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Sample records for standard body measurements

  1. Standardized uptake value of FDG corrected by lean body mass measured by DEXA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guirao, M.A.; Sanchez, A.M.; Saravi, F.D.; Mosconi, S.; Frias, L.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluating the metabolic activity of tumor lesion sometimes becomes important to evaluate grading of malignancy, prognosis, or response to therapy. The most used measure of the metabolic activity of [18F]-Fluorodeoxiglucose (FDG) in clinical PET is the Standardized Uptake Value (SUV). It relates the activity measured by the PET scan to the injected dose of FDG divided by the body mass. This approach overestimates SUV in 'heavy' patients, as the proportion of the 'low avid of FDG' fat mass increases. For this reason, different approaches are being evaluated to obtain a more accurate SUV measure. Aims: to compare the measured lean body mass by Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry with the previous methods of correction, to assess the more independent to the body constitution. Material and Methods: FDG metabolism was studied to 15 patients of both sexes, age between 28 and 72 y.o., body weight 55 to 92 Kg. One hour after the IV injection of 0.0045mCi/Kg of FDG, a whole body emission and transmission scan was performed to each subject in a positron emission tomograph (QUEST 250, GE-UGM, USA) for over 1 hour. Body lean mass composition was measured the same or next day by DEXA (Lunar DPX-L, USA.) ROIs were drawn on brain, liver and muscle. SUVbw =[(corrected mCi/g of tissue) / (mCi injected / body weight in grams)] was calculated for each tissue, and then recalculated replacing body weight with the measured lean body mass (SUVlm), calculated lean mass (SUVlc), body mass index (SUVmi) and body surface area (SUVsa). Corrected SUVs were normalized to each SUVbw average for a comparable visualization of results. Results: obtained data was analyzed by linear regression and curve estimation for each case in all tissues with the SPSS statistical software. A positive correlation between SUVbw and subject weight was confirmed for the 3 tissues. In Muscle and liver there was no significant correlation. The liver scanning time was variable ( 90 to 123 minutes after injection). Relating liver

  2. Standardization of a Volumetric Displacement Measurement for Two-Body Abrasion Scratch Test Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, K. W. Jr.; Kobrick, R. L.; Klaus, D. M.

    2011-01-01

    A limitation has been identified in the existing test standards used for making controlled, two-body abrasion scratch measurements based solely on the width of the resultant score on the surface of the material. A new, more robust method is proposed for analyzing a surface scratch that takes into account the full three-dimensional profile of the displaced material. To accomplish this, a set of four volume- displacement metrics was systematically defined by normalizing the overall surface profile to denote statistically the area of relevance, termed the Zone of Interaction. From this baseline, depth of the trough and height of the plowed material are factored into the overall deformation assessment. Proof-of-concept data were collected and analyzed to demonstrate the performance of this proposed methodology. This technique takes advantage of advanced imaging capabilities that allow resolution of the scratched surface to be quantified in greater detail than was previously achievable. When reviewing existing data analysis techniques for conducting two-body abrasive scratch tests, it was found that the ASTM International Standard G 171 specified a generic metric based only on visually determined scratch width as a way to compare abraded materials. A limitation to this method was identified in that the scratch width is based on optical surface measurements, manually defined by approximating the boundaries, but does not consider the three-dimensional volume of material that was displaced. With large, potentially irregular deformations occurring on softer materials, it becomes unclear where to systematically determine the scratch width. Specifically, surface scratches on different samples may look the same from a top view, resulting in an identical scratch width measurement, but may vary in actual penetration depth and/or plowing deformation. Therefore, two different scratch profiles would be measured as having identical abrasion properties, although they differ

  3. A new formula for estimation of standard liver volume using computed tomography-measured body thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ka Wing; Chok, Kenneth S H; Chan, Albert C Y; Tam, Henry S C; Dai, Wing Chiu; Cheung, Tan To; Fung, James Y Y; Lo, Chung Mau

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this article is to derive a more accurate and easy-to-use formula for finding estimated standard liver volume (ESLV) using novel computed tomography (CT) measurement parameters. New formulas for ESLV have been emerging that aim to improve the accuracy of estimation. However, many of these formulas contain body surface area measurements and logarithms in the equations that lead to a more complicated calculation. In addition, substantial errors in ESLV using these old formulas have been shown. An improved version of the formula for ESLV is needed. This is a retrospective cohort of consecutive living donor liver transplantations from 2005 to 2016. Donors were randomly assigned to either the formula derivation or validation groups. Total liver volume (TLV) measured by CT was used as the reference for a linear regression analysis against various patient factors. The derived formula was compared with the existing formulas. There were 722 patients (197 from the derivation group, 164 from the validation group, and 361 from the recipient group) involved in the study. The donor's body weight (odds ratio [OR], 10.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.25-13.60; P Liver Transplantation 23 1113-1122 2017 AASLD. © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  4. Comparison between auricular and standard rectal thermometers for the measurement of body temperature in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Marlos G; Carareto, Roberta; Pereira-Junior, Valdo A; Aquino, Monally C C

    2011-04-01

    Although the rectal mucosa remains the traditional site for measuring body temperature in dogs, an increasing number of clinicians have been using auricular temperature to estimate core body temperature. In this study, 88 mature healthy dogs had body temperatures measured with auricular and rectal thermometers. The mean temperature and confidence intervals were similar for each method, but Bland-Altman plots showed high biases and limits of agreement unacceptable for clinical purposes. The results indicate that auricular and rectal temperatures should not be interpreted interchangeably.

  5. New standards for devices used for the measurement of human body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, E F J; McEvoy, H; Jung, A; Zuber, J; Machin, G

    2010-05-01

    Significant changes in recording of human body temperature have been taking place worldwide in recent years. The clinical thermometer introduced in the mid-19th century by Wunderlich has been replaced by digital thermometers or radiometer devices for recording tympanic membrane temperature. More recently the use of infrared thermal imaging for fever screening has become more widespread following the SARS infection, and particularly during the pandemic H1N1 outbreak. Important new standards that have now reached international acceptance will affect clinical and fever screening applications. This paper draws attention to these new standard documents. They are designed to improve the standardization of both performance and practical use of these key techniques in clinical medicine, especially necessary in a pandemic influenza situation.

  6. Standards for holdup measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Holdup measurement, needed for material balance, depend intensively on standards and on interpretation of the calibration procedure. More than other measurements, the calibration procedure using the standard becomes part of the standard. Standards practical for field use and calibration techniques have been developed. While accuracy in holdup measurements is comparatively poor, avoidance of bias is a necessary goal

  7. International Construction Measurement Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The International Construction Measurement Standard Coalition (the Coalition) was formed on 17 June 2015 after meeting at the International Monetary Fund in Washington DC, USA. The Coalition, comprising the organisations listed below at the date of publication, aims to bring about consistency in construction cost reporting standards internationally. This is achieved by the creation and adoption of this ICMS, an agreed international standard for the structuring and presentation of cost reports...

  8. Standardization of depression measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahl, Inka; Löwe, Bernd; Bjørner, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To provide a standardized metric for the assessment of depression severity to enable comparability among results of established depression measures. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A common metric for 11 depression questionnaires was developed applying item response theory (IRT) methods. Data...... of 33,844 adults were used for secondary analysis including routine assessments of 23,817 in- and outpatients with mental and/or medical conditions (46% with depressive disorders) and a general population sample of 10,027 randomly selected participants from three representative German household surveys....... RESULTS: A standardized metric for depression severity was defined by 143 items, and scores were normed to a general population mean of 50 (standard deviation = 10) for easy interpretability. It covers the entire range of depression severity assessed by established instruments. The metric allows...

  9. FastStats: Body Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Body Measurements Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... 7 MB] Related FastStats Obesity/Overweight Related Links Body Mass Index table CDC Growth Charts National Health ...

  10. Standardization of radon measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuszek, J.M.; Hutchinson, J.A.; Lance, B.H.; Virgil, M.G.; Mahoney, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    Radon escaping from soil into homes appears to present the single greatest source of radiation exposure that most people will ever face. Measurement protocols for the relatively inert gas inextricably link the method of collection with the counting of the specimen. The most commonly used methods depend on the measurement of dislocation sites on plastic α-track detectors or on the adsorption of radon onto activated charcoal for subsequent counting of the γ-rays produced by decay of the radon progeny. The uncertainties inherent to the radon-measurement methods used commercially in the United States are far greater than those for measurements of other environmental radionuclides. The results of this preliminary study raise doubts as to whether existing proficiency-testing programs can provide assurance that radon-measurement methods are representative of actual conditions in any dwelling. 17 refs., 1 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Measurement of body temperature in 300 dogs with a novel noncontact infrared thermometer on the cornea in comparison to a standard rectal digital thermometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreissl, Hannah; Neiger, Reto

    2015-01-01

    To assess the accuracy of obtaining body temperatures in dogs with a noncontact infrared thermometer (NCIT) on the cornea compared with a rectal digital thermometer (RDT). Prospective single center study. University teaching hospital. Three hundred dogs presented with low, normal, or high body temperatures. Three body temperature readings were measured by an RDT and by an NCIT on the cornea of the left eye by 2 investigators (experienced and inexperienced). Results obtained by the 2 methods were compared. Median body temperature measured by the experienced investigator with the RDT and the NCIT were 38.3°C (range 35.5°C-41.1°C; 95% CI: 38.2-38.4°C) and 37.7°C (35.9°C-40.1°C; 95% CI: 37.7°C-37.9°C), respectively. Measurement of RDT as well as of NCIT correlated well between both investigators (rRDT = 0.94; rNCIT = 0.82; respectively, P temperature correlated poorly (r = 0.43; P temperature >39.0°C) showed an area under the curve of 0.76. Mean discomfort score was significantly lower using NCIT compared to RDT measurement (P temperatures obtained by RDT and NCIT. The corneal NCIT measurement tends to underrecognize hypothermic and hyperthermic conditions. Although the use of the NCIT yields faster results and is significantly more comfortable for the dog than the RDT measurement, it cannot be recommended in dogs at this time. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  12. Measuring radioactivity in the body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-09-15

    Techniques of measuring the total amount of radioactivity in the body of a living person as well as the principal applications of such measurements were reviewed at a Symposium on Whole Body Counting held in Vienna from 12 to 16 June 1961. The whole body counters can be divided into two broad groups: (a) counters for the radiation protection surveillance of the general public and radiation workers, capable of detecting extremely low levels of radioactivity in the human body, and (b) counters for medical research and diagnosis, designed to check the retention and excretion of radioactive substances administered to patients for metabolic and pathological studies. In both cases, the primary requirement is that the counter must be able to measure the total activity in the body. In recent years, there has been a remarkable development of the instruments and techniques for such measurements. One of the main purposes of the symposium in Vienna was to discuss how best to use these highly sophisticated instruments.

  13. Standardization of UV LED measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppeldauer, G. P.; Larason, T. C.; Yoon, H. W.

    2015-09-01

    Traditionally used source spectral-distribution or detector spectral-response based standards cannot be applied for accurate UV LED measurements. Since the CIE standardized rectangular-shape spectral response function for UV measurements cannot be realized with small spectral mismatch when using filtered detectors, the UV measurement errors can be several times ten percent or larger. The UV LEDs produce broadband radiation and both their peaks or spectral bandwidths can change significantly. The detectors used for the measurement of these LEDs also have different spectral bandwidths. In the discussed example, where LEDs with 365 nm peak are applied for fluorescent crack-recognition using liquid penetrant (non-destructive) inspection, the broadband radiometric LED (signal) measurement procedure is standardized. A UV LED irradiance-source was calibrated against an FEL lamp standard to determine its spectral irradiance. The spectral irradiance responsivity of a reference UV meter was also calibrated. The output signal of the reference UV meter was calculated from the spectral irradiance of the UV source and the spectral irradiance responsivity of the reference UV meter. From the output signal, both the integrated irradiance (in the reference plane of the reference meter) and the integrated responsivity of the reference meter were determined. Test UV meters calibrated for integrated responsivity against the reference UV meter, can be used to determine the integrated irradiance from a field UV source. The obtained 5 % (k=2) measurement uncertainty can be decreased when meters with spectral response close to a constant value are selected.

  14. Estimation Of Body Weight From Linear Body Measurements In Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prediction of body weight from body girth, keel length and thigh length was studied using one hundred Ross and one hundred Anak Titan broilers. Data were collected on the birds from day-old to 9 weeks of age. Body measurement was regressed against body weight at 9 weeks of age using simple linear and ...

  15. Measurements of body protein for clinical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mernagh, J.R.; Harrison, J.E.; McNeill, M.G.; Jeejeebhoy, K.N.; Krishnan, S.S.

    1986-01-01

    Body protein (nitrogen) is determined by bilaterally irradiating the body with neutrons using Pu-Be sources and measuring the resultant 10.8 MeV gamma rays from the reaction 14 N(n,8) 15 N. In the authors lab the whole body can be scanned or separate segments of the body can be measured independently. A nitrogen index has been developed based on body size and is used as a predictor of normal total body nitrogen (TBN). They have found that TBN, when normalized to body size in this way, provides a reliable index of protein status which cannot be accurately determined by body weight, anthropometry, or body potassium measurements. Changes in body composition with age were studied by measuring the composition of 56 healthy female volunteers aged 20-80. Measurements were made for K( 40 K), Ca and N. It was shown that protein and bone mineral decrease with age but that this is not reflected in K or anthropometry measurements. Results of other studies to be presented include: body protein measurements pre and post TPN (total parenteral nutrition), nutritional status of patients on long term CAPD (continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis) and changes in body composition as a result of TPN in patients with small cell lung cancer receiving chemotherapy. Clinical results show that indirect measurements of body protein based on weight, potassium, or anthropometry, do not give an accurate measure of body protein. For an accurate measurement, direct measurement of body protein is necessary

  16. 76 FR 70165 - Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor Standard Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs [OJP (NIJ) Docket No. 1573] Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor Standard Workshop AGENCY: National Institute of Justice, DOJ. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... jointly hosting a workshop focused on NIJ Standard-0101.06, Ballistic Resistance of Body Armor, and the...

  17. Nutritional assessment with body composition measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shizgal, H.M.

    1987-01-01

    The measurement of body composition by multiple isotope dilution provides an accurate and precise measure of both the nutritional state and the response to nutritional support. A multiple isotope dilution technique has been developed that permits measurement of the three major components of body composition: body fat, extracellular mass (ECM), and body cell mass (BCM). Normal body composition was defined by data obtained in 25 healthy volunteers. Malnutrition is characterized by a loss of BCM and an expansion of the ECM, and as a result the lean body mass is not significantly different from normal. The loss of body weight with malnutrition therefore often reflects the loss of body fat. The utility of body composition measurements was demonstrated by determining the effect of total parenteral nutrition on body composition to determine the relationship between caloric intake and the change in the BCM. A statistically significant relationship was developed which demonstrated that a caloric intake in the range of 30-40 cal/kg/day is required for maintenance. To restore a depleted or malnourished BCM requires a caloric intake in excess of that required for maintenance. The measurement of body composition by multiple isotope dilution is complex and time consuming, and requires specialized laboratory facilities and specially trained personnel. As a result, these measurements are not suited for routine patient management, but should rather be reserved for research purposes

  18. Report on the results of the FY 1999 study on the standardization of the measuring/database method for data on human body shape characteristics; 1999 nendo shinki sangyo ikusei sokkogata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo. Shintai keitai tokusei data no keisoku database ka shuho ni kakawaru hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of the present project is to conduct studies on three-dimensional human body measurement; the method of describing measurement results; the method of developing a database using measurement data; and the method of statistical data processing. Results of these studies are to be used to establish an international standard on three-dimensional human shape data. In the course of the project, the state of relevant studies conducted outside Japan was investigated. As a result, it has been found that studies on the method of processing three-dimensional human body shape data are being promoted independently by different research institutes. At present, it is impossible to build up a consensus on the method among these institutes. Additionally, standardizing the method may stifle the creativity of researchers. We have therefore decided to exclude the standardization of body shape data processing method from the scope of the project. Our conclusion is that the standard proposed in the project should be based on the human body shape data format, obtained through a study on the method of describing three-dimensional body shape data. And it should provide for a data format for three-dimensional human body measurement, which can store all data required for product of space design (e.g. data on human body sizes, landmarks and texture). According to our plan, this standard will be proposed in the form of a technical report, since it is yet too early to se out establishing the standard as an international standard. (NEDO)

  19. Standard-Setting Methods as Measurement Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Paul; Twing, Jon; Mueller, Canda D.; O'Malley, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Some writers in the measurement literature have been skeptical of the meaningfulness of achievement standards and described the standard-setting process as blatantly arbitrary. We argue that standard setting is more appropriately conceived of as a measurement process similar to student assessment. The construct being measured is the panelists'…

  20. The Children's Body Image Scale: reliability and use with international standards for body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truby, Helen; Paxton, Susan J

    2008-03-01

    To test the reliability of the Children's Body Image Scale (CBIS) and assess its usefulness in the context of new body size charts for children. Participants were 281 primary schoolchildren with 50% being retested after 3 weeks. The CBIS figure scale was compared with a range of international body mass index (BMI) reference standards. Children had a high degree of body image dissatisfaction. The test-retest reliability of the CBIS was supported. The CBIS is a useful tool for assessing body image in children with sound scale properties. It can also be used to identify the body size of children, which lies outside the healthy weight range of BMI.

  1. Assessment of body temperature measurement options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sund-Levander, Märtha; Grodzinsky, Ewa

    Assessment of body temperature is important for decisions in nursing care, medical diagnosis, treatment and the need of laboratory tests. The definition of normal body temperature as 37°C was established in the middle of the 19th century. Since then the technical design and the accuracy of thermometers has been much improved. Knowledge of physical influence on the individual body temperature, such as thermoregulation and hormones, are still not taken into consideration in body temperature assessment. It is time for a change; the unadjusted mode should be used, without adjusting to another site and the same site of measurement should be used as far as possible. Peripheral sites, such as the axillary and the forehead site, are not recommended as an assessment of core body temperature in adults. Frail elderly individuals might have a low normal body temperature and therefore be at risk of being assessed as non-febrile. As the ear site is close to the hypothalamus and quickly responds to changes in the set point temperature, it is a preferable and recommendable site for measurement of body temperature.

  2. Standard Model measurements with the ATLAS detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassani Samira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Various Standard Model measurements have been performed in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of √s = 7 and 8 TeV using the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. A review of a selection of the latest results of electroweak measurements, W/Z production in association with jets, jet physics and soft QCD is given. Measurements are in general found to be well described by the Standard Model predictions.

  3. Measurement of Radioactivity in the Human Body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, I Oe; Nilsson, I

    1960-12-15

    A body counter with a steel room and a 4-inch-diameter by 4-inch thick Nal scintillation counter has been in operation since February 1958. It is used to control the internal contamination in people working with radioactive materials. Measurements have also been made on the natural activity in the human body. The average cesium-137/potassium ratio in a group of Swedish males was in May 1959 73 {mu}{mu}c per gram of body potassium and in June 1960 55 {mu}{mu}c per gram of body potassium. The cessation of the nuclear bomb tests has caused a decrease in the cesium level in people. This gives some information of how cesium is entering the biosphere.

  4. Sensing Movement: Microsensors for Body Motion Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansong Zeng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of body posture and motion is an important physiological function that can keep the body in balance. Man-made motion sensors have also been widely applied for a broad array of biomedical applications including diagnosis of balance disorders and evaluation of energy expenditure. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art sensing components utilized for body motion measurement. The anatomy and working principles of a natural body motion sensor, the human vestibular system, are first described. Various man-made inertial sensors are then elaborated based on their distinctive sensing mechanisms. In particular, both the conventional solid-state motion sensors and the emerging non solid-state motion sensors are depicted. With their lower cost and increased intelligence, man-made motion sensors are expected to play an increasingly important role in biomedical systems for basic research as well as clinical diagnostics.

  5. Measurement of Radioactivity in the Human Body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, I.Oe.; Nilsson, I.

    1960-12-01

    A body counter with a steel room and a 4-inch-diameter by 4-inch thick Nal scintillation counter has been in operation since February 1958. It is used to control the internal contamination in people working with radioactive materials. Measurements have also been made on the natural activity in the human body. The average cesium-137/potassium ratio in a group of Swedish males was in May 1959 73 μμc per gram of body potassium and in June 1960 55 μμc per gram of body potassium. The cessation of the nuclear bomb tests has caused a decrease in the cesium level in people. This gives some information of how cesium is entering the biosphere

  6. A method for measuring the inertia properties of rigid bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbi, M.; Mastinu, G.; Previati, G.

    2011-01-01

    A method for the measurement of the inertia properties of rigid bodies is presented. Given a rigid body and its mass, the method allows to measure (identify) the centre of gravity location and the inertia tensor during a single test. The proposed technique is based on the analysis of the free motion of a multi-cable pendulum to which the body under consideration is connected. The motion of the pendulum and the forces acting on the system are recorded and the inertia properties are identified by means of a proper mathematical procedure based on a least square estimation. After the body is positioned on the test rig, the full identification procedure takes less than 10 min. The natural frequencies of the pendulum and the accelerations involved are quite low, making this method suitable for many practical applications. In this paper, the proposed method is described and two test rigs are presented: the first is developed for bodies up to 3500 kg and the second for bodies up to 400 kg. A validation of the measurement method is performed with satisfactory results. The test rig holds a third part quality certificate according to an ISO 9001 standard and could be scaled up to measure the inertia properties of huge bodies, such as trucks, airplanes or even ships.

  7. Status of Photovoltaic Calibration and Measurement Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraona, Cosmo; Bailey, Sheila; Curtis, Henry; Brinker, David; Jenkins, Phillip; Scheiman, David

    2001-01-01

    The 7th International Workshop on Space Solar Cell Calibration and Measurement was held on September 25-27, 2000 in Girdwood, Alaska. Representatives from eight countries discussed international standards for single and multijunction solar cell measurement and calibration methods, round robin intercomparisons, and irradiation test methods for space solar cells. Progress toward adoption of an ISO standard on single junction cells was made. Agreement was reached to begin work on new standards for multijunction cells and irradiation testing. Progress on present single junction round robin measurements was discussed and future multijunction round robins were planned. The next workshop will be held in Germany in October 2001.

  8. Standardization of calibration method of whole-body counter. 1. Calibration by using anthropometric phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Matsumoto, Masaki; Uchiyama, Masafumi; Kobayashi, Sadayoshi; Mizushita, Seiichi.

    1995-01-01

    To standardize the calibration methods of whole-body counters, three anthropometric phantoms were manufactured based on dozens of Japanese average value of body size data. Using these phantoms, the calibrations of some whole-body counters were carried out and the comparison of counting efficiency between anthropometric phantoms and block phantoms, which used to be used for the calibration of whole-body counters generally, was implemented. Five whole-body counters, one scanning system, two stationary systems and two chair systems, were used for this study. The following results were derived: As an example, in NIRS scanning system, the counting efficiency of anthropometric phantom of 162cm height was 12.7% greater than that of block phantom of the same height. This means 137 Cs body burdens in adult men used to be estimated with the excess of about 10%. Body burdens tended to be estimated excessively in adult because the difference of counting efficiency between anthropometric phantom and block phantom increases with increase of height. To standardize body burden data measured with various whole-body counters, the calibration of each whole-body counter should be conducted using anthropometric phantoms and phantoms which used to be used for the calibration of that whole-body counter. (author)

  9. Improvement of measuring techniques with whole-body and partial-body counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    1998-01-01

    Mathematical simulation methods have been applied for optimizing and standardizing the calibration of whole-body and partial-body counters for any nuclide accumulation in the human body. (orig./CB) [de

  10. Whole body measurements in Bavarian school children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmier, H.; Berg, D.

    1992-12-01

    On behalf of the Bavarian State Ministry for State Development and Environmental Affairs measurements were conducted using the whole body counters at the Institute for Radiation Hygiene (of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection), and the Institute for Radiation Biology (of the GSF Research Centre for Environment and Health). Between September 1988 and July 1990 about 1600 school children from all over Bavaria were investigated for incorporated radiocesium. The aim of these measurements was to evaluate the whole body activity due to regionally differing soil contaminations in Bavaria following the accident in the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl and to assess the effective dose from an intake of radionuclides for the pupils by comparing the results of their WBC measurements with those of reference groups of children which underwent WBC examinations at regular intervals at both institutes since the middle of the year 1986. The results of the WBC measurements of those pupils who had not eaten mushrooms in the days before the measurement are in good agreement with the results of comparative measurements in children living in the regions of Munich and Frankfurt-am-Main. Based on these results an effective dose of 0,2 mSv for the Munich region children and of 0,1 mSv for Nothern Bavarian children can be derived. For children living in the highest contaminated region of Bavaria, i.e. the counties adjacent to the Alps, no comparable reference group results are available, but the amount of incorporated radiocesium is only twice that for pupils in the Munich region. The mean value for the specific activity of radiocesium in South Bavarian school children who consumed mushrooms was found to be twice the value of pupils who did not. This is also true for that group of children whose parents had bought allegedly low contaminated foodstuffs. Other effecs of nutrition habits on the specific whole body activity could not be found. (orig.) [de

  11. The Agency's Safety Standards and Measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-04-01

    The Agency's Health and Safety Measures were first, approved by the Board of Governors on 31 March 1960 in implementation of Articles III.A.6 and XII of the Statute of the Agency. On the basis of the experience gained from applying those measures to projects carried out by Members under agreements concluded with the Agency, the Agency's Health and Safety Measures were revised in 1975 and approved by the Board of Governors on 25 February 1976. The Agency's Safety Standards and Measures as revised are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  12. Standard deviation of scatterometer measurements from space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The standard deviation of scatterometer measurements has been derived under assumptions applicable to spaceborne scatterometers. Numerical results are presented which show that, with sufficiently long integration times, input signal-to-noise ratios below unity do not cause excessive degradation of measurement accuracy. The effects on measurement accuracy due to varying integration times and changing the ratio of signal bandwidth to IF filter-noise bandwidth are also plotted. The results of the analysis may resolve a controversy by showing that in fact statistically useful scatterometer measurements can be made from space using a 20-W transmitter, such as will be used on the S-193 experiment for Skylab-A.

  13. Estimating Body Weight of Cattle Using Linear Body Measurements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationships between body weight (BW) and heart girth, body length and height at withers of 116 Indigenous, 72 Friesian, 95 Brahman, 88 Red Dane and 123 Crossbred cattle from 42 smallholder herds in Nharira-Lancashire, Zimbabwe, were investigated. The principal objective was to develop simple models that ...

  14. The standardizing measures which are needed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasse, R.

    1974-01-01

    1. The necessity for standardizing measures: a) for the construction of final storage sites, b) for the operation of final storage sites, c) securing the existence and warranting the safety towards intervening third parties. 2. Legislative power and the incorporation of new regulations into established law. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Traceability and standardization of large dose measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Ryuichi

    1989-01-01

    The reliability of dose control for radiation sterilization and food irradiation depends on the relative errors in measurements made by different dosimeters and the level of process control techniques as well as traceability. International efforts have been made for standardization of dose measurement procedures and process control techniques. A system for traceability of large dose measurement has already been established in the U.S. and Britain, and it has become urgent in Japan to establish a traceability system. For process control for radiation sterilization of medical tools, dose measurement is replacing the use of a biological indicator to play a more important role in relation to sterilization assurance. AAMI is making efforts to establish implementation standards for process control for industrial sterilization with electron beam. In Japan, the Radiation Irradiation Promotion Association has developed a manual 'Measurement of Dose of Electron Beam for Irradiation' to be used by users of electron beam for irradiation. Further efforts are required to establish a proper traceability system and standardization of dose measurement. (N.K.)

  16. Estimation of Body Weight from Body Size Measurements and Body Condition Scores in Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Kristensen, T.

    1997-01-01

    , and body condition score were consistently associated with BW. The coefficients of multiple determination varied from 80 to 89%. The number of significant terms and the parameter estimates of the models differed markedly among groups of cows. Apparently, these differences were due to breed and feeding...... regimen. Results from this study indicate that a reliable model for estimating BW of very different dairy cows maintained in a wide range of environments can be developed using body condition score, demographic information, and measurements of hip height and hip width. However, for management purposes......The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of hip height and width, body condition score, and relevant demographic information to predict body weight (BW) of dairy cows. Seven regression models were developed from data from 972 observations of 554 cows. Parity, hip height, hip width...

  17. Body awareness: construct and self-report measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf E Mehling

    Full Text Available Heightened body awareness can be adaptive and maladaptive. Improving body awareness has been suggested as an approach for treating patients with conditions such as chronic pain, obesity and post-traumatic stress disorder. We assessed the psychometric quality of selected self-report measures and examined their items for underlying definitions of the construct.PubMed, PsychINFO, HaPI, Embase, Digital Dissertations Database.Abstracts were screened; potentially relevant instruments were obtained and systematically reviewed. Instruments were excluded if they exclusively measured anxiety, covered emotions without related physical sensations, used observer ratings only, or were unobtainable. We restricted our study to the proprioceptive and interoceptive channels of body awareness. The psychometric properties of each scale were rated using a structured evaluation according to the method of McDowell. Following a working definition of the multi-dimensional construct, an inter-disciplinary team systematically examined the items of existing body awareness instruments, identified the dimensions queried and used an iterative qualitative process to refine the dimensions of the construct.From 1,825 abstracts, 39 instruments were screened. 12 were included for psychometric evaluation. Only two were rated as high standard for reliability, four for validity. Four domains of body awareness with 11 sub-domains emerged. Neither a single nor a compilation of several instruments covered all dimensions. Key domains that might potentially differentiate adaptive and maladaptive aspects of body awareness were missing in the reviewed instruments.Existing self-report instruments do not address important domains of the construct of body awareness, are unable to discern between adaptive and maladaptive aspects of body awareness, or exhibit other psychometric limitations. Restricting the construct to its proprio- and interoceptive channels, we explore the current understanding

  18. Scan posture definition and hip girth measurement: the impact on clothing design and body scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Simeon; Parker, Christopher J

    2017-08-01

    Ergonomic measurement is central to product design and development; especially for body worn products and clothing. However, there is a large variation in measurement definitions, complicated by new body scanning technology that captures measurements in a posture different to traditional manual methods. Investigations of hip measurement definitions in current clothing measurement practices supports analysis of the effect of scan posture and hip measurement definition on the circumferences of the hip. Here, the hip girth is a key clothing measurement that is not defined in current body scanning measurement standards. Sixty-four participants were scanned in the standard scan posture of a [TC] 2 body scanner, and also in a natural posture similar to that of traditional manual measurement collection. Results indicate that scan posture affects hip girth circumferences, and that some current clothing measurement practices may not define the largest lower body circumference. Recommendations are made concerning how the hip is defined in measurement practice and within body scanning for clothing product development. Practitioner Summary: The hip girth is an important measurement in garment design, yet its measurement protocol is not currently defined. We demonstrate that body posture during body scanning affects hip circumferences, and that current clothing measurement practices may not define the largest lower body circumference. This paper also provides future measurement practice recommendations.

  19. Absolute measurement of a tritium standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadzisehovic, M.; Mocilnik, I.; Buraei, K.; Pongrac, S.; Milojevic, A.

    1978-01-01

    For the determination of a tritium absolute activity standard, a method of internal gas counting has been used. The procedure involves water reduction by uranium and zinc further the measurement of the absolute disintegration rate of tritium per unit of the effective volume of the counter by a compensation method. Criteria for the choice of methods and procedures concerning the determination and measurement of gaseous 3 H yield, parameters of gaseous hydrogen, sample mass of HTO and the absolute disintegration rate of tritium are discussed. In order to obtain gaseous sources of 3 H (and 2 H), the same reversible chemical reaction was used, namely, the water - uranium hydride - hydrogen system. This reaction was proved to be quantitative above 500 deg C by measuring the yield of the gas obtained and the absolute activity of an HTO standard. A brief description of the measuring apparatus is given, as well as a critical discussion of the brass counter quality and the possibility of obtaining equal working conditions at the counter ends. (T.G.)

  20. Double standards in body evaluation? The influence of identification with body stimuli on ratings of attractiveness, body fat, and muscle mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voges, Mona M; Giabbiconi, Claire-Marie; Schöne, Benjamin; Waldorf, Manuel; Hartmann, Andrea S; Vocks, Silja

    2017-10-20

    Although it is well documented that women evaluate their own body differently from other bodies, it remains unclear whether this discrepancy is based on double standards because of identity or on objective differences between these bodies. The aim of this study was therefore to test whether women apply double standards depending on a body's identity when evaluating the same bodies presented with different faces. Average-weight women (N = 104) rated body attractiveness, body fat, and muscle mass of thin, average-weight, overweight, athletic, and hypermuscular bodies with either another female's face or their own face. With their own face, subjects rated overweight bodies as more unattractive, higher in body fat and lower in muscle mass than with another female's face. However, for non-overweight bodies, body ratings did not differ depending on body identity. Based on the self-deprecating double standards for overweight bodies, a body-related identity bias might be considered in theoretical models of body image. Level of evidence Level V, descriptive study.

  1. Standardization in measurement philosophical, historical and sociological issues

    CERN Document Server

    Schlaudt, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The application of standard measurement is a cornerstone of modern science. In this collection of essays, standardization of procedure, units of measurement and the epistemology of standardization are addressed by specialists from sociology, history and the philosophy of science.

  2. Exploring a Black Body Source as an Absolute Radiometric Calibration Standard and Comparison with a NIST Traced Lamp Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert O.; Chrien, Thomas; Sarture, Chuck

    2001-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) is required for the scientific research and application objectives pursued with the spectroscopic measurements. Specifically calibration is required for: inter-comparison of AVIRIS data measured at different locations and at different times; analysis of AVIRIS data with data measured by other instruments; and analysis of AVIRIS data in conjunction with computer models. The primary effect of radiometric calibration is conversion of AVIRIS instrument response values (digitized numbers, or DN) to units of absolute radiance. For example, a figure shows the instrument response spectrum measured by AVIRIS over a portion of Rogers Dry Lake, California, and another figure shows the same spectrum calibrated to radiance. Only the calibrated spectrum may be quantitatively analyzed for science research and application objectives. Since the initial development of the AVIRIS instrument-radiometric calibration has been based upon a 1000-W irradiance lamp with a calibration traced to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). There are several advantages to this irradiance-lamp calibration approach. First, the considerable effort of NIST backs up the calibration. Second, by changing the distance to the lamp, the output can closely span the radiance levels measured by AVIRIS. Third, this type of standard is widely used. Fourth, these calibrated lamps are comparatively inexpensive. Conversely, there are several disadvantages to this approach as well. First, the lamp is not a primary standard. Second, the lamp output characteristics may change in an unknown manner through time. Third, it is difficult to assess, constrain, or improve the calibration uncertainty delivered with the lamp. In an attempt to explore the effect and potentially address some of these disadvantages a set of analyses and measurements comparing an irradiance lamp with a black-body source have been completed

  3. Optical Signature Analysis of Tumbling Rocket Bodies via Laboratory Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowardin, H.; Lederer, S.; Liou, J.-C.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has acquired telescopic lightcurve data on massive intact objects, specifically spent rocket bodies, in order to ascertain tumble rates in support of the Active Debris Removal (ADR) task to help remediate the LEO environment. Rotation rates are needed to plan and develop proximity operations for potential future ADR operations. To better characterize and model optical data acquired from ground-based telescopes, the Optical Measurements Center (OMC) at NASA/JSC emulates illumination conditions in space using equipment and techniques that parallel telescopic observations and source-target-sensor orientations. The OMC employs a 75-watt Xenon arc lamp as a solar simulator, an SBIG CCD camera with standard Johnson/Bessel filters, and a robotic arm to simulate an object's position and rotation. The light source is mounted on a rotary arm, allowing access any phase angle between 0 -- 360 degrees. The OMC does not attempt to replicate the rotation rates, but focuses on how an object is rotating as seen from multiple phase angles. The two targets studied are scaled (1:48), SL-8 Cosmos 3M second stages. The first target is painted in the standard government "gray" scheme and the second target is primary white, as used for commercial missions. This paper summarizes results of the two scaled rocket bodies, each rotated about two primary axes: (a) a spin-stabilized rotation and (b) an end-over-end rotation. The two rotation states are being investigated as a basis for possible spin states of rocket bodies, beginning with simple spin states about the two primary axes. The data will be used to create a database of potential spin states for future works to convolve with more complex spin states. The optical signatures will be presented for specific phase angles for each rocket body and shown in conjunction with acquired optical data from multiple telescope sources.

  4. Body weight prediction of Brakmas and Bali cattle using body measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Hafiz, A.W.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the rural areas facilities for farm animal weighing are often difficult to find and the construction of such facilities is relatively expensive. Therefore a study was conducted with the objective to estimate body weight of Brakmas and Bali cattle using prediction equations of linear body measurements. Data of body weight and body measurements, namely withers height, body length and heart girth from 279 heads of Brakmas (age 1 to 10 y old and 74 heads of Bali (age 1 to 10 y old cows were collected. The animals were in average body condition of 3 (1= emaciated, 3= moderate fat cover, and 5= excess fat cover. The correlation analysis showed that body weight of Brakmas cattle was highly correlated with its body length, heart girth and withers height with the correlation coefficients of 0.967, 0.964 and 0.942, respectively, while body weight in Bali cattle had the highest correlation with heart girth followed by body length and height at withers with the correlation coefficient of 0.985, 0.954 and 0.945, respectively. Regression analysis showed that body length provided a good estimate of live body weight with high precision as it accounted for 91.6% of the variability in body weight in Brakmas cattle, while heart girth accounted 97.1% of body weight variability in Bali cattle. The combination of body length-withers height, body length-heart girth and body length-withers height-heart girth showed an improvement in terms of predictive precision with the changes of 0.21%, 0.21% and 0.44%, respectively, in coeficient of determination (R2 compared to a single measure of body length in Brakmas cattle. The combination of heart girth-body length did not show any change in R2 in Bali cattle compared to a single measure of heart girth. Combining heart girth-height at withers and the combination of all body measurements showed the increment in coefficients of determination at 0.41% and 0.51%, respectively as compared to heart girth. Although the combination

  5. Autopsy standards of body parameters and fresh organ weights in nonmacerated and macerated human fetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maroun, Lisa Leth; Graem, Niels

    2005-01-01

    Standards for body parameters and organ weights are important tools in fetal and perinatal pathology. Previously there has been only a weak emphasis on the effect of maceration on dimensions and weights. This study provides autopsy standards for body weight, body dimensions, and fresh organ weigh...... increased slightly with maceration, whereas body weight and head circumference were unaffected. User-friendly charts and tables of mean values and standard deviations for nonmacerated and macerated fetuses are provided.......Standards for body parameters and organ weights are important tools in fetal and perinatal pathology. Previously there has been only a weak emphasis on the effect of maceration on dimensions and weights. This study provides autopsy standards for body weight, body dimensions, and fresh organ weights...

  6. Measurement of total body radioactivity in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naversten, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Techniques for the determination of whole-body radioactivity in man using uncollimated NaI(Tl) detectors have been studied. Geometrical effects and photon attenuation effects due to the different shapes of humans as well as due to varying in-vivo radioactivity distributions have been evaluated particularly for scanning-bed geometries and the chair geometry. Theoretically it is shown that the attenuation effects are generally dominating, for full-energy-peak pulse-range methods. For the application in radiation protection a cheap and simple chair-geometry unit has been constructed and used at various places distantly from the home-laboratory, for studies of body activity of Cs-137 in northern Sweden. High body activities were found particularly in reindeer-breeding Lapps. The elimination rate of Cs-137 in man was studied in the stationary whole-body counter in Lund as well as with the field-system. For the study of the performances at low and high photon energies clinical applications of methods for gastro-intestinal absorption of vitamin B12 (Co-57; 122 keV) and total body potassium determination (K-40; 1.46 MeV, K-42; 1.52 MeV) have been evaluated. Theoretical and experimental results as well as experiences of applications in radiation protection and medicine show that the scanning-bed geometry effectively evens out redistributional effects. For optimum results, however, scatter-energy pulse-ranges rather than full-energy-peak ranges should be used. (Auth.)

  7. Live weight and body measurement of Hungarian Thoroughbred broodmares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Bene

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Live weights and 21 body measurements of 110 adult brood mares from Thoroughbred breed were evaluated in Hungary. Body measurements and some body measure indices were determined. One way ANOVA was used to compare the studs. Regression equations were developed to estimate the live weight from body measurements. Population genetic parameters of the examined traits were estimated. Only few differences among studs, concerning evaluated body measurements, were presented - firstly: body measurements, related to the kilter and nutritional status (hearth girth - were significant. Between the mentioned traits and the live weight medium positive correlation (r = 0.47 - 0.79; P<0.01 was found. For the estimation of live weight with regression model the necessary data are as follows: hearth girth, 2nd width of rump and diagonal length of body. The determination coefficient was 0.80 (P<0.01. Height at withers, of back and at rump (h2 = 0.66, 0.67 and 0.51 showed medium heritability values. The heritability of depth of chest and height of bieler-point were 0.32 and 0.48, respectively. Quite small differences were found between the stallions in most of the body measurements. The live weight and height measurements were exceptions, as here the differences between the sires were slightly higher. As a conclusion it can be stated that the Thoroughbred population in Hungary is quite homogenous in terms of the most important body measurements.

  8. Dynamic Anthropometry – Deffning Protocols for Automatic Body Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavenka Petrak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the research on possibilities of protocol development for automatic computer-based determination of measurements on a 3D body model in defined dynamic positions. Initially, two dynamic body positions were defined for the research on dimensional changes of targeted body lengths and surface segments during body movement from basic static position into a selected dynamic body position. The assumption was that during body movement, specifi c length and surface dimensions would change significantly from the aspect of clothing construction and functionality of a garment model. 3D body scanning of a female test sample was performed in basic static and two defined dynamic positions. 3D body models were processed and measurement points were defined as a starting point for the determination of characteristic body measurements. The protocol for automatic computer measurement was defined for every dynamic body position by the systematic set of activities based on determined measurement points. The verification of developed protocols was performed by automatic determination of defined measurements on the test sample and by comparing the results with the conventional manual measurement.

  9. Estimation of Live Weight of Calves from Body Measurements within ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All phenotypic correlations between body measurements were positive and significant (P<0.001). The highest correlation coefficient was found between chest girth and body weight. The polynomial equation using chest girth as an independent variable predicted body weight more accurately within breed as compared to the ...

  10. Contemporary methods of body composition measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Marie Ø; Zerahn, Bo

    2015-01-01

    elements by in vivo neutron activation analysis, which are regarded as gold standard methods, are also summarized. The choice of a specific method or combination of methods for a particular study depends on various considerations including accuracy, precision, subject acceptability, convenience, cost...... and radiation exposure. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed with these considerations in mind....

  11. Evaluation of a standardized procedure for [corrected] microscopic cell counts [corrected] in body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Jane F; Emerson, Scott S

    2005-01-01

    A standardized urinalysis and manual microscopic cell counting system was evaluated for its potential to reduce intra- and interoperator variability in urine and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cell counts. Replicate aliquots of pooled specimens were submitted blindly to technologists who were instructed to use either the Kova system with the disposable Glasstic slide (Hycor Biomedical, Inc., Garden Grove, CA) or the standard operating procedure of the University of California-Irvine (UCI), which uses plain glass slides for urine sediments and hemacytometers for CSF. The Hycor system provides a mechanical means of obtaining a fixed volume of fluid in which to resuspend the sediment, and fixes the volume of specimen to be microscopically examined by using capillary filling of a chamber containing in-plane counting grids. Ninety aliquots of pooled specimens of each type of body fluid were used to assess the inter- and intraoperator reproducibility of the measurements. The variability of replicate Hycor measurements made on a single specimen by the same or different observers was compared with that predicted by a Poisson distribution. The Hycor methods generally resulted in test statistics that were slightly lower than those obtained with the laboratory standard methods, indicating a trend toward decreasing the effects of various sources of variability. For 15 paired aliquots of each body fluid, tests for systematically higher or lower measurements with the Hycor methods were performed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Also examined was the average difference between the Hycor and current laboratory standard measurements, along with a 95% confidence interval (CI) for the true average difference. Without increasing labor or the requirement for attention to detail, the Hycor method provides slightly better interrater comparisons than the current method used at UCI. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Field measurements of radium in the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toohey, R.E.; May, H.A.

    1978-01-01

    Two whole body counting systems have been developed and employed for field measurements. The radium contents of nine previously unmeasured cases have been determined during three field trips. Future trips are being scheduled to make body radioactivity measurements on a specific subpopulation of CHR radium cases

  13. Establishment of Average Body Measurement and the Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cce

    body measurement for height and backneck to waist for ages 2,3,4 and 5 years. The ... average measurements of the different parts of the body must be established. ..... and OAU Charter on Rights of the child: Lagos: Nigeria Country office.

  14. Measurement of Organ Uptake by Whole-Body Counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudley, R.A.

    1970-01-01

    This paper reviews methods for the measurement of radioactivity in body organs based on whole-body radioactivity measurements. Such measurements can of course only be used to measure radioactivity in a body organ when the radioactivity is exclusively localized in the organ or when the ratio of radioactivity in the organ to that in the whole body is known from other sources of information. They find particular applications, however, when the organ is so widely dispersed throughout the body that more localized measurement is impossible. Examples of situations in which whole-body radioactivity measurements have been used in this way are cited. The more important techniques used for such measurements are described and their respective advantages and disadvantages indicated. The importance of uniformity of counting efficiency with position of source throughout the body is stressed. Simple systems incorporating sodium iodide crystal scintillation detectors are shown to combine satisfactory sensitivity and uniformity of efficiency for clinical measurements of radioactivity in body organs and have the additional advantage that they can be readily adapted for profile scanning. Systems incorporating plastic or liquid scintillation detectors are less convenient in this respect. (author)

  15. Black-body radiation effects and light shifts in atomic frequency standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal' chikov, V G; Domnin, Yu S; Novoselov, A V [Institute of Metrology for Time and Space at National Research Institute for Physical-Technical and Radiotechnical Measurements - IMVP GP VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo, Moscow Region, 141570 (Russian Federation)

    2003-04-01

    A general method is presented for calculating the higher-order terms of series in powers of the black-body radiation field for the Stark-state wavefunctions, dipole transition matrix elements and corresponding frequency shifts of hyperfine splitting in the ground states for Cs and Rb atoms. A numerical method for calculating the light shifts in Sr atoms is described. It is based on the Green function method for summation over all intermediate states and exact Dirac-Fock wavefunctions for the resonant transitions to the first excited s-, p- and d-states. By comparing the calculated Stark shift with results of measurements employing atomic frequency standards, the black-body radiation effects on the ground state are analysed.

  16. Measurement of body potassium with a whole-body counter: relationship between lean body mass and resting energy expenditure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.D.; Braun, J.S.; Vetter, R.J.; Marsh, H.M.

    1988-01-01

    We conducted studies to determine whether the Mayo whole-body counter could be used to measure body potassium, and thus lean body mass (LBM), and whether moderate obesity alters resting energy expenditure when corrected for LBM. Twenty-four nonobese and 18 moderately obese adults underwent body potassium (40K) counting, as well as tritiated water space measurement and indirect calorimetry. LBM values predicted from 40K counting and tritiated water space measurements were highly correlated (P = 0.001; r = 0.88). Resting energy expenditure was closely related to LBM (P less than 0.0001; r = 0.78): kcal/day = 622 kcal + (LBM.20.0 kcal/kg LBM). In this relationship, the obese subjects did not differ from nonobese subjects. In summary, the Mayo whole-body counter can accurately measure LBM, and moderate obesity has no detectable effect on corrected resting energy expenditure

  17. In vivo measurement of total body carbon using 238Pu/Be neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutcliffe, J.F.; Mitra, S.; Hill, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    Total body carbon has been measured by in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) in 278 surgical gastroenterological patients and 29 normal volunteers. This is based on the inelastic scattering reaction { 12 C(n,n') 12 C*} for neutrons with energy above 4.8MeV, producing 4.43 MeV gamma rays. Since only part of the body is scanned, total body carbon is estimated as the ratio of the gamma ray emission from carbon to the emission from hydrogen, using hydrogen as the internal standard. The precision of the estimate is ±1.6kg for a whole body dose of 0.3mSv. There is a significant difference between the estimates of total body water from IVNAA measurements of carbon and nitrogen and measurements of body water in these subjects by tritium dilution (t=3.1, p < 0.005). (author)

  18. 47 CFR 15.31 - Measurement standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Commission's Consumer and Governmental Affairs Bureau at 1-888-CALL-FCC (1-888-225-5322). (1) FCC/OET MP-2... are to be measured for compliance using ANSI C63.17-1998: “Methods of Measurement of the... unintentional radiators are to be measured for compliance using the following procedure excluding sections 4.1.5...

  19. Standards for reference reactor physics measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.R.; Cokinos, D.M.; Uotinen, V.

    1990-01-01

    Reactor physics analysis methods require experimental testing and confirmation over the range of practical reactor configurations and states. This range is somewhat limited by practical fuel types such as actinide oxides or carbides enclosed in metal cladding. On the other hand, this range continues to broaden because of the trend of using higher enrichment, if only slightly enriched, electric utility fuel. The need for experimental testing of the reactor physics analysis methods arises in part because of the continual broadening of the range of core designs, and in part because of the nature of the analysis methods. Reactor physics analyses are directed primarily at the determination of core reactivities and reaction rates, the former largely for reasons of reactor control, and the latter largely to ensure that material limitations are not violated. Errors in these analyses can be regarded as being from numerics, from the data base, and from human factors. For numerical, data base, and human factor reasons, then, it is prudent and customary to qualify reactor physical analysis methods against experiments. These experiments can be treated as being at low power or at high power, and each of these types is subject to an American National Standards Institute standard. The purpose of these standards is to aid in improving and maintaining adequate quality in reactor physics methods, and it is from this point of view that the standards are examined here

  20. Lean body mass correction of standardized uptake value in simultaneous whole-body positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochimsen, Thies H.; Schulz, Jessica; Busse, Harald; Werner, Peter; Schaudinn, Alexander; Zeisig, Vilia; Kurch, Lars; Seese, Anita; Barthel, Henryk; Sattler, Bernhard; Sabri, Osama

    2015-06-01

    This study explores the possibility of using simultaneous positron emission tomography—magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI) to estimate the lean body mass (LBM) in order to obtain a standardized uptake value (SUV) which is less dependent on the patients' adiposity. This approach is compared to (1) the commonly-used method based on a predictive equation for LBM, and (2) to using an LBM derived from PET-CT data. It is hypothesized that an MRI-based correction of SUV provides a robust method due to the high soft-tissue contrast of MRI. A straightforward approach to calculate an MRI-derived LBM is presented. It is based on the fat and water images computed from the two-point Dixon MRI primarily used for attenuation correction in PET-MRI. From these images, a water fraction was obtained for each voxel. Averaging over the whole body yielded the weight-normalized LBM. Performance of the new approach in terms of reducing variations of 18F-Fludeoxyglucose SUVs in brain and liver across 19 subjects was compared with results using predictive methods and PET-CT data to estimate the LBM. The MRI-based method reduced the coefficient of variation of SUVs in the brain by 41  ± 10% which is comparable to the reduction by the PET-CT method (35  ± 10%). The reduction of the predictive LBM method was 29  ± 8%. In the liver, the reduction was less clear, presumably due to other sources of variation. In conclusion, employing the Dixon data in simultaneous PET-MRI for calculation of lean body mass provides a brain SUV which is less dependent on patient adiposity. The reduced dependency is comparable to that obtained by CT and predictive equations. Therefore, it is more comparable across patients. The technique does not impose an overhead in measurement time and is straightforward to implement.

  1. 49 CFR 571.221 - Standard No. 221, School bus body joint strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 221, School bus body joint strength. 571.221 Section 571.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard...

  2. Body Temperature Measurements for Metabolic Phenotyping in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Carola W.; Ootsuka, Youichirou; Romanovsky, Andrej A.

    2017-01-01

    Endothermic organisms rely on tightly balanced energy budgets to maintain a regulated body temperature and body mass. Metabolic phenotyping of mice, therefore, often includes the recording of body temperature. Thermometry in mice is conducted at various sites, using various devices and measurement practices, ranging from single-time probing to continuous temperature imaging. Whilst there is broad agreement that body temperature data is of value, procedural considerations of body temperature measurements in the context of metabolic phenotyping are missing. Here, we provide an overview of the various methods currently available for gathering body temperature data from mice. We explore the scope and limitations of thermometry in mice, with the hope of assisting researchers in the selection of appropriate approaches, and conditions, for comprehensive mouse phenotypic analyses. PMID:28824441

  3. Normal standards for kidney length as measured with US in premature infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, A.E.; Hedlund, G.L.; Pierson, W.P.; Null, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    In order to develop normal standards for kidney length in premature infants, the authors measured kidney length by US imaging in 39 (to date) premature infants less than 72 hours old and without known renal disease. Kidney length was compared with four different parameters of body size, including gestational age, birth weight, birth length, and body surface area. Similar standards have been generated previously for normal renal length as measured by US imaging in full-term infants and older children. These standards have proven utility in cases of congenital and acquired disorders that abnormally increase or decrease renal size. Scatter plots of kidney length versus body weight and kidney length versus body surface area conformed well to a logarithmic distribution, with a high correlation coefficient and close-fitting 95% confidence limits (SEE = 2.05)

  4. STANDARDS OF FUNCTIONAL MEASUREMENTS IN OCULAR TOXICOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The visual system, like other sensory systems, may be a frequent target of exposure to toxic chemicals. A thorough evaluation of visual toxicity should include both structural and functional measures. Sensory evoked potentials are one set of neurophysiological procedures that...

  5. Estimating body weight and body composition of chickens by using noninvasive measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latshaw, J D; Bishop, B L

    2001-07-01

    The major objective of this research was to develop equations to estimate BW and body composition using measurements taken with inexpensive instruments. We used five groups of chickens that were created with different genetic stocks and feeding programs. Four of the five groups were from broiler genetic stock, and one was from sex-linked heavy layers. The goal was to sample six males from each group when the group weight was 1.20, 1.75, and 2.30 kg. Each male was weighed and measured for back length, pelvis width, circumference, breast width, keel length, and abdominal skinfold thickness. A cloth tape measure, calipers, and skinfold calipers were used for measurement. Chickens were scanned for total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) before being euthanized and frozen. Six females were selected at weights similar to those for males and were measured in the same way. Each whole chicken was ground, and a portion of ground material of each was used to measure water, fat, ash, and energy content. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate BW from body measurements. The best single measurement was pelvis width, with an R2 = 0.67. Inclusion of three body measurements in an equation resulted in R2 = 0.78 and the following equation: BW (g) = -930.0 + 68.5 (breast, cm) + 48.5 (circumference, cm) + 62.8 (pelvis, cm). The best single measurement to estimate body fat was abdominal skinfold thickness, expressed as a natural logarithm. Inclusion of weight and skinfold thickness resulted in R2 = 0.63 for body fat according to the following equation: fat (%) = 24.83 + 6.75 (skinfold, ln cm) - 3.87 (wt, kg). Inclusion of the result of TOBEC and the effect of sex improved the R2 to 0.78 for body fat. Regression analysis was used to develop additional equations, based on fat, to estimate water and energy contents of the body. The body water content (%) = 72.1 - 0.60 (body fat, %), and body energy (kcal/g) = 1.097 + 0.080 (body fat, %). The results of the present study

  6. Oscillation measuring device for body of rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komita, Hideo.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention concerns an internal pump of a BWR type reactor and provides a device for detecting oscillations of a rotational shaft. Namely, recesses are formed along an identical circumference on the outer circumferential surface of the rotating portion each at a predetermined distance. The recesses rotate along with the rotation. An eddy current type displacement gage measures the distance to the outer circumferential surface of the rotating portion. The recesses are detected by the displacement gage as pulse signals. When the rotating portion oscillates, it is detected by the displacement gage as waveform signals. Accordingly, the output signals of the eddy current type displacement gage are formed by pulse signals superposed on the waveform signals. A rising detection circuit detects the rising position of the pulse signals as the components of the number of rotation of the rotating portion, and fall detection circuit detects the falling position. A comparator circuit is disposed in parallel with both of rising/falling detection circuits. A predetermined threshold value is set in the comparator circuit to output a signal when the inputted signal exceeds the value. (I.S.)

  7. Optical Signature Analysis of Tumbling Rocket Bodies via Laboratory Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowardin, H.; Lederer, S.; Liou, J.-C.; Ojakangas, G.; Mulrooney, M.

    2012-09-01

    The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has acquired telescopic lightcurve data on massive intact objects, specifically spent rocket bodies (R/Bs), to ascertain tumble rates in support of the Active Debris Removal (ADR) studies to help remediate the LEO environment. Tumble rates are needed to plan and develop proximity and docking operations for potential future ADR operations. To better characterize and model optical data acquired from ground-based telescopes, the Optical Measurements Center (OMC) at NASA/JSC emulates illumination conditions in space using equipment and techniques that parallel telescopic observations and source-target-sensor orientations. The OMC employs a 75-W Xenon arc lamp as a solar simulator, an SBIG CCD camera with standard Johnson/Bessel filters, and a robotic arm to simulate an object's position and rotation. The OMC does not attempt to replicate the rotation rates, but focuses on ascertaining how an object is rotating as seen from multiple phase angles. The two targets studied are scaled (1:48) SL-8 Cosmos 3M second stages. The first target is painted in the standard Russian government "gray" scheme and the second target is white/orange as used for commercial missions. This paper summarizes results of the two scaled rocket bodies, each observed in three independent rotation states: (a) spin-stabilized rotation (about the long axis), (b) end-over-end rotation, and (c) a 10 degree wobble about the center of mass. The first two cases represent simple spin about either primary axis. The third - what we call "wobble" - represents maximum principal axis rotation, with an inertia tensor that is offset from the symmetry axes. By comparing the resultant phase and orientation-dependent laboratory signatures with actual lightcurves derived from telescopic observations of orbiting R/Bs, we intend to assess the intrinsic R/B rotation states. In the simplest case, simulated R/B behavior coincides with principal axis spin states, while more complex R

  8. Principal Component Analysis of Body Measurements In Three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to explore the relationship among body measurements in 3 strains of broilers chicken (Arbor Acre, Marshal and Ross) using principal component analysis with the view of identifying those components that define body conformation in broilers. A total of 180 birds were used, 60 per strain.

