additional patient education regarding treatment-related reproductive risks is needed to facilitate patient engagement in survivorship. Obtaining a cancer treatment summary will help survivors communicate their prior treatment exposures to reproductive

  3. Factors related to treatment refusal in Taiwanese cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Ting-Yu; Wang, Chao-Hui; Lin, Yu-Fen; Chou, Shu-Lan; Wang, Ching-Ting; Juang, Hsiao-Ting; Lin, Yung-Chang; Lin, Mei-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    Incidence and mortality rates for cancer have increased dramatically in the recent 30 years in Taiwan. However, not all patients receive treatment. Treatment refusal might impair patient survival and life quality. In order to improve this situation, we proposed this study to evaluate factors that are related to refusal of treatment in cancer patients via a cancer case manager system. This study analysed data from a case management system during the period from 2010 to 2012 at a medical center in Northern Taiwan. We enrolled a total of 14,974 patients who were diagnosed with cancer. Using the PRECEDE Model as a framework, we conducted logistic regression analysis to identify independent variables that are significantly associated with refusal of therapy in cancer patients. A multivariate logistic regression model was also applied to estimate adjusted the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). A total of 253 patients (1.69%) refused treatment. The multivariate logistic regression result showed that the high risk factors for refusal of treatment in cancer patient included: concerns about adverse effects (prefuse treatment have poor survival. The present study provides evidence of factors that are related to refusal of therapy and might be helpful for further application and improvement of cancer care.

  4. Risk of skin cancer following tamoxifen treatment in more than 16,000 breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Præstegaard, Camilla; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Andersson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    diagnosed with breast cancer during 1977–2007 from the nationwide clinical database of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group, was followed for a primary skin cancer [basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or melanoma] in the Danish Cancer Registry supplemented by data on BCC and SCC......Background: Women with breast cancer are at increased risk of developing skin cancer. Little is known about how tamoxifen affects this risk. We aimed to investigate whether tamoxifen treatment following breast cancer is associated with skin cancer. Methods: A cohort consisting of 44,589 women...... from the Danish Pathology Register. We investigated incidence of skin cancer among 16,214 women treated with tamoxifen compared to 28,375 women not treated with tamoxifen by calculating incidence rate ratios (IRRs) in Cox regression models. Results: Tamoxifen users were followed for a median of 2...

  5. Late effects of treatment of cancer in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastore, G.; Antonelli, R.; Fine, W.; Li, F.P.; Sallan, S.E.

    1982-01-01

    Eighty-six children were diagnosed with cancer in infancy, followed for at lest 5 years, and assessed for late effects of disease and therapy. One child subsequently died from respiratory failure and 3 died from second primary cancers. Another patient survived second primary cancers of the skin. The high frequency of new cancers (4 observed, 0.09 expected) was attributable to host susceptibility factors and treatment effects. Kyphoscoliosis was diagnosed in 44 patients, 40 of whom had received radiotherapy to the spine. Other patients had neurologic deficits, pulmonary fibrosis, hypoplastic breasts, bowel adhesions, thyroid nodules, musculoskeletal defects, and liver fibrosis associated with tumor therapy. Sequelae of cancer were more common after treatment in infancy than in later childhood. Improved treatments and knowledge of natural history can reduce adverse effects of therapy

  6. Genome Science and Personalized Cancer Treatment (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Joe

    2009-08-04

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Results from the Human Genome Project are enabling scientists to understand how individual cancers form and progress. This information, when combined with newly developed drugs, can optimize the treatment of individual cancers. Joe Gray, director of Berkeley Labs Life Sciences Division and Associate Laboratory Director for Life and Environmental Sciences, will focus on this approach, its promise, and its current roadblocks — particularly with regard to breast cancer.

  7. The Future of Prostate Cancer Research and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    On January 12, 2017 prostate cancer experts William Dahut, M.D. of the National Cancer Institute and Dr. Heather Cheng, M.D. of the University of Washington had a vibrant discussion about current and future research areas and treatment options for prostate cancer. The panel was moderated by Ana Fadich, MPH, CHES Vice President at Men’s Health of the Men's Health Network.

  8. The place of radiotherapy in the treatment of vulva cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belajouza, S.; Said, N.; Yahiaoui, S.; Bouauoina, N.

    2011-01-01

    The authors discuss the therapeutic aspects of the treatment of vulva cancers. This analytic retrospective study is based on a set of 15 patients who have been treated between 1996 and 2010, for an epidermoid cancer for 14 of them. Eleven of them have been irradiated. This rare cancer has a negative prognosis, mainly because of early ganglionary metastases. Radiotherapy (external or interstitial curie-therapy) is a prevailing therapeutic tool. Chemotherapy is emerging, notably concomitantly with radiotherapy. Short communication

  9. Stem Cell Therapy and Breast Cancer Treatment: review of stem cell research and potential therapeutic impact against cardiotoxicities due to breast cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Sharp

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A new problem has emerged with the ever-increasing number of breast cancer survivors. While early screening and advances in treatment have allowed these patients to overcome their cancer, these treatments often have adverse cardiovascular side effects that can produce abnormal cardiovascular function. Chemotherapeutic and radiation therapy have both been linked to cardiotoxicity; these therapeutics can cause a loss of cardiac muscle and deterioration of vascular structure that can eventually lead to heart failure (HF. This cardiomyocyte toxicity can leave the breast cancer survivor with a probable diagnosis of dilated or restrictive cardiomyopathy (DCM or RCM. While current HF standard of care can alleviate symptoms, other than heart transplantation, there is no therapy that replaces cardiac myocytes that are killed during cancer therapies. There is a need to develop novel therapeutics that can either prevent or reverse the cardiac injury caused by cancer therapeutics. These new therapeutics should promote the regeneration of lost or deteriorating myocardium. Over the last several decades the therapeutic potential of cell-based therapy has been investigated for HF patients. In this review we discuss the progress of preclinical and clinical stem cell research for the diseased heart and discuss the possibility of utilizing these novel therapies to combat cardiotoxicity observed in breast cancer survivors.

  10. The Changing Landscape of Lung Cancer Research and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Along with the Lung Cancer Social Media (#LCSM) community, the National Cancer Institute will be co-hosting a lively and interactive Google Hangout on Air about the changing landscape of lung cancer research and treatment. During the chat, viewers will have the opportunity to pose questions to a panel of lung cancer experts including NCI's Dr. Shakun Malik, the head of thoracic oncology therapeutics, Roy S. Herbst, MD, PhD, Chief of Medical Oncology, Yale Cancer Center and Smilow Cancer Hospital at Yale-New Haven and David Tom Cooke MD FACS, Head, Section of General Thoracic Surgery University of California, Davis. You can also learn more and follow along on the #LCSM Chat page. The chat will be moderated by lung cancer advocate and #LCSM co-founder, Janet Freeman-Daily. To ask questions of our experts, simply use the #LCSM hashtag during the chat.

  11. RAMBAs for Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    dUTP nick -end-labelling) reaction mixture containing the enzyme terminal transferase and the label solution for 60 min at 371C in a humidified atmosphere...cancer cells. Breast Cancer Res Treat 79: 321 – 328 Korsching E, Packeisen J, Angelopoulos K, Eisenacher M, Voss R, Isola J, Van diest PJ, Brandt B

  12. The Treatment of Cancer through Hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Bruce

    1985-01-01

    This report traces the immunological components of the cancer process and illustrates how vital a role is played by stress. The work of the Simontons is used to discuss the relationship between stress, the immune system and cancer. Hypnotic visualization techniques and their effects on the immune system are also reviewed. (Author)

  13. Treatment Extends Survival for Women with Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who received gemcitabine (Gemzar®) both as part of initial treatment and as part of therapy following primary treatment had improved survival compared with patients whose treatment did not include gemcitabine, according to findings presented at the 2009 ASCO meeting in Orlando.

  14. Radical radiotherapy for urinary bladder cancer: treatment outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fokdal, Lars; Høyer, Morten; Maase, Hans von der

    2006-01-01

    The exact value of radiotherapy in the treatment of muscle-invasive       bladder cancer is difficult to establish, as most studies exploring this       issue are retrospective with different procedures for selecting patients       for treatment, as well as varying treatment strategies. An estimate...

  15. Psychotropic medication during endocrine treatment for breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bock, G.H.; Musters, R.F.; Bos, H.J.; Schroder, C.P.; Mourits, M.J.; de Jong-van den Berg, [No Value

    Psychological problems are frequently mentioned in women treated for breast cancer in whom depression is mentioned as the most common disorder. The aim was to study the prescription of psychotropic medication in women with endocrine treatment for breast cancer in women in our prospective and

  16. Review of hormonal treatment of breast cancer | Abdulkareem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This critical review focuses on the role of steroid hormones and their receptors in the development and treatment of breast cancer, with special reference to estrogen receptors, as well as mechanisms of receptor.ligand interactions, response or resistance to hormonal therapy against breast cancer, in conjunction with other ...

  17. Gastric cancer : staging, treatment, and surgical quality assurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikken, Johannes Leen

    2012-01-01

    Research described in this thesis focuses on several aspects of gastric cancer care: staging and prognostication, multimodality treatment, and surgical quality assurance. PART I - STAGING AND PROGNOSTICATION Cancer staging is one of the fundamental activities in oncology.6,7 For over 50 years, the

  18. Megestrol acetate in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Alexieva-Figusch (Jana)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractThere are many non-elucidated questions concerning cancer, especially of the breast, in which hormones are involved. The scope of this particular study is to bring more clarity on the role of the progestin megestrol acetate in the hormonal treatment of breast cancer. It should be kept in

  19. Delayed treatment of symptomatic breast cancer: The experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. A cross-sectional study carried out at a teaching hospital in Kaduna, Nigeria, to investigate the extent and reasons for the delay between onset of symptoms and admission for treatment of symptomatic breast cancer. Methods. The patients had histologically proven breast cancer and had been admitted for ...

  20. Delays in presentation and treatment of breast cancer in Enugu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To assess the delays and define the causes of delay in presentation and treatment of breast cancer patients inEnugu,Nigeria. Across-sectional survey of breast cancer patients using a semi structured questionnaire. SurgicalOncology unit,University ofNigeriaTeachingHospitalEnugu, (UNTH-E),Nigeria. 164 consecutively ...

  1. The efficacy of Apaziquone in the treatment of bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caramés Masana, Francisco; de Reijke, Theo M.

    2017-01-01

    Bladder cancer is nowadays a common tumor. Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has still chances of recurrence and progression in spite of surgery and adjuvant treatments. New therapies are being developed to reduce these percentages with less adverse effects - Apaziquone (EO9) is an example.

  2. Biomedical Engineering 2008. New methods for cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanninen, J.; Koskelainen, A.; Ilmoniemi, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    The report consists of 11 student papers presented in 2008 at the Seminar on Biomedical Engineering at Helsinki University of Technology (Finland). The topics of the seminar included: cancer risk factors and diagnosis, radiation therapy, boron neutron capture treatment (BNCT), chemotherapy, cooling and heating therapy, immunotherapy, angiogenesis inhibition approaches, gene therapy and ablation therapy of liver cancer

  3. Epigenetics application in the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb-de la Rosa, Alfredo; Acker, Matthew; Kumar, Raj A; Manoharan, Murugesan

    2015-10-01

    Bladder cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the Western world. Patients with bladder cancer require close monitoring, which may include frequent cystoscopy and urine cytology. Such monitoring results in significant health care cost. The application of epigenetics may allow for a risk adapted approach and more cost-effective method of monitoring. A number of epigenetic changes have been described for many cancer sites, including the urinary bladder. In this review, we discuss the use of epigenetics in bladder cancer and the potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications. A comprehensive search of the English medical literature was conducted in PubMed using the terms microRNA regulation, DNA methylation, histone modification and bladder cancer. The most important epigenetic changes include DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA regulation. Both DNA hypomethylation and hypermethylation have been associated with higher rate of cancer. The association of epigenetic changes with bladder cancer has led to the research of its diagnostic and prognostic implications as well as to the development of novel drugs to target these changes with the aim of achieving a survival benefit. Recently, epigenetics has been shown to play a much greater role than previously anticipated in the initiation and propagation of many tumors. The use of epigenetics for the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer is an evolving and promising field. The possibility of reversing epigenetic changes may facilitate additional cancer treatment options in the future.

  4. Indigenous Australians with non-small cell lung cancer or cervical cancer receive suboptimal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whop, Lisa J; Bernardes, Christina M; Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, Srinivas; Darshan, Deepak; Chetty, Naven; Moore, Suzanne P; Garvey, Gail; Walpole, Euan; Baade, Peter; Valery, Patricia C

    2017-10-01

    Lung cancer and cervical cancer are higher in incidence for Indigenous Australians and survival is worse compared with non-Indigenous Australians. Here we aim to determine if being Indigenous and/or other factors are associated with patients receiving "suboptimal treatment" compared to "optimal treatment" according to clinical guidelines for two cancer types. Data were collected from hospital medical records for Indigenous adults diagnosed with cervical cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and a frequency-matched comparison group of non-Indigenous patients in the Queensland Cancer Registry between January 1998 and December 2004. The two cancer types were analyzed separately. A total of 105 women with cervical cancer were included in the study, 56 of whom were Indigenous. Indigenous women had higher odds of not receiving optimal treatment according to clinical guidelines (unadjusted OR 7.1; 95% CI, 1.5-33.3), even after adjusting for stage (OR 5.7; 95% CI, 1.2-27.3). Of 225 patients with NSCLC, 198 patients (56% Indigenous) had sufficient information available to be analyzed. The odds of receiving suboptimal treatment were significantly higher for Indigenous compared to non-Indigenous NSCLC patients (unadjusted OR 1.9; 95% CI, 1.0-3.6) and remained significant after adjusting for stage, comorbidity and age (adjusted OR 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1-4.1). The monitoring of treatment patterns and appraisal against guidelines can provide valuable evidence of inequity in cancer treatment. We found that Indigenous people with lung cancer or cervical cancer received suboptimal treatment, reinforcing the need for urgent action to reduce the impact of these two cancer types on Indigenous people. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Pharmacological treatment of depression in women with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegård Andersen, Lærke; Voigt Hansen, Melissa; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    that escitalopram and the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, reboxetine, significantly improved depression and QOL compared with baseline values. In conclusion, depression is a clinical problem in patients with breast cancer. Pharmacological treatment with antidepressants may improve depression and QOL. However...

