WorldWideScience

Sample records for standard biological parts

  1. Standard biological parts knowledgebase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Galdzicki

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org. The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org. SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL, a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate "promoter" parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible.

  2. Standard Biological Parts Knowledgebase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdzicki, Michal; Rodriguez, Cesar; Chandran, Deepak; Sauro, Herbert M.; Gennari, John H.

    2011-01-01

    We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb) as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org). The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org). SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate “promoter” parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible. PMID:21390321

  3. Standard biological parts knowledgebase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdzicki, Michal; Rodriguez, Cesar; Chandran, Deepak; Sauro, Herbert M; Gennari, John H

    2011-02-24

    We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb) as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org). The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org). SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate "promoter" parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible.

  4. ‘Can Simple Biological Systems be Built from Standardized Interchangeable Parts?’:Negotiating Biology and Engineering in a Synthetic Biology Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Frow, Emma; Calvert, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology represents a recent attempt to bring engineering principles and practices to working with biology. In practice, the nature of the relationship between engineering and biology in synthetic biology is a subject of ongoing debate. The disciplines of biology and engineering are typically seen to involve differentways of knowing and doing, and to embody different assumptions and objectives. Tensions between these approaches are playing out as the field of synthetic biology is bei...

  5. Biological durability of wood in relation to end-use - Part 1. Towards a European standard for laboratory testing of the biological durability of wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acker, Van J.; Stevens, M.; Carey, J.; Sierra-Alvarez, R.; Militz, H.; Bayon, Le I.; Kleist, G.; Peek, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    The determination of biological durability of wood is an issue requiring sufficient reliability regarding end-use related prediction of performance. Five test institutes joined efforts to check standard test methods and to improve methodology and data interpretation for assessment of natural

  6. Standards in neurosonology. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Wojcza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents standards related to ultrasound imaging of the cerebral vasculature and structures. The aim of this paper is to standardize both the performance and description of ultrasound imaging of the extracranial and intracranial cerebral arteries as well as a study of a specifi c brain structure, i.e. substantia nigra hyperechogenicity. The following aspects are included in the description of standards for each ultrasonographic method: equipment requirements, patient preparation, study technique and documentation as well as the required elements of ultrasound description. Practical criteria for the diagnosis of certain pathologies in accordance with the latest literature were also presented. Furthermore, additional comments were included in some of the sections. Part I discusses standards for the performance, documentation and description of different ultrasound methods (Duplex, Doppler. Part II and III are devoted to standards for specifi c clinical situations (vasospasm, monitoring after the acute stage of stroke, detection of a right-toleft shunts, confi rmation of the arrest of the cerebral circulation, an assessment of the functional effi ciency of circle of Willis, an assessment of the cerebrovascular vasomotor reserve as well as the measurement of substantia nigra hyperechogenicity.

  7. Standards in neurosonology. Part III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Wojczal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents standards related to ultrasound imaging of the cerebral vasculature and structures. The aim of this paper is to standardize both the performance and description of ultrasound imaging of the extracranial and intracranial cerebral arteries as well as a study of a specific brain structure, i.e. substantia nigra hyperechogenicity. The following aspects are included in the description of standards for each ultrasonographic method: equipment requirements, patient preparation, study technique and documentation as well as the required elements of ultrasound description. Practical criteria for the diagnosis of certain pathologies in accordance with the latest literature were also presented. Furthermore, additional comments were included in some of the sections. Part I discusses standards for the performance, documentation and description of different ultrasound methods (Duplex, Doppler. Part II and III are devoted to standards for specific clinical situations (vasospasm, monitoring after the acute stage of stroke, detection of a right-to-left shunts, confirmation of the arrest of the cerebral circulation, an assessment of the functional efficiency of circle of Willis, an assessment of the cerebrovascular vasomotor reserve as well as the measurement of substantia nigra hyperechogenicity.

  8. Bovine colostrum as a biologic in clinical medicine: a review. Part I: biotechnological standards, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic characteristics and principles of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struff, W G; Sprotte, G

    2007-04-01

    Mammals supply their newborn before birth, at birth or shortly after birth with antibodies, immunocytes and humoral constituents. This "borrowed immunity" is a form of passive immunization to protect the newborn against environmental pathogens until it establishes its own pathogen recognition and disposal systems. In cows, goats, horses and some other animal species, most immunoglobulins are obtained from the colostrum, the first milk after birth, via the gut but in humans the majority of immunoglobulins, and those of the IgG-class in particular, are acquired from the mother by placental transport in the weeks prior to parturition. It has long been known that the consumption of bovine colostrum by humans has therapeutic effects e.g. in gastrointestinal infections, but only since the second half of the last century has it been possible to prepare stable, standardized preparations of colostrum. These biologics are administered to patients in combination with standard therapies as so-called balanced supportive diets. Investigations with standardized colostrum preparations in animal models of human disease and estimates of bovine IgG activity in the human GI-tract, described in this review, have provided preclinical data supporting the use of bovine colostrum in human diseases. On the other hand, the number of bovine colostrum products with a sufficiently large and reliable database is limited and the precise nature of the therapeutic targets is still being evaluated.

  9. A standard-enabled workflow for synthetic biology

    KAUST Repository

    Myers, Chris J.

    2017-06-15

    A synthetic biology workflow is composed of data repositories that provide information about genetic parts, sequence-level design tools to compose these parts into circuits, visualization tools to depict these designs, genetic design tools to select parts to create systems, and modeling and simulation tools to evaluate alternative design choices. Data standards enable the ready exchange of information within such a workflow, allowing repositories and tools to be connected from a diversity of sources. The present paper describes one such workflow that utilizes, among others, the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL) to describe genetic designs, the Systems Biology Markup Language to model these designs, and SBOL Visual to visualize these designs. We describe how a standard-enabled workflow can be used to produce types of design information, including multiple repositories and software tools exchanging information using a variety of data standards. Recently, the ACS Synthetic Biology journal has recommended the use of SBOL in their publications.

  10. 78 FR 57293 - Distribution of Reference Biological Standards and Biological Preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 7 [Docket No. CDC-2013-0013] RIN 0920-AA52 Distribution of Reference Biological Standards and Biological Preparations AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (HHS/CDC), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Confirmation of...

  11. The biological basis of plutonium safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mole, R.H.

    1976-01-01

    Since no radiation injury or cancer in man can, as yet, be directly attributed to Pu, all safety standards for Pu must be determined by reference to other safety standards, development of which is discussed. A system of safety standards must be based on links with real damage, such as the requirement for 226 Ra in bone. The type of biological information required for making standards realistic is considered in relation to Pu and Ra in bone. Also considered are the possible effects of Pu in soft tissue such as bone marrow. Not only dose, but also the number of cells exposed to the dose are important biologically and cellular aspects are examined. Since there is no positive evidence of Pu toxicity relevant information on other α emitters must be examined. The observed effectiveness of Ra, daughters of 222 Ra and 232 Th in causing mutations and cancer, is surveyed. Reference is made to the necessity of improving the ICRP system, currently based on the critical organ concept, by recognising the need for summation of risks in other organs where exposure to Pu is concerned. Improved biological understanding particularly that of hereditary damage, in recent years leads to less pessimistic thinking on the effects of ionizing radiations. The immediate need appears to be for consistency in safety standards. (U.K.)

  12. DRDC Ottawa working standard for biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segura, T.M.; Prud'homme-Lalonde, L.; Thorleifson, E.; Lachapelle, S.; Mullins, D.; Qutob, S.; Wilkinson, D.

    2005-07-01

    This Standard provides quality assurance, quality control, and evaluation of the performance criteria for the purpose of accreditation of the Radiation Biology laboratory at Defence Research and Development Canada - Ottawa (DRDC Ottawa) using biological dosimetry to predict radiation exposure doses. The International Standard (ISO 19238) and the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) Technical Report Series No. 405 are used as guiding documents in preparation of this working document specific to the DRDC Ottawa Radiation Biology Laboratory. This Standard addresses: 1. The confidentiality of personal information, for the customer and the service laboratory; 2. The laboratory safety requirements; 3. The calibration sources and calibration dose ranges useful for establishing the reference dose-effect curves allowing the dose estimation from chromosome aberration frequency, and the minimum detection levels; 4. Transportation criteria for shipping of test samples to the laboratory; 5. Preparation of samples for analysis; 6. The scoring procedure for unstable chromosome aberrations used for biological dosimetry; 7. The criteria for converting a measured aberration frequency into an estimate of absorbed dose; 8. The reporting of results; 9. The quality assurance and quality control plan for the laboratory; and 10. Informative annexes containing examples of a questionnaire, instructions for customers, a data sheet for recording aberrations, a sample report and other supportive documents. (author)

  13. DRDC Ottawa working standard for biological dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segura, T M; Prud' homme-Lalonde, L [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Thorleifson, E [Health Canada, Gatineau, Quebec (Canada); Lachapelle, S; Mullins, D [JERA Consulting (Canada); Qutob, S [Health Canada, Gatineau, Quebec (Canada); Wilkinson, D

    2005-07-15

    This Standard provides quality assurance, quality control, and evaluation of the performance criteria for the purpose of accreditation of the Radiation Biology laboratory at Defence Research and Development Canada - Ottawa (DRDC Ottawa) using biological dosimetry to predict radiation exposure doses. The International Standard (ISO 19238) and the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) Technical Report Series No. 405 are used as guiding documents in preparation of this working document specific to the DRDC Ottawa Radiation Biology Laboratory. This Standard addresses: 1. The confidentiality of personal information, for the customer and the service laboratory; 2. The laboratory safety requirements; 3. The calibration sources and calibration dose ranges useful for establishing the reference dose-effect curves allowing the dose estimation from chromosome aberration frequency, and the minimum detection levels; 4. Transportation criteria for shipping of test samples to the laboratory; 5. Preparation of samples for analysis; 6. The scoring procedure for unstable chromosome aberrations used for biological dosimetry; 7. The criteria for converting a measured aberration frequency into an estimate of absorbed dose; 8. The reporting of results; 9. The quality assurance and quality control plan for the laboratory; and 10. Informative annexes containing examples of a questionnaire, instructions for customers, a data sheet for recording aberrations, a sample report and other supportive documents. (author)

  14. A standard-enabled workflow for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Chris J; Beal, Jacob; Gorochowski, Thomas E; Kuwahara, Hiroyuki; Madsen, Curtis; McLaughlin, James Alastair; Mısırlı, Göksel; Nguyen, Tramy; Oberortner, Ernst; Samineni, Meher; Wipat, Anil; Zhang, Michael; Zundel, Zach

    2017-06-15

    A synthetic biology workflow is composed of data repositories that provide information about genetic parts, sequence-level design tools to compose these parts into circuits, visualization tools to depict these designs, genetic design tools to select parts to create systems, and modeling and simulation tools to evaluate alternative design choices. Data standards enable the ready exchange of information within such a workflow, allowing repositories and tools to be connected from a diversity of sources. The present paper describes one such workflow that utilizes, among others, the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL) to describe genetic designs, the Systems Biology Markup Language to model these designs, and SBOL Visual to visualize these designs. We describe how a standard-enabled workflow can be used to produce types of design information, including multiple repositories and software tools exchanging information using a variety of data standards. Recently, the ACS Synthetic Biology journal has recommended the use of SBOL in their publications. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  15. Biology and Mechanics of Blood Flows Part I: Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Thiriet, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Biology and Mechanics of Blood Flows presents the basic knowledge and state-of-the-art techniques necessary to carry out investigations of the cardiovascular system using modeling and simulation. Part I of this two-volume sequence, Biology, addresses the nanoscopic and microscopic scales. The nanoscale corresponds to the scale of biochemical reaction cascades involved in cell adaptation to mechanical stresses among other stimuli. The microscale is the scale of stress-induced tissue remodeling associated with acute or chronic loadings. The cardiovascular system, like any physiological system, has a complicated three-dimensional structure and composition. Its time dependent behavior is regulated, and this complex system has many components. In this authoritative work, the author provides a survey of relevant cell components and processes, with detailed coverage of the electrical and mechanical behaviors of vascular cells, tissues, and organs. Because the behaviors of vascular cells and tissues are tightly coupl...

  16. Microwave radiation - Biological effects and exposure standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, I.R.

    1980-06-01

    The thermal and nonthermal effects of exposure to microwave radiation are discussed and current standards for microwave exposure are examined in light of the proposed use of microwave power transmission from solar power satellites. Effects considered include cataractogenesis at levels above 100 mW/sq cm, and possible reversible disturbances such as headaches, sleeplessness, irritability, fatigue, memory loss, cardiovascular changes and circadian rhythm disturbances at levels less than 10 mW/sq cm. It is pointed out that while the United States and western Europe have adopted exposure standards of 10 mW/sq cm, those adopted in other countries are up to three orders of magnitude more restrictive, as they are based on different principles applied in determining safe limits. Various aspects of the biological effects of microwave transmissions from space are considered in the areas of the protection of personnel working in the vicinity of the rectenna, interactions of the transmitted radiation with cardiac pacemakers, and effects on birds. It is concluded that thresholds for biological effects from short-term microwave radiation are well above the maximal power density of 1 mW/sq cm projected at or beyond the area of exclusion of a rectenna.

  17. The potential of standards-based agriculture biology as an alternative to traditional biology in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellu, George Sahr

    schools. Thoron & Meyer (2011) suggested that research into the contribution of integrated science courses toward higher test scores yielded mixed results. This finding may have been due in part to the fact that integrated science courses only incorporate select topics into agriculture education courses. In California, however, agriculture educators have developed standards-based courses such as Agriculture Biology (AgBio) that cover the same content standards as core traditional courses such as traditional biology. Students in both AgBio and traditional biology take the same standardized biology test. This is the first time there has been an opportunity for a fair comparison and a uniform metric for an agriscience course such as AgBio to be directly compared to traditional biology. This study will examine whether there are differences between AgBio and traditional biology with regard to standardized test scores in biology. Furthermore, the study examines differences in perception between teachers and students regarding teaching and learning activities associated with higher achievement in science. The findings of the study could provide a basis for presenting AgBio as a potential alternative to traditional biology. The findings of this study suggest that there are no differences between AgBio and traditional biology students with regard to standardized biology test scores. Additionally, the findings indicate that co-curricular activities in AgBio could contribute higher student achievement in biology. However, further research is required to identify specific activities in AgBio that contribute to higher achievement in science.

  18. A standard-enabled workflow for synthetic biology

    KAUST Repository

    Myers, Chris J.; Beal, Jacob; Gorochowski, Thomas E.; Kuwahara, Hiroyuki; Madsen, Curtis; McLaughlin, James Alastair; Mısırlı, Gö ksel; Nguyen, Tramy; Oberortner, Ernst; Samineni, Meher; Wipat, Anil; Zhang, Michael; Zundel, Zach

    2017-01-01

    A synthetic biology workflow is composed of data repositories that provide information about genetic parts, sequence-level design tools to compose these parts into circuits, visualization tools to depict these designs, genetic design tools to select

  19. Biological radiation effects and radioprotection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerc, H.

    1991-03-01

    In this report, after recalling the mode of action of ionizing radiations, the notions of dose, dose equivalents and the values of natural irradiation, the author describes the biological radiation effects. Then he presents the ICRP recommendations and their applications to the french radioprotection system

  20. Standardization in biological staining. The influence of dye manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, H

    2000-01-01

    not have been subjected to quality assessment either internally by the producer or vendor or externally by independent investigators or organizations such as the Biological Stain Commission. Concerted attempts at standardization in Europe are discussed. The latest results of this work, the European...... standard EN 12376, is presented. This standard is concerned with information supplied by the manufacturer with in vitro diagnostic reagents for biological staining. The standard has been prepared by a Working Group on Staining in Biology under Technical Committee 140, In Vitro Medical Devices...

  1. A routine chromium determination in biological materials; application to various reference materials and standard reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjioe, P.S.; Goeij, J.J.M. de; Volkers, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    The determination limit under standard working conditions of chromium in biological materials is discussed. Neutron activation analysis and atomic spectrometry have been described for some analytical experiences with NBS SRM 1577 reference material. The chromium determination is a part of a larger multi-element scheme for the determination of 12 elements in biological materials

  2. WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization. Sixty-fifth report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the recommendations of a WHO Expert Committee commissioned to coordinate activities leading to the adoption of international recommendations for the production and control of vaccines and other biological substances, and the establishment of international biological reference materials. Following a brief introduction, the report summarizes a number of general issues brought to the attention of the Committee. The next part of the report, of particular relevance to manufacturers and national regulatory authorities, outlines the discussions held on the development and adoption of new and revised WHO Recommendations, Guidelines and guidance documents. Following these discussions, a WHO guidance document on the Scientific principles for regulatory risk evaluation on finding an adventitious agent in a marketed vaccine was adopted along with WHO Guidelines on procedures and data requirements for changes to approved vaccines and revised WHO Recommendations to assure the quality, safety and efficacy of poliomyelitis vaccines (inactivated). Subsequent sections of the report provide information on the current status and proposed development of international reference materials in the areas of antibiotics; biotherapeutics other than blood products; blood products and related substances; in vitro diagnostic device reagents; and vaccines and related substances. A series of annexes are then presented which include an updated list of all WHO Recommendations, Guidelines and other documents on biological substances used in medicine (Annex 1) followed by the above three WHO documents adopted on the advice of the Committee (Annexes 2-4). All additions and discontinuations made during the 2014 meeting to the list of International Standards, Reference Reagents and Reference Panels for biological substances maintained by WHO are summarized in Annex 5. The updated full catalogue of WHO International Reference Preparations is available at: http://www.who.int/bloodproducts/catalogue/en/.

  3. Establishing working standards of chromosome aberrations analysis for biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui Thi Kim Luyen; Tran Que; Pham Ngoc Duy; Nguyen Thi Kim Anh; Ha Thi Ngoc Lien

    2015-01-01

    Biological dosimetry is an dose assessment method using specify bio markers of radiation. IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) and ISO (International Organization for Standardization) defined that dicentric chromosome is specify for radiation, it is a gold standard for biodosimetry. Along with the documents published by IAEA, WHO, ISO and OECD, our results of study on the chromosome aberrations induced by radiation were organized systematically in nine standards that dealing with chromosome aberration test and micronucleus test in human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro. This standard addresses: the reference dose-effect for dose estimation, the minimum detection levels, cell culture, slide preparation, scoring procedure for chromosome aberrations use for biodosimetry, the criteria for converting aberration frequency into absorbed dose, reporting of results. Following these standards, the automatic analysis devices were calibrated for improving biological dosimetry method. This standard will be used to acquire and maintain accreditation of the Biological Dosimetry laboratory in Nuclear Research Institute. (author)

  4. Reactor Section standard analytical methods. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowden, D.

    1954-07-01

    the Standard Analytical Methods manual was prepared for the purpose of consolidating and standardizing all current analytical methods and procedures used in the Reactor Section for routine chemical analyses. All procedures are established in accordance with accepted practice and the general analytical methods specified by the Engineering Department. These procedures are specifically adapted to the requirements of the water treatment process and related operations. The methods included in this manual are organized alphabetically within the following five sections which correspond to the various phases of the analytical control program in which these analyses are to be used: water analyses, essential material analyses, cotton plug analyses boiler water analyses, and miscellaneous control analyses.

  5. Plant and Animal Gravitational Biology. Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Session TA2 includes short reports covering: (1) The Interaction of Microgravity and Ethylene on Soybean Growth and Metabolism; (2) Structure and G-Sensitivity of Root Statocytes under Different Mass Acceleration; (3) Extracellular Production of Taxanes on Cell Surfaces in Simulated Microgravity and Hypergravity; (4) Current Problems of Space Cell Phytobiology; (5) Biological Consequences of Microgravity-Induced Alterations in Water Metabolism of Plant Cells; (6) Localization of Calcium Ions in Chlorella Cells Under Clinorotation; (7) Changes of Fatty Acids Content of Plant Cell Plasma Membranes under Altered Gravity; (8) Simulation of Gravity by Non-Symmetrical Vibrations and Ultrasound; and (9) Response to Simulated weightlessness of In Vitro Cultures of Differentiated Epithelial Follicular Cells from Thyroid.

  6. 42 CFR 423.2268 - Standards for Part D marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for Part D marketing. 423.2268 Section 423.2268 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Part D Marketing Requirements § 423.2268 Standards for Part D marketing....

  7. Specifications of Standards in Systems and Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Falk; Bader, Gary D; Golebiewski, Martin; Hucka, Michael; Kormeier, Benjamin; Le Novère, Nicolas; Myers, Chris; Nickerson, David; Sommer, Björn; Waltemath, Dagmar; Weise, Stephan

    2015-09-04

    Standards shape our everyday life. From nuts and bolts to electronic devices and technological processes, standardised products and processes are all around us. Standards have technological and economic benefits, such as making information exchange, production, and services more efficient. However, novel, innovative areas often either lack proper standards, or documents about standards in these areas are not available from a centralised platform or formal body (such as the International Standardisation Organisation). Systems and synthetic biology is a relatively novel area, and it is only in the last decade that the standardisation of data, information, and models related to systems and synthetic biology has become a community-wide effort. Several open standards have been established and are under continuous development as a community initiative. COMBINE, the ‘COmputational Modeling in BIology’ NEtwork has been established as an umbrella initiative to coordinate and promote the development of the various community standards and formats for computational models. There are yearly two meeting, HARMONY (Hackathons on Resources for Modeling in Biology), Hackathon-type meetings with a focus on development of the support for standards, and COMBINE forums, workshop-style events with oral presentations, discussion, poster, and breakout sessions for further developing the standards. For more information see http://co.mbine.org/. So far the different standards were published and made accessible through the standards’ web- pages or preprint services. The aim of this special issue is to provide a single, easily accessible and citable platform for the publication of standards in systems and synthetic biology. This special issue is intended to serve as a central access point to standards and related initiatives in systems and synthetic biology, it will be published annually to provide an opportunity for standard development groups to communicate updated specifications.

  8. Toward scalable parts families for predictable design of biological circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucks, Julius B; Qi, Lei; Whitaker, Weston R; Arkin, Adam P

    2008-12-01

    Our current ability to engineer biological circuits is hindered by design cycles that are costly in terms of time and money, with constructs failing to operate as desired, or evolving away from the desired function once deployed. Synthetic biologists seek to understand biological design principles and use them to create technologies that increase the efficiency of the genetic engineering design cycle. Central to the approach is the creation of biological parts--encapsulated functions that can be composited together to create new pathways with predictable behaviors. We define five desirable characteristics of biological parts--independence, reliability, tunability, orthogonality and composability, and review studies of small natural and synthetic biological circuits that provide insights into each of these characteristics. We propose that the creation of appropriate sets of families of parts with these properties is a prerequisite for efficient, predictable engineering of new function in cells and will enable a large increase in the sophistication of genetic engineering applications.

  9. Bone biology and physiology: Part I. The fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Donald W; Dumanian, Gregory A

    2012-06-01

    The principles of bone biology and physiology permeate all subspecialty practices in plastic and reconstructive surgery from hand surgery to aesthetic surgery. Despite its importance in our practices, the biology of bone healing and bone physiology rarely surfaces within textbooks, literature reviews, or residency curricula. In this article, the authors present the first of a two-part series reviewing the important concepts of bone biology and bone physiology relevant to plastic surgery in an effort to ameliorate this educational gap.

  10. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 240 - Medical Standards Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medical Standards Guidelines F Appendix F to Part 240 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD.... F Appendix F to Part 240—Medical Standards Guidelines (1) The purpose of this appendix is to provide...

  11. Toward the First Data Acquisition Standard in Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz de Murieta, Iñaki; Bultelle, Matthieu; Kitney, Richard I

    2016-08-19

    This paper describes the development of a new data acquisition standard for synthetic biology. This comprises the creation of a methodology that is designed to capture all the data, metadata, and protocol information associated with biopart characterization experiments. The new standard, called DICOM-SB, is based on the highly successful Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard in medicine. A data model is described which has been specifically developed for synthetic biology. The model is a modular, extensible data model for the experimental process, which can optimize data storage for large amounts of data. DICOM-SB also includes services orientated toward the automatic exchange of data and information between modalities and repositories. DICOM-SB has been developed in the context of systematic design in synthetic biology, which is based on the engineering principles of modularity, standardization, and characterization. The systematic design approach utilizes the design, build, test, and learn design cycle paradigm. DICOM-SB has been designed to be compatible with and complementary to other standards in synthetic biology, including SBOL. In this regard, the software provides effective interoperability. The new standard has been tested by experiments and data exchange between Nanyang Technological University in Singapore and Imperial College London.

  12. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Part 23: Water; Atmospheric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA.

    Standards for water and atmospheric analysis are compiled in this segment, Part 23, of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) annual book of standards. It contains all current formally approved ASTM standard and tentative test methods, definitions, recommended practices, proposed methods, classifications, and specifications. One…

  13. Standardization, IPRs and open innovation in synthetic biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo; Wested, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    various technical areas, and also the basic processes of standard creation can be divided into various categories. The different technical areas and processes for standardization differ in their speed, handling of interests and ability to dodge possible IPR concerns. Out of this notion arise i.......a. the following questions: How comparable is engineering in SB to more traditional fields of engineering?; What type of standards have emerged and what bearing have IPRs on these?; and, How applicable are the approaches adopted by the standards-setting organizations in the information and communication technology...... (ICT) to biological standards? These and further legal issues related to IP, regulation, standardization, competition law & open innovation require a careful consideration of new user-generated models and solutions. Before this background this paper seeks to describe IP and standardization aspects...

  14. The Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL) provides a community standard for communicating designs in synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdzicki, Michal; Clancy, Kevin P; Oberortner, Ernst; Pocock, Matthew; Quinn, Jacqueline Y; Rodriguez, Cesar A; Roehner, Nicholas; Wilson, Mandy L; Adam, Laura; Anderson, J Christopher; Bartley, Bryan A; Beal, Jacob; Chandran, Deepak; Chen, Joanna; Densmore, Douglas; Endy, Drew; Grünberg, Raik; Hallinan, Jennifer; Hillson, Nathan J; Johnson, Jeffrey D; Kuchinsky, Allan; Lux, Matthew; Misirli, Goksel; Peccoud, Jean; Plahar, Hector A; Sirin, Evren; Stan, Guy-Bart; Villalobos, Alan; Wipat, Anil; Gennari, John H; Myers, Chris J; Sauro, Herbert M

    2014-06-01

    The re-use of previously validated designs is critical to the evolution of synthetic biology from a research discipline to an engineering practice. Here we describe the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a proposed data standard for exchanging designs within the synthetic biology community. SBOL represents synthetic biology designs in a community-driven, formalized format for exchange between software tools, research groups and commercial service providers. The SBOL Developers Group has implemented SBOL as an XML/RDF serialization and provides software libraries and specification documentation to help developers implement SBOL in their own software. We describe early successes, including a demonstration of the utility of SBOL for information exchange between several different software tools and repositories from both academic and industrial partners. As a community-driven standard, SBOL will be updated as synthetic biology evolves to provide specific capabilities for different aspects of the synthetic biology workflow.