  9. Improved measurement system for the whole body monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotler, L.H.

    1983-01-01

    A static four-detector system has been established as a whole body radioactivity measurement system. A technique is being developed to position the detectors in such a manner as to minimise longitudinal distribution effects within a subject. This technique, which represents the human body as a simple geometric model, requires the determination of efficiency at any point within this model

  10. Relationship between pelvic and linear body measurements in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine pelvic height, width and area and to estimate correlations between these measurements and other external linear body parameters, i.e. body height, shoulder height, chest depth, front quarter width, hindquarter width, rump length and rump slope in Dorper ewes. A total of 332 young ...

  11. Comparative study of growth and linear body measurements in Anak ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to compare the performance of two different breeds of broilers (Anak and Hubbard) using body weight and body linear measurements. Data on a total of 200 (100 each) Anak and Hubbard broiler breeds were collected weekly and the experiment lasted for 8 weeks. The parameters investigated ...

  12. Miniature ingestible telemeter devices to measure deep-body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, J. M.; Fryer, T. B. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A telemetry device comprised of a pill-size ingestible transmitter developed to obtain deep body temperature measurements of a human is described. The device has particular utility in the medical field where deep body temperatures provide an indication of general health.

  13. Morphormetric Measurements Of Barbels, Head And Standard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurement of sensory barbels of five catfish species from the Osse River was undertaken to ascertain the differences between the types of barbels. The five species showed the maxillary to have the largest proportion of SL. The differential rankings of the maxillary were Heterobranchus bidorsalis Geoffrey Saint Hilaire ...

  14. A comparative study of performance measurement standards of railway operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongjirawut Siripong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The European standard (EN 13816, is one of the widely accepted standards for measuring the quality of public passenger transport (PPT service. EN 13816 indicates 8 measurement criteria, 29 sub-criteria and 193 Key Performance Indicators (KPIs to be used to measure the performance of railway operators. Nowadays, there are other addition criteria beyond EN13816, developed by various organisations. This research firstly aims to explore the service performance measurement of railway operators used by actual railway operators at international level and in Thailand. After an intensive review of performance measurement standards, 9 standards are compiled and compared in terms of criteria, sub-criteria and KPIs using a cluster analysis methodology. The result found additional performance measurement aspects at 2 sub-criteria and 91 KPIs in addition to EN 13816. This research summarized and compared different performance measurement standards to measure service quality of metro rail line.

  15. Key to good fit: body measurement problems specific to key ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key to good fit: body measurement problems specific to key dimensions. ... to explore and describe the problems that the South African Clothing Industry currently ... A postal survey was conducted among South African apparel and footwear ...

  16. Predicting live weight using body measurements in Afar goats in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    Predicting live weight using body measurements in Afar goats in north eastern. Ethiopia ... farmers get value for their stock rather than the middlemen. However ..... of West African long-legged and West African dwarf sheep in Northern Ghana.

  17. Growth performance and certain body measurements of ostrich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance and certain body measurements of ostrich chicks as affected by dietary protein levels during 2–9 weeks of age. Kh M Mahrose, AI Attia, IE Ismail, DE Abou-Kassem, ME Abd El-Hack ...

  18. Measurement of the Lorentz-FitzGerald body contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafelski, Johann

    2018-02-01

    A complete foundational discussion of acceleration in the context of Special Relativity (SR) is presented. Acceleration allows the measurement of a Lorentz-FitzGerald body contraction created. It is argued that in the back scattering of a probing laser beam from a relativistic flying electron cloud mirror generated by an ultra-intense laser pulse, a first measurement of a Lorentz-FitzGerald body contraction is feasible.

  19. Body composition as measured by in vivo neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Sawitsky, A.; Vartsky, D.; Yasumura, S.; Zanzi, I.; Gartenhaus, W.; Ellis, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    A large scale study is currently underway on the changes in body composition resulting from the cachexia of malignancy. The ultimate objective of the overall project is to assess the changes in body composition associated with hyperalimentation and other modes of nutritional support to cancer patients. The first phase of this study is now in progress. In this phase, a study is being made of a control group of normal patients to provide baseline data against which data from cancer patients can be evaluated. Total body nitrogen and potassium are measured in a group of normal men and women, and are analyzed as a function of age. Additionally, changes in skeletal mass (total body calcium) are also recorded, and body water is measured simultaneously with the use of tritiated water

  20. National survey of human body radioactivity measured by a mobile whole-body counter and installed whole-body counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boddy, K.; Fenwick, J.D.; McKenzie, A.L.

    1989-05-01

    Body radioactivity in the general public has been measured in 2339 volunteers throughout the U.K. A mobile whole-body monitor visited collaborating Medical Physics Departments and data were also contributed by Medical Physics Departments possessing installed counters. Levels of body radiocaesium ranged from below detection level to 4149 Bq. Radiocaesium levels were normalised by dividing by the content of natural body potassium-40. In all cases, the dose rate to the body from radiocaesium was less than that from potassium-40. Radiocaesium levels were 2-3 times higher in N.W. England, Scotland and N. Wales than the rest of the country, but this factor is much less than the variation in deposition of Chernobyl radiocaesium. This discrepancy may be accounted for by the nationwide distribution of foodstuffs. At all sites where volunteers were monitored, the ratio of caesium-137/caesium-134 was consistent with a radiocaesium intake attributable primarily to fallout from the Chernobyl fire. (author)

  1. State-of-the-art measurements in human body composition: A moving frontier of clinical importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, D.; Shaheen, I.; Zafar, K.

    2010-01-01

    The measurement of human body composition allows for the estimation of body tissues, organs, and their distributions in living persons without inflicting harm. From a nutritional perspective, the interest in body composition has increased multi-fold with the global increase in the prevalence of obesity and its complications. The latter has driven in part the need for improved measurement methods with greater sensitivity and precision. There is no single gold standard for body-composition measurements in-vivo. All methods incorporate assumptions that do not apply in all individuals and the more accurate models are derived by using a combination of measurements, thereby reducing the importance of each assumption. This review will discuss why the measurement of body composition or human phenotyping is important; discuss new areas where the measurement of body composition (human phenotyping) is recognized as having important application; and will summarize recent advances made in new methodology. Reference will also be made to areas we cannot yet measure due to the lack of appropriate measurement methodologies, most especially measurements methods that provide information on kinetic states (not just static state) and metabolic function. PMID:21234275

  2. The relationship between standard automated perimetry and GDx VCC measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J. Reus; H.G. Lemij (Hans)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between retinal light sensitivity measured with standard automated perimetry (SAP) and retardation of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) measured with the GDx VCC (Laser Diagnostic Technologies, Inc., San Diego,

  3. Direct methods for measuring radionuclides in the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Occupational exposure leading to intakes of internally incorporated radionuclides can occur as a result of various activities. This includes work associated with the different stages of the nuclear fuel cycle, the use of radioactive sources in medicine, scientific research, agriculture and industry, and occupations which involve exposure to enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides. In 1987 the IAEA published a Safety Guide on basic principles for occupational radiation monitoring which set forth principles and objectives of a strategy for monitoring exposures of workers. Since drafting of the present Safety Practice commenced, the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) have been issued. On the basis of the principles laid down in the BSS, the 1987 Safety Guide is also being revised, and recommendations on the assessment of the occupational intake of radioactive materials are to be added. The present Safety Practice, which deals with direct measurement of radionuclides in the human body, is the first to be published in this area. Refs, figs, tabs

  4. Development of a standard for indoor radon measurements in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, R.S.; Solomon, S.B.

    1994-01-01

    A standard covering methodologies for the measurement of indoor radon and radon progeny concentrations in air in Australian buildings is currently under preparation as part of a set of standards covering total indoor air quality. This paper outlines the suggested methodology for radon and discusses some of the problems associated with the development of the standard. The draft standard recommends measurement of the radon concentration in air using scintillation cells, charcoal cups and solid state nuclear track detectors, and measurement of radon progeny concentration in air using the Rolle method or the Nazaroff method. 14 refs., 1 tab

  5. Eating Habits and Standard Body Parameters Among Students at University of Banja Luka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raseta Nela

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Poor dietary habits have become one of the most important concerns among public health policy makers in recent years, due to the impact they have on both economic and health systems of a country. The transitional period toward young adulthood, marked with high school graduation and the beginning of college years, has been identified as critical in terms of its influence on young people’s bad eating habits. The aim of this study was to assess whether the results obtained through Food Frequency Questionnaire significantly correlate with standard body parameters. Participants included 210 students from the University of Banja Luka, with the mean age of 21.94 ± 2.73 years. Factorization of Food Frequency Questionnaire Instrument extracted seven factors which were subjected to multiple regression analysis as independent variables, and correlated to dependent variables - anthropological measurements. This study shows that the factors labeled as consumption of bread, consumption of healthy food, and intake of carbohydrates, are significantly related to Body Fat Percentage, whereas factors labeled as intake of food of animal origin, and intake of fruits and vegetables, are statistically significant in terms of their relation to Waist-to-Hip Ratio. Only one factor, labeled as intake of unhealthy food, is significantly related to Body Mass Index; this is to suggest that Body Mass Index has again showed many limitations with regard to its research relevance. This research has also found that students of the University of Banja Luka typically consume white bread, known to have a direct link with overweight and obesity.

  6. The use of personal values in living standards measures | Ungerer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Living Standards Measure (LSM), a South African marketing segmentation method, is a multivariate wealth measure based on standard of living. This article reports on whether a rationale can be found for the inclusion of psychological variables, particularly personal values, in this type of multivariate segmentation.

  7. Histologically Measured Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy Correlates with Body Height as Strongly as with Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac myocytes are presumed to enlarge with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH. This study correlates histologically measured myocytes with lean and fat body mass. Cases of LVH without coronary heart disease and normal controls came from forensic autopsies. The cross-sectional widths of myocytes in H&E-stained paraffin sections followed log normal distributions almost to perfection in all 104 specimens, with constant coefficient of variation across the full range of ventricular weight, as expected if myocytes of all sizes contribute proportionately to hypertrophy. Myocyte sizes increased with height. By regression analysis, height2.7 as a proxy for lean body mass and body mass index (BMI as a proxy for fat body mass, exerted equal effects in the multiple correlation with myocyte volume, and the equation rejected race and sex. In summary, myocyte sizes, as indexes of LVH, suggest that lean and fat body mass may contribute equally.

  8. Diagnostic accuracy of routine postoperative body temperature measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Hester; Storm-Versloot, Marja N.; Goossens, Astrid; Speelman, Peter; Legemate, Dink A.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: On surgical wards, body temperature is routinely measured, but there is no proof that this is useful for detecting postoperative infection. The aim of this study was to compare temperature measurements (the test) with the confirmed absence or presence of a postoperative infection (the

  9. Repeatability of Objective Measurements of Linear Udder and Body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to estimates the repeatability of objective measurements on linear udder and body conformation traits and to evaluate the objectivity of the measurements in Friesian x Bunaji cows. Data from 50 (F1) Frisian X Bunaji cows collected between 2007 and 2008 at the Dairy Research Farm of the ...

  10. High frequency body mass measurement, feedback, and health behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooreman, P.; Scherpenzeel, A.

    We analyze weight and fat percentage measurements of respondents in an online general population panel in the Netherlands, collected using wireless scales, with an average frequency of 1.6 measurements per week. First, we document the existence of a weekly cycle; body mass is lowest on Fridays and

  11. SOI Transistor measurement techniques using body contacted transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worley, E.R.; Williams, R.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of body contacted SOI transistors are used to isolate parameters of the back channel and island edge transistor. Properties of the edge and back channel transistor have been measured before and after X-ray irradiation (ARACOR). The unique properties of the edge transistor are shown to be a result of edge geometry as confirmed by a two dimensional transistor simulator

  12. Influence of body position, food and beverage consumption on BIS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, G.; Eitner, F.; Ismail, A. H.; Pikkemaat, R.; Cordes, A.; Floege, J.; Leonhardt, S.

    2010-04-01

    Continuous monitoring of fluid changes using bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) during hemodialysis could help to predict hypotensive complications and extend the patient's life. Food and beverage consumption during the treatment may influence the measurements and the calculated fluid removal. In the present article the change observed in whole body and segmental (knee-to-knee, abdomen) BIS measurements following a sequence similar to the one of dialysis treatment (lying down, sitting and eating, lying down) on healthy subjects is presented. The measurements have been performed using a commercial bioimpedance device with a frequency range of 5 kHz to 1 MHz. Knee-to-knee measurements seem to be less sensitive to these influences, compared to the standard whole body and the alternative abdomen BIS measurements. The results indicate that the individual influence of both body posture and food and beverage consumption may be superposed when combined.

  13. Review of clinically accessible methods to determine lean body mass for normalization of standardized uptake values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DEVRIESE, Joke; POTTEL, Hans; BEELS, Laurence; MAES, Alex; VAN DE WIELE, Christophe; GHEYSENS, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    With the routine use of 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F]-fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans, metabolic activity of tumors can be quantitatively assessed through calculation of SUVs. One possible normalization parameter for the standardized uptake value (SUV) is lean body mass (LBM), which is generally calculated through predictive equations based on height and body weight. (Semi-)direct measurements of LBM could provide more accurate results in cancer populations than predictive equations based on healthy populations. In this context, four methods to determine LBM are reviewed: bioelectrical impedance analysis, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. CT, and magnetic resonance imaging. These methods were selected based on clinical accessibility and are compared in terms of methodology, precision and accuracy. By assessing each method’s specific advantages and limitations, a well-considered choice of method can hopefully lead to more accurate SUVLBM values, hence more accurate quantitative assessment of 18F-FDG PET images.

  14. The Australian Commonwealth standard of measurement for absorbed radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherlock, S.L.

    1990-06-01

    This report documents the absorbed dose standard for photon beams in the range from 1 to 25 MeV. Measurements of absorbed dose in graphite irradiated by a beam of cobalt-60 gamma rays from an Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) E1 Dorado 6 teletherapy unit are reported. The measurements were performed using a graphite calorimeter, which is the primary standard for absorbed dose. The measurements are used to calibrate a working standard ion chamber in terms of absorbed dose in graphite. Details of the methods, results and correction factors applied are given in Appendices. 13 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs

  15. Effects of season, temperature, and body mass on the standard metabolic rate of tegu lizards (Tupinambis merianae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Luís F; Brito, Simone P; Milsom, William K; Abe, Augusto S; Andrade, Denis V

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This study examined how the standard metabolic rate of tegu lizards, a species that undergoes large ontogenetic changes in body weight with associated changes in life-history traits, is affected by changes in body mass, body temperature, season, and life-history traits. We measured rates of oxygen consumption (Vo(2)) in 90 individuals ranging in body mass from 10.4 g to 3.75 kg at three experimental temperatures (17 degrees , 25 degrees , and 30 degrees C) over the four seasons. We found that standard metabolic rate scaled to the power of 0.84 of body mass at all experimental temperatures in all seasons and that thermal sensitivity of metabolism was relatively low (Q(10) approximately 2.0-2.5) over the range from 17 degrees to 30 degrees C regardless of body size or season. Metabolic rates did vary seasonally, being higher in spring and summer than in autumn and winter at the same temperatures, and this was true regardless of animal size. Finally, in this study, the changes in life-history traits that occurred ontogenetically were not accompanied by significant changes in metabolic rate.

  16. Path loss variation of on-body UWB channel in the frequency bands of IEEE 802.15.6 standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Dayananda; Sarma, Kanak C; Mahanta, Anil

    2016-06-01

    The wireless body area network (WBAN) has gaining tremendous attention among researchers and academicians for its envisioned applications in healthcare service. Ultra wideband (UWB) radio technology is considered as excellent air interface for communication among body area network devices. Characterisation and modelling of channel parameters are utmost prerequisite for the development of reliable communication system. The path loss of on-body UWB channel for each frequency band defined in IEEE 802.15.6 standard is experimentally determined. The parameters of path loss model are statistically determined by analysing measurement data. Both the line-of-sight and non-line-of-sight channel conditions are considered in the measurement. Variations of parameter values with the size of human body are analysed along with the variation of parameter values with the surrounding environments. It is observed that the parameters of the path loss model vary with the frequency band as well as with the body size and surrounding environment. The derived parameter values are specific to the particular frequency bands of IEEE 802.15.6 standard, which will be useful for the development of efficient UWB WBAN system.

  17. ASTM International Workshop on Standards & Measurements for Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Carl G.; Yaszemski, Michael J.; Ratcliffe, Anthony; Tomlins, Paul; Luginbuehl, Reto; Tesk, John A.

    2016-01-01

    The “Workshop on Standards & Measurements for Tissue Engineering Scaffolds” was held on May 21, 2013 in Indianapolis, IN and was sponsored by the ASTM International (ASTM). The purpose of the workshop was to identify the highest priority items for future standards work for scaffolds used in the development and manufacture of tissue engineered medical products (TEMPs). Eighteen speakers and 78 attendees met to assess current scaffold standards and to prioritize needs for future standards. A key finding was that the ASTM TEMPs subcommittees (F04.41-46) have many active “guide” documents for educational purposes, but that few standard “test methods” or “practices” have been published. Overwhelmingly, the most clearly identified need was standards for measuring the structure of scaffolds, followed by standards for biological characterization, including in vitro testing, animal models and cell-material interactions. The third most pressing need was to develop standards for assessing the mechanical properties of scaffolds. Additional needs included standards for assessing scaffold degradation, clinical outcomes with scaffolds, effects of sterilization on scaffolds, scaffold composition and drug release from scaffolds. Discussions also highlighted the need for additional scaffold reference materials and the need to use them for measurement traceability. Finally, dialogue emphasized the needs to promote the use of standards in scaffold fabrication, characterization, and commercialization and to assess the use and impact of standards in the TEMPs community. Many scaffold standard needs have been identified and focus should now turn to generating these standards to support the use of scaffolds in TEMPs. PMID:25220952

  18. A new method of body habitus correction for total body potassium measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hehir, S; Green, S; Beddoe, A H

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an accurate and time-efficient method for the determination of total body potassium via a combination of measurements in the Birmingham whole body counter and the use of the Monte Carlo n-particle (MCNP) simulation code. In developing this method, MCNP has also been used to derive values for some components of the total measurement uncertainty which are difficult to quantify experimentally. A method is proposed for MCNP-assessed body habitus corrections based on a simple generic anthropomorphic model, scaled for individual height and weight. The use of this model increases patient comfort by reducing the need for comprehensive anthropomorphic measurements. The analysis shows that the total uncertainty in potassium weight determination by this whole body counting methodology for water-filled phantoms with a known amount of potassium is 2.7% (SD). The uncertainty in the method of body habitus correction (applicable also to phantom-based methods) is 1.5% (SD). It is concluded that this new strategy provides a sufficiently accurate model for routine clinical use

  19. A new method of body habitus correction for total body potassium measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hehir, S [University Hospital Birmingham Foundation NHS Trust, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Green, S [University Hospital Birmingham Foundation NHS Trust, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Beddoe, A H [University Hospital Birmingham Foundation NHS Trust, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-07

    This paper describes an accurate and time-efficient method for the determination of total body potassium via a combination of measurements in the Birmingham whole body counter and the use of the Monte Carlo n-particle (MCNP) simulation code. In developing this method, MCNP has also been used to derive values for some components of the total measurement uncertainty which are difficult to quantify experimentally. A method is proposed for MCNP-assessed body habitus corrections based on a simple generic anthropomorphic model, scaled for individual height and weight. The use of this model increases patient comfort by reducing the need for comprehensive anthropomorphic measurements. The analysis shows that the total uncertainty in potassium weight determination by this whole body counting methodology for water-filled phantoms with a known amount of potassium is 2.7% (SD). The uncertainty in the method of body habitus correction (applicable also to phantom-based methods) is 1.5% (SD). It is concluded that this new strategy provides a sufficiently accurate model for routine clinical use.

  20. Temperature standards, what and where: resources for effective temperature measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, W.W. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Many standards have been published to describe devices, methods, and other topics. How they are developed and by whom are briefly described, and an attempt is made to extract most of those relating to temperature measurements. A directory of temperature standards and their sources is provided

  1. Measurements of whole-body radioactivity in the UK population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenwick, J.D.; Boddy, K.; McKenzie, A.L.; Oxby, C.B.

    1992-01-01

    A national survey of whole-body radioactivity was undertaken. A mobile whole-body counter visited collaborating Medical Physics Departments and Hospitals in England and Wales. Data were also obtained from an installed whole-body counter at the West Cumberland Hospital, Whitehaven, and from a control site at Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge. 1657 volunteer members of the public were measured, including 162 children. 36% of volunteers had been measured in a similar survey 2 years earlier, and showed between a two and five fold reduction in body radiocaesium. No radiocaesium was detected in 54% of people measured. Measurements showed a progressive fall over the course of the study, reaching a baseline of 0.3 Bq 137 Cs/gK. In 1989, the additional radiation dose incurred from radiocaesium varied from a maximum of 4.1 μSv in Cumbria to 1.5 μSv in the South East, compared with the average annual radiation dose of 2500 μSv due to all other causes. No other gamma-emitting radionuclides were found. Results are consistent with Chernobyl as the source of the radiocaesium detected. (author)

  2. Convergence of Algorithms for Reconstructing Convex Bodies and Directional Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardner, Richard; Kiderlen, Markus; Milanfar, Peyman

    2006-01-01

    We investigate algorithms for reconstructing a convex body K in Rn from noisy measurements of its support function or its brightness function in k directions u1, . . . , uk. The key idea of these algorithms is to construct a convex polytope Pk whose support function (or brightness function) best...

  3. Bioimpedance measurement of body water correlates with measured volume balance in injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemurgy, A S; Rodriguez, E; Hart, M B; Kurto, H Z; Albrink, M H

    1993-06-01

    Bioimpedance technology is being used increasingly to determine drug volume of distribution, body water status, and nutrition repletion. Its accuracy in patients experiencing large volume flux is not established. To address this, we undertook this prospective study in 54 consecutive seriously injured adults who had emergency celiotomy soon after arrival in the emergency department. Bioimpedance measurements were obtained in the emergency department before the patient was transported to the operating room, on completion of celiotomy, and 24 hours and 48 hours after celiotomy. Bioimpedance measurements of body water were compared with measured fluid balance. If insensible losses are subtracted from measured fluid balance, the percentage of body weight, which is body water determined by bioimpedance, closely follows fluid flux. This study supports the use of bioimpedance measurements in determining total body water even during periods of surgery, blood loss, and vigorous resuscitation.

  4. Portable radiation instrumentation traceability of standards and measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiserman, A.; Walke, M.

    1995-01-01

    Portable radiation measuring instruments are used to estimate and control doses for workers. Calibration of these instruments must be sufficiently accurate to ensure that administrative and legal dose limits are not likely to be exceeded due to measurement uncertainties. An instrument calibration and management program is established which permits measurements made with an instrument to be traced to a national standard. This paper describes the establishment and maintenance of calibration standards for gamma survey instruments and an instrument management program which achieves traceability of measurement for uniquely identified field instruments. (author)

  5. Investigation of human body potential measured by a non-contact measuring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Norimitsu

    2016-12-07

    A human body is occasionally electrified in a room. This charged object will be a source of electrostatic accidents, including the malfunction of electronic equipment. Hence, prevention of these accidents is required. Accidents occasionally occur, even though antistatic clothes and shoes are used. One of the causes for these accidents is that there is a lack of the preventive measures. This situation occurs when using, for example, unconductive wax. In this study, human body potential (voltage) is measured using a non-contact measuring system. An investigation of the human body's voltage when using this system is conducted. The result demonstrates that the voltage of a human body wearing antistatic clothes and shoes or light clothes and slippers exceeds a malfunctioning voltage of a microelectronics device when the body walks on floors. Thus, accidents may occur even if a human body wearing the antistatic clothes walks on flooring. These results will be useful in estimating determination whether electrostatic accidents occur or not.

  6. Measurements and standards for bulk-explosives detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, Larry, E-mail: larry.hudson@nist.gov [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 8460, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Bateman, Fred; Bergstrom, Paul; Cerra, Frank; Glover, Jack; Minniti, Ronaldo; Seltzer, Stephen; Tosh, Ronald [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 8460, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Recent years have seen a dramatic expansion in the application of radiation and isotopes to security screening. This has been driven primarily by increased incidents involving improvised explosive devices as well as their ease of assembly and leveraged disruption of transportation and commerce. With global expenditures for security-screening systems in the hundreds of billions of dollars, there is a pressing need to develop, apply, and harmonize standards for x-ray and gamma-ray screening systems used to detect explosives and other contraband. The National Institute of Standards and Technology has been facilitating the development of standard measurement tools that can be used to gauge the technical performance (imaging quality) and radiation safety of systems used to screen luggage, persons, vehicles, cargo, and left-behind objects. After a review of this new suite of national standard test methods, test objects, and radiation-measurement protocols, we highlight some of the technical trends that are enhancing the revision of baseline standards. Finally we advocate a more intentional use of technical-performance standards by security stakeholders and outline the advantages this would accrue. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This work responds to the need for standards for x-ray screening systems used to detect explosives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Described are new measurement tools to gage the performance and radiation safety of such systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A more intentional use of technical-performance standards by security stakeholders is argued.

  7. Measurements and standards for bulk-explosives detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, Larry; Bateman, Fred; Bergstrom, Paul; Cerra, Frank; Glover, Jack; Minniti, Ronaldo; Seltzer, Stephen; Tosh, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen a dramatic expansion in the application of radiation and isotopes to security screening. This has been driven primarily by increased incidents involving improvised explosive devices as well as their ease of assembly and leveraged disruption of transportation and commerce. With global expenditures for security-screening systems in the hundreds of billions of dollars, there is a pressing need to develop, apply, and harmonize standards for x-ray and gamma-ray screening systems used to detect explosives and other contraband. The National Institute of Standards and Technology has been facilitating the development of standard measurement tools that can be used to gauge the technical performance (imaging quality) and radiation safety of systems used to screen luggage, persons, vehicles, cargo, and left-behind objects. After a review of this new suite of national standard test methods, test objects, and radiation-measurement protocols, we highlight some of the technical trends that are enhancing the revision of baseline standards. Finally we advocate a more intentional use of technical-performance standards by security stakeholders and outline the advantages this would accrue. - Highlights: ► This work responds to the need for standards for x-ray screening systems used to detect explosives. ► Described are new measurement tools to gage the performance and radiation safety of such systems. ► A more intentional use of technical-performance standards by security stakeholders is argued.

  8. Measurement of body fat and hydration of the fat-free body in health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streat, S.J.; Beddoe, A.H.; Hill, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    Body fat mass, fat-free body mass and body water are basic components of body composition which are used in nutritional and metabolic studies and in patient care. A method of measuring total body fat (TBF), fat-free mass (FFM) and its hydration (TBW/FFM) involving prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) and tritium dilution has been compared with the more traditional methods of densitometry and skinfold anthropometry in 36 normal volunteers, and with skinfold anthropometry in 56 patients presenting for nutritional support. While the mean values of TBF were in reasonable agreement for the three methods in normals it was founds that skinfold anthropometry underestimated TBF relative to the IVNAA/tritium method by, on average, 3.0 kg (19%) in patients. Furthermore, the ranges of values in normals of the ratio TBW/FFM for the anthropometric (0.62 to 0.80) and densitometric (0.65 to 0.80) methods were much wider than the range for the IVNAA/tritium method (0.69 to 0.76), in which TBW was measured by tritium dilution in all cases. In the patients, the ranges of this ratio were 0.52 to 0.90 for the anthropometric method and 0.67 to 0.82 for the IVNAA/tritium method; clearly anthropometry yields values of TBW/FFM which are outside accepted biological limits. On the basis of these findings, ranges of TBW/FFM are suggested for both normal adults (0.69 to 0.75) and patients requiring nutritional support (0.67 to 0.83). Finally it is concluded that the IVNAA/tritium method is a suitable method for measuring TBF and FFM and particularly so when body composition is abnormal

  9. West African donkey's liveweight estimation using body measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Claver Nininahazwe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to determine a formula for estimating the liveweight in West African donkeys. Materials and Methods: Liveweight and a total of 6 body measurements were carried out on 1352 donkeys from Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, and Senegal. The correlations between liveweight and body measurements were determined, and the most correlated body measurements with liveweight were used to establish regression lines. Results: The average weight of a West African donkey was 126.0±17.1 kg, with an average height at the withers of 99.5±3.67 cm; its body length was 104.4±6.53 cm, and a heart girth (HG of 104.4±6.53 cm. After analyzing the various regression lines and correlations, it was found that the HG could better estimate the liveweight of West African donkeys by simple linear regression method. Indeed, the liveweight (LW showed a better correlation with the HG (R2=0.81. The following formulas (Equations 1 and 2 could be used to estimate the LW of West Africa donkeys. Equation 1: Estimated LW (kg = 2.55 x HG (cm - 153.49; Equation 2: Estimated LW (kg = Heart girth (cm2.68 / 2312.44. Conclusion: The above formulas could be used to manufacture weighing tape to be utilized by veterinary clinicians and farmers to estimate donkey's weight in the view of medication and adjustment of load.

  10. A bedside measure of body composition in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sarah A; Davidson, Zoe E; Davies, Peter S W; Truby, Helen

    2015-01-01

    In clinical practice, monitoring body composition is a critical component of nutritional assessment and weight management in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of a simple bedside measurement tool for body composition, namely bioelectrical impedance analysis, in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Measures of fat-free mass were determined using a bioelectrical impedance analysis machine and compared against estimations obtained from a reference body composition model. Additionally, the use of raw impedance values was analyzed using three existing predictive equations for the estimation of fat-free mass. Accuracy of bioelectrical impedance analysis was assessed by comparison against the reference model by calculation of biases and limits of agreement. Body composition was measured in 10 boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, mean age 9.01 ± 2.34 years. The bioelectrical impedance analysis machine values of fat-free mass were on average 2.3 ± 14.1 kg higher than reference values. Limits of agreement (based on 95% confidence interval of the mean) were -7.4 to 2.9 kg. There was a significant correlation between the mean fat-free mass and difference in fat-free mass between the bioelectrical impedance analysis machine and the reference model (r = -0.86; P = 0.02) suggesting that the bias was not consistent across the range of measurements. The most accurate predictive equation for the estimation of fat-free mass using raw impedance values was the equation by Pietrobelli et al. (mean difference, -0.7 kg; 95% limits of agreement, -3.5 to 2.0 kg). In a clinical setting, where a rapid assessment of body composition is advantageous, the use of raw impedance values, combined with the equation by Pietrobelli et al., is recommended for the accurate estimation of fat-free mass, in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. NATURAL USER INTERFACE SENSORS FOR HUMAN BODY MEASUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Boehm

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The recent push for natural user interfaces (NUI in the entertainment and gaming industry has ushered in a new era of low cost three-dimensional sensors. While the basic idea of using a three-dimensional sensor for human gesture recognition dates some years back it is not until recently that such sensors became available on the mass market. The current market leader is PrimeSense who provide their technology for the Microsoft Xbox Kinect. Since these sensors are developed to detect and observe human users they should be ideally suited to measure the human body. We describe the technology of a line of NUI sensors and assess their performance in terms of repeatability and accuracy. We demonstrate the implementation of a prototype scanner integrating several NUI sensors to achieve full body coverage. We present the results of the obtained surface model of a human body.

  12. Natural User Interface Sensors for Human Body Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, J.

    2012-08-01

    The recent push for natural user interfaces (NUI) in the entertainment and gaming industry has ushered in a new era of low cost three-dimensional sensors. While the basic idea of using a three-dimensional sensor for human gesture recognition dates some years back it is not until recently that such sensors became available on the mass market. The current market leader is PrimeSense who provide their technology for the Microsoft Xbox Kinect. Since these sensors are developed to detect and observe human users they should be ideally suited to measure the human body. We describe the technology of a line of NUI sensors and assess their performance in terms of repeatability and accuracy. We demonstrate the implementation of a prototype scanner integrating several NUI sensors to achieve full body coverage. We present the results of the obtained surface model of a human body.

  13. Body mass index and blood pressure measurement during pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Jennifer L

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The accurate measurement of blood pressure requires the use of a large cuff in subjects with a high mid-arm circumference (MAC). This prospective study examined the need for a large cuff during pregnancy and its correlation with maternal obesity. METHODS: Maternal body mass index (BMI), fat mass, and MAC were measured. RESULTS: Of 179 women studied, 15.6% were obese. With a BMI of level 1 obesity, 44% needed a large cuff and with a BMI of level 2 obesity 100% needed a large cuff. CONCLUSION: All women booking for antenatal care should have their MAC measured to avoid the overdiagnosis of pregnancy hypertension.

  14. Corps et culture: les codes de savoir-vivre (Body and Culture: The Standards of Etiquette).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Dominique

    1983-01-01

    The evolution of values and standards of behavior as they relate to the body in culture are examined, especially in light of recent trends toward recognition of the natural and the spontaneous, the positive value placed on sexuality, and at the same time, narcissism and emphasis on youth. (MSE)

  15. Teacher Assessment Literacy: A Review of International Standards and Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, Christopher; LaPointe-McEwan, Danielle; Luhanga, Ulemu

    2016-01-01

    Assessment literacy is a core professional requirement across educational systems. Hence, measuring and supporting teachers' assessment literacy have been a primary focus over the past two decades. At present, there are a multitude of assessment standards across the world and numerous assessment literacy measures that represent different…

  16. Vitamin D measurement standardization: the way out of the chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substantial variability is associated with laboratory measurement of serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. The resulting chaos impedes development of consensus 25(OH)D values to define stages of vitamin D status. As resolving this situation requires standardized measurement of 25(OH)D, the Vita...

  17. Changes in body chemical composition with age measured by total-body neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Vaswani, A.; Zanzi, I.; Aloia, J.F.; Roginsky, M.S.; Ellis, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    Total-body levels of calcium and phosphorus (reflecting skeletal mass) and total-body levels of potassium (reflecting muscle mass) were measured by neutron activation analysis in 39 men and 40 women ages 30 to 90 yr. In order to intercompare the total body calcium (TBCa) values in a heterogeneous population, such as this, it was necessary to normalize the data for skeletal size. The normalization consisted of dividing the absolute calcium level by the predicted calcium level for each individual matched to a set of critical parameters. The parameter used in the computation of normal values were age, sex, muscle mass, i.e., total body potassium (TBK) and height. For the calcium data of the women, it was necessary to add an age correction factor after the age of 55 yr. The calcium ratio (mean ratio of the predicted to measured TBCa) in men was 1.000 +- 7.8 percent and in women 0.996 +- 7.1 percent. The TBCa of normal males and females can thus be predicted to +-13 percent (at the 90 percent confidence level). An exception to this was found in males (70 to 90 yr) who exhibited a mean calcium ratio greater than 1.13

  18. High-frequency ultrasound measurements of the normal ciliary body and iris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Julian P S; Spielberg, Leigh; Finger, Paul T

    2011-01-01

    To determine the normal ultrasonographic thickness of the iris and ciliary body. This prospective 35-MHz ultrasonographic study included 80 normal eyes of 40 healthy volunteers. The images were obtained at the 12-, 3-, 6-, and 9-o'clock radial meridians, measured at three locations along the radial length of the iris and at the thickest section of the ciliary body. Mixed model was used to estimate eye site-adjusted means and standard errors and to test the statistical difference of adjusted results. Parameters included mean thickness, standard deviation, and range. Mean thicknesses at the iris root, midway along the radial length of the iris, and at the juxtapupillary margin were 0.4 ± 0.1, 0.5 ± 0.1, and 0.6 ± 0.1 mm, respectively. Those of the ciliary body, ciliary processes, and ciliary body + ciliary processes were 0.7 ± 0.1, 0.6 ± 0.1, and 1.3 ± 0.2 mm, respectively. This study provides standard, normative thickness data for the iris and ciliary body in healthy adults using ultrasonographic imaging. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Measurement of microchannel fluidic resistance with a standard voltage meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godwin, Leah A.; Deal, Kennon S.; Hoepfner, Lauren D.; Jackson, Louis A.; Easley, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Standard voltage meter used to measure fluidic resistance. ► Manual measurement takes a few seconds, akin to electrical resistance measurements. ► Measurement error is reduced compared to other approaches. ► Amenable to dynamic measurement of fluidic resistance. - Abstract: A simplified method for measuring the fluidic resistance (R fluidic ) of microfluidic channels is presented, in which the electrical resistance (R elec ) of a channel filled with a conductivity standard solution can be measured and directly correlated to R fluidic using a simple equation. Although a slight correction factor could be applied in this system to improve accuracy, results showed that a standard voltage meter could be used without calibration to determine R fluidic to within 12% error. Results accurate to within 2% were obtained when a geometric correction factor was applied using these particular channels. When compared to standard flow rate measurements, such as meniscus tracking in outlet tubing, this approach provided a more straightforward alternative and resulted in lower measurement error. The method was validated using 9 different fluidic resistance values (from ∼40 to 600 kPa s mm −3 ) and over 30 separately fabricated microfluidic devices. Furthermore, since the method is analogous to resistance measurements with a voltage meter in electrical circuits, dynamic R fluidic measurements were possible in more complex microfluidic designs. Microchannel R elec was shown to dynamically mimic pressure waveforms applied to a membrane in a variable microfluidic resistor. The variable resistor was then used to dynamically control aqueous-in-oil droplet sizes and spacing, providing a unique and convenient control system for droplet-generating devices. This conductivity-based method for fluidic resistance measurement is thus a useful tool for static or real-time characterization of microfluidic systems.

  20. Standard Male Body Image and its Influence on Food Values, Attitudes and Behavior in Food University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela de Souza Dias

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Body image corresponds to the way the individual sees his body. The beauty standards body are established from references in which illusory short fall. The great changes in recent years in markets as food and fitness show mainly focused on developing new habits for health concerns and aesthetics. This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between body image values, attitudes and dietary behavior in college men. We used a range of silhouettes adapted model Stunkard, Sorenson e Schlusinger (1983 as cited in Kety, Rowland, Sidman & Matthysse, 1983 and Lima, Orlando, Teixeira, Castro e Damasceno (2008,

  1. Developing a Novel Measure of Body Satisfaction Using Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, Clare K.; Jones, Megan; Bailey, Jakki O.; Bailenson, Jeremy; Taylor, C. Barr

    2015-01-01

    Body image disturbance (BID), considered a key feature in eating disorders, is a pervasive issue among young women. Accurate assessment of BID is critical, but the field is currently limited to self-report assessment methods. In the present study, we build upon existing research, and explore the utility of virtual reality (VR) to elicit and detect changes in BID across various immersive virtual environments. College-aged women with elevated weight and shape concerns (n = 38) and a non-weight and shape concerned control group (n = 40) were randomly exposed to four distinct virtual environments with high or low levels of body salience and social presence (i.e., presence of virtual others). Participants interacted with avatars of thin, normal weight, and overweight body size (BMI of approximately 18, 22, and 27 respectively) in virtual social settings (i.e., beach, party). We measured state-level body satisfaction (state BD) immediately after exposure to each environment. In addition, we measured participants’ minimum interpersonal distance, visual attention, and approach preference toward avatars of each size. Women with higher baseline BID reported significantly higher state BD in all settings compared to controls. Both groups reported significantly higher state BD in a beach with avatars as compared to other environments. In addition, women with elevated BID approached closer to normal weight avatars and looked longer at thin avatars compared to women in the control group. Our findings indicate that VR may serve as a novel tool for measuring state-level BID, with applications for measuring treatment outcomes. Implications for future research and clinical interventions are discussed. PMID:26469860

  2. Whole-body dose meters. Measurements of total activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppe, P.; Klinikum Steglitz, Berlin

    1990-01-01

    By means of measurements using a whole-body dose meter, the course of the incorporation of radionuclides was established between April 1986 and May 1989 for unchanged conditions of alimentation, activity-conscious alimentation, and uniquely increased incorporation. Monitoring covered persons from the most different spheres of life. The incorporation is compared with the one resulting from nuclear weapons explosions in the atmosphere. (DG) [de

  3. Body Fat Measurements in Singaporean Adults Using Four Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyan Bi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have been conducted to measure body composition in Asian populations. In this study, we determined the percent body fat (PBF by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA, air-displacement plethysmography (ADP or BOD POD, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA and skinfold (SKF in 445 healthy Singaporean adults. We observed that the BOD POD, BIA and SKF estimates of PBF were highly correlated with that from DEXA (as a reference method among Singaporean adults. However, they all underestimated PBF (differences of 3.9% for BOD POD, 5.6% for BIA and 12.5% for SKF. Our results filled a gap in the literature by testing the relationships between DEXA and BOD POD, BIA and SKF in a large sample with a wide range of body mass index (BMI from 16.1 to 37.5 kg/m2 and age from 21 to 69.2 years. The differences of PBF measured by different methods were dependent on age, gender and ethnicity. No significant difference was observed between DEXA and BOD POD in men aged > 40 or in BMI tertile 3. However, the mean difference between DEXA and BOD POD was significant in women. Different measuring methods of estimating PBF therefore must be cautiously interpreted.

  4. Performance Measurement of Management System Standards Using the Balanced Scorecard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kopia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Management system standards (MSS, such as ISO standards, TQM, etc. are widely-used standards adopted by millions of organizations worldwide. It is still an unclear question whether these standards are beneficial for an organization, besides the fact that they might be required or expected by law or customers. The question, whether MSS increase the efficiency, the output, or the performance of an organization is still discussed in scientific research. One reason might be that performance measurement itself is not fully understood or in constant development ranging from pure financial evaluations over intellectual capital rating to calculating of levels of environmental, social or economic expectations known as the Trible Bottom Line. The Balanced Scorecard is one possible solution for performance measurement on a strategic and operational level and therefore useful for the measurement of the influence of MSS within organizations. This study summarized current research in the field of performance measurement in the context of MSS and IMS and the use of BSC and quantitatively and qualitatively tests the usefulness of BSC in measuring the effect of MSSs using the Execution Premium. It was found that BSC is often used, that an average number of companies integrate their measurement initiatives of their MSSs into the BSC-process, and that a high integration of MSS into the BSC improves the organizational performance. This research is useful for researchers and practitioners in order to understand the benefits of the usage of the BSC in the context of MSS or Integrated Management Systems.

  5. Standardized uptake value in pediatric patients: an investigation to determine the optimum measurement parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeung, H.W.; Squire, O.D.; Larson, S.M.; Erdi, Y.E.; Sanches, A.; Macapinlac, H.A.

    2002-01-01

    Although the standardized uptake value (SUV) is currently used in fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging, concerns have been raised over its accuracy and clinical relevance. Dependence of the SUV on body weight has been observed in adults and this should be of concern in the pediatric population, since there are significant body changes during childhood. The aim of the present study was to compare SUV measurements based on body weight, body surface area and lean body mass in the pediatric population and to determine a more reliable parameter across all ages. Sixty-eight pediatric FDG-PET studies were evaluated. Age ranged from 2 to 17 years and weight from 11 to 77 kg. Regions of interest were drawn at the liver for physiologic comparison and at FDG-avid malignant lesions. SUV based on body weight (SUV bw ) varied across different weights, a phenomenon less evident when body surface area (SUV bsa ) normalization is applied. Lean body mass-based SUV (SUV lbm ) also showed a positive correlation with weight, which again was less evident when normalized to bsa (SUV bsa-lbm ). The measured liver SUV bw was 1.1±0.3, a much lower value than in our adult population (1.9±0.3). The liver SUV bsa was 7.3±1.3. The tumor sites had an SUV bw of 4.0±2.7 and an SUV bsa of 25.9±15.4 (65% of the patients had neuroblastoma). The bsa-based SUVs were more constant across the pediatric ages and were less dependent on body weight than the SUV bw . These results indicate that SUV calculated on the basis of body surface area is a more uniform parameter than SUV based on body weight in pediatric patients and is probably the most appropriate approach for the follow-up of these patients. (orig.)

  6. Standardized Percentile Curves of Body Mass Index of Northeast Iranian Children Aged 25 to 60 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emdadi, Maryam; Safarian, Mohammad; Doosti, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Objective Growth charts are widely used to assess children's growth status and can provide a trajectory of growth during early important months of life. Racial differences necessitate using local growth charts. This study aimed to provide standardized growth curves of body mass index (BMI) for children living in northeast Iran. Methods A total of 23730 apparently healthy boys and girls aged 25 to 60 months recruited for 20 days from those attending community clinics for routine health checks. Anthropometric measurements were done by trained health staff using WHO methodology. The LMSP method with maximum penalized likelihood, the Generalized Additive Models, the Box-Cox power exponential distribution distribution, Akaike Information Criteria and Generalized Akaike Criteria with penalty equal to 3 [GAIC(3)], and Worm plot and Q-tests as goodness of fit tests were used to construct the centile reference charts. Findings The BMI centile curves for boys and girls aged 25 to 60 months were drawn utilizing a population of children living in northeast Iran. Conclusion The results of the current study demonstrate the possibility of preparation of local growth charts and their importance in evaluating children's growth. Also their differences, relative to those prepared by global references, reflect the necessity of preparing local charts in future studies using longitudinal data. PMID:23056770

  7. Constraining new physics with collider measurements of Standard Model signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butterworth, Jonathan M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London,Gower St., London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Grellscheid, David [IPPP, Department of Physics, Durham University,Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Krämer, Michael; Sarrazin, Björn [Institute for Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology, RWTH Aachen University,Sommerfeldstr. 16, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Yallup, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London,Gower St., London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-14

    A new method providing general consistency constraints for Beyond-the-Standard-Model (BSM) theories, using measurements at particle colliders, is presented. The method, ‘Constraints On New Theories Using Rivet’, CONTUR, exploits the fact that particle-level differential measurements made in fiducial regions of phase-space have a high degree of model-independence. These measurements can therefore be compared to BSM physics implemented in Monte Carlo generators in a very generic way, allowing a wider array of final states to be considered than is typically the case. The CONTUR approach should be seen as complementary to the discovery potential of direct searches, being designed to eliminate inconsistent BSM proposals in a context where many (but perhaps not all) measurements are consistent with the Standard Model. We demonstrate, using a competitive simplified dark matter model, the power of this approach. The CONTUR method is highly scaleable to other models and future measurements.

  8. Reproducibility of DXA measurements of bone mineral density and body composition in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Cheryl M.; Roza, Melissa A.; Webber, Colin E. [Hamilton Health Sciences, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Barr, Ronald D. [McMaster Children' s Hospital, Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2009-02-15

    The technique of X-ray-based dual photon absorptiometry (DXA) is frequently used in children for the detection of changes in bone mass or body composition. Such changes can only be considered real if the uncertainties arising from the measurement technique are exceeded. Our objectives were twofold: (1) to determine the reproducibility of bone mineral density (BMD) measurements in children at the spine and the hip and from the whole body, as well as of whole-body measurements of mineral mass, lean body mass and fat mass in children; and (2) to estimate, from the measured precision, the time interval that needs to elapse before a statistically significant change in a DXA variable can be detected. The reproducibility of techniques for the measurement of BMD and body composition using DXA was measured in 15 young children (9 girls and 6 boys) and 17 older children (9 girls and 8 boys). Reproducibility was derived from the standard deviation of three repeated measurements of spine BMD, total hip BMD, whole-body BMD (WBBMD), whole-body bone mineral content (WBBMC), lean mass and fat mass. Technique precision was better than 0.01 g cm{sup -2} for spine BMD and for WBBMD. Hip BMD measurements were slightly less precise, particularly in younger children (0.013 g cm{sup -2}). For body composition variables, technique precision was 13 g for WBBMC, 201 g for lean body mass and 172 g for fat mass in younger children. Technique precision for older children was 18 g, 251 g and 189 g for the corresponding variables. Predictions showed that the absence of a normal increase in WBBMC in a small-for-age girl could be established after 12 months. For spine BMD, a significant increase should be observable after 6 months for boys over the age of 11 years. For younger boys, more than 12 months has to elapse before anticipated changes can be detected with confidence. The time intervals required to elapse before decisions can be made concerning the significance of observed differences

  9. Reproducibility of DXA measurements of bone mineral density and body composition in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, Cheryl M.; Roza, Melissa A.; Webber, Colin E.; Barr, Ronald D.

    2009-01-01

    The technique of X-ray-based dual photon absorptiometry (DXA) is frequently used in children for the detection of changes in bone mass or body composition. Such changes can only be considered real if the uncertainties arising from the measurement technique are exceeded. Our objectives were twofold: (1) to determine the reproducibility of bone mineral density (BMD) measurements in children at the spine and the hip and from the whole body, as well as of whole-body measurements of mineral mass, lean body mass and fat mass in children; and (2) to estimate, from the measured precision, the time interval that needs to elapse before a statistically significant change in a DXA variable can be detected. The reproducibility of techniques for the measurement of BMD and body composition using DXA was measured in 15 young children (9 girls and 6 boys) and 17 older children (9 girls and 8 boys). Reproducibility was derived from the standard deviation of three repeated measurements of spine BMD, total hip BMD, whole-body BMD (WBBMD), whole-body bone mineral content (WBBMC), lean mass and fat mass. Technique precision was better than 0.01 g cm -2 for spine BMD and for WBBMD. Hip BMD measurements were slightly less precise, particularly in younger children (0.013 g cm -2 ). For body composition variables, technique precision was 13 g for WBBMC, 201 g for lean body mass and 172 g for fat mass in younger children. Technique precision for older children was 18 g, 251 g and 189 g for the corresponding variables. Predictions showed that the absence of a normal increase in WBBMC in a small-for-age girl could be established after 12 months. For spine BMD, a significant increase should be observable after 6 months for boys over the age of 11 years. For younger boys, more than 12 months has to elapse before anticipated changes can be detected with confidence. The time intervals required to elapse before decisions can be made concerning the significance of observed differences between

  10. Establishment and application of standard devices for radioactivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Changgui; Li Xingyuan; Chen Zigen

    1991-03-01

    In order to establish the radioactivity measurement standards a 4πβ-γ coincidence apparatus and a 4πγ ionization chamber have been installed in the laboratory. The 4πβ-γ coincidence apparatus is for absolute measurement, and its uncertainty is ±(0.3∼5)%. The 4πγ ionization chamber is for working standard, and its uncertainty is ±(1∼5)%. The combination of these devices can meet the quality requirements controlled by National Verification System in the transfer of radioactivity values

  11. Anorexia nervosa and nutritional assessment: contribution of body composition measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattar, Lama; Godart, Nathalie; Melchior, Jean Claude; Pichard, Claude

    2011-06-01

    The psychiatric condition of patients suffering from anorexia nervosa (AN) is affected by their nutritional status. An optimal assessment of the nutritional status of patients is fundamental in understanding the relationship between malnutrition and the psychological symptoms. The present review evaluates some of the available methods for measuring body composition in patients with AN. We searched literature in Medline using several key terms relevant to the present review in order to identify papers. Only articles in English or French were reviewed. A brief description is provided for each body composition technique, with its applicability in AN as well as its limitation. All methods of measuring body composition are not yet validated and/or feasible in patients with AN. The present review article proposes a practical approach for selecting the most appropriate methods depending on the setting, (i.e. clinical v. research) and the goal of the assessment (initial v. follow-up) in order to have a more personalised treatment for patients suffering from AN.

  12. Overview of the Standard Model Measurements with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yanwen; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Collaboration is engaged in precision measurement of fundamental Standard Model parameters, such as the W boson mass, the weak-mixing angle or the strong coupling constant. In addition, the production cross-sections of a large variety of final states involving high energetic jets, photons as well as single and multi vector bosons are measured multi differentially at several center of mass energies. This allows to test perturbative QCD calculations to highest precision. In addition, these measurements allow also to test models beyond the SM, e.g. those leading to anomalous gauge couplings. In this talk, we give a broad overview of the Standard Model measurement campaign of the ATLAS collaboration, where selected topics will be discussed in more detail.

  13. Implantable microchip transponders for body temperature measurements in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Uttenthal, Åse; Enøe, Claes

    thermometer. This work, however, can be quite time consuming and laborious, and further compromising the immediate well-fare of the pig, when restraining of the individual animal is necessary. Therefore, an electronic body monitoring system using implantable microchip transponders for measuring peripheral...... body temperature was tested, in order to evaluate the utility and reliability of this tool, in domestic pigs. The system is presently used and well optimized in small laboratory animals [1, 2]. We tested the microchip transponders during experimental infection of pigs with classical swine fever virus...... microchip transponder was injected deep subcutaneously by the left ear base of each individual. The transponder was before insertion programmed with ID identical to the individual pig’s ear tag number. The pigs were randomly divided into 3 groups: one group placebo-infected and two groups virus...

  14. Development of standard ionization chamber counting system for activity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyun, Woong Beom; Lee, Hyun Koo; Lee, Hai Yong; Park, Tae Soon

    1998-01-01

    This study is to set up the activity measuring system using a 4π γ ionization chamber as used mainly in national standards laboratories that are responsible for radionuclide metrology. The software for automatic control between the electrometer and personal computer is developed using Microsoft visual basic 4.0 and IEEE488 Interface. The reproducibility of this 4π γ ionization chamber is about 0.02% and the background current is 0.054±0.024 pA. this 4π γ ionization chamber is calibrated by 6 standard gamma emitting radionuclides from KRISS. According to the result of this study, it is revealed that this 4π γ ionization chamber counting system can be used as a secondary standard instrument for radioactivity measurement

  15. Development of standard ionization chamber counting system for activity measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Pyun, W B; Lee, H Y; Park, T S

    1998-01-01

    This study is to set up the activity measuring system using a 4 pi gamma ionization chamber as used mainly in national standards laboratories that are responsible for radionuclide metrology. The software for automatic control between the electrometer and personal computer is developed using Microsoft visual basic 4.0 and IEEE488 Interface. The reproducibility of this 4 pi gamma ionization chamber is about 0.02% and the background current is 0.054+-0.024 pA. this 4 pi gamma ionization chamber is calibrated by 6 standard gamma emitting radionuclides from KRISS. According to the result of this study, it is revealed that this 4 pi gamma ionization chamber counting system can be used as a secondary standard instrument for radioactivity measurement.

  16. ATLAS Standard Model Measurements Using Jet Grooming and Substructure

    CERN Document Server

    Ucchielli, Giulia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Boosted topologies allow to explore Standard Model processes in kinematical regimes never tested before. In such LHC challenging environments, standard reconstruction techniques quickly hit the wall. Targeting hadronic final states means to properly reconstruct energy and multiplicity of the jets in the event. In order to be able to identify the decay product of boosted objects, i.e. W bosons, $t\\bar{t}$ pairs or Higgs produced in association with $t\\bar{t}$ pairs, ATLAS experiment is currently exploiting several algorithms using jet grooming and jet substructure. This contribution will mainly cover the following ATLAS measurements: $t\\bar{t}$ differential cross section production and jet mass using the soft drop procedure. Standard Model measurements offer the perfect field to test the performances of new jet tagging techniques which will become even more important in the search for new physics in highly boosted topologies.”

  17. Validation of Proposed Metrics for Two-Body Abrasion Scratch Test Analysis Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Kobrick, Ryan L.; Klaus, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Abrasion of mechanical components and fabrics by soil on Earth is typically minimized by the effects of atmosphere and water. Potentially abrasive particles lose sharp and pointed geometrical features through erosion. In environments where such erosion does not exist, such as the vacuum of the Moon, particles retain sharp geometries associated with fracturing of their parent particles by micrometeorite impacts. The relationship between hardness of the abrasive and that of the material being abraded is well understood, such that the abrasive ability of a material can be estimated as a function of the ratio of the hardness of the two interacting materials. Knowing the abrasive nature of an environment (abrasive)/construction material is crucial to designing durable equipment for use in such surroundings. The objective of this work was to evaluate a set of standardized metrics proposed for characterizing a surface that has been scratched from a two-body abrasion test. This is achieved by defining a new abrasion region termed Zone of Interaction (ZOI). The ZOI describes the full surface profile of all peaks and valleys, rather than just measuring a scratch width. The ZOI has been found to be at least twice the size of a standard width measurement; in some cases, considerably greater, indicating that at least half of the disturbed surface area would be neglected without this insight. The ZOI is used to calculate a more robust data set of volume measurements that can be used to computationally reconstruct a resultant profile for de tailed analysis. Documenting additional changes to various surface roughness par ameters also allows key material attributes of importance to ultimate design applications to be quantified, such as depth of penetration and final abraded surface roughness. Further - more, by investigating the use of custom scratch tips for specific needs, the usefulness of having an abrasion metric that can measure the displaced volume in this standardized

  18. Requirements for a quality measurement instrument for semantic standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, E.J.A.; Krukkert, D.; Oude Luttighuis, P.; Hillegersberg van, J. van

    2010-01-01

    This study describes requirements for an instrument to measure the quality of semantic standards. A situational requirements engineering method was used, resulting in a goal-tree in which requirements are structured. This structure shows requirements related to the input of the instrument; stating

  19. Conditional Standard Errors of Measurement for Scale Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolen, Michael J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A procedure is described for estimating the reliability and conditional standard errors of measurement of scale scores incorporating the discrete transformation of raw scores to scale scores. The method is illustrated using a strong true score model, and practical applications are described. (SLD)

  20. Standardized measurement of quality of life after incisional hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian K; Henriksen, Nadia A; Harling, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    repair. The aim of this systematic review was to analyze existing standardized methods to measure quality of life after incisional hernia repair. DATA SOURCES: A PubMed and Embase search was carried out together with a cross-reference search of eligible papers, giving a total of 26 included studies...

  1. Designing Standardized Patient Assessments to Measure SBIRT Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Maria A.; Julian, Katherine A.; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Satterfield, Jason M.; Satre, Derek D.; McCance-Katz, Elinore; Batki, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Resident physicians report insufficient experience caring for patients with substance use disorders (SUDs). Resident training in Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) has been recommended. We describe the development of a standardized patient (SP) assessment to measure SBIRT skills, resident perceptions of…

  2. The use of personal values in living standards measures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-08-26

    Aug 26, 2011 ... Values Questionnaire, Living Standards Measure, purchase decision- .... According to Schwartz (1992), scholars in the areas of psychology, anthropology ... The application of the values perspective to the marketing of .... is a fairly complex task involving large data tables, and that some of the LSM groups.