  6. Effects of Cancer Treatment on Fertility (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Effects of Cancer Treatment on Fertility KidsHealth / For Parents / ... infertile couple's embryo via in vitro fertilization. Emotional Effects As you explore the options, it's important to ...

  7. Treatment of the prostate cancer with high dose rate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Alvaro; Torres Silva, Felipe

    2002-01-01

    The prostate cancer treatment in early stages is controversial. The high dose rate brachytherapy has been used like monotherapy or boost with external beam radiotherapy in advanced disease. This paper describes the technique and the advantages over other modalities

  8. Uptodate view on diagnostics and treatment of medullary thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D O Gazizova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During last 4 years leading endocrine societies of the world published clinical recommendations on diag nostics and treatment of medullary thyroid cancer. The article covers most aspects of following patients with this pathology.

  9. Cancer Care Gets Personal: How Tumor Treatments Are Changing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... January 2018 Print this issue Cancer Care Gets Personal How Tumor Treatments Are Changing En español Send ... also be passed down from your parents. These insights have led scientists to look for the unique ...

  10. Successful Treatment of Gastric Cancer in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Yoshida

    2009-09-01

    Conclusion: Diagnosis of gastric cancer in pregnant women is often delayed even when they are symptomatic, because the symptoms are taken to be symptoms of hyperemesis or expansion of the uterus. However, since the nausea and vomiting arising from hyperemesis generally improves by the 20th week of gestation, the presence of protracted digestive symptoms in the second trimester calls for prompt investigation of digestive disorders. This case highlights the importance of early detection of gastric cancer for a positive prognosis, considering the rapidity with which gastric cancer advances in pregnancy.

  11. Theranostic nanomedicine for cancer detection and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhen; Fu, Peter P; Yu, Hongtao; Ray, Paresh C

    2014-03-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the USA according to the American Cancer Society. In the past 5 years, "theranostic nanomedicine", for both therapeutics and imaging, has shown to be "the right drug for the right patient at the right moment" to manage deadly cancers. This review article presents an overview of recent developments, mainly from the authors' laboratories, along with potential medical applications for theranostic nanomedicine including basic concepts and critical properties. Finally, we outline the future research direction and possible challenges for theranostic nanomedicine research. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Availability of stage at diagnosis, cancer treatment delay and compliance with cancer guidelines as cancer registry indicators for cancer care in Europe: Results of EUROCHIP-3 survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; Kwast, A.; Gavin, A.; Baili, P.; Otter, R.

    2013-01-01

    EUROCHIP (European Cancer Health Indicators Project) focuses on understanding inequalities in the cancer burden, care and survival by the indicators “stage at diagnosis,” “cancer treatment delay” and “compliance with cancer guidelines” as the most important indicators. Our study aims at providing

  13. ROS-modulated therapeutic approaches in cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Muhammad Hassan; Siraj, Sami; Arshad, Abida; Waheed, Usman; Aldakheel, Fahad; Alduraywish, Shatha; Arshad, Muhammad

    2017-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in cancer cells as a result of increased metabolic rate, dysfunction of mitochondria, elevated cell signaling, expression of oncogenes and increased peroxisome activities. Certain level of ROS is required by cancer cells, above or below which lead to cytotoxicity in cancer cells. This biochemical aspect can be exploited to develop novel therapeutic agents to preferentially and selectively target cancer cells. We searched various electronic databases including PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar for peer-reviewed english-language articles. Selected articles ranging from research papers, clinical studies, and review articles on the ROS production in living systems, its role in cancer development and cancer treatment, and the role of microbiota in ROS-dependent cancer therapy were analyzed. This review highlights oxidative stress in tumors, underlying mechanisms of different relationships of ROS and cancer cells, different ROS-mediated therapeutic strategies and the emerging role of microbiota in cancer therapy. Cancer cells exhibit increased ROS stress and disturbed redox homeostasis which lead to ROS adaptations. ROS-dependent anticancer therapies including ROS scavenging anticancer therapy and ROS boosting anticancer therapy have shown promising results in vitro as well as in vivo. In addition, response to cancer therapy is modulated by the human microbiota which plays a critical role in systemic body functions.

  14. Total-body photography in skin cancer screening: the clinical utility of standardized imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Alexandra; Meyerle, Jon H

    2017-05-01

    Early detection of skin cancer is essential to reducing morbidity and mortality from both melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Total-body skin examinations (TBSEs) may improve early detection of malignant melanomas (MMs) but are controversial due to the poor quality of data available to establish a mortality benefit from skin cancer screening. Total-body photography (TBP) promises to provide a way forward by lowering the costs of dermatologic screening while simultaneously leveraging technology to increase patient access to dermatologic care. Standardized TBP also offers the ability for dermatologists to work synergistically with modern computer technology involving algorithms capable of analyzing high-quality images to flag concerning lesions that may require closer evaluation. On a population level, inexpensive TBP has the potential to increase access to skin cancer screening and it has several specific applications in a military population. The utility of standardized TBP is reviewed in the context of skin cancer screening and teledermatology.

  15. Intentions to use Hypnosis to Control the Side Effects of Cancer and its Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohl, Stephanie J.; Stossel, Lauren; Schnur, Julie B.; Tatrow, Kristin; Gherman, Amfiana; Montgomery, Guy H.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that hypnosis is an effective intervention for reducing distress, pain and other side effects associated with cancer and its treatment. However, hypnosis has failed to be adopted into standard clinical practice. This study (n=115) investigated overall intentions to use hypnosis to control side effects of cancer and its treatment, as well as demographic predictors of such intentions among healthy volunteers. Results suggest that the vast majority of patients (89%) would be willing to use hypnosis to control side effects associated with cancer treatment. Mean intention levels did not differ by gender, ethnicity, education or age. These results indicate that in the general public, there is a willingness to consider the use of hypnosis, and that willingness is not determined by demographic factors. This broad acceptance of hypnosis argues for more widespread dissemination. PMID:21049742

  16. Improving Therapeutic Ratio in Head and Neck Cancer with Adjuvant and Cisplatin-Based Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana G. Marcu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced head and neck cancers are difficult to manage despite the large treatment arsenal currently available. The multidisciplinary effort to increase disease-free survival and diminish normal tissue toxicity was rewarded with better locoregional control and sometimes fewer side effects. Nevertheless, locoregional recurrence is still one of the main reasons for treatment failure. Today, the standard of care in head and neck cancer management is represented by altered fractionation radiotherapy combined with platinum-based chemotherapy. Targeted therapies as well as chronotherapy were trialled with more or less success. The aim of the current work is to review the available techniques, which could contribute towards a higher therapeutic ratio in the treatment of advanced head and neck cancer patients.

  17. Experience in the treatment of IMRT in prostate cancer. Planning, dosimetry and quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Barrado, A.; Garcia Vicente, F.; Fernandez Bedoya, V.; Bermudez Luna, R.; Perez Gonzalez, L.; Torres Escobar, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to review the treatment of prostate cancer at our center. A description of the entire procedure, involving clinical dosimetry, and procedures for verification of treatment, including physical dosimetry and parallel computing system MSure (Standard Imaging, Inc., Middleton) as part of these procedures. This system is based on the model published by trifuente Yang et al. (Yang et al. 2002) for testing treatments regarding the number of monitor unit (MU) given. In addition, this software has a module for the testing of treatments for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), which will be analyzed in this study.

  18. Cancer survivorship: A positive side-effect of more successful cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Charlotte Moser

    2014-06-01

    In 2012, the European Organisation of Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC Survivorship Task Force was created to focus research efforts on late morbidity of cancer treatment and its impact on society. On 30–31st January 2014, the 1st EORTC Cancer Survivorship Summit was organised to facilitate interaction between clinicians, researchers, social workers, patients, insurers, bankers and policy makers. This important event addressed the needs of cancer survivors, and new collaborations between academic groups, patient advocates, financial and political representatives were formed to guide future European research and health policies in this field. This special issue of the European Journal of Cancer is entirely dedicated to this Summit and addresses, respectively, second malignancies, cardiovascular disease, cognitive dysfunction, infertility/sexuality and psycho-social problems following cancer treatment.

  19. Laparoscopy for the management of early-stage endometrial cancer: from experimental to standard of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acholonu, Uchenna C; Chang-Jackson, Shao-Chun R; Radjabi, A Reza; Nezhat, Farr R

    2012-01-01

    We performed a search of PUBMED and MEDLINE for articles concerning surgical management of early stage endometrial cancer from 1950 to 2011. From the articles collected we extracted data such as estimated blood loss, operating room time, complications, conversion to laparotomy, and length of hospital stay. Forty-seven relevant sources were analyzed. The patients in the laparoscopy group had less blood loss, fewer complications, longer operating room times, and a shorter length of stay. Lymph node count was similar in both groups. Although obesity is not a contraindication to laparoscopy, it does lead to a higher conversion rate. Route of surgical treatment had no impact on recurrence or survival. Robotic surgery has significant advantages over laparotomy, but advantages over laparoscopy are not as distinct. Laparoscopic hysterectomy offers several advantages over laparotomy. These advantages relate to improvements in patient care with comparable clinical outcome. After careful analysis we believe laparoscopy should be the standard of care for surgical management of early stage endometrial cancer. Copyright © 2012 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cancer Stem Cells – New Approach to Cancerogenensis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Mačingová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there is an increasing evidence supporting the theory of cancer stem cells not only in leukemia but also in solid cancer. To date, the existence of cancer stem cells has been proven in acute and chronic myeloid leukemia, in breast cancer, in brain tumors, in lung cancer and gastrointestinal tumors. This review is focusing on the recent discovery of stem cells in leukemia, human brain tumors and breast cancer. A small population of cells in the tumor (less than 1 % shows the potential to give rise to the tumor and its growth. These cells have a substantial characteristic of stem cells – ability for self-renewal without loss of proliferation capacity with each cell division. Furthermore they are immortal, rather resistant to treatment and express typical markers of stem cells. The origin of these resident cancer stem cells is not clear. Whether the cancer stem cells originate from normal stem cells in consequence of genetic and epigenetic changes and/or redifferentiation from somatic tumor cells to the stem-like cells remains to be investigated. We propose the idea of the relation between normal tissue stem cells and cancer stem cells and their populations – progenitor cells. Based on this we highlight one of the major characteristic of stem cell – plasticity, which is equally important in the physiological regeneration process as well as carcinogenesis. Furthermore, we consider the microenvironment as a limiting factor for tumor genesis in AML, breast cancer and brain tumors. Thus the biological properties of cancer stem cells are just beginning to be revealed, the continuation of these studies should lead to the development of cancer stem cells target therapies for cancer treatment.

  1. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... treat or cure cancer? According to the Federal Trade Commission, consumers should talk to their doctor before ... gov Accessibility Digital Government Strategy Open Government Federal Trade Commission Headquarters: 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW Washington, DC ...

  2. Facing Forward Series: Life After Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Tools, Specimens, and Data Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog ... Levels of Evidence: Integrative Therapies Fact Sheets NCI Dictionaries NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms NCI Drug Dictionary ...

  3. Treatment Options (by Stage) for Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of surgery : Local excision or simple polypectomy . Resection and anastomosis . This is done when the tumor is too ... stage I colon cancer usually includes the following: Resection and anastomosis . Use our clinical trial search to find NCI- ...

  4. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cure cancer? According to the Federal Trade Commission, consumers should talk to their doctor before trying or buying such products and should not stop or delay their conventional ... October 4, 2017 Media Resources ...

  5. Effects of Presurgical Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, men diagnosed with androgen-sensitive prostate cancer with intermediate- or high-risk features will be examined with mpMRI, undergo targeted biopsies, and be treated with neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy.

  6. Alternative Cancer Treatments: 11 Options to Consider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... practice guidelines for integrative oncology: Complementary therapies and botanicals. Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology. 2009;7:85. Deng GE, et al. Complementary therapies and integrative medicine in lung cancer: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice ...

  7. Treatment Options by Stage (Gastric Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be at risk. Risk factors for gastric cancer include the following: Having any of the following medical conditions : Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection of the stomach. Chronic gastritis ( inflammation of the stomach). Pernicious anemia . Intestinal metaplasia ( ...

  8. When your cancer treatment stops working

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... see what they cover. Dealing with Symptoms of Advanced Cancer You may think that symptoms will get ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  9. The Prime Cause and Treatment of Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Somayeh Zaminpira; Somayeh Zaminpira

    2017-01-01

    This meta-analysis research has gone through more than 200 studies from 1934 to 2016 to find the differences and similarities in cancer cells, mostly the cause. The most important difference between normal cells and cancer cells is how they respire. Normal cells use the sophisticated process of respiration to efficiently turn any kind of nutrient that is fat, carbohydrate or protein into high amounts of energy in the form of ATP. This process requires oxygen and breaks food down completely in...

  10. Ranitidine as adjuvant treatment in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Moesgaard, F

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Results from short-term studies of histamine type 2 (H2) receptor antagonists on survival of patients with solid tumours are debatable. In this study the efficacy of the H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine on long-term survival of patients with colorectal cancer was evaluated. METHODS...... curative resection of colorectal cancer and who do not receive perioperative blood transfusion and do not develop postoperative infectious complications....

  11. Colon Cancer After Acute Diverticulitis Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Kwang Hoon; Han, Koon Hee; Kim, Eun Jung; Lee, Je Hoon; Choi, Kyu Un; Han, Myung Sik; Ahn, Jae Hong; Cheon, Gab Jin

    2013-01-01

    Diverticulitis is the most common clinical complication of diverticular disease, affecting 10-25% of the patients with diverticula. The prevalences of diverticulitis and colon cancer tend to increase with age and are higher in industrialized countries. Consequently, diverticulitis and colon cancer have been reported to have similar epidemiological characteristics. However, the relationship between these diseases remains controversial, as is the performance of routine colonoscopy after an epis...