  15. 78 FR 47319 - Fee Schedule for Reference Biological Standards and Biological Preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Fee Schedule for Reference Biological Standards and Biological Preparations AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and... for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), located within the Department of Health and Human Services...

  16. Standards, Data Exchange and Intellectual Property Rights in Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Zimmeren, Esther; Rutz, Berthold; Minssen, Timo

    2016-01-01

    ” of scientists. In 2015, Biotechnology Journal published a report from an expert meeting on “Synthetic Biology & Intellectual Property Rights” organized by the Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation sponsored by the European Research Area Network (ERA-Net) in Synthetic Biology (ERASynBio), in which...... we provided a number of recommendations for a variety of stakeholders. The current article offers some deeper reflections about the interface between IPRs, standards and data exchange in Systems Biology resulting from an Expert Meeting funded by another ERA-Net, ERASysAPP. The meeting brought...... together experts and stakeholders (e.g. scientists, company representatives, officials from public funding organizations) in systems biology (SysBio) from different countries.  Despite the different profiles of the stakeholders at the meeting and the variety of interests, many concerns and opinions were...

  17. Part 6: Modelling of simultaneous chemical-biological P removal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    approaches taken in modelling the chemical P removal processes. In the literature .... to 2 mgP/l) for an iron dose of ~1 to 10 mg/l as Fe - refer to dashed line in Fig. 1). ...... systems exhibiting biological enhanced phosphate removal. Part 3:.

  18. Fish gelatin thin film standards for biological application of PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Jack E.; Rout, Bibhudutta; Szilasi, Szabolcs Z.; Bohara, Gyanendra; Deaton, James; Luyombya, Henry; Briski, Karen P.; Glass, Gary A.

    2014-08-01

    There exists a critical need to understand the flow and accumulation of metallic ions, both naturally occurring and those introduced to biological systems. In this paper the results of fabricating thin film elemental biological standards containing nearly any combination of trace elements in a protein matrix are presented. Because it is capable of high elemental sensitivity, particle induced X-ray emission spectrometry (PIXE) is an excellent candidate for in situ analysis of biological tissues. Additionally, the utilization of microbeam PIXE allows the determination of elemental concentrations in and around biological cells. However, obtaining elemental reference standards with the same matrix constituents as brain tissue is difficult. An excellent choice for simulating brain-like tissue is Norland® photoengraving glue which is derived from fish skin. Fish glue is water soluble, liquid at room temperature, and resistant to dilute acid. It can also be formed into a thin membrane which dries into a durable, self-supporting film. Elements of interest are introduced to the fish glue in precise volumetric additions of well quantified atomic absorption standard solutions. In this study GeoPIXE analysis package is used to quantify elements intrinsic to the fish glue as well as trace amounts of manganese added to the sample. Elastic (non-Rutherford) backscattered spectroscopy (EBS) and the 1.734 MeV proton-on-carbon 12C(p,p)12C resonance is used for a normalization scheme of the PIXE spectra to account for any discrepancies in X-ray production arising from thickness variation of the prepared standards. It is demonstrated that greater additions of the atomic absorption standard cause a viscosity reduction of the liquid fish glue resulting in thinner films but the film thickness can be monitored by using simultaneous PIXE and EBS proton data acquisition.

  19. Fish gelatin thin film standards for biological application of PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manuel, Jack E.; Rout, Bibhudutta; Szilasi, Szabolcs Z.; Bohara, Gyanendra; Deaton, James; Luyombya, Henry; Briski, Karen P.; Glass, Gary A.

    2014-01-01

    There exists a critical need to understand the flow and accumulation of metallic ions, both naturally occurring and those introduced to biological systems. In this paper the results of fabricating thin film elemental biological standards containing nearly any combination of trace elements in a protein matrix are presented. Because it is capable of high elemental sensitivity, particle induced X-ray emission spectrometry (PIXE) is an excellent candidate for in situ analysis of biological tissues. Additionally, the utilization of microbeam PIXE allows the determination of elemental concentrations in and around biological cells. However, obtaining elemental reference standards with the same matrix constituents as brain tissue is difficult. An excellent choice for simulating brain-like tissue is Norland® photoengraving glue which is derived from fish skin. Fish glue is water soluble, liquid at room temperature, and resistant to dilute acid. It can also be formed into a thin membrane which dries into a durable, self-supporting film. Elements of interest are introduced to the fish glue in precise volumetric additions of well quantified atomic absorption standard solutions. In this study GeoPIXE analysis package is used to quantify elements intrinsic to the fish glue as well as trace amounts of manganese added to the sample. Elastic (non-Rutherford) backscattered spectroscopy (EBS) and the 1.734 MeV proton-on-carbon 12 C(p,p) 12 C resonance is used for a normalization scheme of the PIXE spectra to account for any discrepancies in X-ray production arising from thickness variation of the prepared standards. It is demonstrated that greater additions of the atomic absorption standard cause a viscosity reduction of the liquid fish glue resulting in thinner films but the film thickness can be monitored by using simultaneous PIXE and EBS proton data acquisition

  20. Fish gelatin thin film standards for biological application of PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manuel, Jack E., E-mail: jaelma@gmail.com [Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Rout, Bibhudutta; Szilasi, Szabolcs Z.; Bohara, Gyanendra [Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Deaton, James; Luyombya, Henry [Louisiana Accelerator Center, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, LA 70503 (United States); Briski, Karen P. [Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, LA 71209 (United States); Glass, Gary A. [Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    There exists a critical need to understand the flow and accumulation of metallic ions, both naturally occurring and those introduced to biological systems. In this paper the results of fabricating thin film elemental biological standards containing nearly any combination of trace elements in a protein matrix are presented. Because it is capable of high elemental sensitivity, particle induced X-ray emission spectrometry (PIXE) is an excellent candidate for in situ analysis of biological tissues. Additionally, the utilization of microbeam PIXE allows the determination of elemental concentrations in and around biological cells. However, obtaining elemental reference standards with the same matrix constituents as brain tissue is difficult. An excellent choice for simulating brain-like tissue is Norland® photoengraving glue which is derived from fish skin. Fish glue is water soluble, liquid at room temperature, and resistant to dilute acid. It can also be formed into a thin membrane which dries into a durable, self-supporting film. Elements of interest are introduced to the fish glue in precise volumetric additions of well quantified atomic absorption standard solutions. In this study GeoPIXE analysis package is used to quantify elements intrinsic to the fish glue as well as trace amounts of manganese added to the sample. Elastic (non-Rutherford) backscattered spectroscopy (EBS) and the 1.734 MeV proton-on-carbon {sup 12}C(p,p){sup 12}C resonance is used for a normalization scheme of the PIXE spectra to account for any discrepancies in X-ray production arising from thickness variation of the prepared standards. It is demonstrated that greater additions of the atomic absorption standard cause a viscosity reduction of the liquid fish glue resulting in thinner films but the film thickness can be monitored by using simultaneous PIXE and EBS proton data acquisition.

  1. Standard reporting requirements for biological samples in metabolomics experiments: Microbial and in vitro biology experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, M.J. van der; Takors, R.; Smedsgaard, J.; Nielsen, J.; Ferenci, T.; Portais, J.C.; Wittmann, C.; Hooks, M.; Tomassini, A.; Oldiges, M.; Fostel, J.; Sauer, U.

    2007-01-01

    With the increasing use of metabolomics as a means to study a large number of different biological research questions, there is a need for a minimal set of reporting standards that allow the scientific community to evaluate, understand, repeat, compare and re-investigate metabolomics studies. Here

  2. Blueprints for green biotech: development and application of standards for plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patron, Nicola J

    2016-06-15

    Synthetic biology aims to apply engineering principles to the design and modification of biological systems and to the construction of biological parts and devices. The ability to programme cells by providing new instructions written in DNA is a foundational technology of the field. Large-scale de novo DNA synthesis has accelerated synthetic biology by offering custom-made molecules at ever decreasing costs. However, for large fragments and for experiments in which libraries of DNA sequences are assembled in different combinations, assembly in the laboratory is still desirable. Biological assembly standards allow DNA parts, even those from multiple laboratories and experiments, to be assembled together using the same reagents and protocols. The adoption of such standards for plant synthetic biology has been cohesive for the plant science community, facilitating the application of genome editing technologies to plant systems and streamlining progress in large-scale, multi-laboratory bioengineering projects. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  3. 45 CFR Appendix A to Part 1211 - Standards for Examiners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICE VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES Pt. 1211, App. A Appendix A to Part 1211—Standards for Examiners An..., professional, investigative, or technical work which has demonstrated the possession of: (i) The personal... confidence of others. (iii) A good working knowledge of: The relationship between volunteer administration...

  4. Molecular biology - Part II: Beneficial liaisons: Radiobiology meets cellular and molecular biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, Mary Ann; Coleman, C. Norman

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this course is to familiarize radiation oncologists with the concepts and terminology of molecular and cellular biology that are especially relevant to radiation oncology. The ability of radiation oncologists to remain current with the new discoveries of modern biology is essential to the development of improved therapeutic strategies and, importantly, to the proper balance between investment in technology and biology. Objective: This year, this Refresher Course is part of a three-part ''series'' including Drs. McKenna and Dritschilo. The objective is to provide continuing education for the academic and practicing radiation oncologist, physicist and biologist in the modern biologic concepts of cancer and its treatment. An effort will be made to relate these general concepts to the clinic by providing a broad view as to potential new biological treatments which might enhance the efficacy of radiation therapy. The specific focus of this Course will vary from year to year. Some of the classic radiation biology models which form the basis of clinical practice and laboratory research will be examined and 'newer' models will be presented which take into account the emerging knowledge of cellular and molecular biology. A few techniques in molecular and cellular biology will be described to the extent necessary to understand their basic concepts and their applicability. Aspects of radiation biology which will be covered include cell cycle, radiation-induced changes in the cellular phenotype, and considerations of the effect of the tumor microenvironment. It is not the expectation that the attendees will become experts in the particular subjects presented. Rather, it is the intent to increase their curiosity as to the new knowledge that is emerging and to demonstrate that these seemingly complicated areas can be understood and appreciated with a modicum of the effort

  5. Molecular biology - Part II: Beneficial liaisons: Radiobiology meets cellular and molecular biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, Mary Ann; Coleman, C. Norman

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this course is to familiarize radiation oncologists with the concepts and terminology of molecular and cellular biology that are especially relevant to radiation oncology. The ability of radiation oncologists to remain current with the new discoveries of modern biology is essential to the development of improved therapeutic strategies and, importantly, to the proper balance between investment in technology and biology. Objective: This year, this Refresher Course is part of a three-part 'series' including Drs. Martin Brown and Amato Giaccia. The objective is to provide continuing education for the academic and practicing radiation oncologist, physicist and biologist in the modern biologic concepts of cancer and its treatment. An effort will be made to relate these general concepts to the clinic by providing a broad view as to potential new biological treatments which might enhance the efficacy of radiation therapy. The specific focus of this Course will vary from year to year. Some of the classic radiation biology models which form the basis of clinical practice and laboratory research will be examined and 'newer' models will be presented which take into account the emerging knowledge of cellular and molecular biology. A few techniques in molecular and cellular biology will be described to the extent necessary to understand their basic concepts and their applicability. Aspects of radiation biology which will be covered include cell cycle, radiation-induced changes in the cellular phenotype, and considerations of the effect of the tumor microenvironment. It is not the expectation that the attendees will become experts in the particular subjects presented. Rather, it is the intent to increase their curiosity as to the new knowledge that is emerging and to demonstrate that these seemingly complicated areas can be understood and appreciated with a modicum of the effort

  6. Consensus values for NIST biological and environmental Standard Reference Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelandts, I.; Gladney, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, formerly the National Bureau of Standards or NBS) has produced numerous Standard Reference Materials (SRM) for use in biological and environmental analytical chemistry. The value listed on the ''NIST Certificate of Analysis'' is the present best estimate of the ''true'' concentration of that element and is not expected to deviate from that concentration by more than the stated uncertainty. However, NIST does not certify the elemental concentration of every constituent and the number of elements reported in the NIST programs tends to be limited.Numerous analysts have published concentration data on these reference materials. Major journals in analytical chemistry, books, proceedings and ''technical reports'' have been surveyed to collect these available literature values. A standard statistical approach has been employed to evaluate the compiled data. Our methodology has been developed in a series of previous papers. Some subjective criteria are first used to reject aberrant data. Following these eliminations, an initial arithmetic mean and standard deviation (S.D.) are computed from remaining data for each element. All data now outside two S.D. from the initial mean are dropped and a second mean and S.D. recalculated. These final means and associated S.D. are reported as ''consensus values'' in our tables. (orig.)

  7. Japanese tea leaves: a possible biological standard reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuwa, Keiichiro; Notsu, Kenji; Tsunoda, Kin-ichi; Kato, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Yuko.

    1978-01-01

    Japanese Tea Leaves, prepared by pulverizing with an agate ball mill and sieving with a Saran fiber sieve (50 mesh) were assessed as a possible biological standard reference material for elemental analysis. The metal content of the tea leaves was determined independently at two laboratories using atomic absorption and flame emission spectrometry. Neutron activation analysis was also performed to determine the content (21 elements) of Tea Leaves. For some elements the result from the various methods were compared. The characteristics of Tea Leaves are discussed and the elemental composition is compared to that of Orchard Leaves (NBS SRM, 1571). The most significant characteristic of Tea Leaves was the high manganese content. (auth.)

  8. The year's new drugs & biologics 2014 - Part II: trends & challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graul, A I; Serebrov, M; Cruces, E; Tracy, M; Dulsat, C

    2015-02-01

    2014 was a year of continued high activity in the pharma and biotech industry, as evidenced in part I of this annual two-part review article published last month in this journal (1). As of December 23, 2014, a total of 55 new chemical and biological entities had reached their first markets worldwide, together with another 29 important new line extensions. Another 19 products were approved for the first time during the year but not yet launched by December 23. Furthermore, during the now-traditional year-end sprint, several regulatory agencies issued last-minute approvals for other compounds that missed the deadline for inclusion in that article, bringing the total of new approvals for the year to a somewhat higher number. In addition to the successful development, registration and launch of new drugs and biologics, there are various other trends and tendencies that serve as indicators of the overall health and status of the industry. These include the pursuit of novel programs designed by regulators to stimulate the development of drugs for diseases that are currently under-treated; the regular and pragmatic culling by companies of their R&D pipelines; and the decision to unify pipelines, portfolios and sales forces through mergers and acquisitions. Copyright 2015 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  9. Standards for protection against radiation, 10 CFR Part 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cool, D.A.; Peterson, H.T. Jr.

    1991-10-01

    On may 21, 1991, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued a revision to its standards for protection against ionizing radiation, 10 CFR Part 20. Although the revised part (section section 20.1001-20.2401) became effective on June 20, 1991, licensees may defer implementation of the revised rule until January 1, 1993. Licensees continue to be required to comply with the provisions of section section 20.1-20.601 until the time they adopt the provisions of section section 20.1001-20.2401. Therefore, between June 20, 1991 and January 1, 1993 both the provisions of section section 20.1-20.601 and section section 20.1001-20.2401 are in effect. This NUREG presents a comparative text of the provisions of the revised Part 20 (section section 20.1001-20. 2401) to the text of section section 20.1-20.601 for use by the NRC staff and NRC licensees. 2 refs

  10. Biocoder: A programming language for standardizing and automating biology protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthanarayanan, Vaishnavi; Thies, William

    2010-11-08

    Published descriptions of biology protocols are often ambiguous and incomplete, making them difficult to replicate in other laboratories. However, there is increasing benefit to formalizing the descriptions of protocols, as laboratory automation systems (such as microfluidic chips) are becoming increasingly capable of executing them. Our goal in this paper is to improve both the reproducibility and automation of biology experiments by using a programming language to express the precise series of steps taken. We have developed BioCoder, a C++ library that enables biologists to express the exact steps needed to execute a protocol. In addition to being suitable for automation, BioCoder converts the code into a readable, English-language description for use by biologists. We have implemented over 65 protocols in BioCoder; the most complex of these was successfully executed by a biologist in the laboratory using BioCoder as the only reference. We argue that BioCoder exposes and resolves ambiguities in existing protocols, and could provide the software foundations for future automation platforms. BioCoder is freely available for download at http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/india/projects/biocoder/. BioCoder represents the first practical programming system for standardizing and automating biology protocols. Our vision is to change the way that experimental methods are communicated: rather than publishing a written account of the protocols used, researchers will simply publish the code. Our experience suggests that this practice is tractable and offers many benefits. We invite other researchers to leverage BioCoder to improve the precision and completeness of their protocols, and also to adapt and extend BioCoder to new domains.

  11. Standard Test Method for Measuring Binocular Disparity in Transparent Parts

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the amount of binocular disparity that is induced by transparent parts such as aircraft windscreens, canopies, HUD combining glasses, visors, or goggles. This test method may be applied to parts of any size, shape, or thickness, individually or in combination, so as to determine the contribution of each transparent part to the overall binocular disparity present in the total “viewing system” being used by a human operator. 1.2 This test method represents one of several techniques that are available for measuring binocular disparity, but is the only technique that yields a quantitative figure of merit that can be related to operator visual performance. 1.3 This test method employs apparatus currently being used in the measurement of optical angular deviation under Method F 801. 1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not con...

  12. Modular design of synthetic gene circuits with biological parts and pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchisio, Mario Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic gene circuits can be designed in an electronic fashion by displaying their basic components-Standard Biological Parts and Pools of molecules-on the computer screen and connecting them with hypothetical wires. This procedure, achieved by our add-on for the software ProMoT, was successfully applied to bacterial circuits. Recently, we have extended this design-methodology to eukaryotic cells. Here, highly complex components such as promoters and Pools of mRNA contain hundreds of species and reactions whose calculation demands a rule-based modeling approach. We showed how to build such complex modules via the joint employment of the software BioNetGen (rule-based modeling) and ProMoT (modularization). In this chapter, we illustrate how to utilize our computational tool for synthetic biology with the in silico implementation of a simple eukaryotic gene circuit that performs the logic AND operation.

  13. 42 CFR Appendix B to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Dental Radiography Training for Dental Hygienists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... must include content in seven areas: radiation physics; radiation biology; radiation health, safety... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for Accreditation of Dental Radiography Training for Dental Hygienists B Appendix B to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. 42 CFR Appendix C to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Dental Radiography Training for Dental Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... areas: radiation physics; radiation biology; radiation health, safety, and protection; X-ray films and... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for Accreditation of Dental Radiography Training for Dental Assistants C Appendix C to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  15. Fostering Students' Conceptual Knowledge in Biology in the Context of German National Education Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förtsch, Christian; Dorfner, Tobias; Baumgartner, Julia; Werner, Sonja; von Kotzebue, Lena; Neuhaus, Birgit J.

    2018-04-01

    The German National Education Standards (NES) for biology were introduced in 2005. The content part of the NES emphasizes fostering conceptual knowledge. However, there are hardly any indications of what such an instructional implementation could look like. We introduce a theoretical framework of an instructional approach to foster students' conceptual knowledge as demanded in the NES (Fostering Conceptual Knowledge) including instructional practices derived from research on single core ideas, general psychological theories, and biology-specific features of instructional quality. First, we aimed to develop a rating manual, which is based on this theoretical framework. Second, we wanted to describe current German biology instruction according to this approach and to quantitatively analyze its effectiveness. And third, we aimed to provide qualitative examples of this approach to triangulate our findings. In a first step, we developed a theoretically devised rating manual to measure Fostering Conceptual Knowledge in videotaped lessons. Data for quantitative analysis included 81 videotaped biology lessons of 28 biology teachers from different German secondary schools. Six hundred forty students completed a questionnaire on their situational interest after each lesson and an achievement test. Results from multilevel modeling showed significant positive effects of Fostering Conceptual Knowledge on students' achievement and situational interest. For qualitative analysis, we contrasted instruction of four teachers, two with high and two with low student achievement and situational interest using the qualitative method of thematic analysis. Qualitative analysis revealed five main characteristics describing Fostering Conceptual Knowledge. Therefore, implementing Fostering Conceptual Knowledge in biology instruction seems promising. Examples of how to implement Fostering Conceptual Knowledge in instruction are shown and discussed.

  16. Immunomodulatory Effects of Macrolide Antibiotics - Part 1 : Biological Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altenburg, J.; de Graaff, C. S.; van der Werf, T. S.; Boersma, W. G.

    2011-01-01

    Macrolide antibiotics are well known for their antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. This article provides an overview of the biological mechanisms through which macrolides exert this 'double effect'. Their antibacterial effect consists of the inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis,

  17. The Next Generation of Science Standards: Implications for Biology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    2012-01-01

    The release of A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas (NRC, 2012) provides the basis for the next generation of science standards. This article first describes that foundation for the life sciences; it then presents a draft standard for natural selection and evolution. Finally, there is a…

  18. tRNA--the golden standard in molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barciszewska, Mirosława Z; Perrigue, Patrick M; Barciszewski, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) represent a major class of RNA molecules. Their primary function is to help decode a messenger RNA (mRNA) sequence in order to synthesize protein and thus ensures the precise translation of genetic information that is imprinted in DNA. The discovery of tRNA in the late 1950's provided critical insight into a genetic machinery when little was known about the central dogma of molecular biology. In 1965, Robert Holley determined the first nucleotide sequence of alanine transfer RNA (tRNA(Ala)) which earned him the 1968 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Today, tRNA is one of the best described and characterized biological molecules. Here we review some of the key historical events in tRNA research which led to breakthrough discoveries and new developments in molecular biology.

  19. On the limitations of standard statistical modeling in biological systems: a full Bayesian approach for biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Ramirez, Jaime; Sanz, Ricardo

    2013-09-01

    One of the most important scientific challenges today is the quantitative and predictive understanding of biological function. Classical mathematical and computational approaches have been enormously successful in modeling inert matter, but they may be inadequate to address inherent features of biological systems. We address the conceptual and methodological obstacles that lie in the inverse problem in biological systems modeling. We introduce a full Bayesian approach (FBA), a theoretical framework to study biological function, in which probability distributions are conditional on biophysical information that physically resides in the biological system that is studied by the scientist. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Guidelines for Biological Treatment of Schizophrenia, Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasan, Alkomiet; Falkai, Peter; Wobrock, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    These updated guidelines are based on a first edition of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for biological treatment of schizophrenia published in 2006. For this 2012 revision, all available publications pertaining to the biological treatment of schizoph...

  1. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Guidelines for Biological Treatment of Schizophrenia, part 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasan, Alkomiet; Falkai, Peter; Wobrock, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    These updated guidelines are based on a first edition of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry Guidelines for Biological Treatment of Schizophrenia published in 2005. For this 2012 revision, all available publications pertaining to the biological treatment of schizophrenia we...

  2. Running code as part of an open standards policy

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Rajiv; Kesan, Jay

    2009-01-01

    Governments around the world are considering implementing or even mandating open standards policies. They believe these policies will provide economic, socio-political, and technical benefits. In this article, we analyze the failure of the Massachusetts’s open standards policy as applied to document formats. We argue it failed due to the lack of running code. Running code refers to multiple independent, interoperable implementations of an open standard. With running code, users have choice ...

  3. Molecular biology - Part I: Techniques, terminology, and concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J. Martin

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: One of the barriers to understanding modern molecular biology is the lack of a clear understanding of the relevant terminology, techniques, and concepts. This refresher course is intended to address these deficiencies starting from a basic level. The lecture will cover many of the common uses of recombinant DNA, including gene cloning and manipulation. The goal is to enable the nonspecialist to increase his or her understanding of molecular biology in order to more fully enjoy reading current publications and/or listening seminars. Radiation biologists trying to understand a little more molecular biology should also benefit. The following concepts will be among those explained and illustrated: restriction endonucleases, gel electrophoresis, gene cloning, use of vectors such as plasmids, bacteriophage, cosmids and viruses, cDNA and genomic libraries, Southern, Northern, and Western blotting, fluorescent in situ hybridization, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), gel retardation, and reporter gene assays

  4. Semantic Models of Sentences with Verbs of Motion in Standard Language and in Scientific Language Used in Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Banionytė

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The semantic models of sentences with verbs of motion in German standard language and in scientific language used in biology are analyzed in the article. In its theoretic part it is affirmed that the article is based on the semantic theory of the sentence. This theory, in its turn, is grounded on the correlation of semantic predicative classes and semantic roles. The combination of semantic predicative classes and semantic roles is expressed by the main semantic formula – proposition. In its practical part the differences between the semantic models of standard and scientific language used in biology are explained. While modelling sentences with verbs of motion, two groups of semantic models of sentences are singled out: that of action (Handlung and process (Vorgang. The analysis shows that the semantic models of sentences with semantic action predicatives dominate in the text of standard language while the semantic models of sentences with semantic process predicatives dominate in the texts of scientific language used in biology. The differences how the doer and direction are expressed in standard and in scientific language are clearly seen and the semantic cases (Agens, Patiens, Direktiv1 help to determine that. It is observed that in scientific texts of high level of specialization (biology science in contrast to popular scientific literature models of sentences with moving verbs are usually seldom found. They are substituted by denominative constructions. In conclusions it is shown that this analysis can be important in methodics, especially planning material for teaching professional-scientific language.

  5. Nuclear magnetic resonance of biological macromolecules part A

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitz, Uli; Schmitz, Uli; Dotsch, Volker

    2001-01-01

    This volume and its companion, Volume 339, supplement Volumes 176, 177, 239, and 261. Chapters are written with a "hands-on" perspective. That is, practical applications with critical evaluations of methodologies and experimental considerations needed to design, execute, and interpret NMR experiments pertinent to biological molecules.