  3. 28 CFR 55.2 - Purpose; standards for measuring compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the satisfaction of the Attorney General or to the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia...; standards for measuring compliance. (a) The purpose of this part is to set forth the Attorney General's... to conduct elections in the language of certain “language minority groups” in addition to English. (b...

  4. Total-body photography in skin cancer screening: the clinical utility of standardized imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Alexandra; Meyerle, Jon H

    2017-05-01

    Early detection of skin cancer is essential to reducing morbidity and mortality from both melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Total-body skin examinations (TBSEs) may improve early detection of malignant melanomas (MMs) but are controversial due to the poor quality of data available to establish a mortality benefit from skin cancer screening. Total-body photography (TBP) promises to provide a way forward by lowering the costs of dermatologic screening while simultaneously leveraging technology to increase patient access to dermatologic care. Standardized TBP also offers the ability for dermatologists to work synergistically with modern computer technology involving algorithms capable of analyzing high-quality images to flag concerning lesions that may require closer evaluation. On a population level, inexpensive TBP has the potential to increase access to skin cancer screening and it has several specific applications in a military population. The utility of standardized TBP is reviewed in the context of skin cancer screening and teledermatology.

  5. Hepatic contrast medium enhancement at computed tomography and its correlation with various body size measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Anders; Nouhad, Jallo; Cederlund, Kerstin; Aspelin, Peter; Torkel, Brismar B., E-mail: anders.svensson@karolinska.se [Dept. of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology at Karolinska Inst., Div. of Medical Imaging and Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); (Dept. of Radiology, Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Huddinge, Stockholm (Sweden)); Nyman, Ulf (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Lasarettet Trelleborg, Univ. of Lund, Trelleborg (Sweden)); Bjoerk, Jonas (Competence Centre for Clinical Research, Skaane Univ. Hospital, Lund (Sweden)

    2012-07-15

    Background. When the same dose of iodine is given to all patients when performing abdominal computed tomography (CT) there may be a wide inter-individual variation in contrast medium (CM) enhancement of the liver. Purpose. To evaluate if any of the measures body height (BH), body mass index (BMI), lean body mass (LBM), ideal body weight (IBW), and body surface area (BSA) correlated better than body weight (BW) with hepatic enhancement, and to compare the enhancement when using iodixanol and iomeprol. Material and Methods. One hundred patients referred for standard three-phase CT examination of abdomen were enrolled. Body weight and height were measured at the time of the CT examination. Forty grams of iodine (iodixanol 320 mg I/mL or iomeprol 400 mg I/mL) was injected at a rate of 1.6 g-I/s, followed by a 50 mL saline flush. The late arterial phase was determined by using a semi-automatic smart prep technique with a scan delay of 20 s. The hepatic parenchymal phase started automatically 25 s after the late arterial phase. CM concentration was estimated by placement of regions of interest in aorta (native and late arterial phase) and in liver (native and parenchymal phase). Results. BW (r -0.51 and -0.64), LBM (r = -0.54 and -0.59), and BSA (r -0.54 and -0.65) showed the best correlation coefficients with aortic and hepatic parenchymal enhancement, respectively, without any significant differences between the measures. Comparing iodixanol and iomeprol there was no significant difference in aortic enhancement. The liver enhancement was significantly higher (P < 0.05) using iodixanol than iomeprol. Conclusion. To achieve a consistent hepatic enhancement, CM dose may simply be adjusted to body weight instead of using more complicated calculated parameters based on both weight and height.

  6. Vitamin D measurement standardization: The way out of the chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkley, N; Dawson-Hughes, B; Durazo-Arvizu, R; Thamm, M; Tian, L; Merkel, J M; Jones, J C; Carter, G D; Sempos, C T

    2017-10-01

    Substantial variability is associated with laboratory measurement of serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. The resulting chaos impedes development of consensus 25(OH)D values to define stages of vitamin D status. As resolving this situation requires standardized measurement of 25(OH)D, the Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) developed methodology to standardize 25(OH)D measurement to the gold standard reference measurement procedures of NIST, Ghent University and CDC. Importantly, VDSP developed protocols for standardizing 25(OH)D values from prior research based on availability of stored serum samples. The effect of such retrospective standardization on prevalence of "low" vitamin D status in national studies reported here for The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994) and the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KIGGS, 2003-2006) was such that in NHANES III 25(OH)D values were lower than original values while higher in KIGGS. In NHANES III the percentage with values below 30, 50 and 75 nmol/L increased from 4% to 6%, 22% to 31% and 55% to 71%, respectively. Whereas in KIGGS after standardization the percentage below 30, 50, and 70 nmol/L decreased from 28% to 13%, 64% to 47% and 87% to 85% respectively. Moreover, in a hypothetical example, depending on whether the 25(OH)D assay was positively or negatively biased by 12%, the 25(OH)D concentration which maximally suppressed PTH could vary from 20 to 35ng/mL. These examples underscore the challenges (perhaps impossibility) of developing vitamin D guidelines using unstandardized 25(OH)D data. Retrospective 25(OH)D standardization can be applied to old studies where stored serum samples exist. As a way forward, we suggest an international effort to identify key prior studies with stored samples for re-analysis and standardization initially to define the 25(OH)D level associated with vitamin D deficiency (rickets

  7. Whole-body magnetic resonance angiography of patients using a standard clinical scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Tomas; Wikstroem, Johan; Eriksson, Mats-Ola; Lundberg, Anders; Ahlstroem, Haakan [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden); Johansson, Lars [Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Ljungman, Christer [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery, Uppsala (Sweden); Hoogeven, Romhild [Philips Medical Systems, MR Clinical Science, Best (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technique of whole-body magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of patients with a standard clinical scanner. Thirty-three patients referred for stenoses, occlusions, aneurysms, assessment of patency of vascular grafts, vasculitis and vascular aplasia were examined in a 1.5-T scanner using its standard body coil. Three-dimensional sequences were acquired in four stations after administration of one intravenous injection of 40 ml conventional gadolinium contrast agent. Different vessel segments were evaluated as either diagnostic or nondiagnostic and regarding the presence of stenoses with more than 50% diameter reduction, occlusions or aneurysms. Of 923 vessel segments, 67 were not evaluable because of poor contrast filling (n=31), motion artefacts (n=20), venous overlap (n=12) and other reasons (n=4). Stenoses of more than 50%, occlusions or aneurysms were observed in 26 patients (129 segments). In nine patients additional unsuspected pathology was found. In 10 out of 14 patients (71/79 segments) there was conformity between MRA and digital subtraction angiography regarding the grade of stenosis. This study shows that whole-body MRA with a standard clinical scanner is feasible. Motion artefacts and the timing of the contrast agent through the different segments are still problems to be solved. (orig.)

  8. Principal components regression of body measurements in five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Username, Password, Remember me, or Register ... Body weight and seven biometric traits that are; body length (BL), breast girth (BG), wing length ... Pearson correlations between body weight and biometric traits were positive and highly ...

  9. Open-Ended Measurement of Whole-Body Movement: A Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn, Michael T. M.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available As the importance of embodiment emerges for psychology, there is a need to advance methodology for measuring the dynamics of movement in an open-ended fashion. Such a tool should be versatile across contexts and track spontaneous and natural movement with minimal constraints. We test the feasibility of a method for measuring whole-body movement over time that attempts to meet this need. We use a motion capture system comprised of two Microsoft Kinect version 2.0 cameras and iPiSoft Motion Capture software, and compare its estimates of magnitude rotational velocity and whole-body movement complexity (multivariate multiscale sample entropy; MMSE to that of a gold standard motion capture system across a variety of movement sequences. The candidate system satisfactorily estimated the instantaneous velocity of 13 body segments in agreement with the gold standard system across movement sequences demonstrating initial feasibility of this process. Summary calculations of velocity by sequence and MMSE calculations were also in high agreement with the gold standard, crucially suggesting that the candidate system could pick up on the complex dynamics of movement over time. The candidate system was feasible and demonstrates preliminary validity for general use in the tracking of continuous human movement for clinical and experimental psychology. We also provide R code and sample data for the importing and processing of movement data exported from iPiSoft Motion Capture Studio.

  10. Beyond Body Mass Index: Using Anthropometric Measures and Body Composition Indicators to Assess Odds of an Endometriosis Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backonja, Uba; Hediger, Mary L; Chen, Zhen; Lauver, Diane R; Sun, Liping; Peterson, C Matthew; Buck Louis, Germaine M

    2017-09-01

    Body mass index (BMI) and endometriosis have been inversely associated. To address gaps in this research, we examined associations among body composition, endometriosis, and physical activity. Women from 14 clinical sites in the Salt Lake City, Utah and San Francisco, California areas and scheduled for laparoscopy/laparotomy were recruited during 2007-2009. Participants (N = 473) underwent standardized anthropometric assessments to estimate body composition before surgery. Using a cross-sectional design, odds of an endometriosis diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]; 95% confidence interval [CI]) were calculated for anthropometric and body composition measures (weight in kg; height in cm; mid upper arm, waist, hip, and chest circumferences in cm; subscapular, suprailiac, and triceps skinfold thicknesses in mm; arm muscle and fat areas in cm 2 ; centripetal fat, chest-to-waist, chest-to-hip, waist-to-hip, and waist-to-height ratios; arm fat index; and BMI in kg/m 2 ). Physical activity (metabolic equivalent of task-minutes/week) and sedentariness (average minutes sitting on a weekday) were assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form. Measures were modeled continuously and in quartiles based on sample estimates. Adjusted models were controlled for age (years, continuous), site (Utah/California), smoking history (never, former, or current smoker), and income (below, within 180%, and above of the poverty line). Findings were standardized by dividing variables by their respective standard deviations. We used adjusted models to examine whether odds of an endometriosis diagnosis were moderated by physical activity or sedentariness. Inverse relationships were observed between endometriosis and standardized: weight (aOR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.57-0.88); subscapular skinfold thickness (aOR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.65-0.98); waist and hip circumferences (aOR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.64-0.98 and aOR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.61-0.94, respectively); total

  11. Standardization for oxygen isotope ratio measurement - still an unsolved problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornexl; Werner; Gehre

    1999-07-01

    Numerous organic and inorganic laboratory standards were gathered from nine European and North American laboratories and were analyzed for their delta(18)O values with a new on-line high temperature pyrolysis system that was calibrated using Vienna standard mean ocean water (VSMOW) and standard light Antartic precipitation (SLAP) internationally distributed reference water samples. Especially for organic materials, discrepancies between reported and measured values were high, ranging up to 2 per thousand. The reasons for these discrepancies are discussed and the need for an exact and reliable calibration of existing reference materials, as well as for the establishment of additional organic and inorganic reference materials is stressed. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Advisory Committee for the calibration standards of ionizing radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The meeting consisted exceptionally of two sessions (in May and December 1977). The members discussed the comparisons of absorbed dose standards and exposure standards which had taken place since 1975 and suggested improvements for future comparisons. A recommendation was made concerning the humidity correction factor to be applied when using cavity chambers and free-air chambers. Further studies were requested concerning the effective point of measurement of ionization chambers. No method was recommended for the statement of uncertainty in calibration certificates. The exposure standards and calibrations in terms of exposure were maintained but it was agreed that other possibilities should be explored. Finally, progress reports of the national laboratories and a description of the recent work carried out at BIPM were presented and appear as appendices to the report [fr

  13. Measurement of microchannel fluidic resistance with a standard voltage meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Leah A; Deal, Kennon S; Hoepfner, Lauren D; Jackson, Louis A; Easley, Christopher J

    2013-01-03

    A simplified method for measuring the fluidic resistance (R(fluidic)) of microfluidic channels is presented, in which the electrical resistance (R(elec)) of a channel filled with a conductivity standard solution can be measured and directly correlated to R(fluidic) using a simple equation. Although a slight correction factor could be applied in this system to improve accuracy, results showed that a standard voltage meter could be used without calibration to determine R(fluidic) to within 12% error. Results accurate to within 2% were obtained when a geometric correction factor was applied using these particular channels. When compared to standard flow rate measurements, such as meniscus tracking in outlet tubing, this approach provided a more straightforward alternative and resulted in lower measurement error. The method was validated using 9 different fluidic resistance values (from ∼40 to 600kPa smm(-3)) and over 30 separately fabricated microfluidic devices. Furthermore, since the method is analogous to resistance measurements with a voltage meter in electrical circuits, dynamic R(fluidic) measurements were possible in more complex microfluidic designs. Microchannel R(elec) was shown to dynamically mimic pressure waveforms applied to a membrane in a variable microfluidic resistor. The variable resistor was then used to dynamically control aqueous-in-oil droplet sizes and spacing, providing a unique and convenient control system for droplet-generating devices. This conductivity-based method for fluidic resistance measurement is thus a useful tool for static or real-time characterization of microfluidic systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Considerations for the measurement of core, skin and mean body temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Tipton, Michael J; Kenny, Glen P

    2014-12-01

    Despite previous reviews and commentaries, significant misconceptions remain concerning deep-body (core) and skin temperature measurement in humans. Therefore, the authors have assembled the pertinent Laws of Thermodynamics and other first principles that govern physical and physiological heat exchanges. The resulting review is aimed at providing theoretical and empirical justifications for collecting and interpreting these data. The primary emphasis is upon deep-body temperatures, with discussions of intramuscular, subcutaneous, transcutaneous and skin temperatures included. These are all turnover indices resulting from variations in local metabolism, tissue conduction and blood flow. Consequently, inter-site differences and similarities may have no mechanistic relationship unless those sites have similar metabolic rates, are in close proximity and are perfused by the same blood vessels. Therefore, it is proposed that a gold standard deep-body temperature does not exist. Instead, the validity of each measurement must be evaluated relative to one's research objectives, whilst satisfying equilibration and positioning requirements. When using thermometric computations of heat storage, the establishment of steady-state conditions is essential, but for clinically relevant states, targeted temperature monitoring becomes paramount. However, when investigating temperature regulation, the response characteristics of each temperature measurement must match the forcing function applied during experimentation. Thus, during dynamic phases, deep-body temperatures must be measured from sites that track temperature changes in the central blood volume. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Measurement of caesium-137 in the human body using a whole body counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elessawi, Elkhadra Abdulmula

    Gamma radiation in the environment is mainly due to naturally occurring radionuclides. However, there is also a contribution from anthropogenic radionuclides such as 137Cs which originate from nuclear fission processes. Since 1986, the accident at the Chernobyl power plant has been a significant source of artificial environmental radioactivity. In order to assess the radiological impact of these radionuclides, it is necessary to measure their activities in samples drawn from the environment and in plants and animals including human populations. The whole body counter (WBC) at the University Hospital of Wales in Cardiff makes in vivo measurements of gamma emitting radionuclides using a scanning ring of six large-volume thallium-doped sodium iodide (Nal(Tl)) scintillation detectors. In this work the WBC was upgraded by the addition of two high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. The performance and suitability of the detection systems were evaluated by comparing the detection limits for Cs. Sensitivities were measured using sources of known activity in a water filled anthropomorphic phantom and theoretical minimum detectable count-rates were estimated from phantom background pulse height spectra. The theoretical minimum detectable activity was about 24 Bq for the combination of six Nal(Tl) detectors whereas for the individual HPGe detectors it was 64 Bq and 65 Bq, despite the much improved energy resolution Activities of 137Cs in the human body between 1993 and 2007 were estimated from the background Nal(Tl) spectra of 813 patients and compared with recent measurements in 14 volunteers. The body burden of Cs in Cardiff patients increased from an average of about 60 Bq in the early and mid 1990s to a maximum of about 100 Bq in 2000. By 2007 it had decreased to about 40 Bq. This latter value was similar to that of Cardiff residents at the time of the Chernobyl accident and to that of the volunteers measured in 2007 (51 Bq). However, it was less than the mean activity of

  16. Concordance of In-Home "Smart" Scale Measurement with Body Weight Measured In-Person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kathryn M; Wing, Rena R

    2016-06-01

    Newer "smart" scales that transmit participants' body weights directly to data collection centers offer the opportunity to simplify weight assessment in weight management research; however, little data exist on the concordance of these data compared to weights measured at in-person assessments. We compared the weights of 58 participants (mean±SD BMI = 31.6±4.8, age = 52.1±9.7 years, 86.2% White, 65.5% Female) measured by study staff at an in-person assessment visit to weights measured on the same day at home using BodyTrace "smart" scales. These measures occurred after 3 months of an internet-based weight management intervention. Weight (mean±SD) measured at the 3-month in-person assessment visit was 81.5±14.7kg compared to 80.4±14.5kg measured on the same day using in-home body weight scales; mean bias =1.1±0.8kg, 95% limits of agreement = -0.5 to 2.6. Two outliers in the data suggest that there may be greater variability between measurements for participants weighing above 110 kg. Results suggest good concordance between the measurements and support the use of the BodyTrace smart scale in weight management research. Future trials using BodyTrace scales for outcome assessment should clearly define protocols for measurement and associated instructions to participants (e.g., instruct individuals to weigh at the same time of day, similarly clothed). Finally, measure concordance should be investigated in a group of individuals weighing more than 110kg.

  17. The preparation of large standards for NDA measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guardini, S.

    1991-01-01

    The accuracy of a nuclear material balance determination is dependent on the reference materials used to calibrate. The calibration needs of nondestructive assay techniques differ from the needs of destructive techniques: nondestructive techniques use the reference materials more than once and can require larger masses of special nuclear material. Therefore, the expertise inherited from destructive methods is not destructive measurements. The procurement process for reference materials is expensive and complex. Careful specification of the desired attributes defines the required quality measures. A detailed procurement plan, agreed upon and documented before acquisition starts, is crucial to obtaining a set of high quality references materials. The acquisition of some recent Los Alamos standards and the Ispra PERLA (Performance Laboratory) standards are following such plans. To date, plutonium oxide standards of three burnups ranging to 2.5 kg and uranium oxide standards of four (high) enrichments ranging to 1.5 kg are in routine use for calibration, performance evaluation and training. In this paper, the authors discuss an alternative

  18. Experience with local lymph node assay performance standards using standard radioactivity and nonradioactive cell count measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basketter, David; Kolle, Susanne N; Schrage, Arnhild; Honarvar, Naveed; Gamer, Armin O; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2012-08-01

    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is the preferred test for identification of skin-sensitizing substances by measuring radioactive thymidine incorporation into the lymph node. To facilitate acceptance of nonradioactive variants, validation authorities have published harmonized minimum performance standards (PS) that the alternative endpoint assay must meet. In the present work, these standards were applied to a variant of the LLNA based on lymph node cell counts (LNCC) run in parallel as a control with the standard LLNA with radioactivity measurements, with threshold concentrations (EC3) being determined for the sensitizers. Of the 22 PS chemicals tested in this study, 21 yielded the same results from standard radioactivity and cell count measurements; only 2-mercaptobenzothiazole was positive by LLNA but negative by LNCC. Of the 16 PS positives, 15 were positive by LLNA and 14 by LNCC; methylmethacrylate was not identified as sensitizer by either of the measurements. Two of the six PS negatives tested negative in our study by both LLNA and LNCC. Of the four PS negatives which were positive in our study, chlorobenzene and methyl salicylate were tested at higher concentrations than the published PS, whereas the corresponding concentrations resulted in consistent negative results. Methylmethacrylate and nickel chloride tested positive within the concentration range used for the published PS. The results indicate cell counts and radioactive measurements are in good accordance within the same LLNA using the 22 PS test substances. Comparisons with the published PS results may, however, require balanced analysis rather than a simple checklist approach. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Precision Electroweak Measurements and Constraints on the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2010-01-01

    This note presents constraints on Standard Model parameters using published and preliminary precision electroweak results measured at the electron-positron colliders LEP and SLC. The results are compared with precise electroweak measurements from other experiments, notably CDF and DØ at the Tevatron. Constraints on the input parameters of the Standard Model are derived from the combined set of results obtained in high-$Q^2$ interactions, and used to predict results in low-$Q^2$ experiments, such as atomic parity violation, Møller scattering, and neutrino-nucleon scattering. The main changes with respect to the experimental results presented in 2009 are new combinations of results on the width of the W boson and the mass of the top quark.

  20. Estimating Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Using Standard Meteorological Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, C.H.

    1999-01-01

    The heat stress management program at the Department of Energy''s Savannah River Site (SRS) requires implementation of protective controls on outdoor work based on observed values of wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT). To ensure continued compliance with heat stress program requirements, a computer algorithm was developed which calculates an estimate of WBGT using standard meteorological measurements. In addition, scripts were developed to generate a calculation every 15 minutes and post the results to an Intranet web site

  1. International standards for phytosanitary measures (ISPM), publication No. 15

    CERN Multimedia

    Tom Wegelius

    2006-01-01

    GUIDELINES FOR REGULATING WOOD PACKAGING MATERIAL IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE SCOPE This standard describes phytosanitary measures to reduce the risk of introduction and/or spread of quarantine pests associated with wood packaging material (including dunnage), made of coniferous and non-coniferous raw wood, in use in international trade. For more information, contact the Shipping Service (FI-LS-SH) at 79947. Table of guidelines

  2. Gas measuring apparatus with standardization means, and method therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typpo, P.M.

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus and a method for standardizing a gas measuring device has a source capable of emitting a beam of radiation aligned to impinge a detector. A housing means encloses the beam. The housing means has a plurality of apertures permitting the gas to enter the housing means, to intercept the beam, and to exit from the housing means. The device further comprises means for closing the apertures and a means for purging said gas from the housing means

  3. A spectroscopic transfer standard for accurate atmospheric CO measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaboh, Javis A.; Li, Gang; Serdyukov, Anton; Werhahn, Olav; Ebert, Volker

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) is a precursor of essential climate variables and has an indirect effect for enhancing global warming. Accurate and reliable measurements of atmospheric CO concentration are becoming indispensable. WMO-GAW reports states a compatibility goal of ±2 ppb for atmospheric CO concentration measurements. Therefore, the EMRP-HIGHGAS (European metrology research program - high-impact greenhouse gases) project aims at developing spectroscopic transfer standards for CO concentration measurements to meet this goal. A spectroscopic transfer standard would provide results that are directly traceable to the SI, can be very useful for calibration of devices operating in the field, and could complement classical gas standards in the field where calibration gas mixtures in bottles often are not accurate, available or stable enough [1][2]. Here, we present our new direct tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (dTDLAS) sensor capable of performing absolute ("calibration free") CO concentration measurements, and being operated as a spectroscopic transfer standard. To achieve the compatibility goal stated by WMO for CO concentration measurements and ensure the traceability of the final concentration results, traceable spectral line data especially line intensities with appropriate uncertainties are needed. Therefore, we utilize our new high-resolution Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy CO line data for the 2-0 band, with significantly reduced uncertainties, for the dTDLAS data evaluation. Further, we demonstrate the capability of our sensor for atmospheric CO measurements, discuss uncertainty calculation following the guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM) principles and show that CO concentrations derived using the sensor, based on the TILSAM (traceable infrared laser spectroscopic amount fraction measurement) method, are in excellent agreement with gravimetric values. Acknowledgement Parts of this work have been

  4. Data format standard for sharing light source measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, G. Groot; Ashdown, Ian; Brandenburg, Willi; Chabaud, Dominique; Dross, Oliver; Gangadhara, Sanjay; Garcia, Kevin; Gauvin, Michael; Hansen, Dirk; Haraguchi, Kei; Hasna, Günther; Jiao, Jianzhong; Kelley, Ryan; Koshel, John; Muschaweck, Julius

    2013-09-01

    Optical design requires accurate characterization of light sources for computer aided design (CAD) software. Various methods have been used to model sources, from accurate physical models to measurement of light output. It has become common practice for designers to include measured source data for design simulations. Typically, a measured source will contain rays which sample the output distribution of the source. The ray data must then be exported to various formats suitable for import into optical analysis or design software. Source manufacturers are also making measurements of their products and supplying CAD models along with ray data sets for designers. The increasing availability of data has been beneficial to the design community but has caused a large expansion in storage needs for the source manufacturers since each software program uses a unique format to describe the source distribution. In 2012, the Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) formed a working group to understand the data requirements for ray data and recommend a standard file format. The working group included representatives from software companies supplying the analysis and design tools, source measurement companies providing metrology, source manufacturers creating the data and users from the design community. Within one year the working group proposed a file format which was recently approved by the IES for publication as TM-25. This paper will discuss the process used to define the proposed format, highlight some of the significant decisions leading to the format and list the data to be included in the first version of the standard.

  5. Development of measurement standards for verifying functional performance of surface texture measuring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, A [Life and Industrial Product Development Department Olympus Corporation, 2951 Ishikawa-machi, Hachiouji-shi, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, H [Industrial Marketing and Planning Department Olympus Corporation, Shinjyuku Monolith, 3-1 Nishi-Shinjyuku 2-chome, Tokyo (Japan); Yanagi, K, E-mail: a_fujii@ot.olympus.co.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-machi, Nagaoka-shi, Niigata (Japan)

    2011-08-19

    A new measurement standard is proposed for verifying overall functional performance of surface texture measuring instruments. Its surface is composed of sinusoidal surface waveforms of chirp signals along horizontal cross sections of the material measure. One of the notable features is that the amplitude of each cycle in the chirp signal form is geometrically modulated so that the maximum slope is kept constant. The maximum slope of the chirp-like signal is gradually decreased according to movement in the lateral direction. We fabricated the measurement standard by FIB processing, and it was calibrated by AFM. We tried to evaluate the functional performance of Laser Scanning Microscope by this standard in terms of amplitude response with varying slope angles. As a result, it was concluded that the proposed standard can easily evaluate the performance of surface texture measuring instruments.

  6. Measuring Life Skills: Standardizing the Assessment of Youth Development Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mat D. Duerden

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available While the development of life skills (e.g., communication, problem solving, etc. is a commonly targeted youth program outcome, the lack of standardized conceptualizations and instrumentation make it difficult to compare impacts across programs and develop validated best practices. In order to promote a more unified approach to life skill development, literature reviews were conducted for 10 life skill domains to identify common definitions and, if available, appropriate outcome measures. Data were then collected from an ethnically diverse sample (N = 758 of elementary, middle, and high school aged youth for the 10 identified instruments. Analyses were conducted to ascertain the psychometric qualities of each measure, the interrelationships among measures, and the measures’ relationships with gender, ethnicity, and school level. Results are discussed in terms of their relevance to life skill theory and measurement.

  7. Measurement of whole body cellular and collagen nitrogen, potassium, and other elements by neutron activation and whole body counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, H.M.; Fabricius, P.J.; Dykes, P.W.

    1987-01-01

    Whole body nitrogen can be measured by neutron activation analysis with an acceptable radiation dose; it is an index of body protein which, in normal subjects, is 65% cellular protein and 35% extracellular connective collagen. Whole body potassium can be measured by whole body counting without irradiating the subject; it is an index of body cell mass. We measured whole body nitrogen, potassium, extracellular water, intracellular water, and fat-folds. The differences between 37 malnourished patients and five normal subjects suggested that the patients had 9 kg less cell mass than normal, but no difference in extracellular mass. Measurements were made on eight patients before and after 14 days of total parenteral nutrition; balance of nitrogen intake and excretion also was measured. The changes were consistent with mean increases of 3 kg of cellular mass and 3 kg of fat with no change of extracellular mass. The accuracy and sensitivity of the whole body measurements need further confirmation for use in patients with changing body composition. Where tissue wasting is largely from the cellular compartment, potassium could be a more sensitive index of wasting than nitrogen. Multielement analysis of nitrogen, potassium, chlorine, and carbon will probably be valuable in elucidating body composition in malnutrition

  8. Association between different phases of menstrual cycle and body image measures of perceived size, ideal size, and body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, André Luiz S; Dias, Marcelo Ricardo C; Damasceno, Vinícius O; Lamounier, Joel A; Gardner, Rick M

    2013-12-01

    The association between phases of the menstrual cycle and body image was investigated. 44 university women (M age = 23.3 yr., SD = 4.7) judged their perceived and ideal body size, and body dissatisfaction was calculated at each phase of the menstrual cycle, including premenstrual, menstrual, and intermenstrual. Participants selected one of nine figural drawings ranging from very thin to obese that represented their perceived size and ideal size. Body dissatisfaction was measured as the absolute difference between scores on perceived and ideal figural drawings. During each menstrual phase, anthropometric measures of weight, height, body mass index, circumference of waist and abdomen, and body composition were taken. There were no significant differences in any anthropometric measures between the three menstrual cycle phases. Perceived body size and body dissatisfaction were significantly different between menstrual phases, with the largest perceived body size and highest body dissatisfaction occurring during the menstrual phase. Ideal body size did not differ between menstrual phases, although participants desired a significantly smaller ideal size as compared to the perceived size.

  9. Methodological aspects of EEG and Body dynamics measurements during motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro eReis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available EEG involves recording, analysis, and interpretation of voltages recorded on the human scalp originating from brain grey matter. EEG is one of the favorite methods to study and understand processes that underlie behavior. This is so, because EEG is relatively cheap, easy to wear, light weight and has high temporal resolution. In terms of behavior, this encompasses actions, such as movements, that are performed in response to the environment. However, there are methodological difficulties when recording EEG during movement such as movement artifacts. Thus, most studies about the human brain have examined activations during static conditions. This article attempts to compile and describe relevant methodological solutions that emerged in order to measure body and brain dynamics during motion. These descriptions cover suggestions of how to avoid and reduce motion artifacts, hardware, software and techniques for synchronously recording EEG, EMG, kinematics, kinetics and eye movements during motion. Additionally, we present various recording systems, EEG electrodes, caps and methods for determination of real/custom electrode positions. In the end we will conclude that it is possible to record and analyze synchronized brain and body dynamics related to movement or exercise tasks.

  10. Adolescent dietary patterns in Fiji and their relationships with standardized body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wate, Jillian T; Snowdon, Wendy; Millar, Lynne; Nichols, Melanie; Mavoa, Helen; Goundar, Ramneek; Kama, Ateca; Swinburn, Boyd

    2013-04-09

    Obesity has been increasing in adolescents in Fiji and obesogenic dietary patterns need to be assessed to inform health promotion. The objective of this study was to identify the dietary patterns of adolescents in peri-urban Fiji and determine their relationships with standardized body mass index (BMI-z). This study analysed baseline measurements from the Pacific Obesity Prevention In Communities (OPIC) Project. The sample comprised 6,871 adolescents aged 13-18 years from 18 secondary schools on the main island of Viti Levu, Fiji. Adolescents completed a questionnaire that included diet-related variables; height and weight were measured. Descriptive statistics and regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between dietary patterns and BMI-z, while controlling for confounders and cluster effect by school. Of the total sample, 24% of adolescents were overweight or obese, with a higher prevalence among Indigenous Fijians and females. Almost all adolescents reported frequent consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) (90%) and low intake of fruit and vegetables (74%). Over 25% of participants were frequent consumers of takeaways for dinner, and either high fat/salt snacks, or confectionery after school. Nearly one quarter reported irregular breakfast (24%) and lunch (24%) consumption on school days, while fewer adolescents (13%) ate fried foods after school. IndoFijians were more likely than Indigenous Fijians to regularly consume breakfast, but had a high unhealthy SSB and snack consumption.Regular breakfast (p<0.05), morning snack (p<0.05) and lunch (p<0.05) consumption were significantly associated with lower BMI-z. Consumption of high fat/salt snacks, fried foods and confectionery was lower among participants with higher BMI-z. This study provides important information about Fijian adolescents' dietary patterns and associations with BMI-z. Health promotion should target reducing SSB, increasing fruit and vegetables consumption, and

  11. Spectroscopic metrology for isotope composition measurements and transfer standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyangwe Nwaboh, Javis; Balslev-Harder, David; Kääriäinen, Teemu; Richmond, Craig; Manninen, Albert; Mohn, Joachim; Kiseleva, Maria; Petersen, Jan C.; Werhahn, Olav; Ebert, Volker

    2017-04-01

    The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has identified greenhouse gases such as CO2, CH4 and N2O as critical for global climate monitoring. Other molecules such as CO that has an indirect effect of enhancing global warming are also monitored. WMO has stated compatibility goals for atmospheric concentration and isotope ratio measurements of these gases, e.g. 0.1 ppm for CO2 concentration measurements in the northern hemisphere and 0.01 ‰ for δ13C-CO2. For measurements of the concentration of greenhouse gases, gas analysers are typically calibrated with static gas standards e.g. traceable to the WMO scale or to the International System of Units (SI) through a national metrology institute. However, concentrations of target components, e.g. CO, in static gas standards have been observed to drift, and typically the gas matrix as well as the isotopic composition of the target component does not always reflect field gas composition, leading to deviations of the analyser response, even after calibration. The deviations are dependent on the measurement technique. To address this issue, part of the HIGHGAS (Metrology for high-impact greenhouse gases) project [1] focused on the development of optical transfer standards (OTSs) for greenhouse gases, e.g. CO2 and CO, potentially complementing gas standards. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) [2] is currently used to provide state-of-the-art high precision (in the 0.01 ‰ range) measurements for the isotopic composition of greenhouse gases. However, there is a need for field-deployable techniques such as optical isotope ratio spectroscopy (OIRS) that can be combined with metrological measurement methods. Within the HIGHGAS project, OIRS methods and procedures based on e.g. cavity enhanced spectroscopy (CES) and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), matched to metrological principles have been established for the measurement of 13C/12C and 18O/16O ratios in CO2, 15N/14N ratios in N2O, and 13C/12C and 2H

  12. Characterization of textile electrodes and conductors using standardized measurement setups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmann, L; Neuhaus, C; Medrano, G; Walter, M; Leonhardt, S; Jungbecker, N; Gries, T

    2010-01-01

    Textile electrodes and conductors are being developed and used in different monitoring scenarios, such as ECG or bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements. Compared to standard materials, conductive textile materials offer improved wearing comfort and enable long-term measurements. Unfortunately, the development and investigation of such materials often suffers from the non-reproducibility of the test scenarios. For example, the materials are generally tested on human skin which is difficult since the properties of human skin differ for each person and can change within hours. This study presents two test setups which offer reproducible measurement procedures for the systematic analysis of textile electrodes and conductors. The electrode test setup was designed with a special skin dummy which allows investigation of not only the electrical properties of textile electrodes but also the contact behavior between electrode and skin. Using both test setups, eight textile electrodes and five textile conductors were analyzed and compared

  13. A systematic review of the measurement properties of the Body Image Scale (BIS) in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissant, Heleen C; Neijenhuijs, Koen I; Jansen, Femke; Aaronson, Neil K; Groenvold, Mogens; Holzner, Bernhard; Terwee, Caroline B; van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F; Cuijpers, Pim; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M

    2018-06-01

    Body image is acknowledged as an important aspect of health-related quality of life in cancer patients. The Body Image Scale (BIS) is a patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) to evaluate body image in cancer patients. The aim of this study was to systematically review measurement properties of the BIS among cancer patients. A search in Embase, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science was performed to identify studies that investigated measurement properties of the BIS (Prospero ID 42017057237). Study quality was assessed (excellent, good, fair, poor), and data were extracted and analyzed according to the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) methodology on structural validity, internal consistency, reliability, measurement error, hypothesis testing for construct validity, and responsiveness. Evidence was categorized into sufficient, insufficient, inconsistent, or indeterminate. Nine studies were included. Evidence was sufficient for structural validity (one factor solution), internal consistency (α = 0.86-0.96), and reliability (r > 0.70); indeterminate for measurement error (information on minimal important change lacked) and responsiveness (increasing body image disturbance in only one study); and inconsistent for hypothesis testing (conflicting results). Quality of the evidence was moderate to low. No studies reported on cross-cultural validity. The BIS is a PROM with good structural validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability, but good quality studies on the other measurement properties are needed to optimize evidence. It is recommended to include a wider variety of cancer diagnoses and treatment modalities in these future studies.

  14. Individualized estimation of human core body temperature using noninvasive measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxminarayan, Srinivas; Rakesh, Vineet; Oyama, Tatsuya; Kazman, Josh B; Yanovich, Ran; Ketko, Itay; Epstein, Yoram; Morrison, Shawnda; Reifman, Jaques

    2018-06-01

    A rising core body temperature (T c ) during strenuous physical activity is a leading indicator of heat-injury risk. Hence, a system that can estimate T c in real time and provide early warning of an impending temperature rise may enable proactive interventions to reduce the risk of heat injuries. However, real-time field assessment of T c requires impractical invasive technologies. To address this problem, we developed a mathematical model that describes the relationships between T c and noninvasive measurements of an individual's physical activity, heart rate, and skin temperature, and two environmental variables (ambient temperature and relative humidity). A Kalman filter adapts the model parameters to each individual and provides real-time personalized T c estimates. Using data from three distinct studies, comprising 166 subjects who performed treadmill and cycle ergometer tasks under different experimental conditions, we assessed model performance via the root mean squared error (RMSE). The individualized model yielded an overall average RMSE of 0.33 (SD = 0.18)°C, allowing us to reach the same conclusions in each study as those obtained using the T c measurements. Furthermore, for 22 unique subjects whose T c exceeded 38.5°C, a potential lower T c limit of clinical relevance, the average RMSE decreased to 0.25 (SD = 0.20)°C. Importantly, these results remained robust in the presence of simulated real-world operational conditions, yielding no more than 16% worse RMSEs when measurements were missing (40%) or laden with added noise. Hence, the individualized model provides a practical means to develop an early warning system for reducing heat-injury risk. NEW & NOTEWORTHY A model that uses an individual's noninvasive measurements and environmental variables can continually "learn" the individual's heat-stress response by automatically adapting the model parameters on the fly to provide real-time individualized core body temperature estimates. This

  15. Whole-body measurements of workers occupationally exposed to radionuclides at IPEN/CNEN-SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Joaquim Carlos S.; Xavier, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    The intake of radioactive material by workers can occur in the radiopharmaceuticals production, during the handling of these in the medical fields (nuclear medicine) and in biological and research laboratories. The workers who work in areas where exposures are significant are routinely monitored to demonstrate that the workers are receiving adequate protection from internal contamination. Direct measurements of whole-body and thyroid contents provide an estimate of the activity of these radionuclides in the potentially exposed workers. The whole-body measurements of the workers, trainees and visitors are routinely performed by the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory (LMIV) of the Energy and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP). The frequency of measurements is defined by the Radioprotection Service (SRP) and the Dose Calculation Group of IPEN. For this purpose LMIV has two counters, whole body. NaITl (8 x 4”), and thyroid one, NaITl (3 x 3”). The system was calibrated in energy and efficiency, with calibration sources of Eu-152, Am-241 and Co-60 with gamma emissions between 59.54 and 1408.08 keV, positioned within Alderson Research Labs. anthropomorphic phantom. The background measures were obtained of worker's spectrum that was not exposed occupationally yet. The concepts adopted in the HPS N13.30 Standard and proposed in ISO documents for standardization were used for activity measurements. During the period January 2010 to December 2014, approximately 4500 measurements had been carried in workers who develop tasks related to the production and research. The activities of the radionuclides and the workers' tasks relationship had been evaluated. (author)

  16. Whole-body measurements of workers occupationally exposed to radionuclides at IPEN/CNEN-SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Joaquim Carlos S.; Xavier, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    The intake of radioactive material by workers can occur in the radiopharmaceuticals production, during the handling of these in the medical fields (nuclear medicine) and in biological and research laboratories. The workers who work in areas where exposures are significant are routinely monitored to demonstrate that the workers are receiving adequate protection from internal contamination. Direct measurements of whole-body and thyroid contents provide an estimate of the activity of these radionuclides in the potentially exposed workers. The whole-body measurements of the workers, trainees and visitors are routinely performed by the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory (LMIV) of the Energy and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP). The frequency of measurements is defined by the Radioprotection Service (SRP) and the Dose Calculation Group of IPEN. For this purpose LMIV has two counters, whole body. NaIT1 (8x4″), and thyroid one, NaIT1 (3x3″). The system was calibrated in energy and efficiency, with calibration sources of Eu-152, Am-241 and Co-60 with gamma emissions between 59.54 and 1408.08 keV, positioned within Alderson Research Labs. anthropomorphic phantom. The background measures were obtained of worker's spectrum that wasn't exposed occupationally yet. The concepts adopted in the HPS N13.30 Standard and proposed in ISO documents for standardization were used for activity measurements. During the period January 2007 to December 2012, approximately 6700 measurements had been carried in workers who develop tasks related to the production and research. The activities of the radionuclides and the workers' tasks relationship had been evaluated. (author)

  17. Measurement uncertainty. A practical guide for Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-05-01

    The need for international traceability for radiation dose measurements has been understood since the early nineteen-sixties. The benefits of high dosimetric accuracy were recognized, particularly in radiotherapy, where the outcome of treatments is dependent on the radiation dose delivered to patients. When considering radiation protection dosimetry, the uncertainty may be greater than for therapy, but proper traceability of the measurements is no less important. To ensure harmonization and consistency in radiation measurements, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) created a Network of Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) in 1976. An SSDL is a laboratory that has been designated by the competent national authorities to undertake the duty of providing the necessary link in the traceability chain of radiation dosimetry to the international measurement system (SI, for Systeme International) for radiation metrology users. The role of the SSDLs is crucial in providing traceable calibrations; they disseminate calibrations at specific radiation qualities appropriate for the use of radiation measuring instruments. Historically, although the first SSDLs were established mainly to provide radiotherapy level calibrations, the scope of their work has expanded over the years. Today, many SSDLs provide traceability for radiation protection measurements and diagnostic radiology in addition to radiotherapy. Some SSDLs, with the appropriate facilities and expertise, also conduct quality audits of the clinical use of the calibrated dosimeters - for example, by providing postal dosimeters for dose comparisons for medical institutions or on-site dosimetry audits with an ion chamber and other appropriate equipment. The requirements for traceable and reliable calibrations are becoming more important. For example, for international trade where radiation products are manufactured within strict quality control systems, it is

  18. Accuracy of standard craniometric measurements using multiple data formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Adam H; Parks, Connie L; Monson, Keith L

    2014-09-01

    With continuing advancements in biomedical imaging technologies, anthropologists are increasingly making use of data derived from indirect measurement and analysis of skeletal material. To that end, the purpose of this study was to test the reliability of 26 standard craniometric measurements routinely utilized in forensic casework across several different imaging technologies. Measurements from five crania of known individuals were collected in duplicate by two anthropologists via computed tomography (CT) scans and three-dimensional (3D) laser scans of the known skulls. The laser scans were also used to create prototype models of the known skulls. These prototypes were, themselves, laser-scanned, and measurements were also collected from the prototypes and the laser scans of the prototypes. Measurement sets from each technology were then compared with one another using the previously collected osteometric measurements taken on the crania themselves as the ground truth. indicate that, while the majority of measurements showed no significant differences across data formats, a handful were found to be problematic for particular technologies. For instance, measurements taken in a supero-inferior direction (e.g., BBH, OBH) from CT scans were prone to greater deviation from direct measurements of the cranium than other technologies, especially for CT scans taken at 5 mm thickness and increment. Also, several measurements defined by Type 1 landmarks, particularly those occurring at complicated or indistinct suture junctures (e.g., ASB, ZMB), were found to have high variance across all technologies while measurements based on Type 3 landmarks proved to be highly reproducible. This is contrary to measurements taken directly on crania, in which measures defined by Type 1 landmarks are typically the most reliable, likely attributable to diminished or totally obscured suture definition in the scan data. If medical imaging data are to be increasingly utilized in

  19. Whole body measurements for in vivo monitoring in emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerfel, H.

    2000-01-01

    The conventional procedures for in vivo monitoring of γ-emitting radionuclides require a lot of information, such as time and pathway of intake, physical and chemical form of incorporated materials, metabolism etc. In emergency situations this information is rarely available, thus resulting in significant uncertainties for the estimation of intake and committed dose equivalent. Moreover, the procedure is time consuming and thus only a relatively small number of persons can be monitored. In order to cope with these difficulties, a new method for direct internal dosimetry has recently been developed at Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre. The method is based on the measurement of the integral photon flux emitted from the body using a special detector system which has been optimised in such a way that the system sensitivity matches the respective dose factors for a maximum number of radionuclides and deposition sites in the body. The detector system consists of four plastic scintillation detectors, which are positioned at the thyroid, at the lungs, under the gastro-intestinal tract and over the thighs of the person monitored in a seated posture. The system allows for detection of effective dose equivalent rates down to 1.6 μSv/week, the mean detection uncertainty being about 200% for known radionuclide mixtures and about 600% for unknown radionuclide mixtures, respectively. The detector system is very easy to handle; the measurement can be performed by untrained individuals and the results are available after a very short measuring time (20 s). Thus, the detector system is appropriate especially for short-term decision making after incidents or accidents. Because of its relative low weight (1 t) the detector system could be installed as a mobile unit in a container for transportation by car, train or aircraft. Thus, in emergency situations the detector system can be brought to the site within a short period of time. It allows for the rapid monitoring of a large number

  20. — study of the use of two standard- and non-standard-measuring devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Ostapkowicz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with leak detection in liquid transmission pipelines. Diagnostic method based on negative pressure wave detection is taken into account here. The paper focuses on variant of this method, related to the use of only two measurement points (devices, placed at the inlet and outlet of the pipeline. Standard transducers for measurement of pressure signals and non-standard elaborated technique for measurement of new diagnostic signals were used. New diagnostic signals, conventionally named the signals of weak interactions, result from the work of special devices (correctors joined to the pipeline. In order to compare both hardware solutions key performance attributes for the analyzed leak detection method were determined. The bases of such assessment were experimental tests. They were conducted with the use of a physical model of a pipeline. The pipeline was 380 meters long, 34 mm in internal diameter and made of polyethylene (PEHD pipes. The medium pumped through the pipeline was water. Carrying out such research, diagnostic procedures elaborated by the author were used and tested.[b]Keywords[/b]: technical diagnostics, pipelines, leak detection

  1. Development of a Force Measurement Device for Lower-Body Muscular Strength Measuring of Skaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Ki; Lee, Jeong Tae

    This paper presents a force measurement system that can measure a lower-body muscular strength of skaters. The precise measurement and analysis of the left and right lower-body strength of skaters is necessary, because a left/right lower-body strength balance is helpful to improve the athletes' performance and to protect them from injury. The system is constructed with a skate sliding board, a couple of sensor-units with load cell, indicator and control box, guard, force pad, and support bracket. The developed force measurement system is calibrated by the calibration setup, and the uncertainty of the force sensing unit on the left is within 0.087% and the uncertainty of the force sensing unit on the right is within 0.109%. In order to check the feasibility of the developed measurement device, a kinematic analysis is conducted with skater. As a result, the subject shows the deviation of left and right of 12.1 N with respect to average strength and 39.1 N with respect to the maximum strength. This evaluation results are reliable enough to make it possible to measure a lower-body muscular strength of skaters. The use of this measurement system will be expected to correct the posture of skaters and record the sports dynamics data for each athlete. It is believed that through the development of this equipment, skaters in elementary, middle, high schools, colleges, and the professional level have the systematic training to compete with world-class skaters.

  2. Novel Zero-Heat-Flux Deep Body Temperature Measurement in Lower Extremity Vascular and Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Marja-Tellervo; Pesonen, Anne; Jousela, Irma; Päivärinta, Janne; Poikajärvi, Satu; Albäck, Anders; Salminen, Ulla-Stina; Pesonen, Eero

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare deep body temperature obtained using a novel noninvasive continuous zero-heat-flux temperature measurement system with core temperatures obtained using conventional methods. A prospective, observational study. Operating room of a university hospital. The study comprised 15 patients undergoing vascular surgery of the lower extremities and 15 patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Zero-heat-flux thermometry on the forehead and standard core temperature measurements. Body temperature was measured using a new thermometry system (SpotOn; 3M, St. Paul, MN) on the forehead and with conventional methods in the esophagus during vascular surgery (n = 15), and in the nasopharynx and pulmonary artery during cardiac surgery (n = 15). The agreement between SpotOn and the conventional methods was assessed using the Bland-Altman random-effects approach for repeated measures. The mean difference between SpotOn and the esophageal temperature during vascular surgery was+0.08°C (95% limit of agreement -0.25 to+0.40°C). During cardiac surgery, during off CPB, the mean difference between SpotOn and the pulmonary arterial temperature was -0.05°C (95% limits of agreement -0.56 to+0.47°C). Throughout cardiac surgery (on and off CPB), the mean difference between SpotOn and the nasopharyngeal temperature was -0.12°C (95% limits of agreement -0.94 to+0.71°C). Poor agreement between the SpotOn and nasopharyngeal temperatures was detected in hypothermia below approximately 32°C. According to this preliminary study, the deep body temperature measured using the zero-heat-flux system was in good agreement with standard core temperatures during lower extremity vascular and cardiac surgery. However, agreement was questionable during hypothermia below 32°C. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Relating Standardized Visual Perception Measures to Simulator Visual System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Sweet, Barbara T.

    2013-01-01

    Human vision is quantified through the use of standardized clinical vision measurements. These measurements typically include visual acuity (near and far), contrast sensitivity, color vision, stereopsis (a.k.a. stereo acuity), and visual field periphery. Simulator visual system performance is specified in terms such as brightness, contrast, color depth, color gamut, gamma, resolution, and field-of-view. How do these simulator performance characteristics relate to the perceptual experience of the pilot in the simulator? In this paper, visual acuity and contrast sensitivity will be related to simulator visual system resolution, contrast, and dynamic range; similarly, color vision will be related to color depth/color gamut. Finally, we will consider how some characteristics of human vision not typically included in current clinical assessments could be used to better inform simulator requirements (e.g., relating dynamic characteristics of human vision to update rate and other temporal display characteristics).

  4. Study of the dairy characters of lactating Murrah buffaloes on the basis of body parts measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Dhillod

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to correlate the milk yield of Murrah buffaloes with certain body parts measurements. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 lactating Murrah buffaloes were selected from Buffalo Farm, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Science, Hisar and were randomly selected in a range from first to fifth parity. Traits studied were 305 days milk yield (MY, body weight (BW, body length (BL, muzzle width (MW, height at wither (HW, abdominal girth (AG, chest girth (CG, body depth fore, body depth rear, hip bone distance (HBD, pin bone distance (PBD, skin thickness (STK, and tail length (TL. Data were collected and statically analyzed by Pearson’s correlation method. Result: The result of this study showed that Murrah buffaloes had the average 2604.8±39.5 kg for MY, 556.1±4.9 kg for BW, and 152.2±0.8 cm for BL. This study showed that buffaloes had positive significant (p<0.05 correlation between MY and BW (0.26. Highly significant (p<0.01 correlation was observed between MY and AG (0.64, MW (0.42. Significant (p<0.01 negative correlation was observed between MY and STK (−0.79. Different body part measurements (BW, BL, HW, AG, CG, MW, TL, BD, PBD, HBD, STK were significantly correlated with each other. Conclusion: This study can be helpful as a selection tool to enhance and evaluate the production potential by setting standards of Murrah buffalo breed. BW, abdominal growth, muzzle thickness, and STK were found key factors while selecting a dairy Murrah buffalo.

  5. Cryogenic flow rate measurement with a laser Doppler velocimetry standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maury, R.; Strzelecki, A.; Auclercq, C.; Lehot, Y.; Loubat, S.; Chevalier, J.; Ben Rayana, F.

    2018-03-01

    A very promising alternative to the state-of-the-art static volume measurements for liquefied natural gas (LNG) custody transfer processes is the dynamic principle of flow metering. As the Designated Institute (DI) of the LNE (‘Laboratoire National de métrologie et d’Essais’, being the French National Metrology Institute) for high-pressure gas flow metering, Cesame-Exadebit is involved in various research and development programs. Within the framework of the first (2010-2013) and second (2014-2017) EURAMET Joint Research Project (JRP), named ‘Metrological support for LNG custody transfer and transport fuel applications’, Cesame-Exadebit explored a novel cryogenic flow metering technology using laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) as an alternative to ultrasonic and Coriolis flow metering. Cesame-Exadebit is trying to develop this technique as a primary standard for cryogenic flow meters. Currently, cryogenic flow meters are calibrated at ambient temperatures with water. Results are then extrapolated to be in the Reynolds number range of real applications. The LDV standard offers a unique capability to perform online calibration of cryogenic flow meters in real conditions (temperature, pressure, piping and real flow disturbances). The primary reference has been tested on an industrial process in a LNG terminal during truck refuelling. The reference can calibrate Coriolis flow meters being used daily with all the real environmental constraints, and its utilisation is transparent for LNG terminal operators. The standard is traceable to Standard International units and the combined extended uncertainties have been determined and estimated to be lower than 0.6% (an ongoing improvement to reducing the correlation function uncertainty, which has a major impact in the uncertainty estimation).

  6. Computerized assessment of body image in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: comparison with standardized body image assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Asaf; Amiaz, Revital; Davidson, Noa; Czerniak, Efrat; Gur, Eitan; Kiryati, Nahum; Harari, Daniel; Furst, Miriam; Stein, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Body image disturbances are a prominent feature of eating disorders (EDs). Our aim was to test and evaluate a computerized assessment of body image (CABI), to compare the body image disturbances in different ED types, and to assess the factors affecting body image. The body image of 22 individuals undergoing inpatient treatment with restricting anorexia nervosa (AN-R), 22 with binge/purge AN (AN-B/P), 20 with bulimia nervosa (BN), and 41 healthy controls was assessed using the Contour Drawing Rating Scale (CDRS), the CABI, which simulated the participants' self-image in different levels of weight changes, and the Eating Disorder Inventory-2-Body Dissatisfaction (EDI-2-BD) scale. Severity of depression and anxiety was also assessed. Significant differences were found among the three scales assessing body image, although most of their dimensions differentiated between patients with EDs and controls. Our findings support the use of the CABI in the comparison of body image disturbances in patients with EDs vs. Moreover, the use of different assessment tools allows for a better understanding of the differences in body image disturbances in different ED types.

  7. Seventy Years of Radio Science, Technology, Standards, and Measurement at the National Bureau of Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmor, C. Stewart

    This large volume describes all the forms of radio research done at the National Bureau of Standards (now, National Institute of Standards and Technology) from its founding in 1901 until about 1980. The volume truly reflects its subtitle; it describes in great detail research in radio propagation and all its connections with geophysics and geospace, but also radio as instrument for discovery and application in meteorology, navigation, and in standards of measurement and testing in electronics.The book is a bit unwieldy and some of its chapters will be of most interest to former NBS employees. For example, there is a lengthy chapter on the transfer of radio research work from Washington, D.C, to Boulder, Colo., in the early 1950s, complete with photostat of the quit claim deed to NBS from the Boulder Chamber of Commerce. On the other hand, radio research developed and flourished in this country in the early days at industrial (Bell Telephone, General Electric, Westinghouse) and government (NBS, Naval Research Laboratory) labs more than in academia, and it is very interesting to learn how the labs interacted and to read details of the organizational structure. I can attest personally to the great difficulties in locating materials concerning radio history. While we have numerous volumes devoted to certain popular radio heroes, little is available concerning government radio pioneers such as L. W. Austin, who directed the U.S. Navy's radio research for many years while situated physically at the Bureau of Standards, or J. H. Dellinger, long-time chief of the Radio Section and head spokesman on radio for the U.S. government until the 1930s.

  8. Performance Characteristics and Prediction of Bodyweight using Linear Body Measurements in Four Strains of Broiler Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    I. Udeh; J.O. Isikwenu and G. Ukughere

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the performance characteristics of four strains of broiler chicken from 2 to 8 weeks of age and predict body weight of the broilers using linear body measurements. The four strains of broiler chicken used were Anak, Arbor Acre, Ross and Marshall. The parameters recorded were bodyweight, weight gain, total feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality and some linear body measurements (body length, body width, breast width, drumstick length, shank l...

  9. Microchip-based body temperature measurements in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Lohse, Louise

    In the present study, we tested whether an electronic identification and body temperature monitorring technology presently applied in small experimental animals could be transferred for use in pigs....

  10. Agreement between auricular and rectal measurements of body temperature in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Marlos G; Carareto, Roberta; Pereira-Junior, Valdo A; Aquino, Monally C C

    2013-04-01

    Measurement of body temperature is a routine part of the clinical assessment of a patient. However, this procedure may be time-consuming and stressful to most animals because the standard site of temperature acquisition remains the rectal mucosa. Although an increasing number of clinicians have been using auricular temperature to estimate core body temperature, evidence is still lacking regarding agreement between these two methods in cats. In this investigation, we evaluated the agreement between temperatures measured in the rectum and ear in 29 healthy cats over a 2-week period. Temperatures were measured in the rectum (using digital and mercury-in-glass thermometers) and ear once a day for 14 consecutive days, producing 406 temperature readings for each thermometer. Mean temperature and confidence intervals were similar between methods, and Bland-Altman plots showed small biases and narrow limits of agreement acceptable for clinical purposes. The interobserver variability was also checked, which indicated a strong correlation between two near-simultaneous temperature readings. Results are consistent with auricular thermometry being a reliable alternative to rectal thermometry for assessing core body temperature in healthy cats.