  12. Effect of a standardized treatment regime for infection after osteosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellebrekers, Pien; Leenen, Luke P H; Hoekstra, Meriam; Hietbrink, Falco

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infection after osteosynthesis is an important complication with significant morbidity and even mortality. These infections are often caused by biofilm-producing bacteria. Treatment algorithms dictate an aggressive approach with surgical debridement and antibiotic treatment. The aim of

  13. Treatment of gynecomastia in patients with prostate cancer and androgen deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Vidal, C; Barnoiu, O; García-Galisteo, E; Gómez-Lechuga, P; Baena-González, V

    2014-01-01

    Gynecomastia, defined as benign proliferation of glandular breast tissue has a prevalence of 32% to 72% in the male. In the urology setting, it is associated to patients with prostate cancer and hormone treatment with a prevalence of 15% in the case of complete hormone blockage and 75% in monotherapy. The different options of treatment in prostate cancer have changed in recent decades. Thus, we have focused on this subject to evaluate the different therapy options of hormone manipulation induced gynecomastia in prostate cancer patients. To synthesize the available evidence on the different therapeutic options in prostate cancer patients who develop gynecomastia due to the use of nonsteroidal antiandrogens and to generate a diagnostic algorithm and treatment. Using the PICO type structured search strategy (Patient or problem, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome or result) in the data bases of PubMed-Medline and Cochrane, identification was made of the relevant studies related to the treatment of gynecomastia in Prostate Cancer patients treated with nonsteroidal antiandrogens. We have found 3 possible therapeutic options for the treatment of gynecomastia and mastodynia in patients with hormone deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. The 10Gy radiotherapy would be an option for the treatment of gynecomastia, although not all the patients need prophylactic treatment since only 50% report moderate-severe discomfort. Another option is the use of drugs such as tamoxifen 20mg/day that lead to a significant decrease in the mammary effects. Gynecomastia and mastodynia, given their high incidence, make the physical examination a fundamental tool for all patients before initiating treatment with antiandrogens. The use of tamoxifen 20mg/day is the best treatment and prevention option against gynecomastia and mastodynia, while in the case of long-course established gynecomastia, surgery is the gold standard. Copyright © 2012 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Female sexuality after female cancer treatment: a clinical issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidakis, D; Panoskaltsis, T; Poulakaki, N; Kouloura, A; Kassanos, D; Papadimitriou, G; Salamalekis, E

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to record how the treatment of female cancer may affect sexuality and interpersonal relations in the couple. From September 2008 until February 2012, the authors prospectively studied 67 patients with breast cancer (Group A) and 43 with gynecological cancers (Group B). As control groups 33 patients with benign breast and 30 patients with benign gynecological lesions (group 0a and 0b respectively) were used. Sexuality and interpersonal relations were evaluated by a questionnaire. The authors also evaluated interpersonal relations focusing on sexual function at the time of diagnosis and a year after the initial treatment for cancer. A significant reduction of the "sexual desire", "sexual Arousal", and "orgasm" dimension was found in both cancer groups, in contrast to the control group, revealing no significant change. The "sexual enjoyment" scale was significantly decreased in gynecological cancer group but not in breast cancer group. While the score on the "relationship quality" dimension significantly increased in both cancer groups. In all groups, there was a significantly positive correlation between sexual function and enjoyment; on the contrary, there was a significantly negative correlation between relationship quality and sexual function and enjoyment. Sexual dysfunctions is a clinical problem which should be evidenced at the beginning of therapy, from the oncologists in order to provide integrated treatment to their patients.

  15. Irinotecan in the treatment of colorectal cancer. A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Ivanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1998, oncologists got a brand new antitumor drug – irinotecan. It’s been already 18 years since its approval for second-line polychemotherapy of metastatic colorectal cancer. Indications for irinotecan use were significantly expanded since that time; it is now used in combination with other therapeutic agents for first- or second-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer, in combination with targeted drugs or separately; there are some studies assessing the use of irinotecan in neoadjuvant therapy. The article describes the history and modern schemes of irinotecan administration in treatment of colorectal cancer.

  16. Preoperative distress predicts persistent pain after breast cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejdahl, Mathias Kvist; Mertz, Birgitte Goldschmidt; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold Hansen

    2015-01-01

    , and evidence links signs of depression and anxiety with development of PPBCT. The purpose of this study was to assess preoperative distress as a predictive factor for development of PPBCT. METHODS: Between October 2008 and October 2009, 426 women diagnosed with primary breast cancer, undergoing surgery......PURPOSE: Persistent pain after breast cancer treatment (PPBCT) affects 25% to 60% of breast cancer survivors and is recognized as a clinical problem, with 10% to 15% reporting moderate to severe pain several years after treatment. Psychological comorbidity is known to influence pain perception...

  17. Exploiting the Immunological Effects of Standard Treatments In Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    NKT cells . Nevertheless, serologic screening is a useful starting point as it provides recombinant antigens that can then be used to assess antigen...project investigated the clinical significance of these findings. In Aim 1, we showed that HT induces autoantibody and T cell responses against an...antigens for recognition by CD8+ and CD4+ T cells from patients, and we are now in a position to test recognition of serologically-defined tumor

  18. [Anxiety in women undergoing surgical treatment of breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraybeyli, G Ch; Mamedzade, G F; Gasimov, N V; Guliyeva, T S; Munir, K

    To assess anxiety level and factors contributing to its development in patients undergoing surgical treatment for breast cancer. The subjects of the study were 72 women, aged 20-80 years, with the diagnosis of primary breast cancer. The Basic Psycho-Oncological Documentation Scale (PO-BADO), the European Organization for Research, and the Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire and its Breast Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-C30; BR-23), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were used. The anxiety score showed negative correlation with EORTC QLQ-C30 'physical functioning', 'cognitive functioning', 'emotional functioning', 'global health status/quality of life' subscales (p≤0,002). Anxiety is a highly prevalent in women with breast cancer and has a marked negative impact, in particular on younger patients.

  19. Response rates to standard interferon treatment in HCV genotype 3a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Saleem; Batool, Uzma; Iqbal, Musarrat; Qureshi, Omarah; Kaleem, Rao; Aziz, Hina; Azhar, Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    Chronic Hepatitis C infection infects almost 130 to 170 million or approximately 2.2-3% of world's population. HCV is one of the main causes of chronic liver disease leading to progressive liver injury, fibrosis, cirrhosis and liver cancer. It is also one of the leading indications for liver transplantation worldwide. The objective of the study was to determine the response of treatment with standard Interferon and Ribazole in treatment naïve Hepatitis C infected patients. This quasi-experimental study was carried out at the Department of Medicine, KRL General Hospital Islamabad, from January 2003 to January 2005. A total of 250 patients were enrolled in this descriptive study. All patients were anti HCV positive, PCR positive for HCV RNA and had 3a genotype. A non-probability purposive sampling technique was applied to collect data. After taking a written and informed consent; specially designed performa containing the patient profile, family transmission, and baseline laboratory values was filled. Patients were treated with a set protocol of Interferon plus Ribavarin therapy (IFN alpha 2a, 3 mIU thrice weekly for 24 weeks plus Ribavarin 1,000 to 1,200 mg/day) for six months. Chi-Square tests were used to analyse the data. Primary end point was a sustained virological response (SVR) that is response assessed after six months of completion of treatment. Response rates to standard Interferon plus Ribazole therapy were studied over two years period. Out of the total of 250 patients, 60 patients were excluded; as 30 patients did not meet inclusion criteria, 23 patients were lost to follow. Seven patients declined treatment. Out of the 190 patients, 155 (81.6%) achieved End of Treatment Complete Response (EOTCR) whereas 35 (18.4%) were nonresponders (NR). These 155 patients, who showed complete response were followed for six months after the treatment to assess sustained viral response, which was seen in 112 (72.25%) patients whereas 43 (27.7%) were relapsers

  20. Maintenance treatment with gemcitabine have a promising activity on metastatic bladder cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuş, Tülay; Aktaş, Gökmen

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the effects of gemcitabine maintenance treatment on survival in patients with metastatic bladder cancer. Gemcitabine maintenance monotherapy was administered following the standard platinum-gemcitabine therapy in patients with metastatic bladder cancer. Patients who had responded to standard treatment received maintenance gemcitabine therapy as 1000 mg/m 2 on days 1 and 8 every three weeks until progression or development of unacceptable toxicity. The following clinical factors were noted: performance status, age, sex, stage, site of metastasis, choice of cisplatin-gemcitabine or carboplatin-gemcitabine, response rates to the initial chemotherapy. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for standard treatment, and following gemcitabine monotreatment and for maintenance gemcitabine therapy were calculated using Kaplan-Meier method. A total of 88 patients with metastatic bladder cancer treated between February 2009 to October 2015 were evaluated retrospectively and 23 patients (26.1%) who had responded to six cycles of platinum-gemcitabine treatment were included in this study. Maintenance gamcitabine was administered for a median of 7 times (range 3-14 times). Grade 3 hematotoxicity according to the criteria of the Common Terminology Criteria of Adverse Events was observed in 7 (30.4%) patients. Median PFS of patients was 46 (range: 30-82) weeks for platinum-based treatment plus maintenance gemcitabine therapy. A higher median PFS was obtained in patients who were maintenance therapy in metastatic bladder cancer patients who did not shown progression after the standard platinum-gemcitabine treatment contributes to survival and presents low toxicity profile, when compared to historical controls.

  1. Patients' Awareness Of The Prevention And Treatment Of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziki, Łukasz; Puła, Anna; Stawiski, Konrad; Mudza, Barbara; Włodarczyk, Marcin; Dziki, Adam

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to assess patients' awareness of the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer. Patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer, hospitalised at the Department of General and Colorectal Surgery of the Medical University in Łódź during the period from January 2015 to April 2015, were asked to complete a questionnaire concerning their families' medical case record, factors predisposing them to the development of colorectal cancer, the tests applied in diagnostics, and the treatment process. The questionnaire comprised 42 closed-ended questions with one correct answer. A statistical analysis of all answers was carried out. The study group consisted of 30 men and 20 women aged 27-94 years old. A strong, statistically significant negative correlation between a patient's age and his/her awareness of the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer was noted (pcolorectal cancer (p=0.008), and the awareness of the prevention programme. The women's group was characterised by statistically significantly greater awareness of colonoscopy as a screening examination (p=0.004). Patients need more information on colorectal cancer, its risk factors, prevention, the treatment process, and postoperative care. Lack of awareness of the colorectal cancer issue can be one of the major factors contributing to the high incidence of this disease.

  2. Concomitant radiochemotherapy for larynx preservation treatment in patents with locoregionally advanced squamous cell hypopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiprian, D.; Kawecki, A.; Jarzabski, A.; Michalski, W.

    2011-01-01

    Laryngopharygectomy followed by radiotherapy or radiochemotherapy has been a standard treatment for patients with advanced hypopharyngeal cancer These treatment modalities lead to permanent tracheostomy, which has a negative influence on the quality of life. For this reason new treatment methods have been investigated for a number of years. The aim of the study. To evaluate the results and the toxicity of larynx preservation treatment for locally advanced squamous cell hypopharyngeal cancer. Material and methods. Between December 2004 and January 2007 56 patients with confirmed squamous cell hypopharyngeal cancer (stage III and IVa ) were treated with concomitant radiochemotherapy with an intention to preserve the larynx. Conformal 3D radiotherapy was applied in all cases. Chemotherapy consisted of cisplatin 100 mg/m 2 per die administered twice during irradiation (day 1 and 22, day 43 of treatment) or once a week (35 mg/m 2) . Results. Median follow-up is 32 months. 5-year OS is 72%, DFS - 57%c, 3-year laryngectomy-free survival - LFS is 72%, 5-year LFS - 68% of patients (alive with larynx preservation). 11 patients have been diagnosed with local recurrence, 3 patients with nodal failure and one with locoregional failure. No severe life-threatening early and late complications were observed. Only 2 patients required temporary tracheostomy because of dyspnea due to laryngeal edema. Conclusion. We conclude that organ-preservation treatment is a valuable alternative to surgical treatment in patients diagnosed with stage III and IVa laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer. (authors)

  3. Evaluation and treatment of malignant ascites secondary to gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Hiromichi; Kobayashi, Michiya; Sakamoto, Junichi

    2015-10-21

    Malignant ascites affects approximately 10% of patients with gastric cancer (GC), and poses significant difficulties for both patients and clinicians. In addition to the dismal general condition of affected patients and the diversity of associated complications such as jaundice and ileus, problems in assessing scattered tumors have hampered the expansion of clinical trials for this condition. However, the accumulation of reported studies is starting to indicate that the weak response to treatment in GC patients with malignant ascites is more relevant to their poor prognosis rather than to the ascites volume at diagnosis. Therefore, precise assessment of initial state of ascites, repetitive evaluation of treatment efficacy, selection of suitable treatment, and swift transition to other treatment options as needed are paramount to maximizing patient benefit. Accurately determining ascites volume is the crucial first step in clinically treating a patient with malignant ascites. Ultrasonography is commonly used to identify the existence of ascites, and several methods have been proposed to estimate ascites volume. Reportedly, the sum of the depth of ascites at five points (named "five-point method") on three panels of computed tomography images is well correlated to the actual ascites volume and/or abdominal girth. This method is already suited to repetitive assessment due to its convenience compared to the conventional volume rendering method. Meanwhile, a new concept, "Clinical Benefit Response in GC (CBR-GC)", was recently introduced to measure the efficacy of chemotherapy for malignant ascites of GC. CBR-GC is a simple and reliable patient-oriented evaluation system based on changes in performance status and ascites, and is expected to become an important clinical endpoint in future clinical trials. The principal of treatment for GC patients with ascites is palliation and prevention of ascites-related symptoms. The treatment options are various, including a

  4. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors in lung cancer treatment: Bench to bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Xu, Kang-Ping; Tan, Gui-Shan

    2015-12-15

    The most common and leading cause of cancer-related death in men is lung cancer. Despite the recent advances in chemotherapy, advanced lung cancer still remains incurable. For this, the understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in lung carcinogenesis is necessary to provide potentially effective therapeutic targets for the treatment of lung cancer, and thus the therapeutic limitations can be overcome. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an important inflammation factor that is reported to be up-regulated in different cancers. A number of COX-2 inhibitors have been developed, but most of them are restricted due to the different risk factors. Currently, the FDA has allowed celecoxib to remain on the market but advised physicians to apply this drug with alternative therapies or to use at a low dosage. Some other COX-2 inhibitors, such as, apricoxib and etoricoxib are under critical investigation currently. Celecoxib is being tested in clinical trials against lung cancer, as a single agent or in combination with other agents. Recent studies have suggested celecoxib as a feasible and clinically active regimen in the treatment of patients with lung cancer. However, more clinical trials are necessary for the better understanding of the role of selective COX-2 inhibitors in the prevention and treatment of lung cancer along with their assessment of toxicity. In this review, we have discussed the mechanism of actions of COX-2 in cancer progression and the therapeutic use of COX-2 inhibitors in the treatment of lung cancer with subsequent clinical studies and future management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Bleeding in cancer patients and its treatment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Candice; Rich, Shayna E

    2017-12-18

    Bleeding is a common problem in cancer patients, related to local tumor invasion, tumor angiogenesis, systemic effects of the cancer, or anti-cancer treatments. Existing bleeds can also be exacerbated by medications such as bevacizumab, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and anticoagulants. Patients may develop acute catastrophic bleeding, episodic major bleeding, or low-volume oozing. Bleeding may present as bruising, petechiae, epistaxis, hemoptysis, hematemesis, hematochezia, melena, hematuria, or vaginal bleeding. Therapeutic intervention for bleeding should start by establishing goals of care, and treatment choice should be guided by life expectancy and quality of life. Careful thought should be given to discontinuation of medications and reversal of anticoagulation. Interventions to stop or slow bleeding may include systemic agents or transfusion of blood products. Noninvasive local treatment options include applied pressure, dressings, packing, and radiation therapy. Invasive local treatments include percutaneous embolization, endoscopic procedures, and surgical treatment.