  6. Multielement analysis of biological standards by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadkarni, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Up to 28 elements were determined in two IAEA standards: Animal Muscle H4 and Fish Soluble A 6/74, and three NBS standards: Spinach: SRM-1570, Tomato Leaves: SRM-1573 and Pine Needles: SRM-1575 by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. Seven noble metals were determined in two NBS standards: Coal: SRM-1632 and Coal Fly Ash: SRM-1633 by radiochemical procedure while 11 rare earth elements were determined in NBS standard Orchard Leaves: SRM-1571 by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. The results are in good agreement with the certified and/or literature data where available. The irradiations were performed at the Cornell TRIGA Mark II nuclear reactor at a thermal neutron flux of 1-3x10 12 ncm -2 sec -1 . The short-lived species were determined after a 2-minute irradiation in the pneumatic rabbit tube, and the longer-lived species after an 8-hour irradiation in the central thimble facility. The standards and samples were counted on coaxial 56-cm 3 Ge(Li) detector. The system resolution was 1.96 keV (FWHM) with a peak to Compton ratio of 37:1 and counting efficiency of 13%, all compared to the 1.332 MeV photopeak of Co-60. (T.I.)

  7. [Study on standardization of cupping technique: elucidation on the establishment of the National Standard Standardized Manipulation of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Part V, Cupping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shu-zhong; Liu, Bing

    2010-02-01

    From the aspects of basis, technique descriptions, core contents, problems and solutions, and standard thinking in standard setting process, this paper states experiences in the establishment of the national standard Standardized Manipulation of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Part V, Cupping, focusing on methodologies used in cupping standard setting process, the method selection and operating instructions of cupping standardization, and the characteristics of standard TCM. In addition, this paper states the scope of application, and precautions for this cupping standardization. This paper also explaines tentative ideas on the research of standardized manipulation of acupuncture and moxibustion.

  8. Biological characteristics as a part of pollution monitoring studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.; Govindan, K.

    Ecosystem modifications can be considered as an integral part of any pollution monitoring studies and in such cases community structure/diversity is of prime importance. Considering this advantage of aquatic life, pelagic and benthic communities...

  9. Specifications of Standards in Systems and Synthetic Biology: Status and Developments in 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreiber Falk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Standards are essential to the advancement of science and technology. In systems and synthetic biology, numerous standards and associated tools have been developed over the last 16 years. This special issue of the Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics aims to support the exchange, distribution and archiving of these standards, as well as to provide centralised and easily citable access to them.

  10. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Guidelines for Biological Treatment of Schizophrenia. Part 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasan, Alkomiet; Falkai, Peter; Wobrock, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    These updated guidelines are based on the first edition of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for biological treatment of schizophrenia published in the years 2005 and 2006. For this 2015 revision, all available publications pertaining to the biological...... treatment of schizophrenia were reviewed systematically to allow for an evidence-based update. These guidelines provide evidence-based practice recommendations which are clinically and scientifically relevant. They are intended to be used by all physicians diagnosing and treating patients with schizophrenia...

  11. Synthesis and biological activity of imidazopyridine anticoccidial agents: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, Andrew; Dennis, Richard; Lee, Shuliang; Ouvry, Gilles; Perrey, David; Fisher, Michael; Wyvratt, Matthew; Leavitt, Penny; Liberator, Paul; Gurnett, Anne; Brown, Chris; Mathew, John; Thompson, Donald; Schmatz, Dennis; Biftu, Tesfaye

    2008-06-01

    Coccidiosis is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in the poultry industry. Protozoan parasites of the genus Eimeria invade the intestinal lining of the avian host causing tissue pathology, poor weight gain, and in some cases mortality. Resistance to current anticoccidials has prompted the search for new therapeutic agents with potent in vitro and in vivo activity against Eimeria. Recently, we reported the synthesis and biological activity of potent imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine anticoccidial agents. Antiparasitic activity is due to inhibition of a parasite specific cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). In this study, we report the synthesis and anticoccidial activity of a second set of such compounds, focusing on derivatization of the amine side chain at the imidazopyridine 7-position. From this series, several compounds showed subnanomolar in vitro activity and commercial levels of in vivo activity. However, the potential genotoxicity of these compounds precludes them from further development.

  12. Synthesis and biological activity of imidazopyridine anticoccidial agents: part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, Andrew; Dennis, Richard; Hong, Jean; Lee, Shuliang; McIntyre, Donald; Perrey, David; Feng, Dennis; Fisher, Michael; Wyvratt, Matthew; Leavitt, Penny; Liberator, Paul; Gurnett, Anne; Brown, Chris; Mathew, John; Thompson, Donald; Schmatz, Dennis; Biftu, Tesfaye

    2007-01-01

    Coccidiosis is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in the poultry industry. Protozoan parasites of the genus Eimeria invade the intestinal lining of the avian host causing tissue pathology, poor weight gain, and in some cases mortality. Resistance to current anticoccidials has prompted the search for new therapeutic agents with potent in vitro and in vivo activity against Eimeria. Antiparasitic activity is due to inhibition of a parasite specific cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). In this study, we present the synthesis and biological activity of imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine anticoccidial agents. From this series, several compounds showed subnanomolar in vitro activity and commercial levels of in vivo activity. However, the potential genotoxicity of these compounds precludes them from further development.

  13. Specifications of Standards in Systems and Synthetic Biology: Status and Developments in 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreiber Falk

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Standards are essential to the advancement of Systems and Synthetic Biology. COMBINE provides a formal body and a centralised platform to help develop and disseminate relevant standards and related resources. The regular special issue of the Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics aims to support the exchange, distribution and archiving of these standards by providing unified, easily citable access. This paper provides an overview of existing COMBINE standards and presents developments of the last year.

  14. Proceedings of the European medical and biological engineering conference EMBEC '99 (Part I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Hutten, H.

    1999-01-01

    The proceedings books of the EMBEC '99 - European Medical and Biological Engineering Conference - are published in two parts as supplement 2 to the volume 37 of 'Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing', the official journal of the International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering. More then 800 papers have been arranged in the order of the main topics and the topics of the special sessions of the conference. The paper of INIS relevance were worked up for INIS data bank. (author)

  15. 39 CFR Appendix A to Part 121 - Tables Depicting Service Standard Day Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tables Depicting Service Standard Day Ranges A Appendix A to Part 121 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES [DOMESTIC MAIL] SERVICE STANDARDS FOR MARKET-DOMINANT MAIL PRODUCTS Pt. 121, App. A Appendix A to Part 121—Tables...

  16. Biological standards for the Knowledge-Based BioEconomy: What is at stake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lorenzo, Víctor; Schmidt, Markus

    2018-01-25

    The contribution of life sciences to the Knowledge-Based Bioeconomy (KBBE) asks for the transition of contemporary, gene-based biotechnology from being a trial-and-error endeavour to becoming an authentic branch of engineering. One requisite to this end is the need for standards to measure and represent accurately biological functions, along with languages for data description and exchange. However, the inherent complexity of biological systems and the lack of quantitative tradition in the field have largely curbed this enterprise. Fortunately, the onset of systems and synthetic biology has emphasized the need for standards not only to manage omics data, but also to increase reproducibility and provide the means of engineering living systems in earnest. Some domains of biotechnology can be easily standardized (e.g. physical composition of DNA sequences, tools for genome editing, languages to encode workflows), while others might be standardized with some dedicated research (e.g. biological metrology, operative systems for bio-programming cells) and finally others will require a considerable effort, e.g. defining the rules that allow functional composition of biological activities. Despite difficulties, these are worthy attempts, as the history of technology shows that those who set/adopt standards gain a competitive advantage over those who do not. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Design, implementation and practice of JBEI-ICE: an open source biological part registry platform and tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Timothy S; Dmytriv, Zinovii; Plahar, Hector; Chen, Joanna; Hillson, Nathan J; Keasling, Jay D

    2012-10-01

    The Joint BioEnergy Institute Inventory of Composable Elements (JBEI-ICEs) is an open source registry platform for managing information about biological parts. It is capable of recording information about 'legacy' parts, such as plasmids, microbial host strains and Arabidopsis seeds, as well as DNA parts in various assembly standards. ICE is built on the idea of a web of registries and thus provides strong support for distributed interconnected use. The information deposited in an ICE installation instance is accessible both via a web browser and through the web application programming interfaces, which allows automated access to parts via third-party programs. JBEI-ICE includes several useful web browser-based graphical applications for sequence annotation, manipulation and analysis that are also open source. As with open source software, users are encouraged to install, use and customize JBEI-ICE and its components for their particular purposes. As a web application programming interface, ICE provides well-developed parts storage functionality for other synthetic biology software projects. A public instance is available at public-registry.jbei.org, where users can try out features, upload parts or simply use it for their projects. The ICE software suite is available via Google Code, a hosting site for community-driven open source projects.

  18. A real-time standard parts inspection based on deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kuan; Li, XuDong; Jiang, Hongzhi; Zhao, Huijie

    2017-10-01

    Since standard parts are necessary components in mechanical structure like bogie and connector. These mechanical structures will be shattered or loosen if standard parts are lost. So real-time standard parts inspection systems are essential to guarantee their safety. Researchers would like to take inspection systems based on deep learning because it works well in image with complex backgrounds which is common in standard parts inspection situation. A typical inspection detection system contains two basic components: feature extractors and object classifiers. For the object classifier, Region Proposal Network (RPN) is one of the most essential architectures in most state-of-art object detection systems. However, in the basic RPN architecture, the proposals of Region of Interest (ROI) have fixed sizes (9 anchors for each pixel), they are effective but they waste much computing resources and time. In standard parts detection situations, standard parts have given size, thus we can manually choose sizes of anchors based on the ground-truths through machine learning. The experiments prove that we could use 2 anchors to achieve almost the same accuracy and recall rate. Basically, our standard parts detection system could reach 15fps on NVIDIA GTX1080 (GPU), while achieving detection accuracy 90.01% mAP.

  19. A legacy of struggle: the OSHA ergonomics standard and beyond, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delp, Linda; Mojtahedi, Zahra; Sheikh, Hina; Lemus, Jackie

    2014-11-01

    The OSHA ergonomics standard issued in 2000 was repealed within four months through a Congressional resolution that limits future ergonomics rulemaking. This section continues the conversation initiated in Part I, documenting a legacy of struggle for an ergonomics standard through the voices of eight labor, academic, and government key informants. Part I summarized important components of the standard; described the convergence of labor activism, research, and government action that laid the foundation for a standard; and highlighted the debates that characterized the rulemaking process. Part II explores the anti-regulatory political landscape of the 1990s, as well as the key opponents, power dynamics, and legal maneuvers that led to repeal of the standard. This section also describes the impact of the ergonomics struggle beyond the standard itself and ends with a discussion of creative state-level policy initiatives and coalition approaches to prevent work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) in today's sociopolitical context.

  20. Synthetic Biology Parts for the Storage of Increased Genetic Information in Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Sydney E; Feldman, Aaron W; Romesberg, Floyd E

    2017-10-20

    To bestow cells with novel forms and functions, the goal of synthetic biology, we have developed the unnatural nucleoside triphosphates dNaMTP and dTPT3TP, which form an unnatural base pair (UBP) and expand the genetic alphabet. While the UBP may be retained in the DNA of a living cell, its retention is sequence-dependent. We now report a steady-state kinetic characterization of the rate with which the Klenow fragment of E. coli DNA polymerase I synthesizes the UBP and its mispairs in a variety of sequence contexts. Correct UBP synthesis is as efficient as for a natural base pair, except in one sequence context, and in vitro performance is correlated with in vivo performance. The data elucidate the determinants of efficient UBP synthesis, show that the dNaM-dTPT3 UBP is the first generally recognized natural-like base pair, and importantly, demonstrate that dNaMTP and dTPT3TP are well optimized and standardized parts for the expansion of the genetic alphabet.

  1. Bioinformatics in High School Biology Curricula: A Study of State Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wefer, Stephen H.; Sheppard, Keith

    2008-01-01

    The proliferation of bioinformatics in modern biology marks a modern revolution in science that promises to influence science education at all levels. This study analyzed secondary school science standards of 49 U.S. states (Iowa has no science framework) and the District of Columbia for content related to bioinformatics. The bioinformatics…

  2. GDP per capita and the biological standard of living in contemporary developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, Henk-Jan; Drukker, J.W.; Slot, Brigitte

    1997-01-01

    This paper investigates whether a divergence between the biological standard of living (commonly measured by some anthropometric indicator) and GDP per capita during the early phases of industrialization, as observed for many now-developed countries in the nineteenth century, can also be found for

  3. Surface Coating of Plastic Parts for Business Machines (Industrial Surface Coating): New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn more about the new source performance standards (NSPS) for surface coating of plastic parts for business machines by reading the rule summary and history and finding the code of federal regulations as well as related rules.

  4. Physical Principles of Development of the State Standard of Biological Cell Polarizability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuvalov, G. V.; Generalov, K. V.; Generalov, V. M.; Kruchinina, M. V.; Koptev, E. S.; Minin, O. V.; Minin, I. V.

    2018-03-01

    A new state standard of biological cell polarizability based on micron-size latex particles has been developed. As a standard material, it is suggested to use polystyrene. Values of the polarizability calculated for erythrocytes and values of the polarizability of micron-size spherical latex particles measured with measuring-computing complexes agree within the limits of satisfactory relative error. The Standard allows one the unit of polarizability measurements [m3] to be assigned to cells and erythrocytes for the needs of medicine.

  5. Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare. Part I: Medical aspects of nuclear warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasthuri, A S; Pradhan, A B; Dham, S K; Bhalla, I P; Paul, J S

    1990-04-01

    Casualties in earlier wars were due much more to diseases than to weapons. Mention has been made in history of the use of biological agents in warfare, to deny the enemy food and water and to cause disease. In the first world war chemical agents were used to cause mass casualties. Nuclear weapons were introduced in the second world war. Several countries are now involved in developing nuclear, biological and chemical weapon systems, for the mass annihilation of human beings, animals and plants, and to destroy the economy of their enemies. Recently, natural calamities and accidents in nuclear, chemical and biological laboratories and industries have caused mass instantaneous deaths in civilian population. The effects of future wars will not be restricted to uniformed persons. It is time that physicians become aware of the destructive potential of these weapons. Awareness, immediate protective measures and first aid will save a large number of persons. This series of articles will outline the medical aspects of nuclear, biological and chemical weapon systems in three parts. Part I will deal with the biological effects of a nuclear explosion. The short and long term effects due to blast, heat and associated radiation are highlighted. In Part II, the role of biological agents which cause commoner or new disease patterns is mentioned. Some of the accidents from biological warfare laboratories are a testimony to its potential deleterious effects. Part III deals with medical aspects of chemical warfare agents, which in view of their mass effects can overwhelm the existing medical resources, both civilian and military.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. A legacy of struggle: the OSHA ergonomics standard and beyond, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delp, Linda; Mojtahedi, Zahra; Sheikh, Hina; Lemus, Jackie

    2014-11-01

    In November 2000, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) issued an ergonomics standard to prevent debilitating work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). It was rescinded by Congress within four months. We explore how this story unfolded over two decades of collaboration and conflict. Part I provides an overview of the historical context of the struggle for a standard, followed by interviews with key players from labor, academia and government. They provide a snapshot of the standard; discuss the prevalence of WMSDs in the context of changing work organization; give insight into the role of unions and of scientific debate within the context of rulemaking; and uncover the basis for the groundbreaking OSHA citations that laid the foundation for a standard. Part II interviews further explore the anti-regulatory political landscape of the 1990s that led to repeal of the standard, discuss the impact of the struggle beyond the standard, and describe creative approaches for the future.

  7. Toward a biologically significant and usable standard for ozone that will also protect plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paoletti, Elena; Manning, William J.

    2007-01-01

    Ozone remains an important phytotoxic air pollutant and is also recognized as a significant greenhouse gas. In North America, Europe, and Asia, incidence of high concentrations is decreasing, but background levels are steadily rising. There is a need to develop a biologically significant and usable standard for ozone. We compare the strengths and weaknesses of concentration-based, exposure-based and threshold-based indices, such as SUM60 and AOT40, and examine the O 3 flux concept. We also present major challenges to the development of an air quality standard for ozone that has both biological significance and practicality in usage. - Current standards do not protect vegetation from ozone, but progress is being made

  8. Ethical and methodological standards for laboratory and medical biological rhythm research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portaluppi, Francesco; Touitou, Yvan; Smolensky, Michael H

    2008-11-01

    The main objectives of this article are to update the ethical standards for the conduct of human and animal biological rhythm research and recommend essential elements for quality chronobiological research information, which should be especially useful for new investigators of the rhythms of life. A secondary objective is to provide for those with an interest in the results of chronobiology investigations, but who might be unfamiliar with the field, an introduction to the basic methods and standards of biological rhythm research and time series data analysis. The journal and its editors endorse compliance of all investigators to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association, which relate to the conduct of ethical research on human beings, and the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the National Research Council, which relate to the conduct of ethical research on laboratory and other animals. The editors and the readers of the journal expect the authors of submitted manuscripts to have adhered to the ethical standards dictated by local, national, and international laws and regulations in the conduct of investigations and to be unbiased and accurate in reporting never-before-published research findings. Authors of scientific papers are required to disclose all potential conflicts of interest, particularly when the research is funded in part or in full by the medical and pharmaceutical industry, when the authors are stock-holders of the company that manufactures or markets the products under study, or when the authors are a recent or current paid consultant to the involved company. It is the responsibility of the authors of submitted manuscripts to clearly present sufficient detail about the synchronizer schedule of the studied subjects (i.e., the sleep-wake schedule, ambient light-dark cycle, intensity and spectrum of ambient light exposure, seasons when the research was

  9. 45 CFR 73.735-1304 - Referral of matters arising under the standards of this part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... this part. 73.735-1304 Section 73.735-1304 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... under the standards of this part. (a) The Department Ethics Counselor may refer to the Inspector General... Department Ethics Counselor may refer to the Office of Government Ethics, or the Inspector General may refer...

  10. Physical Activity: A Tool for Improving Health (Part 1--Biological Health Benefits)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaway, Patrick J.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2015-01-01

    Extension educators have been promoting and incorporating physical activities into their community-based programs and improving the health of individuals, particularly those with limited resources. This article is the first of a three-part series describing the benefits of physical activity for human health: 1) biological health benefits of…

  11. Biological and chemical standardization of a hop (Humulus lupulus) botanical dietary supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Elizabeth; Yuan, Yang; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dong, Huali; Dietz, Birgit M; Nikolic, Dejan; Pauli, Guido F; Bolton, Judy L; van Breemen, Richard B

    2014-06-01

    Concerned about the safety of conventional estrogen replacement therapy, women are using botanical dietary supplements as alternatives for the management of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes. Before botanical dietary supplements can be evaluated clinically for safety and efficacy, botanically authenticated and standardized forms are required. To address the demand for a standardized, estrogenic botanical dietary supplement, an extract of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) was developed. Although valued in the brewing of beer, hop extracts are used as anxiolytics and hypnotics and have well-established estrogenic constituents. Starting with a hop cultivar used in the brewing industry, spent hops (the residue remaining after extraction of bitter acids) were formulated into a botanical dietary supplement that was then chemically and biologically standardized. Biological standardization utilized the estrogen-dependent induction of alkaline phosphatase in the Ishikawa cell line. Chemical standardization was based on the prenylated phenols in hops that included estrogenic 8-prenylnaringenin, its isomer 6-prenylnaringenin, and pro-estrogenic isoxanthohumol and its isomeric chalcone xanthohumol, all of which were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The product of this process was a reproducible botanical extract suitable for subsequent investigations of safety and efficacy. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Validating the standard for the National Board Dental Examination Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Hsun; Neumann, Laura M; Littlefield, John H

    2012-05-01

    As part of the overall exam validation process, the Joint Commission on National Dental Examinations periodically reviews and validates the pass/fail standard for the National Board Dental Examination (NBDE), Parts I and II. The most recent standard-setting activities for NBDE Part II used the Objective Standard Setting method. This report describes the process used to set the pass/fail standard for the 2009 exam. The failure rate on the NBDE Part II increased from 5.3 percent in 2008 to 13.7 percent in 2009 and then decreased to 10 percent in 2010. This article describes the Objective Standard Setting method and presents the estimated probabilities of classification errors based on the beta binomial mathematical model. The results show that the probability of correct classifications of candidate performance is very high (0.97) and that probabilities of false negative and false positive errors are very small (.03 and <0.001, respectively). The low probability of classification errors supports the conclusion that the pass/fail score on the NBDE Part II is a valid guide for making decisions about candidates for dental licensure.

  13. Pharmaceutical research at the AAEC Part I: Ligand synthesis and biological studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J G [Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment, Lucas Heights

    1982-09-01

    Work on the synthesis of ligands capable of forming chelate complexes with technetium-99m as part of a search for tumour-localising radiopharmaceuticals is described. An account of the biological evaluation of a range of these compounds, in particular, benzimidazoles, sulphanilamides and acridines, and of the investigation of certain biochemical and biological properties affecting the clinical application of both ligands and radiopharmaceuticals is given. Interactions between therapeutic drugs and diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals are considered. The toxicological evaluation of a prospective hepatobiliary imaging agent, dimethyl-BIMIDA, is described.

  14. Development of standards for chemical and biological decontamination of buildings and structures affected by terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumley, T.C.; Volchek, K.; Fingas, M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Environmental Technology Centre, Science and Technology Branch; Hay, A.W.M. [Leeds Univ., Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Currently, there are no suitable standards for determining levels of safety when reoccupying a building that has been recommissioned following a biological or chemical attack. For that reason, this study focused on developing clean-up standards for decontaminating buildings and construction materials after acts of terrorism. Several parameters must be assessed when determining the course of action to decontaminate toxic agents and to rehabilitate facilities. First, the hazardous substance must be positively identified along with the degree of contamination and information on likely receptors. Potential exposure route is also a key consideration in the risk assessment process. A key objective of the study was to develop specific guidelines for ascertaining and defining clean. In particular, standards for chemical and biological agents that pose a real or potential risk for use as agents of terrorism will be developed. The selected agents for standards development were ammonia, fentanyl, malathion, mustard gas, potassium cyanide, ricin, sarin, hepatitis A virus, and bacillus anthracis. The standards will be developed by establishing the relationship between the amount of exposure and expected health effects; assessing real and potential risks by identifying individuals at risk and consideration of all exposure routes; and, characterizing the risk to determine the potential for toxicity or infectivity. For non-carcinogens, this was done through the analysis of other known guidelines. Cancer-slope factors will be considered for carcinogens. The standards will be assessed in the laboratory using animal models. The guidelines and standards are intended for first-responders and are scheduled for development by the end of 2006. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. 9 CFR 381.78 - Condemnation of carcasses and parts: separation of poultry suspected of containing biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...: separation of poultry suspected of containing biological residues. 381.78 Section 381.78 Animals and Animal... carcasses and parts: separation of poultry suspected of containing biological residues. (a) At the time of... to be not adulterated. (b) When a lot of poultry suspected of containing biological residues is...

  16. 36 CFR 1232.3 - What standards are used as guidance for this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT TRANSFER OF RECORDS TO RECORDS STORAGE FACILITIES § 1232.3 What standards are used as guidance for this part? These regulations conform with guidance provided in ISO 15489-1:2001 Paragraphs 7.1 (Principles of records management programmes), 8.3.3 (Physical storage medium...

  17. 42 CFR Appendix A to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Radiographers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Radiographers A Appendix A to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... film evaluation; (k) Methods of patient care; (l) Pathology; (m) Radiologic physics; and (n) Radiation...

  18. RECOGNITION AND VALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL ASSETS IN TOURISM AREA. INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina IOANĂŞ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Consistent with the Financial Reporting Standards Board's international convergence and harmonization policy it is proposed that a new accounting regime will prescribe the financial reporting practice and minimum disclosure requirements for agricultural activities, including the fair value of biological assets. In any financial report, the inclusion of biological assets may confuse the reality of the income profit and the wealth profit. There are many reasons it may provide misleading figures, the most obvious would be because the entity may have reported the value of heritage properties that do not actually generate any income but rather they are properties, which actually generate expenses for the entity, for example in maintenance costs. For any regime that requires entities to account and report on biological assets there should be a clear classification system that takes into account the different types of ownership structures in a society. Therefore in Romania, it is important that any financial reporting regime on biological assets should provide for the difference between business assets and cultural assets.

  19. Evolution of activities in international biological standardization since the early days of the Health Organisation of the League of Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizaret, P

    1988-01-01

    The main activities in international biological standardization during the 18 years that followed the first international biological standardization meeting in London in 1921 were concerned with expressing the potencies of test preparations in comparison with reference materials. After the Second World War, however, it became clear that the testing of biological substances against international reference materials was only one among several measures for obtaining safe and potent products. The activities in international biological standardization were therefore widened so that, by the strict observance of specific manufacturing and control requirements, it was possible to gain further in safety and efficacy. At the end of 1987, 42 international requirements for biological substances were available and were being used as national requirements, sometimes after minor modification, by the majority of WHO's Member States. This is of utmost importance for the worldwide use of safe and potent biological products, including vaccines.

  20. Standard and biological treatment in large vessel vasculitis: guidelines and current approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratore, Francesco; Pipitone, Nicolò; Salvarani, Carlo

    2017-04-01

    Giant cell arteritis and Takayasu arteritis are the two major forms of idiopathic large vessel vasculitis. High doses of glucocorticoids are effective in inducing remission in both conditions, but relapses and recurrences are common, requiring prolonged glucocorticoid treatment with the risk of the related adverse events. Areas covered: In this article, we will review the standard and biological treatment strategies in large vessel vasculitis, and we will focus on the current approaches to these diseases. Expert commentary: The results of treatment trials with conventional immunosuppressive agents such as methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, and cyclophosphamide have overall been disappointing. TNF-α blockers are ineffective in giant cell arteritis, while observational evidence and a phase 2 randomized trial support the use of tocilizumab in relapsing giant cell arteritis. Observational evidence strongly supports the use of anti-TNF-α agents and tocilizumab in Takayasu patients with relapsing disease. However biological agents are not curative, and relapses remain common.

  1. Quantitation of biological retinoids by high-pressure liquid chromatography: primary internal standardization using tritiated retinoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullum, M.E.; Zile, M.H.