  11. Developing a community-based flood resilience measurement standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Adriana; Szoenyi, Michael; Chaplowe, Scott; McQuistan, Colin; Campbell, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Given the increased attention to resilience-strengthening in international humanitarian and development work, there has been concurrent interest in its measurement and the overall accountability of "resilience strengthening" initiatives. The literature is reaching beyond the polemic of defining resilience to its measurement. Similarly, donors are increasingly expecting organizations to go beyond claiming resilience programing to measuring and showing it. However, key questions must be asked, in particular "Resilience of whom and to what?". There is no one-size-fits-all solution. The approach to measuring resilience is dependent on the audience and the purpose of the measurement exercise. Deriving a resilience measurement system needs to be based on the question it seeks to answer and needs to be specific. This session highlights key lessons from the Zurich Flood Resilience Alliance approach to develop a flood resilience measurement standard to measure and assess the impact of community based flood resilience interventions, and to inform decision-making to enhance the effectiveness of these interventions. We draw on experience in methodology development to-date, together with lessons from application in two case study sites in Latin America. Attention will be given to the use of a consistent measurement methodology for community resilience to floods over time and place; challenges to measuring a complex and dynamic phenomenon such as community resilience; methodological implications of measuring community resilience versus impact on and contribution to this goal; and using measurement and tools such as cost-benefit analysis to prioritize and inform strategic decision making for resilience interventions. The measurement tool follows the five categories of the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework and the 4Rs of complex adaptive systems - robustness, rapidity, redundancy and resourcefulness -5C-4R. A recent white paper by the Zurich Flood Resilience Alliance traces the

  12. A psychometric measure of working memory capacity for configured body movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Choon Wu

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM models have traditionally assumed at least two domain-specific storage systems for verbal and visuo-spatial information. We review data that suggest the existence of an additional slave system devoted to the temporary storage of body movements, and present a novel instrument for its assessment: the movement span task. The movement span task assesses individuals' ability to remember and reproduce meaningless configurations of the body. During the encoding phase of a trial, participants watch short videos of meaningless movements presented in sets varying in size from one to five items. Immediately after encoding, they are prompted to reenact as many items as possible. The movement span task was administered to 90 participants along with standard tests of verbal WM, visuo-spatial WM, and a gesture classification test in which participants judged whether a speaker's gestures were congruent or incongruent with his accompanying speech. Performance on the gesture classification task was not related to standard measures of verbal or visuo-spatial working memory capacity, but was predicted by scores on the movement span task. Results suggest the movement span task can serve as an assessment of individual differences in WM capacity for body-centric information.

  13. [Measurement of CO diffusion capacity (II): Standardization and quality criteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo Posadas, A; Villa Asensi, J R; de Mir Messa, I; Sardón Prado, O; Larramona, H

    2015-08-01

    The diffusion capacity is the technique that measures the ability of the respiratory system for gas exchange, thus allowing a diagnosis of the malfunction of the alveolar-capillary unit. The most important parameter to assess is the CO diffusion capacity (DLCO). New methods are currently being used to measure the diffusion using nitric oxide (NO). There are other methods for measuring diffusion, although in this article the single breath technique is mainly referred to, as it is the most widely used and best standardized. Its complexity, its reference equations, differences in equipment, inter-patient variability and conditions in which the DLCO is performed, lead to a wide inter-laboratory variability, although its standardization makes this a more reliable and reproductive method. The practical aspects of the technique are analyzed, by specifying the recommendations to carry out a suitable procedure, the calibration routine, calculations and adjustments. Clinical applications are also discussed. An increase in the transfer of CO occurs in diseases in which there is an increased volume of blood in the pulmonary capillaries, such as in the polycythemia and pulmonary hemorrhage. There is a decrease in DLCO in patients with alveolar volume reduction or diffusion defects, either by altered alveolar-capillary membrane (interstitial diseases) or decreased volume of blood in the pulmonary capillaries (pulmonary embolism or primary pulmonary hypertension). Other causes of decreased or increased DLCO are also highlighted. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determination of deuterium abundance in body fluids: application to measurement of total-body water in human infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebouche, C.J.; Pearson, G.A.; Serfass, R.E.; Roth, C.W.; Finley, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to quantitate abundance of 2H in body water of human infants. This method provides precise measurement of total-body water without the extensive sample preparation requirements of previously described methods for determination of 2H content in body fluids. 2H2O (1 g/kg body weight) was administered to infants and saliva and urine were collected for up to 5 h. An internal standard was added directly to the fluid specimen and 2H enrichment in water was measured by NMR spectroscopy. Working range of deuterium abundance was 0.04-0.32 atom %. Coefficients of variation for saliva samples at 0.20 atom % 2H was 1.97%. 2H content in urine and saliva water reached a plateau by 4 h after administration, and amounts in the two fluids were virtually identical. Mean total-body water determination for six infants was 58.3 +/- 5.8% of body weight (range 53-66%)

  15. Standards for Measurements in the Field of High Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation for the Purpose of Protection Against Adverse Health Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanatarec, B.; Nikolic, N.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper standards for measurements in the field of high frequency electromagnetic radiation are described with a view to protection from its hazardous action. Beside the standards which directly deal with high frequency electromagnetic radiation measurements, guidelines which describe hazardous influences of high frequency electromagnetic radiation on human body in the form of specific absorption rate (SAR) are given. Special attention is dedicated to standards and regulations, which are dealing with social responsibility, as well as with social responsibility in the field of high frequency radiation. This area is new and insufficiently known, rarely extended in everyday life. (author)

  16. changes in body composition and other anthropometric measures of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to investigate the changes in body composition and other anthropometric .... showing a good fit between the values obtained from the equation ..... ideally at 6-monthly intervals, in order to provide useful information to ... training on quality of life in HAART-treated HIV-positive Rwandan subjects with body fat ...

  17. Grid-enabled measures: using Science 2.0 to standardize measures and share data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Richard P; Hesse, Bradford W; Shaikh, Abdul R; Courtney, Paul; Morgan, Glen; Augustson, Erik; Kobrin, Sarah; Levin, Kerry Y; Helba, Cynthia; Garner, David; Dunn, Marsha; Coa, Kisha

    2011-05-01

    Scientists are taking advantage of the Internet and collaborative web technology to accelerate discovery in a massively connected, participative environment--a phenomenon referred to by some as Science 2.0. As a new way of doing science, this phenomenon has the potential to push science forward in a more efficient manner than was previously possible. The Grid-Enabled Measures (GEM) database has been conceptualized as an instantiation of Science 2.0 principles by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) with two overarching goals: (1) promote the use of standardized measures, which are tied to theoretically based constructs; and (2) facilitate the ability to share harmonized data resulting from the use of standardized measures. The first is accomplished by creating an online venue where a virtual community of researchers can collaborate together and come to consensus on measures by rating, commenting on, and viewing meta-data about the measures and associated constructs. The second is accomplished by connecting the constructs and measures to an ontological framework with data standards and common data elements such as the NCI Enterprise Vocabulary System (EVS) and the cancer Data Standards Repository (caDSR). This paper will describe the web 2.0 principles on which the GEM database is based, describe its functionality, and discuss some of the important issues involved with creating the GEM database such as the role of mutually agreed-on ontologies (i.e., knowledge categories and the relationships among these categories--for data sharing). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Telemetric measurement of body core temperature in exercising unconditioned Labrador retrievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angle, T Craig; Gillette, Robert L

    2011-04-01

    This project evaluated the use of an ingestible temperature sensor to measure body core temperature (Tc) in exercising dogs. Twenty-five healthy, unconditioned Labrador retrievers participated in an outdoor 3.5-km run, completed in 20 min on a level, 400-m grass track. Core temperature was measured continuously with a telemetric monitoring system before, during, and after the run. Data were successfully collected with no missing data points during the exercise. Core temperature elevated in the dogs from 38.7 ± 0.3°C at pre-exercise to 40.4 ± 0.6°C post-exercise. While rectal temperatures are still the standard of measurement, telemetric core temperature monitors may offer an easier and more comfortable means of sampling core temperature with minimal human and mechanical interference with the exercising dog.

  19. Assessment of body fat in the pony: part II. Validation of the deuterium oxide dilution technique for the measurement of body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, A H A; Curtis, G C; Milne, E; Harris, P A; Argo, C Mc

    2011-09-01

    Excessive accumulations or depletions of body fat have been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in horses and ponies. An objective, minimally-invasive method to accurately quantify body fat in living animals is required to aid nutritional management and define welfare/performance limits. To compare deuterium oxide (D(2) O) dilution-derived estimates of total body water (TBW) and body fat with values obtained by 'gold standard' proximate analysis and cadaver dissection. D(2) O dilution offers a valid method for the determination of TBW and body fat in equids. Seven mature (mean ± s.e. 13 ± 3 years, 212 ± 14 kg, body condition scores 1.25-7/9), healthy, Welsh Mountain pony mares, destined for euthanasia (for nonresearch purposes) were used. Blood samples were collected before and 4 h after D(2) O (0.11-0.13 g/kg bwt, 99.8 atom percent excess) administration. Plasma was analysed by gas isotope ratio mass spectrometry following filtration and zinc reduction. After euthanasia, white adipose tissue (WAT) mass was recorded before all body tissues were analysed by proximate chemical analyses. D(2) O-derived estimates of TBW and body fat were strongly associated with proximate analysis- and dissection-derived values (all r(2) >0.97, P≤0.0001). Bland-Altman analyses demonstrated good agreements between methods. D(2) O dilution slightly overestimated TBW (0.79%, limits of agreement (LoA) -3.75-2.17%) and underestimated total body lipid (1.78%, LoA -0.59-4.15%) and dissected WAT (0.72%, LoA -2.77-4.21%). This study provides the first validation of the D(2) O dilution method for the minimally-invasive, accurate, repeatable and objective measurement of body water and fat in living equids. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  20. A Study on the Reliability of Sasang Constitutional Body Trunk Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunsu Jang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Body trunk measurement for human plays an important diagnostic role not only in conventional medicine but also in Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM. The Sasang constitutional body trunk measurement (SCBTM consists of the 5-widths and the 8-circumferences which are standard locations currently employed in the SCM society. This study suggests to what extent a comprehensive training can improve the reliability of the SCBTM. Methods. We recruited 10 male subjects and 5 male observers with no experience of anthropometric measurement. We conducted measurements twice before and after a comprehensive training. Relative technical error of measurement (%TEMs was produced to assess intra and inter observer reliabilities. Results. Post-training intra-observer %TEMs of the SCBTM were 0.27% to 1.85% reduced from 0.27% to 6.26% in pre-training, respectively. Post-training inter-observer %TEMs of those were 0.56% to 1.66% reduced from 1.00% to 9.60% in pre-training, respectively. Post-training % total TEMs which represent the whole reliability were 0.68% to 2.18% reduced from maximum value of 10.18%. Conclusion. A comprehensive training makes the SCBTM more reliable, hence giving a sufficiently confident diagnostic tool. It is strongly recommended to give a comprehensive training in advance to take the SCBTM.

  1. A study on the reliability of sasang constitutional body trunk measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eunsu; Kim, Jong Yeol; Lee, Haejung; Kim, Honggie; Baek, Younghwa; Lee, Siwoo

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Body trunk measurement for human plays an important diagnostic role not only in conventional medicine but also in Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM). The Sasang constitutional body trunk measurement (SCBTM) consists of the 5-widths and the 8-circumferences which are standard locations currently employed in the SCM society. This study suggests to what extent a comprehensive training can improve the reliability of the SCBTM. Methods. We recruited 10 male subjects and 5 male observers with no experience of anthropometric measurement. We conducted measurements twice before and after a comprehensive training. Relative technical error of measurement (%TEMs) was produced to assess intra and inter observer reliabilities. Results. Post-training intra-observer %TEMs of the SCBTM were 0.27% to 1.85% reduced from 0.27% to 6.26% in pre-training, respectively. Post-training inter-observer %TEMs of those were 0.56% to 1.66% reduced from 1.00% to 9.60% in pre-training, respectively. Post-training % total TEMs which represent the whole reliability were 0.68% to 2.18% reduced from maximum value of 10.18%. Conclusion. A comprehensive training makes the SCBTM more reliable, hence giving a sufficiently confident diagnostic tool. It is strongly recommended to give a comprehensive training in advance to take the SCBTM.

  2. The gait standard deviation, a single measure of kinematic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeux, Morgan; Passmore, Elyse; Graham, H Kerr; Tirosh, Oren

    2016-05-01

    Measurement of gait kinematic variability provides relevant clinical information in certain conditions affecting the neuromotor control of movement. In this article, we present a measure of overall gait kinematic variability, GaitSD, based on combination of waveforms' standard deviation. The waveform standard deviation is the common numerator in established indices of variability such as Kadaba's coefficient of multiple correlation or Winter's waveform coefficient of variation. Gait data were collected on typically developing children aged 6-17 years. Large number of strides was captured for each child, average 45 (SD: 11) for kinematics and 19 (SD: 5) for kinetics. We used a bootstrap procedure to determine the precision of GaitSD as a function of the number of strides processed. We compared the within-subject, stride-to-stride, variability with the, between-subject, variability of the normative pattern. Finally, we investigated the correlation between age and gait kinematic, kinetic and spatio-temporal variability. In typically developing children, the relative precision of GaitSD was 10% as soon as 6 strides were captured. As a comparison, spatio-temporal parameters required 30 strides to reach the same relative precision. The ratio stride-to-stride divided by normative pattern variability was smaller in kinematic variables (the smallest for pelvic tilt, 28%) than in kinetic and spatio-temporal variables (the largest for normalised stride length, 95%). GaitSD had a strong, negative correlation with age. We show that gait consistency may stabilise only at, or after, skeletal maturity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigation into the relationship between body surface area and total body potassium using Monte Carlo and measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.A. [Medical Physics and Imaging, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jane.rogers@university-b.wmids.nhs.uk; Blake-James, M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Green, S.; Beddoe, A.H. [Medical Physics and Imaging, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2002-03-07

    The use of body surface area (BSA) as a means of indexing chemotherapy doses is widespread even though the value of this practice is uncertain. In principle, the body cell mass (BCM) more closely represents the body's metabolic size and this is investigated here as an alternative to BSA; since 98% of body potassium is intracellular the derivation of total body potassium (TBK) via the measurement of {sup 40}K in a whole body counter (WBC) will provide a useful normalizing index for metabolic size, potentially avoiding toxicity and underdosing. The Queen Elizabeth Hospital WBC has been used in this study, initially involving single geometrical phantoms and then combinations of these to simulate human body habitus. Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) codes were constructed to model the phantoms and simulate the measurements made in the WBC. Efficiency corrections were derived by comparing measurement and modelled data for each detector separately. A method of modelling a person in the WBC as a series of ellipsoids was developed. Twenty-four normal males and 24 females were measured for their {sup 40}K emissions. Individual MCNP codes were constructed for each volunteer and the results used in conjunction with the measurements to derive TBK, correcting for body habitus effects and detector efficiencies. An estimate of the component of error arising from sources other than counting statistics was included by analysing data from the measurement of phantoms. The total residual errors (expressed as coefficients of variation) for males and females were 10.1% and 8.5% respectively. The measurement components were determined to be 2.4% and 2.5%, implying that the biological components were 9.8% and 8.1% respectively. These results suggest that the use of BSA for indexing chemotherapy doses is likely to give rise to clinically significant under- or overdosing. (author)

  4. Clinical correlation of radiological spinal stenosis after standardization for vertebral body size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athiviraham, A.; Yen, D.; Scott, C.; Soboleski, D.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To determine the relationship between the degree of radiographic lumbar spinal stenosis, adjusted with an internal control for vertebral body size, and disability from lumbar stenosis. Materials and methods: one hundred and twenty-three consecutive patients with clinical and radiological confirmation of neural impingement secondary to lumbar stenosis were enrolled prospectively. Thecal sac anteroposterior (AP) diameter (TSD) and cross-sectional area (CSA), and vertebral body AP dimension (VBD) were determined. These parameters were then correlated with patients' symptoms using the modified Roland-Morris questionnaire (RMQ) disability score. Results: No statistically significant inverse correlation was found between the TSD and RMQ score (p = 0.433), between the CSA and RMQ score (p = 0.124), or between the TSD:VBD ratio and RMQ score (p = 0.109). There was a significant positive correlation between the CSA:VBD ratio and RMQ score (p = .036), and therefore, there was no statistical support for an inverse relationship between the two. There was a significant difference in mean RMQ scores when the patients were divided into those with CSA greater than or equal to 70 mm 2 and those less than 70 mm 2 , with T = -2.104 and p = 0.038. Conclusion: The degree of radiographic lumbar spinal stenosis, even with the use of an internal control of vertebral body size and standardized disability questionnaires, does not correlate with clinical symptoms. However, patients with more severe stenosis below a CSA critical threshold of 70 mm 2 , have significantly greater functional disability

  5. Multicenter Evaluation of Cystatin C Measurement after Assay Standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargnoux, Anne-Sophie; Piéroni, Laurence; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Kuster, Nils; Delanaye, Pierre; Carlier, Marie-Christine; Fellahi, Soraya; Boutten, Anne; Lombard, Christine; González-Antuña, Ana; Delatour, Vincent; Cavalier, Etienne

    2017-04-01

    Since 2010, a certified reference material ERM-DA471/IFCC has been available for cystatin C (CysC). This study aimed to assess the sources of uncertainty in results for clinical samples measured using standardized assays. This evaluation was performed in 2015 and involved 7 clinical laboratories located in France and Belgium. CysC was measured in a panel of 4 serum pools using 8 automated assays and a candidate isotope dilution mass spectrometry reference measurement procedure. Sources of uncertainty (imprecision and bias) were evaluated to calculate the relative expanded combined uncertainty for each CysC assay. Uncertainty was judged against the performance specifications derived from the biological variation model. Only Siemens reagents on the Siemens systems and, to a lesser extent, DiaSys reagents on the Cobas system, provided results that met the minimum performance criterion calculated according to the intraindividual and interindividual biological variations. Although the imprecision was acceptable for almost all assays, an increase in the bias with concentration was observed for Gentian reagents, and unacceptably high biases were observed for Abbott and Roche reagents on their own systems. This comprehensive picture of the market situation since the release of ERM-DA471/IFCC shows that bias remains the major component of the combined uncertainty because of possible problems associated with the implementation of traceability. Although some manufacturers have clearly improved their calibration protocols relative to ERM-DA471, most of them failed to meet the criteria for acceptable CysC measurements. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  6. Three-dimensional hindfoot alignment measurements based on biplanar radiographs: comparison with standard radiographic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutter, Reto; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Buck, Florian M.; Espinosa, Norman

    2013-01-01

    To establish a hindfoot alignment measurement technique based on low-dose biplanar radiographs and compare with hindfoot alignment measurements on long axial view radiographs, which is the current reference standard. Long axial view radiographs and low-dose biplanar radiographs of a phantom consisting of a human foot skeleton embedded in acrylic glass (phantom A) and a plastic model of a human foot in three different hindfoot positions (phantoms B1-B3) were imaged in different foot positions (20 internal to 20 external rotation). Two independent readers measured hindfoot alignment on long axial view radiographs and performed 3D hindfoot alignment measurements based on biplanar radiographs on two different occasions. Time for three-dimensional (3D) measurements was determined. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated. Hindfoot alignment measurements on long axial view radiographs were characterized by a large positional variation, with a range of 14 /13 valgus to 22 /27 varus (reader 1/2 for phantom A), whereas the range of 3D hindfoot alignment measurements was 7.3 /6.0 to 9.0 /10.5 varus (reader 1/2 for phantom A), with a mean and standard deviation of 8.1 ± 0.6/8.7 ± 1.4 respectively. Interobserver agreement was high (ICC = 0.926 for phantom A, and ICC = 0.886 for phantoms B1-B3), and agreement between different readouts was high (ICC = 0.895-0.995 for reader 1, and ICC = 0.987-0.994 for reader 2) for 3D measurements. Mean duration of 3D measurements was 84 ± 15/113 ± 15 s for reader 1/2. Three-dimensional hindfoot alignment measurements based on biplanar radiographs were independent of foot positioning during image acquisition and reader independent. In this phantom study, the 3D measurements were substantially more precise than the standard radiographic measurements. (orig.)

  7. Calibration of CDTN-whole body counter for in vivo measurements of I-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Cassio M.; Silva, Tania V. da; Alonso, Thessa C.; Squair, Peterson L.

    2009-01-01

    Iodine-131 is frequently used in nuclear medicine services for diagnosis and therapy of thyroid diseases. Furthermore, the Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN/CNEN), in Belo Horizonte, uses Iodine-131 for radiobiology and radiopharmacy researches. The increasing use of this radionuclide for medical and research purposes as well as its high volatility creates a demand for feasible methodologies to perform occupational control of internal contamination. Therefore the objective this work is to develop methods of in vivo bioassay for evaluation Iodine-131 incorporation by using NaI(Tl) 6'' x 4'' scintillation detector of the CDTN-Whole Body Counter (WBC). Such detector was calibrated for in vivo measurements with a neck-thyroid phantom, simulating Iodine-131 incorporation. The chosen counting geometry was lying under monitoring bed of CDTNWBC. A methodology for bioassay data interpretation, based on standard ICRP 56 model was established with software AIDE (activity internal dose estimate) version 6.0. It was concluded that in vivo measurements have sufficient sensitivity for the monitoring of Iodine-131 through CDTN-Whole Body Counter. Therefore, the CDTN-Whole Body Counter equipment of Belo Horizonte are ready to attend suspicion intake cases of Iodine- 131 (author)

  8. Calibration of CDTN-whole body counter for in vivo measurements of I-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Cassio M.; Silva, Tania V. da; Alonso, Thessa C.; Squair, Peterson L. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: cmo@cdtn.br

    2009-07-01

    Iodine-131 is frequently used in nuclear medicine services for diagnosis and therapy of thyroid diseases. Furthermore, the Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN/CNEN), in Belo Horizonte, uses Iodine-131 for radiobiology and radiopharmacy researches. The increasing use of this radionuclide for medical and research purposes as well as its high volatility creates a demand for feasible methodologies to perform occupational control of internal contamination. Therefore the objective this work is to develop methods of in vivo bioassay for evaluation Iodine-131 incorporation by using NaI(Tl) 6'' x 4'' scintillation detector of the CDTN-Whole Body Counter (WBC). Such detector was calibrated for in vivo measurements with a neck-thyroid phantom, simulating Iodine-131 incorporation. The chosen counting geometry was lying under monitoring bed of CDTNWBC. A methodology for bioassay data interpretation, based on standard ICRP 56 model was established with software AIDE (activity internal dose estimate) version 6.0. It was concluded that in vivo measurements have sufficient sensitivity for the monitoring of Iodine-131 through CDTN-Whole Body Counter. Therefore, the CDTN-Whole Body Counter equipment of Belo Horizonte are ready to attend suspicion intake cases of Iodine- 131 (author)

  9. Weight Measurements and Standards for Soldiers, Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    achieving healthy management of body weight, healthy nutrition, physical fitness, and combat readiness. The H.E.A.L.T.H. study is a cluster (group...of nutrition, fitness, sleep and mind / body health. During Year 7, final analyses for the LANG study will be conducted and further dissemination of...entry – start weight)/start weight 21 Key Lessons Key Lessons to date indicate: • Novel interventions are needed to promote healthy body weight

  10. Whole-body counter intercomparison measurements in Hungary and Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrasi, A. [Atomic Energy Research Institute, Budapest (Hungary). KFKI; Tarroni, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche `Ezio Clementel`, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-01-01

    In the frame of a co-operation agreement between Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf, Italian ENEA Institute for Radiation Protection and Hungarian KFKI Atomic Energy Research Centre, an intercomparison on WBC measurements using a modular bottle phantom was performed during 1995 in Hungary, on May-July 1996 in the Northern part of Italy. Results related to the relative bias for the three body masses are reported, together with indication of their compliance with ANSI report N13.30. It turned out that majority of the results were found to be within the performance criteria of the ANSI report, however there were also few outfalling results which were a good indication to check and improve the reliability of calibration and/or other methodological procedures. In the contrary of the expectance, the results related to 20 kg phantom resulted not significantly worse than those obtained for the adult phantom indicating the capacity for the participating WBC centres of measuring people from the general population. [Italiano] Nell`ambito di un accordo di collaborazione tra il Centro di Ricerca di Seibersdorf (Austria), l`Istituto per la Radioprotezione dell`ENEA (ENEA AMB PRO IRP) ed il Centro di Ricerca per l`Energia Atomica KFKI di Budapest (Ungheria), si e` svolto un interconfronto su misure WBC basato sull`utilizzo di un unico fantoccio modulare a bottiglie cui hanno partecipato centri WBC Ungheresi (1995) ed Italiani (Maggio-Giugno 1996). Nel presente rapporto tecnico vengono presentati i risultati ottenuti ed una loro analisi impostata sui criteri di valutazione recentemente proposti dall`ANSI nel rapporto N. 13.30. Sulla base di tale criterio la maggior parte dei risultati dell`interconfronto rientra nell`intervallo di accettabilita`; nei pochi casi di non accettabilita` si rende invece necessaria una revisione dei dati di calibrazione e delle metodologie. Contrariamente a quanto si poteva prevedere, i risultati relativi al fantoccio da 20 kg appaiono sostanzialmente

  11. Using path analysis to predict bodyweight from body measurements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esnart Mukumbo

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... South African Journal of Animal Science 2017, 47 (No. 6) .... Some farmers kept Dorper and Karakul sheep, while others kept Boer, Savannah and ..... body weight and biometric traits of red Sokoto goats in northern Nigeria.

  12. Humidity correction in the standard measurement of exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibaraki, Yasuyuki; Katoh, Akira

    1980-01-01

    This paper deals with the humidity correction to be made in the standard measurement of the exposure to the measured ionization current in the humid air for the purpose of excluding the influence of the water vapour that is not included in the definition of the exposure. First, formulae giving the humidity correction factors for a parallel plate free air chamber and a cavity chamber have been derived respectively in the case where the contributions of air and water vapour to the ionization are independent. Next, in the case where the contributions are not independent, i.e., the Jesse effect is taken into account, a formula to obtain the W-value for humid air has been derived on the basis of the Niatel's experimental result. Using this formula, formulae to obtain the humidity correction factors for the free air chamber and the cavity chamber are derived. The humidity calculated by the latter formulae show good agreements with the results by Niatel and Guiho, respectively. (author)

  13. Standard Test Method for Measuring Binocular Disparity in Transparent Parts

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the amount of binocular disparity that is induced by transparent parts such as aircraft windscreens, canopies, HUD combining glasses, visors, or goggles. This test method may be applied to parts of any size, shape, or thickness, individually or in combination, so as to determine the contribution of each transparent part to the overall binocular disparity present in the total “viewing system” being used by a human operator. 1.2 This test method represents one of several techniques that are available for measuring binocular disparity, but is the only technique that yields a quantitative figure of merit that can be related to operator visual performance. 1.3 This test method employs apparatus currently being used in the measurement of optical angular deviation under Method F 801. 1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not con...

  14. Body mass index in Saudi Arabian children and adolescents: A national reference and comparison with international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Herbish, Abdullah S; ElMouzan, Mohammed I; AlSalloum, Abdullah A; AlQureshi, Mansour M; AlOmar, Ahmed A; Fster, Peter J; Kecojevic, Tatjana

    2009-01-01

    Because there are no reference standards for body mass index (BMI) in Saudi children, we established BMI reference percentiles for normal Saudi Arabian children and adolescents and compared them with international standards. Data from a stratified multistage probability sample were collected from the 13 health regions in Saudi Arabia, as part of a nationwide health profile survey of Saudi Arabian children and adolescents conducted to establish normal physical growth references. Selected households were visited by a trained team. Weight and length/height were measured and recorded following the WHO recommended procedures using the same equipment, which were subjected to both calibration and intra/interobserver variations. Survey of 11 874 eligible households yielded 35 275 full-term and healthy children and adolescents who were subjected to anthropometric measurements. Four BMI curves were produced, from birth to 36 months and 2 to 19 years for girls and boys. The 3rd, 5th, 10th ,25th , 5oth , 75th ,85th , 90th , 95th , and 97th percentiles were produced and compared with the WHO and CDC BMI charts. In the higher percentiles, the Saudi children differed from Western counterparts, indicating that Saudi children have equal or higher BMIs. The BMI curves reflect statistically representative BMI values for Saudi Arabian children and adolescents. (author)

  15. Equations based on anthropometry to predict body fat measured by absorptiometry in schoolchildren and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Hernández, Luis; Vega López, A Valeria; Ramos-Ibáñez, Norma; Cázares Lara, L Joana; Medina Gómez, R Joab; Pérez-Salgado, Diana

    To develop and validate equations to estimate the percentage of body fat of children and adolescents from Mexico using anthropometric measurements. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 601 children and adolescents from Mexico aged 5-19 years. The participants were randomly divided into the following two groups: the development sample (n=398) and the validation sample (n=203). The validity of previously published equations (e.g., Slaughter) was also assessed. The percentage of body fat was estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The anthropometric measurements included height, sitting height, weight, waist and arm circumferences, skinfolds (triceps, biceps, subscapular, supra-iliac, and calf), and elbow and bitrochanteric breadth. Linear regression models were estimated with the percentage of body fat as the dependent variable and the anthropometric measurements as the independent variables. Equations were created based on combinations of six to nine anthropometric variables and had coefficients of determination (r 2 ) equal to or higher than 92.4% for boys and 85.8% for girls. In the validation sample, the developed equations had high r 2 values (≥85.6% in boys and ≥78.1% in girls) in all age groups, low standard errors (SE≤3.05% in boys and ≤3.52% in girls), and the intercepts were not different from the origin (p>0.050). Using the previously published equations, the coefficients of determination were lower, and/or the intercepts were different from the origin. The equations developed in this study can be used to assess the percentage of body fat of Mexican schoolchildren and adolescents, as they demonstrate greater validity and lower error compared with previously published equations. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Measures of Body Size and Composition and Risk of Incident Atrial Fibrillation in Older People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karas, Maria G.; Yee, Laura M.; Biggs, Mary L.; Djoussé, Luc; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Ix, Joachim H.; Zieman, Susan J.; Siscovick, David S.; Gottdiener, John S.; Rosenberg, Michael A.; Kronmal, Richard A.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Kizer, Jorge R.

    2016-01-01

    Various anthropometric measures, including height, have been associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). This raises questions about the appropriateness of using ratio measures such as body mass index (BMI), which contains height squared in its denominator, in the evaluation of AF risk. Among older adults, the optimal anthropometric approach to risk stratification of AF remains uncertain. Anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance measures were obtained from 4,276 participants (mean age = 72.4 years) free of cardiovascular disease in the Cardiovascular Health Study. During follow-up (1989–2008), 1,050 cases of AF occurred. BMI showed a U-shaped association, whereas height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, fat mass, and fat-free mass were linearly related to incident AF. The strongest adjusted association occurred for height (per each 1-standard-deviation increment, hazard ratio = 1.38, 95% confidence interval: 1.25, 1.51), which exceeded all other measures, including weight (hazard ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.13, 1.29). Combined assessment of log-transformed weight and height showed regression coefficients that departed from the 1 to −2 ratio inherent in BMI, indicating a loss of predictive information. Risk estimates for AF tended to be stronger for hip circumference than for waist circumference and for fat-free mass than for fat mass, which was explained largely by height. These findings highlight the prominent role of body size and the inadequacy of BMI as determinants of AF in older adults. PMID:27188936

  17. Breast composition measurements using retrospective standard mammogram form (SMF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highnam, R; Pan, X; Warren, R; Jeffreys, M; Smith, G Davey; Brady, M

    2006-01-01

    The standard mammogram form (SMF) representation of an x-ray mammogram is a standardized, quantitative representation of the breast from which the volume of non-fat tissue and breast density can be easily estimated, both of which are of significant interest in determining breast cancer risk. Previous theoretical analysis of SMF had suggested that a complete and substantial set of calibration data (such as mAs and kVp) would be needed to generate realistic breast composition measures and yet there are many interesting trials that have retrospectively collected images with no calibration data. The main contribution of this paper is to revisit our previous theoretical analysis of SMF with respect to errors in the calibration data and to show how and why that theoretical analysis did not match the results from the practical implementations of SMF. In particular, we show how by estimating breast thickness for every image we are, effectively, compensating for any errors in the calibration data. To illustrate our findings, the current implementation of SMF (version 2.2β) was run over 4028 digitized film-screen mammograms taken from six sites over the years 1988-2002 with and without using the known calibration data. Results show that the SMF implementation running without any calibration data at all generates results which display a strong relationship with when running with a complete set of calibration data, and, most importantly, to an expert's visual assessment of breast composition using established techniques. SMF shows considerable promise in being of major use in large epidemiological studies related to breast cancer which require the automated analysis of large numbers of films from many years previously where little or no calibration data is available

  18. Non-invasive measurement of calcium and phosphorus in human body by NAA technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haiying; Luo Xianqing; Huang Hanqiao

    1995-01-01

    A system of measuring calcium and phosphorus in human legs has been developed by the use of partial-body neutron activation analysis and partial-body counting technique. The results are compared for the normals and osteoporotic patients

  19. Measurement uncertainties for vacuum standards at Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, S. S.; Shin, Y. H.; Chung, K. H.

    2006-01-01

    The Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science has three major vacuum systems: an ultrasonic interferometer manometer (UIM) (Sec. II, Figs. 1 and 2) for low vacuum, a static expansion system (SES) (Sec. III, Figs. 3 and 4) for medium vacuum, and an orifice-type dynamic expansion system (DES) (Sec. IV, Figs. 5 and 6) for high and ultrahigh vacuum. For each system explicit measurement model equations with multiple variables are, respectively, given. According to ISO standards, all these system variable errors were used to calculate the expanded uncertainty (U). For each system the expanded uncertainties (k=1, confidence level=95%) and relative expanded uncertainty (expanded uncertainty/generated pressure) are summarized in Table IV and are estimated to be as follows. For UIM, at 2.5-300 Pa generated pressure, the expanded uncertainty is -2 Pa and the relative expanded uncertainty is -2 ; at 1-100 kPa generated pressure, the expanded uncertainty is -5 . For SES, at 3-100 Pa generated pressure, the expanded uncertainty is -1 Pa and the relative expanded uncertainty is -3 . For DES, at 4.6x10 -3 -1.3x10 -2 Pa generated pressure, the expanded uncertainty is -4 Pa and the relative expanded uncertainty is -3 ; at 3.0x10 -6 -9.0x10 -4 Pa generated pressure, the expanded uncertainty is -6 Pa and the relative expanded uncertainty is -2 . Within uncertainty limits our bilateral and key comparisons [CCM.P-K4 (10 Pa-1 kPa)] are extensive and in good agreement with those of other nations (Fig. 8 and Table V)

  20. Motion-oriented 3D analysis of body measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loercher, C.; Morlock, S.; Schenk, A.

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this project is to develop an ergonomically based and motion-oriented size system. New concepts are required in order to be able to deal competently with complex requirements of function-oriented workwear and personal protective equipment (PPE). Body dimensions change through movement, which are basis for motion optimized clothing development. This affects fit and ergonomic comfort. The situation has to be fundamentally researched in order to derive well-founded anthropometric body data, taking into account kinematic requirements of humans and to define functional dimensions for clothing industry. Research focus shall be on ergonomic design of workwear and PPE. There are huge differences in body forms, proportions and muscle manifestations between genders. An improved basic knowledge can be provided as a result, supporting development as well as sales of motion-oriented clothing with perfect fit for garment manufacturers.

  1. Is Oral Temperature an Accurate Measurement of Deep Body Temperature? A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Ganio, Matthew S.; Casa, Douglas J.; Vingren, Jakob; Klau, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Context: Oral temperature might not be a valid method to assess core body temperature. However, many clinicians, including athletic trainers, use it rather than criterion standard methods, such as rectal thermometry. Objective: To critically evaluate original research addressing the validity of using oral temperature as a measurement of core body temperature during periods of rest and changing core temperature. Data Sources: In July 2010, we searched the electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), SPORTDiscus, Academic Search Premier, and the Cochrane Library for the following concepts: core body temperature, oral, and thermometers. Controlled vocabulary was used, when available, as well as key words and variations of those key words. The search was limited to articles focusing on temperature readings and studies involving human participants. Data Synthesis: Original research was reviewed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro). Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria and subsequently were evaluated by 2 independent reviewers. All 16 were included in the review because they met the minimal PEDro score of 4 points (of 10 possible points), with all but 2 scoring 5 points. A critical review of these studies indicated a disparity between oral and criterion standard temperature methods (eg, rectal and esophageal) specifically as the temperature increased. The difference was −0.50°C ± 0.31°C at rest and −0.58°C ± 0.75°C during a nonsteady state. Conclusions: Evidence suggests that, regardless of whether the assessment is recorded at rest or during periods of changing core temperature, oral temperature is an unsuitable diagnostic tool for determining body temperature because many measures demonstrated differences greater than the predetermined validity threshold of 0.27°C (0.5°F). In addition, the differences were greatest at the highest rectal temperatures. Oral temperature cannot

  2. Synchronous Surface Pressure and Velocity Measurements of standard model in hypersonic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments in the Hypersonic Wind tunnel of NUAA(NHW present synchronous measurements of bow shockwave and surface pressure of a standard blunt rotary model (AGARD HB-2, which was carried out in order to measure the Mach-5-flow above a blunt body by PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry as well as unsteady pressure around the rotary body. Titanium dioxide (Al2O3 Nano particles were seeded into the flow by a tailor-made container. With meticulous care designed optical path, the laser was guided into the vacuum experimental section. The transient pressure was obtained around model by using fast-responding pressure-sensitive paint (PSPsprayed on the model. All the experimental facilities were controlled by Series Pulse Generator to ensure that the data was time related. The PIV measurements of velocities in front of the detached bow shock agreed very well with the calculated value, with less than 3% difference compared to Pitot-pressure recordings. The velocity gradient contour described in accord with the detached bow shock that showed on schlieren. The PSP results presented good agreement with the reference data from previous studies. Our work involving studies of synchronous shock-wave and pressure measurements proved to be encouraging.

  3. Reliability and validity for measurement of body composition: A field ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All three of these instruments do not involve high costs, do not require high technical skills, mobile, save time, and are suitable for use in large populations. Because all three instruments can estimate the percentage of body fat, but it is important to identify the most appropriate instruments and have high reliability. Hence, this ...

  4. Does Impedance Measure a Functional State of the Body Fat?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Větrovská, R.; Vilikus, Z.; Klaschka, Jan; Stránská, Z.; Svačina, Š.; Svobodová, Š.; Matoulek, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, Suppl. 2 (2014), S309-S320 ISSN 0862-8408 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : body composition * DEXA * fat mass * obesity * anthropometric methods * fat tissue functional properties Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  5. Changes in body composition and other anthropometric measures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and objectives. An understanding of the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on various aspects of health, including nutritional status, is needed to ensure that population-specific guidelines can be developed for South Africa. This study aimed to investigate the changes in body composition and ...

  6. Corrections of the whole body counting for various measurement geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueloep, M.; Ragan, P.; Lahham, A.

    1996-01-01

    A simple method was suggested for making corrections during the calibration of HPGe detectors employed for the whole-body counting of humans ranging from infants to adults. The results obtained by calculations were verified by using phantoms. (P.A.). 1 tab., 5 figs., 3 refs

  7. Body condition score, morphometric measurements and estimation of body weight in mature Icelandic horses in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Bovbjerg; Danielsen, Signe H.; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity is related to the development of several diseases like insulin resistance and laminitis in horses. The prevalence of obesity among mature Icelandic horses in Denmark has not been investigated previously. This study aimed to find the prevalence of obesity, to compare body condi...

  8. Measuring Accurate Body Parameters of Dressed Humans with Large-Scale Motion Using a Kinect Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidan Du

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-contact human body measurement plays an important role in surveillance, physical healthcare, on-line business and virtual fitting. Current methods for measuring the human body without physical contact usually cannot handle humans wearing clothes, which limits their applicability in public environments. In this paper, we propose an effective solution that can measure accurate parameters of the human body with large-scale motion from a Kinect sensor, assuming that the people are wearing clothes. Because motion can drive clothes attached to the human body loosely or tightly, we adopt a space-time analysis to mine the information across the posture variations. Using this information, we recover the human body, regardless of the effect of clothes, and measure the human body parameters accurately. Experimental results show that our system can perform more accurate parameter estimation on the human body than state-of-the-art methods.

  9. Radio Astronomers Set New Standard for Accurate Cosmic Distance Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    estimate of the age of the universe. In order to do this, you need an unambiguous, absolute distance to another galaxy. We are pleased that the NSF's VLBA has for the first time determined such a distance, and thus provided the calibration standard astronomers have always sought in their quest for accurate distances beyond the Milky Way," said Morris Aizenman, Executive Officer of the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Division of Astronomical Sciences. "For astronomers, this measurement is the golden meter stick in the glass case," Aizenman added. The international team of astronomers used the VLBA to measure directly the motion of gas orbiting what is generally agreed to be a supermassive black hole at the heart of NGC 4258. The orbiting gas forms a warped disk, nearly two light-years in diameter, surrounding the black hole. The gas in the disk includes water vapor, which, in parts of the disk, acts as a natural amplifier of microwave radio emission. The regions that amplify radio emission are called masers, and work in a manner similar to the way a laser amplifies light emission. Determining the distance to NGC 4258 required measuring motions of extremely small shifts in position of these masers as they rotate around the black hole. This is equivalent to measuring an angle one ten-thousandth the width of a human hair held at arm's length. "The VLBA is the only instrument in the world that could do this," said Moran. "This work is the culmination of a 20-year effort at the Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics to measure distances to cosmic masers," said Irwin Shapiro, Director of that institution. Collection of the data for the NGC 4258 project was begun in 1994 and was part of Herrnstein's Ph.D dissertation at Harvard University. Previous observations with the VLBA allowed the scientists to measure the speed at which the gas is orbiting the black hole, some 39 million times more massive than the Sun. They did this by observing the amount of change in the

  10. Measurements of Charmless Three-Body and Quasi-Two-Body B Decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, Barbara

    2000-08-28

    The authors present preliminary results of a search for several exclusive charmless hadronic B decays from electron-positron annihilation data collected by the BaBar detector near the Upsilon(4S) resonance. These include three-body decay modes with final states h{+-}h{sup minus-plus}h{+-} and h{+-}h{sup minus-plus}pi{sup 0}, and quasi-two-body decay modes with final states X{sup 0}h and X{sup 0}K{sub S}{sup 0}, where h = pi or K and X{sup 0} = eta-prime or omega. They find beta(B{sup 0} --> rho{sup minus-plus}pi{sup {+-}}) = (49{+-}13{sub {minus}5}{sup +6}) x 10{sup {minus}6} and beta(B{sup +} --> eta-prime-K{sup +}) = (62{+-}18{+-}8) x 10{sup {minus}6} and present upper limits for right other decays.

  11. A Body of Work Standard-Setting Method with Construct Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyse, Adam E.; Bunch, Michael B.; Deville, Craig; Viger, Steven G.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a novel variation of the Body of Work method that uses construct maps to overcome problems of transparency, rater inconsistency, and scores gaps commonly occurring with the Body of Work method. The Body of Work method with construct maps was implemented to set cut-scores for two separate K-12 assessment programs in a large…

  12. Implementation of a consolidated, standardized database of environmental measurements data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, T.L.

    1996-10-01

    This report discusses the benefits of a consolidated and standardized database; reasons for resistance to the consolidation of data; implementing a consolidated database, including attempts at standardization, deciding what to include in the consolidated database, establishing lists of valid values, and addressing quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) issues; and the evolution of a consolidated database, which includes developing and training a user community, resolving configuration control issues, incorporating historical data, identifying emerging standards, and developing pointers to other data. OREIS is used to illustrate these topics

  13. New measurements of G using the measurement standards laboratory torsion balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, T.R.; Fitzgerald, M.P.

    2003-01-01

    This Letter presents the results of a series of measurements of the Newtonian gravitational constant G using the compensated torsion balance developed at the Measurement Standards Laboratory. Since our last published result using the torsion balance in the compensated mode of operation [Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 439 (1999)], several improvements have been made to reduce the uncertainty in the final result. The new measurements have used both stainless steel and copper large masses. The values of G for the two sets of masses are in good agreement. After combining all of the measurements we get a value of G=6.673 87(0.000 27)x10 -11 m 3 kg -1 s -2 . This new value is 5 parts in 10 5 smaller than our previous published values

  14. Lean body mass-based standardized uptake value, derived from a predictive equation, might be misleading in PET studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erselcan, Taner; Turgut, Bulent; Dogan, Derya; Ozdemir, Semra

    2002-01-01

    The standardized uptake value (SUV) has gained recognition in recent years as a semiquantitative evaluation parameter in positron emission tomography (PET) studies. However, there is as yet no consensus on the way in which this index should be determined. One of the confusing factors is the normalisation procedure. Among the proposed anthropometric parameters for normalisation is lean body mass (LBM); LBM has been determined by using a predictive equation in most if not all of the studies. In the present study, we assessed the degree of agreement of various LBM predictive equations with a reference method. Secondly, we evaluated the impact of predicted LBM values on a hypothetical value of 2.5 SUV, normalised to LBM (SUV LBM ), by using various equations. The study population consisted of 153 women, aged 32.3±11.8 years (mean±SD), with a height of 1.61±0.06 m, a weight of 71.1±17.5 kg, a body surface area of 1.77±0.22 m 2 and a body mass index of 27.6±6.9 kg/m 2 . LBM (44.2±6.6 kg) was measured by a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) method. A total of nine equations from the literature were evaluated, four of them from recent PET studies. Although there was significant correlation between predicted and measured LBM values, 95% limits of agreement determined by the Bland and Altman method showed a wide range of variation in predicted LBM values as compared with DEXA, no matter which predictive equation was used. Moreover, only one predictive equation was not statistically different in the comparison of means (DEXA and predicted LBM values). It was also shown that the predictive equations used in this study yield a wide range of SUV LBM values from 1.78 to 5.16 (29% less or 107% more) for an SUV of 2.5. In conclusion, this study suggests that estimation of LBM by use of a predictive equation may cause substantial error for an individual, and that if LBM is chosen for the SUV normalisation procedure, it should be measured, not predicted. (orig.)

  15. A Standardized Generalized Dimensionality Discrepancy Measure and a Standardized Model-Based Covariance for Dimensionality Assessment for Multidimensional Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Roy; Xu, Yuning; Yel, Nedim; Svetina, Dubravka

    2015-01-01

    The standardized generalized dimensionality discrepancy measure and the standardized model-based covariance are introduced as tools to critique dimensionality assumptions in multidimensional item response models. These tools are grounded in a covariance theory perspective and associated connections between dimensionality and local independence.…

  16. Applications of quantum measurement in single and many body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steixner, V.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis contains a study about the influence of the back action of a signal emitted by a trapped ion onto itself. The continuous measurement signal is used to alter the motional state of the ion, corresponding to classical friction, in order to cool the ion. The quantum mechanical evolution of the ion with the help of stochastic Schroedinger- and master equations is explored, as well as experimental results. A second method of feedback to obtain the momentum necessary for cooling by means of electromagnetically induced transparency is discussed next. This method allows for a theoretical cooling down to the motional ground state. In a second part of the thesis, the measurement of particle currents in optical lattices is discussed. The usual method of measuring spatial correlations in a cold gas, the time-of-flight method, disadvantageously destroys the measured sample. Here a measurement scheme for atoms with an internal Lambda level structure, coupled with lasers as a Raman transition, is used instead. The measured photons are transformed with the help of homodyne detection into a continuous photon current proportional to the particle current. This thesis contains numerical and analytical calculations for this measurement process and the back action on the measured system. As an application example, the measurement of superfluid currents in a ring optical lattice is described, as well as the entanglement of two of these macroscopic quantum objects. (author) [de

  17. Subject positioning in the BOD POD® only marginally affects measurement of body volume and estimation of percent body fat in young adult men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten W Peeters

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether subject positioning would affect the measurement of raw body volume, thoracic gas volume, corrected body volume and the resulting percent body fat as assessed by air displacement plethysmography (ADP. METHODS: Twenty-five young adult men (20.7±1.1 y, BMI = 22.5±1.4 kg/m(2 were measured using the BOD POD® system using a measured thoracic gas volume sitting in a 'forward bent' position and sitting up in a straight position in random order. RESULTS: Raw body volume was 58±124 ml (p<0.05 higher in the 'straight' position compared to the 'bent' position. The mean difference in measured thoracic gas volume (bent-straight = -71±211 ml was not statistically significant. Corrected body volume and percent body fat in the bent position consequently were on average 86±122 ml (p<0.05 and 0.5±0.7% (p<0.05 lower than in the straight position respectively. CONCLUSION: Although the differences reached statistical significance, absolute differences are rather small. Subject positioning should be viewed as a factor that may contribute to between-test variability and hence contribute to (inprecision in detecting small individual changes in body composition, rather than a potential source of systematic bias. It therefore may be advisable to pay attention to standardizing subject positioning when tracking small changes in PF are of interest. The cause of the differences is shown not to be related to changes in the volume of isothermal air in the lungs. It is hypothesized and calculated that the observed direction and magnitude of these differences may arise from the surface area artifact which does not take into account that a subject in the bent position exposes more skin to the air in the device therefore potentially creating a larger underestimation of the actual body volume due to the isothermal effect of air close to the skin.

  18. Measurement of Turbid Body Optical Properties Using Attenuation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this work was to investigate the laser light interaction with highly diffusing tissue media like milk. In this work collimated transmission, fluence rate measurements and angular distribution of intensity measurements were made on three types of milks having different fat contents such as fresh cow milk ...

  19. Whole body [O-15]water pharmacokinetics measured in blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maguire, RP; Spyrou, NM; Leenders, KL

    A simple pharmacokinetic model to explain the time course of [0-15]water in human whole blood after bolus injection is described. The model has been derived from measurements in twelve healthy volunteers who were measured repeatedly, resulting in 67 datasets, made in the context of PET blood flow

  20. A new system using NMR technology for measurement of body composition in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Jun; Nishikibe, Masaru

    2004-01-01

    Measurement of body composition (fat mass) is an important item in pathophysiological and pharmacological studies using small animals (mice) in the fields of obesity and diabetes. The existing methods are, however, difficult, time consuming, and require a shielding facility. Now a novel system using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique was developed for measurement of body composition in small animals (mice) that provides noninvasive and rapid measurement without anesthetics; we introduced and evaluated this system and tried another application of this system. First, we validated this system using canola oil, soft tissues (adipose and skeletal muscle), and various kinds of rodent chows. Accuracy, precision, and reproducibility of this system were demonstrated to be equal to those in standard chemical methods. A strong positive correlation (y=x) between the results of NMR and chemical methods was found. Secondly, we evaluated accuracy and assay range of the NMR method using live mice that were fasted overnight or fed high fat diet (HFD). In fasted mice, a small but quantitative decrease of fat mass (5.1% from 9.1%) was detected. Total decrease of fat and lean mass (5.0 g) in fasted mice was equivalent to the decrease of body weight (5.0 g). In mice fed the HFD, increase of fat mass with relative decrease of lean mass were qualitatively detected in a time-dependent manner. We would like to emphasize that operation of the system was actually easy and measurements were accomplished in a short time (1 minute). Thirdly, we tried to use the NMR system for determination of hepatic fat contents using mice fasted or treated with a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ agonist; our results showed a quantitative increase in fat by fasting or in decrease in fat by the drug treatment. The changes of fat contents determined by the NMR method were well correlated with the changes in triglyceride and total cholesterol values obtained by the biochemical assays

  1. Measurements of the total-body potassium contents. Application of reference value with the whole-body counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuo [Chiba Univ. (Japan). Inst. for Training Radiological Technicians; Saegusa, Kenji; Arimizu, Noboru; Kuniyasu, Yoshio; Itoh, Hisao

    2001-08-01

    The total-body potassium contents were measured in 405 healthy volunteers and 186 patients with whole body counter in Chiba University Hospital. The total-body potassium contents was expressed by the reference value (R value). The R value was calculated as measured potassium contents (g) divided by the body surface area (m{sup 2}) and adjusted by age and sex of healthy persons. The R value was 100.65{+-}9.22% in 405 healthy volunteers. Those of each disease were as follows: liver cirrhosis; 94.24{+-}11.22%, chronic hepatitis; 95.74{+-}11.24%, hyperthyroidism; 99.37{+-}10.8%, periodic paralysis; 82.0{+-}9.01%, Barter's syndrome; 93.99{+-}9.86%, myasthenia gravis; 97.34{+-}6.42% and hypo-potassemia; 90.64{+-}11.76%, respectively. The R values of other diseases such as uterine cancer, breast cancer, anemia, hypertension were 97.78{+-}11.5%, 99.22{+-}8.88%, 96.64{+-}12.73%, 98.5{+-}9.63% respectively. Fourteen patients showed especially lower R values under 75%. These were 1 liver cirrhosis, 3 hypertension, 1 diabetes mellitus, 3 hypo-potassemia, 1 periodic paralysis, 2 Barter's syndrome, 2 chemical poisoning, and 1 breast cancer. Follow-up study was performed in some patients with the lower R values. The result of follow-up study showed that there was a relationship between improvement of symptoms and increase of total body potassium contents. (author)

  2. Body Image in Transmen: Multidimensional Measurement and the Effects of Mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Grift, Tim C; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Elfering, Lian; Özer, Müjde; Bouman, Mark-Bram; Buncamper, Marlon E; Smit, Jan Maerten; Mullender, Margriet G

    2016-11-01

    Transmen are generally dissatisfied with their breasts and often opt for mastectomy. However, little is known about the specific effects of this procedure on this group's body image. To prospectively assess the effect of mastectomy on the body image of transmen, including cognitive, emotional, and behavioral aspects. During a 10-month period, all transmen applying for mastectomy were invited to participate in this study. The 33 participants completed assessments preoperatively and at least 6 months postoperatively. Participants were surveyed on body satisfaction (Body Image Scale for Transsexuals), body attitudes (Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire), appearance schemas (Appearance Schemas Inventory), situational bodily feelings (Situational Inventory of Body Image Dysphoria), body image-related quality of life (Body Image Quality of Life Inventory), and self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale). Control values were retrieved from the literature and a college sample. Before surgery, transmen reported less positive body attitudes and satisfaction, a lower self-esteem and body image-related quality of life compared with cisgender men and women. Mastectomy improved body satisfaction most strongly, although respondents reported improvements in all domains (eg, decreased dysphoria when looking in the mirror and improved feelings of self-worth). Most outcome measurements were strongly correlated. Mastectomy improves body image beyond satisfaction with chest appearance alone. Body satisfaction and feelings of "passing" in social situations are associated with a higher quality of life and self-esteem. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Exhaust Gas Temperature Measurements in Diagnostics of Turbocharged Marine Internal Combustion Engines Part I Standard Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczewski Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the problem of diagnostic informativeness of exhaust gas temperature measurements in turbocharged marine internal combustion engines. Theoretical principles of the process of exhaust gas flow in turbocharger inlet channels are analysed in its dynamic and energetic aspects. Diagnostic parameters are defined which enable to formulate general evaluation of technical condition of the engine based on standard online measurements of the exhaust gas temperature. A proposal is made to extend the parametric methods of diagnosing workspaces in turbocharged marine engines by analysing time-histories of enthalpy changes of the exhaust gas flowing to the turbocompressor turbine. Such a time-history can be worked out based on dynamic measurements of the exhaust gas temperature, performed using a specially designed sheathed thermocouple.

  4. Triceps skin fold thickness as a measure of body fat in Nigerian

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2012-11-26

    Nov 26, 2012 ... and body fat distribution.2,3 Skin fold thickness measure- ments are a well ... different recognized areas for the measurement of SFT, ..... 'western children.' These .... Asia Pacific J Clin ... sity in children and young people:.

  5. Effect of measurement conditions on three-dimensional roughness values, and development of measurement standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabre, A; Brenier, B; Raynaud, S

    2011-01-01

    Friction or corrosion behaviour, fatigue lifetime for mechanical components are influenced by their boundary and subsurface properties. The surface integrity is studied on mechanical component in order to improve the service behaviour of them. Roughness is one of the main geometrical properties, which is to be qualified and quantified. Components can be obtained using a complex process: forming, machining and treatment can be combined to realize parts with complex shape. Then, three-dimensional roughness is needed to characterize these parts with complex shape and textured surface. With contact or non-contact measurements (contact stylus, confocal microprobe, interferometer), three-dimensional roughness is quantified using the calculation of pertinent parameters defined by the international standard PR EN ISO 25178-2:2008. An analysis will identify the influence of measurement conditions on three-dimensional parameters. The purpose of this study is to analyse the variation of roughness results using contact stylus or optical apparatus. The second aim of this work is to develop a measurement standard well adapted to qualify the contact and non-contact apparatus.

  6. [Mobile Health: IEEE Standard for Wearable Cuffless Blood Pressure Measuring Devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xia; Wu, Wenli; Bao, Shudi

    2015-07-01

    IEEE Std 1708-2014 breaks through the traditional standards of cuff based blood pressure measuring devices and establishes a normative definition of wearable cuffless blood pressure measuring devices and the objective performance evaluation of this kind of devices. This study firstly introduces the background of the new standard. Then, the standard details will be described, and the impact of cuffless blood pressure measuring devices with the new standard on manufacturers and end users will be addressed.

  7. The regulatory framework of accounting and accounting standard-setting bodies in the European Union member states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Mamić-Sačer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the principal features of accounting in the 21st century is harmonisation and stanardisation. Regulation of the European Parliament and European Council No. 1606/2002 harmonizes financial reporting for certain companies in the EU. However, national accounting principles are of great importance for financial reporting. The main purpose of this research was to investigate the application of generally accepted accounting principles, the regulatory accounting framework and the standard-setting bodies of EU member states. The analysis of these accounting issues was conducted with respect to all 28 EU member states. The results indicate that EU member states regulate their principal accounting issues through separate accounting acts or implement those issues in companies acts. Some EU member states do not have national accounting standards, the national accounting principles being incorporated in companies acts and accounting acts. Nevertheless, national accounting standard-setting bodies are governmental organisations in almost half the member states.

  8. Measured versus self-reported body height and body mass in patients after an acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domagała Zygmunt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic anthropometric data describing a person in the broadest context are body weight and height, two of the most frequently analyzed somatometric parameters. The same is true I in relation to clinical patients. The aim of the present study was to compare the self-reported and actual body weight, height and BMI in patients suffering from coronary artery disease and undergoing cardiac rehabilitation. The study sample consisted of 100 patients treated for coronary artery disease. The patients were asked to state their body weight and height. At the same time a three-person study team took measurements, which were later the basis for verification and objective assessment of the data provided by the patients. Statistical analysis was performed with Statistics 11.0 PL software. The analysis of mean results for the assessed group of patients has shown the presence of statistically significant differences between declared and actual data. The differences were observed for both male and female study population. It has been proven that the subjects declare greater body height (mean value 1.697 m vs. 1.666 m and lower body weight (80.643 kg vs. 82.051 kg. Based on the data from surveys and direct measurements, the body mass index for the self-reported and actual data was calculated. A comparison of these values has shown considerable statistically significant differences. The differences between declared and actual data point to highly subjective self-assessment, which disqualifies the declared data in the context of monitoring of treatment and rehabilitation processes. The authors believe that actual data should be used in direct trial examination of patients suffering from coronary artery disease who presented with acute coronary syndrome.