  6. Treatments patterns of vulvar cancer in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastos, A-T; Usel, M; Beffa, V; Petignat, P; Neyroud-Caspar, I; Bouchardy, C; Vlastos, G

    2004-12-01

    To evaluate treatment patterns of vulvar cancer in patients over 80 years. Between 1979 and 1999, the Geneva Tumor Registry identified 230 women with vulvar cancer. Treatment of patients over 80 years and younger were compared. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to determine disease specific cumulative survival. Young women are more likely to present in situ lesions compared to their older counterparts. Majority of vulvar cancers were observed in women >or=80 (p<0.001) at more advanced stages. Elderly women have either no treatment, either unconventional or inadequate treatments. The Mantel-Haentzel analysis shows a 23.4 OR (IC (95%) 2.9-186.6) of not being treated if the patient is over 80. Specific 5-years survival was 93% in stage I, compared to 21% in stage IV. Patients over 80 years are diagnosed at more advanced stages. Less aggressive treatments decrease outcome.

  7. High energy radiation in cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    Certain basic recommendations on the use of supervoltage radiation and radioisotope teletherapy in the treatment of malignant growths have been made by an expert study group which met in Vienna in August this y ear. The group, convened jointly by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization, was composed of 20 radiotherapists and radiation physicists from 12 countries. High energy radiation, used in the treatment of malignant tumours, can be either in the form of gamma- or X-rays or in the form of beams of accelerated electrons. The source of radiation is kept at a certain distance from the patient. The study group was agreed on the value of supervoltage radiotherapy, including gamma-ray and high voltage x-ray therapy as well as electron beam therapy. The required gamma radiation can be obtained from large sources of radioactive materials like cobalt 60 or caesium 137, while electron beams are produced by high voltage accelerators. The experts considered the sources in four broad categories: large supervoltage units, intermediate units, small isotope units and units of electron beams or very high energy x-rays. Each group of source was described including its usage. The experts made it clear that while supervoltage radiation should be a part of an organized radiotherapy department, the radiation facilities at any particular establishment should not be of the supervoltage type alone. The high energy facilities could be fruitfully used only when there was a background of general radiotherapy. The group emphasized that supervoltage radiotherapy, in common with other forms of radiotherapy, should be conducted only by adequately trained and qualified personnel, including radiation physicists, and specified the training and qualifications required of such personnel. It was felt that specialized training was one of the main requirements at the present stage and the training programmes of IAEA and WHO should be utilized extensively for this

  8. On adequate treatment for stage 1 cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charkviani, L.I.; Kharaishvili, Ts.N.

    1985-01-01

    Expansive extirpation of the uterus was performed in 726 cases of stage TIbNXMO cervical cancer. 19.3% of 600 cases of pTIb cancer showed metastatic involvement of lymph nodes. Metastases into regional lymph nodes were found to be resistant to preoperative large-fraction irradiation. The long-term results of treatment of 484 patients with pTIbNOMO cervical cancer receiving 3 different treatment modalities (operation alone, surgery+preoperative irradiation and surgery+postoperative distant irradiation) did not show any significant difference. Complications and relapse were rarer in patients who received surgery only. Therefore, expansive extirpation of the uterus unaccompanied by distant radiotherapy should be a Method of choice in treatment of stage I cervical cancer (pTIbNOMO)

  9. Increased use of multidisciplinary treatment modalities adds little to the outcome of rectal cancer treated by optimal total mesorectal excision.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chang, Kah Hoong

    2012-10-01

    Total mesorectal excision (TME) is the standard surgical treatment for rectal cancer. The roles of chemotherapy and radiotherapy have become more defined, accompanied by improvements in preoperative staging and histopathological assessment. We analyse our ongoing results in the light of changing patterns of treatment over consecutive time periods.

  10. Adherence to a Standardized Order Form for Gastric Cancer in a Referral Chemotherapy Teaching Hospital, Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Asgarian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Standardized forms for prescription and medication administration are one solution to reduce medication errors in the chemotherapy process. Gastric cancer is the most common cancer in Iran. In this study, we have attempted to design and validate a standard printed chemotherapy form and evaluate adherence by oncologists and nurses to this form. Methods: We performed this cross-sectional study in a Mashhad, Iran teaching hospital from August 2015 until January 2016. A clinical pharmacist designed the chemotherapy form that included various demographic and clinical parameters and approved chemotherapy regimens for gastric cancer. Clinical oncologists that worked in this center validated the form. We included all eligible patients. A pharmacy student identified adherence by the oncologists and nurses to this form and probable medication errors. Results are mean ± standard deviation or number (percentages for nominal variables. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS 16.0 statistical package. Results:We evaluated 54 patients and a total of 249 chemotherapy courses. In 146 (58.63% chemotherapy sessions, the administered regimens lacked compatibility with the standard form. Approximately 66% of recorded errors occurred in the prescription phase and the remainder during the administration phase. The most common errors included improper dose (61% and wrong infusion time (34%. We observed that 37 dose calculation errors occurred in 32 chemotherapy sessions. Conclusions: In general, adherence by oncologists and nurses with the developed form for chemotherapy treatment of gastric cancer was not acceptable. These findings indicated the necessity for a standardized order sheet to simplify the chemotherapy process for the clinicians, and reduce prescription and administration errors.

  11. Molecular targets in urothelial cancer: detection, treatment, and animal models of bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolensky D

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dmitriy Smolensky,1,2 Kusum Rathore,1 Maria Cekanova1,2 1Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, 2UT-ORNL Graduate School of Genome Science and Technology, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA Abstract: Bladder cancer remains one of the most expensive cancers to treat in the United States due to the length of required treatment and degree of recurrence. In order to treat bladder cancer more effectively, targeted therapies are being investigated. In order to use targeted therapy in a patient, it is important to provide a genetic background of the patient. Recent advances in genome sequencing, as well as transcriptome analysis, have identified major pathway components altered in bladder cancer. The purpose of this review is to provide a broad background on bladder cancer, including its causes, diagnosis, stages, treatments, animal models, as well as signaling pathways in bladder cancer. The major focus is given to the PI3K/AKT pathway, p53/pRb signaling pathways, and the histone modification machinery. Because several promising immunological therapies are also emerging in the treatment of bladder cancer, focus is also given on general activation of the immune system for the treatment of bladder cancer. Keywords: bladder cancer, transitional cell carcinoma, signaling pathways, clinical trials

  12. Treatment deintensification in human papillomavirus-positive oropharynx cancer: Outcomes from the National Cancer Data Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghlou, Shayan; Yu, Phoebe K; Otremba, Michael D; Park, Henry S; Bhatia, Aarti; Zogg, Cheryl K; Mehra, Saral; Yarbrough, Wendell G; Judson, Benjamin L

    2018-02-15

    The growing epidemic of human papillomavirus-positive (HPV+) oropharyngeal cancer and the favorable prognosis of this disease etiology have led to a call for deintensified treatment for some patients with HPV+ cancers. One of the proposed methods of treatment deintensification is the avoidance of chemotherapy concurrent with definitive/adjuvant radiotherapy. To the authors' knowledge, the safety of this form of treatment de-escalation is unknown and the current literature in this area is sparse. The authors investigated outcomes after various treatment combinations stratified by American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) eighth edition disease stage using patients from the National Cancer Data Base. A retrospective study of 4443 patients with HPV+ oropharyngeal cancer in the National Cancer Data Base was conducted. Patients were stratified into AJCC eighth edition disease stage groups. Multivariate Cox regressions as well as univariate Kaplan-Meier analyses were conducted. For patients with stage I disease, treatment with definitive radiotherapy was associated with diminished survival compared with chemoradiotherapy (hazard ratio [HR], 1.798; P = .029), surgery with adjuvant radiotherapy (HR, 2.563; P = .002), or surgery with adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (HR, 2.427; P = .001). For patients with stage II disease, compared with treatment with chemoradiotherapy, patients treated with a single-modality (either surgery [HR, 2.539; P = .009] or radiotherapy [HR, 2.200; P = .030]) were found to have poorer survival. Among patients with stage III disease, triple-modality therapy was associated with improved survival (HR, 0.518; P = .024) compared with treatment with chemoradiotherapy. Deintensification of treatment from chemoradiotherapy to radiotherapy or surgery alone in cases of HPV+ AJCC eighth edition stage I or stage II disease may compromise patient safety. Treatment intensification to triple-modality therapy for patients with stage III disease may improve survival in

  13. Integrating tobacco treatment into cancer care: Study protocol for a randomized controlled comparative effectiveness trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Elyse R; Ostroff, Jamie S; Perez, Giselle K; Hyland, Kelly A; Rigotti, Nancy A; Borderud, Sarah; Regan, Susan; Muzikansky, Alona; Friedman, Emily R; Levy, Douglas E; Holland, Susan; Eusebio, Justin; Peterson, Lisa; Rabin, Julia; Miller-Sobel, Jacob; Gonzalez, Irina; Malloy, Laura; O'Brien, Maureen; de León-Sanchez, Suhana; Whitlock, C Will

    2016-09-01

    Despite the well-established risks of persistent smoking, 10-30% of cancer patients continue to smoke after diagnosis. Evidence-based tobacco treatment has yet to be integrated into routine oncology care. This paper describes the protocol, manualized treatment, evaluation plan, and overall study design of comparing the effectiveness and cost of two treatments across two major cancer centers. A two-arm, two-site randomized controlled comparative effectiveness trial is testing the hypothesis that an Intensive Treatment (IT) intervention is more effective than a Standard Treatment (ST) intervention in helping recently diagnosed cancer patients quit smoking. Both interventions include 4 weekly counseling sessions and FDA-approved smoking cessation medication advice. The IT includes an additional 4 biweekly and 3 monthly booster sessions as well as dispensal of the recommended FDA-approved smoking cessation medication at no cost. The trial is enrolling patients with suspected or newly diagnosed cancer who have smoked a cigarette in the past 30days. Participants are randomly assigned to receive the ST or IT condition. Tobacco cessation outcomes are assessed at 3 and 6months. The primary study outcome is 7-day point prevalence biochemically-validated tobacco abstinence. Secondary study outcomes include the incremental cost-effectiveness of the IT vs. ST. This trial will answer key questions about delivering tobacco treatment interventions to newly diagnosed cancer patients. If found to be efficacious and cost-effective, this treatment will serve as a model to be integrated into oncology care settings nation-wide, as we strive to improve treatment outcomes and quality of life for cancer patients. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. ACCELERATED REGIMENS OF ADJUVANT RADIOTHERAPY IN THE TREATMENT OF BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Afonin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of breast cancer (BC is a complex multidisciplinary problem. Often, radiation therapy is an obligatory component of treatment of breast cancer patients. Numerous large randomized trials have proved the efficacy of adjuvant radiotherapy in both the standard fractionation regimen in a single focal dose of 2 Gy to a total focal dose of 50 Gy for 25 fractions and in modes of hypofractionation using radiation exposure at a larger daily dose with a reduction in the total treatment time. The presented review summarizes the data of the largest studies on the modes of hypofractionation of postoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer. Most of the studies comparing the standard mode of fractionation of postoperative radiotherapy with the modes of hypofractionation showed comparable results for the main oncological parameters with similar tolerability, frequency of complications and good cosmetic results. It also shows the economic feasibility of applying accelerated regimes in everyday practice. Despite the fact that radiotherapy in the mode of hypofractionation has already become the standard of treatment and is recommended for use by the largest European and American cancer associations, indications for its conduct, the criteria for selection in the studies and the range of recommended single focal doses differ. The obtained results do not give an opportunity to confidently judge the advantage of one or another regime. It is necessary to determine the factors of a favorable and unfavorable prognosis, to clarify the indications for the use of various radiotherapy techniques. Therefore, questions about the optimal mode of hypo-fractionation of adjuvant radiotherapy, the timing of its initiation and the criteria for selecting patients for this type of therapy as part of the comprehensive treatment of breast cancer have not yet been fully resolved. Also open is the choice of optimal single and total doses of radiation, its combination with drug

  15. Effectiveness of integrating individualized and generic complementary medicine treatments with standard care versus standard care alone for reducing preoperative anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attias, Samuel; Keinan Boker, Lital; Arnon, Zahi; Ben-Arye, Eran; Bar'am, Ayala; Sroka, Gideon; Matter, Ibrahim; Somri, Mostafa; Schiff, Elad