    1986-01-01

    A single method is described for quantitation of 14 retinoids found in biological material. The method consists of reversed-phase HPLC, internal standardization, and carrier extraction procedures with three synthetic retinoids. Primary standardization of HPLC uv detector is achieved using tritiated all-trans-retinoic acid, all-trans-retinol, all-trans-retinyl palmitate, and all-trans-retinyl acetate. Extraction methods are standardized by correlating the uv absorbance of retinoids at 340 nm with radioactivity of tritiated retinoids of known specific activity. Quantitation of 10 pg of tritiated or 5 ng of nonradioactive retinoid per 0.1 g sample in a polarity range from 4-oxo-retinoic acid to retinyl stearate can be achieved in a single, 50-min chromatographic run. A single HPLC pump, a C 18 reversed-phased analytical column, a multistep three-solvent gradient, and inexpensive solvents based on methanol, water, and chloroform comprise this cost-effective chromatographic system. Our primary standardization method allows investigators employing different procedures to compare results between laboratories by standardizing the HPLC uv detector with commercially available tritiated retinoids. With this method we were able to quantitate nanomolar amounts of endogenous retinoic acids and retinyl esters, that HPLC uv only conditions usually would not detect in the circulation and liver of rats under physiological conditions

  2. Development of Standards for NanoSIMS Analyses of Biological Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davission, M L; Weber, P K; Pett-Ridge, J; Singer, S

    2008-07-31

    NanoSIMS is a powerful analytical technique for investigating element distributions at the nanometer scale, but quantifying elemental abundances requires appropriate standards, which are not readily available for biological materials. Standards for trace element analyses have been extensively developed for secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) in the semiconductor industry and in the geological sciences. The three primary approaches for generating standards for SIMS are: (1) ion implantation (2) using previously characterized natural materials, and (3) preparing synthetic substances. Ion implantation is a reliable method for generating trace element standards, but it is expensive, which limits investigation of the analytical issues discussed above. It also requires low background levels of the elements of interest. Finding or making standard materials has the potential to provide more flexibility than ion implantation, but realizing homogeneity at the nano-scale is in itself a significant challenge. In this study, we experiment with all three approaches, but with an emphasis toward synthetic organic polymers in order to reduce costs, increase flexibility, and achieve a wide dynamic concentration range. This emphasis serves to meet the major challenge for biological samples of identifying matrix matched, homogeneous material. Biological samples themselves are typically heterogeneous at the scale of microns to 100s of microns, and therefore they are poor SIMS standards. Therefore, we focused on identifying 'biological-like' materials--either natural or synthetic--that can be used for standards. The primary criterion is that the material be as compositionally similar to biological samples as possible (primarily C, H, O, and N). For natural material we adsorbed organic colloids consisting of peptidoglycan (i.e., amino sugars), activated charcoal, and humic acids. Experiments conducted with Si on peptidoglycan showed low affinity as SiO{sub 2}, yet its

  3. Monitoring of airborne biological particles in outdoor atmosphere. Part 2: Metagenomics applied to urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Andrés; Amo de Paz, Guillermo; Rastrojo, Alberto; García, Ana M; Alcamí, Antonio; Gutiérrez-Bustillo, A Montserrat; Moreno, Diego A

    2016-06-01

    The air we breathe contains microscopic biological particles such as viruses, bacteria, fungi and pollen, some of them with relevant clinic importance. These organisms and/or their propagules have been traditionally studied by different disciplines and diverse methodologies like culture and microscopy. These techniques require time, expertise and also have some important biases. As a consequence, our knowledge on the total diversity and the relationships between the different biological entities present in the air is far from being complete. Currently, metagenomics and next-generation sequencing (NGS) may resolve this shortage of information and have been recently applied to metropolitan areas. Although the procedures and methods are not totally standardized yet, the first studies from urban air samples confirm the previous results obtained by culture and microscopy regarding abundance and variation of these biological particles. However, DNA-sequence analyses call into question some preceding ideas and also provide new interesting insights into diversity and their spatial distribution inside the cities. Here, we review the procedures, results and perspectives of the recent works that apply NGS to study the main biological particles present in the air of urban environments. [Int Microbiol 19(2):69-80(2016)]. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  4. Current Methods Applied to Biomaterials - Characterization Approaches, Safety Assessment and Biological International Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Justine P R; Ortiz, H Ivan Melendez; Bucio, Emilio; Alves, Patricia Terra; Lima, Mayara Ingrid Sousa; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Mathor, Monica B; Varca, Gustavo H C; Lugao, Ademar B

    2018-04-10

    Safety and biocompatibility assessment of biomaterials are themes of constant concern as advanced materials enter the market as well as products manufactured by new techniques emerge. Within this context, this review provides an up-to-date approach on current methods for the characterization and safety assessment of biomaterials and biomedical devices from a physicalchemical to a biological perspective, including a description of the alternative methods in accordance with current and established international standards. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. How Clean Are Hotel Rooms? Part II: Examining the Concept of Cleanliness Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanza, Barbara A; Kirsch, Katie; Kline, Sheryl Fried; Sirsat, Sujata; Stroia, Olivia; Choi, Jin Kyung; Neal, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Hotel room cleanliness is based on observation and not on microbial assessment even though recent reports suggest that infections may be acquired while staying in hotel rooms. Exploratory research in the first part of the authors' study was conducted to determine if contamination of hotel rooms occurs and whether visual assessments are accurate indicators of hotel room cleanliness. Data suggested the presence of microbial contamination that was not reflective of visual assessments. Unfortunately, no standards exist for interpreting microbiological data and other indicators of cleanliness in hotel rooms. The purpose of the second half of the authors' study was to examine cleanliness standards in other industries to see if they might suggest standards in hotels. Results of the authors' study indicate that standards from other related industries do not provide analogous criteria, but do provide suggestions for further research.

  6. A comprehensive review and update on the biologic treatment of adult noninfectious uveitis: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungmin; Bajwa, Asima; Freitas-Neto, Clovis A; Metzinger, Jamie Lynne; Wentworth, Bailey A; Foster, C Stephen

    2014-11-01

    Treatment of adult, noninfectious uveitis remains a major challenge for ophthalmologists around the world, especially in regard to recalcitrant cases. It is reported to comprise approximately 10% of preventable blindness in the USA. The cause of uveitis can be idiopathic or associated with infectious and systemic disorders. The era of biologic medical therapies provides new options for patients with otherwise treatment-resistant inflammatory eye disease. This two-part review gives a comprehensive overview of the existing medical treatment options for patients with adult, noninfectious uveitis, as well as important advances for the treatment ocular inflammation. Part I covers classic immunomodulation and latest information on corticosteroid therapy. In part II, emerging therapies are discussed, including biologic response modifiers, experimental treatments and ongoing clinical studies for uveitis. The hazard of chronic corticosteroid use in the treatment of adult, noninfectious uveitis is well documented. Corticosteroid-sparing therapies, which offer a very favorable risk-benefit profile when administered properly, should be substituted. Although nothing is currently approved for on-label use in this indication, many therapies, through either translation or novel basic science research, have the potential to fill the currently exposed gaps.

  7. Biological Activities and Phytochemical Profiles of Extracts from Different Parts of Bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinobu Tanaka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Besides being a useful building material, bamboo also is a potential source of bioactive substances. Although some studies have been performed to examine its use in terms of the biological activity, only certain parts of bamboo, especially the leaves or shoots, have been studied. Comprehensive and comparative studies among different parts of bamboo would contribute to a better understanding and application of this knowledge. In this study, the biological activities of ethanol and water extracts from the leaves, branches, outer culm, inner culm, knots, rhizomes and roots of Phyllostachys pubescens, the major species of bamboo in Japan, were comparatively evaluated. The phytochemical profiles of these extracts were tentatively determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS analysis. The results showed that extracts from different parts of bamboo had different chemical compositions and different antioxidative, antibacterial and antiallergic activities, as well as on on melanin biosynthesis. Outer culm and inner culm were found to be the most important sources of active compounds. 8-C-Glucosylapigenin, luteolin derivatives and chlorogenic acid were the most probable compounds responsible for the anti-allergy activity of these bamboo extracts. Our study suggests the potential use of bamboo as a functional ingredient in cosmetics or other health-related products.

  8. Monitoring of airborne biological particles in outdoor atmosphere. Part 1: Importance, variability and ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Andrés; Amo de Paz, Guillermo; Rastrojo, Alberto; García, Ana M; Alcamí, Antonio; Gutiérrez-Bustillo, A Montserrat; Moreno, Diego A

    2016-03-01

    The first part of this review ("Monitoring of airborne biological particles in outdoor atmosphere. Part 1: Importance, variability and ratios") describes the current knowledge on the major biological particles present in the air regarding their global distribution, concentrations, ratios and influence of meteorological factors in an attempt to provide a framework for monitoring their biodiversity and variability in such a singular environment as the atmosphere. Viruses, bacteria, fungi, pollen and fragments thereof are the most abundant microscopic biological particles in the air outdoors. Some of them can cause allergy and severe diseases in humans, other animals and plants, with the subsequent economic impact. Despite the harsh conditions, they can be found from land and sea surfaces to beyond the troposphere and have been proposed to play a role also in weather conditions and climate change by acting as nucleation particles and inducing water vapour condensation. In regards to their global distribution, marine environments act mostly as a source for bacteria while continents additionally provide fungal and pollen elements. Within terrestrial environments, their abundances and diversity seem to be influenced by the land-use type (rural, urban, coastal) and their particularities. Temporal variability has been observed for all these organisms, mostly triggered by global changes in temperature, relative humidity, et cetera. Local fluctuations in meteorological factors may also result in pronounced changes in the airbiota. Although biological particles can be transported several hundreds of meters from the original source, and even intercontinentally, the time and final distance travelled are strongly influenced by factors such as wind speed and direction. [Int Microbiol 2016; 19(1):1-1 3]. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  9. Biological effects of tritium on fish cells in the concentration range of international drinking water standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Marilyne; Festarini, Amy; Schleicher, Krista; Tan, Elizabeth; Kim, Sang Bog; Wen, Kendall; Gawlik, Jilian; Ulsh, Brant

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate whether the current Canadian tritium drinking water limit is protective of aquatic biota, an in vitro study was designed to assess the biological effects of low concentrations of tritium, similar to what would typically be found near a Canadian nuclear power station, and higher concentrations spanning the range of international tritium drinking water standards. Channel catfish peripheral blood B-lymphoblast and fathead minnow testis cells were exposed to 10-100,000 Bq l(-1) of tritium, after which eight molecular and cellular endpoints were assessed. Increased numbers of DNA strand breaks were observed and ATP levels were increased. There were no increases in γH2AX-mediated DNA repair. No differences in cell growth were noted. Exposure to the lowest concentrations of tritium were associated with a modest increase in the viability of fathead minnow testicular cells. Using the micronucleus assay, an adaptive response was observed in catfish B-lymphoblasts. Using molecular endpoints, biological responses to tritium in the range of Canadian and international drinking water standards were observed. At the cellular level, no detrimental effects were noted on growth or cycling, and protective effects were observed as an increase in cell viability and an induced resistance to a large challenge dose.

  10. Standard Practice for Optical Distortion and Deviation of Transparent Parts Using the Double-Exposure Method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This photographic practice determines the optical distortion and deviation of a line of sight through a simple transparent part, such as a commercial aircraft windshield or a cabin window. This practice applies to essentially flat or nearly flat parts and may not be suitable for highly curved materials. 1.2 Test Method F 801 addresses optical deviation (angluar deviation) and Test Method F 2156 addresses optical distortion using grid line slope. These test methods should be used instead of Practice F 733 whenever practical. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address the safety concerns associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  11. Biology and Mechanics of Blood Flows Part II: Mechanics and Medical Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Thiriet, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Biology and Mechanics of Blood Flows presents the basic knowledge and state-of-the-art techniques necessary to carry out investigations of the cardiovascular system using modeling and simulation. Part II of this two-volume sequence, Mechanics and Medical Aspects, refers to the extraction of input data at the macroscopic scale for modeling the cardiovascular system, and complements Part I, which focuses on nanoscopic and microscopic components and processes. This volume contains chapters on anatomy, physiology, continuum mechanics, as well as pathological changes in the vasculature walls including the heart and their treatments. Methods of numerical simulations are given and illustrated in particular by application to wall diseases. This authoritative book will appeal to any biologist, chemist, physicist, or applied mathematician interested in the functioning of the cardiovascular system.

  12. Standard Test Method for Measuring Optical Angular Deviation of Transparent Parts

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1996-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers measuring the angular deviation of a light ray imposed by transparent parts such as aircraft windscreens and canopies. The results are uncontaminated by the effects of lateral displacement, and the procedure may be performed in a relatively short optical path length. This is not intended as a referee standard. It is one convenient method for measuring angular deviations through transparent windows. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  13. [Nutrition and biological value of food parts of a trade bivalve mollusk Anadara broughtoni].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabakaeva, O V; Tabakaev, A V

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the human diet includes different new products of seafishing, including non-fish--bivalves and gastropods, holothurias, echinoderms, jellyfishes that demands careful studying of their chemical composition. The purpose of the study was to determine the nutritional and biological value of all soft parts of the burrowing bivalve MOLLUSK Anadara broughtoni from the Far East region. It was established thatfood parts of a bivalve were significantly flooded (water content--73.5-84.2%), with the minimum water content in the adductor and maximum in the mantle. Dry solids are presented by organic (89-93%) and mineral (7-11%) components. Organic components consist of protein (14.6-20.7%), lipids (1.8-2.3%), carbohydrates (2.1-2.6%). The analysis of amino-acid composition of proteins of food parts of the mollusk of Anadara broughtonishowed the presence of all essential amino acids with slight differences in their content depending on the localization of the protein. All edible parts have tryptophan as the limiting amino acid. Muscle proteins have maximum level of lysine, methionine, cysteine, phenylalanine and tyrosine; mantle proteins--leucine, isoleucine and threonine; adductor proteins--valine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, methionine and cysteine. Predominant nonessential amino acids forproteins of all food pieces are glycine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine. The coefficient of amino-acid score differences of adductor protein (31.7%) is less than the same of cloak by 3.7%. The indicator "biological value" is maximal for adductor (68.3%), but the differenceformuscle is only 0.83%. Mantle proteins are characterized by minimum biological value (64.6%). The coefficient of utility of amino acid composition of protein is maximalfor muscle (57.83%), and values for a cloak and an adductor differ slightly (55.81 and 55.96%). Taurine content in food parts of a mollusk Anadara broughtoni is rather high compared to with other bivalve mollusks of the Far East region

  14. Development of multicomponent parts-per-billion-level gas standards of volatile toxic organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoderick, G.C.; Zielinski, W.L. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the demand for stable, low-concentration multicomponent standards of volatile toxic organic compounds for quantifying national and state measurement of ambient air quality and hazardous waste incineration emissions has markedly increased in recent years. In response to this demand, a microgravimetric technique was developed and validated for preparing such standards; these standards ranged in concentration from several parts per million (ppm) down to one part per billion (ppb) and in complexity from one organic up to 17. Studies using the gravimetric procedure to prepare mixtures of different groups of organics. including multi-components mixtures in the 5 to 20 ppb range, revealed a very low imprecision. This procedure is based on the separate gravimetric introduction of individual organics into an evacuated gas cylinder, followed by the pressurized addition of a precalculated amount of pure nitrogen. Additional studies confirmed the long-term stability of these mixtures. The uncertainty of the concentrations of the individual organics at the 95% confidence level ranged from less than 1% relative at 1 ppm to less than 10% relative at 1 ppb. Over 100 primary gravimetric standards have been developed, validated, and used for certifying the concentrations of a variety of mixtures for monitoring studies

  15. Implementing standard setting into the Conjoint MAFP/FRACGP Part 1 examination - Process and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S C; Mohd Amin, S; Lee, T W

    2016-01-01

    The College of General Practitioners of Malaysia and the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners held the first Conjoint Member of the College of General Practitioners (MCGP)/Fellow of Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (FRACGP) examination in 1982, later renamed the Conjoint MAFP/FRACGP examinations. The examination assesses competency for safe independent general practice and as family medicine specialists in Malaysia. Therefore, a defensible standard set pass mark is imperative to separate the competent from the incompetent. This paper discusses the process and issues encountered in implementing standard setting to the Conjoint Part 1 examination. Critical to success in standard setting were judges' understanding of the process of the modified Angoff method, defining the borderline candidate's characteristics and the composition of judges. These were overcome by repeated hands-on training, provision of detailed guidelines and careful selection of judges. In December 2013, 16 judges successfully standard set the Part 1 Conjoint examinations, with high inter-rater reliability: Cronbach's alpha coefficient 0.926 (Applied Knowledge Test), 0.921 (Key Feature Problems).

  16. NBS SRM 1569 Brewer's Yeast: Is it an adequate standard reference material for testing a chromium determination in biological materials tion in biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeij, J.J.M. de; Volkers, K.J.; Tjioe, P.S.; Kroon, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    Some analytical experiences with NBS SRM 1569 Brewer's Yeast are presented. Against this background the adequacy of this standard reference material for the determination of chromium in biological materials is discussed. Authors have three main objections. Due to its high content of insoluble chromium-containing particles, SRM 1569 is not typical for biological materials, possibly not even for Brewer's Yeast. The chromium level of SRM 1569 is not typical for the chromium levels normally encountered in pure biological materials. The major fraction (69 +- 3 percent) of the chromium is present in a form which is insoluble under the conditions used in Author's analysis. (T.I.)

  17. Inquiry-based laboratory investigations and student performance on standardized tests in biological science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patke, Usha

    Achievement data from the 3rd International Mathematics and Sciences Study and Program for International Student Assessment in science have indicated that Black students from economically disadvantaged families underachieve at alarming rates in comparison to White and economically advantaged peer groups. The study site was a predominately Black, urban school district experiencing underachievement. The purpose of this correlational study was to examine the relationship between students' use of inquiry-based laboratory investigations and their performance on the Biology End of Course Test, as well as to examine the relationship while partialling out the effects of student gender. Constructivist theory formed the theoretical foundation of the study. Students' perceived levels of experience with inquiry-based laboratory investigations were measured using the Laboratory Program Variable Inventory (LPVI) survey. LPVI scores of 256 students were correlated with test scores and were examined by student gender. The Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a small direct correlation between students' experience in inquiry-based laboratory investigation classes and standardized test scores on the Biology EOCT. A partial correlational analysis indicated that the correlation remained after controlling for gender. This study may prompt a change from teacher-centered to student-centered pedagogy at the local site in order to increase academic achievement for all students. The results of this study may also influence administrators and policy makers to initiate local, state, or nationwide curricular development. A change in curriculum may promote social change as students become more competent, and more able, to succeed in life beyond secondary school.

  18. Determination of 25 elements in biological standard reference materials by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzzi, G.; Pietra, R.; Sabbioni, E.

    1974-12-01

    Standard and Certified Reference Materials programme of the JRC includes the determination of trace elements in complex biological samples delivered by the U.S. National Bureau of Standards: Bovine liver (NBS SRM 1577), Orchard Leaves (NBS SRM 1571) and Tomato Leaves. The study has been performed by the use of neutron activation analysis. Due to the very low concentration of some elements, radiochemical groups or elemental separation procedures were necessary. The paper describes the techniques used to analyse 25 elements. Computer assisted instrumental neutron activation analysis with high resolution Ge(Li) spectrometry was considerably advantageous in the determination of Na, K, Cl, Mn, Fe, Rb and Co and in some cases of Ca, Zn, Cs, Sc, and Cr. For low contents of Ca, Mg, Ni and Si special chemical separation schemes, followed by Cerenkov counting have been developped. Two other separation procedures allowing the determination of As, Cd, Ga, Hg, Mo, Cu, Sr Se, Ba and P have been set up. The first, the simplified one involves the use of high resolution Ge(Li) detectors, the second, the more complete one involves a larger number of shorter measurements performed by simpler and more sensitive techniques, such as NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometry and Cerenkov counting. The results obtained are presented and discussed

  19. Assessing Ecological Impacts of Shrimp and Sewage Effluent: Biological Indicators with Standard Water Quality Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. B.; O'Donohue, M. J.; Udy, J.; Dennison, W. C.

    2001-01-01

    Despite evidence linking shrimp farming to several cases of environmental degradation, there remains a lack of ecologically meaningful information about the impacts of effluent on receiving waters. The aim of this study was to determine the biological impact of shrimp farm effluent, and to compare and distinguish its impacts from treated sewage effluent. Analyses included standard water quality/sediment parameters, as well as biological indicators including tissue nitrogen (N) content, stable isotope ratio of nitrogen (δ 15N), and amino acid composition of inhabitant seagrasses, mangroves and macroalgae. The study area consisted of two tidal creeks, one receiving effluent from a sewage treatment plant and the other from an intensive shrimp farm. The creeks discharged into the western side of Moreton Bay, a sub-tropical coastal embayment on the east coast of Australia. Characterization of water quality revealed significant differences between the creeks, and with unimpacted eastern Moreton Bay. The sewage creek had higher concentrations of dissolved nutrients (predominantly NO-3/NO-2 and PO3-4, compared to NH+4 in the shrimp creek). In contrast, the shrimp creek was more turbid and had higher phytoplankton productivity. Beyond 750 m from the creek mouths, water quality parameters were indistinguishable from eastern Moreton Bay values. Biological indicators detected significant impacts up to 4 km beyond the creek mouths (reference site). Elevated plant δ 15N values ranged from 10·4-19·6‰ at the site of sewage discharge to 2·9-4·5‰ at the reference site. The free amino acid concentration and composition of seagrass and macroalgae was used to distinguish between the uptake of sewage and shrimp derived N. Proline (seagrass) and serine (macroalgae) were high in sewage impacted plants and glutamine (seagrass) and alanine (macroalgae) were high in plants impacted by shrimp effluent. The δ 15N isotopic signatures and free amino acid composition of inhabitant

  20. [Are there pseudophototropic reactions in biology? Part 4: On the reversibility of biologic/synthetic polymere systems (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patschorke, J

    1979-01-01

    In further research on pseudophototropic behaviour in cellular membranes of halobacteria the reversibility of vinylmethylethermaleic anhydride-copolymeres with biological liquids is tested and the basic principles of different colour generating reactions are studied.

  1. 40 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead R Appendix R to Part 50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL.... 50, App. R Appendix R to Part 50—Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for...

  2. Compliance determination procedures for environmental radiation protection standards for uranium recovery facilities 40 CFR part 190

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    Uranium Milling operations are licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and by some States in agreement with the Commission. The radiation dose to any individual from the operation of facilities within the uranium fuel cycle is limited to levels set by the Environmental Protection Agency. These levels are contained in the EPA Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Nuclear Power Operations, in Part 190 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR Part 190). This report describes the procedures used within NRC's Uranium Recovery Licensing Branch for evaluating compliance with these regulations for uranium milling operations. The report contains descriptions of these procedures, dose factors for evaluating environmental measurement data, and guidance to the NRC staff reviewer

  3. Two-loop renormalization in the standard model, part I. Prolegomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Actis, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Ferroglia, A. [Albert-Ludwigs-Univ., Freiburg (Germany). Fakultat fur Phys.]|[Zuerich Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Passera, M. [Padua Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica]|[INFN, Sezione di Padova (Italy); Passarino, G. [Torino Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica Teorica]|[INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    In this paper the building blocks for the two-loop renormalization of the Standard Model are introduced with a comprehensive discussion of the special vertices induced in the Lagrangian by a particular diagonalization of the neutral sector and by two alternative treatments of the Higgs tadpoles. Dyson resummed propagators for the gauge bosons are derived, and two-loop Ward-Slavnov-Taylor identities are discussed. In part II, the complete set of counterterms needed for the two-loop renormalization will be derived. In part III, a renormalization scheme will be introduced, connecting the renormalized quantities to an input parameter set of (pseudo-)experimental data, critically discussing renormalization of a gauge theory with unstable particles. (orig.)

  4. Standard format and content of financial assurance mechanisms required for decommissioning under 10 CFR parts 30, 40, 70, and 72

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this regulatory guide, ''Standard Format and Content of Financial Assurance Mechanisms Required for Decommissioning Under 10 CFR Parts 30, 40, 70, and 72,'' is to provide guidance acceptable to the NRC staff on the information to be provided for establishing financial assurance for decommissioning and to establish a standard format for presenting the information. Use of the standard format will help ensure that the financial instruments contain the information required by 10 CFR Parts 30, 40, 70, and 72; aid the applicant and NRC staff in ensuring that the information is complete; and help persons reading the financial instruments to locate information. This guide address financial assurance for decommissioning of facilities under materials licenses granted under Parts 30, 40, 70, and 72. These parts include licensees in the following categories: Part 30, Byproduct Material; Part 40, Source Material; Part 70, Special Nuclear Material; and Part 72, Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installations

  5. Bibliographical database of radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment: Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straume, T.; Ricker, Y.; Thut, M.

    1990-09-01

    This is part 11 of a database constructed to support research in radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment. Relevant publications were identified through detailed searches of national and international electronic databases and through our personal knowledge of the subject. Publications were numbered and key worded, and referenced in an electronic data-retrieval system that permits quick access through computerized searches on authors, key words, title, year, journal name, or publication number. Photocopies of the publications contained in the database are maintained in a file that is numerically arranged by our publication acquisition numbers. This volume contains 1048 additional entries, which are listed in alphabetical order by author. The computer software used for the database is a simple but sophisticated relational database program that permits quick information access, high flexibility, and the creation of customized reports. This program is inexpensive and is commercially available for the Macintosh and the IBM PC. Although the database entries were made using a Macintosh computer, we have the capability to convert the files into the IBM PC version. As of this date, the database cites 2260 publications. Citations in the database are from 200 different scientific journals. There are also references to 80 books and published symposia, and 158 reports. Information relevant to radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment is widely distributed within the scientific literature, although a few journals clearly predominate. The journals publishing the largest number of relevant papers are Health Physics, with a total of 242 citations in the database, and Mutation Research, with 185 citations. Other journals with over 100 citations in the database, are Radiation Research, with 136, and International Journal of Radiation Biology, with 132

  6. Multivariate two-part statistics for analysis of correlated mass spectrometry data from multiple biological specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sandra L; Ruhaak, L Renee; Weiss, Robert H; Kelly, Karen; Kim, Kyoungmi

    2017-01-01

    High through-put mass spectrometry (MS) is now being used to profile small molecular compounds across multiple biological sample types from the same subjects with the goal of leveraging information across biospecimens. Multivariate statistical methods that combine information from all biospecimens could be more powerful than the usual univariate analyses. However, missing values are common in MS data and imputation can impact between-biospecimen correlation and multivariate analysis results. We propose two multivariate two-part statistics that accommodate missing values and combine data from all biospecimens to identify differentially regulated compounds. Statistical significance is determined using a multivariate permutation null distribution. Relative to univariate tests, the multivariate procedures detected more significant compounds in three biological datasets. In a simulation study, we showed that multi-biospecimen testing procedures were more powerful than single-biospecimen methods when compounds are differentially regulated in multiple biospecimens but univariate methods can be more powerful if compounds are differentially regulated in only one biospecimen. We provide R functions to implement and illustrate our method as supplementary information CONTACT: sltaylor@ucdavis.eduSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Two-loop renormalization in the standard model, part II. Renormalization procedures and computational techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Actis, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Passarino, G. [Torino Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica Teorica; INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    In part I general aspects of the renormalization of a spontaneously broken gauge theory have been introduced. Here, in part II, two-loop renormalization is introduced and discussed within the context of the minimal Standard Model. Therefore, this paper deals with the transition between bare parameters and fields to renormalized ones. The full list of one- and two-loop counterterms is shown and it is proven that, by a suitable extension of the formalism already introduced at the one-loop level, two-point functions suffice in renormalizing the model. The problem of overlapping ultraviolet divergencies is analyzed and it is shown that all counterterms are local and of polynomial nature. The original program of 't Hooft and Veltman is at work. Finite parts are written in a way that allows for a fast and reliable numerical integration with all collinear logarithms extracted analytically. Finite renormalization, the transition between renormalized parameters and physical (pseudo-)observables, are discussed in part III where numerical results, e.g. for the complex poles of the unstable gauge bosons, are shown. An attempt is made to define the running of the electromagnetic coupling constant at the two-loop level. (orig.)