  9. Biopolitcs and education. Measurement, standardization and regularisation of the population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geo SAURA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes scholar standardized testing as a dispositif of educational biopolitics. It describes a theoretical review of biopolitics, an analytic of power of the economic agencies that legitimize global education policies and a socio- technical mapping of teacher control technologies. The dispositif of educational biopolitics causes the legitimizing of disciplinary logic in students, along with the perpetuation of dividing lines (normality/abnormality and the hegemony of standardization as regularization of population sets. The effects brought about in teachers are presented with in-depth interviews of empirical research, including two qualities: «comparability», of which the characteristics are computing/center and relationship with everything, and «dividuality» where the properties are competitiveness and subjection.

  10. Measurement of total-body oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon in vivo by photon activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulin, K.

    1984-01-01

    With the aim of assessing nutritional status, the feasibility of measuring the total body quantities of the major body elements, i.e. oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon, using the photon beam of a 45 MV betatron and a whole-body counter, has been evaluated in detail. Following photon activation a single energy γ-radiation (.511 MeV) is observed from all three elements to be measured. The half-lives of 15 O, 13 N, and 11 C, however, are sufficiently different (20.5 min, 10.0 min, and 20.4 min. respectively) to permit their measurement from an analysis of the measured decay curve. Following corrections for interfering reactions, a computer curve-fitting algorithm is used to resolve the data into 15 O, 13 N, and 11 C components. Measurements of O, N, and C have been made both in phantoms and in live and dead rats. A comparison of the body composition results from this technique with results from chemical analysis indicates that measured carbon can quite accurately predict total body fat. The comparison of the total body nitrogen measurement by photon activation with total body protein by chemical analysis was inconclusive and suggests that further work be done to verify the estimated accuracy of the nitrogen measurement

  11. Practical estimation of the uncertainty of analytical measurement standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, R.J.B.; Elbers, I.J.W.; Klijnstra, M.D.; Stolker, A.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, a lot of time and resources are used to determine the quality of goods and services. As a consequence, the quality of measurements themselves, e.g., the metrological traceability of the measured quantity values is essential to allow a proper evaluation of the results with regard to

  12. Standard guide for making quality nondestructive assay measurements

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This guide is a compendium of Quality Measurement Practices for performing measurements of radioactive material using nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments. The primary purpose of the guide is to assist users in arriving at quality NDA results, that is, results that satisfy the end user’s needs. This is accomplished by providing an acceptable and uniform basis for the collection, analysis, comparison, and application of data. The recommendations are not compulsory or prerequisites to achieving quality NDA measurements, but are considered contributory in most areas. 1.2 This guide applies to the use of NDA instrumentation for the measurement of nuclear materials by the observation of spontaneous or stimulated nuclear radiations, including photons, neutrons, or the flow of heat. Recommended calibration, operating, and assurance methods represent guiding principles based on current NDA technology. The diversity of industry-wide nuclear materials measurement applications and instrumentation precludes disc...

  13. Standards for chemical or NDA measurements for nuclear safeguards: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, C.D.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of various materials from all parts of the fuel cycle are required to be traceable to a national measurement system, primarily through standards. The availability of the standards is discussed, for nondestructive as well as destructive chemical analysis. Needs for improved standards (reference materials) and lowered uncertainty are discussed

  14. Damage measurement of structural material by electron backscatter diffraction. Quantification of measurement quality toward standardization of measurement procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaya, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    process, almost identical local misorientations distributions were obtained under different measurement conditions. Finally, for standardization of the measurement procedure of the local misorientation, present knowledge and points to note about measurements were summarized. (author)

  15. Measurement of nitrogen in the body using a commercial PGNAA system--phantom experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichester, D L; Empey, E

    2004-01-01

    An industrial prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) system, originally designed for the real-time elemental analyses of bulk coal on a conveyor belt, has been studied to examine the feasibility of using such a system for body composition analysis. Experiments were conducted to measure nitrogen in a simple, tissue equivalent phantom comprised of 2.7 wt% of nitrogen. The neutron source for these experiments was 365 MBq (18.38 microg) of 252Cf located within an engineered low Z moderator and it yielded a dose rate in the measurement position of 3.91 mSv/h; data were collected using a 2780 cm(3) NaI(Tl) cylindrical detector with a digital signal processor and a 512 channel MCA. Source, moderator and detector geometries were unaltered from the system's standard configuration, where they have been optimized for considerations such as neutron thermalization, measurement sensitivity and uniformity, background radiation and external dose minimization. Based on net counts in the 10.8 MeV PGNAA nitrogen photopeak and its escape peaks the dose dependent nitrogen count rate was 11,600 counts/mSv with an uncertainty of 3.0% after 0.32 mSv (4.9 min), 2.0% after 0.74 mSv (11.4 min) and 1.0% after 3.02 mSv (46.4 min).

  16. Measurement standards and the general problem of reference points in chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, W.; Dube, G.

    2002-01-01

    Besides the measurement standards available in general metrology in the form of the realisations of the units of measurement, measurement standards of chemical composition are needed for the vast field of chemical measurement (measurements of the chemical composition), because it is the main aim of such measurements to quantify non-isolated substances, often in complicated matrices, to which the 'classical' measurement standards and their lower- level derivatives are not directly applicable. At present, material artefacts as well as standard measurement devices serve as chemical measurement standards. These are measurement standards in the full metrological sense only, however, if they are firmly linked to the SI unit in which the composition represented by the standard is expressed. This requirement has the consequence that only a very restricted number of really reliable chemical measurement standards exist at present. Since it is very difficult and time consuming to increase this number substantially and, on the other hand, reliable reference points are increasingly needed for all kinds of chemical measurements, primary methods of measurement and high-level reference measurements will play an increasingly important role for the establishment of worldwide comparability and hence mutual acceptance of chemical measurement results. (author)

  17. Readiness to accept Western standard of beauty and body satisfaction among Muslim girls with and without hijab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đurović, Dušanka; Tiosavljević, Marija; Šabanović, Harisa

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this paper was to determine whether there is a difference in the readiness to accept Western standards of beauty in which thinness is an ideal of beauty and attractiveness, as well in body and appearance satisfaction between Muslim adolescent girls attending madrassa and dressing in accordance with tradition, that is to say wearing hijab, and Muslim adolescent girls who do not wear hijab and who follow contemporary Western-influenced fashion trends. Both of these groups were also compared to a non-Muslim group of adolescent girls. The sample consisted of 75 Muslim adolescent girls with hijab, 75 Muslim adolescent girls without hijab and 75 Orthodox adolescent girls. The following instruments were used: the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), the Sociocultural Attitudes towards Appearance Questionnaire (SATAQ-3) and the Contour Drawing Rating Scale (CDRS). The highest level of body satisfaction (despite this group having the highest body weight in the sample) was evident among Muslim adolescent girls attending madrassa and wearing hijab. They also showed significantly less pressure to attain the Western thin-ideal standards of beauty than adolescent girls who accept Western way of dressing. Research results indicate a significant role of socio-cultural factors in one's attitude towards the body image, but also opens the question of the role of religion as a protective factor when it comes to the body and appearance attitude among Muslim women who wear hijab. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. New g-2 measurement deviates further from Standard Model

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "The latest result from an international collaboration of scientists investigating how the spin of a muon is affected as this type of subatomic particle moves through a magnetic field deviates further than previous measurements from theoretical predictions" (1 page).

  19. Standards for measurements and testing of wind turbine power quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, P [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Gerdes, G; Klosse, R; Santjer, F [DEWI, Wilhelmshaven (Germany); Robertson, N; Davy, W [NEL, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Koulouvari, M; Morfiadakis, E [CRES, Pikermi (Greece); Larsson, Aa [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1999-03-01

    The present paper describes the work done in power quality sub-task of the project `European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Developments` funded by the EU SMT program. The objective of the power quality sub-task has been to make analyses and new recommendation(s) for the standardisation of measurement and verification of wind turbine power quality. The work has been organised in three major activities. The first activity has been to propose measurement procedures and to verify existing and new measurement procedures. This activity has also involved a comparison of the measurements and data processing of the participating partners. The second activity has been to investigate the influence of terrain, grid properties and wind farm summation on the power quality of wind turbines with constant rotor speed. The third activity has been to investigate the influence of terrain, grid properties and wind farm summation on the power quality of wind turbines with variable rotor speed. (au)

  20. Anthropometric body measurements based on multi-view stereo image reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoxin; Jia, Wenyan; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Li, Jie; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Zuo, Wangmeng; Wang, Kuanquan; Sun, Mingui

    2013-01-01

    Anthropometric measurements, such as the circumferences of the hip, arm, leg and waist, waist-to-hip ratio, and body mass index, are of high significance in obesity and fitness evaluation. In this paper, we present a home based imaging system capable of conducting anthropometric measurements. Body images are acquired at different angles using a home camera and a simple rotating disk. Advanced image processing algorithms are utilized for 3D body surface reconstruction. A coarse body shape model is first established from segmented body silhouettes. Then, this model is refined through an inter-image consistency maximization process based on an energy function. Our experimental results using both a mannequin surrogate and a real human body validate the feasibility of the proposed system.

  1. Measuring cues for stand-off deception detection based on full-body nonverbal features in body-worn cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Henri; Burghouts, Gertjan; den Hollander, Richard; van der Zee, Sophie; Baan, Jan; ten Hove, Johan-Martijn; van Diepen, Sjaak; van den Haak, Paul; van Rest, Jeroen

    2016-10-01

    Deception detection is valuable in the security domain to distinguish truth from lies. It is desirable in many security applications, such as suspect and witness interviews and airport passenger screening. Interviewers are constantly trying to assess the credibility of a statement, usually based on intuition without objective technical support. However, psychological research has shown that humans can hardly perform better than random guessing. Deception detection is a multi-disciplinary research area with an interest from different fields, such as psychology and computer science. In the last decade, several developments have helped to improve the accuracy of lie detection (e.g., with a concealed information test, increasing the cognitive load, or measurements with motion capture suits) and relevant cues have been discovered (e.g., eye blinking or fiddling with the fingers). With an increasing presence of mobile phones and bodycams in society, a mobile, stand-off, automatic deception detection methodology based on various cues from the whole body would create new application opportunities. In this paper, we study the feasibility of measuring these visual cues automatically on different parts of the body, laying the groundwork for stand-off deception detection in more flexible and mobile deployable sensors, such as body-worn cameras. We give an extensive overview of recent developments in two communities: in the behavioral-science community the developments that improve deception detection with a special attention to the observed relevant non-verbal cues, and in the computer-vision community the recent methods that are able to measure these cues. The cues are extracted from several body parts: the eyes, the mouth, the head and the fullbody pose. We performed an experiment using several state-of-the-art video-content-analysis (VCA) techniques to assess the quality of robustly measuring these visual cues.

  2. [FRC measurement in intensive care patients. A definition of standards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauer, H J; Lorenz, B A; Kox, W J

    1998-10-01

    Determination of Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) can be performed through washout methods, indicator gas dilution or bodyplethysmography. Some of these techniques have been adapted for use in intensive care patients whilst being mechanically ventilated. However, most measurement setups are bulky, cumbersome to use and their running costs are high. Hence FRC measurement has not become a routine method in intensive care although it offers considerable advantages in the management of ventilated patients such as the determination of "best PEEP", the detection of progressive alveolar collapse in the course of acute lung injury and during weaning from mechanical ventilation. Up to now most efforts to improve and simplify FRC measurement were made at the expense of accuracy. An ideal method ought to be accurate, easy to handle and cost-effective. It should supply not only FRC data but also information about intrapulmonary gas distribution and dead space. These demands can be met using modern data acquisition software. The pros and cons of all methods available for FRC measurement are discussed in view of their suitability for intensive care patients. A conventional nitrogen washout using emission spectroscopy for measurement of nitrogen concentration gives satisfying exact values for the determination of the parameters mentioned above. The measurement error can be lowered under 5% by special corrections for flow and nitrogen signal (delay and rise times, changes of gas viscosity). For flow measurement a normal pneumotachograph can be used. Using a laptop computer for data acquisition the bed-side monitor fulfills most of the demands in intensive care. It is then also possible to measure indices of intrapulmonary gas distribution such as Alveolar Mixing Efficiency and Lung Clearance Index.

  3. Measurements of the total-body potassium contents. Application of reference value with the whole-body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Saegusa, Kenji; Arimizu, Noboru; Kuniyasu, Yoshio; Itoh, Hisao

    2001-01-01

    The total-body potassium contents were measured in 405 healthy volunteers and 186 patients with whole body counter in Chiba University Hospital. The total-body potassium contents was expressed by the reference value (R value). The R value was calculated as measured potassium contents (g) divided by the body surface area (m 2 ) and adjusted by age and sex of healthy persons. The R value was 100.65±9.22% in 405 healthy volunteers. Those of each disease were as follows: liver cirrhosis; 94.24±11.22%, chronic hepatitis; 95.74±11.24%, hyperthyroidism; 99.37±10.8%, periodic paralysis; 82.0±9.01%, Barter's syndrome; 93.99±9.86%, myasthenia gravis; 97.34±6.42% and hypo-potassemia; 90.64±11.76%, respectively. The R values of other diseases such as uterine cancer, breast cancer, anemia, hypertension were 97.78±11.5%, 99.22±8.88%, 96.64±12.73%, 98.5±9.63% respectively. Fourteen patients showed especially lower R values under 75%. These were 1 liver cirrhosis, 3 hypertension, 1 diabetes mellitus, 3 hypo-potassemia, 1 periodic paralysis, 2 Barter's syndrome, 2 chemical poisoning, and 1 breast cancer. Follow-up study was performed in some patients with the lower R values. The result of follow-up study showed that there was a relationship between improvement of symptoms and increase of total body potassium contents. (author)

  4. Secondary standard neutron detector for measuring total reaction cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekharan, K.K.; Laumer, H.; Gabbard, F.

    1975-01-01

    A neutron detector has been constructed and calibrated for the accurate measurement of total neutron-production cross sections. The detector consists of a polyethylene sphere of 24'' diameter in which 8- 10 BF 3 counters have been installed radially. The relative efficiency of this detector has been determined for average neutron energies, from 30 keV to 1.5 MeV by counting neutrons from 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be. By adjusting the radial positions of the BF 3 counters in the polyethylene sphere the efficiency for neutron detection was made nearly constant for this energy range. Measurement of absolute efficiency for the same neutron energy range has been done by counting the neutrons from 51 V(p,n) 51 Cr and 57 Fe(p,n) 57 Co reactions and determining the absolute number of residual nuclei produced during the measurement of neutron yield. Details of absolute efficiency measurements and the use of the detector for measurement of total neutron yields from neutron producing reactions such as 23 Na(p,n) 23 Mg are given

  5. A study of exposure to RF radiation during MRI examinations. 2. A comparison of two procedures measuring the whole body SAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masayuki; Imaeda, Isao; Koga, Sukehiko; Sugie, Masami; Anno, Hirofumi; Kinoshita, Kazuo; Okada, Tatsuhiko; Endou, Yukio; Katada, Kazuhiro.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations. Particularly, in this paper, the authors compared the measuring procedures of a whole body specific absorption rate (SAR) set forth in two safety guidelines respectively: the safety guideline of MRI equipments in Japan which based on the 1988 guideline of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the 1995 standard of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). As a result of the measurement, the measuring procedure set forth in the Japanese guideline underestimated the whole body SAR of a torso phantom in a tuneless type QD coil. The result of our experiment clearly showed that the measuring procedure set forth in the Japanese guideline did not adjust to the tuneless type QD coil. Therefore, the authors recommended ''the pulse energy method'' which is provided by the IEC standard as a measuring procedure of the whole body SAR. (author)

  6. Using quasars as standard clocks for measuring cosmological redshift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, De-Chang; Starkman, Glenn D; Stojkovic, Branislav; Stojkovic, Dejan; Weltman, Amanda

    2012-06-08

    We report hitherto unnoticed patterns in quasar light curves. We characterize segments of the quasar's light curves with the slopes of the straight lines fit through them. These slopes appear to be directly related to the quasars' redshifts. Alternatively, using only global shifts in time and flux, we are able to find significant overlaps between the light curves of different pairs of quasars by fitting the ratio of their redshifts. We are then able to reliably determine the redshift of one quasar from another. This implies that one can use quasars as standard clocks, as we explicitly demonstrate by constructing two independent methods of finding the redshift of a quasar from its light curve.

  7. Monte Carlo study of thermal flux profiles and body correction factors for body protein measurements of obese subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, B.J.; Allen, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    In previous calculations for total body nitrogen measurements of children, the anterior/posterior thermal neutron flux profile with depth was found to be fairly flat after an initial rise. However, for obese adults significant variations are found in the flux profile with the central flux value being as low as 20% of the peak value. The significance of these flux variations is examined. Correction factors are calculated for the varying attenuation of the nitrogen and hydrogen photons by a range of obese bodies. The calculations included the effect of the thermal flux profile as well as that of an outer layer of low nitrogen content adipose tissue. The bodies are assumed to have a homogeneous hydrogen content. A study of four obese body models with varying sex and fat content shows that the correction factors do not vary much between males and females. This is surprising since the female models are assumed to have a surface fat layer twice as thick as for the male models. The correction factors are found to be only slightly sensitive to the thermal flux variations with depth. 5 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  8. Introducing the Body-QoL®: A New Patient-Reported Outcome Instrument for Measuring Body Satisfaction-Related Quality of Life in Aesthetic and Post-bariatric Body Contouring Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilla, Stefan; Cuevas, Pedro; Aedo, Sócrates; Dominguez, Carlos; Jara, Rocío; Calderón, María E; Al-Himdani, Sarah; Rios, Marco A; Taladriz, Cristián; Rodriguez, Diego; Gonzalez, Rolando; Lazo, Ángel; Erazo, Cristián; Benitez, Susana; Andrades, Patricio; Sepúlveda, Sergio

    2016-02-01

    To develop a new patient-reported outcome instrument (PRO) to measure body-related satisfaction quality of life (QoL). Standard 3-phase PRO design was followed; in the first phase, a qualitative design was used in 45 patients to develop a conceptual framework and to create preliminary scale domains and items. In phase 2, large-scale population testing on 1340 subjects was performed to reduce items and domains. In phase 3, final testing of the developed instrument on 34 patients was performed. Statistics used include Factor, RASCH, and multivariate regression analysis. Psychometric properties measured were internal reliability, item-rest, item-test, and test-retest correlations. The PRO-developed instrument is composed of four domains (satisfaction with the abdomen, sex life, self-esteem and social life, and physical symptoms) and 20 items in total. The score can range from 20 (worst) to 100 (best). Responsiveness was 100 %, internal reliability 93.3 %, and test-retest concordance 97.7 %. Body image-related QoL was superior in men than women (p instrument (p measured reliably with the Body-QoL instrument. It can be used to quantify the improvement in cosmetic and post-bariatric patients including non- or minimally invasive procedures, suction assisted lipectomy, abdominoplasty, lipoabdominoplasty, and lower body lift and to give an evidence-based approach to standard practice. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  9. Standard guide for high-temperature static strain measurement

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1998-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers the selection and application of strain gages for the measurement of static strain up to and including the temperature range from 425 to 650°C (800 to 1200°F). This guide reflects some current state-of-the-art techniques in high temperature strain measurement, and will be expanded and updated as new technology develops. 1.2 This practice assumes that the user is familiar with the use of bonded strain gages and associated signal conditioning and instrumentation as discussed in Refs. (1) and (2). The strain measuring systems described are those that have proven effective in the temperature range of interest and were available at the time of issue of this practice. It is not the intent of this practice to limit the user to one of the gage types described nor is it the intent to specify the type of system to be used for a specific application. However, in using any strain measuring system including those described, the proposer must be able to demonstrate the capability of the proposed sy...

  10. Triceps skin fold thickness as a measure of body fat in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Skin fold thickness (SFT) at selected areas offers a simple method of subcutaneous fat assessment and provides a good estimate of obesity and body fat distribution. The triceps SFT has been shown to be one of the best and most popular sites for SFT measurement in children. Objective: To assess the body fat ...

  11. Weights and linear measurements of the body and some organs of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The absolute weights of the body, heart, kidneys, spleen, pancreas, liver, gonads, digestive tract and adrenal glands, as well as the absolute linear measurements of the body, digestive tract and oviduct were determined in adult female and male African white-bellied tree pangolins. The relative weights, relative lengths and ...

  12. Body conscious? Interoceptive awareness, measured by heartbeat perception, is negatively correlated with self-objectification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainley, Vivien; Tsakiris, Manos

    2013-01-01

    'Self-objectification' is the tendency to experience one's body principally as an object, to be evaluated for its appearance rather than for its effectiveness. Within objectification theory, it has been proposed that self-objectification accounts for the poorer interoceptive awareness observed in women, as measured by heartbeat perception. Our study is, we believe, the first specifically to test this relationship. Using a well-validated and reliable heartbeat perception task, we measured interoceptive awareness in women and compared this with their scores on the Self-Objectification Questionnaire, the Self-Consciousness Scale and the Body Consciousness Questionnaire. Interoceptive awareness was negatively correlated with self-objectification. Interoceptive awareness, public body consciousness and private body consciousness together explained 31% of the variance in self-objectification. However, private body consciousness was not significantly correlated with interoceptive awareness, which may explain the many nonsignificant results in self-objectification studies that have used private body consciousness as a measure of body awareness. We propose interoceptive awareness, assessed by heartbeat perception, as a measure of body awareness in self-objectification studies. Our findings have implications for those clinical conditions, in women, which are characterised by self-objectification and low interoceptive awareness, such as eating disorders.

  13. Body conscious? Interoceptive awareness, measured by heartbeat perception, is negatively correlated with self-objectification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien Ainley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: 'Self-objectification' is the tendency to experience one's body principally as an object, to be evaluated for its appearance rather than for its effectiveness. Within objectification theory, it has been proposed that self-objectification accounts for the poorer interoceptive awareness observed in women, as measured by heartbeat perception. Our study is, we believe, the first specifically to test this relationship. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a well-validated and reliable heartbeat perception task, we measured interoceptive awareness in women and compared this with their scores on the Self-Objectification Questionnaire, the Self-Consciousness Scale and the Body Consciousness Questionnaire. Interoceptive awareness was negatively correlated with self-objectification. Interoceptive awareness, public body consciousness and private body consciousness together explained 31% of the variance in self-objectification. However, private body consciousness was not significantly correlated with interoceptive awareness, which may explain the many nonsignificant results in self-objectification studies that have used private body consciousness as a measure of body awareness. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose interoceptive awareness, assessed by heartbeat perception, as a measure of body awareness in self-objectification studies. Our findings have implications for those clinical conditions, in women, which are characterised by self-objectification and low interoceptive awareness, such as eating disorders.

  14. Standardized voluntary force measurement in a lower extremity rehabilitation robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolliger Marc

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isometric force measurements in the lower extremity are widely used in rehabilitation of subjects with neurological movement disorders (NMD because walking ability has been shown to be related to muscle strength. Therefore muscle strength measurements can be used to monitor and control the effects of training programs. A new method to assess isometric muscle force was implemented in the driven gait orthosis (DGO Lokomat. To evaluate the capabilities of this new measurement method, inter- and intra-rater reliability were assessed. Methods Reliability was assessed in subjects with and without NMD. Subjects were tested twice on the same day by two different therapists to test inter-rater reliability and on two separate days by the same therapist to test intra-rater reliability. Results Results showed fair to good reliability for the new measurement method to assess isometric muscle force of lower extremities. In subjects without NMD, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC for inter-rater reliability ranged from 0.72 to 0.97 and intra-rater reliability from 0.71 to 0.90. In subjects with NMD, ICC ranged from 0.66 to 0.97 for inter-rater and from 0.50 to 0.96 for intra-rater reliability. Conclusion Inter- and intra- rater reliability of an assessment method for measuring maximal voluntary isometric muscle force of lower extremities was demonstrated. We suggest that this method is a valuable tool for documentation and controlling of the rehabilitation process in patients using a DGO.

  15. Advisory Committee for the Calibration Standards of Ionizing Radiation Measurement: Section 3. Neutron measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Section III (Mesures neutroniques) of the Comite Consultatif pour les Etalons de Mesure des Rayonnements Ionisants held its fifth meeting in May 1981. Recent work carried out at BIPM in the field of neutron measurements was reported. The status of a full-scale 252 Cf neutron source intercomparison (10 7 s - 1 ) and of several restricted comparisons was discussed. Intercomparisons of fast neutron fluence rates are in progress ( 115 In(n,n') 115 Insup(m); NB/Zr) or will take place in the near future ( 115 n(n,#betta#) 116 Insup(m); 235 U and 238 U fission chambers). An intercomparison of neutron dosimetry standards by circulating tissue-equivalent ion chambers will be prepared and organized by BIPM. Finally, there was a broad exchange of information on work in progress at the various laboratories represented at the meeting [fr

  16. Guidelines for Member States concerning radiation measurement standards and Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    In the early nineteen-sixties an acute need developed for higher dosimetric accuracy in radiation therapy, particularly in developing countries. This need led to the establishment of a number of dosimetry laboratories around the world, specializing in the calibration of radiation therapy dosimeters. In order to co-ordinate the provision of guidance and assistance to such laboratories, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) set up a Network of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) under their joint aegis, as described in the IAEA booklet 'SSDLs: Development and Trends' (1985). This publication includes detailed criteria for the establishment of these laboratories. The present guidelines deal with the functions and status of SSDLs, in particular with the need for recognition and support by the competent national authorities. (author)

  17. Standardization of test conditions for gamma camera performance measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, K.

    1980-01-01

    The actual way of measuring gamma camera performance is to use point sources or flood sources in air, often in combination with bar phantoms. This method mostly brings best performance parameters for cameras but it has nothing in common with the use of a camera in clinical practice. Particular in the case of low energy emitters, like Tc-99m, the influence of scattered radiation over the performance of cameras is very high. Therefore it is important to have test conditions of radionuclide imaging devices, that will approach as best as practicable the measuring conditions in clinical applications. It is therefore a good news that the International Electrochemical Commission IEC has prepared a draft 'Characteristics and test conditions of radionuclide imaging devices' which is now submitted to the national committees for formal approval under the Six Months' Rule. Some essential points of this document are discussed in the paper. (orig.) [de

  18. CP Violation and Lifetime Measurements of Two-body Charmless Decays of B Hadrons at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00453516; Eklund, Lard

    This thesis presents lifetime measurements of charmless two-body decays of b hadrons, specifically the decay modes known as $B\\to h^+ h^{'-}$, where $B$ refers to meson or baryon containing a $b$ quark and $h^{(')}$ refers to a proton $p$, pion $\\pi$ or kaon $K$. Using the large data samples collected by the LHCb detector, the $B\\to h^+ h^{'-}$ channels with the largest branching fractions provide an opportunity to perform high-precision measurements of the properties of the decays. The leading-order processes in $B \\rightarrow h^{+}h'^{-}$ decays are tree and penguin topologies, where the loop-dominated channels could be sensitive to non-standard model physics. The $B^0_S \\to K^+ K^{-}$ mode is particularly interesting as it has a $CP$-even final state, as well as being dominated by penguin decay processes. The $B^0_S \\to K^+ K^{-}$ effective lifetime can be used to calculate the $B_{s}^{0}$ decay-rate asymmetry $A_{\\Delta \\Gamma}$, which quantifies the amount of $CP$ violation in the decay. Using LHCb ...

  19. Standardization of test conditions for gamma camera performance measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, K.

    1982-02-01

    The way of measuring gamma camera performance is to use point sources or flood sources in air, often in combination with bar phantoms. This method has nothing in common with the use of a camera in clinical practice. Particularly in the case of low energy emitters, like Tc-99m, the influence of scattered radiation over the performance of cameras is very high. The IEC document 'Characteristics and test conditions of radionuclide imaging devices' is discussed

  20. Deuterium lamps as transfer standards for spectral radiance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, P.J.; Nettleton, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the work carried out at NPL and PTB to improve the performance of a low pressure deuterium discharge lamp, so that it can be used as a transfer standard in the spectral range 120 to 350 nm. To this end it was necessary: - to replace the original quartz windows by magnesium fluoride single crystal plates, which were cut perpendicular to the c-axis of the crystal and which had to be free of impurities, - to construct the lamps in that way that the directional uniformity of the emitted radiation is within the demands, - to age the lamps and to preselect only those of which the irradiance was stable within ± 1% during a thirty minute period after warm-up, - to improve the commercially available electrical power supply to meet the operational needs of the lamps. Thus, the deuterium lamps drifted by about 3% over a period of 100 h at all wavelengths except at 250 nm, where the ageing increased to 4.5%. A liquid nitrogen trap has been developed which can be installed between the vacuum system and the lamp. This reduced to about 2% the decrease of the window's transmission during the first hour of operation, caused by the deposition of oil from the vacuum system

  1. Measuring body composition in overweight individuals by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownbill, Rhonda A; Ilich, Jasminka Z

    2005-01-01

    Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is widely used for body composition measurements in normal-weight and overweight/obese individuals. The limitations of bone densitometers have been frequently addressed. However, the possible errors in assessing body composition in overweight individuals due to incorrect positioning or limitations of DXA to accurately assess both bone mineral density and body composition in obese individuals have not received much attention and are the focus of this report. We discuss proper ways of measuring overweight individuals and point to some studies where that might not have been the case. It appears that currently, the most prudent approach to assess body composition of large individuals who cannot fit under the scanning area would be to estimate regional fat, namely the regions of thigh and/or abdomen. Additionally, using two-half body scans, although time consuming, may provide a relatively accurate measurement of total body fat, however, more studies using this technique are needed to validate it. Researchers using bone densitometers for body composition measurements need to have an understanding of its limitations in overweight individuals and address them appropriately when interpreting their results. Studies on accuracy and precision in measurements of both bone and soft tissue composition in overweight individuals using available densitometers are needed

  2. Validation of bioelectrical-impedance analysis as a measurement of change in body composition in obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushner, R.F.; Kunigk, A.; Alspaugh, M.; Andronis, P.T.; Leitch, C.A.; Schoeller, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    The bioelectrical-impedance-analysis (BIA) method accurately measures body composition in weight-stable subjects. This study validates the use of BIA to measure change in body composition. Twelve obese females underwent weight loss at a mean rate of 1.16 kg/wk. Body composition was measured by deuterium oxide dilution (D2O), BIA, and skinfold anthropometry (SFA) at baseline and at 5% decrements in weight. Highly significant correlations were obtained between D2O and BIA (r = 0.971) and between D2O and SFA (r = 0.932). Overall, BIA predicted change in fat-free mass with greater accuracy (to 0.4 kg) and precision (+/- 1.28 kg) than did anthropometry (to 0.8 kg and +/- 2.58 kg, respectively). We conclude that BIA is a useful clinical method for measuring change in body composition

  3. A nonintrusive temperature measuring system for estimating deep body temperature in bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, S Y; Lee, W K; Baek, H J; Park, K S

    2012-01-01

    Deep body temperature is an important indicator that reflects human being's overall physiological states. Existing deep body temperature monitoring systems are too invasive to apply to awake patients for a long time. Therefore, we proposed a nonintrusive deep body temperature measuring system. To estimate deep body temperature nonintrusively, a dual-heat-flux probe and double-sensor probes were embedded in a neck pillow. When a patient uses the neck pillow to rest, the deep body temperature can be assessed using one of the thermometer probes embedded in the neck pillow. We could estimate deep body temperature in 3 different sleep positions. Also, to reduce the initial response time of dual-heat-flux thermometer which measures body temperature in supine position, we employed the curve-fitting method to one subject. And thereby, we could obtain the deep body temperature in a minute. This result shows the possibility that the system can be used as practical temperature monitoring system with appropriate curve-fitting model. In the next study, we would try to establish a general fitting model that can be applied to all of the subjects. In addition, we are planning to extract meaningful health information such as sleep structure analysis from deep body temperature data which are acquired from this system.

  4. Gamma-ray measurements for uranium enrichment standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, T.D.

    1979-01-01

    The gamma-ray spectroscopic measurement of uranium enrichment is one of the most widely used nondestructive analysis techniques. A study has been started of the precision and accuracy achievable with this technique and the physical parameters which affect it. The study was prompted by questions raised during the ongoing ESARDA-NBS experiment to produce uranium oxide reference counting materials for the technique. Results reported using a high-quality Ge(Li) spectrometer system show reproducibility comparable to that attainable with mass spectrometry

  5. Standardizing measurement, sampling and reporting for public exposure assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Salvador Allende s/No. CEP 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: elaine@ird.gov.br

    2008-11-15

    UNSCEAR assesses worldwide public exposure from natural and man-made sources of ionizing radiation based on information submitted to UNSCEAR by United Nations Member States and from peer reviewed scientific literature. These assessments are used as a basis for radiation protection programs of international and national regulatory and research organizations. Although UNSCEAR describes its assessment methodologies, the data are based on various monitoring approaches. In order to reduce uncertainties and improve confidence in public exposure assessments, it would be necessary to harmonize the methodologies used for sampling, measuring and reporting of environmental results.

  6. Measurement, Standards, and Peer Benchmarking: One Hospital's Journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brian S; Arbore, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Peer-to-peer benchmarking is an important component of rapid-cycle performance improvement in patient safety and quality-improvement efforts. Institutions should carefully examine critical success factors before engagement in peer-to-peer benchmarking in order to maximize growth and change opportunities. Solutions for Patient Safety has proven to be a high-yield engagement for Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, with measureable improvement in both organizational process and culture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. From many body wee partons dynamics to perfect fluid: a standard model for heavy ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venugopalan, R.

    2010-07-22

    We discuss a standard model of heavy ion collisions that has emerged both from experimental results of the RHIC program and associated theoretical developments. We comment briefly on the impact of early results of the LHC program on this picture. We consider how this standard model of heavy ion collisions could be solidified or falsified in future experiments at RHIC, the LHC and a future Electro-Ion Collider.

  8. Body fat and blood pressure: comparison of blood pressure measurements in Chinese children with different body fat levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Wang, Zhiqiang; Dong, Bin; Song, Yi; Hu, Peijin; Zhang, Bing

    2012-11-14

    Children in China are experiencing a rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity, which is associated with hypertension. To compare the effect of body fat on blood pressure (BP) with that of the normal physical growth, we compared BP levels in Chinese children with different body fat levels. In the present population-based study, 13 972 children in the highest-skinfold-thickness-quartile group were individually matched to 13 972 children in the lowest-skinfold-thickness-quartile group by height and weight. Similarly, 5103 children in the highest-waist-circumference-quartile group were matched to the same number of children in the lowest-waist-circumference-quartile group. The high- and low-fat groups had similar height and weight but the high-fat group had significantly higher skinfold and waist circumference measurements. The differences in systolic BP (SBP) between the high- and low-skinfold-thickness groups were small: 0·01 (95 % CI -0·41, 0·44) mmHg in boys and 0·20 (95 % CI -0·15, 0·54) mmHg in girls. The differences in diastolic BP (DBP) were also small (0·39 and 0·38 mmHg for boys and girls, respectively) but were statistically significant. The differences in both SBP and DBP between the high- and low-waist-circumference groups were small but not statistically significant. For a given body size as measured by height and weight, relative body fat had little impact on BP levels in these children. Fat mass and lean mass may have a similar quantitative impact on BP in healthy-weight children.

  9. Standard Methodology for Assessment of Range of Motion While Wearing Body Armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    76 STANDING STATURE (with Footwear ...Thanks also to Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center and the Soldier Integrated Protection Team and those project officers who...being fit into their best body armor size for that configuration): • Standing Stature (with footwear ) • Seated Stature At the goniometer station

  10. University Students Meeting the Recommended Standards of Physical Activity and Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaofen; Castelli, Darla; Castro-Pinero, Jose; Guan, Hongwei

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated student physical activity (PA) and body mass index (BMI) in relation to the "Healthy Campus 2010" objectives set by the American College Health Association in 2002. Students (N = 1125) at a U.S. southern state university participated in the study. The percentages of students who were physically active and whose…

  11. Measuring the benefits of open standards standards : Beyond the motion Gerkens and the Dutch Court of Audit report1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egyedi, T.M.; Enserink, B.

    2013-01-01

    In 2010 the Dutch Parliament (motion Gerkens) requested the Court of Audit to measure the benefits of using open standards and open source software for government IT. In its report of 2011 the Dutch Court of Audit concluded that there were hardly any benefits to be gained. The Court's underlying

  12. Evaluation of electrical broad bandwidth impedance spectroscopy as a tool for body composition measurement in cows in comparison with body measurements and the deuterium oxide dilution method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäff, C T; Pliquett, U; Tuchscherer, A; Pfuhl, R; Görs, S; Metges, C C; Hammon, H M; Kröger-Koch, C

    2017-05-01

    Body fatness and degree of body fat mobilization in cows vary enormously during their reproduction cycle and influence energy partitioning and metabolic adaptation. The objective of the study was to test bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) as a method for predicting fat depot mass (FDM), in living cows. The FDM is defined as the sum of subcutaneous, omental, mesenteric, retroperitoneal, and carcass fat mass. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy is compared with the prediction of FDM from the deuterium oxide (DO) dilution method and from body conformation measurements. Charolais × Holstein Friesian (HF; = 18; 30 d in milk) crossbred cows and 2 HF (lactating and nonlactating) cows were assessed by body conformation measurements, BIS, and the DO dilution method. The BCS of cows was a mean of 3.68 (SE 0.64). For the DO dilution method, a bolus of 0.23 g/kg BW DO (60 atom%) was intravenously injected and deuterium (D) enrichment was analyzed in plasma and whey by stabile isotope mass spectrometry, and total body water content was calculated. Impedance measurement was performed using a 4-electrode interface and time domain-based measurement system consisting of a voltage/current converter for applying current stimulus and an amplifier for monitoring voltage across the sensor electrodes. For the BIS, we used complex impedances over three frequency decades that delivers information on intra- and extracellular water and capacity of cell membranes. Impedance data (resistance of extra- and intracellular space, cell membrane capacity, and phase angle) were extracted 1) by simple curve fit to extract the resistance at direct current and high frequency and 2) by using an electrical equivalent circuit. Cows were slaughtered 7 d after BIS and D enrichment measurements and dissected for the measurement of FDM. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to predict FDM based on data obtained from body conformation measurements, BIS, and D enrichment, and applied

  13. BODY HEIGHT AND ITS ESTIMATION UTILIZING ARM SPAN MEASUREMENTS IN FEMALE ADOLESCENTS FROM CENTRAL REGION IN MONTENEGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Bubanja

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Anthropologists recognized the tallness of nations in the Dinaric Alps long time ago (Popovic et al, 2013. As the modern Montenegrins fall partly into the Dinaric racial classification (Bjelica et al., 2012, the purpose of this study was to examine the body height in Montenegrin female adolescents from central region as well as the relationship between arm span as an alternative to estimating the body height, which would vary from region to region in Montenegro. Method: Our investigation analyses 593 female adolescents from the central region in Montenegro. The anthropometric measurements were taken according to the protocol of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK. Means and standard deviations regarding the anthropometric measurements were obtained. A comparison of means of body heights and arm spans within this gender group were carried out using a t-test. The relationships between body height and arm span were determined using simple correlation coefficients and their 95% confidence interval. Then a linear regression analysis was performed to examine the extent to which the arm span can reliably predict body height. Results: The results displayed that female Central-Montenegrins are 169.24±11.61cm tall and have an arm span of 168.03±10.34cm. Discussion: Compared to other studies, the results of this study have shown that this gender made Central-Macedonians the tall population, taller than general female population in Montenegro (Bjelica et al., 2012. On the other hand, expectably, the arm span reliably predicts body height in this gender. However, the estimation equations which have been obtained in Central-Montenegrins are, different alike in general population, since arm span was shorter than the body heights (1.21±1.27 centimetres, much more than in general population (Bjelica et al., 2012. This confirms the necessity for developing separate height models for each region in Montenegro.

  14. BODY HEIGHT AND ITS ESTIMATION UTILIZING ARM SPAN MEASUREMENTS IN MALE ADOLESCENTS FROM CENTRAL REGION IN MONTENEGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrislav Vujović

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Anthropologists recognized the tallness of nations in the Dinaric Alps long time ago (Popovic et al, 2013. As the modern Montenegrins fall partly into the Dinaric racial classification (Bjelica et al., 2012, the purpose of this study was to examine the body height in Montenegrin male adolescents from central region as well as the relationship between arm span as an alternative to estimating the body height, which would vary from region to region in Montenegro. Method: Our investigation analyses 548 male adolescents from the central region in Montenegro. The anthropometric measurements were taken according to the protocol of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK. Means and standard deviations regarding the anthropometric measurements were obtained. A comparison of means of body heights and arm spans within this gender group were carried out using a t-test. The relationships between body height and arm span were determined using simple correlation coefficients and their 95% confidence interval. Then a linear regression analysis was performed to examine the extent to which the arm span can reliably predict body height. Results: The results displayed that male Central-Montenegrins are 183.66±6.93 cm tall and have an arm span of 184.99±8.30cm. Discussion: Compared to other studies, the results of this study have shown that this gender made Central-Macedonians the tall population, taller than general male population in Montenegro (Bjelica et al., 2012. On the other hand, expectably, the arm span reliably predicts body height in this gender. However, the estimation equations which have been obtained in Central-Montenegrins are, different alike in general population, since arm span was closer to body heights (1.33±1.37 centimetres, more than in general population (Bjelica et al., 2012. This confirms the necessity for developing separate height models for each region in Montenegro.

  15. Measurements of Radioactivity in Body Organs. Report of a Panel of Experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    Measurements of radioactivity in body organs in vivo entail physical and other problems which do not arise in measurements of radioactivity in vitro. From 8-12 December 1969 the International Atomic Energy Agency convened at its Headquarters in Vienna a panel of experts to review the existing status of techniques for such measurements

  16. Analysis of measured data of human body based on error correcting frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Aiyan; Peipei, Gao; Shang, Xiaomei

    2014-04-01

    Anthropometry is to measure all parts of human body surface, and the measured data is the basis of analysis and study of the human body, establishment and modification of garment size and formulation and implementation of online clothing store. In this paper, several groups of the measured data are gained, and analysis of data error is gotten by analyzing the error frequency and using analysis of variance method in mathematical statistics method. Determination of the measured data accuracy and the difficulty of measured parts of human body, further studies of the causes of data errors, and summarization of the key points to minimize errors possibly are also mentioned in the paper. This paper analyses the measured data based on error frequency, and in a way , it provides certain reference elements to promote the garment industry development.

  17. Canyon air flow measurement utilizing ASME standard pitot tube arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncrief, B.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Savannah River Site produces nuclear materials for national defense. In addition to nuclear reactors, the site has separation facilities for reprocessing irradiated nuclear fuel. The chemical separation of highly radioactive materials takes place by remote control in large buildings called canyons. Personnel in these buildings are shielded from radiation by thick concrete walls. Contaminated air is exhausted from the canyons and contaminants are removed by sand filters prior to release to the atmosphere through a stack. When these facilities were built on a crash basis in the early 1950's, inadequate means were provided for pressure and air flow measurement. This presentation describes the challenge we faced in retrofitting a highly radioactive, heavily shielded facility with instrumentation to provide this capability

  18. An Evaluation of pectus excavatum by means of body surface measurements on chest CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirotani, Taichi; Ohama, Kazunori; Shimotake, Takashi; Ishikawa, Nobuki; Watanabe, Reiji

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether the body surface index replaces the Haller index in order to evaluate the severity of pectus excavatum. Sixty-nine cases with a diagnosis of pectus excavatum between August 2001 and January 2008 were prospectively enrolled in the study. The anterior-posterior chest dimension, lateral chest dimension and depth of the most profound depressed area were measured. The body surface index was expressed as an equation A/(B-C), where A was the transverse diameter, B was the anterior-posterior diameter and C was the depth of the depressed area. This index was compared to the Haller index in each patient. In this study, each value was measured on a chest CT scan. The body surface index significantly correlated with the Haller index, in which the coefficient of correlation was 0.879 (p<0.01). The body surface index corresponding to Haller index 3.25 seems to be 1.67. We could find the body surface index corresponding to each Haller index. We propose that an evaluation of pectus excavatum by means of body surface measurements is clinically useful, and may replace the Haller index. The body surface index may allow us to assess the severity of pectus excavatum without a CT scan, resulting in a reduction of radiation exposure for children with pectus excavatum. It's possible to evaluate the body surface index by using a relational table between this index and the Hailer index. We'll evaluate the body surface index by using values measured on a real body. (author)

  19. The association between self-rated health and different anthropometric and body composition measures in the Chinese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Tang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To analyze the strength of association between self-rated health and six anthropometric and body composition measures to explore the best indicator. Methods Analyses were based on the cross-sectional data from the China Kadoorie Biobank Study and approximately 300,000 adults were analyzed. Logistics regression was used to analyze the association between self-rated health (good or poor and anthropometric and body composition measures (height, weight, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, hip circumference (HC and body fat percentage, waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-height ratio. Stratified analyses were undertaken to understand the effect modification of socioeconomic status on the association. Result Odds ratio of self-rated better health had an inverted U-shape association with weight, BMI, WC and body fat, with weight levels increasing until around 73.8 and 65.7 kg for male and female, BMI around 26.8 kg/m2, WC around 85.8 and 87.6 cm, body fat around 24.3 and 36.3%, and then declining thereafter. Height and HC also indicated a slightly inverted U-shape association. The strongest association was observed after adjustment was weight, with one standard deviation greater weight associated with 10.2% and 10.6% increased odds in male and female. Conclusions Being underweight and overweight are both risk factors for poor self-rated health in males and females, and weight is the best indicator of self-rated health compared with other measures.

  20. 38 CFR 21.7672 - Measurement of courses not leading to a standard college degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... not leading to a standard college degree. 21.7672 Section 21.7672 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... Assistance for Members of the Selected Reserve Course Assessment § 21.7672 Measurement of courses not leading to a standard college degree. (a) Overview. (1) Courses not leading to a standard college degree may...

  1. Standard test method for measurement of fatigue crack growth rates

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2015-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of fatigue crack growth rates from near-threshold to Kmax controlled instability. Results are expressed in terms of the crack-tip stress-intensity factor range (ΔK), defined by the theory of linear elasticity. 1.2 Several different test procedures are provided, the optimum test procedure being primarily dependent on the magnitude of the fatigue crack growth rate to be measured. 1.3 Materials that can be tested by this test method are not limited by thickness or by strength so long as specimens are of sufficient thickness to preclude buckling and of sufficient planar size to remain predominantly elastic during testing. 1.4 A range of specimen sizes with proportional planar dimensions is provided, but size is variable to be adjusted for yield strength and applied force. Specimen thickness may be varied independent of planar size. 1.5 The details of the various specimens and test configurations are shown in Annex A1-Annex A3. Specimen configurations other than t...

  2. Effects of body and organ size on absorbed dose: there is no standard patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of estimating the absorbed dose to organs and tissues of the human body due to the presence of a radiopharmaceutical in one or more organs is discussed. Complications are introduced by the fact that the body is not homogeneous and in many cases the organ shapes are not regular. Publications of the MIRD Committee have provided a direct means of estimating the absorbed dose (or absorbed fraction) for a number of radioisotopes. These estimates are based on Monte Carlo calculations for monoenergetic photons distributed uniformly in organs of an adult phantom. The medical physicist finds that his patient does not resemble the adult phantom. In addition, the absorbed fractions for the adult are not reasonable values for the child. This paper examines how these absorbed fraction estimates apply to a nonstandard patient

  3. Between-centre variability versus variability over time in DXA whole body measurements evaluated using a whole body phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis, Olivia [Department of Radiology, AZ-VUB, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussel (Belgium)]. E-mail: olivia.louis@az.vub.ac.be; Verlinde, Siska [Belgian Study Group for Pediatric Endocrinology (Belgium); Thomas, Muriel [Belgian Study Group for Pediatric Endocrinology (Belgium); De Schepper, Jean [Department of Pediatrics, AZ-VUB, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussel (Belgium)

    2006-06-15

    This study aimed to compare the variability of whole body measurements, using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), among geographically distinct centres versus that over time in a given centre. A Hologic-designed 28 kg modular whole body phantom was used, including high density polyethylene, gray polyvinylchloride and aluminium. It was scanned on seven Hologic QDR 4500 DXA devices, located in seven centres and was also repeatedly (n = 18) scanned in the reference centre, over a time span of 5 months. The mean between-centre coefficient of variation (CV) ranged from 2.0 (lean mass) to 5.6% (fat mass) while the mean within-centre CV ranged from 0.3 (total mass) to 4.7% (total area). Between-centre variability compared well with within-centre variability for total area, bone mineral content and bone mineral density, but was significantly higher for fat (p < 0.001), lean (p < 0.005) and total mass (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that, even when using the same device, the between-centre variability remains a matter of concern, particularly where body composition is concerned.

  4. Comparison of Body Mass Index (BMI) Categories Based on Asian and Universal Standards and Language Spoken at Home among Asian American University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tiffany; McMahan, Shari; Mouttapa, Michele; Tanjasiri, Sora Park; Beam, William

    2009-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization released lower Body Mass Index (BMI) cutoff points for Asian individuals to account for increased body fat percentage (BF%) and risk of obesity-related conditions at a lower body mass index. Purpose: This preliminary study: (1) explores the impact of utilizing Asian BMI standards (compared to universal…

  5. Quantitative Statements in Standards of Three Accrediting Bodies: APA, CACREP, and CSWE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Marla P.; Turner, Janet

    The accreditation manual of the Council for Accrediation of Counseling and Related Education Programs (CACREP) contains a statement that, whenever possible, criteria for assessing standards should be qualitative rather than quantitative. The study reported in this paper was conducted to gather baseline data on the extent to which accrediting…

  6. Body Parameters of Czech Breastfed Children Compared to the Czech References and WHO Growth Standards

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Riedlová, J.; Vignerová, J.; Paulová, M.; Musil, V.; Brabec, Marek; Schneidrová, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 7 (2017), s. 593-599 ISSN 0301-4460 Grant - others:GA MZd(CZ) NS9974 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : breastfed children * Czech reference * Growth charts * WHO growth standards Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research OBOR OECD: Statistics and probability Impact factor: 1.240, year: 2016

  7. Relationship between Arm Span Measurements and Body Height in Dinaric Alpes Population: a Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Masanovic

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Several researches have reported the benefit of using various body parameters in predicting standing height, and arm span happened to be one of the most reliable ones in adults. On the other hand, it is well-known the tallness and body proportions are specific in the area that are covered by Dinaric Alpes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the potential relationship between arm span measurements and body height in Dinaric Alpes population. The most visible electronic database (Google Scholar was searched for original research articles available until September 2017. Then research findings were summarized and relationship between arm span measurements and body height in Dinaric Alpes population were identified, as well as areas of future research were recommended. The assessment of body height using various anthropometric measures is very typical from the past centuries and it has been attempted to be studied by many researchers. However, it is important to underline that the arm span has been obtained as the most reliable body indicator for predicting the true height of an individual. However, the studies sampled with the populations lived at Dinaric Alpes mountains have specific estimates. Therefore, all above-mentioned have confirmed the necessity for developing separate body height models for each population on account of ethnic as well as regional differences.

  8. First among Others? Cohen's "d" vs. Alternative Standardized Mean Group Difference Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahan, Sorel; Gamliel, Eyal

    2011-01-01

    Standardized effect size measures typically employed in behavioral and social sciences research in the multi-group case (e.g., [eta][superscript 2], f[superscript 2]) evaluate between-group variability in terms of either total or within-group variability, such as variance or standard deviation--that is, measures of dispersion about the mean. In…

  9. 48 CFR 9904.412 - Cost accounting standard for composition and measurement of pension cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... accounting standard for composition and measurement of pension cost. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost accounting standard for composition and measurement of pension cost. 9904.412 Section 9904.412 Federal Acquisition...

  10. 38 CFR 21.7670 - Measurement of courses leading to a standard, undergraduate college degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurement of courses leading to a standard, undergraduate college degree. 21.7670 Section 21.7670 Pensions, Bonuses, and... leading to a standard, undergraduate college degree. Except as provided in § 21.7672, VA will measure a...

  11. Fractional intestinal absorption and retention of calcium measured by whole-body counting. Application of a power function model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pors Nielsen, S.; Baerenholdt, O.; Munck, O.

    1975-01-01

    By application of a power function model, fractional intestinal calcium absorption was investigated with a new technique involving whole-body counting after successive oral and intravenous administration of standard doses of 47 Ca. The fractional calcium retention 7 days after the oral load of 47 Ca was also measured. Fractional calcium retention averaged 30.3% in normal subjects and 11.5% in 11 patients with intestinal malabsorption. In the same groups fractional calcium absorption averaged 46.6% and 16.4%, respectively. Fractional calcium retention and intestinal calcium absorption were significantly correlated to body surface area, and there was a well-defined relation between fractional retention and absorption of calcium. These studies demonstrate that measurements of fractional retention and fractional intestinal absorption of calcium can be combined by the use of a whole-body counter, that fractional retention and intestinal absorption are proportional to total body surface area and therefore probably also to the total bone mass, and that fractional retention and absorption are so closely interrelated that frational absorption can be estimated from fractional retention with reasonable accuracy in normal subjects. (auth.)

  12. Method for Estimating Evaporative Potential (IM/CLO) from ASTM Standard Single Wind Velocity Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-10

    IM/CLO) FROM ASTM STANDARD SINGLE WIND VELOCITY MEASURES DISCLAIMER The opinions or assertions contained herein are the private views of the...USARIEM TECHNICAL REPORT T16-14 METHOD FOR ESTIMATING EVAPORATIVE POTENTIAL (IM/CLO) FROM ASTM STANDARD SINGLE WIND VELOCITY... ASTM STANDARD SINGLE WIND VELOCITY MEASURES Adam W. Potter Biophysics and Biomedical Modeling Division U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental

  13. Numerical modeling of thermal regime in inland water bodies with field measurement data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladskikh, D.; Sergeev, D.; Baydakov, G.; Soustova, I.; Troitskaya, Yu.

    2018-01-01

    Modification of the program complex LAKE, which is intended to compute the thermal regimes of inland water bodies, and the results of its validation in accordance with the parameters of lake part of Gorky water reservoir are reviewed in the research. The modification caused changing the procedure of input temperature profile assignment and parameterization of surface stress on air-water boundary in accordance with the consideration of wind influence on mixing process. Also the innovation consists in combined methods of gathering meteorological parameters from files of global meteorological reanalysis and data of hydrometeorological station. Temperature profiles carried out with CTD-probe during expeditions in the period 2014-2017 were used for validation of the model. The comparison between the real data and the numerical results and its assessment based on time and temperature dependences in control points, correspondence of the forms of the profiles and standard deviation for all performed realizations are provided. It is demonstrated that the model reproduces the results of field measurement data for all observed conditions and seasons. The numerical results for the regimes with strong mixing are in the best quantitative and qualitative agreement with the real profiles. The accuracy of the forecast for the ones with strong stratification near the surface is lower but all specificities of the forms are correctly reproduced.

  14. Body measurements and carcass characteristics correlation of Nellore young bulls finishidedED IN FEEDLOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Laurindo Rosa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work it was aimed to evaluate Pearson correlations between body measurements, carcass characteristics and production of 35 Nellore bulls, confined for 96 days, with 402±14.90 kg and 18 months old. Weightings, ultrasound images and 14 measurements were obtained at the beginning of each experimental period and before slaughter, totaling four weight ratings of ultrasound images and measurements per animal. For the evaluation of body measurements and ultrasound images with carcass traits the values from the last measurement were considered. The images were made along with weighing animals through a Scanner, and measurements with a tape measure and a zoométrica cane, and these were correlated with each other and with productive and carcass characteristics. For measures of loin eye area evaluated by ultrasonography, it were found positive correlations with body length (0.32, rump (0.36 and thigh (0.20; withers height (0.20 and pelviano contour (0.38 (P<0.05. Variables of hip height and chest, chest width and pin bones, and heart girth showed positive correlations with two or more productive traits of economic interest, such as slaughter weight, hot carcass weight and dressing percentage (P<0.05. Significant correlations were found for most of the variables studied. Linear body measurements such as length and height emerge as a tool that can be useful in the formation of more homogenous lots and to predict the point of slaughter, along with the weight of the animals.

  15. Impact of eating and drinking on body composition measurements by bioelectrical impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androutsos, O; Gerasimidis, K; Karanikolou, A; Reilly, J J; Edwards, C A

    2015-04-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis would be a more practical tool to measure body composition in clinical settings, dietetic practice and epidemiological studies if patients/subjects did not have to fast before measurements. The present study assessed whether the ingestion of food or drink had any biologically significant effect on bioimpedance measurements and body composition by the foot-to-foot method. Fifty-five healthy adults [30 males and 25 females; mean (SD) age 27.7 (7.1) years; mean (SD)body mass index 24 (3.8) kg m(-2)] were randomly assigned to a 2-day food trial (high-fat meal or high-carbohydrate meal) or a 2-day drink trial (water or high electrolyte drink). Body composition measurements were carried out in the fasting state, immediately after meal consumption and every 30 min for 2 h by the foot-to-foot single frequency bioimpedance technique. Bioimpedance increased significantly after the ingestion of food and fluid, although the changes were small. The electrolyte drink, high-fat and high-carbohydrate meals significantly increased the percentage body fat and fat mass. In all cases, the median percentage changes from baseline were approximately 1% in body fat percentage units. Although there were statistically significant changes in body composition estimates after food or drink consumption, these were small and within the imprecision of the impedance technique, and so are unlikely to be of clinical significance. The present study suggests that impedance measures of body fatness in clinical settings do not require strict adherence to fasting, and this should increase the opportunities for clinical application. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  16. Use of a pulsed neutron generator for in vivo measurement of body carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehayias, J.J.; Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.; Yasumura, S.