    2016-03-01

    Preoperative anxiety is commonly reported by people undergoing surgery. A significant number of studies have found a correlation between preoperative anxiety and post-operative morbidity. Various methods of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) were found to be effective in alleviating preoperative anxiety. This study examined the relative effectiveness of various individual and generic CAM methods combined with standard treatment (ST) in relieving preoperative anxiety, in comparison with ST alone. Randomized controlled trial. Holding room area Three hundred sixty patients. Patients were randomly divided into 6 equal-sized groups. Group 1 received the standard treatment (ST) for anxiety alleviation with anxiolytics. The five other groups received the following, together with ST (anxiolytics): Compact Disk Recording of Guided Imagery (CDRGI); acupuncture; individual guided imagery; reflexology; and individual guided imagery combined with reflexology, based on medical staff availability. Assessment of anxiety was taken upon entering the holding room area (surgery preparation room) ('pre-treatment assessment'), and following the treatment, shortly before transfer to the operating room ('post-treatment assessment'), based on the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) questionnaire. Data processing included comparison of VAS averages in the 'pre' and 'post' stages among the various groups. Preoperatively, CAM treatments were associated with significant reduction of anxiety level (5.54-2.32, p<0.0001). In contrast, no significant change was noted in the standard treatment group (4.92-5.44, p=0.15). Individualized CAM treatments did not differ significantly in outcomes. However, CDRGI was less effective than individualized CAM (P<0.001), but better than ST (p=0.005). Individual CAM treatments integrated within ST reduce preoperative anxiety significantly, compared to standard treatment alone, and are more effective than generic CDRGI. In light of the scope of preoperative

  16. Healing environments in cancer treatment and care. Relations of space and practice in hematological cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp

    2013-01-01

    of the individual patient ’ s needs, values and experiences is key to developing the environment to support the patient quality of life. The present study holds implications for practice to inform design of future hospital environments for cancer treatment. The study points to the importance for being attentive......Introduction. Given the growing attention to the importance of design in shaping healing hospital environments this study extends the understanding of healing environments, beyond causal links between environmental exposure and health outcome by elucidating how environments and practices...... of who were followed closely over an extended time period. Results. Through thematic analysis fi ve key concepts emerged about the social dynamics of hospital environments: practices of self; creating personal space; social recognition; negotiating space; and ambiguity of space and care. Through...

  17. Finasteride treatment and male breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijer, Mathias; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Green, Anders

    2018-01-01

    A potential link has been suggested between dispensed finasteride and increased risk of male breast cancer (MBC). Due to the rare occurrence of MBC, it remains to be established if such a relationship exists. The purpose of this study was to combine nationwide registers in four countries to assess...... the potential association between dispensed finasteride and MBC. A cohort of all males with dispensed finasteride in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden (1,365,088 person years) was followed up for up to 15 years for breast cancer, and compared to a cohort of males unexposed to finasteride. Individual...

  18. Exercise during and after neoadjuvant rectal cancer treatment (the EXERT trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Morielli, Andria R.; Usmani, Nawaid; Boulé, Normand G.; Severin, Diane; Tankel, Keith; Nijjar, Tirath; Joseph, Kurian; Fairchild, Alysa; Courneya, Kerry S.

    2018-01-01

    Background Standard treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer includes 5–6 weeks of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) followed by total mesorectal excision 6–8 weeks later. NACRT improves local disease control and surgical outcomes but also causes side effects including fatigue, diarrhea, hand-foot syndrome, and physical deconditioning that may impede quality of life (QoL), treatment completion, treatment response, and long-term prognosis. Interventions to improve treatment outcomes an...

  19. Sperm cryopreservation before cancer treatment: a 15-year monocentric experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizet, P; Saias-Magnan, J; Jouve, E; Grillo, J M; Karsenty, G; Metzler-Guillemain, C; Perrin, J

    2012-03-01

    Sperm banking is an important procedure to preserve fertility before cancer therapy. The aim of this study was to comprehensively analyse cryopreservation activity retrospectively for 1080 patients referred to the sperm bank for sperm cryopreservation before cancer treatment. This study included 1007 patients diagnosed with testicular cancer (TC) (41.7%), lymphoma (26%), other haematological cancers (9.4%) or other types of cancer (22.8%); of these, 29 patients did not produce any semen sample and cryopreservation was impossible for 67 patients. Semen characteristics before treatment were within normal ranges, except moderate asthenospermia. Sperm concentration was significantly lower in TC than in non-TC. Straws from 57 patients (6.3%) were used in assisted reproductive technologies, which led to a 46.8% cumulative birth rate. Straws were destroyed for 170 patients (18.7%) and 140 patients performed semen analyses after cancer therapy. After an average delay of 22.5 months after the end of therapy, 43 patients (30.7%) exhibited azoospermia. This study of a large population of cancer patients revealed a high level of successful sperm storage. Utilization of cryopreserved spermatozoa led to good chances of fatherhood. Nevertheless, sperm banks should be aware of the low rates of straw use and straw destruction by cancer patients. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 40 CFR 268.40 - Applicability of treatment standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... K002 Wastewater treatment sludge from the production of chrome yellow and orange pigments. Chromium... from the production of molybdate orange pigments. Chromium (Total)Lead 7440-47-37439-92-1 2.770.69 0.60 mg/L TCLP0.75 mg/L TCLP K004 Wastewater treatment sludge from the production of zinc yellow pigments...

  1. Starvation Based Differential Chemotherapy: A Novel Approach for Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidra Naveed

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment are advised to increase food intake to overcome the therapy-induced side effects, and weight loss. Dietary restriction is known to slow down the aging process and hence reduce age-related diseases such as cancer. Fasting or short-term starvation is more effective than dietary restriction to prevent cancer growth since starved cells switch off signals for growth and reproduction and enter a protective mode, while cancer cells, being mutated, are not sensitized by any external growth signals and are not protected against any stress. This phenomenon is known as differential stress resistance (DSR. Nutrient signaling pathways involving growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis and its downstream effectors, play a key role in DSR in response to starvation controlling the other cell maintenance systems, such as autophagy and apoptosis, that are related to the tumorigenesis. Yeast cells lacking these effectors are better protected against oxidative stress compared to normal cells. In the same way, starvation protects many cell lines and mice against high-dose chemotherapeutic drugs. According to a series of studies, fasting results in overall reduction in chemotherapy side effects in cancer patients. Data shows that starvation-dependent differential chemotherapy is safe, feasible and effective in cancer treatment, but the possible side effects of starvation limit its efficacy. However, further studies and clinical trials may result in its implementation in cancer treatment.

  2. Improving Decision Making In Cancer Treatment With A Mix Of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis And Ethical Perspective: Usa Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir GÜRSOY

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the world, healthcare costs have been on the rise and getting larger share in the economic pie. Since we have limited resources, allocation of resources becomes more of an issue. Cancer is one of most leading causes of death in the world and each year, money spent on cancer treatment goes up. However, today new cancer drugs and treatment only provide narrow benefit with very high costs. Therefore, only limited number of people enjoys getting the treatment and fewer treatment or drugs are reimbursed. In addition, many countries do not have a standard to decide whether a cancer drug or a treatment will be covered. Considering both economic efficiency (cost-effectiveness analysis and ethical issues together during the decision process is of great importance so as to distribute health resources fairly and maximize health benefits.

  3. Development, implementation, and initial evaluation of a foundational open interoperability standard for oncology treatment planning and summarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Jeremy L; Maddux, Suzanne E; Hughes, Kevin S; Krauss, John C; Yu, Peter Paul; Shulman, Lawrence N; Mayer, Deborah K; Hogarth, Mike; Shafarman, Mark; Stover Fiscalini, Allison; Esserman, Laura; Alschuler, Liora; Koromia, George Augustine; Gonzaga, Zabrina; Ambinder, Edward P

    2015-05-01

    Develop and evaluate a foundational oncology-specific standard for the communication and coordination of care throughout the cancer journey, with early-stage breast cancer as the use case. Owing to broad uptake of the Health Level Seven (HL7) Consolidated Clinical Document Architecture (C-CDA) by health information exchanges and large provider organizations, we developed an implementation guide in congruence with C-CDA. The resultant product was balloted through the HL7 process and subsequently implemented by two groups: the Health Story Project (Health Story) and the Athena Breast Health Network (Athena). The HL7 Implementation Guide for CDA, Release 2: Clinical Oncology Treatment Plan and Summary, DSTU Release 1 (eCOTPS) was successfully balloted and published as a Draft Standard for Trial Use (DSTU) in October 2013. Health Story successfully implemented the eCOTPS the 2014 meeting of the Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society (HIMSS) in a clinical vignette. During the evaluation and implementation of eCOPS, Athena identified two practical concerns: (1) the need for additional CDA templates specific to their use case; (2) the many-to-many mapping of Athena-defined data elements to eCOTPS. Early implementation of eCOTPS has demonstrated successful vendor-agnostic transmission of oncology-specific data. The modularity enabled by the C-CDA framework ensures the relatively straightforward expansion of the eCOTPS to include other cancer subtypes. Lessons learned during the process will strengthen future versions of the standard. eCOTPS is the first oncology-specific CDA standard to achieve HL7 DSTU status. Oncology standards will improve care throughout the cancer journey by allowing the efficient transmission of reliable, meaningful, and current clinical data between the many involved stakeholders. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  4. Knowledge and perception of breast cancer and its treatment among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    result in the refusal to seek any knowledge and treatment about their illness [16]. Women with higher scores on NORA perceived that women could enjoy good quality of life after receiving breast cancer treatment. This may be explained by the fact that frequent practice of private religious activities such as prayer or.

  5. Original article Prostate Cancer Screening, Detection and Treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    limited information about practices related to prostate cancer treatment in this population. Objective: We conducted a survey of 28 urology practices in SSA to evaluate the scope of available screening, detection and treatment. Materials and Methods: Screening was more commonly reported as a part of general medical care ...

  6. Optimal duration of systemic treatment in metastatic colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simkens, Lieke H. J.; Koopman, Miriam; Punt, Cornelis J. A.

    2014-01-01

    With the currently available cytotoxic and targeted drugs, metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) may be controlled by systemic treatment for a significant period of time. However, many questions remain about the optimal use of drugs and duration of treatment. We reviewed the data from clinical trials

  7. Drinking water safely during cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Disease Control and Prevention. A guide to drinking water treatment technologies for household use. Updated March 14, 2014. www.cdc.gov/healthywater/drinking/travel/household_water_treatment.html . Accessed March 20, 2016.

  8. Exploiting Synergy: Immune-Based Combinations in the Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio eBurotto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer treatment is being revolutionized by the emergence of immunotherapies such as immune check point inhibitors and therapeutic cancer vaccines. Prostate cancer has is amenable to such therapeutic approaches. The improved understanding of the relationship between the immune system and tumors has allowed therapeutic targeting of immune checkpoints and tumor associated antigens to be developed. Furthermore, interventions used in prostate cancer are capable of impacting the immune system. As demonstrated by preclinical data and emerging clinical data, radiation therapy, anti-androgen therapy and chemotherapy can be used with immunotherapies to obtain synergistic results. Current and future clinical trials will further investigate these principals as immunotherapeutics are combined with each other and standard therapies for optimal clinical utility.

  9. The importance of images in radiotherapy treatment of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Felipe; Usuga, Franz

    2007-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in developed countries excluding skin cancer. Its treatment (surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy) has evolved enormously allowing less radical treatments and improving the rates of local control and global survival. Furthermore, new technologies in diagnostic imaging have contributed greatly to the advance of radiotherapy treatments through a more precise definition of tumor, tumor channel, lymph nodes compromise, and organs at risk. with techniques such as conformal radiotherapy, IMRT, or radiotherapy guided by imaging, the toxicity have been diminished with equal or better local and regional control

  10. Cervical cancer and pregnancy: treatment management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazar, I.; Toth, R.

    2011-01-01

    Pregnancy and cervical carcinoma occurring concomitantly causes therapeutic and ethical dilemmas. The management for this situation will depend on the gestational age at the time of diagnosis, disease staging, size of the lesion and the patient’s wish to maintain pregnancy and fertility. Review of the literature suggest that pregnancy does not seem to influence the prognosis of cervical cancer. (author)

  11. Social comparison and coping with cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zee, Karen; Buunk, Bram; Sanderman, Robbert; Botke, Gerrit; Van den Bergh, Fons

    2000-01-01

    In the present study scales were developed as indicators of four social comparison processes of respectively identification with others who are either doing better or worse and contrasting one's situation against the situation of either upward or downward comparison others. In a sample of 112 cancer

  12. Biophysical insights into cancer transformation and treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Jiří; Foletti, A.; Kobilková, J.; Jandová, Anna; Vrba, J.; Vrba, J. jr.; Nedbalová, M.; Čoček, A.; Danani, A.; Tuszynski, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 2013, č. 195028 (2013) ISSN 1537-744X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP102/11/0649 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : fatty acid * mitochondrial membrane * cancer cell Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.219, year: 2013

  13. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Competition Matters Tech@FTC Comment Policy Contests IoT Home Inspector Challenge Robocalls: Humanity Strikes Back DetectaRobo Zapping ... File Documents in Adjudicative Proceedings You are here Home » News & Events » Audio/Video » Anatomy of a Cancer ...

  14. Stem Cell Transplants in Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem cell transplants are procedures that restore blood-forming stem cells in cancer patients who have had theirs destroyed by very high doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Learn about the types of transplants and side effects that may occur.

  15. Review of hormonal treatment of breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-07-28

    Jul 28, 2011 ... cancer, with special reference to estrogen receptors, as well as mechanisms of receptor-ligand interactions, response or resistance to hormonal ... chromosome 17, while BRCA2 is located on the long arm of chromosome 13. ... of the two estrogen receptors, while B demonstrates percentage homology of ...