  8. 40 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) S Appendix S to Part 50 Protection... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) 1. General (a) This... national ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen as measured by nitrogen dioxide (“NO2 NAAQS...

  9. 24 CFR Appendix A to Part 200 - Standards Incorporated by Reference in the Minimum Property Standards for Housing (HUD Handbook...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19103, Telephone (215) 299-5400. ASTM C 12-91 Standard Practice for Installing Vitrified Clay Pipe Lines... C 216-91c Standard Specification for Facing Brick (Solid Masonry Units Made from Clay or Shale) ASTM.../78 77a Cast Iron Sanitary Drainage System with Hubless Pipe and Fittings—3/28/80 78 Polyethylene (PE...

  10. Tratamento sistêmico da psoríase - Parte II: Imunomoduladores biológicos Systemic treatment of psoriasis - Part II: Biologic immunomodulator agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Arruda

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Em continuidade ao capítulo da edição anterior dos Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia, nesta segunda parte da EMC-D serão discutidas as novas drogas, os imunomoduladores biológicos, que agem em determinadas fases da imunopatogênese da doença, modificando fenotipicamente sua evolução. Também serão discutidos alguns aspectos imunológicos que, atualmente, são responsáveis pelo desencadeamento da doençaAs part of its continued studies of psoriasis, this second part of the Continuing Medical Education in Dermatology segment of the Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia introduces biological immunomodulators. Also known as "biologics", these drugs act on the immunopathogenetic steps of psoriasis by changing its features and progression. This paper also reviews some of the immunologic aspects of psoriasis.

  11. Two-loop renormalization in the standard model, part III. Renormalization equations and their solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actis, S.; Passarino, G.

    2006-12-01

    In part I and II of this series of papers all elements have been introduced to extend, to two loops, the set of renormalization procedures which are needed in describing the properties of a spontaneously broken gauge theory. In this paper, the final step is undertaken and finite renormalization is discussed. Two-loop renormalization equations are introduced and their solutions discussed within the context of the minimal standard model of fundamental interactions. These equations relate renormalized Lagrangian parameters (couplings and masses) to some input parameter set containing physical (pseudo-)observables. Complex poles for unstable gauge and Higgs bosons are used and a consistent setup is constructed for extending the predictivity of the theory from the Lep1 Z-boson scale (or the Lep2 WW scale) to regions of interest for LHC and ILC physics. (orig.)

  12. Two-loop renormalization in the standard model, part III. Renormalization equations and their solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Actis, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Passarino, G. [Torino Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica Teorica; INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    In part I and II of this series of papers all elements have been introduced to extend, to two loops, the set of renormalization procedures which are needed in describing the properties of a spontaneously broken gauge theory. In this paper, the final step is undertaken and finite renormalization is discussed. Two-loop renormalization equations are introduced and their solutions discussed within the context of the minimal standard model of fundamental interactions. These equations relate renormalized Lagrangian parameters (couplings and masses) to some input parameter set containing physical (pseudo-)observables. Complex poles for unstable gauge and Higgs bosons are used and a consistent setup is constructed for extending the predictivity of the theory from the Lep1 Z-boson scale (or the Lep2 WW scale) to regions of interest for LHC and ILC physics. (orig.)

  13. Developing maximal neuromuscular power: Part 1--biological basis of maximal power production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2011-01-01

    This series of reviews focuses on the most important neuromuscular function in many sport performances, the ability to generate maximal muscular power. Part 1 focuses on the factors that affect maximal power production, while part 2, which will follow in a forthcoming edition of Sports Medicine, explores the practical application of these findings by reviewing the scientific literature relevant to the development of training programmes that most effectively enhance maximal power production. The ability of the neuromuscular system to generate maximal power is affected by a range of interrelated factors. Maximal muscular power is defined and limited by the force-velocity relationship and affected by the length-tension relationship. The ability to generate maximal power is influenced by the type of muscle action involved and, in particular, the time available to develop force, storage and utilization of elastic energy, interactions of contractile and elastic elements, potentiation of contractile and elastic filaments as well as stretch reflexes. Furthermore, maximal power production is influenced by morphological factors including fibre type contribution to whole muscle area, muscle architectural features and tendon properties as well as neural factors including motor unit recruitment, firing frequency, synchronization and inter-muscular coordination. In addition, acute changes in the muscle environment (i.e. alterations resulting from fatigue, changes in hormone milieu and muscle temperature) impact the ability to generate maximal power. Resistance training has been shown to impact each of these neuromuscular factors in quite specific ways. Therefore, an understanding of the biological basis of maximal power production is essential for developing training programmes that effectively enhance maximal power production in the human.

  14. Development of a standardized Intranet database of formulation records for nonsterile compounding, Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Michael; Anderson, Kim; Evans, Alex; Crawford, Angela

    2012-01-01

    In part 1 of this series, we outlined the rationale behind the development of a centralized electronic database used to maintain nonsterile compounding formulation records in the Mission Health System, which is a union of several independent hospitals and satellite and regional pharmacies that form the cornerstone of advanced medical care in several areas of western North Carolina. Hospital providers in many healthcare systems require compounded formulations to meet the needs of their patients (in particular, pediatric patients). Before a centralized electronic compounding database was implemented in the Mission Health System, each satellite or regional pharmacy affiliated with that system had a specific set of formulation records, but no standardized format for those records existed. In this article, we describe the quality control, database platform selection, description, implementation, and execution of our intranet database system, which is designed to maintain, manage, and disseminate nonsterile compounding formulation records in the hospitals and affiliated pharmacies of the Mission Health System. The objectives of that project were to standardize nonsterile compounding formulation records, create a centralized computerized database that would increase healthcare staff members' access to formulation records, establish beyond-use dates based on published stability studies, improve quality control, reduce the potential for medication errors related to compounding medications, and (ultimately) improve patient safety.

  15. Modelling of a biologically inspired robotic fish driven by compliant parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daou, Hadi El; Salumäe, Taavi; Kruusmaa, Maarja; Chambers, Lily D; Megill, William M

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by biological swimmers such as fish, a robot composed of a rigid head, a compliant body and a rigid caudal fin was built. It has the geometrical properties of a subcarangiform swimmer of the same size. The head houses a servo-motor which actuates the compliant body and the caudal fin. It achieves this by applying a concentrated moment on a point near the compliant body base. In this paper, the dynamics of the compliant body driving the robotic fish is modelled and experimentally validated. Lighthill’s elongated body theory is used to define the hydrodynamic forces on the compliant part and Rayleigh proportional damping is used to model damping. Based on the assumed modes method, an energetic approach is used to write the equations of motion of the compliant body and to compute the relationship between the applied moment and the resulting lateral deflections. Experiments on the compliant body were carried out to validate the model predictions. The results showed that a good match was achieved between the measured and predicted deformations. A discussion of the swimming motions between the real fish and the robot is presented. (paper)

  16. Phosphorus in biological standards and samples by thermal neutron irradiation and β-counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, A.N.; Kumar, A.; Choudhury, R.P.

    2007-01-01

    A nondestructive NAA method based on the reaction 31 P(n,γ) 32 P (T 1/2 = 14.23 d) has been developed where the product nucleus, a pure β-emitter with end point energy 1.71 MeV is measured by using an end window G.M counter and an Al filter of 27 mg x cm -2 . 32 P was identified by measuring E β using Feather's analysis and its half-life was found to be 15.3±0.2 days in standard reference materials (SRMs) and samples. For most reference materials (RMs) from NIST (USA) and IAEA (Vienna), our values agree within ±5% of the certified values. A variety of biological samples have also been analyzed and our values are in the range; medicinal herbs (n 43), 0.29-5.23 mg/g; bhasmas (n = 19), 0.09-51.4 mg/g; vegetables (n = 8), 1.85-5.73 mg/g; lentils (n = 6), 2.1-5.5 mg/g; flours (n = 6), 1.3-3.3 mg/g; vegetarian diet (n = 5), 2.41-2.90 mg/g; fish (n = 43), 3.61-36.8 mg/g; human and animal milk (n = 6), 1.24-7.95 mg/g; commercial milk powders (n = 14), 2.76-11.9 mg/g; water from various sources (n = 14), 1-417 μg/l; human and animal blood (n = 9), 1.00-15.0 mg/g; cancerous and healthy breast tissue (n = 60), 1.00-8.63 mg/g; human hair (n = 43), 0.12-5.81 mg/g, where n is the number of samples analyzed. The method is simple, fast, and nondestructive and provides data within ±5% error limit with a detection limit of 0.1 mg/g. (author)

  17. Biological bases of the maximum permissible exposure levels of the UK laser standard BS 4803 1983

    CERN Document Server

    MacKinlay, Alistair F

    1983-01-01

    The use of lasers has increased greatly over the past 15 years or so, to the extent that they are now used routinely in many occupational and public situations. There has been an increasing awareness of the potential hazards presented by lasers and substantial efforts have been made to formulate safety standards. In the UK the relevant Safety Standard is the British Standards Institution Standard BS 4803. This Standard was originally published in 1972 and a revision has recently been published (BS 4803: 1983). The revised standard has been developed using the American National Standards Institute Standard, ANSI Z136.1 (1973 onwards), as a model. In other countries, national standards have been similarly formulated, resulting in a large measure of international agreement through participation in the work of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The bases of laser safety standards are biophysical data on threshold injury effects, particularly on the retina, and the development of theoretical mode...

  18. 29 CFR (non - mandatory) Appendix C to Subpart L of Part 1926-List of National Consensus Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false mandatory) Appendix C to Subpart L of Part 1926-List of National Consensus Standards (Non Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... Consensus Standards ANSI/SIA A92.2-1990Vehicle-Mounted Elevating and Rotating Aerial Devices ANSI/SIA A92.3...

  19. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography G Appendix G to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography The following section...

  20. 20 CFR Appendix A to Part 718 - Standards for Administration and Interpretation of Chest Roentgenograms (X-Rays)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Interpretation of Chest Roentgenograms (X-Rays) A Appendix A to Part 718 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS... 718—Standards for Administration and Interpretation of Chest Roentgenograms (X-Rays) The following... procedures are used in administering and interpreting X-rays and that the best available medical evidence...

  1. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 52 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Pt. 52, App. N Appendix N to Part 52—Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant...

  2. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App.N Appendix N to Part 50—Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To...

  3. Phytochemical screening, total phenolic contents and biological evaluation of aerial parts of nepeta praetervisa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fareed, G.; Afza, N.; Mali, A.; Fareed, N.; Lateef, M.; Iqbal, L.; Mughal, U.R

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the phytochemical screening, total phenolic contents, radical scavenging potential and urease inhibitory activities in various fractions of the aerial parts of Nepeta praetervisa. Sub-fractions (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and aqueous) were prepared from the crude methanolic extract using partition chromatography. Phytochemical tests were performed and revealed the presence of various classes of secondary metabolites in various sub-fractions (Table-1). Total phenolic contents of all the fractions were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) reagent and the ethyl acetate sub-fraction was found to possess the highest level of phenolic contents (627.25 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g) as compared to the other fractions. The radical scavenging activity was determined at various concentrations ranging from 2.5 - 0.15 micro g /10 mu L by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) method. At the lowest concentration level, the ethyl acetate sub-fraction showed maximum level of antioxidant activity (78%) compared to BHA used as standard. The decreasing order of activity was ethyl acetate>chloroform>aqueous>n-butanol>methanol>n-hexane. On the other hand when all these fractions were screened for urease inhibition activity using indophenols method, the ethyl acetate sub-fraction showed significant urease inhibitory activity (68 %) compared with the standard thiourea at the concentration of 50 mu g /10 mu L. The decreasing order of activity of various sub-fractions was ethyl acetate>chloroform>hexane>aqueous, while n-butanol sub- fraction was inactive. (author)

  4. American College Biology and Zoology Course Requirements: A de facto Standardized Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, Frank; And Others

    Without a formal mechanism to produce consensus, American colleges generally have come to agree on what constitutes an appropriate set of course requirements for Biology and Zoology majors. This report describes a survey of American four-year colleges and universities offering biology and/or zoology degrees. Questionnaires were sent to 741 biology…

  5. A Test of the Relationship between Reading Ability & Standardized Biology Assessment Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Denise A.

    2014-01-01

    Little empirical evidence suggested that independent reading abilities of students enrolled in biology predicted their performance on the Biology I Graduation End-of-Course Assessment (ECA). An archival study was conducted at one Indiana urban public high school in Indianapolis, Indiana, by examining existing educational assessment data to test…

  6. Systematic review of biological effects of exposure to static electric fields. Part II: Invertebrates and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedchen, Kristina; Petri, Anne-Kathrin; Driessen, Sarah; Bailey, William H

    2018-01-01

    The construction of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) lines for the long-distance transport of energy is becoming increasingly popular. This has raised public concern about potential environmental impacts of the static electric fields (EF) produced under and near HVDC power lines. As the second part of a comprehensive literature analysis, the aim of this systematic review was to assess the effects of static EF exposure on biological functions in invertebrates and plants and to provide the basis for an environmental impact assessment of such exposures. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was used to guide the methodological conduct and reporting. Thirty-three studies - 14 invertebrate and 19 plant studies - met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. The reported behavioral responses of insects and planarians upon exposure strongly suggest that invertebrates are able to perceive the presence of a static EF. Many other studies reported effects on physiological functions that were expressed as, for example, altered metabolic activity or delayed reproductive and developmental stages in invertebrates. In plants, leaf damage, alterations in germination rates, growth and yield, or variations in the concentration of essential elements, for example, have been reported. However, these physiological responses and changes in plant morphology appear to be secondary to surface stimulation by the static EF or caused by concomitant parameters of the electrostatic environment. Furthermore, all of the included studies suffered from methodological flaws, which lowered credibility in the results. At field levels encountered from natural sources or HVDC lines (plants. At far higher field levels (> 35kV/m), adverse effects on physiology and morphology, presumably caused by corona-action, appear to be more likely. Higher quality studies are needed to unravel the role of air ions, ozone, nitric oxide and corona current on

  7. Towards a standard Part of Speech tagset for the Arabic language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Zeroual

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Part of Speech (PoS tagging is still not very well investigated with respect to the Arabic language. Determining the PoS tags of a word in a particular context is difficult, primarily because there is no use of diacritics in most of contemporary texts. Consequently, the same word may be spelled in different ways. Further, detecting the difference between Arabic derivatives represents a very challenging issue for the majority of PoS taggers. Hence, the task of tagging the correct PoS tags requires advanced processing and the use of considerable resources. This study aims to design detailed hierarchical levels of the Arabic tagset categories and their relationships. These hierarchical levels allow easier expansion when required and produce more accurate and precise results. They are based on a comparative study and important references in Arabic grammar; they are also validated by experts in this field. In addition, the proposed tagset is implemented in a PoS tagger and tested via various experiments. We believe that our study makes a significant contribution to the literature because this work is an advancement in the direction of achieving a standard, rich, and comprehensive tagset for Arabic.

  8. Biological bases of the maximum permissible exposure levels of the UK laser standard BS 4803: 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinlay, A.F.; Harlen, F.

    1983-10-01

    The use of lasers has increased greatly over the past 15 years or so, to the extent that they are now used routinely in many occupational and public situations. There has been an increasing awareness of the potential hazards presented by lasers and substantial efforts have been made to formulate safety standards. In the UK the relevant Safety Standard is the British Standards Institution Standard BS 4803. This Standard was originally published in 1972 and a revision has recently been published (BS 4803: 1983). The revised standard has been developed using the American National Standards Institute Standard, ANSI Z136.1 (1973 onwards), as a model. In other countries, national standards have been similarly formulated, resulting in a large measure of international agreement through participation in the work of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The bases of laser safety standards are biophysical data on threshold injury effects, particularly on the retina, and the development of theoretical models of damage mechanisms. This report deals in some detail with the mechanisms of injury from over exposure to optical radiations, in particular with the dependency of the type and degree of damage on wavelength, image size and pulse duration. The maximum permissible exposure levels recommended in BS 4803: 1983 are compared with published data for damage thresholds and the adequacy of the standard is discussed. (author)

  9. Using Microsoft Excel to Assess Standards: A "Techtorial". Article #2 in a 6-Part Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Derrick

    2009-01-01

    Standards-based assessment is a term currently being used quite often in educational reform discussions. The philosophy behind this initiative is to utilize "standards" or "benchmarks" to focus instruction and assessments of student learning. The National Standards for Physical Education (NASPE, 2004) provide a framework to guide this process for…

  10. Bioactivity of marine organisms. Part 3. Screening of marine algae of Indian coast for biological activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kamat, S.Y.; Wahidullah, S.; Naik, C.G.; DeSouza, L.; Jayasree, V.; Ambiye, V.; Bhakuni, D.S.; Goel, A.K.; Garg, H.S.; Srimal, R.C.

    Ethanolic extracts from Indian marine algae have been tested for anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-fertility, hypoglycaemic and a wide range of pharmacological activities. Of 34 species investigated 17 appeared biologically active. Six...

  11. Monitoring of airborne biological particles in outdoor atmosphere. Part 2: Metagenomics applied to urban environments

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez, Andrés; Amo de Paz, Guillermo; Rastrojo, Alberto; García, Ana M.; Alcamí, Antonio; Gutiérrez-Bustillo, A. Montserrat; Moreno, Diego A.

    2016-01-01

    The air we breathe contains microscopic biological particles such as viruses, bacteria, fungi and pollen, some of them with relevant clinic importance. These organisms and/or their propagules have been traditionally studied by different disciplines and diverse methodologies like culture and microscopy. These techniques require time, expertise and also have some important biases. As a consequence, our knowledge on the total diversity and the relationships between the different biological entit...

  12. Measuring the Outcome of At-Risk Students on Biology Standardized Tests When Using Different Instructional Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Dana

    Over the last two decades, online education has become a popular concept in universities as well as K-12 education. This generation of students has grown up using technology and has shown interest in incorporating technology into their learning. The idea of using technology in the classroom to enhance student learning and create higher achievement has become necessary for administrators, teachers, and policymakers. Although online education is a popular topic, there has been minimal research on the effectiveness of online and blended learning strategies compared to the student learning in a traditional K-12 classroom setting. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in standardized test scores from the Biology End of Course exam when at-risk students completed the course using three different educational models: online format, blended learning, and traditional face-to-face learning. Data was collected from over 1,000 students over a five year time period. Correlation analyzed data from standardized tests scores of eighth grade students was used to define students as "at-risk" for failing high school courses. The results indicated a high correlation between eighth grade standardized test scores and Biology End of Course exam scores. These students were deemed "at-risk" for failing high school courses. Standardized test scores were measured for the at-risk students when those students completed Biology in the different models of learning. Results indicated significant differences existed among the learning models. Students had the highest test scores when completing Biology in the traditional face-to-face model. Further evaluation of subgroup populations indicated statistical differences in learning models for African-American populations, female students, and for male students.

  13. Compilation of elemental concentration data for NBS Biological and Environmental Standard Reference Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladney, E.S.

    1980-07-01

    Concentration data on up to 76 elementals in 19 NBS Standard Reference Materials have been collected from 325 journal articles and technical reports. These data are summarized into mean +- one standard deviation values and compared with available data from NBS and other review articles. Data are presented on the analytical procedures employed and all raw data are presented in appendixes

  14. High sensitivity neutron activation analysis of environmental and biological standard reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, R.R.; Fleming, R.F.; Zeisler, R.

    1984-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis is a sensitive method with unique capabilities for the analysis of environmental and biological samples. Since it is based upon the nuclear properties of the elements, it does not suffer from many of the chemical effects that plague other methods of analysis. Analyses can be performed either with no chemical treatment of the sample (instrumentally), or with separations of the elements of interest after neutron irradiation (radiochemically). Typical examples of both types of analysis are discussed, and data obtained for a number of environmental and biological SRMs are presented. (author)

  15. Biological and Chemical Standardization of a Hop (Humulus lupulus) Botanical Dietary Supplement

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Elizabeth; Yuan, Yang; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dong, Huali; Dietz, Birgit M.; Nikolic, Dejan; Pauli, Guido F.; Bolton, Judy L.; van Breemen, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Concerned about the safety of conventional estrogen replacement therapy, women are using botanical dietary supplements as alternatives for the management of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes. Before botanical dietary supplements can be evaluated clinically for safety and efficacy, botanically authenticated and standardized forms are required. To address the demand for a standardized, estrogenic botanical dietary supplement, an extract of hops (Humulus lupulus, L.) was developed. Althoug...

  16. Net Analyte Signal Standard Additions Method for Simultaneous Determination of Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim in Pharmaceutical Formulations and Biological Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Givianrad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The applicability of a novel net analyte signal standard addition method (NASSAM to the resolving of overlapping spectra corresponding to the sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim was verified by UV-visible spectrophotometry. The results confirmed that the net analyte signal standard additions method with simultaneous addition of both analytes is suitable for the simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in aqueous media. Moreover, applying the net analyte signal standard additions method revealed that the two drugs could be determined simultaneously with the concentration ratios of sulfamethoxazole to trimethoprim varying from 1:35 to 60:1 in the mixed samples. In addition, the limits of detections were 0.26 and 0.23 μmol L-1 for sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, respectively. The proposed method has been effectively applied to the simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in some synthetic, pharmaceutical formulation and biological fluid samples.

  17. Incorporating Biological Mass Spectrometry into Undergraduate Teaching Labs, Part 2: Peptide Identification via Molecular Mass Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnquist, Isaac J.; Beussman, Douglas J.

    2009-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has become a routine analytical tool in the undergraduate curriculum in the form of GC-MS. While relatively few undergraduate programs have incorporated biological mass spectrometry into their programs, the importance of these techniques, as demonstrated by their recognition with the 2002 Nobel Prize, will hopefully lead to…

  18. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 742 - Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonproliferation of Chemical and...—Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons Note: Exports and reexports of items in performance of.... Contract sanctity dates are established in the course of the imposition of foreign policy controls on...

  19. Development of ITER PRM and standard parts catalogues in CATIA V5 for tritium-containing systems and components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazar, Alin; Brad, Sebastian; Zamfirache, Marius; Soare, Sorin; Sofalca, Nicolae; Vijulie, Mihai

    2006-01-01

    CATIA V5 is a software chosen to perform the design and integration within ITER of both systems: fluid and mechanical systems. The broad range of applications provides the ability to develop the design process from the functional 2D design (P and ID) to the 3D plant layouts and detailed design. The 2D symbols for the equipment and piping components were developed in accordance with EN ISO 10628 standard, ISO 3511 (part I, II and IV) standard and DIN 28401 standard and considering the classification and settings done by FZK-team in the PRM-FZK-TLK in order to ensure compliance with the established design standards. These symbols were inserted in 2D catalogues linked with the main catalogue installed in PRM-FZK-TLK on CATIA SERVER at TLK-FZK and intensively tested in Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams. The 3D part for the equipment, instruments and piping components was developed according to the specifications, industrial conventions, terminology and literature available in library, internet and practice. All parts were parametrically built in order to allow the designer to modify the part geometry according to the design. The 3D parts were typed in accordance with IKARUS-Project Instructions by FZK team, inserted in 3D test catalogues and tested in Equipment and Systems workbench. The elements of P and ID, pipes, piping parts, instruments and equipment carry attribute information such as fluid type, pressure rating, insulation or material. The list of attributes is defined in the PRM and consists of the standard industrial attributes implemented by default in CATIA V5 and project specific attributes defined by Project Administration. 2D logical design and 3D Piping models are logically related through the common functions definition in the PRM. The task, TW5-TTFD-TPI-51, was performed collaboratively by MEdC/ICIT and FZK/TLK. (authors)

  20. Standard operating procedure for combustion of 14C - samples with OX-500 biological material oxidizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat.

    1995-01-01

    This procedure is for the purpose of safe operation of OX-500 biological material oxidizer. For ease of operation, the operation flow chart (including testing the system and sample combustion) and end of day maintenance flow chart were simplified. The front view, diagrams and switches are duly copied from operating manual. Steps on sample preparation are also included for biotic and a biotic samples. This operating procedure is subjected to future reviews

  1. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the data handling procedures for the reported data). 2.3Comparisons with the Primary and Secondary... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY...

  2. Toward a new data standard for combined marine biological and environmental datasets - expanding OBIS beyond species occurrences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphnis De Pooter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS is the world’s most comprehensive online, open-access database of marine species distributions. OBIS grows with millions of new species observations every year. Contributions come from a network of hundreds of institutions, projects and individuals with common goals: to build a scientific knowledge base that is open to the public for scientific discovery and exploration and to detect trends and changes that inform society as essential elements in conservation management and sustainable development. Until now, OBIS has focused solely on the collection of biogeographic data (the presence of marine species in space and time and operated with optimized data flows, quality control procedures and data standards specifically targeted to these data. Based on requirements from the growing OBIS community to manage datasets that combine biological, physical and chemical measurements, the OBIS-ENV-DATA pilot project was launched to develop a proposed standard and guidelines to make sure these combined datasets can stay together and are not, as is often the case, split and sent to different repositories. The proposal in this paper allows for the management of sampling methodology, animal tracking and telemetry data, biological measurements (e.g., body length, percent live cover, ... as well as environmental measurements such as nutrient concentrations, sediment characteristics or other abiotic parameters measured during sampling to characterize the environment from which biogeographic data was collected. The recommended practice builds on the Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A standard and on practices adopted by the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF. It consists of a DwC Event Core in combination with a DwC Occurrence Extension and a proposed enhancement to the DwC MeasurementOrFact Extension. This new structure enables the linkage of measurements or facts - quantitative and qualitative properties - to

  3. Health and Environmental Protection Standards for Uranium and Thorium Mill Tailings (40 CFR Part 192)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This regulation sets standards for the protection of public health, safety, and the environment from radiological and non-radiological hazards from uranium and thorium ore processing and disposal of associated wastes.