    1986-01-01

    The measurement of total body fat is of importance in studies of nutritional assessment, dietary regimens, and for the management of obesity. In the past, fat has been determined either by anthropometric methods, which introduce high uncertainties, or by model-dependent estimation of fat-free tissue. The validity, however, of the different models in disease is questionable. Total body carbon measurements provide a more direct evaluation of body fat both in normal subjects and in patients. The authors present here a facility for carbon measurements without the use of a major accelerator. The same facility can be used for the measurement of other major body elements and for the evaluation of the body's compartments. Carbon is measured in vivo through neutron inelastic scattering, by detecting the 4.44 MeV gamma rays. A miniature (10 cm long) 14 MeV D-T neutron generator is used. The short half-life of the 4.44 MeV state of carbon requires detection of the gamma rays simultaneously with the 10 μs neutron pulse. Generators with low pulsing rate were found inappropriate for carbon measurement because of their low duty-cycle (high neutron output during pulse). The detection system consists of NaI(T1) detectors and fast electronics for handling the high even rate during the neutron pulse. A description of the facility and an evaluation of the technique will be presented

  17. Body Height and its Estimation Utilizing Arm Span Measurements in Male Adolescents from Southern Region in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajko Milašinović

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the body height in Montenegrin male adolescents from southern region as well as the relationship between arm span as an alternative to estimating the body height, which would vary from region to region in Montenegro. Our investigation analyses 87 male adolescents from the southern region in Montenegro. The anthropometric measurements were taken according to the protocol of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK. Means and standard deviations regarding the anthropometric measurements were obtained. The relationships between body height and arm span were determined using simple correlation coefficients and their 95% confidence interval. Then a linear regression analysis was performed to examine the extent to which the arm span can reliably predict body height. The results displayed that male Southern-Montenegrins are 182.53±7.53 cm tall and have an arm span of 184.55±9.03 cm. Compared to other studies, the results of this study have shown that this gender made Southern- Montenegrins the tall population, taller than most of nation around the Europe. On the other hand, expectably, the arm span reliably predicts body height in this gender. However, the estimation equations which have been obtained in Southern-Montenegrins are, different alike in general population, since arm span was closer to body heights (2.03±1.50 cm, more than in general population. Hence, this study also confirms the necessity for developing separate height models for each region in Montenegro.

  18. Morbidly obese women with and without endometrial cancer: are there differences in measured physical fitness, body composition, or hormones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modesitt, Susan C; Geffel, Dyanna L; Via, Jennifer; L Weltman, Arthur

    2012-03-01

    Exercise is potentially protective against cancer for obese women. The objectives were to examine differences in activity, body composition, and hormones in overweight/obese women with and without endometrial cancer. Women ≥ 50 years old with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m(2) scheduled for abdominal hysterectomy were enrolled. Demographics, physical activity, and quality of life (QOL) data were collected. Body composition/fitness was evaluated using Air Displacement Plethysmography (BodPod) and a standardized treadmill. Adiponectin, androstenedione, leptin, estradiol, estrone, progesterone, sex hormone binding globulin, insulin and glucose were measured. Thirty-eight women enrolled in this pilot study; 22 had endometrial cancer. Mean age was 58.3 years, mean BMI, fat weight and percent body fat were 41.3 kg/m(2), 55 kg and 51% respectively. Fitness levels were poor; 90% of women had peak oxygen uptakes below the 10th percentile of population normals yet 80% still rated their fitness level as equivalent to other women. Women with and without cancer did not differ in age, BMI, co-morbidities, energy expenditures, body composition, hormones or QOL although glucose levels were higher in women with cancer (119.5 vs. 90.7 mg/dl; p=0.049). Cancer subjects scored worse on every fitness measurement, reaching statistical significance for VO(2 peak) (15.0 vs. 17.9 ml/kg/min; p=0.033). Current exercisers had a lower BMI (p=0.039), decreased fat weight (p=0.024), decreased waist circumference (p=0.05) and improved vitality compared to non-exercisers. Physical fitness levels were abysmal in these morbidly obese subjects and worse for cancer patients. Exercise correlated with improved body composition and vitality. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Neutron activation probe for measuring the presence of uranium in ore bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, N.P.; Smith, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    A neutron activation proble comprises a pulsed neutron source in series with a plurality of delayed neutron detectors for measuring radioactivity in a well borehole together with a NaI (Tl) counter for measuring the high energy 2.62 MeV gamma line from thorium. The neutron source emits neutrons which produce fission in uranium and thorium in the ore body and the delayed neutron detectors measure the delayed neutrons produced from such fission while the NaI (Tl) counter measures the 2.62 MeV gamma line from the undisturbed thorium in the ore body. The signal from the NaI (Tl) counter is processed and subtracted from the signal from the delayed neutron detectors with the result being indicative of the amount of uranium present in the ore body

  20. Quantitation of the degree of osteoporosis by measure of total-body calcium employing neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Zanzi, I.; Vaswani, A.; Wallach, S.; Aloia, J.; Ellis, K.J.

    1975-01-01

    Two techniques for measuring the amount of Ca in the total skeleton were employed: total-body neutron activation analysis (TBNAA) and the determination of the mineral content of a bone of the appendicular skeleton (absorptiometric measurement of the radius, BMC). (U.S.)

  1. Prediction of human core body temperature using non-invasive measurement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermann, Reto; Wyss, Eva; Annaheim, Simon; Psikuta, Agnes; Davey, Sarah; Rossi, René Michel

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of core body temperature is an efficient method for monitoring heat stress amongst workers in hot conditions. However, invasive measurement of core body temperature (e.g. rectal, intestinal, oesophageal temperature) is impractical for such applications. Therefore, the aim of this study was to define relevant non-invasive measures to predict core body temperature under various conditions. We conducted two human subject studies with different experimental protocols, different environmental temperatures (10 °C, 30 °C) and different subjects. In both studies the same non-invasive measurement methods (skin temperature, skin heat flux, heart rate) were applied. A principle component analysis was conducted to extract independent factors, which were then used in a linear regression model. We identified six parameters (three skin temperatures, two skin heat fluxes and heart rate), which were included for the calculation of two factors. The predictive value of these factors for core body temperature was evaluated by a multiple regression analysis. The calculated root mean square deviation (rmsd) was in the range from 0.28 °C to 0.34 °C for all environmental conditions. These errors are similar to previous models using non-invasive measures to predict core body temperature. The results from this study illustrate that multiple physiological parameters (e.g. skin temperature and skin heat fluxes) are needed to predict core body temperature. In addition, the physiological measurements chosen in this study and the algorithm defined in this work are potentially applicable as real-time core body temperature monitoring to assess health risk in broad range of working conditions.

  2. 77 FR 37409 - Request for Domains, Instruments, and Measures for Development of a Standardized Instrument for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... experience as well. On both issues, CMS is interested in instruments and items which can measure quality of... Measures for Development of a Standardized Instrument for Use in Public Reporting of Enrollee Satisfaction..., communication, coordination of care, customer service), instruments, and measures for measuring the level of...

  3. Standardization of Laser Methods and Techniques for Vibration Measurements and Calibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, Hans-Juergen von

    2010-01-01

    The realization and dissemination of the SI units of motion quantities (vibration and shock) have been based on laser interferometer methods specified in international documentary standards. New and refined laser methods and techniques developed by national metrology institutes and by leading manufacturers in the past two decades have been swiftly specified as standard methods for inclusion into in the series ISO 16063 of international documentary standards. A survey of ISO Standards for the calibration of vibration and shock transducers demonstrates the extended ranges and improved accuracy (measurement uncertainty) of laser methods and techniques for vibration and shock measurements and calibrations. The first standard for the calibration of laser vibrometers by laser interferometry or by a reference accelerometer calibrated by laser interferometry (ISO 16063-41) is on the stage of a Draft International Standard (DIS) and may be issued by the end of 2010. The standard methods with refined techniques proved to achieve wider measurement ranges and smaller measurement uncertainties than that specified in the ISO Standards. The applicability of different standardized interferometer methods to vibrations at high frequencies was recently demonstrated up to 347 kHz (acceleration amplitudes up to 350 km/s 2 ). The relative deviations between the amplitude measurement results of the different interferometer methods that were applied simultaneously, differed by less than 1% in all cases.

  4. Challenges in standardization of blood pressure measurement at the population level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Hanna; Koponen, Päivikki; Naska, Androniki; Männistö, Satu; Broda, Grazyna; Palosaari, Tarja; Kuulasmaa, Kari

    2015-04-10

    Accurate blood pressure measurements are needed in clinical practice, intervention studies and health examination surveys. Blood pressure measurements are sensitive: their accuracy can be affected by measurement environment, behaviour of the subject, measurement procedures, devices used for the measurement and the observer. To minimize errors in blood pressure measurement, a standardized measurement protocol is needed. The European Health Examination Survey (EHES) Pilot project was conducted in 2009-2012. A pilot health examination survey was conducted in 12 countries using a standardized protocol. The measurement protocols used in each survey, training provided for the measurers, measurement data, and observations during site visits were collected and evaluated to assess the level of standardization. The EHES measurement protocol for blood pressure was followed accurately in all 12 pilot surveys. Most of the surveys succeeded in organizing a quiet and comfortable measurement environment, and staff instructed survey participants appropriately before examination visits. In all surveys, blood pressure was measured three times, from the right arm in a sitting posture. The biggest variation was in the device used for the blood pressure measurement. It is possible to reach a high level of standardization for blood pressure measurements across countries and over time. A detailed, standardized measurement protocol, and adequate training and monitoring during the fieldwork and centrally organized quality assessment of the data are needed. The recent EU regulation banning the sale of mercury sphygmomanometer in European Union Member States has set new challenges for the standardization of measurement devices since the validity of oscillometric measurements is device-specific and performance of aneroid devices depends very much on calibration.

  5. Methods of Assessing Body Fatness among Children: Implications for the National Child Measurement Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Sharon; Twist, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is increasingly recognized as an inadequate measure for determining obesity in children. Therefore, the aim within this study was to investigate other indirect methods of body fat assessment that could potentially be used in place of BMI. Twenty-four children (boys: 13.8 [plus or minus] 0.8 yr; girls: 13.3 [plus or minus] 0.5…

  6. Analysis and Comparison of Thickness and Bending Measurements from Fabric Touch Tester (FTT and Standard Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Atiyyah Binti Haji

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fabric Touch Tester (FTT is a relatively new device from SDL Atlas to determine touch properties of fabrics. It simultaneously measures 13 touch-related fabric physical properties in four modules that include bending and thickness measurements. This study aims to comparatively analyze the thickness and bending measurements made by the FTT and the common standard methods used in the textile industry. The results obtained with the FTT for 11 different fabrics were compared with that of standard methods. Despite the different measurement principle, a good correlation was found between the two methods used for the assessment of thickness and bending. As FTT is a new tool for textile comfort measurement and no standard yet exists, these findings are essential to determine the reliability of the measurements and how they relate to the well-established standard methods.

  7. Electric Field Measurement of the Living Human Body for Biomedical Applications: Phase Measurement of the Electric Field Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Hieda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors are developing a technique for conducting measurements inside the human body by applying a weak electric field at a radio frequency (RF. Low RF power is fed to a small antenna, and a similar antenna located 15–50 cm away measures the electric field intensity. Although the resolution of the method is low, it is simple, safe, cost-effective, and able to be used for biomedical applications. One of the technical issues suggested by the authors' previous studies was that the signal pattern acquired from measurement of a human body was essentially different from that acquired from a phantom. To trace the causes of this difference, the accuracy of the phase measurements was improved. This paper describes the new experimental system that can measure the signal phase and amplitude and reports the results of experiments measuring a human body and a phantom. The results were analyzed and then discussed in terms of their contribution to the phase measurement.

  8. Monitoring system for accuracy and reliability characteristics of standard temperature measurements in WWER-440 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanc, S.; Repa, M.

    2001-01-01

    Description of a monitoring system for accuracy and reliability characteristics of standard temperature measurements in WWER-440 reactors and benefits obtained from its use are shown in the presentation. As standard reactor temperature measurement, coolant temperature measurement at fuel assembly outlets and in loops, entered into the In-Reactor Control System , are considered. Such systems have been implemented at two V-230 reactors and are under implementation at other four V-213 reactors. (Authors)

  9. The Czech national long distances measuring standard Koštice - State of play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Červinka

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article gives information about new Czech national long distances measuring standard, which has been preparedat the distance base near the Koštice village. Submitter of the project is the Czech Office for Standards, Metrology and Testing.Research and document preparation for creation of the measuring standard were ensured by the Research Institute of Geodesy,Topography and Cartography. Interlaboratory comparisons were made by staff of the Bundeswehr University in Munich. The paperreports about works, which will be carried out on national standard in the second half of this year. Purpose of this works is to improvecharacteristics of accuracy of national etalon.

  10. Standard Test Method for Measuring Heat Flux Using a Water-Cooled Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of a steady heat flux to a given water-cooled surface by means of a system energy balance. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  11. Calorimetry Minisensor for the Localised Measurement of Surface Heat Dissipated from the Human Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socorro, Fabiola; Rodríguez de Rivera, Pedro Jesús; Rodríguez de Rivera, Manuel

    2016-11-06

    We have developed a calorimetry sensor that can perform a local measurement of the surface heat dissipated from the human body. The operating principle is based on the law of conductive heat transfer: heat dissipated by the human body passes across a thermopile located between the individual and a thermostat. Body heat power is calculated from the signals measured by the thermopile and the amount of power dissipated across the thermostat in order to maintain a constant temperature. The first prototype we built had a detection area measuring 6 × 6 cm², while the second prototype, which is described herein, had a 2 × 2 cm² detection area. This new design offers three advantages over the initial one: (1) greater resolution and three times greater thermal sensitivity; (2) a twice as fast response; and (3) it can take measurements from smaller areas of the body. The sensor has a 5 mW resolution, but the uncertainty is greater, up to 15 mW, due to the measurement and calculation procedure. The order of magnitude of measurements made in healthy subjects ranged from 60 to 300 mW at a thermostat temperature of 28 °C and an ambient room temperature of 21 °C. The values measured by the sensor depend on the ambient temperature and the thermostat's temperature, while the power dissipated depends on the individual's metabolism and any physical and/or emotional activity.

  12. Report on the results of the FY1999 standardization for new standard interface protocol for electrical measuring use; 1999 nendo shinki sangyo ikusei sokkogata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Denki keisokukiyo shinhyojun interface purotokoru no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to create a new protocol for electric measuring instruments that use a built-in the Universal Serial Bus (USB) interface which is no incorporated in PCs. This new interface will replace the existing GPIB interface (IEEE-488), which is currently used in electric measuring instruments as standard interface. Our goal is to create a protocol that will provide the same data rate as GPIB and better connectivity. To evaluate our new protocol, we create virtual instruments using evaluation boards for USB chips, as well as software, and performed transfer tests to isolate and solve problems found in the tests. We will make the protocol and the software available for general use, and register the protocol as a standard to the USB Developer's Forum, a body that manages USB standards, to make it as a de facto standard. Ultimately we are aiming at making it an international standard. (NEDO)

  13. Carotid body size measured by computed tomographic angiography in individuals born prematurely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Melissa L; Welch, Brian T; Randall, Jess T; Petersen-Jones, Humphrey G; Limberg, Jacqueline K

    2018-05-24

    We tested the hypothesis that the carotid bodies would be smaller in individuals born prematurely or exposed to perinatal oxygen therapy when compared individuals born full term that did not receive oxygen therapy. A retrospective chart review was conducted on patients who underwent head/neck computed tomography angiography (CTA) at the Mayo Clinic between 10 and 40 years of age (n = 2503). Patients were identified as premature ( body images captured during the CTA were performed. Carotid body visualization was possible in 43% of patients and 52% of age, sex, and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls but only 17% of juvenile preterm subjects (p = 0.07). Of the carotid bodies that could be visualized, widest axial measurements of the carotid bodies in individuals born prematurely (n = 7, 34 ± 4 weeks gestation, birth weight: 2460 ± 454 g; average size: 2.5 ± 0.2 cm) or individuals exposed to perinatal oxygen therapy (n = 3, 38 ± 2 weeks gestation, Average size: 2.2 ± 0.1 cm) were not different when compared to controls (2.3 ± 0.2 cm and 2.3 ± 0.2 cm, respectively, p > 0.05). Carotid body size, as measured using CTA, is not smaller in adults born prematurely or exposed to perinatal oxygen therapy when compared to sex, age, and BMI-matched controls. However, carotid body visualization was lower in juvenile premature patients. The decreased ability to visualize the carotid bodies in these individuals may be a result of their prematurity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Comparison of Dolphins' Body and Brain Measurements with Four Other Groups of Cetaceans Reveals Great Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Sam H; Carlin, Kevin P; Van Alstyne, Kaitlin R; Hanson, Alicia C; Tarpley, Raymond J

    2016-01-01

    We compared mature dolphins with 4 other groupings of mature cetaceans. With a large data set, we found great brain diversity among 5 different taxonomic groupings. The dolphins in our data set ranged in body mass from about 40 to 6,750 kg and in brain mass from 0.4 to 9.3 kg. Dolphin body length ranged from 1.3 to 7.6 m. In our combined data set from the 4 other groups of cetaceans, body mass ranged from about 20 to 120,000 kg and brain mass from about 0.2 to 9.2 kg, while body length varied from 1.21 to 26.8 m. Not all cetaceans have large brains relative to their body size. A few dolphins near human body size have human-sized brains. On the other hand, the absolute brain mass of some other cetaceans is only one-sixth as large. We found that brain volume relative to body mass decreases from Delphinidae to a group of Phocoenidae and Monodontidae, to a group of other odontocetes, to Balaenopteroidea, and finally to Balaenidae. We also found the same general trend when we compared brain volume relative to body length, except that the Delphinidae and Phocoenidae-Monodontidae groups do not differ significantly. The Balaenidae have the smallest relative brain mass and the lowest cerebral cortex surface area. Brain parts also vary. Relative to body mass and to body length, dolphins also have the largest cerebellums. Cortex surface area is isometric with brain size when we exclude the Balaenidae. Our data show that the brains of Balaenidae are less convoluted than those of the other cetaceans measured. Large vascular networks inside the cranial vault may help to maintain brain temperature, and these nonbrain tissues increase in volume with body mass and with body length ranging from 8 to 65% of the endocranial volume. Because endocranial vascular networks and other adnexa, such as the tentorium cerebelli, vary so much in different species, brain size measures from endocasts of some extinct cetaceans may be overestimates. Our regression of body length on endocranial

  15. Characteristics of attention-related body sensations. Temporal stability and associations with measures of body focus, affect, sustained attention, and heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tihanyi, Benedek T; Ferentzi, Eszter; Köteles, Ferenc

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the temporal stability and correlates of attention-related body sensations that emerge without external stimulation during rest and due to focused attention on a body part. To assess attention-related body sensations, participants were asked to focus on a freely chosen body area with closed eyes, and had to report whether the sensation of that area had changed. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess various aspects of body focus (body awareness, body responsiveness, somatosensory amplification, subjective somatic symptoms), and positive and negative affectivity. Previous experiences in body-mind therapies were also measured. PEBL Continuous Performance Test was used to assess sustained attention. Heart rate variability scores were based on a 3-minute long resting heart rate measurement. Fifty-eight university students (22.3 ± 3.95 years; 34 females) participated in the study. The stability of attention-related body sensations was measured 8 weeks later on a randomly chosen sub-group (n = 28). Attention-related body sensations showed a mediocre temporal stability (r ρ  = 0.47, p = 0.012). People reporting attention-related body sensations showed significantly higher body awareness, somatosensory amplification, and resting heart rate; and marginally higher somatic symptoms. No relation was found with body-mind practice, body responsiveness, positive and negative affect, the vagal component of heart rate variability, and performance in the sustained attention task. Attention-related sensations are relatively stable over time. They are connected to some, but not to all of the aspects of body focus. Further studies are needed to elaborate the influencing stable and situational factors.

  16. Wearable sensors in intelligent clothing for measuring human body temperature based on optical fiber Bragg grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongqiang; Yang, Haijing; Li, Enbang; Liu, Zhihui; Wei, Kejia

    2012-05-21

    Measuring body temperature is considerably important to physiological studies as well as clinical investigations. In recent years, numerous observations have been reported and various methods of measurement have been employed. The present paper introduces a novel wearable sensor in intelligent clothing for human body temperature measurement. The objective is the integration of optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based sensors into functional textiles to extend the capabilities of wearable solutions for body temperature monitoring. In addition, the temperature sensitivity is 150 pm/°C, which is almost 15 times higher than that of a bare FBG. This study combines large and small pipes during fabrication to implant FBG sensors into the fabric. The law of energy conservation of the human body is considered in determining heat transfer between the body and its clothing. The mathematical model of heat transmission between the body and clothed FBG sensors is studied, and the steady-state thermal analysis is presented. The simulation results show the capability of the material to correct the actual body temperature. Based on the skin temperature obtained by the weighted average method, this paper presents the five points weighted coefficients model using both sides of the chest, armpits, and the upper back for the intelligent clothing. The weighted coefficients of 0.0826 for the left chest, 0.3706 for the left armpit, 0.3706 for the right armpit, 0.0936 for the upper back, and 0.0826 for the right chest were obtained using Cramer's Rule. Using the weighting coefficient, the deviation of the experimental result was ± 0.18 °C, which favors the use for clinical armpit temperature monitoring. Moreover, in special cases when several FBG sensors are broken, the weighted coefficients of the other sensors could be changed to obtain accurate body temperature.

  17. Measurement of whole-body human centers of gravity and moments of inertia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albery, C B; Schultz, R B; Bjorn, V S

    1998-06-01

    With the inclusion of women in combat aircraft, the question of safe ejection seat operation has been raised. The potential expanded population of combat pilots would include both smaller and larger ejection seat occupants, which could significantly affect seat performance. The method developed to measure human whole-body CG and MOI used a scale, a knife edge balance, and an inverted torsional pendulum. Subjects' moments of inertia were measured along six different axes. The inertia tensor was calculated from these values, and principal moments of inertia were then derived. Thirty-eight antropometric measurements were also taken for each subject to provide a means for direct correlation of inertial properties to body dimensions and for modeling purposes. Data collected in this study has been used to validate whole-body mass properties predictions. In addition, data will be used to improve Air Force and Navy ejection seat trajectory models for the expanded population.

  18. In vivo ultrasound and biometric measurements predict the empty body chemical composition in Nellore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilhos, A M; Francisco, C L; Branco, R H; Bonilha, S F M; Mercadante, M E Z; Meirelles, P R L; Pariz, C M; Jorge, A M

    2018-05-04

    Evaluation of the body chemical composition of beef cattle can only be measured postmortem and those data cannot be used in real production scenarios to adjust nutritional plans. The objective of this study was to develop multiple linear regression equations from in vivo measurements, such as ultrasound parameters [backfat thickness (uBFT, mm), rump fat thickness (uRF, mm), and ribeye area (uLMA, cm2)], shrunk body weight (SBW, kg), age (AG, d), hip height (HH, m), as well as from postmortem measurements (composition of the 9th to 11th rib section) to predict the empty body and carcass chemical composition for Nellore cattle. Thirty-three young bulls were used (339 ± 36.15 kg and 448 ± 17.78 d for initial weight and age, respectively). Empty body chemical composition (protein, fat, water, and ash in kg) was obtained by combining noncarcass and carcass components. Data were analyzed using the PROC REG procedure of SAS software. Mallows' Cp values were close to the ideal value of number of independent variables in the prediction equations plus one. Equations to predict chemical components of both empty body and carcass using in vivo measurements presented higher R2 values than those determined by postmortem measurements. Chemical composition of the empty body using in vivo measurements was predicted with R2 > 0.73. Equations to predict chemical composition of the carcass from in vivo measurements showed R2 lower (R2Chemical compounds from components of the empty body of Nellore cattle can be calculated by the following equations: protein (kg) = 47.92 + 0.18 × SBW - 1.46 × uRF - 30.72 × HH (R2 = 0.94, RMSPE = 1.79); fat (kg) = 11.33 + 0.16 × SBW + 2.09 × uRF - 0.06 × AG (R2 = 0.74, RMSPE = 4.18); water (kg) = - 34.00 + 0.55 × SBW + 0.10 × AG - 2.34 × uRF (R2 = 0.96, RMSPE = 5.47). In conclusion, the coefficients of determination (for determining the chemical composition of the empty body) of the equations derived from in vivo measures were higher than those

  19. Body temperature measurement in mice during acute illness: implantable temperature transponder versus surface infrared thermometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jie; Riedel, Nico; Grittner, Ulrike; Endres, Matthias; Banneke, Stefanie; Emmrich, Julius Valentin

    2018-02-23

    Body temperature is a valuable parameter in determining the wellbeing of laboratory animals. However, using body temperature to refine humane endpoints during acute illness generally lacks comprehensiveness and exposes to inter-observer bias. Here we compared two methods to assess body temperature in mice, namely implanted radio frequency identification (RFID) temperature transponders (method 1) to non-contact infrared thermometry (method 2) in 435 mice for up to 7 days during normothermia and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin-induced hypothermia. There was excellent agreement between core and surface temperature as determined by method 1 and 2, respectively, whereas the intra- and inter-subject variation was higher for method 2. Nevertheless, using machine learning algorithms to determine temperature-based endpoints both methods had excellent accuracy in predicting death as an outcome event. Therefore, less expensive and cumbersome non-contact infrared thermometry can serve as a reliable alternative for implantable transponder-based systems for hypothermic responses, although requiring standardization between experimenters.

  20. Evaluation of body condition score measured throughout lactation as an indicator of fertility in dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Banos, G; Brotherstone, S; Coffey, MP

    2004-01-01

    Body condition score (BCS) records of primiparous Holstein cows were analyzed both as a single measure per animal and as repeated measures per sire of cow. The former resulted in a single, average, genetic evaluation for each sire, and the latter resulted in separate genetic evaluations per day of lactation. Repeated measure analysis yielded genetic correlations of less than unity between days of lactation, suggesting that BCS may not be the same trait across lactation. Differences between da...

  1. A study on the applicability of implantable microchip transponders for body temperature measurements in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enøe Claes

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The applicability of an electronic monitoring system using microchip transponders for measurement of body temperatures was tested in 6-week-old conventional Danish weaners infected with classical swine fever virus (CSFV. Subcutaneous tissue temperatures obtained by the implantable transponders were compared with rectal temperatures, recorded by a conventional digital thermometer. Methods In a preliminary study, transponders were inserted subcutaneously at 6 different positions of the body of 5 pigs. The transponders positioned by the ear base provided the best correlation to rectal temperature. To test the stability of the monitoring system in a larger group of pigs, transponders were therefore inserted by the left ear base in a subsequent infection experiment with 30 pigs. Results Generally, the microchip transponders measured a subcutaneous tissue temperature, which was about 1°C lower than the rectal temperature. However, a simple linear relationship between the measures of the two methods was found. Conclusions Our study showed that the tested body monitoring system may represent a promising tool to obtain an approximate correlate of body temperatures in groups of pigs. In contrast, however, the tested system did not constitute a suitable tool to measure body temperatures of individual animals in the present pig infection experiment.

  2. Walnut consumption in a weight reduction intervention: effects on body weight, biological measures, blood pressure and satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Cheryl L; Flatt, Shirley W; Barkai, Hava-Shoshana; Pakiz, Bilge; Heath, Dennis D

    2017-12-04

    Dietary strategies that help patients adhere to a weight reduction diet may increase the likelihood of weight loss maintenance and improved long-term health outcomes. Regular nut consumption has been associated with better weight management and less adiposity. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of a walnut-enriched reduced-energy diet to a standard reduced-energy-density diet on weight, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and satiety. Overweight and obese men and women (n = 100) were randomly assigned to a standard reduced-energy-density diet or a walnut-enriched (15% of energy) reduced-energy diet in the context of a behavioral weight loss intervention. Measurements were obtained at baseline and 3- and 6-month clinic visits. Participants rated hunger, fullness and anticipated prospective consumption at 3 time points during the intervention. Body measurements, blood pressure, physical activity, lipids, tocopherols and fatty acids were analyzed using repeated measures mixed models. Both study groups reduced body weight, body mass index and waist circumference (time effect p weight was -9.4 (0.9)% vs. -8.9 (0.7)% (mean [SE]), for the standard vs. walnut-enriched diet groups, respectively. Systolic blood pressure decreased in both groups at 3 months, but only the walnut-enriched diet group maintained a lower systolic blood pressure at 6 months. The walnut-enriched diet group, but not the standard reduced-energy-density diet group, reduced total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) at 6 months, from 203 to 194 mg/dL and 121 to 112 mg/dL, respectively (p weight loss that is comparable to a standard reduced-energy-density diet in the context of a behavioral weight loss intervention. Although weight loss in response to both dietary strategies was associated with improvements in cardiovascular disease risk factors, the walnut-enriched diet promoted more favorable effects on LDL-C and systolic blood pressure. The trial

  3. Measurement of the depth of narrow slotted sections in eddy current reference standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Joo; Kim, Young-gil; Ahn, Bongyoung; Yoon, Dong-Jin

    2007-02-01

    The dimensions of the slots in eddy current (EC) reference standards are too narrow to be measured by general depth measurement methods such as the optical (laser) or stylus methods. However, measurement of the dimensions of the machined slots is a prerequisite to using the blocks as references. The present paper suggests a measurement method for the slotted section using an ultrasonic test. The width and depth of the slots measured in our study are roughly 0.1 mm and 0.5 mm, respectively. The time of flight (TOF) of the ultrasonic wave was measured precisely. The ultrasonic velocity in the material of the EC reference standard was calculated with the measured values of the TOF and its thickness. Reflected waves from the tip of the slot and the bottom surface of the EC standard were successfully classified. Using this method we have successfully determined the depth of the slotted section.

  4. Measurement of total-body cobalt-57 vitamin B12 absorption with a gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardarelli, J.A.; Slingerland, D.W.; Burrows, B.A.; Miller, A.

    1985-01-01

    Previously described techniques for the measurement of the absorption of [ 57 Co]vitamin B 12 by total-body counting have required an iron room equipped with scanning or multiple detectors. The present study uses simplifying modifications which make the technique more available and include the use of static geometry, the measurement of body thickness to correct for attenuation, a simple formula to convert the capsule-in-air count to a 100% absorption count, and finally the use of an adequately shielded gamma camera obviating the need of an iron room

  5. Flowing-water optical power meter for primary-standard, multi-kilowatt laser power measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P. A.; Hadler, J. A.; Cromer, C.; West, J.; Li, X.; Lehman, J. H.

    2018-06-01

    A primary-standard flowing-water optical power meter for measuring multi-kilowatt laser emission has been built and operated. The design and operational details of this primary standard are described, and a full uncertainty analysis is provided covering the measurement range from 1–10 kW with an expanded uncertainty of 1.2%. Validating measurements at 5 kW and 10 kW show agreement with other measurement techniques to within the measurement uncertainty. This work of the U.S. Government is not subject to U.S. copyright.

  6. Measurement of total body chlorine by prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddoe, A.H.; Streat, S.J.; Hill, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    A method of measuring total body chlorine (TBCl) by prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis is described depending on the same NaI(Tl) spectra used for determinations of total body nitrogen. Ratios of chlorine to hydrogen are derived and TBCl determined using a model of body composition depending on measured body weight, total body water (by tritium dilution) and protein (6.25 x nitrogen) as well as estimated body minerals and glycogen. The precision of the method based on scanning an anthropomorphic phantom is approximately 9% (SD), for a patient dose equivalent of less than 0.30 mSv. Spectra collected from 67 normal volunteers (32 male, 35 female) yielded mean values of TBCl of 72 +- 19 (SD) g in males and 53.6 +- 15 g in females, in broad agreement with values reported by workers using delayed gamma methods. Results are presented for two human cadavers analysed by neutron activation and conventional chemical analysis; the ratios of TBCl (neutron activation) to TBCl (chemical) were 0.980 +- 0.028 (SEM) and 0.91 +- 0.09. It is suggested that an improvement in precision will be achieved by increasing the scanning time (thereby increasing the radiation dose equivalent) and by adding two more detectors. (author)

  7. Further development of drag bodies for the measurement of mass flow rates during blowdown experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brockmann, E.; John, H.; Reimann, J.

    1983-01-01

    Drag bodies have already been used for sometime for the measurement of mass flow rates in blowdown experiments. Former research concerning the drag body behaviour in non-homogeneous two-phase flows frequently dealt with special effects by means of theoretical models only. For pipe flows most investigations were conducted for ratios of drag plate area to pipe cross section smaller 0.02. The present paper gives the results of experiments with drag bodies in a horizontal, non-homogeneous two-phase pipe flow with slip, which were carried through under the sponsorship of the German Ministry for Research and Technology (BMFT). Special interest was layed on the behaviour of the drag coefficient in stationary flows and at various cross sectional ratios. Both design and response of various drag bodies, which were developed at the Battelle-Institut, were tested in stationary and instationary two-phase flows. The influences of density and velocity profiles as well as the drag body position were studied. The results demonstrate, that the drag body is capable of measuring mass flow rates in connection with a gamma densitometer also in non-homogeneous two-phase flows. Satisfying results could be obtained, using simply the drag coefficient which was determined from single-phase flow calibrations

  8. Spectral composition of a measuring signal during measurements of vibration rates of a moving body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daynauskas, I. A. I.; Slepov, N. N.

    1973-01-01

    Cybernetics diagnostics of machines and mechanisms using the spectral approach is discussed. The problem of establishing the accuracy of determination of the spectral composition is investigated. In systems with rectilinear or rotary movement, the vibrations appear in the form of movement rate vibrations, which are equivalent to frequency modulation of the signal, in proportion to the mean movement rate of the body. The case of a harmonic signal which reproduces and analyzes the characteristics of the frequency modulated signal is discussed. Mathematical models are developed to show the relationships of the parameters.

  9. ASTM international workshop on standards and measurements for tissue engineering scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Carl G; Yaszemski, Michael J; Ratcliffe, Anthony; Tomlins, Paul; Luginbuehl, Reto; Tesk, John A

    2015-07-01

    The "Workshop on Standards & Measurements for Tissue Engineering Scaffolds" was held on May 21, 2013 in Indianapolis, IN, and was sponsored by the ASTM International (ASTM). The purpose of the workshop was to identify the highest priority items for future standards work for scaffolds used in the development and manufacture of tissue engineered medical products (TEMPs). Eighteen speakers and 78 attendees met to assess current scaffold standards and to prioritize needs for future standards. A key finding was that the ASTM TEMPs subcommittees (F04.41-46) have many active "guide" documents for educational purposes, but few standard "test methods" or "practices." Overwhelmingly, the most clearly identified need was standards for measuring the structure of scaffolds, followed by standards for biological characterization, including in vitro testing, animal models and cell-material interactions. The third most pressing need was to develop standards for assessing the mechanical properties of scaffolds. Additional needs included standards for assessing scaffold degradation, clinical outcomes with scaffolds, effects of sterilization on scaffolds, scaffold composition, and drug release from scaffolds. Discussions highlighted the need for additional scaffold reference materials and the need to use them for measurement traceability. Workshop participants emphasized the need to promote the use of standards in scaffold fabrication, characterization, and commercialization. Finally, participants noted that standards would be more broadly accepted if their impact in the TEMPs community could be quantified. Many scaffold standard needs have been identified and focus is turning to generating these standards to support the use of scaffolds in TEMPs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. New possibilities in the prevention of eating disorders: The introduction of positive body image measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piran, Niva

    2015-06-01

    Delineating positive psychological processes in inhabiting the body, as well as quantitative measures to assess them, can facilitate progress in the field of prevention of eating disorders by expanding outcome evaluation of prevention interventions, identifying novel mediators of change, and increasing highly needed research into protective factors. Moreover, enhancing positive ways of inhabiting the body may contribute toward the maintenance of gains of prevention interventions. Integrated social etiological models to eating disorders that focus on gender and other social variables, such as the Developmental Theory of Embodiment (Piran & Teall, 2012a), can contribute to positive body image intervention development and research within the prevention field. Using the Developmental Theory of Embodiment as a lens, this article explores whether existing prevention programs (i.e., Cognitive Dissonance and Media Smart) may already work to promote positive body image, and whether prevention programs need to be expanded toward this goal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Simulating local measurements on a quantum many-body system with stochastic matrix product states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelmark, Søren; Mølmer, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate how to simulate both discrete and continuous stochastic evolutions of a quantum many-body system subject to measurements using matrix product states. A particular, but generally applicable, measurement model is analyzed and a simple representation in terms of matrix product operators...... is found. The technique is exemplified by numerical simulations of the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg spin-chain model subject to various instances of the measurement model. In particular, we focus on local measurements with small support and nonlocal measurements, which induce long-range correlations....

  12. Severe obesity is a limitation for the use of body mass index standard deviation scores in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Júlíusson, Pétur B; Roelants, Mathieu; Benestad, Beate; Lekhal, Samira; Danielsen, Yngvild; Hjelmesaeth, Jøran; Hertel, Jens K

    2018-02-01

    We analysed the distribution of the body mass index standard deviation scores (BMI-SDS) in children and adolescents seeking treatment for severe obesity, according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF), World Health Organization (WHO) and the national Norwegian Bergen Growth Study (BGS) BMI reference charts and the percentage above the International Obesity Task Force 25 cut-off (IOTF-25). This was a cross-sectional study of 396 children aged four to 17 years, who attended a tertiary care obesity centre in Norway from 2009 to 2015. Their BMI was converted to SDS using the three growth references and expressed as the percentage above IOTF-25. The percentage of body fat was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Regardless of which BMI reference chart was used, the BMI-SDS was significantly different between the age groups, with a wider range of higher values up to 10 years of age and a more narrow range of lower values thereafter. The distributions of the percentage above IOTF-25 and percentage of body fat were more consistent across age groups. Our findings suggest that it may be more appropriate to use the percentage above a particular BMI cut-off, such as the percentage above IOTF-25, than the IOTF, WHO and BGS BMI-SDS in paediatric patients with severe obesity. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Newborn regional body composition is influenced by maternal obesity, gestational weight gain and the birthweight standard score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, E M; Renault, K M; Nørgaard, K; Nilas, L; Jensen, J E B; Hyldstrup, L; Michaelsen, K F; Cortes, D; Pryds, O

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated whether newborn body composition is influenced by prepregnancy obesity and gestational weight gain (GWG) and explored any associations between body composition and birthweight standard score (z-score), categorised by size for gestational age. We recruited 231 obese and 80 normal weight mothers and their newborn infants and assessed the babies' body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The total and abdominal fat masses of infants born to mother who were obese before pregnancy were 135 g (p weight mothers. The infants' fat mass increased by 11 g (p gestational age (15.3%) than small for gestational age (5.2%) and appropriate for gestational age (9.8%) (p < 0.001). Lower birthweight z-score was associated with a higher proportion of abdominal fat mass (p = 0.009). Infants born to obese mothers had higher fat mass at birth, with abdominal fat accumulation. Low birthweight was associated with a lower crude abdominal fat mass, but a higher proportion of total fat mass placed abdominally. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Solution standards for quality control of nuclear-material analytical measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Analytical chemistry measurement control depends upon reliable solution standards. At the Savannah River Plant Control Laboratory over a thousand analytical measurements are made daily for process control, product specification, accountability, and nuclear safety. Large quantities of solution standards are required for a measurement quality control program covering the many different analytical chemistry methods. Savannah River Plant produced uranium, plutonium, neptunium, and americium metals or oxides are dissolved to prepare stock solutions for working or Quality Control Standards (QCS). Because extensive analytical effort is required to characterize or confirm these solutions, they are prepared in large quantities. These stock solutions are diluted and blended with different chemicals and/or each other to synthesize QCS that match the matrices of different process streams. The target uncertainty of a standard's reference value is 10% of the limit of error of the methods used for routine measurements. Standard Reference Materials from NBS are used according to special procedures to calibrate the methods used in measuring the uranium and plutonium standards so traceability can be established. Special precautions are required to minimize the effects of temperature, radiolysis, and evaporation. Standard reference values are periodically corrected to eliminate systematic errors caused by evaporation or decay products. Measurement control is achieved by requiring analysts to analyze a blind QCS each shift a measurement system is used on plant samples. Computer evaluation determines whether or not a measurement is within the +- 3 sigma control limits. Monthly evaluations of the QCS measurements are made to determine current bias correction factors for accountability measurements and detect significant changes in the bias and precision statistics. The evaluations are also used to plan activities for improving the reliability of the analytical chemistry measurements

  15. Body Measurements of Donkeys of Poitevin and Catalan Breeds and their Crossbreds in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Boujenane

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study concerned the analysis of body measurements of 125 Poitevin (P, 107 Catalan (C and 77 reciprocal crossbred (PxC et CxP donkeys used in the national stud farms of Morocco. The donkeys were born between 1937 and 1973 in Morocco, France and Spain. The genetic type had a significant effect on all measurements studied except on the height at withers. Poitevin donkeys had a height at withers, heart girth, body weight, body length, substernal gap and front cannon bone circumference of 139.7 cm, 152.4 cm, 346.4 kg, 143.2 cm, 76.8 cm and 20.5 cm, respectively. Compared to Catalan donkeys the differences were – 0.5 cm, 2.7 cm, 15.7 kg, 3.7 cm, – 1.4 cm and 1.5 cm, and compared to crossbreds 1.4 cm, 2.3 cm, 14.2 kg, 5.1 cm, – 0.5 cm and 1.3 cm, respectively. The heterosis effect was significant for the body length (– 2.30% and the front cannon bone circumference (– 2.78% only. It was concluded that body measurements of Poitevin and Catalan donkey breeds were slightly different.

  16. Body measurements and testosteron level of male Timor deer (Rusa timorensis at various hierarchies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Samsudewa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to observe body (neck, chest and scrotum circumferences and testosterone level of α-male, β-male and subordinate male Timor deer reared under captivity after establisment of the dominance hierarchy. Twelve males (51 ± 6 months old; 68.29 ± 8.41 kg body weight and in same antler stages were used in this research. The bucks was grouped into three stall each containing four bucks. ELISA kit and tape measurements were used for plasma Testosterone assay and body measurement, respectively. Data was collected before and 43 days after establishment of the dominance hierarchy. Wilcoxon signed ranks test and Kruskal-Wallis H test of non-parametric analysis was used. Significant difference was tested with Mann-Whitney U test. The results showed no significantly different for body circumferences (neck, chest, scrotum and testosterone level of male Timor deer before establishment of dominance hierarchy. Chest and scrotum circumferences of male Timor deer after establihment of dominance hierarchy showed no significantly different. Significantly difference shown on parameter neck circumference (P<0.05; χ2 = 8.74 and testosteron level (P<0.05; χ2 = 7.87 after establishment of dominance hierarchy. In conclusion, dominance hierarchy affected the testosterone level and body measurement.

  17. Measurement of branching fractions and CP violation for charmless charged two-body B decays at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Perazzini, Stefano

    Charmless charged two-body B decays are sensitive probes of the CKM matrix, that parameterize CP violation in the Standard Model (SM), and have the potential to reveal the presence of New Physics. The framework of CP violation within the SM, the role of the CKM matrix, with its basic formalism, and the current experimental status are presented. The theoretical tools commonly used to deal with hadronic B decays and an overview of the phenomenology of charmless two-body B decays are outlined. LHCb is one of the four main experiments operating at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), devoted to the measurement of CP violation and rare decays of charm and beauty hadrons. The LHCb detector is described, focusing on the technologies adopted for each sub-detector and summarizing their performances. The status-of-the-art of the LHCb measurements with charmless two-body B decays is then presented. Using the 37/pb of integrated luminosity collected at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV by LHCb during 2010, the direct CP asymmetries ACP(B0 -> ...

  18. Precision analysis for standard deviation measurements of immobile single fluorescent molecule images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Michael C; DeCenzo, Shawn H; Li, Je-Luen; Wang, Y M

    2010-03-29

    Standard deviation measurements of intensity profiles of stationary single fluorescent molecules are useful for studying axial localization, molecular orientation, and a fluorescence imaging system's spatial resolution. Here we report on the analysis of the precision of standard deviation measurements of intensity profiles of single fluorescent molecules imaged using an EMCCD camera.We have developed an analytical expression for the standard deviation measurement error of a single image which is a function of the total number of detected photons, the background photon noise, and the camera pixel size. The theoretical results agree well with the experimental, simulation, and numerical integration results. Using this expression, we show that single-molecule standard deviation measurements offer nanometer precision for a large range of experimental parameters.

  19. Best practices in selecting performance measures and standards for effective asset management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    "This report assesses and provides guidance on best practices in performance measurement, management and standards : setting for effective Transportation Asset Management (TAM). The study is conducted through a literature review, a : survey of the 50...

  20. Measuring the activity of BioBrick promoters using an in vivo reference standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Jason R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The engineering of many-component, synthetic biological systems is being made easier by the development of collections of reusable, standard biological parts. However, the complexity of biology makes it difficult to predict the extent to which such efforts will succeed. As a first practical example, the Registry of Standard Biological Parts started at MIT now maintains and distributes thousands of BioBrick™ standard biological parts. However, BioBrick parts are only standardized in terms of how individual parts are physically assembled into multi-component systems, and most parts remain uncharacterized. Standardized tools, techniques, and units of measurement are needed to facilitate the characterization and reuse of parts by independent researchers across many laboratories. Results We found that the absolute activity of BioBrick promoters varies across experimental conditions and measurement instruments. We choose one promoter (BBa_J23101 to serve as an in vivo reference standard for promoter activity. We demonstrated that, by measuring the activity of promoters relative to BBa_J23101, we could reduce variation in reported promoter activity due to differences in test conditions and measurement instruments by ~50%. We defined a Relative Promoter Unit (RPU in order to report promoter characterization data in compatible units and developed a measurement kit so that researchers might more easily adopt RPU as a standard unit for reporting promoter activity. We distributed a set of test promoters to multiple labs and found good agreement in the reported relative activities of promoters so measured. We also characterized the relative activities of a reference collection of BioBrick promoters in order to further support adoption of RPU-based measurement standards. Conclusion Relative activity measurements based on an in vivoreference standard enables improved measurement of promoter activity given variation in measurement

  1. Changes in CT density-measurement of intraorbital wooden foreign bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, Etsuko; Hiyama, Fusako; Machi, Setsuko; Hagihara, Masahiro.

    1991-01-01

    We examined in vitro changes in CT density-measurement of intraorbital wooden foreign bodies. Dry wooden sticks were immersed in distilled water, saline, and serum. Computerized tomography scans were taken several times during 22 weeks. Scans were taken in room air and in fatty tissue. The CT density-measurement of the central part of the wooden bodies was calculated. That of the dry wood was about 500 HU; all of the wooden foreign bodies became denser during the 22 weeks, with those immersed in distilled water and saline at about 130 HU, and those immersed in serum at about 150 HU. It was confirmed that wood becomes denser after soaking in aqueous environments. The CT density of wood soaked in water depends on the density of wood fiber, and the CT density of the wood fiber itself. (author)

  2. A simple calibration of a whole-body counter for the measurement of total body potassium in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Wahab, M.S.; El-Fiki, S.A.; El-Enany, N.; Youssef, S.K.; Aly, A.M.; Abbas, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    A simple calibration procedure for the Inshas whole body counter for evaluating total body potassium has been adopted. More than 120 Egyptian employees in the Nuclear Research Center (N.R.C.) were studied for their total body potassium (TBK). The potassium values were found to have an average of 2.85±0.57 g K kg -1 body weight for males and 2.62±0.52 g K kg -1 for females, which are higher than the recommended value given for reference man by ICRP. The TBK varied directly with body build index and is slightly sex dependent (Author)

  3. Dose discrepancy between planning system estimation and measurement in spine stereotactic body radiation therapy: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arumugam, Sankar; Xing, Aitang; Vial Philip; Berry Megan; Ochoa, Cesar; Beeksma, Bradley

    2017-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) to treat spinal metastases has shown excellent clinical outcomes for local control. High dose gradients wrapping around spinal cord make this treatment technically challenging. In this work, we present a spine SBRT case where a dosimetric error was identified during pre-treatment dosimetric quality assurance (QA). A patient with metastasis in T7 vertebral body consented to undergo SBRT. A dual arc volumetric modulated arc therapy plan was generated on the Pinnacle treatment planning system (TPS) with a 6 MV Elekta machine using gantry control point spacing of 4°. Standard pre-treatment QA measurements were performed, including ArcCHECK, ion chamber in CTV and spinal cord (SC) region and film measurements in multiple planes. While the dose measured at CTV region showed good agreement with TPS, the dose measured to the SC was significantly higher than reported by TPS in the original and repeat plans. Acceptable agreement was only achieved when the gantry control point spacing was reduced to 3°. A potentially harmful dose error was identified by pre-treatment QA. TPS parameter settings used safely in conventional treatments should be re-assessed for complex treatments.

  4. Combine body mass index and body fat percentage measures to improve the accuracy of obesity screening in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Shang-Ping; Chen, Ching-Yu; Guo, Fei-Ran; Chang, Ching-I; Jan, Chyi-Feng

    Obesity screening among young adult groups is meaningful. Body mass index (BMI) is limited to discriminate between fat and lean mass. Asian young adult group tends to have lower BMI and higher body fat percentage (BFP) than other ethnic groups. Accuracy of obesity screening by commonly used BMI criteria is unclear in young Taiwanese population. A total of 894 young adults (447 males and 447 females) aged 20-26 were recruited. BMI, regional fat percentage and BFP determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) were measured. BMI cutoff points were based on the criteria adopted by the Ministry of Health and Welfare in Taiwan. Cutoff points of low or high BFP were defined as 24% in men and 31.4% in women. Prevalence of BFP defining obesity was 14.8% in young men and 27.3% in young women. 23.2% of young men and only 8.3% of young women were classified to overweight or obesity categories according to the BMI criteria. Disagreement was noticed mainly among overweight males and normal weight females. 68.7% of BMI defining overweight young men had low BFP; however, 29.7% of young women of BMI defining normal group had high BFP. Up to 69.7% of young women with high BFP would be missed by BMI category only. Disagreement between BMI and BFP was significant among young adults, especially young women. We suggest combining BMI and BIA for obesity and overweight screening in Asian young adults. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Creation of virtual reality stimulus for a psychophysiological body balance measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tero Alatalo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Tero Alatalo1, Martti Juhola1, Veikko Surakka1,2, Timo Tossavainen11Department of Computer Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland; 2Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, FinlandAbstract: Virtual reality methods and equipment can be used to create stimulations for several psychophysiological measurements. Such stimulations can be flexibly modified and their versatility is wide; in principle even such could be prepared that are not possible in the real physical world like virtual flying in the space. For the generation of virtual reality stimulations we constructed a three-dimensional (3D graphics engine to measure body balance variations in response to emotional stimulation. The stimulation was implemented as a virtual reality scene, where the subject watched a street view with a human figure approaching the subject at a constant speed. The functioning of the system was tested by measuring body balance variations while the approaching figure’s facial expression was angry, neutral, or happy. The results showed that our young, healthy subjects were slightly, but still statistically significantly affected by the stimulation of the approaching figure. Thus, the whole system offers a tool for controlled experimental studies for analyzing body balance, for example, during stimulating approach-withdrawal behavior. There are several opportunities to further develop new visual psychophysiological stimulations and test forms.Keywords: virtual reality stimulations, signal analysis, body balance measurements, approachwithdrawal behavior, emotions

  6. Total body composition measurements using in vivo neutron activation at the University of Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewellen, T.L.

    1986-01-01

    The University of Washington Division of Nuclear Medicine has been using in vivo irradiation to study whole body calcium since 1969. Over 350 patients have been studied and currently five patients per week are being measured in support of research programs on bone wasting disease. (author)

  7. Lecture notes on: Electrical theory behind the measurement of body fluids with bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jødal, Lars

    The lecture notes describe how body fluid volumes can be measured/estimated using the technique bio-impedance spectroscopy (BIS). The opening chapters assume little or none technical/mathematical knowledge and can hopefully be read by anyone interested in the techneque. Later chapters become more...

  8. New equivalent-electrical circuit model and a practical measurement method for human body impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Koyu; Kinjo, Ichiko; Zamami, Aki; Irei, Kotoyo; Nagayama, Kanako

    2015-01-01

    Human body impedance analysis is an effective tool to extract electrical information from tissues in the human body. This paper presents a new measurement method of impedance using armpit electrode and a new equivalent circuit model for the human body. The lowest impedance was measured by using an LCR meter and six electrodes including armpit electrodes. The electrical equivalent circuit model for the cell consists of resistance R and capacitance C. The R represents electrical resistance of the liquid of the inside and outside of the cell, and the C represents high frequency conductance of the cell membrane. We propose an equivalent circuit model which consists of five parallel high frequency-passing CR circuits. The proposed equivalent circuit represents alpha distribution in the impedance measured at a lower frequency range due to ion current of the outside of the cell, and beta distribution at a high frequency range due to the cell membrane and the liquid inside cell. The calculated values by using the proposed equivalent circuit model were consistent with the measured values for the human body impedance.

  9. Long-term adherence to a local guideline on postoperative body temperature measurement: mixed methods analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm-Versloot, Marja N.; Knops, Anouk M.; Ubbink, Dirk T.; Goossens, Astrid; Legemate, Dink A.; Vermeulen, Hester

    2012-01-01

    Aim To find out whether a successful multifaceted implementation approach of a local evidence-based guideline on postoperative body temperature measurements (BTM) was persistent over time, and which factors influenced long-term adherence. Methods Mixed methods analysis. Patient records were

  10. In vivo and in situ measurement and modelling of intra-body effective complex permittivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadimi, Esmaeil S; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Harslund, Jakob L F

    2015-01-01

    Radio frequency tracking of medical micro-robots in minimally invasive medicine is usually investigated upon the assumption that the human body is a homogeneous propagation medium. In this Letter, the authors conducted various trial programs to measure and model the effective complex permittivity e...

  11. Modelling of fillet traits based on body measurements in three Nile tilapia strains (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.J.M.; Bovenhuis, H.; Komen, J.

    2004-01-01

    In Nile tilapia, breeding programs focus mainly on growth, and information on genetic improvement of fillet yield is scarce. In this study, slaughter data were collected on 1215 tilapia and used to analyze the relationship between body measurements and fillet weight and fillet yield. Fish were

  12. Measurement of body composition in cats using computed tomography and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buelund, Lene E; Nielsen, Dorte H; McEvoy, Fintan

    2011-01-01

    compared CT and DEXA data from 73 healthy adult neutered domestic cats. Three approaches for measuring adipose tissue percentage from full-body CT scans were explored. By examining the frequency distribution of voxels by Hounsfield unit (HU) value, it is possible to calculate a fat index (Fat...

  13. Measurement and Interpretation of Body Mass Index during Childhood and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Susan Kohl; Zemel, Babette S.

    2015-01-01

    The landscape of childhood health and disease has changed over the past century, and school nurses are now in a unique position to address the conditions that lead to chronic disease, such as obesity. Measuring body mass index (BMI) during childhood and adolescence is the recommended method for screening and/or monitoring obesity in school…

  14. A wireless body measurement system to study fatigue in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, F.; Bilberg, A.; Stenager, E.; Rabotti, C.; Zhang, B.; Mischi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue is reported as the most common symptom by patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The physiological and functional parameters related to fatigue in MS patients are currently not well established. A new wearable wireless body measurement system, named Fatigue Monitoring System (FAMOS), was

  15. Design Of Measurements For Evaluating Readiness Of Technoware Components To Meet The Required Standard Of Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzi, Ilham; Muharram Hasby, Fariz; Irianto, Dradjad

    2018-03-01

    Although government is able to make mandatory standards that must be obeyed by the industry, the respective industries themselves often have difficulties to fulfil the requirements described in those standards. This is especially true in many small and medium sized enterprises that lack the required capital to invest in standard-compliant equipment and machineries. This study aims to develop a set of measurement tools for evaluating the level of readiness of production technology with respect to the requirements of a product standard based on the quality function deployment (QFD) method. By combining the QFD methodology, UNESCAP Technometric model [9] and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), this model is used to measure a firm’s capability to fulfill government standard in the toy making industry. Expert opinions from both the governmental officers responsible for setting and implementing standards and the industry practitioners responsible for managing manufacturing processes are collected and processed to find out the technological capabilities that should be improved by the firm to fulfill the existing standard. This study showed that the proposed model can be used successfully to measure the gap between the requirements of the standard and the readiness of technoware technological component in a particular firm.

  16. Development of a Primary Standard for Calibration of [18F]FDG Activity Measurement Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capogni, M; Felice, P De; Fazio, A; Simonelli, F; Abbas, K

    2006-01-01

    The 18 F national primary standard was developed by the INMRI-ENEA using the 4πβ Liquid Scintillation Spectrometry Method with 3 H-Standard Efficiency Tracing. Measurements were performed at JRCIspra under a scientific collaboration between the Institute for Health and Consumer Production, the Amersham Health and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Prevention (ISPESL). The goal of the work was to calibrate, with minimum uncertainty, the INMRI-ENEA transfer standard portable well-type ionisation chamber as well as other JRC-Ispra and Amersham Health reference Ionising Chambers used for FDG activity measurement

  17. Development of a Primary Standard for Calibration of [{sup 18}F]FDG Activity Measurement Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capogni, M [ENEA Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti (INMRI), Centro Ricerche Casaccia, I-00060 Rome (Italy); Felice, P De [ENEA Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti (INMRI), Centro Ricerche Casaccia, I-00060 Rome (Italy); Fazio, A [ENEA Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti (INMRI), Centro Ricerche Casaccia, I-00060 Rome (Italy); Simonelli, F [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre (JRC), European Commission, I-21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,), Italy; D' Ursi, V [Amersham Health Srl (AH), I-13040 Saluggia (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines), Italy; Pecorale, A [Amersham Health Srl (AH), I-13040 Saluggia (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines), Italy; Giliberti, C [Istituto Superiore per la Prevenzione e la Sicurezza del Lavoro (ISPESL), I-00184 Rome (Italy); Abbas, K [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre (JRC), European Commission, I-21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,), Italy

    2006-05-15

    The {sup 18}F national primary standard was developed by the INMRI-ENEA using the 4{pi}{beta} Liquid Scintillation Spectrometry Method with {sup 3}H-Standard Efficiency Tracing. Measurements were performed at JRCIspra under a scientific collaboration between the Institute for Health and Consumer Production, the Amersham Health and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Prevention (ISPESL). The goal of the work was to calibrate, with minimum uncertainty, the INMRI-ENEA transfer standard portable well-type ionisation chamber as well as other JRC-Ispra and Amersham Health reference Ionising Chambers used for FDG activity measurement.