  16. CT evaluation of complications of cryoablation treatment in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Caiqiao; Chen Yao; Zhang Zhitian; Su Jinzhan; Huang Zhen; Bao Kaikai

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the complications of percutaneous targeted Argon-Helium cryoablation treatment in patients with lung cancer on CT. Methods: Ten patients with unresectable lung cancer were treated by cryotherapy under CT guidance with Argon-Helium cryoablation system. Dynamic contrast-enhanced CT was performed to assess changes before and after treatment, complications and treatment response. Results: Ice ball coverage immediately after surgery was satisfactory in all patients. There were a few complications including worsening hoarseness (1), small pneumothorax (1), and small amount of bleeding at the site of probe puncture (1). Conclusion: Percutaneous targeted Argon-Helium cryoablation guided by CT is an effective treatment for lung cancer without severe complications. (authors)

  17. Cancer treatment induced metabolic syndrome: Improving outcome with lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerink, N L; Nuver, J; Lefrandt, J D; Vrieling, A H; Gietema, J A; Walenkamp, A M E

    2016-12-01

    Increasing numbers of long-term cancer survivors face important treatment related adverse effects. Cancer treatment induced metabolic syndrome (CTIMetS) is an especially prevalent and harmful condition. The aetiology of CTIMetS likely differs from metabolic syndrome in the general population, but effective treatment and prevention methods are probably similar. In this review, we summarize the potential mechanisms leading to the development of CTIMetS after various types of cancer treatment. Furthermore, we propose a safe and accessible method to treat or prevent CTIMetS through lifestyle change. In particular, we suggest that a lifestyle intervention and optimization of energy balance can prevent or mitigate the development of CTIMetS, which may contribute to optimal survivorship care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Outpatient treatment costs and their potential impact on cancer care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isshiki, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Cancer creates a tremendous financial burden. Cancer-related costs are categorized into direct, indirect, and psychosocial costs. Although there have been many reports on medical care costs, which are direct, those on other costs are extremely scarce. We estimated travel time and costs required for cancer patients to receive outpatient treatment. We studied 521 cancer patients receiving anti-cancer treatment between February 2009 and December 2012 at the Outpatient Chemotherapy Center of Teikyo University Chiba Medical Center. Address data were extracted from Data Warehouse electronic medical records, and travel distance and time required for outpatient treatment were calculated via MapInfo and ACT Distance Calculator Package. Transportation costs were estimated on the basis of ¥274 (=$3.00) per kilometer. The study design was approved by an ethics review board of Teikyo University (12-851). Average round-trip travel distance, time, and cost for all patients were 26.7 km, 72.5 min, and ¥7,303 ($79.99), respectively. Cancer patients incurred a travel cost of ¥4000–¥9000 ($40.00 to $100.00) for each outpatient treatment. With population aging, seniors living alone and senior households are increasing, and outpatient visits are becoming a common burden

  19. Functional Disability in Women Submitted to Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas de Oliveira, Nayara Priscila; Guedes, Thais Sousa Rodrigues; Holanda, Ayrton Martins; Reis, Mariane Albuquerque; da Silva, Clecia Patrocínio; Rocha e Silva, Barbara Layse; Maia de Almeida, Gilmara Celli; de Souza, Dyego Leandro Bezerra

    2017-05-01

    The objective of the study presented herein was to verify the prevalence of functional disability and its associated factors in women submitted to breast cancer treatment. A cross-sectional study was carried out, in 101 women diagnosed with malignant breast cancer neoplasm, who underwent cancer treatment at least 12 months before the study, and remained under clinical monitoring. Functional disability was measured by the DASH instrument. Data collection included variables related to socioeconomic characteristics, life habits, health conditions, clinical tumor characteristics and therapeutic approach. Bivariate analysis was carried out by Pearson’s chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test, calculating the prevalence ratio with a 95% confidence interval. Multivariate analysis utilized Poisson’s Regression with robust variance. A statistical significance of 0.05 was considered. Prevalence of functional disability in the studied sample was 22.8% (CI95% 13.9-31.6). Functional disability was statistically significantly associated with age (p = 0.035) and access to health services (p = 0.028). It was concluded that younger patients suffered higher impact of breast cancer treatment on disability. Regarding access to health services, women that received public clinical monitoring reported higher occurrences of functional disability. This pointed towards the necessity of more organized, less bureaucratic, and effective health services in the assistance network, directed to the minimization of the impacts of cancer treatment on health and life conditions of breast cancer survivors. Creative Commons Attribution License

  20. Predictors of anxiety and resilience in adolescents undergoing cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Min; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Shu, Hsiu-Lan; Chang, Shu-Chen; Hsiao, Chih-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    To report a study examining the relationships among coping, anxiety and resilience and to identify predictors of anxiety and resilience in adolescents undergoing cancer treatment. Anxiety is the main psychological disturbance in adolescents with cancer, but predictors in the context of anxiety related cancer treatments have not been investigated. Cross-sectional study. Adolescents (n = 131) recruited from three medical centres between 2010-2011. The eligible participants were diagnosed with cancer, without mental disease and receiving chemotherapy. Participants were assessed with the paediatric cancer coping scale, revised children's manifest anxiety scale, second edition, and the Haase adolescent resilience in illness scale. Over 20% of participants scored high on worry. The most commonly used coping strategy was cognitive coping, followed by problem-oriented coping and finally by defensive coping. There was a statistically significant correlation between defensive coping and level of worry. Resilience was positively correlated with cognitive coping and problem-oriented coping. The cognitive coping and defensive coping were found to predict anxiety and resilience significantly by a step-wise multiple regression analysis and accounted for 40·9% and 46·5% of total variance, respectively. Cognitive coping and defensive coping are predictors for the level of anxiety and resilience in adolescents undergoing cancer treatment. Health providers should evaluate coping behaviour in patients and work towards a cognitive and problem-oriented coping style that will benefit the patient's mental health during treatment. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Breast cancer prognosis is inherited independently of patient, tumor and treatment characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkooijen, Helena M; Hartman, Mikael; Usel, Massimo; Benhamou, Simone; Neyroud-Caspar, Isabelle; Czene, Kamila; Vlastos, Georges; Chappuis, Pierre O; Bouchardy, Christine; Rapiti, Elisabetta

    2012-05-01

    Population-based studies have shown a concordance of breast cancer survival among first-degree relatives (FDRs), suggesting a heritable component. Reasons for such heritability remain to be elucidated. We aimed to determine whether association of breast cancer survival among FDRs is linked to shared patient and tumor characteristics or type of treatment. At the population-based Geneva Breast Cancer Registry, we identified 162 FDR pairs diagnosed with breast cancer. We categorized FDRs into poor, medium and good familial survival risk groups according to breast cancer-specific survival of their proband (mother or sister). We compared patient, tumor and treatment characteristics between categories and calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and adjusted disease-specific mortality for each group. Breast cancer patients in the poor familial survival risk group were more likely to be diagnosed at later stages than those in the good familial survival risk group. Similarly, they had higher SMRs than those in the medium and good survival risk groups (18.7, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.4-33.5 vs. 16.5, 95% CI: 7.5-31.3 and 9.4, 95% CI: 3.4-20.4, respectively). After adjustment for patient and tumor characteristics and type of treatment, women in the poor familial survival risk group were almost five times more likely to die of breast cancer than those in the good familial survival risk group (adjusted hazard ratio 4.8, 95% CI: 1.4-16.4). Our study shows that breast cancer prognosis clusters within families and suggests that the hereditary component is independent of patient and tumor characteristics and type of treatment. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  2. Remission of Unresectable Lung Metastases from Rectal Cancer After Herbal Medicine Treatment: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungsuk; Lee, Sanghun

    2016-01-01

    Lung metastasis is frequent in rectal cancer patients and has a poor prognosis, with an expected three-year survival rate of about 10%. Though western medicine has made great strides in the curative resection of liver metastases, resection of lung metastases has lagged far behind. Many preclinical studies have suggested that herbal treatments block metastasis, but few clinical studies have addressed this topic. We present the case of a 57-year-old Asian male with lung metastases from rectal cancer. He first underwent resection of the primary lesion (stage IIA, T3N0M0) and six cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy. Unfortunately, lung metastases were confirmed about one year later. Palliative chemotherapy was begun, but his disease continued to progress after three cycles and chemotherapy was halted. The patient was exclusively treated with herbal medicine-standardized allergen-removed Rhus verniciflua stokes extract combined with Dokhwaljihwang-tang (Sasang constitutional medicine in Korea). After seven weeks of herbal medicine treatment, the lung metastases were markedly improved. Regression of lung metastases has continued; also, the patient's rectal cancer has not returned. He has been receiving herbal medicine for over two years and very few side effects have been observed. We suggest that the herbal regimen used in our patient is a promising candidate for the treatment of lung metastases secondary to rectal cancer, and we hope that this case stimulates further investigation into the efficacy of herbal treatments for metastatic colorectal cancer patients. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Standards, options and recommendations for brachytherapy of prostate cancer: efficacy and toxicity; Standards, options et recommandations pour la curietherapie des patients atteints de cancer de la prostate: efficacite et toxicite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pommier, P. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Leon-Berard, 69 - Lyon (France); Villers, A. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Hopital Huriez, 59 - Lille (France); Bataillard, A. [Federation Nationale des Centres de Lutte Contre le Cancer, FNCLCC, 75 - Paris (France)] [and others

    2001-12-01

    Context. - The 'Standards, Options and Recommendations' (SOR) collaborative project was initiated in 1993 by the Federation of the French Cancer Centres (FNCLCC), with the 20 French Regional Cancer Centres, several French public university and general hospitals, as well as private clinics and medical specialty societies. Its main objective is the development of serviceable clinical practice guidelines in order to improve the quality of health care and the outcome of cancer patients. The methodology is based on a literature review, followed by a critical appraisal by a multidisciplinary group of experts. Draft guidelines are produced, then validated by specialists in cancer care delivery. Objectives. - Produce technical practice guidelines for the brachytherapy of prostate cancer using the methodology developed by the Standards, Options and Recommendations project. Methods. - The FNCLCC and the French Urology Association (AFU) first designated the multidisciplinary group of experts. Available data were collected by a search of Medline and lists selected by experts in the group. A first draft of the guidelines was written, they validated by independent reviewers. Results. - The main recommendations are: 1/ Brachytherapy with permanent seeds alone is a possible curative treatment for prostate cancer patients with the following prognosis factors: tumour stage T1 or T2a (TNM 1992), Gleason score {<=} 6 and PSA < 10 {mu}g/L. 2/ Combined treatment with brachytherapy and hormonal therapy could be more efficient than brachytherapy alone for prostate cancer patients with Gleason score > 7 and/or PSA > 10. 3/ Combination of brachytherapy and external beam radiation therapy can be proposed to prostate cancer patients with intermediate prognosis. 4/ Before and after seed implantation, risks of infection must be prevented by appropriate antibiotic therapy (recommendation). 5/ Brachytherapy must not be performed within 2 months of trans-urethral prostate resection. 6

  4. Prognostic Factors and Treatment Outcomes of Parotid Gland Cancer: A 10-Year Single-Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jae Won; Hong, Hyun Jun; Ban, Myung Jin; Shin, Yoo Seob; Kim, Won Shik; Koh, Yoon Woo; Choi, Eun Chang

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the treatment outcomes of parotid gland cancer at a single center over a 10-year period and to evaluate the prognostic significance of maximum standardized uptake value. Retrospective case series with chart review. Academic care center. Ninety-eight patients with primary parotid gland cancer who were surgically treated at Yonsei University Head & Neck Cancer Clinic between January 1999 and December 2008 were analyzed. Patient data were collected retrospectively from medical charts. The investigators analyzed the association of clinicopathological factors and maximum standardized uptake value on (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan with disease-specific survival. Mean patient age was 49.7 years. Mean follow-up was 48.8 months. Thirty-three, 40, 30, and 23 patients had stage I, II, III, and IVA disease, respectively. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common histologic type (34.7%), followed by acinic cell carcinoma (27.6%). Eighteen patients (18.4%) experienced recurrences (mean recurrence gap, 20.6 months; range, 2-87 months). Five- and 10-year disease-specific survival rates were 93.6% and 81.8%, respectively. In the univariate analysis, pathologic T stage, pathologic lymph node status, resection margin, external parenchymal extension, and maximum standardized uptake value were significantly associated with disease-specific survival. Pathologic lymph node status and maximum standardized uptake value were independent prognostic factors in the multivariate analysis. Our single-center experience with parotid gland cancer treatment is consistent with the literature. Cervical lymph node metastasis and high maximum standardized uptake value are associated with poor survival in parotid gland cancer. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  5. Standard psychological consultations and follow up for women at increased risk of hereditary breast cancer considering prophylactic mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Murly BM

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women at increased (genetic risk of breast cancer have to weigh the personal pros and cons of prophylactic mastectomy (PM as an option to reduce their cancer risk. So far, no routine referral to a psychologist has been investigated for women considering PM. Aim of this study was to asses: 1 the acceptance of the offer of a standard psychological consultation as part of pre-surgical decision-making in high-risk women, 2 reasons for PM and reasons for postponing it, 3 the need for additional psychological interventions, and factors associated, and 4 the frequency of psychiatric/psychological treatment history. Methods During a 30 months period, women at high risk considering PM were offered a psychological consultation. The content of these, and follow-up, consultations were analyzed. Results Most women (70 out of 73 accepted the psychological consultation, and 81% proceeded with PM. Main reasons for undergoing PM were to reduce anxiety about cancer, and to reduce the cancer risk. Uncertainty about surgery and the need for further information were the reasons given most frequently for postponing PM. Additional psychological support was given to 31% before and 14% after PM. The uptake of additional support was significantly higher in women with a BRCA1/2 mutation. A history of psychiatric/psychological treatment was present in 36%, mainly consisting of depression and grief after death of a mother. Conclusion The uptake-rate of the standard psychological consultation indicates a high level of acceptability of this service for women deciding about PM. Since anxiety is one of the main reasons for considering PM, and depression and grief were present in a third, a standard consultation with a psychologist for high-risk women considering PM may be indicated. This may help them arrive at an informed decision, to detect and manage psychological distress, and to plan psychological support services.