  4. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 440 - Standards for Weatherization Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Washington, DC 20006; (202) 554-1080. National Institute of Standards and Technology, U.S. Department of... manufacturers' specifications. Condensing heat exchangers Commercially available (Commercial, multi-story...

  5. Medical and biologic factors of speech and language development in children (part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernov D.N.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent data shows that medico-biological aspects of the study of speech and language development in children should be expanded to include an analysis of various socio-cultural factors as the problem requires an interdisciplinary approach. The review stresses the necessity of methodological approach to study of bio- socio-cultural conditions of emerging speech and language abilities in ontogenesis. Psycho-pedagogical aspect involves: informing parents about the medical and biological aspects of speech and language development in childhood; the active involvement of parents in the remedial and preventive activities carried out by specialists; activities to improve the quality and quantity of child-parent interaction depending on the severity and nature of deviations in child speech and language development.

  6. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology. Volume XLVII, Part 1. Structures of DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The proceedings for the 47th Annual Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology are presented. This symposium focused on the Structure of DNA. Topics presented covered research in the handedness of DNA, conformational analysis, chemically modified DNA, chemical synthesis of DNA, DNA-protein interactions, DNA within nucleosomes, DNA methylation, DNA replication, gyrases and topoisomerases, recombining and mutating DNA, transcription of DNA and its regulation, the organization of genes along DNA, repetitive DNA and pseudogenes, and origins of replication, centromeres, and teleomeres

  7. Medico-biological factors of speech and language development in young children (part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernov D.N.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzed the main results of medico-biological directions in the study of the factors of children's speech and language. It shows that a variety of pre-, peri-and neonatal developmental factors (teratogenic effects, prematurity, low birth weight, maternal diseases during pregnancy, and chronic diseases of the child had a negative impact on the child-parent relationship that has a lasting influence on child speech and language development.

  8. SEVA Linkers: A Versatile and Automatable DNA Backbone Exchange Standard for Synthetic Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Se Hyeuk; Cavaleiro, Mafalda; Rennig, Maja

    2016-01-01

    flexibility, and different researchers prefer and master different molecular technologies. Here, we describe a new, highly versatile and automatable standard “SEVA linkers” for vector exchange. SEVA linkers enable backbone swapping with 20 combinations of classical enzymatic restriction/ligation, Gibson...

  9. Bibliographical database of radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment: Part 1, through June 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straume, T.; Ricker, Y.; Thut, M.

    1988-08-29

    This database was constructed to support research in radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment. Relevant publications were identified through detailed searches of national and international electronic databases and through our personal knowledge of the subject. Publications were numbered and key worded, and referenced in an electronic data-retrieval system that permits quick access through computerized searches on publication number, authors, key words, title, year, and journal name. Photocopies of all publications contained in the database are maintained in a file that is numerically arranged by citation number. This report of the database is provided as a useful reference and overview. It should be emphasized that the database will grow as new citations are added to it. With that in mind, we arranged this report in order of ascending citation number so that follow-up reports will simply extend this document. The database cite 1212 publications. Publications are from 119 different scientific journals, 27 of these journals are cited at least 5 times. It also contains reference to 42 books and published symposia, and 129 reports. Information relevant to radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment is widely distributed among the scientific literature, although a few journals clearly dominate. The four journals publishing the largest number of relevant papers are Health Physics, Mutation Research, Radiation Research, and International Journal of Radiation Biology. Publications in Health Physics make up almost 10% of the current database.

  10. Bibliographical database of radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment: Part 1, through June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straume, T.; Ricker, Y.; Thut, M.

    1988-01-01

    This database was constructed to support research in radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment. Relevant publications were identified through detailed searches of national and international electronic databases and through our personal knowledge of the subject. Publications were numbered and key worded, and referenced in an electronic data-retrieval system that permits quick access through computerized searches on publication number, authors, key words, title, year, and journal name. Photocopies of all publications contained in the database are maintained in a file that is numerically arranged by citation number. This report of the database is provided as a useful reference and overview. It should be emphasized that the database will grow as new citations are added to it. With that in mind, we arranged this report in order of ascending citation number so that follow-up reports will simply extend this document. The database cite 1212 publications. Publications are from 119 different scientific journals, 27 of these journals are cited at least 5 times. It also contains reference to 42 books and published symposia, and 129 reports. Information relevant to radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment is widely distributed among the scientific literature, although a few journals clearly dominate. The four journals publishing the largest number of relevant papers are Health Physics, Mutation Research, Radiation Research, and International Journal of Radiation Biology. Publications in Health Physics make up almost 10% of the current database

  11. Introduction to Northeast Pacific Shark Biology, Research, and Conservation, Part B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Shawn E; Lowry, Dayv

    Sharks are iconic, sometimes apex, predators found in every ocean. Because of their ecological role as predators and concern over the stability of their populations, there has been an increasing amount of work focused on shark conservation around the world in recent decades. The populations of sharks that reside in the Northeast Pacific (NEP) Ocean bordering the west coast of the United States reside in one of the most economically and ecologically important oceanic regions in the world. Volume 78 of Advances in Marine Biology (AMB) is a companion to Volume 77, which focused primarily on NEP shark biodiversity, organismal biology, and ecology. Volume 78 highlights fisheries and the conservation implications of fisheries management; shark population modelling and the conservation impacts of these models given that many life history metrics of NEP sharks necessary to accurately run these models are still unknown; the value of captive sharks to the biology, outreach, and conservation of NEP sharks; and the conservation value of citizen science and shark ecotourism. Together these volumes encapsulate the current state of the knowledge for sharks in the NEP and lay the foundation for protecting, managing, and learning from these species in the face evolving natural conditions and societal opinions. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  12. Overview of the revised 10 CFR Part 20, standards for protection against radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, H.T.; Cool, D.A.; Buchanan, J.D.; Cool, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    The revised 10 CFR Part 20 is based upon the 1977 recommendations of the International Commission of Radiological Protection and is generally consistent with the 1987 recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. The revised Part 20 contains significant changes from past practice and procedures for estimating, measuring, combining, recording and reporting doses. These changes are associated with the introduction of new concepts and methods of assessing doses

  13. Tooth contact analysis of spur gears. Part 1-SAM analysis of standard gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Creţu Spiridon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The involute gears are sensitive to the misalignment of their axes which determines transmission errors and perturbations of pressures distributions along the tooth flank. The concentrated contacts in gears are no longer as Hertz type. A semi-analytical method was developed to find the contact area, pressures distribution and depth stresses state. The matrix of initial separations is found analytically for standard and non-standard spur gears. The presence of misalignment as well as the flank crowning and flank end relief are included in the numerical analysis process.

  14. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 30 - OCC Guidelines Establishing Standards for Residential Mortgage Lending Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Preservation of Existing Authority C. Relationship to Other Legal Requirements D. Definitions II. Standards for... injurious to bank customers and that expose the bank to credit, legal, compliance, reputation, and other... and supervisory guidance on fiduciary activities and asset management address the need for national...

  15. 12 CFR Appendix F to Part 225 - Interagency Guidelines Establishing Information Security Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Relationships Risk Management Principles,” Nov. 1, 2001; FDIC FIL 68-99, Risk Assessment Tools and Practices for.... Standards for Safeguarding Customer Information A. Information Security Program B. Objectives III. Development and Implementation of Customer Information Security Program A. Involve the Board of Directors B...

  16. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 30 - Interagency Guidelines Establishing Information Security Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Processing, Feb. 9, 2000; OCC Bulletin 2001-47, “Third-Party Relationships Risk Management Principles,” Nov... Existing Authority C. Definitions II. Standards for Safeguarding Customer Information A. Information Security Program B. Objectives III. Development and Implementation of Customer Information Security Program...

  17. 12 CFR Appendix D-2 to Part 208 - Interagency Guidelines Establishing Information Security Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Relationships Risk Management Principles,” Nov. 1, 2001; FDIC FIL 68-99, Risk Assessment Tools and Practices for.... Definitions II. Standards for Safeguarding Customer Information A. Information Security Program B. Objectives III. Development and Implementation of Customer Information Security Program A. Involve the Board of...

  18. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 570 - Interagency Guidelines Establishing Standards for Safety and Soundness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Internal controls and information systems. B. Internal audit system. C. Loan documentation. D. Credit... standards relating to: (1) Internal controls, information systems and internal audit systems, in accordance.... Internal audit system. An institution should have an internal audit system that is appropriate to the size...

  19. American coot (Fulica americana) on the Hanford Site. Part 1. Nesting biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzner, R.E.; Schreckhise, R.G.

    1979-05-01

    The nesting biology of the American coot was studied on low-level radioactive waste ponds located on the Hanford DOE Site and on control ponds located in the Columbia National Wildlife Refuge in southeastern Washington from 1974 through 1976. The objective was to discover any differences in the nesting biology of the birds which could be attributed to the low-level radioactive wastes present in the Hanford DOE Site ponds. Coots nesting on the Hanford ponds and those nesting on the wildlife refuge were found to have similar nesting habits. Nesting habitats were also similar. There were no apparent differences in nesting chronology between birds from the different study sites. Clutch size also showed no significant differences. The average number of eggs per nest for all ponds was 6.7. Egg and chick weights and percent hatching success were similar among coots from both study sites. Feeding habits of the coots from the two sites did show some differences. However, this is probably related to the availability of food items in each pond

  20. Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems recommendation for space data system standards: Telecommand. Part 2.1: Command operation procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This recommendation contains the detailed specification of the logic required to carry out the Command Operations Procedures of the Transfer Layer. The Recommendation for Telecommand--Part 2, Data Routing Service contains the standard data structures and data communication procedures used by the intermediate telecommand system layers (the Transfer and Segmentation Layers). In particular, it contains a brief description of the Command Operations Procedures (COP) within the Transfer Layer. This recommendation contains the detailed definition of the COP's in the form of state tables, along with definitions of the terms used. It is assumed that the reader of this document is familiar with the data structures and terminology of part 2. In case of conflict between the description of the COP's in part 2 and in this recommendation, the definition in this recommendation will take precedence. In particular, this document supersedes section 4.3.3.1 through 4.3.3.4 of part 2.

  1. Chemical Variability and Biological Activities of Brassica rapa var. rapifera Parts Essential Oils Depending on Geographic Variation and Extraction Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, Boualem; Djouahri, Abderrahmane; Djerrad, Zineb; Terfi, Souhila; Aberrane, Sihem; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Baaliouamer, Aoumeur; Boudarene, Lynda

    2017-06-01

    In the present work, the Brassica rapa var. rapifera parts essential oils and their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were investigated for the first time depending on geographic origin and extraction technique. Gas-chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry (MS) analyses showed several constituents, including alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones, norisoprenoids, terpenic, nitrogen and sulphur compounds, totalizing 38 and 41 compounds in leaves and root essential oils, respectively. Nitrogen compounds were the main volatiles in leaves essential oils and sulphur compounds were the main volatiles in root essential oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences were found among B. rapa var. rapifera parts essential oils collected from different locations and extracted by hydrodistillation and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation techniques. Furthermore, our findings showed a high variability for both antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The highlighted variability reflects the high impact of plant part, geographic variation and extraction technique on chemical composition and biological activities, which led to conclude that we should select essential oils to be investigated carefully depending on these factors, in order to isolate the bioactive components or to have the best quality of essential oil in terms of biological activities and preventive effects in food. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  2. Multimodal nonlinear microscopy: A powerful label-free method for supporting standard diagnostics on biological tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Cicchi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The large use of nonlinear laser scanning microscopy in the past decade paved the way for potential clinical application of this imaging technique. Modern nonlinear microscopy techniques offer promising label-free solutions to improve diagnostic performances on tissues. In particular, the combination of multiple nonlinear imaging techniques in the same microscope allows integrating morphological with functional information in a morpho-functional scheme. Such approach provides a high-resolution label-free alternative to both histological and immunohistochemical examination of tissues and is becoming increasingly popular among the clinical community. Nevertheless, several technical improvements, including automatic scanning and image analysis, are required before the technique represents a standard diagnostic method. In this review paper, we highlight the capabilities of multimodal nonlinear microscopy for tissue imaging, by providing various examples on colon, arterial and skin tissues. The comparison between images acquired using multimodal nonlinear microscopy and histology shows a good agreement between the two methods. The results demonstrate that multimodal nonlinear microscopy is a powerful label-free alternative to standard histopathological methods and has the potential to find a stable place in the clinical setting in the near future.

  3. Space and Missile Systems Center Standard: Parts, Materials, and Processes Control Program for Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    preparation , implementation, and operation of a Parts, Materials, and Processes (PMP) control program for use during the design, development...Processes List CDR Critical Design Review CDRL Contract Data Requirements List CMOS Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor CONOPS Concept of Operations...Failure Review Board GFE Government Furnished Equipment GIDEP Government Industry Data Exchange Program HBT Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor IPT

  4. Mechanical properties test and microstructure analysis of polyoxymethylene (POM) micro injection moulded standard parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Lucchetta, Giovanni; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2009-01-01

    to factorial plans, in which the factors of interest were mould temperature, melt temperature and dimensional range of the specimen (i.e. macro and micro parts). Micro structure analysis was performed by means of plastography techniques and revealed that high mould and melt temperatures resulted on a thin skin...

  5. Fundamentals and applications of neutron imaging. Application part 9. Application of neutron imaging to biological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    For radiography, the use of neutrons as a complement to X-rays is especially suitable for biological research such as plant, wood, and medical application due to the enhanced sensitivity to light elements such as hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen. The present paper introduces applications of neutron CT to the humidity (water) distribution and its variation in the flowering plant as cut carnation, observation of water movement in refrigerated chrysanthemum leaves using very cold neutron and in cut leaves using deuterium oxide and ordinary water, measurement of water movement in sprouting cone and soy bean and growing ginseng in the soil, and other applications as to archaeological wood immersed in a restoration solution and to medical purposes. (S. Ohno)

  6. Toward the establishment of standardized in vitro tests for lipid-based formulations, part 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Hywel D; Sassene, Philip; Kleberg, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The Lipid Formulation Classification System Consortium looks to develop standardized in vitro tests and to generate much-needed performance criteria for lipid-based formulations (LBFs). This article highlights the value of performing a second, more stressful digestion test to identify LBFs near...... a performance threshold and to facilitate lead formulation selection in instances where several LBF prototypes perform adequately under standard digestion conditions (but where further discrimination is necessary). Stressed digestion tests can be designed based on an understanding of the factors that affect LBF...... development, and facilitate dialogue with the regulatory authorities. This classification system is based on the concept that performance evaluations across three in vitro tests, designed to subject a LBF to progressively more challenging conditions, will enable effective LBF discrimination and performance...

  7. The standard calibration instrument automation system for the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Part 3: Program documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, D. P.; Roth, G. S.

    1982-04-01

    Complete documentation of the 15 programs and 11 data files of the EPA Atomic Absorption Instrument Automation System is presented. The system incorporates the following major features: (1) multipoint calibration using first, second, or third degree regression or linear interpolation, (2) timely quality control assessments for spiked samples, duplicates, laboratory control standards, reagent blanks, and instrument check standards, (3) reagent blank subtraction, and (4) plotting of calibration curves and raw data peaks. The programs of this system are written in Data General Extended BASIC, Revision 4.3, as enhanced for multi-user, real-time data acquisition. They run in a Data General Nova 840 minicomputer under the operating system RDOS, Revision 6.2. There is a functional description, a symbol definitions table, a functional flowchart, a program listing, and a symbol cross reference table for each program. The structure of every data file is also detailed.

  8. PROPOSAL METHODOLOGY OF THE SUBSYSTEM - INTERNAL STANDARDIZATION AS PART OF TQM SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeta Mitreva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Standardization in the management system becomes a key task of the managers and a priority issue for survival of every organization of this century. Besides the company's owner which is mostly concerned with the profit and fast multiplication of its invested capital, many other parties such as consumers, community, employees, deliverers and the society make a pressure in demanding. As of those demands the organization is to adapt its management system according the standards in order to be safe t hat the expectations will be fulfilled. However, to fulfill the standards in Europe and worldwide it is necessary to approach towards huge - radical changes in problem solving i.e. reengineering, new manner of consideration of causes and not as the so far known way - thinking over the consequences. Implementing this new TQM strategy means designing solidly documented quality system that covers every working process in a company and appears as a necessary base for successful usage of statistical process contr ol (SPC and efficient teamwork which otherwise in case of bad quality system will not be able to be set. In this manner it is guaranteed that the attitude of the top management is conducted; this attitude is consisted within the quality policy that create s a climate and information base whe re team work can be developed. This paper offers a proposal methodology for designing and implementation of internal standardization of TQM system in companies. This methodology is applicable in factory for reconstructio n of wagons and in a factory for confectionary production and has shown its efficiency and usage. In order to design the processes in line with the consumers/ clients content and at the same time to achieve profitability, it is necessary to reengineer the working processes

  9. Implementing standard setting into the Conjoint MAFP/FRACGP Part 1 examination – Process and issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Sook-Ching

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The College of General Practitioners of Malaysia and the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners held the first Conjoint Member of the College of General Practitioners (MCGP/Fellow of Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (FRACGP examination in 1982, later renamed the Conjoint MAFP/FRACGP examinations. The examination assesses competency for safe independent general practice and as family medicine specialists in Malaysia. Therefore, a defensible standard set pass mark is imperative to separate the competent from the incompetent.

  10. Implementing standard setting into the Conjoint MAFP/FRACGP Part 1 examination – Process and issues

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, SC; Mohd Amin, S; Lee, TW

    2016-01-01

    The College of General Practitioners of Malaysia and the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners held the first Conjoint Member of the College of General Practitioners (MCGP)/Fellow of Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (FRACGP) examination in 1982, later renamed the Conjoint MAFP/FRACGP examinations. The examination assesses competency for safe independent general practice and as family medicine specialists in Malaysia. Therefore, a defensible standard...

  11. Developing Standards for EFL in Indonesia as Part of the EFL Teaching Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwarsih Madya

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The teaching of English in Indonesia has so far been unable to reach its declared goal, which is the students' mastery of the English macro skills listening, speaking, reading, writing. Various factors have certainly contributed to this failure, but the highly centralized curriculum has been one of the many to be blamed for it. The new system of regional autonomy gives ample opportunity to schools/ regions to develop their own curricula. This will lead to the need for the establishment of standard of English to ensure the achievement of the ultimate goal of teaching English throughout the country. This paper suggests that the development of standards for English should involve as many parties concerned as possible, including EFL teachers, EFL teacher educators, and users of school graduates. Another suggestion made related to the aspects to be covered in the standards, namely (1 the qualification of EFL policy makers, EFL teacher educators, and EFL teachers; (2 class size, (3 facilities and equipment, and (4 assessment and evaluation.

  12. The Australian Commonwealth standard of measurement for absorbed radiation dose. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherlock, S.L.

    1989-08-01

    As an agent for the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation is responsible for maintenance of the Australian Commonwealth standard of absorbed dose. This standard of measurement has application in radiation therapy dosimetry, which is required for the treatment of cancer patients. This report is the first in a series of reports documenting the absorbed dose standard for photon beams in the range from 1 to 25 MeV. The Urquhart graphite micro-calorimeters, which is used for the determination of absorbed dose under high energy photon beams, has been now placed under computer control. Accordingly, a complete upgrade of the calorimeter systems was performed to allow operation in the hospital. In this report, control and monitoring techniques have been described, with an assessment of the performance achieved being given for 6 and 18 MeV bremsstrahlung beams. Random errors have been reduced to near negligible proportions, while systematic errors have been minimized by achieving true quasi-adiabatic operation. 16 refs., 9 tabs., 11 figs

  13. Sexual Desire and Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder in Women. Introduction and Overview. Standard Operating Procedure (SOP Part 1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bitzer, Johannes; Giraldi, Annamaria; Pfaus, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Introduction.  Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is defined in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition as persistent or recurrent deficiency (or absence) of sexual fantasies/thoughts, and/or desire for or receptivity to sexual activity, which causes personal...... must be based on a biopsychosocial, multidimensional, and integrative perspective. Bitzer J, Giraldi A, and Pfaus J. Sexual desire and hypoactive sexual desire disorder in women. Introduction and overview. Standard operating procedure (SOP part 1). J Sex Med **;**:**-**....

  14. Standard Practice for Ensuring Test Consistency in Neutron-Induced Displacement Damage of Electronic Parts

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice sets forth requirements to ensure consistency in neutron-induced displacement damage testing of silicon and gallium arsenide electronic piece parts. This requires controls on facility, dosimetry, tester, and communications processes that affect the accuracy and reproducibility of these tests. It provides background information on the technical basis for the requirements and additional recommendations on neutron testing. In addition to neutrons, reactors are used to provide gamma-ray pulses of intensities and durations that are not achievable elsewhere. This practice also provides background information and recommendations on gamma-ray testing of electronics using nuclear reactors. 1.2 Methods are presented for ensuring and validating consistency in neutron displacement damage testing of electronic parts such as integrated circuits, transistors, and diodes. The issues identified and the controls set forth in this practice address the characterization and suitability of the radiation environm...

  15. Standard format and content of financial assurance mechanisms required for decommissioning under 10 CFR parts 30, 40, 70, and 72

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has established technical and financial regulations for decommissioning licensed nuclear facilities (53 FR 24018, June 27, 1988). The regulations address decommissioning planning needs, timing, funding methods, and environmental review requirements for public and private facilities holding licenses under 10 CFR Parts 30, 40, 50, 70, and 72, with the exception of uranium mills. The intent of the regulations is to ensure that the decommissioning of all licensed facilities will be accomplished in a safe and timely manner and that licensees will provide adequate funds to cover all costs associated with decommissioning. The purpose of this regulatory guide, ''Standard Format and Content of Financial Assurance Mechanisms Required for Decommissioning Under 10 CFR Parts 30, 40, 70, and 72,'' is to provide guidance acceptable to the NRC staff on the information to be provided for establishing financial assurance for decommissioning and to establish a standard format for presenting the information. Use of the standard format will (1) help ensure that the financial instruments contain the information required by 10 CFR Parts 30, 40, 70, and 72, (2) aid the applicant and NRC staff in ensuring that the information is complete, and (3) help persons reading the financial instruments to locate information. 5 refs., 13 figs

  16. The standardisation of trace elements in international biological standard reference materials with neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pieterse, H.