  18. Measurement of the body composition of living gray seals by hydrogen isotope dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, J.J.; Fedak, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    The body composition of living gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) can be accurately predicted from a two-step model that involves measurement of total body water (TBW) by 2 H or 3 H dilution and application of predictive relationships between body components and TBW that were derived empirically by slaughter chemical analysis. TBW was overestimated by both 2 HHO and 3 HHO dilution; mean overestimates were 2.8 +/- 0.9% (SE) with 2H and 4.0 +/- 0.6% with 3 H. The relationships for prediction of total body fat (TBF), protein (TBP), gross energy (TBGE), and ash (TBA) were as follows: %TBF = 105.1 - 1.47 (%TBW); %TBP = 0.42 (%TBW) - 4.75; TBGE (MJ) = 40.8 (mass in kg) - 48.5 (TBW in kg) - 0.4; and TBA (kg) = 0.1 - 0.008 (mass in kg) + 0.05 (TBW in kg). These relationships are applicable to gray seals of both sexes over a wide range of age and body conditions, and they predict the body composition of gray seals more accurately than the predictive equations derived from ringed seals (Pusa hispida) and from the equation of Pace and Rathbun, which has been reported to be generally applicable to mammals

  19. Total body-calcium measurements: comparison of two delayed-gamma neutron activation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, R.; Ellis, K.J.; Shypailo, R.J.; Pierson, R.N. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This study compares two independently calibrated delayed-gamma neutron activation (DGNA) facilities, one at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, New York, and the other at the Children's Nutrition Research Center (CNRC), Houston, Texas that measure total body calcium (TBCa). A set of BNL phantoms was sent to CNRC for neutron activation analysis, and a set of CNRC phantoms was measured at BNL. Both facilities showed high precision (<2%), and the results were in good agreement, within 5%. (author)

  20. Headset Bluetooth and cell phone based continuous central body temperature measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, J Miguel; Pereira, Bruno; Paiva, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The accurate measure of the central temperature is a very important physiologic indicator in several clinical applications, namely, in the characterization and diagnosis of sleep disorders. In this paper a simple system is described to continuously measure the body temperature at the ear. An electronic temperature sensor is coupled to the microphone of a common commercial auricular Bluetooth device that sends the temperature measurements to a mobile phone to which is paired. The measurements are stored at the mobile phone and periodically sent to a medical facility by email or SMS (short messaging service).

  1. Out-of-equilibrium body potential measurements in pseudo-MOSFET for sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benea, Licinius; Bawedin, Maryline; Delacour, Cécile; Ionica, Irina

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the out-of-equilibrium body potential behaviour in the Ψ-MOSFET configuration. Consistent measurements in this experimental setup succeeded in providing a substantial understanding of its characteristics in the depletion region. The final objective of this work is to envision this new measurement technique for biochemical sensor applications. Among its advantages, the most important are its simplicity, the good sensitivity, the measurement of a potential instead of a current and the low bias needed for detection compared to the conventional drain current measurements.

  2. Body posture measurement in a context of example-based teaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit, Eric; Perrin, Stephane; Coquin, Didier

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a measurement process of body postures operated in a context of humanoid robot learning. The basic measured quantities are the angle joints of a human skeleton and the angle joints of a humanoid robot. Due to the differences between the two mechanical structures, the measurement results are expressed into a common representation space by the way of fuzzy scales. This paper shows how the common representation space can be defined, and presents a method to match weakly defined postures with uncertain measurements of a human posture

  3. Secondary standards (non-activation) for neutron data measurements above 20 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haight, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    In addition to H(n,p) scattering and 235,238 U(n,f) reactions, secondary standards for neutron flux determination may be useful for neutron energies above 20 MeV. For experiments where gamma rays are detected, reference gamma-ray production cross sections are relevant. For neutron-induced charged particle production, standard (n,p) and (n,alpha) cross sections would be helpful. Total cross section standards would serve to check the accuracy of these measurements. These secondary standards are desirable because they can be used with the same detector systems employed in measuring the quantities of interest. Uncertainties due to detector efficiency, geometrical effects, timing and length of flight paths can therefore be significantly reduced. Several secondary standards that do not depend on activation techniques are proposed. 14 refs

  4. Comparison of a new whole-body continuous-table-movement protocol versus a standard whole-body MR protocol for the assessment of multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weckbach, S.; Michaely, H.J.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Dinter, D.J.; Stemmer, A.

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate a whole body (WB) continuous-table-movement (CTM) MR protocol for the assessment of multiple myeloma (MM) in comparison to a step-by-step WB protocol. Eighteen patients with MM were examined at 1.5T using a WB CTM protocol (axial T2-w fs BLADE, T1-w GRE sequence) and a step-by-step WB protocol including coronal/sagittal T1-w SE and STIR sequences as reference. Protocol time was assessed. Image quality, artefacts, liver/spleen assessability, and the ability to depict bone marrow lesions less than or greater than 1 cm as well as diffuse infiltration and soft tissue lesions were rated. Potential changes in the Durie and Salmon Plus stage and the detectability of complications were assessed. Mean protocol time was 6:38 min (CTM) compared to 24:32 min (standard). Image quality was comparable. Artefacts were more prominent using the CTM protocol (P = 0.0039). Organ assessability was better using the CTM protocol (P < 0.001). Depiction of bone marrow and soft tissue lesions was identical without a staging shift. Vertebral fractures were not detected using the CTM protocol. The new protocol allows a higher patient throughput and facilitates the depiction of extramedullary lesions. However, as long as vertebral fractures are not detectable, the protocol cannot be safely used for clinical routine without the acquisition of an additional sagittal sequence. (orig.)

  5. A Step Towards Electric Propulsion Testing Standards: Pressure Measurements and Effective Pumping Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.; Swiatek, Michael W.; Yim, John T.

    2012-01-01

    The electric propulsion community has been implored to establish and implement a set of universally applicable test standards during the research, development, and qualification of electric propulsion systems. Existing practices are fallible and result in testing variations which leads to suspicious results, large margins in application, or aversion to mission infusion. Performance measurements and life testing under appropriate conditions can be costly and lengthy. Measurement practices must be consistent, accurate, and repeatable. Additionally, the measurements must be universally transportable across facilities throughout the development, qualification, spacecraft integration and on-orbit performance. A preliminary step to progress towards universally applicable testing standards is outlined for facility pressure measurements and effective pumping speed calculations. The standard has been applied to multiple facilities at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Test results and analyses of universality of measurements are presented herein.

  6. Measurement of mental attention: Assessing a cognitive component underlying performance on standardized intelligence tests

    OpenAIRE

    Steven J. Howard; Janice Johnson; Juan Pascual-Leone

    2013-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of standardized IQ tests to measure human intelligence, problems with such measures have led some to suggest that better indices may derive from measurement of cognitive processes underlying performance on IQ tests (e.g., working memory capacity). However, measures from both approaches may exhibit performance biases in favour of majority groups, due to the influence of prior learning and experience. Mental attentional (M-) capacity is proposed to be a causal factor ...

  7. Towed underwater PIV measurement for free-surface effects on turbulent wake of a surface-piercing body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Myung Seol

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a towed underwater particle image velocimetry (PIV system was validated in uniform flow and used to investigate the free-surface effects on the turbulent wake of a simple surface-piercing body. The selected test model was a cylindrical geometry formed by extruding the Wigley hull's waterplane shape in the vertical direction. Due to the constraints of the two-dimensional (2D PIV system used for the present study, the velocity field measurements were done separately for the vertical and horizontal planes. Using the measured data at several different locations, it was possible to identify the free-surface effects on the turbulent wake in terms of the mean velocity components and turbulence quantities. In order to provide an accuracy level of the data, uncertainty assessment was done following the International Towing Tank Conference standard procedure.

  8. Standard test method for measurement of oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of soil

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure and related test equipment for measuring oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of soil samples removed from the ground. 1.2 The procedure in Section 9 is appropriate for field and laboratory measurements. 1.3 Accurate measurement of oxidation-reduction potential aids in the analysis of soil corrosivity and its impact on buried metallic structure corrosion rates. 1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  9. The elastic body model: a pedagogical approach integrating real time measurements and modelling activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, C; Guastella, I; Tarantino, G

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a pedagogical approach to elastic body movement based on measurements of the contact times between a metallic rod and small bodies colliding with it and on modelling of the experimental results by using a microcomputer-based laboratory and simulation tools. The experiments and modelling activities have been built in the context of the laboratory of mechanical wave propagation of the two-year graduate teacher education programme of Palermo's University. Some considerations about observed modifications in trainee teachers' attitudes in utilizing experiments and modelling are discussed

  10. Body composition in hemodialysis patients measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenver, Doris Irene; Gotfredsen, Arne; Hilsted, J

    1995-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measures three of the principal components of the body: fat mass, lean soft-tissue mass (comprising muscle, inner organs, and the body water), and the bone mineral content. The purpose of this study was to test the estimation capacity of DXA when it is applied...... and reduction in fat-free mass (lean soft-tissue mass plus bone mineral content) was observed by DXA. The estimation of the fat-free mass was independent of the amount of fluid loss. No significant differences in variance between the data obtained before and after the dialysis were observed. We conclude...

  11. Effect of size and composition of the body on absolute measurement of calcium in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinks, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of size and composition of the body on the measurement of total calcium in absolute units by neutron activation analysis is described. The neutron beam, produced from a cyclotron, was of mean energy 7.5 MeV. Counting of the activities induced in a patient was carried out with a multidetector whole body counter. Calibration of the system was achieved by using two phantoms of different sizes containing known quantities of calcium. The dimensions of various phantom sections were varied to determine the effect on efficiency of activation, an approximately linear relationship with body thickness being found. The influence of body habitus on counting efficiency was assessed by counting different patients who had been given known quantities of 42 K. The effects of (a) the non-uniform distribution of calcium and (b) the variation in density of different tissues on both activation and counting efficiency are discussed. It is estimated that the 68% confidence limits on the measurement of 49 Ca count rate per unit neutron fluence is +- 3.0% and on the measurement of calcium in grams +- 8.2%. (author)

  12. Body Mass Index (BMI) in women booking for antenatal care: comparison between selfreported and digital measurements.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fattah, Chro

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: We set out to compare measurement of Body Mass Index (BMI) with selfreporting in women early in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: We studied 100 women booking for antenatal care in the first trimester with a normal ongoing pregnancy. Selfreported maternal weight and height were recorded and the Body Mass Index was calculated. Afterwards maternal weight and height were digitally measured and actual BMI was calculated. RESULTS: If selfreporting is used for BMI classification, we found that 22% of women were classified incorrectly when BMI was measured. 12% of the women who were classified as having a normal selfreported BMI were overweight and 5% classified as overweight were obese. Similar findings have been reported outside pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: These findings have implications for clinical practice, and for research studies exploring the relationship between maternal adiposity and pregnancy complications.

  13. A wireless body measurement system to study fatigue in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Fei; Rabotti, Chiara; Bilberg, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue is reported as the most common symptom by patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The physiological and functional parameters related to fatigue in MS patients are currently not well established. A new wearable wireless body measurement system, named Fatigue Monitoring System (FAMOS......), was developed to study fatigue in MS. It can continuously measure electrocardiogram, body-skin temperature, electromyogram and motions of feet. The goal of this study is to test the ability of distinguishing fatigued MS patients from healthy subjects by the use of FAMOS. This paper presents the realization...... of the measurement system including the design of both hardware and dedicated signal processing algorithms. Twenty-six participants including 17 MS patients with fatigue and 9 sex- and age-matched healthy controls were included in the study for continuous 24 h monitoring. The preliminary results show significant...

  14. Use of standardized outcome measures in physical therapist practice: perceptions and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jette, Diane U; Halbert, James; Iverson, Courtney; Miceli, Erin; Shah, Palak

    2009-02-01

    Standardized instruments for measuring patients' activity limitations and participation restrictions have been advocated for use by rehabilitation professionals for many years. The available literature provides few recent reports of the use of these measures by physical therapists in the United States. The primary purpose of this study was to determine: (1) the extent of the use of standardized outcome measures and (2) perceptions regarding their benefits and barriers to their use. A secondary purpose was to examine factors associated with their use among physical therapists in clinical practice. The study used an observational design. A survey questionnaire comprising items regarding the use and perceived benefits and barriers of standardized outcome measures was sent to 1,000 randomly selected members of the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA). Forty-eight percent of participants used standardized outcome measures. The majority of participants (>90%) who used such measures believed that they enhanced communication with patients and helped direct the plan of care. The most frequently reported reasons for not using such measures included length of time for patients to complete them, length of time for clinicians to analyze the data, and difficulty for patients in completing them independently. Use of standardized outcome measures was related to specialty certification status, practice setting, and the age of the majority of patients treated. The limitations included an unvalidated survey for data collection and a sample limited to APTA members. Despite more than a decade of development and testing of standardized outcome measures appropriate for various conditions and practice settings, physical therapists have some distance to go in implementing their use routinely in most clinical settings. Based on the perceived barriers, alterations in practice management strategies and the instruments themselves may be necessary to increase their use.

  15. Associations of Body Composition Measurements with Serum Lipid, Glucose and Insulin Profile: A Chinese Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chunxiao; Gao, Wenjing; Cao, Weihua; Lv, Jun; Yu, Canqing; Wang, Shengfeng; Zhou, Bin; Pang, Zengchang; Cong, Liming; Wang, Hua; Wu, Xianping; Li, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To quantitate and compare the associations of various body composition measurements with serum metabolites and to what degree genetic or environmental factors affect obesity-metabolite relation. Methods Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), lean body mass (LBM), percent body fat (PBF), fasting serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), glucose, insulin and lifestyle factors were assessed in 903 twins from Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR). Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated from fasting serum glucose and insulin. Linear regression models and bivariate structural equation models were used to examine the relation of various body composition measurements with serum metabolite levels and genetic/environmental influences on these associations, respectively. Results At individual level, adiposity measurements (BMI, WC and PBF) showed significant associations with serum metabolite concentrations in both sexes and the associations still existed in male twins when using within-MZ twin pair comparison analyses. Associations of BMI with TG, insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly stronger in male twins compared to female twins (BMI-by-sex interaction p = 0.043, 0.020 and 0.019, respectively). Comparison of various adiposity measurements with levels of serum metabolites revealed that WC explained the largest fraction of variance in serum LDL-C, TG, TC and glucose concentrations while BMI performed best in explaining variance in serum HDL-C, insulin and HOMA-IR levels. Of these phenotypic correlations, 64–81% were attributed to genetic factors, whereas 19–36% were attributed to unique environmental factors. Conclusions We observed different associations between adiposity and serum metabolite profile and demonstrated that WC and BMI explained the largest fraction of variance in serum lipid profile and insulin

  16. Evaluating standard airborne sound insulation measures in terms of annoyance, loudness, and audibility ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H K; Bradley, J S

    2009-07-01

    This paper reports the results of an evaluation of the merits of standard airborne sound insulation measures with respect to subjective ratings of the annoyance and loudness of transmitted sounds. Subjects listened to speech and music sounds modified to represent transmission through 20 different walls with sound transmission class (STC) ratings from 34 to 58. A number of variations in the standard measures were also considered. These included variations in the 8-dB rule for the maximum allowed deficiency in the STC measure as well as variations in the standard 32-dB total allowed deficiency. Several spectrum adaptation terms were considered in combination with weighted sound reduction index (R(w)) values as well as modifications to the range of included frequencies in the standard rating contour. A STC measure without an 8-dB rule and an R(w) rating with a new spectrum adaptation term were better predictors of annoyance and loudness ratings of speech sounds. R(w) ratings with one of two modified C(tr) spectrum adaptation terms were better predictors of annoyance and loudness ratings of transmitted music sounds. Although some measures were much better predictors of responses to one type of sound than were the standard STC and R(w) values, no measure was remarkably improved for predicting annoyance and loudness ratings of both music and speech sounds.

  17. Development and validation of parenting measures for body image and eating patterns in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Stephanie R; Hart, Laura M; Paxton, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based parenting interventions are important in assisting parents to help their children develop healthy body image and eating patterns. To adequately assess the impact of parenting interventions, valid parent measures are required. The aim of this study was to develop and assess the validity and reliability of two new parent measures, the Parenting Intentions for Body image and Eating patterns in Childhood (Parenting Intentions BEC) and the Knowledge Test for Body image and Eating patterns in Childhood (Knowledge Test BEC). Participants were 27 professionals working in research or clinical treatment of body dissatisfaction or eating disorders, and 75 parents of children aged 2-6 years, who completed the measures via an online questionnaire. Seven scenarios were developed for the Parenting Intentions BEC to describe common experiences about the body and food that parents might need to respond to in front of their child. Parents ranked four behavioural intentions, derived from the current literature on parenting risk factors for body dissatisfaction and unhealthy eating patterns in children. Two subscales were created, one representing positive behavioural intentions, the other negative behavioural intentions. After piloting a larger pool of items, 13 statements were used to construct the Knowledge Test BEC. These were designed to be factual statements about the influence of parent language, media, family meals, healthy eating, and self-esteem on child eating and body image. The validity of both measures was tested by comparing parent and professional scores, and reliability was assessed by comparing parent scores over two testing occasions. Compared with parents, professionals reported significantly higher scores on the Positive Intentions subscale and significantly lower on the Negative Intentions subscale of the Parenting Intentions BEC; confirming the discriminant validity of six out of the seven scenarios. Test-retest reliability was also confirmed as

  18. Software database creature for investment property measurement according to international standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomareva, S. V.; Merzliakova, N. A.

    2018-05-01

    The article deals with investment property measurement and accounting problems at the international, national and enterprise levels. The need to create the software for investment property measurement according to International Accounting Standards was substantiated. The necessary software functions and the processes were described.

  19. Precision and accuracy, two steps towards the standardization of XRPD measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berti, G [Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    1996-09-01

    Any standardization process requires to get at results comprehensible, reproducible and traceable. Precision and accuracy of the measurements play a key role in getting at these requirements. The adoption of either physical (standard) or mathematical models allows for describing the whole diffraction measurement process with the necessary physical significance. From an other hand, the adoption of procedure, which are capable of controlling the measurement process, renders it reproducible and traceable. The falling of those requirements make difficult to transfer or replicate elsewhere experiences which may give even excellent result in a given laboratory.

  20. Precision and accuracy, two steps towards the standardization of XRPD measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berti, G.

    1996-01-01

    Any standardization process requires to get at results comprehensible, reproducible and traceable. Precision and accuracy of the measurements play a key role in getting at these requirements. The adoption of either physical (standard) or mathematical models allows for describing the whole diffraction measurement process with the necessary physical significance. From an other hand, the adoption of procedure, which are capable of controlling the measurement process, renders it reproducible and traceable. The falling of those requirements make difficult to transfer or replicate elsewhere experiences which may give even excellent result in a given laboratory

  1. Song repertoire size correlates with measures of body size in Eurasian blackbirds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesler, Nana; Mundry, Roger; Sacher, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In most oscine bird species males possess a repertoire of different song patterns. The size of these repertoires is assumed to serve as an honest signal of male quality. The Eurasian blackbird’s (Turdus merula) song contains a large repertoire of different element types with a flexible song...... organisation. Here we investigated whether repertoire size in Eurasian blackbirds correlates with measures of body size, namely length of wing, 8th primary, beak and tarsus. So far, very few studies have investigated species with large repertoires and a flexible song organisation in this context. We found...... positive correlations, meaning that larger males had larger repertoires. Larger males may have better fighting abilities and, thus, advantages in territorial defence. Larger structural body size may also reflect better conditions during early development. Therefore, under the assumption that body size...

  2. Whole body measurements of sodium turnover in offspring of patients with sustained essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henningsen, N.C.; Ohlsson, O.; Mattson, S.; Nosslin, B.; Lund Univ.; Lund Univ.

    1982-01-01

    The elimination rate (percent per day) of injected 22 Na using a whole body measurement technique was significantly lower (26%, 5.8 +- 1.5) in normotensive of borderline hypertensive offspring of essential hypertensive patients than in 15 age- and sex-matched, normotensive controls (7.3 +- 1.0). There were no significant differences in exchangeable sodium, whole body potassium or in the urinary exeretion of sodium, potassium and creatinine. The basis for the difference in turnover rate during weck 1 is probably an alteration in the cellular handling of sodium (i.e. increased intracellular sodium) in the still normotensive offspring of patients with essential hypertension. The long-term (more than 100 days) whole body retention of 22 Na was found to be only 0.1% of that injected, which justifies the use of the method on larger population groups. (orig.)

  3. Development of an ionization chamber based high sensitivity detector for the measurement of radiation dose from X-ray whole body scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sunil K.; Tripathi, S.M.; LijiShaiju; Sathian, V.; Kulkarni, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Using walk through metal detectors and undergoing frisking for personals at airports, seaports, railway stations and other sensitive places no longer meets proper security requirements. Now a days use of plastic explosives, drug trafficking or illegal carriage of dangerous items concealed under cloths or body cavities has increased many folds which in many cases is not possible to detect by conventional methods. One of the systems which are capable to overcome the above mentioned difficulties is the use of X-ray based whole body scanners, either transmission type or backscatter type, depending upon the nature of requirement. While using these whole body scanners the person being scanned possesses a radiation risk whose safety aspects can be monitored by following international standards (recommending certain dose limits). In order to check the compliance of these dose limits, the dose per scan received by the person (from these whole body scanners) needs to be measured. A very high sensitive ionization chamber has been designed and fabricated for measuring these extremely low X- ray fields ( few μR) produced by a scanning X-ray beam over a large area. A methodology has been developed to measure exposure per scan using large volume ionization chambers. This value of exposure was used to calculate whole body dose as per the recommendations of ANSI standard for its compliance

  4. Correlations among the Main Body Measurements in Pikeperch Larvae from 10 to 25 Days Post-Hatch, Obtained Out-Of-Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Grozea

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The pikeperch (Sander lucioperca is one of the most valuable carnivorous fish species in Europe, and in Romania as well. In the literature there are no relevant data on growth dynamic and correlation among the main body measurements in pikeperch larvae obtained out-of-season and reared in recirculated aquaculture system (RAS. The aim of this study was to bring information for clarifying some of these aspects. Our results emphasized that correlation coefficient between maximum body high (H and total length (TL together with standard length (SL decrease linear from 10 to 25 DPH. The correlation coefficients between the main length measurements (TL and SL reveal a very high correlation between the two traits in pikeperch larvae. High correlations between body weight (BW and the other length measurements were observed.

  5. Assessment of Human Ambulatory Speed by Measuring Near-Body Air Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Salati

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurements of physical activity are important for the diagnosis of the exacerbation of chronic diseases. Accelerometers have been widely employed in clinical research for measuring activity intensity and investigating the association between physical activity and adverse health conditions. However, the ability of accelerometers in assessing physical activity intensity such as walking speed has been constrained by the inter-individual variability in sensor output and by the necessity of developing unobtrusive low-power monitoring systems. This paper will present a study aimed at investigating the accuracy of a wearable measuring system of near-body air flow to determine ambulatory speed in the field.

  6. Radium-226 body burden in U miners by measurement of Rn in exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, G K; Raghavayya, M; Kotrappa, P; Somasundaram, S

    1986-02-01

    Uranium miners were made to inhale Rn-free medical O2 and exhale through a 5.2-1 A1 chamber before reporting to work. The chamber was sealed and isolated from the sampling circuit. An electrostatic plate collected the freshly formed Rn-decay products. The subsequent programmed alpha counting of the plate yielded a Rn concentration in the exhaled breath. Assuming that the exhaled breath represents a certain fraction of the Rn produced inside the body, the body burden of 226Ra was calculated. Standardisation of this procedure and the data collected on 310 miners are discussed. The procedure is simple and applicable for routine measurements. The miner needs to be in the laboratory for only 10 min. The system is also portable for field application. For routine use, the minimum detectable concentration is 3.87 Bq X m-3 which corresponds to a body burden of 0.26 kBq in a typical miner, if one assumes the Rn release fraction from the body as 84%. The system offers a more convenient and sensitive alternative to whole-body counting of workers for 226Ra.

  7. Automated measurement of uptake in cerebellum, liver, and aortic arch in full-body FDG PET/CT scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Christian; Sun, Shanhui; Sun, Wenqing; Otis, Justin; Wallace, Audrey; Smith, Brian J; Sunderland, John J; Graham, Michael M; Sonka, Milan; Buatti, John M; Beichel, Reinhard R

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop and validate fully automated methods for uptake measurement of cerebellum, liver, and aortic arch in full-body PET/CT scans. Such measurements are of interest in the context of uptake normalization for quantitative assessment of metabolic activity and/or automated image quality control. Cerebellum, liver, and aortic arch regions were segmented with different automated approaches. Cerebella were segmented in PET volumes by means of a robust active shape model (ASM) based method. For liver segmentation, a largest possible hyperellipsoid was fitted to the liver in PET scans. The aortic arch was first segmented in CT images of a PET/CT scan by a tubular structure analysis approach, and the segmented result was then mapped to the corresponding PET scan. For each of the segmented structures, the average standardized uptake value (SUV) was calculated. To generate an independent reference standard for method validation, expert image analysts were asked to segment several cross sections of each of the three structures in 134 F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT scans. For each case, the true average SUV was estimated by utilizing statistical models and served as the independent reference standard. For automated aorta and liver SUV measurements, no statistically significant scale or shift differences were observed between automated results and the independent standard. In the case of the cerebellum, the scale and shift were not significantly different, if measured in the same cross sections that were utilized for generating the reference. In contrast, automated results were scaled 5% lower on average although not shifted, if FDG uptake was calculated from the whole segmented cerebellum volume. The estimated reduction in total SUV measurement error ranged between 54.7% and 99.2%, and the reduction was found to be statistically significant for cerebellum and aortic arch. With the proposed methods, the authors have demonstrated that

  8. Evaluation of motion measurement using cine MRI for image guided stereotactic body radiotherapy on a new phantom platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jing; Wang, Ziheng; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate accuracy of motion tracking of cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for image-guided stereotactic body radiotherapy. A phantom platform was developed in this work to fulfill the goal. The motion phantom consisted of a platform, a solid thread, a motor and a control system that can simulate motion in various modes. To validate its reproducibility, the phantom platform was setup three times and imaged with fluoroscopy using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) for the same motion profile. After the validation test, the phantom platform was evaluated using cine MRI at 2.5 frames/second on a 1.5T GE scanner using five different artificial profiles and five patient profiles. The above profiles were again measured with EPID fluoroscopy and used as references. Discrepancies between measured profiles from cine MRI and EPID were quantified using root-mean-square (RMS) and standard deviation (SD). Pearson’s product moment correlational analysis was used to test correlation. The standard deviation for the reproducibility test was 0.28 mm. The discrepancies (RMS) between all profiles measured by cine MRI and EPID fluoroscopy ranged from 0.30 to 0.49 mm for artificial profiles and ranged from 0.75 to 0.91 mm for five patient profiles. The cine MRI sequence could precisely track phantom motion and the proposed motion phantom was feasible to evaluate cine MRI accuracy. PMID:29296304

  9. Human Body Parts Tracking and Kinematic Features Assessment Based on RSSI and Inertial Sensor Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaddi Blumrosen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Acquisition of patient kinematics in different environments plays an important role in the detection of risk situations such as fall detection in elderly patients, in rehabilitation of patients with injuries, and in the design of treatment plans for patients with neurological diseases. Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI measurements in a Body Area Network (BAN, capture the signal power on a radio link. The main aim of this paper is to demonstrate the potential of utilizing RSSI measurements in assessment of human kinematic features, and to give methods to determine these features. RSSI measurements can be used for tracking different body parts’ displacements on scales of a few centimeters, for classifying motion and gait patterns instead of inertial sensors, and to serve as an additional reference to other sensors, in particular inertial sensors. Criteria and analytical methods for body part tracking, kinematic motion feature extraction, and a Kalman filter model for aggregation of RSSI and inertial sensor were derived. The methods were verified by a set of experiments performed in an indoor environment. In the future, the use of RSSI measurements can help in continuous assessment of various kinematic features of patients during their daily life activities and enhance medical diagnosis accuracy with lower costs.

  10. Standard test method for measurement of web/roller friction characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the simulation of a roller/web transport tribosystem and the measurement of the static and kinetic coefficient of friction of the web/roller couple when sliding occurs between the two. The objective of this test method is to provide users with web/roller friction information that can be used for process control, design calculations, and for any other function where web/roller friction needs to be known. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  11. Standard test method for measurement of corrosion potentials of Aluminum alloys

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for measurement of the corrosion potential (see Note 1) of an aluminum alloy in an aqueous solution of sodium chloride with enough hydrogen peroxide added to provide an ample supply of cathodic reactant. Note 1—The corrosion potential is sometimes referred to as the open-circuit solution or rest potential. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  12. Standard Test Method for Measuring Heat-Transfer Rate Using a Thermal Capacitance (Slug) Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the measurement of heat transfer rate using a thermal capacitance-type calorimeter which assumes one-dimensional heat conduction into a cylindrical piece of material (slug) with known physical properties. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. Note 1—For information see Test Methods E 285, E 422, E 458, E 459, and E 511.

  13. Body composition measures of obese adolescents by the deuterium oxide dilution method and by bioelectrical impedance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.M. Resende

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to describe and compare the body composition variables determined by bioelectrical impedance (BIA and the deuterium dilution method (DDM, to identify possible correlations and agreement between the two methods, and to construct a linear regression model including anthropometric measures. Obese adolescents were evaluated by anthropometric measures, and body composition was assessed by BIA and DDM. Forty obese adolescents were included in the study. Comparison of the mean values for the following variables: fat body mass (FM; kg, fat-free mass (FFM; kg, and total body water (TBW; % determined by DDM and by BIA revealed significant differences. BIA overestimated FFM and TBW and underestimated FM. When compared with data provided by DDM, the BIA data presented a significant correlation with FFM (r = 0.89; P < 0.001, FM (r = 0.93; P < 0.001 and TBW (r = 0.62; P < 0.001. The Bland-Altman plot showed no agreement for FFM, FM or TBW between data provided by BIA and DDM. The linear regression models proposed in our study with respect to FFM, FM, and TBW were well adjusted. FFM obtained by DDM = 0.842 x FFM obtained by BIA. FM obtained by DDM = 0.855 x FM obtained by BIA + 0.152 x weight (kg. TBW obtained by DDM = 0.813 x TBW obtained by BIA. The body composition results of obese adolescents determined by DDM can be predicted by using the measures provided by BIA through a regression equation.

  14. Advisory Committee for the Calibration Standards of Ionizing Radiation Measurement. Section 2. Radionucleide Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Section II (Mesure des radionucleides) of the Comite Consultatif pour les Etalons de Mesure des Rayonnements Ionisants held its sixth meeting in May 1981. The results of an international comparison of 55 Fe, organized by the National Physical Laboratory, and of a trial comparison of 133 Ba were discussed. A full-scale comparison of 137 Cs activity measurements and a repetition of the 133 Ba trial comparison are to take place within the next two years. A trial comparison of 109 Cd is also proposed. Recent work in radioactivity carried out at BIPM was reported. The usefulness of the international reference system for measuring the activity of gamma-ray emitters was generally acknowledged. The new ''selective sampling'' method which avoids measuring coincidences attracted much attention. The Working Party reports and a new monograph (BIPM-3) were presented. Finally, there was a broad exchange of information on work in progress at the various laboratories represented at the meeting [fr

  15. The primary exposure standard for Co-60 gamma radiation: characteristics and measurements procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laitano, R.F.; Toni, M.P.

    1983-01-01

    A description is given of a cavity ionization chamber used, as a primary exposure standard, at the Laboratorio di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti of the ENEA in Italy. The primary standard is designed to make absolute measurements of exposure due to the Co-60 gamma radiation. The procedures for the realizationof the exposure unit are also described. Finally results of some international comparisons are reported

  16. Body measures and milk production, milk fat globules granulometry and milk fatty acid content in Cabannina cattle breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Communod

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to achieve scientific information about body measures and milk production of Cabannina cattle, a local breed reared in northern Italy. Fourteen body measures and five morphologic indexes were recorded from 86 heads enrolled in the herd book. Low differences between males and females of the same age-class were shown. Body measures were generally greater than those reported in previous studies, probably due to recent crosses. With reference to milk production, 991 test-day records from 128 lactations of 59 cows were analysed. Average milk daily production was 8 kg/d in 1st lactation to 10.61 in 3rd (P<0.05; the parameters of the Wood equation draw atypical curves with the exception of curves from spring calving cows. Only 74.5% of lactations with an adjusted R2 >0.75 showed a standard curve, with low persistence (7.7%, high value of d at peak (103 d and peak production of 20.18 kg of milk. Moreover, 100 milk samples (40 to 220 d of lactation were submitted to a granulometric survey by laser scatter technique in order to evaluate the dimensions of fat globules; then milk fat was analyzed by gas chromatography, and desaturase indexes were determined. Cabannina cows showed small fat globules with high specific surface. Furthermore mean diameter of milk fat globules decreased during lactation then rose. Milk fat contained high levels of cis-MUFA, and high desaturase indexes. In conclusion, the low size of Cabannina cattle orients for a limited meat production. Instead milk production has a higher economic potential, aimed at cheese production and human nutrition.

  17. A comparison of analytical laboratory and optical in situ methods for the measurement of nitrate in north Florida water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozin, A. G.; Clark, M. W.

    2013-12-01

    Assessing the impact of nutrient concentrations on aquatic ecosystems requires an in depth understanding of dynamic biogeochemical cycles that are often a challenge to monitor at the high spatial and temporal resolution necessary to understand these complex processes. Traditional sampling approaches involving discrete samples and laboratory analyses can be constrained by analytical costs, field time, and logistical details that can fail to accurately capture both spatial and temporal changes. Optical in situ instruments may provide the opportunity to continuously monitor a variety of water quality parameters at a high spatial or temporal resolution. This work explores the suitability of a Submersible Ultraviolet Nitrate Analyzer (SUNA), produced by Satlantic, to accurately assess in situ nitrate concentration in several freshwater systems in north Florida. The SUNA was deployed to measure nitrate at five different water bodies selected to represent a range of watershed land uses and water chemistry in the region. In situ nitrate measurements were compared to standard laboratory methods to evaluate the effectiveness of the SUNA's operation. Other optical sensors were used to measure the spectral properties of absorbance, fluorescence, and turbidity (scatter) in the same Florida water bodies. Data from these additional sensors were collected to quantify possible interferences that may affect SUNA performance. In addition, data from the SUNA and other sensors are being used to infer information about the quality and quantity of aqueous constituents besides nitrate. A better understanding of the capabilities and possible limitations of these relatively new analytical instruments will allow researchers to more effectively investigate biogeochemical processes and nutrient transport and enhance decision-making to protect our water bodies.

  18. Comparison of estimated core body temperature measured with the BioHarness and rectal temperature under several heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yongsuk; DiLeo, Travis; Powell, Jeffrey B; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Roberge, Raymond J; Coca, Aitor

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring and measuring core body temperature is important to prevent or minimize physiological strain and cognitive dysfunction for workers such as first responders (e.g., firefighters) and military personnel. The purpose of this study is to compare estimated core body temperature (Tco-est), determined by heart rate (HR) data from a wearable chest strap physiology monitor, to standard rectal thermometry (Tre) under different conditions.  Tco-est and Tre measurements were obtained in thermoneutral and heat stress conditions (high temperature and relative humidity) during four different experiments including treadmill exercise, cycling exercise, passive heat stress, and treadmill exercise while wearing personal protective equipment (PPE).  Overall, the mean Tco-est did not differ significantly from Tre across the four conditions. During exercise at low-moderate work rates under heat stress conditions, Tco-est was consistently higher than Tre at all-time points. Tco-est underestimated temperature compared to Tre at rest in heat stress conditions and at a low work rate under heat stress while wearing PPE. The mean differences between the two measurements ranged from -0.1 ± 0.4 to 0.3 ± 0.4°C and Tco-est correlated well with HR (r = 0.795 - 0.849) and mean body temperature (r = 0.637 - 0.861).  These results indicate that, the comparison of Tco-est to Tre may result in over- or underestimation which could possibly lead to heat-related illness during monitoring in certain conditions. Modifications to the current algorithm should be considered to address such issues.

  19. A standardization of the physical tests for external irradiation measuring detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-05-01

    This report is the result of a standardization work, realized within the Radioprotection Services of the A.E.C., of the physical tests for dectors measuring external irradiations. Among the various tests mentionned, calibration and the establishment of the relative spectral response are treated in details. As far as calibration is concerned, the standardization refers to: the reference detector, the reference radiation source, the installation and calibration procedure. As for the relative spectral response the standardization refers to: the reference detector, the radiation sources to be used. High flux detectors and those for pulse electromagnetic radiations are also dealt with [fr

  20. Protocol of the COSMIN study: COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick DL

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Choosing an adequate measurement instrument depends on the proposed use of the instrument, the concept to be measured, the measurement properties (e.g. internal consistency, reproducibility, content and construct validity, responsiveness, and interpretability, the requirements, the burden for subjects, and costs of the available instruments. As far as measurement properties are concerned, there are no sufficiently specific standards for the evaluation of measurement properties of instruments to measure health status, and also no explicit criteria for what constitutes good measurement properties. In this paper we describe the protocol for the COSMIN study, the objective of which is to develop a checklist that contains COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments, including explicit criteria for satisfying these standards. We will focus on evaluative health related patient-reported outcomes (HR-PROs, i.e. patient-reported health measurement instruments used in a longitudinal design as an outcome measure, excluding health care related PROs, such as satisfaction with care or adherence. The COSMIN standards will be made available in the form of an easily applicable checklist. Method An international Delphi study will be performed to reach consensus on which and how measurement properties should be assessed, and on criteria for good measurement properties. Two sources of input will be used for the Delphi study: (1 a systematic review of properties, standards and criteria of measurement properties found in systematic reviews of measurement instruments, and (2 an additional literature search of methodological articles presenting a comprehensive checklist of standards and criteria. The Delphi study will consist of four (written Delphi rounds, with approximately 30 expert panel members with different backgrounds in clinical medicine, biostatistics, psychology, and epidemiology. The final checklist will

  1. Genetic association between body energy measured throughout lactation and fertility in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banos, G; Coffey, M P

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the genetic association of body energy assessed throughout lactation with a cow's fertility. Nine direct and indirect body energy traits were defined at different stages of lactation. Four were daily records of energy balance, energy content, cumulative effective energy (CEE) and body condition score (BCS) calculated between lactation days 4 and 311. The other five traits included duration of negative energy balance (DNEB), rate of recovery during DNEB (RNEB), sum of negative energy balance (SNEB), nadir of energy content (NEC) and number of days from calving to NEC. Of these traits, energy balance, DNEB, RNEB and SNEB were primarily based on individual cow feed intake and milk yield, and considered direct measures of body energy. The other traits were calculated from body lipid and protein changes, predicted from BCS and live weight profiles, and were considered indirect measures of body energy. Fertility was defined by number of days between calving and commencement of luteal activity (DLA), first observed oestrus (DH) and conception (DC), and number of services per conception. A total of 957 cows in their first four lactations were considered in the study. Genetic models fitted cubic splines to define longitudinal traits (energy balance, energy content, CEE and BCS) and calculate heritability and genetic correlation with fertility. Daily heritability estimate ranges were 0.10 to 0.34, 0.35 to 0.61, 0.32 to 0.53 and 0.24 to 0.56 for energy balance, energy content, CEE and BCS, respectively, and, in most cases, tended to increase towards the middle of lactation and remain relatively stable thereafter. Of the other body energy traits, heritability of NEC (0.44) was the most notable. Statistically significant (P body energy have the strongest genetic association with cow fertility. NEC and early lactation (circa day 50) BCS and energy content are the most useful traits for selection in terms of the correlated improvement

  2. Body fat measurement by bioelectrical impedance and air displacement plethysmography: a cross-validation study to design bioelectrical impedance equations in Mexican adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia Mauro E

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study of body composition in specific populations by techniques such as bio-impedance analysis (BIA requires validation based on standard reference methods. The aim of this study was to develop and cross-validate a predictive equation for bioelectrical impedance using air displacement plethysmography (ADP as standard method to measure body composition in Mexican adult men and women. Methods This study included 155 male and female subjects from northern Mexico, 20–50 years of age, from low, middle, and upper income levels. Body composition was measured by ADP. Body weight (BW, kg and height (Ht, cm were obtained by standard anthropometric techniques. Resistance, R (ohms and reactance, Xc (ohms were also measured. A random-split method was used to obtain two samples: one was used to derive the equation by the "all possible regressions" procedure and was cross-validated in the other sample to test predicted versus measured values of fat-free mass (FFM. Results and Discussion The final model was: FFM (kg = 0.7374 * (Ht2 /R + 0.1763 * (BW - 0.1773 * (Age + 0.1198 * (Xc - 2.4658. R2 was 0.97; the square root of the mean square error (SRMSE was 1.99 kg, and the pure error (PE was 2.96. There was no difference between FFM predicted by the new equation (48.57 ± 10.9 kg and that measured by ADP (48.43 ± 11.3 kg. The new equation did not differ from the line of identity, had a high R2 and a low SRMSE, and showed no significant bias (0.87 ± 2.84 kg. Conclusion The new bioelectrical impedance equation based on the two-compartment model (2C was accurate, precise, and free of bias. This equation can be used to assess body composition and nutritional status in populations similar in anthropometric and physical characteristics to this sample.

  3. Body composition and bone mineral density measurements by using a multi-energy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herve, L.

    2003-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is a major technique to evaluate bone mineral density, thus allowing diagnosis of bone decalcification ( osteoporosis). Recently, this method has proved useful to quantify body composition (fat ratio). However, these measurements suffer from artefacts which can lead to diagnosis errors in a number of cases. This work has aimed to improve both the reproducibility and the accuracy of bone mineral density and body composition measurements. To this avail, the acquisition conditions were optimised in order to ameliorate the results reproducibility and we have proposed a new method to correct inaccuracies in the determination of bone mineral density. Experimental validations yield encouraging results on both synthetic phantoms and biological samples. (author)

  4. Measurement of total body calcium in osteoporotic patients treated with salmon calcitonin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanzi, I.; Thompson, K.; Cohn, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    In the past, the evaluation of therapies for osteoporosis has been limited by the lack of a suitable quantitative end point. The introduction of the technique of in vivo total body neutron activation analysis (TBNAA) has made possible the precise and accurate measurement of total body calcium (TBCa). Since almost 99 percent of TBCa is in the skeleton, TBNAA gives a direct measurement of skeletal mass. Thus, changes in skeletal mass serve as an objective criterion in the evaluation of the efficacy of the therapy in osteoporosis. Studies performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory and elsewhere have reported the use of calcitonin (CT) in the treatment of primary osteoporosis and related conditions in a limited number of patients. The physiological effects of CT as an inhibitor of bone resorption has been the rationale of its use. The results of a randomized, controlled, 2 year therapeutical trial of CT in a group of postmenopausal osteoporotic women are presented in this report

  5. Possibility of semiconductor counters application for internal contamination measurement of whole human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunic, O.; Orlic, M.; Bek-Uzarov, Dj.; Pavlovic, S.; Pavlovic, R.

    1997-01-01

    The possibility of high resolution semiconductor counters application in 'Vinca' Whole Body Counter for direct beta-gamma internal contamination measurement are discussed, assuming the following relevant characteristics: efficiency, resolution and counter price. A comparison with appropriate characteristics of NaI(Tl) crystal used in 'Vinca' WBC is treated. It is evident that the scintillation counters have the higher detection efficiency, but HPGe counters having much better resolution and recently lowest prices are also acceptable to join the existing NaI(Tl) counters with the HPGe counters in the same time, allow better spectral analyses of the human body activity and additionally more precise estimation of the equivalent doses rate which is generally a essential problem in WBC measurements. (author)

  6. Non-invasive body temperature measurement of wild chimpanzees using fecal temperature decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Siv Aina; Mundry, Roger; Nunn, Charles L; Boesch, Christophe; Leendertz, Fabian H

    2009-04-01

    New methods are required to increase our understanding of pathologic processes in wild mammals. We developed a noninvasive field method to estimate the body temperature of wild living chimpanzees habituated to humans, based on statistically fitting temperature decline of feces after defecation. The method was established with the use of control measures of human rectal temperature and subsequent changes in fecal temperature over time. The method was then applied to temperature data collected from wild chimpanzee feces. In humans, we found good correspondence between the temperature estimated by the method and the actual rectal temperature that was measured (maximum deviation 0.22 C). The method was successfully applied and the average estimated temperature of the chimpanzees was 37.2 C. This simple-to-use field method reliably estimates the body temperature of wild chimpanzees and probably also other large mammals.

  7. Standardized Approach to Quantitatively Measure Residual Limb Skin Health in Individuals with Lower Limb Amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rink, Cameron L; Wernke, Matthew M; Powell, Heather M; Tornero, Mark; Gnyawali, Surya C; Schroeder, Ryan M; Kim, Jayne Y; Denune, Jeffrey A; Albury, Alexander W; Gordillo, Gayle M; Colvin, James M; Sen, Chandan K

    2017-07-01

    Objective: (1) Develop a standardized approach to quantitatively measure residual limb skin health. (2) Report reference residual limb skin health values in people with transtibial and transfemoral amputation. Approach: Residual limb health outcomes in individuals with transtibial ( n  = 5) and transfemoral ( n  = 5) amputation were compared to able-limb controls ( n  = 4) using noninvasive imaging (hyperspectral imaging and laser speckle flowmetry) and probe-based approaches (laser doppler flowmetry, transcutaneous oxygen, transepidermal water loss, surface electrical capacitance). Results: A standardized methodology that employs noninvasive imaging and probe-based approaches to measure residual limb skin health are described. Compared to able-limb controls, individuals with transtibial and transfemoral amputation have significantly lower transcutaneous oxygen tension, higher transepidermal water loss, and higher surface electrical capacitance in the residual limb. Innovation: Residual limb health as a critical component of prosthesis rehabilitation for individuals with lower limb amputation is understudied in part due to a lack of clinical measures. Here, we present a standardized approach to measure residual limb health in people with transtibial and transfemoral amputation. Conclusion: Technology advances in noninvasive imaging and probe-based measures are leveraged to develop a standardized approach to quantitatively measure residual limb health in individuals with lower limb loss. Compared to able-limb controls, resting residual limb physiology in people that have had transfemoral or transtibial amputation is characterized by lower transcutaneous oxygen tension and poorer skin barrier function.

  8. Assessment of human body influence on exposure measurements of electric field in indoor enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel-Bilbao, Silvia; García, Jorge; Ramos, Victoria; Blas, Juan

    2015-02-01

    Personal exposure meters (PEMs) used for measuring exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) are typically used in epidemiological studies. As is well known, these measurement devices cause a perturbation of real EMF exposure levels due to the presence of the human body in the immediate proximity. This paper aims to model the alteration caused by the body shadow effect (BSE) in motion conditions and in indoor enclosures at the Wi-Fi frequency of 2.4 GHz. For this purpose, simulation techniques based on ray-tracing have been carried out, and their results have been verified experimentally. A good agreement exists between simulation and experimental results in terms of electric field (E-field) levels, and taking into account the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the spatial distribution of amplitude. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test provides a P-value greater than 0.05, in fact close to 1. It has been found that the influence of the presence of the human body can be characterized as an angle of shadow that depends on the dimensions of the indoor enclosure. The CDFs show that the E-field levels in indoor conditions follow a lognormal distribution in the absence of the human body and under the influence of BSE. In conclusion, the perturbation caused by BSE in PEMs readings cannot be compensated for by correction factors. Although the mean value is well adjusted, BSE causes changes in CDF that would require improvements in measurement protocols and in the design of measuring devices to subsequently avoid systematic errors. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Body Conscious? Interoceptive Awareness, Measured by Heartbeat Perception, Is Negatively Correlated with Self-Objectification

    OpenAIRE

    Ainley, Vivien; Tsakiris, Manos

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: 'Self-objectification' is the tendency to experience one's body principally as an object, to be evaluated for its appearance rather than for its effectiveness. Within objectification theory, it has been proposed that self-objectification accounts for the poorer interoceptive awareness observed in women, as measured by heartbeat perception. Our study is, we believe, the first specifically to test this relationship. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a well-validated and reliable...

  10. Individual and collective bodies: using measures of variance and association in contextual epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, J; Ohlsson, H; Lynch, K F; Chaix, B; Subramanian, S V

    2009-12-01

    Social epidemiology investigates both individuals and their collectives. Although the limits that define the individual bodies are very apparent, the collective body's geographical or cultural limits (eg "neighbourhood") are more difficult to discern. Also, epidemiologists normally investigate causation as changes in group means. However, many variables of interest in epidemiology may cause a change in the variance of the distribution of the dependent variable. In spite of that, variance is normally considered a measure of uncertainty or a nuisance rather than a source of substantive information. This reasoning is also true in many multilevel investigations, whereas understanding the distribution of variance across levels should be fundamental. This means-centric reductionism is mostly concerned with risk factors and creates a paradoxical situation, as social medicine is not only interested in increasing the (mean) health of the population, but also in understanding and decreasing inappropriate health and health care inequalities (variance). Critical essay and literature review. The present study promotes (a) the application of measures of variance and clustering to evaluate the boundaries one uses in defining collective levels of analysis (eg neighbourhoods), (b) the combined use of measures of variance and means-centric measures of association, and (c) the investigation of causes of health variation (variance-altering causation). Both measures of variance and means-centric measures of association need to be included when performing contextual analyses. The variance approach, a new aspect of contextual analysis that cannot be interpreted in means-centric terms, allows perspectives to be expanded.

  11. An instrumented implant for vertebral body replacement that measures loads in the anterior spinal column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlmann, Antonius; Gabel, Udo; Graichen, Friedmar; Bender, Alwina; Bergmann, Georg

    2007-06-01

    Realistic loads on a spinal implant are required among others for optimization of implant design and preclinical testing. In addition, such data may help to choose the optimal physiotherapy program for patients with such an implant and to evaluate the efficacy of aids like braces or crutches. Presently, no implant is available that can measure loads in the anterior spinal column during activities of daily life. Therefore, an implant instrumented for in vivo load measurement was developed for vertebral body replacement. The aim of this paper is to describe in detail a telemeterized implant that measures forces and moments acting on it. Six load sensors, a nine-channel telemetry unit and a coil for inductive power supply of the electronic circuits were integrated into a modified vertebral body replacement (Synex). The instrumented part of the implant is hermetically sealed. Patients are videotaped during measurements, and implant loads are displayed on and off line. The average accuracy of load measurement is better than 2% for force and 5% for moment components with reference to the maximum value of 3000 N and 20 Nm, respectively. The measuring implant described here will provide additional information on spinal loads.

  12. A combination of body condition measurements is more informative than conventional condition indices: temporal variation in body condition and corticosterone in brown tree snakes (Boiga irregularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waye, Heather L; Mason, Robert T

    2008-02-01

    The body condition index is a common method for quantifying the energy reserves of individual animals. Because good body condition is necessary for reproduction in many species, body condition indices can indicate the potential reproductive output of a population. Body condition is related to glucocorticoid production, in that low body condition is correlated to high concentrations of corticosterone in reptiles. We compared the body condition index and plasma corticosterone levels of brown tree snakes on Guam in 2003 to those collected in 1992/1993 to determine whether that population still showed the chronic stress and poor condition apparent in the earlier study. We also examined the relationship between fat mass, body condition and plasma corticosterone concentrations as indicators of physiological condition of individuals in the population. Body condition was significantly higher in 2003 than in the earlier sample for mature male and female snakes, but not for juveniles. The significantly lower levels of corticosterone in all three groups in 2003 suggests that although juveniles did not have significantly improved energy stores they, along with the mature males and females, were no longer under chronic levels of stress. Although the wet season of 2002 was unusually rainy, low baseline levels of corticosterone measured in 2000 indicate that the improved body condition of snakes in 2003 is likely the result of long-term changes in prey populations rather than annual variation in response to environmental conditions.

  13. Standard guide for qualification of measurement methods by a laboratory within the nuclear industry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides guidance for selecting, validating, and qualifying measurement methods when qualification is required for a specific program. The recommended practices presented in this guide provide a major part of a quality assurance program for the laboratory data (see Fig. 1). Qualification helps to assure that the data produced will meet established requirements. 1.2 The activities intended to assure the quality of analytical laboratory measurement data are diagrammed in Fig. 1. Discussion and guidance related to some of these activities appear in the following sections: Section Selection of Measurement Methods 5 Validation of Measurement Methods 6 Qualification of Measurement Methods 7 Control 8 Personnel Qualification 9 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitati...

  14. [Comparison of body temperatures in children measured using 3 different thermometers: tympanic, skin and digital axillary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Raygoza, Nicolás; Ruiz-Paloalto, M Laura; Díaz-Guerrero, Rosalina; Olvera-Villanueva, Georgina; Maldonado, Angélica; Raygoza-Mendoza, María Del Pilar

    2014-01-01

    To compare body temperature measurements using tympanic, skin and digital axillary thermometers. Hospitalized or outpatient children from the General Hospital Celaya, ISSSTE Hospital Clinic and General Hospital No. 4 IMSS, and the pediatric private service in Celaya, Guanajuato, from 1 day of life until 16 years old, were recruited over a one month period, after their parents signed the consent form. The order of each institution was selected by simple randomization. Body temperatures were measured in triplicate using tympanic, skin and digital axillary thermometers. The sample consisted of 554 children. The Pearson r between the tympanic and digital axillary thermometers was 0.57 to 0.65, with a positive linear relationship (P<.05); between the skin and the digital axillary thermometers, it was between 0.47 and 0.52 with a positive linearrelationship (P<.05). The intra-observer Kappa for the tympanic thermometer was 0.86, and for the inter-observer was 0.77; for the skin thermometer it was 0.82 and 0.67, respectively, and for the digital axillary thermometer it was 0.86 for intra-observer reliability and 0.78 for inter -observer reliability. Tympanic and axillary thermometers showed better precision in measuring the body temperature in children than skin thermometers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. In-vivo whole body measurement of internal radioactivity in the Nordic countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risco Norrlid, L. del (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (Sweden)); Halldorsson, O. (Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority (Iceland)); Holm, S. (NM and PET at Copenhagen' s Univ. Hospital (Denmark)); Huikari, J. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)); Isaksson, M. (Goeteborg Univ., Dept. Radiation Physics Sahlgren Academy (Sweden)); Lind, B. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)); Roed, H. (Danish State Institute for Radiation Protection (Denmark))

    2011-02-15

    The PIANOLIB activity aims to harmonize the calibrations of the measurement equipment in the region and to evaluate the quality status of this kind of measurement by means of a proficiency test exercise. In this report the first results of the PIANOLIB activity are presented, that is, a compilation of existent regional resources for in-vivo whole body measurement and the phantom library website. In 2010 the project PIANOLIB collected the relevant information about the regional facilities, distributed the exercise instructions and managed the circulation of the phantom IRINA among the participant laboratories. The inventory within the activity has showed that the regional whole body counting assets has relatively diminished compared to 2006, the last time an inventory of the kind was made. Both the field laboratories as the stationary ones are equipped with sophisticated whole-body counting systems with Ge-or NaI-detectors. The regional competence is good and still retains experienced staff, but it is clear that a new generation is coming that needs training and exchange of experiences. It is important to keep the practice of intercomparison and NKS continues to be the best framework for supporting this kind of activity. (Author)

  16. In-vivo whole body measurement of internal radioactivity in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risco Norrlid, L. del; Halldorsson, O.; Holm, S.; Huikari, J.; Isaksson, M.; Lind, B.; Roed, H.

    2011-02-01

    The PIANOLIB activity aims to harmonize the calibrations of the measurement equipment in the region and to evaluate the quality status of this kind of measurement by means of a proficiency test exercise. In this report the first results of the PIANOLIB activity are presented, that is, a compilation of existent regional resources for in-vivo whole body measurement and the phantom library website. In 2010 the project PIANOLIB collected the relevant information about the regional facilities, distributed the exercise instructions and managed the circulation of the phantom IRINA among the participant laboratories. The inventory within the activity has showed that the regional whole body counting assets has relatively diminished compared to 2006, the last time an inventory of the kind was made. Both the field laboratories as the stationary ones are equipped with sophisticated whole-body counting systems with Ge-or NaI-detectors. The regional competence is good and still retains experienced staff, but it is clear that a new generation is coming that needs training and exchange of experiences. It is important to keep the practice of intercomparison and NKS continues to be the best framework for supporting this kind of activity. (Author)

  17. Standard practice for calculation of corrosion rates and related information from electrochemical measurements

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1989-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the providing of guidance in converting the results of electrochemical measurements to rates of uniform corrosion. Calculation methods for converting corrosion current density values to either mass loss rates or average penetration rates are given for most engineering alloys. In addition, some guidelines for converting polarization resistance values to corrosion rates are provided. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

  18. Acoustics. Measurement of sound insulation in buildings and of building elements. Laboratory measurements of the reduction of transmitted impact noise by floor coverings on a heavyweight standard floor

    CERN Document Server

    British Standards Institution. London

    1998-01-01

    Acoustics. Measurement of sound insulation in buildings and of building elements. Laboratory measurements of the reduction of transmitted impact noise by floor coverings on a heavyweight standard floor

  19. Standards, calibration and quality assurance of 222Rn measurements in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, R.; Hagberg, N.; Mjoenes, L.; Moere, H.; Nyblom, L.; Swedjemark, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    Inhaled decay products of 222 Rn are the dominant components of the natural radiation exposure to the general population. Limits have been introduced in Sweden, and recommendations were made in 1980 for decreasing indoor 222 Rn concentration. The need for the coordinated calibration of measuring instruments as well as for quality assurance was obvious for both health and economic reasons. 222 Rn measurements in Sweden are based on standards traceable to the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) through the use of standard reference material 226 Ra. Standards for both 222 Rn and short-lived 222 Rn progeny are described together with the reference instrument adopted for these studies. The calibration of field instruments was performed in a ''radon room'', a climate chamber in which it is possible to vary and monitor the concentration of 222 Rn as well as other characteristics of the indoor air such as temperature, humidity, ventilation rate and aerosol concentration. The rules and regulations for field measurements imply a calibration of the instruments yearly, as well as accreditation and training for the companies that carry out the measurements. Examples are given of the official measurement protocols used for the different types of instruments. (orig.)