  6. Perspectives of Japanese oncologists on the health economics of innovative cancer treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takura, Tomoyuki; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Shimada, Yasuhiro; Kohgo, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    Few reports have thus far discussed the influence of economic factors on treatment decision-making by patients. The objective of the present study was to clarify the awareness among oncologists of health economics in cancer treatment. The present study was based on the questionnaire regarding health economics in cancer treatment carried out by the Japan Society of Clinical Oncology (JSCO) in July 2013. The subjects were trustees registered with JSCO. The survey investigated the influence of medical expenses on patient access to and selection of medical treatment in order to clarify the primary attributes of the respondents and their awareness of economics. The study also investigated the maximum allowable public medical expenses to prolong the life expectancy of a cancer patient by 1 year and the factors that can influence treatment selection. The 172 respondents had completed a mean of 30.3 ± 6.2 postgraduate years, and the mean number of patients they treated annually was 1323 ± 1963. The degree of treatment accessibility among patients was perceived positively by 112 (71.3 %) and negatively by 49 (28.7 %) of the respondents, irrespective of medical expenses. Of the 172 respondents, 66 (41.0 %) believed that the maximum allowable medical expenses for cancer treatment should be ≤4 million yen/LY, with 62 (39.8 %) reporting a value of 4.01-8 million yen/LY. The findings of this study suggest that a certain range of medical expenses has come to be regarded as the standard range of medical expenses for cancer treatment among oncologists, with answers based on the premise that patients should have access to effective medical treatment.

  7. Translational cancer research: Balancing prevention and treatment to combat cancer globally

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.P. Wild (Christopher P.); J.R. Bucher (John R.); B.W.D. De Jong (Bas W. D.); J. Dillner (Joakim); C. Von Gertten (Christina); J.D. Groopman (John D.); Z. Herceg (Zdenko); E. Holmes (Elaine); R. Holmila (Reetta); J.H. Olsen (Jørgen H.); U. Ringborg (Ulrik); A. Scalbert (Augustin); T. Shibata (Tatsuhiro); M.T. Smith (Martyn T.); C. Ulrich (Cornelia); P. Vineis (Paolo); J. McLaughlin (John)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractCancer research is drawing on the human genome project to develop new molecular-targeted treatments. This is an exciting but insufficient response to the growing, global burden of cancer, particularly as the projected increase in new cases in the coming decades is increasingly falling on

  8. Inflammatory bowel disease and cancer: The role of inflammation, immunosuppression, and cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrad, Jordan E; Lichtiger, Simon; Yajnik, Vijay

    2016-05-28

    In patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), chronic inflammation is a major risk factor for the development of gastrointestinal malignancies. The pathogenesis of colitis-associated cancer is distinct from sporadic colorectal carcinoma and the critical molecular mechanisms underlying this process have yet to be elucidated. Patients with IBD have also been shown to be at increased risk of developing extra-intestinal malignancies. Medical therapies that diminish the mucosal inflammatory response represent the foundation of treatment in IBD, and recent evidence supports their introduction earlier in the disease course. However, therapies that alter the immune system, often used for long durations, may also promote carcinogenesis. As the population of patients with IBD grows older, with longer duration of chronic inflammation and longer exposure to immunosuppression, there is an increasing risk of cancer development. Many of these patients will require cancer treatment, including chemotherapy, radiation, hormonal therapy, and surgery. Many patients will require further treatment for their IBD. This review seeks to explore the characteristics and risks of cancer in patients with IBD, and to evaluate the limited data on patients with IBD and cancer, including management of IBD after a diagnosis of cancer, the effects of cancer treatment on IBD, and the effect of IBD and medications for IBD on cancer outcomes.

  9. Molecular targets in urothelial cancer: detection, treatment, and animal models of bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolensky, Dmitriy; Rathore, Kusum; Cekanova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer remains one of the most expensive cancers to treat in the United States due to the length of required treatment and degree of recurrence. In order to treat bladder cancer more effectively, targeted therapies are being investigated. In order to use targeted therapy in a patient, it is important to provide a genetic background of the patient. Recent advances in genome sequencing, as well as transcriptome analysis, have identified major pathway components altered in bladder cancer. The purpose of this review is to provide a broad background on bladder cancer, including its causes, diagnosis, stages, treatments, animal models, as well as signaling pathways in bladder cancer. The major focus is given to the PI3K/AKT pathway, p53/pRb signaling pathways, and the histone modification machinery. Because several promising immunological therapies are also emerging in the treatment of bladder cancer, focus is also given on general activation of the immune system for the treatment of bladder cancer. PMID:27784990

  10. Minimally invasive approaches for diagnosis and treatment of early-stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastos, Georges; Verkooijen, Helena M

    2007-01-01

    Breast cancer management has been evolving toward minimally invasive approaches. Image-guided percutaneous biopsy techniques provide accurate histologic diagnosis without the need for surgical biopsy. Breast conservation therapy has become the treatment standard for early-stage breast cancer. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a new procedure that can predict axillary lymph node status without the need of axillary lymph node dissection. The next challenge is to treat primary tumors without surgery. For this purpose, several new minimally invasive procedures, including radiofrequency ablation, interstitial laser ablation, focused ultrasound ablation, and cryotherapy, are currently under development and may offer effective tumor management and provide treatment options that are psychologically and cosmetically more acceptable to the patients than are traditional surgical therapies. In this review, we give an overview of minimally invasive approaches for the diagnostic and therapeutic management of early-stage breast cancer.

  11. [Treatments around surgery of prostate cancer and surgery of recurrence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, L; Ploussard, G; Hennequin, C; Richaud, P; Soulié, M

    2015-11-01

    To describe neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatments to surgery and the place of surgery in the recurrence after primary treatments. Bibliography search was performed from the database Medline (National Library of Medicine, Pubmed), selected according to the scientific relevance. The research was focused on treatments before and after surgery, biological recurrence and surgery as the procedure in case of failure of other treatments of non-metastatic prostate cancer. Main oncological objectif of surgery is to decrease positive surgical margins by good adequation between technics and tumor and patient status. Neoadjuvant treatments are today disappointing; however, adjuvant radiotherapy and hormonotherapy demonstrated their interest in case of extracapsular extension, positive margins or invasion of lymph nodes. Nevertheless, superiority of adjuvant treatment to salvage treatment is still debated. Radical prostatectomy is still the only curative treatment in case of failure of another localized treatment. Radical prostatectomy has to be one of the main references of localized prostate cancer treatments especially in case of multimodal approach. Pathological exam of specimen and postoperative PSA value should precise the optimal management of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. An umbrella protocol for standardized data collection (SDC) in rectal cancer: a prospective uniform naming and procedure convention to support personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldolesi, Elisa; van Soest, Johan; Dinapoli, Nicola; Dekker, Andre; Damiani, Andrea; Gambacorta, Maria Antonietta; Valentini, Vincenzo

    2014-07-01

    Predictive models allow treating physicians to deliver tailored treatment moving from prescription by consensus to prescription by numbers. The main features of an umbrella protocol for standardizing data and procedures to create a consistent dataset useful to obtain a trustful analysis for a Decision Support System for rectal cancer are reported. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fatigue and relating factors in high-risk breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant standard or high-dose chemotherapy: a longitudinal study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieboer, P.; Buijs, C.; Rodenhuis, S.; Seynaeve, C.; Beex, L.V.A.M.; Wall, E. van der; Richel, D.J.; Nooij, M.A.; Voest, E.E.; Hupperets, P.S.G.J.; Mulder, N.H.; Graaf, W.T.A. van der; Vergert, E.M. ten; Tinteren, H.L.G. van; Vries, E.G.F. de

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: Determine whether standard or high-dose chemotherapy leads to changes in fatigue, hemoglobin (Hb), mental health, muscle and joint pain, and menopausal status from pre- to post-treatment and to evaluate whether fatigue is associated with these factors in disease-free breast cancer patients.

  14. Fatigue and relating factors in high-risk breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant standard or high-dose chemotherapy: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieboer, Peter; Buijs, Ciska; Rodenhuis, Sjoerd; Seynaeve, Caroline; Beex, Louk V. A. M.; van der Wall, Elsken; Richel, Dick J.; Nooij, Marianne A.; Voest, Emile E.; Hupperets, Pierre; Mulder, Nanno H.; van der Graaf, Winette T. A.; TenVergert, Els M.; van Tinteren, Harm; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: Determine whether standard or high-dose chemotherapy leads to changes in fatigue, hemoglobin (Hb), mental health, muscle and joint pain, and menopausal status from pre- to post-treatment and to evaluate whether fatigue is associated with these factors in disease-free breast cancer patients.

  15. Fatigue and relating factors in high-risk breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant standard or high-dose chemotherapy : A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieboer, P; Buijs, C; Rodenhuis, S; Seynaeve, C; Beex, LVAM; van der Wall, E; Richel, DJ; Nooij, MA; Voest, EE; Hupperets, P; Mulder, NH; van der Graaf, WTA; TenVergert, EM; van Tinteren, H; de Vries, EGE

    2005-01-01

    Purpose Determine whether standard or high-dose chemotherapy leads to changes in fatigue, hemoglobin (Hb), mental health, muscle and joint pain, and menopausal status from pre- to post-treatment and to evaluate whether fatigue is associated with these factors in disease-free breast cancer patients.

  16. A new accurate 3D measurement tool to assess the range of motion of the tongue in oral cancer patients: a standardized model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Simone; van Alphen, M.J.A.; Jacobi, Irene; Smeele, Ludwig E.; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Balm, Alfonsus Jacobus Maria; Balm, Alfons J.M.

    2016-01-01

    In oral cancer treatment, function loss such as speech and swallowing deterioration can be severe, mostly due to reduced lingual mobility. Until now, there is no standardized measurement tool for tongue mobility and pre-operative prediction of function loss is based on expert opinion instead of

  17. Explaining inequalities in access to treatment in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Ruth H; Gulliford, Martin C; Ferguson, Jamie; Møller, Henrik

    2006-10-01

    Geographical inequalities in lung cancer treatment and patient survival have been described. We hypothesized that lung cancer patients' access to treatment may be influenced by deprivation and the pathway to care. Case notes were reviewed for patients resident in south-east London who were registered with lung cancer at the Thames Cancer Registry in 1998. Use of surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy or any specific treatment and one-year survival were examined. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, histology, stage and basis of diagnosis. Data for 695 out of 958 (73%) patients were analysed. Subjects who were initially referred to a specialist in thoracic medicine, surgery or oncology were more likely to receive active treatment (71%) than subjects who were referred to other consultants (51%) or who were admitted as emergencies (42%) (P < 0.0001). Socio-economic deprivation was associated with lower rates of treatment and this partly explained variations in survival. Subjects who were referred to specialists were more likely to receive active treatment and treatment patterns varied between first trust attended.

  18. Brachytherapy in the treatment of cervical cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Robyn Banerjee,1 Mitchell Kamrava21Department of Radiation Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; 2Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: Dramatic advances have been made in brachytherapy for cervical cancer. Radiation treatment planning has evolved from two-dimensional to three-dimensional, incorporating magnetic resonance imaging and/or computed tomography into the treatment paradigm. This allows for better delineation and coverage of the tumor, as well as improved avoidance of surrounding organs. Consequently, advanced brachytherapy can achieve very high rates of local control with a reduction in morbidity, compared with historic approaches. This review provides an overview of state-of-the-art gynecologic brachytherapy, with a focus on recent advances and their implications for women with cervical cancer.Keywords: cervical cancer, brachytherapy, image-guided brachytherapy

  19. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Liver Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zhou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Liver cancer is the most common malignancy of the digestive system with high death rate. Accumulating evidences suggests that many dietary natural products are potential sources for prevention and treatment of liver cancer, such as grapes, black currant, plum, pomegranate, cruciferous vegetables, French beans, tomatoes, asparagus, garlic, turmeric, ginger, soy, rice bran, and some edible macro-fungi. These dietary natural products and their active components could affect the development and progression of liver cancer in various ways, such as inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis, protecting against liver carcinogens, immunomodulating and enhancing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the potential prevention and treatment activities of dietary natural products and their major bioactive constituents on liver cancer, and discusses possible mechanisms of action.

  20. Late effects of breast cancer treatment and potentials for rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertz, Marianne; Jensen, Anders Bonde

    2011-01-01

    treatment in postmenopausal women. Awareness of cardiotoxicity is needed since anthracyclines, trastuzumab, and radiotherapy can damage the heart. Breast cancer survivors have an increased risk of a major depression and far from all receive adequate anti-depressive treatment. Other psychological symptoms......Abstract Background. Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant disease among women world wide. Survival has been improving leading to an increasing number of breast cancer survivors, in the US estimated to about 2.6 million. Material and methods. The literature was reviewed with focus on data...... from the Nordic countries. Results. Local therapies such as breast cancer surgery and radiotherapy may cause persistent pain in the breast area, arm, and shoulder reported by 30-50% of patients after three to five years, lymphedema in 15-25% of patients, and restrictions of arm and shoulder movement...

  1. Computer modeling of lung cancer diagnosis-to-treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Feng; Lee, Hyo Kyung; Osarogiagbon, Raymond U; Yu, Xinhua; Faris, Nick; Li, Jingshan

    2015-08-01

    We introduce an example of a rigorous, quantitative method for quality improvement in lung cancer care-delivery. Computer process modeling methods are introduced for lung cancer diagnosis, staging and treatment selection process. Two types of process modeling techniques, discrete event simulation (DES) and analytical models, are briefly reviewed. Recent developments in DES are outlined and the necessary data and procedures to develop a DES model for lung cancer diagnosis, leading up to surgical treatment process are summarized. The analytical models include both Markov chain model and closed formulas. The Markov chain models with its application in healthcare are introduced and the approach to derive a lung cancer diagnosis process model is presented. Similarly, the procedure to derive closed formulas evaluating the diagnosis process performance is outlined. Finally, the pros and cons of these methods are discussed.

  2. Directing the use of DDR kinase inhibitors in cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandsma, Inger; Fleuren, Emmy D G; Williamson, Chris T; Lord, Christopher J

    2017-12-01

    Defects in the DNA damage response (DDR) drive the development of cancer by fostering DNA mutation but also provide cancer-specific vulnerabilities that can be exploited therapeutically. The recent approval of three different PARP inhibitors for the treatment of ovarian cancer provides the impetus for further developing targeted inhibitors of many of the kinases involved in the DDR, including inhibitors of ATR, ATM, CHEK1, CHEK2, DNAPK and WEE1. Areas covered: We summarise the current stage of development of these novel DDR kinase inhibitors, and describe which predictive biomarkers might be exploited to direct their clinical use. Expert opinion: Novel DDR inhibitors present promising candidates in cancer treatment and have the potential to elicit synthetic lethal effects. In order to fully exploit their potential and maximize their utility, identifying highly penetrant predictive biomarkers of single agent and combinatorial DDR inhibitor sensitivity are critical. Identifying the optimal drug combination regimens that could used with DDR inhibitors is also a key objective.