    1981-12-01

    An investigation was undertaken into the analytical procedures and the identification of problem areas, for the certification of a new biological standard reference material supplied by the International Atomic Energy Agency, namely, a human hair sample designated as HH-I. The analyses comprised the determination of the elements As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Sb, Se, and Zn in the hair sample by using two analytical techniques, namely, Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Atomic Absorption. Three other certified biological reference materials, namely, Orchard Leaves (ORCH-L), Sea Plant Material (SPM-I) and Copepod (MAA-I) were used as control standards. Determinations were made of the moisture content of the samples, using varying conditions of drying, and the necessary corrections were applied to all analytical results so that the final elemental values related to dry weight of samples. Attention was also given to the possible loss of specific elements during ashing of the samples prior to the actual instrumental analysis. The results obtained for the hair sample by the two techniques were in good agreement for the elements Co, Fe, Mn, and Zn, but did not agree for the elements Cr and Sb. As, Hg and Se could only be determined with Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis, and Cd, Cu and Ni only with Atomic Absorption. Most of the results obtained for the three control standard reference materials were within the ranges specified for the individual elements in each sample. The analytical procedures used for determining Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Sb with Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and As, Cr, Sb and Se with Atomic Absorption, need further investigation. The measurement of the moisture content and the ashing of samples also require further investigation with a view to improving accuracy

  17. The standards of an ultrasound examination of the prostate gland. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz F. Tyloch

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the rules of the proper performing of the ultrasound examination of the prostate gland. It has been divided into two parts: the general part and the detailed part. The first part presents the necessary requirements related to the ultrasound equipment needed for performing transabdominal and transrectal examinations of the prostate gland. The second part presents the application of the ultrasound examination in benign prostatic hyperplasia, in cases of prostate inflammation and in prostate cancer. Ultrasound examinations applied in the diagnostics of benign prostatic hyperplasia accelerated the diagnosis, facilitated the qualification to surgery and the selection of the treatment method. The assessment of the size of the prostate gland performed using the endorectal ultrasound examination is helpful in making the choice between transurethral electroresection and adenomectomy. In prostate inflammation this examination should be performed with particular gentleness due to pain ailments. The indication for performing the examination in acute inflammation is the suspicion of prostate abscess. In chronic, exacerbating prostatitis it is possible to perform an intraprostatic antibiotic injection. In the recent years increased morbidity and detectability of prostate gland cancer is observed among men. In Poland it ranks second (13% among diseases occurring in men. The indication for an endorectal examination is the necessity to assess the size of the prostate gland, its configuration, the echostructure in classical ultrasonography, the vascularization in an ultrasound examination performed with power doppler and, if possible, the differences in the gland tissue firmness (consistency in elastography. The ultrasound examination is used for performing the mapping biopsy of the prostate gland – from routine, strictly defined locations, the targeted biopsy – from locations suspected of neoplastic proliferation and the staging biopsy

  18. Yoga as part of a package of care versus standard care for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Julie; Vancampfort, Davy

    2017-09-29

    Yoga is an ancient spiritual practice that originated in India and is currently accepted in the Western world as a form of relaxation and exercise. It has been of interest for people with schizophrenia to determine the efficacy of yoga delivered as a package of care versus standard care. To examine the effects of yoga as a package of care versus standard care. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (latest 30 March 2017) which is based on regular searches of MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, BIOSS, AMED, PsychINFO, and registries of clinical trials. We searched the references of all included studies. There are no language, date, document type, or publication status limitations for inclusion of records in the register. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) including people with schizophrenia comparing yoga as a package of care with standard-care control. The review authors independently selected studies, quality rated these, and extracted data. For binary outcomes, we calculated risk difference (RD) and its 95% confidence interval (CI), on an intention-to-treat (ITT) basis. For continuous data, we estimated the mean difference (MD) between groups and its CI. We employed mixed-effect and fixed-effect models for analysis. We examined heterogeneity (I 2 technique), assessed risk of bias for included studies, and created a 'Summary of findings' table using GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation). Three studies are included in this review. All outcomes were short term (less than eight weeks). Useable data were reported for two outcomes only; leaving the study early and quality of life. None of the participants left the studies early and there was some evidence in favour of the yoga package for quality of life endpoint scores (1 RCT, n=80, MD 22.93 CI 19.74 to 26.12, low-quality evidence). Leaving the study early data were equivocal between the treatment groups (3 RCTs, n=193, RD 0.06 CI -0.01 to 0.13, medium

  19. In situ technologies for the remediation of contaminated sites. Part 8: Biological treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghassemi, M. (URS Consultants, Inc., Long Beach, CA (USA))

    1988-04-01

    The paper discusses the in-situ technique of biodegradation for removal of organic compounds, including hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls, from contaminated soils. Biodegradation involves growing microorganisms in the soil which consume the waste, breaking it down into less harmful end products. Enhancing the biological activity may require pH adjustment or the addition of supplementary nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous, trace metals and organic carbon. This is potentially an effective, low cost, and safe method for soil and groundwater decontamination, but has yet to be demonstrated for large sites. Detox Industries of Houston, Texas, has selected and bred a bank of 200 naturally occurring, nonpathogenic soil microorganisms for degrading such substances as polychlorinated biphenyls, pentachlorophenol, and creosote. At one site, 1200 cubic yards of soil experienced a 90 percent reduction in contamination (with methylene chloride, n-butyl alcohol, dimethylaniline, and acetone) over 3 years. Costs are site- specific, but is usually 30 to 60 percent less than carbon adsorption or air stripping methods. Advantages are ease, safety, and cost. Limitations include difficulty to monitor and control, lack of experience and test data, and inapplicability of the technique where contaminants are refractory or are present at toxic levels. 11 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Biology of Byctiscus populi (L. (Coleoptera, Attelabidae. Part I. Last year’s imagoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Urban

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The biology of Byctiscus populi (L. was studied on Populus tremula L. in Forest District Bílovice nad Svitavou (former district of Brno-venkov in the period 2007 to 2009. Last year’s imagoes occurred there from the third decade of April until the end of July. Females lived in the laboratory on average 1.5 months and damaged 7.2 to 19.2 cm2 leaves. In nature, females live on average two months. They produce 20 to 30 leafrolls and lay 30 to 41 eggs. Every day, they roll up 0 to 4 (on average 0.4 leafrolls and lay 0 to 6 (on average 0.8 eggs. They lay 0 to 4 (on average 1.3 eggs into one leafroll, in the laboratory 0 to 8 (on average 2.2 eggs. In 67% leafrolls, leaves are rolled up by their adaxial face outwards, in 32% inward and in 1% towards both faces. The production of rolls (from the beginning of biting out holes into petioles to leafroll sticking takes on average two hours. Two thirds of rolls persist on shoots for the period of 1 to 4 weeks. At one third of rolls, females bite out the petioles immediately after rolling up the leaf blades and rolls fall to the soil surface.1

  1. Biological markers for anxiety disorders, OCD and PTSD: A consensus statement. Part II: Neurochemistry, neurophysiology and neurocognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelow, Borwin; Baldwin, David; Abelli, Marianna; Bolea-Alamanac, Blanca; Bourin, Michel; Chamberlain, Samuel R.; Cinosi, Eduardo; Davies, Simon; Domschke, Katharina; Fineberg, Naomi; Grünblatt, Edna; Jarema, Marek; Kim, Yong-Ku; Maron, Eduard; Masdrakis, Vasileios; Mikova, Olya; Nutt, David; Pallanti, Stefano; Pini, Stefano; Ströhle, Andreas; Thibaut, Florence; Vaghix, Matilde M.; Won, Eunsoo; Wedekind, Dirk; Wichniak, Adam; Woolley, Jade; Zwanzger, Peter; Riederer, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Objective Biomarkers are defined as anatomical, biochemical or physiological traits that are specific to certain disorders or syndromes. The objective of this paper is to summarise the current knowledge of biomarkers for anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Methods Findings in biomarker research were reviewed by a task force of international experts in the field, consisting of members of the World Federation of Societies for Biological Psychiatry Task Force on Biological Markers and of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology Anxiety Disorders Research Network. Results The present article (Part II) summarises findings on potential biomarkers in neurochemistry (neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine or GABA, neuropeptides such as cholecystokinin, neurokinins, atrial natriuretic peptide, or oxytocin, the HPA axis, neurotrophic factors such as NGF and BDNF, immunology and CO2 hypersensitivity), neurophysiology (EEG, heart rate variability) and neurocognition. The accompanying paper (Part I) focuses on neuroimaging and genetics. Conclusions Although at present, none of the putative biomarkers is sufficient and specific as a diagnostic tool, an abundance of high quality research has accumulated that should improve our understanding of the neurobiological causes of anxiety disorders, OCD and PTSD. PMID:27419272

  2. Chemical Profile and Biological Activity of Casimiroa Edulis Non-Edible Fruit`s Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafaa Mostafa Elkady

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the non-edible fruit parts of Casimiroa edulis Llave et were evaluated for their active constituents and their potential as antioxidants, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activity. Methods: Fruits peel (FP and seeds kernel (SK of Casimiroa edulis Llave et Lex. were extracted successively with hexane and then methanol. Fatty acids were prepared from hexane extracts and identified by GC. Total flavonoid, phenolic acids and tannins contents in methanol extracts were determined by UV spectrophotometer and identified by HPLC. Antioxidant, in-vitro anti-inflammatory activity and antitumor effect against Caco-2 cell line were determined. Results: GC analysis of hexane extracts showed that oleic acid (47.00% was the major unsaturated fatty acids in both extracts while lignoceric acid (15.49% is the most abundant saturated fatty acid in (FP. Total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents in (FP & (SK methanol extracts were; 37.5±1.5, 10.79±0.66 and 22.28±0.23 for (FP; 53.5±1.5mg/g, 14.44±0.32 mg/g; and 53.73±3.58 mg/g for (SK respectively. HPLC analysis of methanol extract revealed that; the major phenolic compound was pyrogallol in (FP and p-hydroxybenzoic acid in (SK, the major flavonoid was luteolin 6-arabinose-8-glucose in (FP and acacetin in (SK. Conclusion: This study showed that non-edible parts of C. edulis fruit is a rich source of different phenolic compounds and fatty acids which has great antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities; that could be used as a natural source in pharmaceutical industry.

  3. Software measurement standards for areal surface texture parameters: part 2—comparison of software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, P M; Smith, I M; Giusca, C; Leach, R K; Wang, C

    2012-01-01

    A companion paper in this issue describes reference software for the evaluation of areal surface texture parameters, focusing on the definitions of the parameters and giving details of the numerical algorithms employed in the software to implement those definitions. The reference software is used as a benchmark against which software in a measuring instrument can be compared. A data set is used as input to both the software under test and the reference software, and the results delivered by the software under test are compared with those provided by the reference software. This paper presents a comparison of the results returned by the reference software with those reported by proprietary software for surface texture measurement. Differences between the results can be used to identify where algorithms and software for evaluating the parameters differ. They might also be helpful in identifying where parameters are not sufficiently well-defined in standards. (paper)

  4. Exhaust Gas Temperature Measurements in Diagnostics of Turbocharged Marine Internal Combustion Engines Part I Standard Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczewski Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the problem of diagnostic informativeness of exhaust gas temperature measurements in turbocharged marine internal combustion engines. Theoretical principles of the process of exhaust gas flow in turbocharger inlet channels are analysed in its dynamic and energetic aspects. Diagnostic parameters are defined which enable to formulate general evaluation of technical condition of the engine based on standard online measurements of the exhaust gas temperature. A proposal is made to extend the parametric methods of diagnosing workspaces in turbocharged marine engines by analysing time-histories of enthalpy changes of the exhaust gas flowing to the turbocompressor turbine. Such a time-history can be worked out based on dynamic measurements of the exhaust gas temperature, performed using a specially designed sheathed thermocouple.

  5. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) part 6-2 : generic standards : immunity for industrial environments

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    1999-01-01

    Applies to electrical and electronic apparatus intended for use in industrial environments, for which no designed product or product-family immunity standard exists. Immunity requirements in the frequency range 0 Hz to 400 GHz are covered, in relation to continuous and transient, conducted and radiated disturbances, including electrostatic discharges. Test requirements are specified for each port considered. Apparatus intended to be used in industrial locations are characterized by the existence of one or more of the following: - a power network exists powered by a high or medium voltage power transformer for the supply of an installation feeding manufacturing or similar plant; - industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) apparatus; - heavy inductive or capacitive loads are frequently switched; - currents and associated magnetic fields are high.

  6. National Educators' Workshop: Update 2003. Standard Experiments in Engineering, Materials Science, and Technology. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Edwin J. (Compiler); Jacobs, James A. (Compiler); Edmonson, William (Compiler); Wilkerson, Amy (Compiler)

    2004-01-01

    The 18th Annual National Educators Workshop [NEW:Update 2003] was a part of NASA Langley s celebration of the Centennial of Controlled, Powered Flight by Orville and Wilbur Wright on December 17, 1903. The conference proceedings from NEW:Update 2003 reflect the Flight 100 theme by first providing a historic perspective on the remarkable accomplishments of the Wright Brothers. The historical perspective set the stag for insights into aeronautics and aerospace structures and materials now and into the future. The NEW:Update 2003 proceedings provide valuable resources to educators and students in the form of visuals, experiments and demonstrations for classes/labs at levels ranging from precollege through college education.

  7. National Educators' Workshop: Update 2003. Standard Experiments in Engineering, Materials Science, and Technology. Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Edwin J. (Compiler); Jacobs, James A. (Compiler); Edmonson, William (Compiler); Wilkerson, Amy (Compiler)

    2004-01-01

    The 18th Annual National Educators Workshop [NEW:Update 2003] was a part of NASA Langley s celebration of the Centennial of Controlled, Powered Flight by Orville and Wilbur Wright on December 17, 1903. The conference proceedings from NEW:Update 2003 reflect the Flight 100 theme by first providing a historic perspective on the remarkable accomplishments of the Wright Brothers. The historical perspective set the stag for insights into aeronautics and aerospace structures and materials now and into the future. The NEW:Update 2003 proceedings provide valuable resources to educators and students in the form of visuals, experiments and demonstrations for classes/labs at levels ranging from precollege through college education.

  8. Phytochemical and biological study of the aerial parts of Lotus Lalambensis growing in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Youssef, Hanan M.; Murphy, Brian T.; Amer, Masouda E.; Abdel-Kader, Maged S.; Kingston, David J.I.

    2008-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts of Lotus lalambensis Schwenif resulted in the isolation and identification of 20 known compounds. Liquid-Liquid fractionation of the crude extract followed by chromatographic purification resulted in the isolation of lupeol, b-sitosterol, oleanolic acid, b-sitosterol glucoside and stigmasterol glucoside from petroleum ether fraction. The chloroform fraction afforded heptadecanol, kaempferol (1), kaempferol-3-O-a-L-rhamnoside (2), lotaustralin (3) epilotaaustralin (4), linamarin (5), kaempferol-3, 7-di-O-a-L-rhamnopyranoside (kaempferitin) (6) and ethyl-O-b-glucopyranoside (7). From the ethyl acetate fraction three simple rhamnosyl derivatives; butyl-O-a-L-rhamnopyranoside (8) methyl-O-a-L-rhamnopyranoside (9) and methyl-O-b-rhamnopyranoside (10) were obtained. Kaempferol-3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside-7-O-a-L-rhamnopyranoside (11), kaempferol-3-O-a- [b-D-glucopyranosyl-(1''''-2'''')-L- rhamnopyranoside]-7-O-a-L- rhamnopyranoside (12), kaempferol-3-O-b-D- rhamnopyranoside-7-O-a-[b-D-glucopyranosyl -(1'''-2'')-L- rhamnopyranoside] (13) and the myo-inositol (+) D-pinitol (14) were isolated from the butanol extract. The total extract and the different fractions were evaluated for their possible estrogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-platelets aggregation activities. The chloroform extract showed the highest estrogenic activity, while the petroleum ether was the best in protection against inflammation induced by carrageenan. The strongest inhibition of platelet aggregations were observed with the aqueous fraction. (author)

  9. Influence of Pichia pastoris cellular material on polymerase chain reaction performance as a synthetic biology standard for genome monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templar, Alexander; Woodhouse, Stefan; Keshavarz-Moore, Eli; Nesbeth, Darren N

    2016-08-01

    Advances in synthetic genomics are now well underway in yeasts due to the low cost of synthetic DNA. These new capabilities also bring greater need for quantitating the presence, loss and rearrangement of loci within synthetic yeast genomes. Methods for achieving this will ideally; i) be robust to industrial settings, ii) adhere to a global standard and iii) be sufficiently rapid to enable at-line monitoring during cell growth. The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) is increasingly used for industrial production of biotherapeutic proteins so we sought to answer the following questions for this particular yeast species. Is time-consuming DNA purification necessary to obtain accurate end-point polymerase chain reaction (e-pPCR) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) data? Can the novel linear regression of efficiency qPCR method (LRE qPCR), which has properties desirable in a synthetic biology standard, match the accuracy of conventional qPCR? Does cell cultivation scale influence PCR performance? To answer these questions we performed e-pPCR and qPCR in the presence and absence of cellular material disrupted by a mild 30s sonication procedure. The e-pPCR limit of detection (LOD) for a genomic target locus was 50pg (4.91×10(3) copies) of purified genomic DNA (gDNA) but the presence of cellular material reduced this sensitivity sixfold to 300pg gDNA (2.95×10(4) copies). LRE qPCR matched the accuracy of a conventional standard curve qPCR method. The presence of material from bioreactor cultivation of up to OD600=80 did not significantly compromise the accuracy of LRE qPCR. We conclude that a simple and rapid cell disruption step is sufficient to render P. pastoris samples of up to OD600=80 amenable to analysis using LRE qPCR which we propose as a synthetic biology standard. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Standardization of digestion procedure for the determination of heavy metals in biological materials by atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, N.; Chaudhri, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    Proper decomposition of the sample is one of the basic requirements of the atomic absorption spectroscopic analysis. In the present studies, heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) were determined in biological samples by designating them in a mixture of nitric acid and perchloric acid. The quantification was made with atomic absorption spectrometry using an air-acetylene flame. The reliability of the procedure used was checked by analysing standard reference materials from NBS and IAEA, such as Rice flour (NBS-SRM-1568), Horse Kidney (IAEA H-8), Mixed Human diet(IAEA H-9), Copepod (IAEA MA-A-1) and fish flesh (IAEA MA-A-2) under identical conditions. A good agreement was observed between determined and the certified values reported by NBS and IAEA. (author)

  11. Biologic Treatments for Sports Injuries II Think Tank-Current Concepts, Future Research, and Barriers to Advancement, Part 1: Biologics Overview, Ligament Injury, Tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPrade, Robert F; Geeslin, Andrew G; Murray, Iain R; Musahl, Volker; Zlotnicki, Jason P; Petrigliano, Frank; Mann, Barton J

    2016-12-01

    Biologic therapies, including stem cells, platelet-rich plasma, growth factors, and other biologically active adjuncts, have recently received increased attention in the basic science and clinical literature. At the 2015 AOSSM Biologics II Think Tank held in Colorado Springs, Colorado, a group of orthopaedic surgeons, basic scientists, veterinarians, and other investigators gathered to review the state of the science for biologics and barriers to implementation of biologics for the treatment of sports medicine injuries. This series of current concepts reviews reports the summary of the scientific presentations, roundtable discussions, and recommendations from this think tank. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Nuclear fuel technology - Tank calibration and volume determination for nuclear materials accountancy - Part 2: Data standardization for tank calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of the volume and height of liquid in a process accountancy tank are often made in order to estimate or verify the tank's calibration or volume measurement equation. The calibration equation relates the response of the tank's measurement system to some independent measure of tank volume. The ultimate purpose of the calibration exercise is to estimate the tank's volume measurement equation (the inverse of the calibration equation), which relates tank volume to measurement system response. In this part of ISO 18213, it is assumed that the primary measurement-system response variable is liquid height and that the primary measure of liquid content is volume. This part of ISO 18213 presents procedures for standardizing a set of calibration data to a fixed set of reference conditions so as to minimize the effect of variations in ambient conditions that occur during the measurement process. The procedures presented herein apply generally to measurements of liquid height and volume obtained for the purpose of calibrating a tank (i.e. calibrating a tank's measurement system). When used in connection with other parts of ISO 18213, these procedures apply specifically to tanks equipped with bubbler probe systems for measuring liquid content. The standardization algorithms presented herein can be profitably applied when only estimates of ambient conditions, such as temperature, are available. However, the most reliable results are obtained when relevant ambient conditions are measured for each measurement of volume and liquid height in a set of calibration data. Information is provided on scope, physical principles, data required, calibration data, dimensional changes in the tank, multiple calibration runs and results on standardized calibration data. Four annexes inform about density of water, buoyancy corrections for mass determination, determination of tank heel volume and statistical method for aligning data from several calibration runs. A bibliography is

  13. Gaseous VOCs rapidly modify particulate matter and its biological effects - Part 1: Simple VOCs and model PM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersviller, S.; Lichtveld, K.; Sexton, K. G.; Zavala, J.; Lin, Y.-H.; Jaspers, I.; Jeffries, H. E.

    2012-12-01

    This is the first of a three-part study designed to demonstrate dynamic entanglements among gaseous organic compounds (VOC), particulate matter (PM), and their subsequent potential biological effects. We study these entanglements in increasingly complex VOC and PM mixtures in urban-like conditions in a large outdoor chamber. To the traditional chemical and physical characterizations of gas and PM, we added new measurements of biological effects, using cultured human lung cells as model indicators. These biological effects are assessed here as increases in cellular damage or expressed irritation (i.e., cellular toxic effects) from cells exposed to chamber air relative to cells exposed to clean air. The exposure systems permit virtually gas-only- or PM-only-exposures from the same air stream containing both gases and PM in equilibria, i.e., there are no extractive operations prior to cell exposure. Our simple experiments in this part of the study were designed to eliminate many competing atmospheric processes to reduce ambiguity in our results. Simple volatile and semi-volatile organic gases that have inherent cellular toxic properties were tested individually for biological effect in the dark (at constant humidity). Airborne mixtures were then created with each compound to which we added PM that has no inherent cellular toxic properties for another cellular exposure. Acrolein and p-tolualdehyde were used as model VOCs and mineral oil aerosol (MOA) was selected as a surrogate for organic-containing PM. MOA is appropriately complex in composition to represent ambient PM, and exhibits no inherent cellular toxic effects and thus did not contribute any biological detrimental effects on its own. Chemical measurements, combined with the responses of our biological exposures, clearly demonstrate that gas-phase pollutants can modify the composition of PM (and its resulting detrimental effects on lung cells). We observed that, even if the gas-phase pollutants are not

  14. Electrical, Electronic, and Electromechanical (EEE) Parts Management and Control Requirements for Space Flight Hardware and Critical Ground Support Equipment...aka... The NASA EEE Parts Standard, NASA-STD 8739.10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewicz, Peter; Sampson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Describes development and content of a new NASA Standard for Electrical Electronic and Electromechanical (EEE) parts. This Standard reflects current practices, instead of changing them. Most NASA Centers utilize local documents, but there is minimal consistency across the Agency. A gap analysis clearly shows the differences that exist among the different centers and with respect to the NASA Parts Policy. Once approved, the new standard can be referenced in contracts and agreements with organizations outside of NASA.

  15. Implementation and evaluation of a training program as part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program in Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April eJohnson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A training program for animal and human health professionals has been implemented in Azerbaijan through a joint agreement between the United States Defense Threat Reduction Agency and the Government of Azerbaijan. The training program is administered as part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program, and targets key employees in Azerbaijan’s disease surveillance system including physicians, veterinarians, epidemiologists, and laboratory personnel. Training is aimed at improving detection, diagnosis, and response to especially dangerous pathogens, although the techniques and methodologies can be applied to other pathogens and diseases of concern. Biosafety and biosecurity training is provided to all trainees within the program. Prior to 2014, a variety of international agencies and organizations provided training, which resulted in gaps related to lack of coordination of training materials and content. In 2014 a new training program was implemented in order to address those gaps. This paper provides an overview of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program training program in Azerbaijan, a description of how the program fits into existing national training infrastructure, and an evaluation of the new program’s effectiveness to date. Long-term sustainability of the program is also discussed.

  16. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data.... Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone. 2.1 Data Reporting and Handling Conventions... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of...

  17. ARADISH - Development of a Standardized Plant Growth Chamber for Experiments in Gravitational Biology Using Ground Based Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüler, Oliver; Krause, Lars; Görög, Mark; Hauslage, Jens; Kesseler, Leona; Böhmer, Maik; Hemmersbach, Ruth

    2016-06-01

    Plant development strongly relies on environmental conditions. Growth of plants in Biological Life Support Systems (BLSS), which are a necessity to allow human survival during long-term space exploration missions, poses a particular problem for plant growth, as in addition to the traditional environmental factors, microgravity (or reduced gravity such as on Moon or Mars) and limited gas exchange hamper plant growth. Studying the effects of reduced gravity on plants requires real or simulated microgravity experiments under highly standardized conditions, in order to avoid the influence of other environmental factors. Analysis of a large number of biological replicates, which is necessary for the detection of subtle phenotypical differences, can so far only be achieved in Ground Based Facilities (GBF). Besides different experimental conditions, the usage of a variety of different plant growth chambers was a major factor that led to a lack of reproducibility and comparability in previous studies. We have developed a flexible and customizable plant growth chamber, called ARAbidopsis DISH (ARADISH), which allows plant growth from seed to seedling, being realized in a hydroponic system or on Agar. By developing a special holder, the ARADISH can be used for experiments with Arabidopsis thaliana or a plant with a similar habitus on common GBF hardware, including 2D clinostats and Random Positioning Machines (RPM). The ARADISH growth chamber has a controlled illumination system of red and blue light emitting diodes (LED), which allows the user to apply defined light conditions. As a proof of concept we tested a prototype in a proteomic experiment in which plants were exposed to simulated microgravity or a 90° stimulus. We optimized the design and performed viability tests after several days of growth in the hardware that underline the utility of ARADISH in microgravity research.

  18. Telemetry Standards, Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    IMAGE FRAME RATE (R-x\\ IFR -n) PRE-TRIGGER FRAMES (R-x\\PTG-n) TOTAL FRAMES (R-x\\TOTF-n) EXPOSURE TIME (R-x\\EXP-n) SENSOR ROTATION (R-x...0” (Single frame). “1” (Multi-frame). “2” (Continuous). Allowed when: When R\\CDT is “IMGIN” IMAGE FRAME RATE R-x\\ IFR -n R/R Ch 10 Status: RO...the settings that the user wishes to modify. Return Value The impact : A partial IHAL <configuration> element containing only the new settings for

  19. Engineering BioBrick vectors from BioBrick parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Thomas F

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The underlying goal of synthetic biology is to make the process of engineering biological systems easier. Recent work has focused on defining and developing standard biological parts. The technical standard that has gained the most traction in the synthetic biology community is the BioBrick standard for physical composition of genetic parts. Parts that conform to the BioBrick assembly standard are BioBrick standard biological parts. To date, over 2,000 BioBrick parts have been contributed to, and are available from, the Registry of Standard Biological Parts. Results Here we extended the same advantages of BioBrick standard biological parts to the plasmid-based vectors that are used to provide and propagate BioBrick parts. We developed a process for engineering BioBrick vectors from BioBrick parts. We designed a new set of BioBrick parts that encode many useful vector functions. We combined the new parts to make a BioBrick base vector that facilitates BioBrick vector construction. We demonstrated the utility of the process by constructing seven new BioBrick vectors. We also successfully used the resulting vectors to assemble and propagate other BioBrick standard biological parts. Conclusion We extended the principles of part reuse and standardization to BioBrick vectors. As a result, myriad new BioBrick vectors can be readily produced from all existing and newly designed BioBrick parts. We invite the synthetic biology community to (1 use the process to make and share new BioBrick vectors; (2 expand the current collection of BioBrick vector parts; and (3 characterize and improve the available collection of BioBrick vector parts.

  20. 78 FR 23940 - Use of International Standard ISO-10993, “Biological Evaluation of Medical Devices Part 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ...., color additives), and sample preparation for submicron or nanotechnology components, in situ... found in FDA regulations. These collections of information are subject to review by the Office of...

  1. Identification and Characterization of 5′ Untranslated Regions (5′UTRs in Zymomonas mobilis as Regulatory Biological Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hee Cho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory RNA regions within a transcript, particularly in the 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR, have been shown in a variety of organisms to control the expression levels of these mRNAs in response to various metabolites or environmental conditions. Considering the unique tolerance of Zymomonas mobilis to ethanol and the growing interest in engineering microbial strains with enhanced tolerance to industrial inhibitors, we searched natural cis-regulatory regions in this microorganism using transcriptomic data and bioinformatics analysis. Potential regulatory 5′UTRs were identified and filtered based on length, gene function, relative gene counts, and conservation in other organisms. An in vivo fluorescence-based screening system was developed to confirm the responsiveness of 36 5′UTR candidates to ethanol, acetate, and xylose stresses. UTR_ZMO0347 (5′UTR of gene ZMO0347 encoding the RNA binding protein Hfq was found to down-regulate downstream gene expression under ethanol stress. Genomic deletion of UTR_ZMO0347 led to a general decrease of hfq expression at the transcript level and increased sensitivity for observed changes in Hfq expression at the protein level. The role of UTR_ZMO0347 and other 5′UTRs gives us insight into the regulatory network of Z. mobilis in response to stress and unlocks new strategies for engineering robust industrial strains as well as for harvesting novel responsive regulatory biological parts for controllable gene expression platforms in this organism.

  2. DEVELOPING STANDARDS FOR ASSESSING ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL STRESSORS THROUGH ASTM COMMITTEE E47: A PAST FOUNDATION OF PROVEN STANDARDS, A FUTURE OF GREAT POTENTIAL AND OPPORTUNITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of standards associated with assessing the bioavailability of contaminants in sediment will be used as a case study for how standards have been developed through Committee E47. In 1987, Committee E47 established Subcommittee E47.03 on Sediment Assessment and Toxicity....