  20. Evaluation of measurement reproducibility using the standard-sites data, 1994 Fernald field characterization demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautman, C.A.

    1996-02-01

    The US Department of Energy conducted the 1994 Fernald (Ohio) field characterization demonstration project to evaluate the performance of a group of both industry-standard and proposed alternative technologies in describing the nature and extent of uranium contamination in surficial soils. Detector stability and measurement reproducibility under actual operating conditions encountered in the field is critical to establishing the credibility of the proposed alternative characterization methods. Comparability of measured uranium activities to those reported by conventional, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-certified laboratory methods is also required. The eleven (11) technologies demonstrated included (1) EPA-standard soil sampling and laboratory mass-spectroscopy analyses, and currently-accepted field-screening techniques using (2) sodium-iodide scintillometers, (3) FIDLER low-energy scintillometers, and (4) a field-portable x-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Proposed advanced characterization techniques included (5) alpha-track detectors, (6) a high-energy beta scintillometer, (7) electret ionization chambers, (8) and (9) a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer in two different configurations, (10) a field-adapted laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) technique, and (11) a long-range alpha detector. Measurement reproducibility and the accuracy of each method were tested by acquiring numerous replicate measurements of total uranium activity at each of two ''standard sites'' located within the main field demonstration area. Meteorological variables including temperature, relative humidity. and 24-hour rainfall quantities were also recorded in conjunction with the standard-sites measurements

  1. Measurement of asbestos bodies in lung tissue of autopsy cases diagnosed with primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idei, Yuka; Kamada, Satoe; Matsumoto, Shoji; Ohnishi, Kazuo; Kitazawa, Riko; Kitazawa, Sohei

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the relation between asbestos-related lung cancer and the concentration of asbestos bodies in lung tissue, we analyzed the concentration in 24 autopsy cases diagnosed with primary lung cancer, with regard to the gender, age, histological type of lung cancer and occupation of each case. The asbestos bodies were measured according to Kohyama's method. Positive cases (more than 5,000 bodies per 1 g of dry lung tissue) were further analyzed for asbestosis and pleural plaques by chest X-ray and chest CT. Two cases exhibited more than 5,000 bodies, five cases between 1,000 and 5,000, and seventeen cases less than 1,000. The occupation of the two positive cases was not informative: one demonstrated neither asbestosis nor pleural plaques, and the other showed only pleural plaques. Although the number of cases of asbestos-related lung cancer is minimal among all lung cancer cases, the number of the former may exceed that of mesothelioma patients. Not only physicians but also radiologists, surgeons and pathologists need to collaborate in the diagnosis of asbestos-related lung cancer. (author)

  2. Theoretical study on the inverse modeling of deep body temperature measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ming; Chen, Wenxi

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the theoretical aspects of monitoring the deep body temperature distribution with the inverse modeling method. A two-dimensional model was built based on anatomical structure to simulate the human abdomen. By integrating biophysical and physiological information, the deep body temperature distribution was estimated from cutaneous surface temperature measurements using an inverse quasilinear method. Simulations were conducted with and without the heat effect of blood perfusion in the muscle and skin layers. The results of the simulations showed consistently that the noise characteristics and arrangement of the temperature sensors were the major factors affecting the accuracy of the inverse solution. With temperature sensors of 0.05 °C systematic error and an optimized 16-sensor arrangement, the inverse method could estimate the deep body temperature distribution with an average absolute error of less than 0.20 °C. The results of this theoretical study suggest that it is possible to reconstruct the deep body temperature distribution with the inverse method and that this approach merits further investigation. (paper)

  3. Whole-body profile scanner for in vivo quantitative activity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, H.

    1978-01-01

    A whole-body profile scanner has been developed by fitting parallel slit collimators to a shadow shield whole-body counter. Sensitivity, uniformity and resolution measurements were performed using a number of different counting conditions. It is shown that improved accuracy of activity measurements is obtained by using a wide window counting technique for low and medium energy gamma emitters (99m Tc, 131 I), whereas a photopeak window should be used for high energy gamma emitters (47 Ca). Due to the finite spatial resolution of the system a systematic error in evaluating regional activities from the counting rate profile occurs which is characterized by a spatial spillover factor. The spatial spillover factor is measured and is subsequently used to calculate the error on basis of a simple model. It is shown that only small errors are caused by spatial spillover when the length of a region is at least three times the full width half maximum of the point spread function. Applying the above mentioned simple rules it is concluded that profile scanning is a sensitive and accurate technique for activity measurements in vivo. Two examples of clinical applications (measurement of bone accretion rates of calcium and Tc-pyrophosphate, regional radioiodine retention in patients with thyroid carcinoma) and a review of the papers on profile scanning demonstrate the types of investigations in which profile scanning is superior to alternative techniques. (author)

  4. Discriminative ability of total body bone-mineral measured by dual photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotfredsen, A.; Poedenphant, J.; Nilas, L.; Christiansen, C.

    1989-01-01

    We investigated the descriminative ability of total body bone-mineral expressed as the total body bone-density (TBBD) measured by dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) in 79 healthy premenopausal women, 27 healthy postmenopausal women, and 120 female osteoporotic fracture patients presenting with either Colles' fracture, vertebral fracture or femoral neck-fracture. TBBD was compared to the bone-mineral density of the lumbar spine (BMD spine ) also measured by DPA, and to the bone-mineral content of the forearms (BMC forearm ) measured by single photon absorptiometry (SPA). TBBD, BMD spine and BMC forearm showed that all the fracture patient groups had significantly reduced bone-mass. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, we found that TBBD had a tendency towards better discriminative ability than BMD spine or BMC forearm with regard to the discrimination between healthy premenopausal women and the three types of osteoporotic fractures. BMC forearm had an intermediate position, whereas BMD spine had the smallest discriminative ability. TBBD also discriminated better between healthy postmenopausal women and hip-fracture patients than BMD spine or BMC forearm , whereas there was no significant difference between the three methods regarding the discrimination between the healthy postmenopausal women and the Colles' and spinal fracture patients. We conclude that the TBBD measurement by DPA has a discriminative potential which is better than the local spine or forearm measurements. (author)

  5. Association between routine and standardized blood pressure measurements and left ventricular hypertrophy among patients on hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khangura, Jaspreet; Culleton, Bruce F; Manns, Braden J; Zhang, Jianguo; Barnieh, Lianne; Walsh, Michael; Klarenbach, Scott W; Tonelli, Marcello; Sarna, Magdalena; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R

    2010-06-24

    Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is common among patients on hemodialysis. While a relationship between blood pressure (BP) and LV hypertrophy has been established, it is unclear which BP measurement method is the strongest correlate of LV hypertrophy. We sought to determine agreement between various blood pressure measurement methods, as well as identify which method was the strongest correlate of LV hypertrophy among patients on hemodialysis. This was a post-hoc analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial. We evaluated the agreement between seven BP measurement methods: standardized measurement at baseline; single pre- and post-dialysis, as well as mean intra-dialytic measurement at baseline; and cumulative pre-, intra- and post-dialysis readings (an average of 12 monthly readings based on a single day per month). Agreement was assessed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) and the Bland Altman method. Association between BP measurement method and LV hypertrophy on baseline cardiac MRI was determined using receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the curve (AUC). Agreement between BP measurement methods in the 39 patients on hemodialysis varied considerably, from a CCC of 0.35 to 0.94, with overlapping 95% confidence intervals. Pre-dialysis measurements were the weakest predictors of LV hypertrophy while standardized, post- and inter-dialytic measurements had similar and strong (AUC 0.79 to 0.80) predictive power for LV hypertrophy. A single standardized BP has strong predictive power for LV hypertrophy and performs just as well as more resource intensive cumulative measurements, whereas pre-dialysis blood pressure measurements have the weakest predictive power for LV hypertrophy. Current guidelines, which recommend using pre-dialysis measurements, should be revisited to confirm these results.

  6. Association between routine and standardized blood pressure measurements and left ventricular hypertrophy among patients on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walsh Michael

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Left ventricular (LV hypertrophy is common among patients on hemodialysis. While a relationship between blood pressure (BP and LV hypertrophy has been established, it is unclear which BP measurement method is the strongest correlate of LV hypertrophy. We sought to determine agreement between various blood pressure measurement methods, as well as identify which method was the strongest correlate of LV hypertrophy among patients on hemodialysis. Methods This was a post-hoc analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial. We evaluated the agreement between seven BP measurement methods: standardized measurement at baseline; single pre- and post-dialysis, as well as mean intra-dialytic measurement at baseline; and cumulative pre-, intra- and post-dialysis readings (an average of 12 monthly readings based on a single day per month. Agreement was assessed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient (CCC and the Bland Altman method. Association between BP measurement method and LV hypertrophy on baseline cardiac MRI was determined using receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the curve (AUC. Results Agreement between BP measurement methods in the 39 patients on hemodialysis varied considerably, from a CCC of 0.35 to 0.94, with overlapping 95% confidence intervals. Pre-dialysis measurements were the weakest predictors of LV hypertrophy while standardized, post- and inter-dialytic measurements had similar and strong (AUC 0.79 to 0.80 predictive power for LV hypertrophy. Conclusions A single standardized BP has strong predictive power for LV hypertrophy and performs just as well as more resource intensive cumulative measurements, whereas pre-dialysis blood pressure measurements have the weakest predictive power for LV hypertrophy. Current guidelines, which recommend using pre-dialysis measurements, should be revisited to confirm these results.

  7. Performance Measurement Implementation Of Minimum Service Standards For Basic Education Based On The Balanced Scorecard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiman Rusli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Policies Minimum Service Standards for Basic Education has rolled out since 2002 by the minister in accordance with the Decree No. 129a U 2004 About Minimum Service Standards Education is continually updated and lastly Regulation of the Minister of Education and Culture No. 23 of 2013. All of the district government town should achieve the target of achieving 100 per cent in each of the indicators listed in the minimum service standards for the end of 2014. achievement pad on each indicator is just one measure of the performance of the local government department of education. Unfortunately from the announced target for 27 indicators that exist almost all regions including local governments do not reach Tangerang Regency. It is necessary for measuring the performance of local authorities particularly the education department. One performance measure modern enough that measurements can be done that The Balance Scorecard BSc. In the Balanced Scorecard is a management tool contemporare complete measure company performance not only of the financial perspective but also non-financial performance such as Customer Perspective Internal Business Processes and Learning and Growth. This approach is actually ideally suited for multinational companies because this approach requires very expensive but can be used to measure the profit performance of the company in addition to the combination of a long-term strategic and short-strategic. Balanced Scorecard it can also be done in measuring the performance of public sector services as well by modifying a few things so it can be used to measure the performance of the public sector including the Performance Measurement Minimum Service Standards for Basic Education.

  8. Detailed examination of 'standard elementary particle theories' based on measurement with Tristan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamae, Tsuneyoshi

    1989-01-01

    The report discusses possible approaches to detailed analysis of 'standard elementary particle theories' on the basis of measurements made with Tristan. The first section of the report addresses major elementary particles involved in the 'standard theories'. The nature of the gauge particles, leptons, quarks and Higgs particle are briefly outlined. The Higgs particle and top quark have not been discovered, though the Higgs particle is essential in the Weiberg-Salam theory. Another important issue in this field is the cause of the collapse of the CP symmetry. The second section deals with problems which arise in universalizing the concept of the 'standard theories'. What are required to solve these problems include the discovery of supersymmetric particles, discovery of conflicts in the 'standard theories', and accurate determination of fundamental constants used in the 'standard theories' by various different methods. The third and fourth sections address the Weinberg-Salam theory and quantum chromodynamics (QCD). There are four essential parameters for the 'standard theories', three of which are associated with the W-S theory. The mass of the W and Z bosons measured in proton-antiproton collision experiments is compared with that determined by applying the W-S theory to electron-positron experiments. For QCD, it is essential to determine the lambda constant. (N.K.)

  9. Advisory Committee for the calibration standards of ionizing radiation measurement. Section 3. Neutron measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Section III (Neutron measurements) of the Comite Consultatif pour les Etalons de Mesure des Rayonnements ionisants held its fourth meeting in April 1979. After discussing the final report on the fast neutron fluence rate intercomparison, it requested BIPM to submit it for publication in Metrologia. Section III studied the state-of-the-art of an international comparison of a 252 Cf (10 7 s -1 ) source which is in progress. A new fast neutron fluence rate intercomparison is scheduled for 1980; the energies and the methods to be used have been investigated. Finally, Section III studied carefully and rewrote a proposal for a 14-MeV neutron dosimetry facility at BIPM, and added a Recommendation for CCEMRI [fr

  10. Relationships Between Live Body and Carcass Measurements and Carcass Components in Omani Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Mahgoub

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty two Omani sheep including eight intact males. 16 castrated males and eight intact females were fed ad libitum a concentrate diet (l6% CP plus chopped Rhodesgrass hay (8% CP from weaning until slaughter at an average weight of 26 kg. Correlation and regression analyses were carried out to evaluate relationships between live body and carcass measurements with major body components. Generally there were positive correlations between slaughter weight, empty body weight (EBW and hot carcass weight with total carcass muscle (r2 =0.57, 0.59, 0.59. fat (r2= 0.47, 0.48, 0.68 and bone (r2 = 0.51, 0.44, 0.31 contents respectively. There were also positive correlations (r2 = 0.44- 0.59 between linear live body and carcass measurements with carcass muscle content. The depth of tissue over the 11th rib (GR had a high positive correlation (r2= 0.67 with total carcass fat content. The weight of most individual bones and muscles had positive correlations (r2=0.39 - 0.85 with carcass muscle and bone content. There was a positive correlation between weight chuck (r2 = 0.62, brisket and shank (r2< 0.38, leg (r2 = 0.79 and loin (r2 = 0.45 carcass cuts with total carcass muscle content. Muscle content in all carcass cuts had a positive correlation (r2 = 0.46-0.86 with total carcass muscle content. Bone content in all carcass cuts had a high positive correlation (r2 = 0.46-0.90 with the total carcass bone content. A 3-variahle (body length,  chest depth and leg length and a 4-variable (hot carcass weight , hook width,  rib width and GR models were generated which accounted for 84% and 70% of the variation in the total muscle content, respectively. This study showed that live body and carcass measurements have significant relationships with carcass components in Omani sheep. These relationships may be utilized for prediction of carcass composition in live animals as well as for carcass quality assessment.

  11. Parallelism measurement for base plate of standard artifact with multiple tactile approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiuling; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Yiwen; Wang, Zhong; Fu, Luhua; Liu, Changjie

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, as workpieces become more precise and more specialized which results in more sophisticated structures and higher accuracy for the artifacts, higher requirements have been put forward for measuring accuracy and measuring methods. As an important method to obtain the size of workpieces, coordinate measuring machine (CMM) has been widely used in many industries. In order to achieve the calibration of a self-developed CMM, it is found that the parallelism of the base plate used for fixing the standard artifact is an important factor which affects the measurement accuracy in the process of studying self-made high-precision standard artifact. And aimed to measure the parallelism of the base plate, by using the existing high-precision CMM, gauge blocks, dial gauge and marble platform with the tactile approach, three methods for parallelism measurement of workpieces are employed, and comparisons are made within the measurement results. The results of experiments show that the final accuracy of all the three methods is able to reach micron level and meets the measurement requirements. Simultaneously, these three approaches are suitable for different measurement conditions which provide a basis for rapid and high-precision measurement under different equipment conditions.

  12. Fetal subcutaneous tissue measurements in pregnancy as a predictor of neonatal total body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Clare; Doolan, Anne; O'Higgins, Amy; Segurado, Ricardo; Sheridan-Pereiraet, Margaret; Turner, Michael J; Stuart, Bernard; Kennelly, Máireád M

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between prenatal measures of subcutaneous tissue as surrogate markers of fetal nutritional status and correlate them with neonatal total body composition. This prospective longitudinal study of 62 singleton pregnancies obtained serial biometry and subcutaneous tissue measurements at 28, 33 and 38 weeks gestation. These measurements were then correlated with neonatal body composition, which was analysed using the PEAPOD™ Infant Body Composition System (Cosmed USA, Concord, CA, USA). At 38 weeks gestation, fetal abdominal subcutaneous tissue (FAST) in millimetres was significantly associated with infant fat mass at delivery (+64 g per mm of FAST, p < 0.001). Thigh fat (TF) at 28 weeks gestation was associated with infant fat mass at delivery (+79 g/mm TF, p = 0.023). TF at 38 weeks gestation was associated with infant fat mass (+63/mm TF, p = 0.004). TF and FAST at 38 weeks were also predictive of both birth weight and increased abdominal circumference (AC) (p = 0.001) with FAST measurement predicting an additional 5.7 mm in AC per millimetre of FAST (p = 0.002) and TF predicting an additional 6.9 mm per mm of TF (p = 0.002). We believe that this study further validates the use of prenatal measures of subcutaneous tissue and may help to highlight fetuses at risk of newborn adiposity and metabolic syndrome. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Comparison of the gold standard of hemoglobin measurement with the clinical standard (BGA) and noninvasive hemoglobin measurement (SpHb) in small children: a prospective diagnostic observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenmeier, Eva; Bellosevich, Sophia; Mauff, Susanne; Schmidtmann, Irene; Eli, Michael; Pestel, Gunther; Noppens, Ruediger R

    2015-10-01

    Collecting a blood sample is usually necessary to measure hemoglobin levels in children. Especially in small children, noninvasively measuring the hemoglobin level could be extraordinarily helpful, but its precision and accuracy in the clinical environment remain unclear. In this study, noninvasive hemoglobin measurement and blood gas analysis were compared to hemoglobin measurement in a clinical laboratory. In 60 healthy preoperative children (0.2-7.6 years old), hemoglobin was measured using a noninvasive method (SpHb; Radical-7 Pulse Co-Oximeter), a blood gas analyzer (clinical standard, BGAHb; ABL 800 Flex), and a laboratory hematology analyzer (reference method, labHb; Siemens Advia). Agreement between the results was assessed by Bland-Altman analysis and by determining the percentage of outliers. Sixty SpHb measurements, 60 labHb measurements, and 59 BGAHb measurements were evaluated. In 38% of the children, the location of the SpHb sensor had to be changed more than twice for the signal quality to be sufficient. The bias/limits of agreement between SpHb and labHb were -0.65/-3.4 to 2.1 g·dl(-1) . Forty-four percent of the SpHb values differed from the reference value by more than 1 g·dl(-1) . Age, difficulty of measurement, and the perfusion index (PI) had no influence on the accuracy of SpHb. The bias/limits of agreement between BGAHb and labHb were 1.14/-1.6 to 3.9 g·dl(-1) . Furthermore, 66% of the BGAHb values differed from the reference values by more than 1 g·dl(-1) . The absolute mean difference between SpHb and labHb (1.1 g·dl(-1) ) was smaller than the absolute mean difference between BGAHb and labHb (1.5 g·dl(-1) /P = 0.024). Noninvasive measurement of hemoglobin agrees more with the reference method than the measurement of hemoglobin using a blood gas analyzer. However, both methods can show clinically relevant differences from the reference method (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01693016). © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A Tool Measuring Remaining Thickness of Notched Acoustic Cavities in Primary Reaction Control Thruster NDI Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yushi; Sun, Changhong; Zhu, Harry; Wincheski, Buzz

    2006-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking in the relief radius area of a space shuttle primary reaction control thruster is an issue of concern. The current approach for monitoring of potential crack growth is nondestructive inspection (NDI) of remaining thickness (RT) to the acoustic cavities using an eddy current or remote field eddy current probe. EDM manufacturers have difficulty in providing accurate RT calibration standards. Significant error in the RT values of NDI calibration standards could lead to a mistaken judgment of cracking condition of a thruster under inspection. A tool based on eddy current principle has been developed to measure the RT at each acoustic cavity of a calibration standard in order to validate that the standard meets the sample design criteria.

  15. Measurement of cell respiration and oxygenation in standard multichannel biochips using phosphorescent O2-sensitive probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashina, Alina V; Papkovsky, Dmitri B; Dmitriev, Ruslan I

    2013-09-07

    Measurement of cell oxygenation and oxygen consumption is useful for studies of cell bioenergetics, metabolism, mitochondrial function, drug toxicity and common pathophysiological conditions. Here we present a new platform for such applications which uses commercial multichannel biochips (μ-slides, Ibidi) and phosphorescent O2 sensitive probes. This platform was evaluated with both extracellular and intracellular O2 probes, several different cell types and treatments including mitochondrial uncoupling and inhibition, depletion of extracellular Ca(2+) and inhibition of V-ATPase and histone deacetylases. The results show that compared to the standard microwell plates currently used, the μ-slide platform provides facile O2 measurements with both suspension and adherent cells, higher sensitivity and reproducibility, and faster measurement time. It also allows re-perfusion and multiple treatments of cells and multi-parametric analyses in conjunction with other probes. Optical measurements are conducted on standard fluorescence readers and microscopes.

  16. Laboratory Evaluation of Air Flow Measurement Methods for Residential HVAC Returns for New Instrument Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stratton, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This project improved the accuracy of air flow measurements used in commissioning California heating and air conditioning systems in Title 24 (Building and Appliance Efficiency Standards), thereby improving system performance and efficiency of California residences. The research team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory addressed the issue that typical tools used by contractors in the field to test air flows may not be accurate enough to measure return flows used in Title 24 applications. The team developed guidance on performance of current diagnostics as well as a draft test method for use in future evaluations. The study team prepared a draft test method through ASTM International to determine the uncertainty of air flow measurements at residential heating ventilation and air conditioning returns and other terminals. This test method, when finalized, can be used by the Energy Commission and other entities to specify required accuracy of measurement devices used to show compliance with standards.

  17. EURATOM work on standard defects and dimensional measurements in neutron radiography of nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.

    1981-10-01

    In 1979 a working group on neutron radiography was formed at Euratom. The purpose of this group is the standardization of neutron radiographic methods in the field of nuclear fuel. First priority was given to the development of image quality indicators and standard objects for the determination of accuracy of dimensional measurements from neutron radiographs. For that purpose beam purity and sensitivity indicators as well as a calibration fuel pin were designed and fabricated at Risoe. All the Euratom neutron radiography centers have recieved the above items for comparative neutron radiography. The measuring results obtained, using various measuring apparatus, will form the basis to formulate conclusions about the best measuring methods and instruments to be used in that field. (author)

  18. Reliability of linear distance measurement for dental implant length with standardized periapical radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakoh, Mamoru; Harada, Takuya; Otonari, Takamichi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of distance measurements of implant length based on periapical radiographs compared with that of other modalities. We carried out an experimental trial to compare precision in distance measurement. Dental implant fixtures were buried in the canine and first molar regions. These were then subjected to periapical (PE) radiography, panoramic (PA) radiography conventional (CV) and medical computed (CT) tomography. The length of the implant fixture on each film was measured by nine observers and degree of precision was statistically analyzed. The precision of both PE radiographs and CT tomograms was closest at the highest level. Standardized PE radiography, in particular, was superior to CT tomography in the first molar region. This suggests that standardized PE radiographs should be utilized as a reliable modality for longitudinal and linear distance measurement, depending on implant length at local implantation site. (author)

  19. Standard Test Method for Electronic Measurement for Hydrogen Embrittlement From Cadmium-Electroplating Processes

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1996-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers an electronic hydrogen detection instrument procedure for measurement of plating permeability to hydrogen. This method measures a variable related to hydrogen absorbed by steel during plating and to the hydrogen permeability of the plate during post plate baking. A specific application of this method is controlling cadmium-plating processes in which the plate porosity relative to hydrogen is critical, such as cadmium on high-strength steel. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific hazard statement, see Section 8. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.

  20. Calibration Standards for Surface Topography Measuring Systems down to Nanometric Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trumpold, H.; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    compression and injection moulded plastic negatives and Ni-negatives have been made from which again Ni-positives were produced. The replication processes showed negligible deviations from the Pt and Pa values compared to the primary standards. An important prerequisite is the cleanliness of the surfaces......Background For the precise and accurate measurement of surface topography a whole range of surface detection systems is available. With their application in research and production problems arise due to the lack of traceable standard artefacts for the instrument calibration in X, Y and Z directions...... and for the calibration of filters. Existing ISO standards on calibration specimens are inadequate and limited in that they only cover contacting instruments and only partially the measuring ranges for these instruments. The whole range of non-contacting instruments are not covered despite their increasing use...

  1. Standard test method for measurement of soil resistivity using the two-electrode soil box method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the equipment and a procedure for the measurement of soil resistivity, for samples removed from the ground, for use in the control of corrosion of buried structures. 1.2 Procedures allow for this test method to be used n the field or in the laboratory. 1.3 The test method procedures are for the resistivity measurement of soil samples in the saturated condition and in the as-received condition. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. Soil resistivity values are reported in ohm-centimeter. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  2. Standard Test Method for Measuring Optical Angular Deviation of Transparent Parts

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1996-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers measuring the angular deviation of a light ray imposed by transparent parts such as aircraft windscreens and canopies. The results are uncontaminated by the effects of lateral displacement, and the procedure may be performed in a relatively short optical path length. This is not intended as a referee standard. It is one convenient method for measuring angular deviations through transparent windows. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  3. Non-invasive techniques for measuring body composition: state of the art and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.H.

    1985-01-01

    In the past 20 years, in vivo analysis of body elements by neutron activation has become an important tool in medical research. In particular, it provides a much needed means to make quantitative assessments of body composition of human beings in vivo. The data are useful both for basic physiological understanding and for diagnosis and management of a variety of diseases and disorders. This paper traces the development of the in vivo neutron activation technique from basic systems to the present state of the art facilities. A scan of some of the numerous clinical applications that have been made with this technique, reveals the broad potentialities of in vivo neutron activation. The paper also considers alternative routes of future development and raises some of the questions now faced in making the techniques more widely available to both medical practitioners and medical investigators. In vivo neutron activation has opened a new era of both clinical diagnosis and therapy evaluation, and investigation into the modelling of body composition. The techniques are new, but it is already clear that considerable strides can be made in increasing accuracy and precision, increasing the number of elements susceptible to measurement, and reducing the dose required for the measurement. 18 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Non-invasive techniques for measuring body composition: state of the art and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.

    1985-01-01

    In the past 20 years, in vivo analysis of body elements by neutron activation has become an important tool in medical research. In particular, it provides a much needed means to make quantitative assessments of body composition of human beings in vivo. The data are useful both for basic physiological understanding and for diagnosis and management of a variety of diseases and disorders. This paper traces the development of the in vivo neutron activation technique from basic systems to the present state of the art facilities. A scan of some of the numerous clinical applications that have been made with this technique, reveals the broad potentialities of in vivo neutron activation. The paper also considers alternative routes of future development and raises some of the questions now faced in making the techniques more widely available to both medical practitioners and medical investigators. In vivo neutron activation has opened a new era of both clinical diagnosis and therapy evaluation, and investigation into the modelling of body composition. The techniques are new, but it is already clear that considerable strides can be made in increasing accuracy and precision, increasing the number of elements susceptible to measurement, and reducing the dose required for the measurement. 18 refs., 7 figs

  5. Theoretical simulation of the dual-heat-flux method in deep body temperature measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming; Chen, Wenxi

    2010-01-01

    Deep body temperature reveals individual physiological states, and is important in patient monitoring and chronobiological studies. An innovative dual-heat-flux method has been shown experimentally to be competitive with the conventional zero-heat-flow method in its performance, in terms of measurement accuracy and step response to changes in the deep temperature. We have utilized a finite element method to model and simulate the dynamic process of a dual-heat-flux probe in deep body temperature measurements to validate the fundamental principles of the dual-heat-flux method theoretically, and to acquire a detailed quantitative description of the thermal profile of the dual-heat-flux probe. The simulation results show that the estimated deep body temperature is influenced by the ambient temperature (linearly, at a maximum rate of 0.03 °C/°C) and the blood perfusion rate. The corresponding depth of the estimated temperature in the skin and subcutaneous tissue layer is consistent when using the dual-heat-flux probe. Insights in improving the performance of the dual-heat-flux method were discussed for further studies of dual-heat-flux probes, taking into account structural and geometric considerations.

  6. Progress report on the IAEA programme on the standardization of reactor dosimetry measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertek, C.; Cross, B.; Chernyshev, V.

    1979-01-01

    This report briefly summarizes present activities, current status and procedures associated with neutron spectrum unfolding by activation technique within the IAEA programme on standardization of reactor radiation measurements. Experimental efforts and calculations related to unfolding are critically analyzed including the most recent techniques, interlaboratory cooperation, direct influence of recently measured cross-sections on the unfolded neutron flux density spectrum, re-evaluation of some cross-sections, neutron self-shielding factors and scattering effects. (author)

  7. Standardization in dust emission measurement; Mesure des emissions de poussieres normalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perret, R. [INERIS, 60 - Verneuil-en-Halatte, (France)

    1996-12-31

    The European Standardization Committee (CEN TC 264WG5) is developing a new reference method for measuring particulate emissions, suitable for concentrations inferior to 20 mg/m{sup 3} and especially for concentrations around 5 mg/m{sup 3}; the measuring method should be applicable to waste incinerator effluents and more generally to industrial effluents. Testing protocols and data analysis have been examined and repeatability and reproducibility issues are discussed

  8. Calibration and consistency of results of an ionization-chamber secondary standard measuring system for activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrader, Heinrich

    2000-01-01

    Calibration in terms of activity of the ionization-chamber secondary standard measuring systems at the PTB is described. The measurement results of a Centronic IG12/A20, a Vinten ISOCAL IV and a radionuclide calibrator chamber for nuclear medicine applications are discussed, their energy-dependent efficiency curves established and the consistency checked using recently evaluated radionuclide decay data. Criteria for evaluating and transferring calibration factors (or efficiencies) are given

  9. Performance, body measurements, carcass and cut yields, and meat quality in lambs fed residues from processing agroindustry of fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcilene Maria de Figueiredo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted with the objective to evaluate the use of residue dry matter (DM from pineapple (Ananas comosus L., banana (Musa sp., mango (Mangifera indica and passion fruit (Passiflora spp. in feeding of the feedlot on productive performance, carcass yield and qualitative and quantitative characteristics of meat. Twenty-five crossbred lamps with Santa Inês breed and mixed breed were used. The treatments consisted of the replacement of 75% of sorghum silage by respective residue DM, whereas in the control treatment forage had only sorghum silage the diets had a houghageto- concentrate ratio of 40:60 interns of DM being isonitrogenous and isoenergetics. The animals were slaughtered at 32 kg liveweight. Before slaughter were obtained biometric measurements, after the same, was performed the hot carcasses weight and morphometric measurements. After 24 hours in a cold chamber at 4 ° C, was determined the cold carcass weight and yield calculation. The left half carcass was divided into five sections: neck, shoulder, shank, rib and loin, by performing the calculation of income cuts. Analyses meat quality such as pH, color (L, a, b, chroma and Ho, by cooking weight loss, water retention capacity and shear strength were carried out in the Longissimus dorsi sample. The completely randomized design was adapted. The data were interpreted using analysis of variance with the test a Tukey 5% probability. There was no effect of diet (P> 0.05 according to the parameters: growth performance, body measurements, and meat quality of lambs. There was also no effect of the diets (P> 0.05 on the loin eye area assuming that carcasses remained similar muscularity important fact to market acceptance standard. It is concluded that replacing up to 75% of sorghum silage by residues fruit (pineapple, banana, mango and passion fruit in lambs feeding becomes feasible not to change the productive performance, body measurements, yields carcass and cuts and meat

  10. Assessment of body fat composition in crossbred Angus × Nellore using biometric measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, M A; Tedeschi, L O; Filho, S C Valadares; De Paula, N F; Villadiego, F A C; Junior, J M Silva; Abreu, D C; Chizzotti, M L

    2017-12-01

    This study was conducted to assess the body and empty body fat physical and chemical composition through biometric measurements (BM) as well as postmortem measurements taken in 40 F Angus × Nellore bulls and steers. The animals used were 12.5 ± 0.51 mo of age, with an average shrunk BW of 233 ± 23.5 and 238 ± 24.6 kg for bulls and steers, respectively. Animals were fed 60:40 ratio of corn silage to concentrate diets. Eight animals (4 bulls and 4 steers) were slaughtered at the beginning of the trial, and the remaining animals were randomly assigned to a 1 + 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (1 reference group, 2 sexes, and 3 slaughter weights). The remaining animals were slaughtered when the average BW of the group reached 380 ± 19.5 (6 bulls and 5 steers), 440 ± 19.2 (6 bulls and 5 steers), and 500 ± 19.5 kg (5 bulls and 5 steers). Before the slaughter, the animals were led through a squeeze chute in which BM were taken, including hook bone width (HBW), pin bone width, abdomen width (AW), body length (BL), rump height, height at the withers, pelvic girdle length (PGL), rib depth (RD), girth circumference (GC), rump depth, body diagonal length (BDL), and thorax width. Additionally, the following postmortem measurements were obtained: total body surface (TBS), body volume (BV), subcutaneous fat (SF), internal physical fat (InF), intermuscular fat, carcass physical fat (CF), empty body physically separable fat (EBF), carcass chemical fat (CFch), empty body chemical fat (EBFch), fat thickness in the 12th rib, and 9th to 11th rib section fat. The equations were developed using a stepwise procedure to select the variables that should enter into the model. The and root mean square error (RMSE) were used to account for precision and accuracy. The ranges for and RMSE were 0.852 to 0.946 and 0.0625 to 0.103 m, respectively for TBS; 0.942 to 0.998 and 0.004 to 0.022 m, respectively, for BV; 0.767 to 0.967 and 2.70 to 3.24 kg, respectively, for SF; 0.816 to 0.900 and 3

  11. A Longitudinal Analysis of Adolescent Smoking: Using Smoking Status to Differentiate the Influence of Body Weight Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Traci; Johnson, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous research has reported mixed results on the association between body weight measures (ie, perception of weight and weight loss goal) and cigarette smoking prevalence--and how these associations vary by sex and race. This longitudinal study assessed the relationship between these 2 body weight measures and smoking prevalence by…

  12. Combining Body Mass Index With Measures of Central Obesity in the Assessment of Mortality in Subjects With Coronary Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Thais; Goel, Kashish; Corrêa de Sá, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to assess the mortality risk of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) based ona combination of body mass index (BMI) with measures of central obesity.......This study sought to assess the mortality risk of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) based ona combination of body mass index (BMI) with measures of central obesity....

  13. Measurement of Standard Model VBS/VBF production with the ATLAS and CMS detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Shu; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Proceeding for the poster presentation at Blois2017, France on the topic of "Measurements of Standard Model VBS/VBF productions with ATLAS+CMS detectors" (ATL-PHYS-SLIDE-2017-333 https://cds.cern.ch/record/2267458) Deadline: 15/10/2017

  14. Internationally Comparable Measures of Occupational Status for the 1988 International Standard Classification of Occupations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzeboom, H.B.G.; Treiman, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides operational procedures for coding internationally comparable measures of occupational status from the recently published International Standard Classification of Occupation 1988 (ISCO88) of the International Labor Office (ILO, 1990). We first discuss the nature of the ISCO88

  15. An International Standard Set of Patient-Centered Outcome Measures After Stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salinas, J. (Joel); Sprinkhuizen, S.M. (Sara M.); Ackerson, T. (Teri); Bernhardt, J. (Julie); Davie, C. (Charlie); George, M.G. (Mary G.); Gething, S. (Stephanie); Kelly, A.G. (Adam G.); Lindsay, P. (Patrice); Liu, L. (Liping); Martins, S.C.O. (Sheila C.O.); Morgan, L. (Louise); B. Norrving (Bo); Ribbers, G.M. (Gerard M.); Silver, F.L. (Frank L.); Smith, E.E. (Eric E.); Williams, L.S. (Linda S.); Schwamm, L.H. (Lee H.)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:__ Value-based health care aims to bring together patients and health systems to maximize the ratio of quality over cost. To enable assessment of healthcare value in stroke management, an international standard set of patient-centered stroke outcome measures

  16. Measuring Course Competencies in a School of Business: The Use of Standardized Curriculum and Rubrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Jane Whitney

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the growing emphasis on measurement of course competencies by individual college students through two course examples, an undergraduate course in managing change and conflict and a graduate course in human resource management. The author explains how standardized curriculum and assignment rubrics are being used to measure…

  17. Standardized Effect Size Measures for Mediation Analysis in Cluster-Randomized Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Laura M.; Pituch, Keenan A.; Dion, Eric

    2015-01-01

    This article presents 3 standardized effect size measures to use when sharing results of an analysis of mediation of treatment effects for cluster-randomized trials. The authors discuss 3 examples of mediation analysis (upper-level mediation, cross-level mediation, and cross-level mediation with a contextual effect) with demonstration of the…

  18. Limitations of the relative standard deviation of win percentages for measuring competitive balance in sports leagues

    OpenAIRE

    P. Dorian Owen

    2009-01-01

    The relative standard deviation of win percentages, the most widely used measure of within-season competitive balance, has an upper bound which is very sensitive to variation in the numbers of teams and games played. Taking into account this upper bound provides additional insight into comparisons of competitive balance across leagues or over time.

  19. Magnet measurement interfacing to the G-64 Euro standard bus and testing G-64 modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogrefe, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Magnet Measurement system utilizes various modules with a G-64 Euro (Gespac) Standard Interface. All modules are designed to be software controlled, normally under the constraints of the OS-9 operating system with all data transfers to a host computer accomplished by a serial link

  20. Recent updates on the Standard Model Higgs boson measurements from the ATLAS and CMS experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Song-Ming

    2017-01-01

    This report presents the latest results from the ATLAS and CMS experiments on the measurements of the Standard Model Higgs boson by using the proton-proton collisions produced by the Large Hadron Collider during the first two years of Run 2 data taking.

  1. Stability check source measurements with a secondary standard dosimeter in SSDL-Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salman, S.; Mahmoud, K.; Orfi, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    The stability check source is an integral part of a Secondary Standard Dosimetry System. The purpose of the stability check source is to confirm that the overall response of the dosimeter has not changed significantly since the instrument was calibrated. In case any change in the sensitivity of the ionization chamber or measuring assembly occurs the same is reflected in the reference check source measurements. Stability check source measurements are taken in a Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (PSDL) at the time of calibration of secondary standard dosimeter and mean time (in seconds) to the reference setting of 50 scale divisions with ambient conditions of air at 20 deg. C, 101.3 kPa and 50% RH is quoted in a calibration certificate. This quoted stability check source time figure is the basis for future confirmation of overall response of the secondary standard dosimeter system. This note presents the results of stability check source measurements carried out in SSDL Pakistan over a period of five years

  2. An assessment of cellulose filters as a standardized material for measuring litter breakdown in headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    The decay rate of cellulose filters and associated chemical and biological characteristics were compared to those of white oak (Quercus alba) leaves to determine if cellulose filters could be a suitable standardized material for measuring deciduous leaf breakdown in headwater str...

  3. Procedure for the standardized measure of the detective quantum efficiency in digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Martin, G.; Garcia Castano, P.; Bermudez Luna, R.; Fernandez Bedoya, V.; Espana Lopez, M. L.; Miquelez Alonso, S.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a simple guide for determining the DQE, according to the CEI, in those having mammography flat panel detectors, and highlight the main difficulties that may be in the process of the standardized measurement.

  4. Development and Standardization of Inventory for Measuring Students' Integration into University Academic Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esomonu, Nkechi Patricia-Mary; Okeaba, James Uzoma

    2016-01-01

    The study developed and standardized an Inventory for measuring Students' Integration into University Academic Culture named Inventory for Students' Integration into University Academic Culture (ISIUAC). The increase in dropout rates, substance use, cultism and other deviant behaviours in Nigerian universities makes it necessary for one to ask the…

  5. A comparison of oxygen saturation measurements obtained from a 'blue sensor' with a standard sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawson, Isabel E; Dawson, Jennifer A; Donath, Susan M; Davis, Peter G

    2011-10-01

    The study aims to investigate pulse oximetry measurements from a 'blue' pulse oximeter sensor against measurements from a 'standard' pulse oximeter sensor in newly born infants. Immediately after birth, both sensors were attached to the infant, one to each foot. SpO₂ measurements were recorded simultaneously from each sensor for 10 min. Agreement between pairs of SpO₂ measurements were calculated using Bland-Altman analysis. Thirty-one infants were studied. There was good correlation between simultaneous SpO₂ measurements from both sensors (r² = 0.75). However, the mean difference between 'blue' and 'standard' sensors was -1.6%, with wide 95% limits of agreement +18.4 to -21.6%. The range of mean difference between sensors from each infant ranged from -20 to +20. The mean difference between the blue and standard sensor SpO₂ measurements is not clinically important. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  6. "First among Others? Cohen's ""d"" vs. Alternative Standardized Mean Group Difference Measures"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorel Cahan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Standardized effect size measures typically employed in behavioral and social sciences research in the multi-group case (e.g., 2, f2 evaluate between-group variability in terms of either total or within-group variability, such as variance or standard deviation -' that is, measures of dispersion about the mean. In contrast, the definition of Cohen's d, the effect size measure typically computed in the two-group case, is incongruent due to a conceptual difference between the numerator -' which measures between-group variability by the intuitive and straightforward raw difference between the two group means -' and the denominator - which measures within-group variability in terms of the difference between all observations and the group mean (i.e., the pooled within-groups standard deviation, SW. Two congruent alternatives to d, in which the root square or absolute mean difference between all observation pairs is substituted for SW as the variability measure in the denominator of d, are suggested and their conceptual and statistical advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  7. Abstracts from the fourth annual meeting of the council on ionizing radiation measurements and standards (CIRMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The Council on Ionizing Radiation Measurements and Standards held its fourth annual meeting at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland on November 28-30, 1995. The organization represents thousands of users of ionizing radiation and radioactive sources engaged in industrial radiation processing and sterilization, medical radiation diagnostics and therapy, nuclear power, and worker radiation protection programs. CIRMS provides a forum for discussing ionizing radiation issues; identifying, defining and prioritizing needed work; disseminating information on standards; and organizing workshops and meetings to advance ionizing radiation technology. Over 100 participants attended the meeting, which highlighted advanced techniques in radiation dosimetry and radioactivity measurements for the different ionizing radiation communities. Representatives attended from 28 corporations, 10 federal agencies, 8 national laboratories, 12 universities, and 1 state. Advanced techniques and future measurement needs were discussed in four sessions: (I) Medical Dosimetry, Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, (II) Occupational and Radiation Protection Dosimetry, (III) Measurement Techniques for Public and Environmental Radiation Protection, and (IV) Measurement Techniques for Radiation Effects on Materials. An additional session (Session V) was added to this annual meeting on the implementation of ISO 9000 for those CIRMS members involved in instrument and product manufacturing, and those providing radiation measurement services. Abstracts are also included from the poster session (Session VI) held on the final day of the meeting. The 4th Annual Meeting was organized by the Chairman of the Science and Technology Committee, Mr. Joseph C. McDonald of the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory

  8. Internalization of U.S. female beauty standards as a mediator of the relationship between Mexican American women's acculturation and body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poloskov, Elizabeth; Tracey, Terence J G

    2013-09-01

    The relationships among acculturation, internalization of U.S. sociocultural standards of female beauty, and body dissatisfaction were examined in a sample of 211 Mexican American college women. Structural equation modeling was used to identify the paths among these three factors. Results demonstrated that there are two distinct types of body dissatisfaction: global evaluations and composite site-specific evaluations. The relationships between acculturation toward dominant U.S. culture and both types of body dissatisfaction were found to be fully mediated by internalization of U.S. standards of female beauty. There were no relationships between Mexican orientation and any of the study variables. The results from this study imply that it is important for therapists working with Mexican American female clients to assess the client's level of acculturation, examine the cultural (U.S. and Mexican) messages the client receives, and explore how these messages impact her body image. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of bovine UQCC and its association with body measurement traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yongfeng; Zan, Linsen; Zhao, Shuanping

    2010-01-01

    effects on the BL (p = 0.0047) and CD (p = 0.0454. Regarding association analysis of combination of the two SNPs, there are significant effects on the BL (p = 0.0215), CD (p = 0.0282) and PBW (p = 0.0329) in the total population. The results suggest that the UQCC gene is a candidate gene of body...... measurement traits in bovine reproduction and breeding, and provide data for establishing of an animal model using cattle to study big animal body type....... models of height as well as other stature indexes. We have cloned the cDNA sequence coding UQCC gene in bovine. Genomic structural analysis indicated that bovine UQCC shares a high similarity with human UQCC. Furthermore, Real-Time PCR analysis show that the expression of bovine UQCC is remarkably...

  10. Holographic interferometry applied to the measurement of displacements of the interior points of transparent bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, C A; Gilbert, J A

    1976-09-01

    Utilizing the light scattering property of transparent media, holographic interferometry is applied to the measurement of displacement at the interior planes of three dimensional bodies. The use of a double beam illumination and the introduction of a fictitious displacement make it feasible to obtain information corresponding to components of displacement projected on the scattering plane. When the proposed techniques are invoked, it is possible to eliminate the use of a matching index of refraction fluid in many problems involving symmetrically loaded prismatic bodies. Scattered light holographic interferometry is limited in its use to small changes in the index of refraction and to low values of relative retardation. In spite of these restrictions, a large number of technical problems in both statics and dynamics can be solved.

  11. Alternatives to isotope ratio mass spectrometry for the measurement of deuterium content of body water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluck, L.J.C.

    2000-01-01

    The measurement of breast milk intake using the isotope dilution techniques is now well established. The methodology involves the administration of a bolus of tracer followed by observation of the kinetics of its passage though the system. For example in the popular 'dose to the mother' method a dose of labeled water is administered to the mother, and over the following days samples of body fluids are taken and the concentration of tracer determined in order to establish the rate of loss of tracer from her body. Likewise samples are taken from the breast fed infant in order to determine the rates of tracer intake and subsequent loss. Deuterium is the tracer of choice for these experiments since it is non-radioactive, and therefore suitable for use in these vulnerable subject groups, and also because of its relative cheapness. Conventionally isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) has been used for the determination of the amount of deuterium in the body fluids. However this methodology is expensive (an instrument might typically cost US$ 150,000), and it requires a considerable amount of dedicated technical expertise for its operation. Consequently such instrumentation is not widely available, and this has limited the number and scope of studies using this technique. Recently there have been reports of possible alternative technologies for the determination of deuterium in body water which appear attractive because of the wider general availability of the equipment required. It is the purpose of this report to assess these reported methods for their suitability for breast milk intake measurements

  12. Structural health monitoring of cylindrical bodies under impulsive hydrodynamic loading by distributed FBG strain measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanelli, Pierluigi; Ubertini, Stefano; Biscarini, Chiara; Jannelli, Elio; Ubertini, Filippo

    2017-01-01

    Various mechanical, ocean, aerospace and civil engineering problems involve solid bodies impacting the water surface and often result in complex coupled dynamics, characterized by impulsive loading conditions, high amplitude vibrations and large local deformations. Monitoring in such problems for purposes such as remaining fatigue life estimation and real time damage detection is a technical and scientific challenge of primary concern in this context. Open issues include the need for developing distributed sensing systems able to operate at very high acquisition frequencies, to be utilized to study rapidly varying strain fields, with high resolution and very low noise, while scientific challenges mostly relate to the definition of appropriate signal processing and modeling tools enabling the extraction of useful information from distributed sensing signals. Building on previous work by some of the authors, we propose an enhanced method for real time deformed shape reconstruction using distributed FBG strain measurements in curved bodies subjected to impulsive loading and we establish a new framework for applying this method for structural health monitoring purposes, as the main focus of the work. Experiments are carried out on a cylinder impacting the water at various speeds, proving improved performance in displacement reconstruction of the enhanced method compared to its previous version. A numerical study is then carried out considering the same physical problem with different delamination damages affecting the body. The potential for detecting, localizing and quantifying this damage using the reconstruction algorithm is thoroughly investigated. Overall, the results presented in the paper show the potential of distributed FBG strain measurements for real time structural health monitoring of curved bodies under impulsive hydrodynamic loading, defining damage sensitive features in terms of strain or displacement reconstruction errors at selected locations along

  13. A critical evalution of 24 hours whole-body (skeletal) retention of diphosphonate measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogelman, I.; Bessent, R.G.; Scullion, J.E.; Cuthbert, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    In previous studies we have found that 24 hour whole-body retention (WBR) of diphosphonate is a valuable test for the assessment of skeletal metabolism. However, the reproducibility, accuracy and possible sources of error in WBR measurements have not previously been studied. In 21 paired studies the technique was found to be highly reproducible (r = 0.998, p < 0.0001). The coefficient of variation for whole-body counts on day 1 was 0.1% and on day 2, 1.1%. The net whole-body count of a phantom representing the 24 hour whole-body distribution of tracer was 98% of that of a uniform phantom. Ten subjects, counted twice within a few minutes to study the effect of repositioning showed a mean difference between counts of only 0.8%. For eleven subjects with traumatic fractures it was found that 9 had normal values for WBR, while 2 had minimally elevated results. For twenty patients with renal disease but no apparent skeletal disease a significant correlation between serum creatinine and WBR was found (r = 0.72, p<0.001). However WBR results were always normal when serum creatinine values were <130 μmol/l. It is suggested that WBR measurement is accurate and the technique is highly reproducible. The presence of a focal lesion is unlikely to affect a WBR result significantly and if serum creatinine is in the normal range then an elevated WBR result can be assumed to reflect increased skeletal metabolism without further concern as to renal function. (Author)

  14. Creation of the {pi} angle standard for the flat angle measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giniotis, V; Rybokas, M, E-mail: gi@ap.vtu.l, E-mail: MRybokas@gama.l [Department of Information Technologies, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Sauletekio al. 11, 10223 Vilnius-40 (Lithuania)

    2010-07-01

    Angle measurements are based mainly on multiangle prisms - polygons with autocollimators, rotary encoders for high accuracy and circular scales as the standards of the flat angle. Traceability of angle measurements is based on the standard of the plane angle - prism (polygon) calibrated at an appropriate accuracy. Some metrological institutions have established their special test benches (comparators) equipped with circular scales or rotary encoders of high accuracy and polygons with autocollimators for angle calibration purposes. Nevertheless, the standard (etalon) of plane angle - polygon has many restrictions for the transfer of angle unit - radian (rad) and other units of angle. It depends on the number of angles formed by the flat sides of the polygon that is restricted by technological and metrological difficulties related to the production and accuracy determination of the polygon. A possibility to create the standard of the angle equal to {pi} rad or half the circle or the full angle is proposed. It can be created by the circular scale with the rotation axis of very high accuracy and two precision reading instruments, usually, photoelectric microscopes (PM), placed on the opposite sides of the circular scale using the special alignment steps. A great variety of angle units and values can be measured and its traceability ensured by applying the third PM on the scale. Calibration of the circular scale itself and other scale or rotary encoder as well is possible using the proposed method with an implementation of {pi} rad as the primary standard angle. The method proposed enables to assure a traceability of angle measurements at every laboratory having appropriate environment and reading instruments of appropriate accuracy together with a rotary table with the rotation axis of high accuracy - rotation trajectory (runout) being in the range of 0.05 {mu}m. Short information about the multipurpose angle measurement test bench developed is presented.

  15. An ROC-type measure of diagnostic accuracy when the gold standard is continuous-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obuchowski, Nancy A

    2006-02-15

    ROC curves and summary measures of accuracy derived from them, such as the area under the ROC curve, have become the standard for describing and comparing the accuracy of diagnostic tests. Methods for estimating ROC curves rely on the existence of a gold standard which dichotomizes patients into disease present or absent. There are, however, many examples of diagnostic tests whose gold standards are not binary-scale, but rather continuous-scale. Unnatural dichotomization of these gold standards leads to bias and inconsistency in estimates of diagnostic accuracy. In this paper, we propose a non-parametric estimator of diagnostic test accuracy which does not require dichotomization of the gold standard. This estimator has an interpretation analogous to the area under the ROC curve. We propose a confidence interval for test accuracy and a statistical test for comparing accuracies of tests from paired designs. We compare the performance (i.e. CI coverage, type I error rate, power) of the proposed methods with several alternatives. An example is presented where the accuracies of two quick blood tests for measuring serum iron concentrations are estimated and compared.

  16. Development and pilot of an internationally standardized measure of cardiovascular risk management in European primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szecsenyi Joachim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care can play an important role in providing cardiovascular risk management in patients with established Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD, patients with a known high risk of developing CVD, and potentially for individuals with a low risk of developing CVD, but who have unhealthy lifestyles. To describe and compare cardiovascular risk management, internationally valid quality indicators and standardized measures are needed. As part of a large project in 9 European countries (EPA-Cardio, we have developed and tested a set of standardized measures, linked to previously developed quality indicators. Methods A structured stepwise procedure was followed to develop measures. First, the research team allocated 106 validated quality indicators to one of the three target populations (established CVD, at high risk, at low risk and to different data-collection methods (data abstraction from the medical records, a patient survey, an interview with lead practice GP/a practice survey. Secondly, we selected a number of other validated measures to enrich the assessment. A pilot study was performed to test the feasibility. Finally, we revised the measures based on the findings. Results The EPA-Cardio measures consisted of abstraction forms from the medical-records data of established Coronary Heart Disease (CHD-patients - and high-risk groups, a patient questionnaire for each of the 3 groups, an interview questionnaire for the lead GP and a questionnaire for practice teams. The measures were feasible and accepted by general practices from different countries. Conclusions An internationally standardized measure of cardiovascular risk management, linked to validated quality indicators and tested for feasibility in general practice, is now available. Careful development and pilot testing of the measures are crucial in international studies of quality of healthcare.

  17. How Much Can Non-industry Standard Measurement Methodologies Benefit Methane Reduction Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk, D. A.; O'Connell, L.; Atherton, E.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, energy sector methane emissions have been recorded in large part by applying modern non-industry-standard techniques. Industry may lack the regulatory flexibility to use such techniques, or in some cases may not understand the possible associated economic advantage. As progressive jurisdictions move from estimation and towards routine measurement, the research community should provide guidance to help regulators and companies measure more effectively, and economically if possible. In this study, we outline a modelling experiment in which we explore the integration of non-industry-standard measurement techniques as part of a generalized compliance measurement program. The study was not intended to be exhaustive, or to recommend particular combinations, but instead to explore the inter-relationships between methodologies, development type, compliance practice. We first defined the role, applicable scale, detection limits, working distances, and approximate deployment cost of several measurement methodologies. We then considered a variety of development types differing mainly in footprint, density, and emissions "profile". Using a Monte Carlo approach, we evaluated the effect of these various factors on the cost and confidence of the compliance measurement program. We found that when added individually, some of the research techniques were indeed able to deliver an improvement in cost and/or confidence when used alongside industry-standard Optical Gas Imaging. When applied in combination, the ideal fraction of each measurement technique depended on development type, emission profile, and whether confidence or cost was more important. Results suggest that measurement cost and confidence could be improved if energy companies exploited a wider range of measurement techniques, and in a manner tailored to each development. In the short-term, combining clear scientific guidance with economic information could benefit immediate mitigation efforts over

  18. Evaluation of the dose committed as based on direct measurements with the Whole Body Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meladani, C.; Castellani, C.M.; Battisti, P.; Tarroni, G.

    1989-01-01

    During normal working activities or in accidental situations, when the introduction of radioactive gamma emitters is non-negligible amount, accurate determination of effective committed dose equivalent based on direct measurements of the internal contamination cannot be avoided. Internal contamination measurements carried out by Whole Body Counter and the application of dosimetric and metabolic models as proposed by ICRP Publication 30 allow the intakes and committed dose equivalents to be evaluated. This paper presents the evaluation methodologies of committed dose equivalent both for istantaneous and extended contaminations. Furthermore, some advice about useful, opportune modes and time uncertainties due to the application of generalized models to particular situations, are also reported. On the basis of the Chernobyl experience, the general criteria for the chice and size of homogeneous groups of individuals to be measured, are finally submitted with a view to collecting the necessary radiation protection information concerning contamination of a part or a whole population

  19. Standard test method for calibration of surface/stress measuring devices

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    Return to Contents page 1.1 This test method covers calibration or verification of calibration, or both, of surface-stress measuring devices used to measure stress in annealed and heat-strengthened or tempered glass using polariscopic or refractometry based principles. 1.2 This test method is nondestructive. 1.3 This test method uses transmitted light, and therefore, is applicable to light-transmitting glasses. 1.4 This test method is not applicable to chemically tempered glass. 1.5 Using the procedure described, surface stresses can be measured only on the “tin” side of float glass. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  20. Veterinary antimicrobial-usage statistics based on standardized measures of dosage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Jacobsen, Erik; Bager, Flemming

    2004-01-01

    In human medicine, the defined daily dose is used as a technical measure of drug usage, which is independent of the variations in the potency of the active compound and the formulation of the pharmaceutical product-therefore providing a measure of the relative importance of different drugs....... A national system of animal defined daily doses (ADD) for each age-group and species has been defined in VetStat (the Danish national system monitoring veterinary therapeutic drug use). The usage is further standardized according to the number of animals in the target population, acquired from production...... data on the national level or on herd size by species and age in the Danish central husbandry register (CHR). Statistics based on standardized measures of VetStat data can be used for comparison of drug usage between different herds, veterinary practices, or geographic regions (allowing subdivision...