  3. Age Differences in Cancer Treatment Decision Making and Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krok-Schoen, Jessica L; Palmer-Wackerly, Angela L; Dailey, Phokeng M; Wojno, Julianne C; Krieger, Janice L

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the decision-making (DM) styles of younger (18-39 years), middle-aged (40-59 years), and older (≥60 years) cancer survivors, the type and role of social support, and patient satisfaction with cancer treatment DM. Adult cancer survivors ( N = 604) were surveyed using Qualtrics online software. Older adults reported significantly lower influence of support on DM than younger adults. The most common DM style for the age groups was collaborative DM with their doctors. Younger age was a significant predictor of independent ( p social support in cancer treatment DM, older adults were more satisfied with their DM than younger and middle-aged adults. Health care workers should be aware of different DM styles and influence of social networks to help facilitate optimal patient DM and satisfaction.

  4. Oncolytic Viruses in the Treatment of Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle G. Potts

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder carcinoma is the second most common malignancy of the urinary tract. Up to 85% of patients with bladder cancer are diagnosed with a tumor that is limited to the bladder mucosa (Ta, T1, and CIS. These stages are commonly termed as non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC. Although the treatment of NMIBC has greatly improved in recent years, there is a need for additional therapies when patients fail bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG and chemotherapeutic agents. We propose that bladder cancer may be an ideal target for oncolytic viruses engineered to selectively replicate in and lyse tumor cells leaving normal cells unharmed. In support of this hypothesis, here we review current treatment strategies for bladder cancer and their shortcomings, as well as recent advancements in oncolytic viral therapy demonstrating encouraging safety profiles and antitumor activity.

  5. Understanding the benefit of metformin use in cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodwin Pamela J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biguanides have been developed for the treatment of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. Recently, metformin, the most widely prescribed biguanide, has emerged as a potential anticancer agent. Epidemiological, preclinical and clinical evidence supports the use of metformin as a cancer therapeutic. The ability of metformin to lower circulating insulin may be particularly important for the treatment of cancers known to be associated with hyperinsulinemia, such as those of the breast and colon. Moreover, metformin may exhibit direct inhibitory effects on cancer cells by inhibiting mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling and protein synthesis. The evidence supporting a role for metformin in cancer therapy and its potential molecular mechanisms of action are discussed.

  6. Seroma indicates increased risk of lymphedema following breast cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Jørgensen, Mads Gustaf; Haugaard, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Lymphedema is one of the most serious complications following breast cancer treatment. While many risk factors are well described the role of seroma formation has recently produced mixed results. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate if seroma is a risk factor for development of lymphedema...... in one of the largest retrospective cohort studies. Material and methods We included all patients with unilateral breast cancer treated in the period of 2008-2014. Data regarding treatment and breast cancer characteristics were retrieved from the national breast cancer registry. Data regarding lymphedema...... were lymphadenectomy, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, BMI above 30, total lymph nodes removed above 15 and higher number of metastatic lymph nodes. Conclusions Postoperative seroma doubles the risk of developing lymphedema. Future studies should examine if seroma reducing measures will lead to lower...

  7. HIV-protease inhibitors for the treatment of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maksimovic-Ivanic, Danijela; Fagone, Paolo; McCubrey, James

    2017-01-01

    The possible use of HIV protease inhibitors (HIV-PI) as new therapeutic option for the treatment of cancer primarily originated from their success in treating HIV-related Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). While these findings were initially attributed to immune reconstitution and better control of oncogenic...... and nitric oxide (NO) derivatives of HIV-PIs. In this article, we discuss the current preclinical and clinical evidences for the potential use of HIV-PIs, and of novel derivatives, such as saquinavir-NO in the treatment of cancer....... viral infections, the number of reports on solid tumors, KS, lymphoma, fibrosarcoma, multiple myeloma and prostate cancer suggest other mechanisms for the anti-neoplastic activity of PIs. However, a major drawback for the possible adoption of HIV-PIs in the therapy of cancer relies on their relatively...

  8. Breast Cancer After Treatment of Hodgkin's Lymphoma: General Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alm El-Din, Mohamed A.; El-Badawy, Samy A.; Taghian, Alphonse G.

    2008-01-01

    The improved survival rates among patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma over the past few decades have come with increased incidence of second malignancies. One of the major concerns among female survivors is the significantly elevated risk of breast cancer that appears with extended follow-up. In this review, we include the published literature regarding the risk of breast cancer after irradiation for Hodgkin's lymphoma. We also present the possible long-term surveillance strategies and the optimal time to start screening these women. This could potentially help in early detection of secondary breast cancers and consequently improve outcomes. Furthermore, because of prior radiotherapy, the management of the breast cancer among this unique population has been controversial. We discuss the characteristics of breast cancer that occurs after Hodgkin's lymphoma and also treatment options that could be implemented

  9. Genetic predisposition to colorectal cancer: Implications for treatment and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, Elena M; Yurgelun, Matthew B

    2016-10-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer diagnosed in men and women and approximately 5% of cases are associated with identifiable germline mutations associated with hereditary cancer syndromes. Lifetime risks for CRC can approach 50%-80% for mutation carriers in the absence of endoscopic and/or surgical intervention, and early identification of at-risk individuals can guide clinical interventions for cancer prevention and treatment. Personal and family history and molecular phenotype of CRC tumors are used in determining which patients should be referred for clinical genetic evaluation. Outcomes of genetic testing performed using next-generation sequencing (NGS) multigene panels suggest there can be significant overlap in clinical features among the various hereditary cancer syndromes. This review summarizes new developments in diagnosis and management of patients with genetic predisposition to CRC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Creating a standardized process to offer the standard of care: continuous process improvement methodology is associated with increased rates of sperm cryopreservation among adolescent and young adult males with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnorhavorian, Margarett; Kroon, Leah; Jeffries, Howard; Johnson, Rebecca

    2012-11-01

    There is limited literature on strategies to overcome the barriers to sperm banking among adolescent and young adult (AYA) males with cancer. By standardizing our process for offering sperm banking to AYA males before cancer treatment, we aimed to improve rates of sperm banking at our institution. Continuous process improvement is a technique that has recently been applied to improve health care delivery. We used continuous process improvement methodologies to create a standard process for fertility preservation for AYA males with cancer at our institution. We compared rates of sperm banking before and after standardization. In the 12-month period after implementation of a standardized process, 90% of patients were offered sperm banking. We demonstrated an 8-fold increase in the proportion of AYA males' sperm banking, and a 5-fold increase in the rate of sperm banking at our institution. Implementation of a standardized process for sperm banking for AYA males with cancer was associated with increased rates of sperm banking at our institution. This study supports the role of standardized health care in decreasing barriers to sperm banking.

  11. Adherence to cancer treatment guidelines: influence of general and cancer-specific guideline characteristics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heins, M.J.; Jong, J.D. de; Spronk, I.; Ho, V.K.; Brink, M.; Korevaar, J.C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Guideline adherence remains a challenge in clinical practice, despite guidelines’ ascribed potential to improve patient outcomes. We studied the level of adherence to recommendations from Dutch national cancer treatment guidelines, and the influence of general and

  12. Noncompliance to guidelines in head and neck cancer treatment; associated factors for both patient and physician

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dronkers, Emilie A. C.; Mes, Steven W.; Wieringa, Marjan H.; Schroeff, Marc P. van der; Baatenburg de Jong, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Decisions on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treatment are widely recognized as being difficult, due to high morbidity, often involving vital functions. Some patients may therefore decline standard, curative treatment. In addition doctors may propose alternative, nonstandard treatments. Little attention is devoted, both in literature and in daily practice, to understanding why and when HNSCC patients or their physicians decline standard, curative treatment modalities. Our objective is to determine factors associated with noncompliance in head and neck cancer treatment for both patients and physicians and to assess the influence of patient compliance on prognosis. We did a retrospective study based on the medical records of 829 patients with primary HNSCC, who were eligible for curative treatment and referred to our hospital between 2010 and 2012. We analyzed treatment choice and reasons for nonstandard treatment decisions, survival, age, gender, social network, tumor site, cTNM classification, and comorbidity (ACE27). Multivariate analysis using logistic regression methods was performed to determine predictive factors associated with non-standard treatment following physician or patient decision. To gain insight in survival of the different groups of patients, we applied a Cox regression analysis. After checking the proportional hazards assumption for each variable, we adjusted the survival analysis for gender, age, tumor site, tumor stage, comorbidity and a history of having a prior tumor. 17 % of all patients with a primary HNSCC did not receive standard curative treatment, either due to nonstandard treatment advice (10 %) or due to the patient choosing an alternative (7 %). A further 3 % of all patients refused any type of therapy, even though they were considered eligible for curative treatment. Elderliness, single marital status, female gender, high tumor stage and severe comorbidity are predictive factors. Patients declining standard treatment

  13. Activatable Nanoparticles for Cancer Treatment. Nanobiotix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, V.; Ceccaldi, A.; Lévy, L.

    With almost 150,000 deaths every year in France (26 times more than on the roads), cancers represent the second cause of mortality after cardiovascular disease. In 2002, 10 million new cases of cancer were registered in the world and there were 6 million deaths (of which 40% in developed countries). Moreover, the World Health Organisation (WHO) predicts a significant increase in the number of new cases between now and 2020 (+40% in developed countries and +100% in developing countries), due mainly to longer life expectations, change in behaviour, and degradation of the environment. The word ‘cancer’ is a generic term covering a group of more than a hundred diseases, all characterised by the organism losing control over the proliferation of certain cells. These cells then develop in an anarchic way, eventually constituting a tumour which invades surrounding tissue and in many cases ends up disseminating to distant tissues (metastases).

  14. New dimension of glucocorticoids in cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kai-Ti; Wang, Lu-Hai

    2016-07-01

    Glucocorticoids have been used in clinical oncology for over half a century. The clinical applications of glucocorticoids in oncology are mainly dependent on their pro-apoptotic action to treat lymphoproliferative disorders, and also on alleviating side effects induced by chemotherapy or radiotherapy in non-hematologic cancer types. Researches in the past few years have begun to unveil the profound complexity of glucocorticoids signaling and have contributed remarkably on therapeutic strategies. However, it remains striking and puzzling how glucocorticoids use different mechanisms in different cancer types and different targets to promote or inhibit tumor progression. In this review, we provide an update on glucocorticoids and its receptor, GR-mediated signaling and highlight some of the latest findings on the actions of glucocorticoids signaling during tumor progression and metastasis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Lipoplatin Treatment in Lung and Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Fantini

    2011-01-01

    Lipoplatin is a new liposomal cisplatin formulation which seems to have these characteristics. Lipoplatin was shown to be effective in NSCLC both in phase 2 and phase 3 trials, with the same response rate of Cisplatin, a comparable overall survival but less toxicity. A new protocol aiming to elucidate the double capacity of Lipoplatin to act as a chemotherapeutic and angiogenetic agent in triple-negative breast cancer patients is upcoming.

  16. Endoscopic Treatment for Early Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang Gyun

    2011-01-01

    Endoscopic resection has been accepted as a curative modality for early gastric cancer (EGC). Since conventional endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) has been introduced, many improvements in endoscopic accessories and techniques have been achieved. Recently, endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) using various electrosurgical knives has been performed for complete resection of EGC and enables complete resection of EGC, which is difficult to completely resect in the era of conventional EMR. Cur...

  17. Optimizing Treatment of Lung Cancer Patients with Comorbidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    complications. Methods We linked clinical and cancer data from the Veterans Corporate Data Warehouse to surgical outcomes from the Veterans Affairs Surgical...instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing this collection of information...health data ; we identified a cohort of >20,000 NSCLC patients and collected data on comorbidities, cancer treatments and outcomes to generate estimates

  18. Rationale, Feasibility and Acceptability of Ketogenic Diet for Cancer Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Hae-Yun; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2017-01-01

    Ketogenic diet has been used for more than 80 years as a successful dietary regimen for epilepsy. Recently, dietary modulation by carbohydrate depletion via ketogenic diet has been suggested as an important therapeutic strategy to selectively kill cancer cells and as adjuvant therapy for cancer treatment. However, some researchers insist ketogenic diet to be highly undesirable as ketogenic diet may trigger and/or exacerbate cachexia development and usually result in significant weight loss. T...

  19. Possible new treatment for Kaposi sarcoma | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collaborative effort by researchers at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and Celgene Corporation, a global biopharmaceutical company, has yielded a possible new treatment for Kaposi sarcoma (KS), a cancer caused by a human gammaherpesvirus. The drug, called pomalidomide, is highly effective against KS and has fewer side effects compared with chemotherapy, suggesting that it may be a useful alternative to traditional therapies. Read more...

  20. Heat Shock Proteins, Autoimmunity, and Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart K. Calderwood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins (HSPs have been linked to the therapy of both cancer and inflammatory diseases, approaches that utilize contrasting immune properties of these proteins. It would appear that HSP family members Hsp60 and Hsp70, whether from external sources or induced locally during inflammation, can be processed by antigen-presenting cells and that HSP-derived epitopes then activate regulatory T cells and suppress inflammatory diseases. These effects also extend to the HSP-rich environments of cancer cells where elevated HSP concentrations may participate in the immunosuppressive tumor milieu. However, HSPs can also be important mediators of tumor immunity. Due to their molecular chaperone properties, some HSPs can bind tumor-specific peptides and deliver them deep into the antigen-processing pathways of antigen-presenting cells (APCs. In this context, HSP-based vaccines can activate tumor-specific immunity, trigger the proliferation and CTL capabilities of cancer-specific CD8+ T cells, and inhibit tumor growth. Further advances in HSP-based anticancer immunotherapy appear to involve improving the properties of the molecular chaperone vaccines by enhancing their antigen-binding properties and combating the immunosuppressive tumor milieu to permit programming of active CTL capable of penetrating the tumor milieu and specifically targeting tumor cells.