  3. The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Guidelines for the Biological Treatment of Substance Use and Related Disorders. Part 2: Opioid dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soyka, Michael; Kranzler, Henry R.; van den Brink, Wim; Krystal, John; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Kasper, Siegfried

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To develop evidence-based practice guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of opioid abuse and dependence. Methods. An international task force of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) developed these practice guidelines after a systematic review of the

  4. Radiation damage and repair in cells and cell components. Part 2. Physical radiations and biological significance. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluke, D.J.

    1984-08-01

    The report comprises a teaching text, encompassing all physical radiations likely to be of biological interest, and the relevant biological effects and their significance. Topics include human radiobiology, delayed effects, radiation absorption in organisms, aqueous radiation chemistry, cell radiobiology, mutagenesis, and photobiology

  5. The impact of a scheduling change on ninth grade high school performance on biology benchmark exams and the California Standards Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Marcelo

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a scheduling change from a trimester 4x4 block schedule to a modified hybrid schedule on student achievement in ninth grade biology courses. This study examined the impact of the scheduling change on student achievement through teacher created benchmark assessments in Genetics, DNA, and Evolution and on the California Standardized Test in Biology. The secondary purpose of this study examined the ninth grade biology teacher perceptions of ninth grade biology student achievement. Using a mixed methods research approach, data was collected both quantitatively and qualitatively as aligned to research questions. Quantitative methods included gathering data from departmental benchmark exams and California Standardized Test in Biology and conducting multiple analysis of covariance and analysis of covariance to determine significance differences. Qualitative methods include journal entries questions and focus group interviews. The results revealed a statistically significant increase in scores on both the DNA and Evolution benchmark exams. DNA and Evolution benchmark exams showed significant improvements from a change in scheduling format. The scheduling change was responsible for 1.5% of the increase in DNA benchmark scores and 2% of the increase in Evolution benchmark scores. The results revealed a statistically significant decrease in scores on the Genetics Benchmark exam as a result of the scheduling change. The scheduling change was responsible for 1% of the decrease in Genetics benchmark scores. The results also revealed a statistically significant increase in scores on the CST Biology exam. The scheduling change was responsible for .7% of the increase in CST Biology scores. Results of the focus group discussions indicated that all teachers preferred the modified hybrid schedule over the trimester schedule and that it improved student achievement.

  6. Evaluation of pump pulsation in respirable size-selective sampling: Part III. Investigation of European standard methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Jhy-Charm; Lee, Eun Gyung; Lee, Larry A; Kashon, Michael L; Harper, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Lee et al. (Evaluation of pump pulsation in respirable size-selective sampling: part I. Pulsation measurements. Ann Occup Hyg 2014a;58:60-73) introduced an approach to measure pump pulsation (PP) using a real-world sampling train, while the European Standards (EN) (EN 1232-1997 and EN 12919-1999) suggest measuring PP using a resistor in place of the sampler. The goal of this study is to characterize PP according to both EN methods and to determine the relationship of PP between the published method (Lee et al., 2014a) and the EN methods. Additional test parameters were investigated to determine whether the test conditions suggested by the EN methods were appropriate for measuring pulsations. Experiments were conducted using a factorial combination of personal sampling pumps (six medium- and two high-volumetric flow rate pumps), back pressures (six medium- and seven high-flow rate pumps), resistors (two types), tubing lengths between a pump and resistor (60 and 90 cm), and different flow rates (2 and 2.5 l min(-1) for the medium- and 4.4, 10, and 11.2 l min(-1) for the high-flow rate pumps). The selection of sampling pumps and the ranges of back pressure were based on measurements obtained in the previous study (Lee et al., 2014a). Among six medium-flow rate pumps, only the Gilian5000 and the Apex IS conformed to the 10% criterion specified in EN 1232-1997. Although the AirChek XR5000 exceeded the 10% limit, the average PP (10.9%) was close to the criterion. One high-flow rate pump, the Legacy (PP=8.1%), conformed to the 10% criterion in EN 12919-1999, while the Elite12 did not (PP=18.3%). Conducting supplemental tests with additional test parameters beyond those used in the two subject EN standards did not strengthen the characterization of PPs. For the selected test conditions, a linear regression model [PPEN=0.014+0.375×PPNIOSH (adjusted R2=0.871)] was developed to determine the PP relationship between the published method (Lee et al., 2014a) and the EN methods

  7. Net Analyte Signal Standard Additions Method for Simultaneous Determination of Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim in Pharmaceutical Formulations and Biological Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Givianrad, M. H.; Mohagheghian, M.

    2012-01-01

    The applicability of a novel net analyte signal standard addition method (NASSAM) to the resolving of overlapping spectra corresponding to the sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim was verified by UV-visible spectrophotometry. The results confirmed that the net analyte signal standard additions method with simultaneous addition of both analytes is suitable for the simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in aqueous media. Moreover, applying the net analyte signal standard a...

  8. A strategic approach for managing conflict in hospitals: responding to the Joint Commission leadership standard, Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Charity; Gerardi, Debra

    2011-02-01

    A well-designed conflict management process for hospital leaders should both retain the positive benefits of constructive conflict engagement and minimize the adverse consequences that unmanaged conflict can have on patient care. Dispute system design (DSD) experts recommend processes that emphasize the identification of the disputing parties' interests and that avoid reliance on exertions of power or resort to rights. In an emerging trend in designing conflict management systems, focus is placed on the relational dynamics among those involved in the conflict, in recognition of the reciprocal impact that each participant in a conflict has on the other. The aim is then to restore trust and heal damaged relationships as a component of resolution. The intent of Standard LD.02.04.01 is to prevent escalation to formal legal disputes and encourage leaders to overcome their conflict-avoidance tendencies through the use of well-designed approaches that support engagement with conflict. The sequence of collaborative options consists of individual coaching and counseling; informal face-to-face meetings; informal, internally facilitated meetings; informal, externally facilitated meetings; formal mediation; and postdispute analysis and feedback. Every hospital has unique needs, and every conflict management process must be tailored to individual circumstances. The recommendations in this two-part article can be adapted and incorporated in other, more comprehensive conflict management processes throughout the hospital. Expanding the conflict competence of leaders to enable them to effectively engage in and model constructive conflict-handling behaviors will further support the strategic goal of providing safe and effective patient care.

  9. Acute and Impaired Wound Healing: Pathophysiology and Current Methods for Drug Delivery, Part 1: Normal and Chronic Wounds: Biology, Causes, and Approaches to Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidova-Rice, Tatiana N.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Herman, Ira M.

    2012-01-01

    This is the first installment of 2 articles that discuss the biology and pathophysiology of wound healing, review the role that growth factors play in this process, and describe current ways of growth factor delivery into the wound bed. Part 1 discusses the latest advances in clinicians’ understanding of the control points that regulate wound healing. Importantly, biological similarities and differences between acute and chronic wounds are considered, including the signaling pathways that initiate cellular and tissue responses after injury, which may be impeded during chronic wound healing. PMID:22713781

  10. ASTM lights the way for tissue engineered medical products standards: jump start for combination medical products that restore biological function of human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciolo, G L; Stocum, D L

    2001-01-01

    Everybody hopes for better health and restoration of impaired bodily function, and now that hope is illuminated by the promise of powerful biological tools that make human cells grow and replace human tissue. ASTM Committee F04 on Medical and Surgical Materials and Devices is taking the lead by defining some of those tools as standards that can be used for the development, production, testing, and regulatory approval of medical products.

  11. Comparative Phytochemical Analysis of Essential Oils from Different Biological Parts of Artemisia herba alba and Their Cytotoxic Effect on Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilaoui, Mounir; Ait Mouse, Hassan; Jaafari, Abdeslam; Zyad, Abdelmajid

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Carrying out the chemical composition and antiproliferative effects against cancer cells from different biological parts of Artemisia herba alba. Methods Essential oils were studied by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and their antitumoral activity was tested against P815 mastocytoma and BSR kidney carcinoma cell lines; also, in order to evaluate the effect on normal human cells, oils were tested against peripheral blood mononuclear cells PBMCs. Results Essential oils from leaves and aerial parts (mixture of capitulum and leaves) were mainly composed by oxygenated sesquiterpenes 39.89% and 46.15% respectively; capitulum oil contained essentially monoterpenes (22.86%) and monocyclic monoterpenes (21.48%); esters constituted the major fraction (62.8%) of stem oil. Essential oils of different biological parts studied demonstrated a differential antiproliferative activity against P815 and BSR cancer cells; P815 cells are the most sensitive to the cytotoxic effect. Leaves and capitulum essential oils are more active than aerial parts. Interestingly, no cytotoxic effect of these essential oils was observed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Conclusion Our results showed that the chemical composition variability of essential oils depends on the nature of botanical parts of Artemisia herba alba. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the differential cytotoxic effect depends not only on the essential oils concentration, but also on the target cells and the botanical parts of essential oils used. PMID:26196123

  12. Part A. Neutron activation analysis of selenium and vanadium in biological matrices. Part B. Isomeric transition activation in aqueous solutions of alkyl bromides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahim, A.

    1988-01-01

    Several procedures were evaluated for determination of selenium in biological fluids and vanadium in biological tissues by neutron activation analysis (NAA) employing 77m Se and 52 V isotopes, respectively. Procedures for determination of total selenium, trimethylselenonium (TMSe) ion and selenite (SeO 3 2- ) ion in urine and serum and for total selenoamino acids in urine were developed by utilizing anion exchange chromatography and molecular NAA. A pre-column derivatization of selenoamino acids with o-phthalaldehyde was necessary for their determination. Also an analytical approach was developed for determination of trace vanadium in liver samples from normal and diabetic rats as well as human and cow. Reactions of bromine-80 activated by radiative neutron capture and bromine-82 activated by isomeric transition were investigated in aqueous solutions of bromomethane and 1-bromobutane. Bromine-80 organic yields decreased with decreasing solute concentrations. The tendency for aggregation of the solute molecules diminished as the solute concentration approached zero where the probable state of the solute approached a monomolecular dispersion. Unlike reactions of 80 Br born by 79 Br(n,γ) 80 Br reaction, the total organic product yields resulting from the 82m Br(I.T.) 82 Br process showed no solute concentration dependence

  13. The Johns Hopkins RTR Consortium: A Collaborative Approach to Advance Translational Science and Standardize Clinical Monitoring of Restorative Transplantation - Immunomodulation and Tolerance Induction after VCA using Biologic Agent (cTLA4-Ig) and Donor Bone Marrow Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Standardize Clinical Monitoring of Restorative Transplantation – Immunomodulation and Tolerance Induction after VCA using Biologic Agent (cTLA4-Ig) and...Translational Science and Standardize Clinical Monitoring of Restorative Transplantation – Immunomodulation and Tolerance Induction after VCA using Biologic...wider application. Thus the purpose of this project is to develop novel clinically relevant regimens for immunomodulation and tolerance induction after

  14. Radiation preservation of biological tissues with special emphasis on immunological alterations. Part of a coordinated programme on radiosterilization of medical products and biological tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feher, I.

    1977-01-01

    A method suitable for clinical use and preparations of tendon and skin preserved by lyophilization and radiosterilization were investigated. The fate of the graft was detected by histological and electronmicroscopical investigations. We demonstrated that the implanted preparation was desorganized and was absorbed within six weeks. Clinical examinations were made on pig-tendon preparations. Patients recovered without difficulties in every case. Skin preparations were prepared of pig-skin. It was demonstrated by indirect haemagglutination that pig-skin antigenity was decreased by approximately two orders of magnitude during the preservation process. The clinical application of skin preparations has been used for nearly two years. It is effectively used as a biological dressing for the covering of wound surface in case of burn injuries

  15. The biological restoration of central nervous system architecture and function: part 1-foundations and historical landmarks in contemporary stem cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farin, Azadeh; Liu, Charles Y; Elder, James B; Langmoen, Iver A; Apuzzo, Michael L J

    2009-01-01

    Since their discovery, stem cells have fascinated scientists with their ultimate potential: the ability to cure disease, repair altered physiology, and reverse neurological deficit. Stem cell science unquestionably promises to eliminate many of the tragic limitations contemporary medicine must acknowledge, and cloning may provide young cells for an aging population. Although it is widely believed that stem cells will transform the way medicine is practiced, therapeutic interventions using stem cell technology are still in their infancy. The 3 most common stem cell sources studied today are umbilical cord blood, bone marrow, and human embryos. Although cord blood is currently used to treat dozens of disorders and bone marrow stem cells have been used clinically since the 1960s, human embryonic stem cells have yet to be successfully applied to any disease. Undeniably, stem cell therapy has the potential to be one of the most powerful therapeutic options available. In this introductory article of a 5-part series on stem cells, we narrate the evolution of modern stem cell science, delineating major landmarks that will prove responsible for taking stem cell technology from the laboratory into revolutionary clinical applications: from the first milestone of identifying the mouse hematopoietic stem cell to the latest feats of producing pluripotent stem cells without embryos at all. In Part 2, we present the evidence demonstrating the certainty of adult mammalian neurogenesis; in Parts 3 and 4, we describe neurosurgical applications of stem cell technology; and in Part 5, we discuss the philosophical and ethical issues surrounding stem cell therapy, as well as future areas of exploration.

  16. Radiation protection standards: a summary of the biological effects of ionising radiation and principles of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This leaflet in the NRPB At-a-Glance-Series briefly summarises the biological effects of radiation, harm and sensitivity to radiation, radiation protection principles, acceptability of risk and the control of doses to workers, the public and in medical procedures in the UK. (UK)

  17. Instrumental charged-particle activation analysis of several selected elements in biological materials using the internal standard method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, M.; Masumoto, K.

    1987-01-01

    In order to study instrumental charged-particle activation analysis using the internal standard method, simultaneous determinations of several selected elements such as Ca, Ti, V, Fe, Zn, As, Sr, Zr and Mo, in oyster tissue, brewer's yeast and mussel were carried out by using the respective (p, n) reactions and a personal computer-based gamma-ray spectrometer equipped with a micro-robot for sample changing. In the determination constant amounts of Y and La were added to the sample and comparative standard as exotic internal standards. As a result, it was demonstrated that concentrations of the above elements could be determined accurately and precisely. (author)

  18. Development of a coupled physical-biological ecosystem model ECOSMO - Part I: Model description and validation for the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrum, Corinna; Alekseeva, I.; St. John, Michael

    2006-01-01

    A 3-D coupled biophysical model ECOSMO (ECOSystem MOdel) has been developed. The biological module of ECOSMO is based on lower trophic level interactions between two phyto- and two zooplankton components. The dynamics of the different phytoplankton components are governed by the availability...... of the macronutrients nitrogen, phosphate and silicate as well as light. Zooplankton production is simulated based on the consumption of the different phytoplankton groups and detritus. The biological module is coupled to a nonlinear 3-D baroclinic model. The physical and biological modules are driven by surface...... showed that the model, based on consideration of limiting processes, is able to reproduce the observed spatial and seasonal variability of the North Sea ecosystem e.g. the spring bloom, summer sub-surface production and the fall bloom. Distinct differences in regional characteristics of diatoms...

  19. Keys to a successful project: Associated data and planning: Data standards. Chapter 5 in Measuring and monitoring biological diversity: Standard methods for amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDiarmid, Roy W.; Heyer, W. Ronald; Donnelly, Maureen A.; McDiarmid, Roy W.; Hayek, Lee-Ann C.; Foster, Mercedes S.

    1994-01-01

    The many individual salamanders, frogs, caecilians, and their larvae encountered during the course of an inventory or monitoring project will have to be identified to species. Depending on the goals and sampling method(s) used, some individuals will be identified from a distance by their calls, others will be handled. At the same time, some will be marked for recapture, and others will be sampled as vouchers. For each, certain minimum data should be recorded. In this section, data pertaining to locality and sampling methodology are considered, information on microhabitats and specimen vouchers is covered in sections that follow. I feel strongly that the data outlined here should be the minimum for any project. Investigators with specific goals may require additional types of data as well.Standardized, printed sheets containing the required data categories provide a convenient, inexpensive, and effective way to ensure that all the desired information is recorded in a consistent format, Data sheets should be well organized, printed on good-quality paper (75%-100% cotton content) and include extra space (e.g., other side of sheet) for notes that do not fit preestablished categoriesData should be recorded in the field with permanent (waterproof) ink as simply and directly as possible. I strongly recommend against the use of data codes in the field; it is too easy to forget codes or to enter the wrong code. Original data sheets can be photocopied for security, but they should not be copied by hand. If data are to be coded for computer analysis, the original or photocopied sheets should be used for data entry to minimize transcription errors. Some workers prefer recording information on small tape recorders; this also works well if a list of the standard data categories is checked during taping to ensure that all required information is recorded. Information recorded on tapes should be transcribed to data sheets or into a computer within 24 hours of the sample.

  20. Partial verification bias and incorporation bias affected accuracy estimates of diagnostic studies for biomarkers that were part of an existing composite gold standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karch, Annika; Koch, Armin; Zapf, Antonia; Zerr, Inga; Karch, André

    2016-10-01

    To investigate how choice of gold standard biases estimates of sensitivity and specificity in studies reassessing the diagnostic accuracy of biomarkers that are already part of a lifetime composite gold standard (CGS). We performed a simulation study based on the real-life example of the biomarker "protein 14-3-3" used for diagnosing Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Three different types of gold standard were compared: perfect gold standard "autopsy" (available in a small fraction only; prone to partial verification bias), lifetime CGS (including the biomarker under investigation; prone to incorporation bias), and "best available" gold standard (autopsy if available, otherwise CGS). Sensitivity was unbiased when comparing 14-3-3 with autopsy but overestimated when using CGS or "best available" gold standard. Specificity of 14-3-3 was underestimated in scenarios comparing 14-3-3 with autopsy (up to 24%). In contrast, overestimation (up to 20%) was observed for specificity compared with CGS; this could be reduced to 0-10% when using the "best available" gold standard. Choice of gold standard affects considerably estimates of diagnostic accuracy. Using the "best available" gold standard (autopsy where available, otherwise CGS) leads to valid estimates of specificity, whereas sensitivity is estimated best when tested against autopsy alone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 63 - Monitoring Procedure for Nonthoroughly Mixed Open Biological Treatment Systems at Kraft Pulp...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., including methods, locations, and times; (3) A description of what conditions (DO, temperature, etc.) are... conditions. The purpose of this procedure is to estimate the concentration of HAP within the open biological... locations of the unit. This procedure may be used only under unsafe sampling conditions to estimate fbio...

  2. How to Choose between the Implant Materials Steel and Titanium in Orthopedic Trauma Surgery: Part 2 - Biological Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perren, S M; Regazzoni, P; Fernandez, A A

    2017-01-01

    BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF STEEL AND TITANIUM AS IMPLANT MATERIAL IN ORTHOPEDIC TRAUMA SURGERY The following case from the ICUC database, where a titanium plate was implanted into a flourishing infection, represents the clinical experience leading to preferring titanium over steel. (Fig. 1) (6). Current opinions regarding biological aspects of implant function. The "street" opinions regarding the biological aspects of the use of steel versus titanium as a surgical trauma implant material differ widely. Statements of opinion leaders range from "I do not see any difference in the biological behavior between steel and titanium in clinical application" to "I successfully use titanium implants in infected areas in a situation where steel would act as foreign body "sustaining" infection." Furthermore, some comments imply that clinical proof for the superiority of titanium in human application is lacking. The following tries to clarify the issues addressing the different aspects more through a practical clinical approach than a purely scientific one, this includes simplifications. Today's overall biocompatibility of implant materials is acceptable but: As the vast majority of secondary surgeries are elective procedures this allows the selection of implant materials with optimal infection resistance. The different biological reactions of stainless steel and titanium are important for this segment of clinical pathologies. Biological tole - rance (18) depends on the toxicity and on the amount of soluble implant material released. Release, diffusion and washout through blood circulation determine the local concentration of the corrosion products. Alloying components of steel, especially nickel and chromium, are less than optimal in respect to tissue tolerance and allergenicity. Titanium as a pure metal provides excellent biological tolerance (3, 4, 16). Better strength was obtained by titanium alloys like TiAl6V4. The latter found limited application as surgical implants. It

  3. Fairness & Equity: Standards of Good Practice in the Employment of Part-Time/Adjunct Faculty. Item Number 36-0698

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Federation of Teachers, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Citing a decreased proportion of full-time tenured faculty at American colleges and steady increase of part-time adjunct and other nontenure-track faculty, this American Federation of Teachers' (AFT) document advocates professionalism of the manner in which part-time/adjunct faculty are employed, compensated, supported and treated in higher…

  4. Notification: EPA’s Compliance with Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standards No. 47 and Treasury Financial Manual, Part 2, Chapter 4700

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OA&E-FY18-0249, June 6, 2018. The OIG plans to begin preliminary research on the EPA’s compliance with the Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standards No. 47: Reporting Entity; and Treasury Financial Manual, Part 2, Chapter 4700

  5. Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR Part 191)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This regulation sets environmental standards for public protection from the management and disposal of spent nuclear fuel, high-level wastes and wastes that contain elements with atomic numbers higher than uranium (transuranic wastes).

  6. Radiotherapy. Non-standard fractionated regimens improving cancer treatment. Part II. Response of normal tissues to fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villar, A.; Hernandez, M.; Pera, J.; Cambray, M.; Villa, S.; Arnaiz, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    The phenomena participating in the response of tissues to fractionated irradiation are analyzed with special emphasis on the most relevant points influencing the design of non-standard fractionated regimens. (Author)

  7. [Rationalization in 20th-century czechoslovak pharmacy practice - commission for rationalization and standardization in medicine, veterinary medicine and pharmacy - part 2*].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babica, Jan; Rusek, Václav

    2014-08-01

    In interwar Czechoslovakia health care, an increased attention paid to the new ideas of scientific management (Taylorism), work rationalization and standardization led to the establishment of the Commission for Rationalization and Standardization in Medicine, Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy (RANOK) within the Department of Natural Science and Medicine of the Masaryk Academy of Work. Within RANOK, the group for pharmacy worked between 1928 and 1932. The first part of the paper described the scientific management and standardization movement in interwar Czechoslovakia, the establishment of Masaryk Academy of Work and RANOK, and work objectives of RANOK and its group for pharmacy. The second part deals with the work results, relative failure and importance of the group for pharmacy.

  8. Video coding standards AVS China, H.264/MPEG-4 PART 10, HEVC, VP6, DIRAC and VC-1

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, K R; Hwang, Jae Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Review by Ashraf A. Kassim, Professor, Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, and Associate Dean, School of Engineering, National University of Singapore.     The book consists of eight chapters of which the first two provide an overview of various video & image coding standards, and video formats. The next four chapters present in detail the Audio & video standard (AVS) of China, the H.264/MPEG-4 Advanced video coding (AVC) standard, High efficiency video coding (HEVC) standard and the VP6 video coding standard (now VP10) respectively. The performance of the wavelet based Dirac video codec is compared with H.264/MPEG-4 AVC in chapter 7. Finally in chapter 8, the VC-1 video coding standard is presented together with VC-2 which is based on the intra frame coding of Dirac and an outline of a H.264/AVC to VC-1 transcoder.   The authors also present and discuss relevant research literature such as those which document improved methods & techniques, and also point to other related reso...

  9. Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Biology in Developing Countries (Part 2: Asian Subcontinent and South East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G Hill

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been no systematic appraisal of ethnicity-based variations in breast cancer (BC biology amongst women from developing countries. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of breast cancer size, stage, grade, histological type, extra-mammary involvement, hormone receptor status as well as patient demographics. This review includes patients from Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. BC in these regions present at an earlier age with large aggressive tumours. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. African women have a higher frequency of triple negative tumours. Over half of Middle Eastern women have lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Despite experiencing a lower incidence compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Palestinian women have poorer five-year survival outcomes. The majority of women from Mexico and South America have stage two or three disease whilst over sixty percent of women from Eastern Europe have either stage one or stage two disease. The biological characteristics of BC in the Caribbean cannot be fully assessed due to a paucity of data from the region. BC amongst the developing world is characterised by an early peak age of onset with aggressive biological characteristics. Strategies that improve breast cancer awareness, address amenable risk factors and improve early detection are essential.

  10. Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Biology in Developing Countries (Part 2): Asian Subcontinent and South East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhikoo, Riyaz; Srinivasa, Sanket; Yu, Tzu-Chieh; Moss, David; Hill, Andrew G

    2011-01-01

    There has been no systematic appraisal of ethnicity-based variations in breast cancer (BC) biology amongst women from developing countries. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of breast cancer size, stage, grade, histological type, extra-mammary involvement, hormone receptor status as well as patient demographics. This review includes patients from Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. BC in these regions present at an earlier age with large aggressive tumours. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. African women have a higher frequency of triple negative tumours. Over half of Middle Eastern women have lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Despite experiencing a lower incidence compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Palestinian women have poorer five-year survival outcomes. The majority of women from Mexico and South America have stage two or three disease whilst over sixty percent of women from Eastern Europe have either stage one or stage two disease. The biological characteristics of BC in the Caribbean cannot be fully assessed due to a paucity of data from the region. BC amongst the developing world is characterised by an early peak age of onset with aggressive biological characteristics. Strategies that improve breast cancer awareness, address amenable risk factors and improve early detection are essential

  11. Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Biology in Developing Countries (Part 2): Asian Subcontinent and South East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhikoo, Riyaz, E-mail: riyazbhikoo@gmail.com; Srinivasa, Sanket; Yu, Tzu-Chieh [Department of Surgery, South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand); Moss, David [Department of Surgery, Middlemore Hospital, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand); Hill, Andrew G [Department of Surgery, South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand)

    2011-05-13

    There has been no systematic appraisal of ethnicity-based variations in breast cancer (BC) biology amongst women from developing countries. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of breast cancer size, stage, grade, histological type, extra-mammary involvement, hormone receptor status as well as patient demographics. This review includes patients from Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. BC in these regions present at an earlier age with large aggressive tumours. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. African women have a higher frequency of triple negative tumours. Over half of Middle Eastern women have lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Despite experiencing a lower incidence compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Palestinian women have poorer five-year survival outcomes. The majority of women from Mexico and South America have stage two or three disease whilst over sixty percent of women from Eastern Europe have either stage one or stage two disease. The biological characteristics of BC in the Caribbean cannot be fully assessed due to a paucity of data from the region. BC amongst the developing world is characterised by an early peak age of onset with aggressive biological characteristics. Strategies that improve breast cancer awareness, address amenable risk factors and improve early detection are essential.

  12. Shoreline ecology program for Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Part 3: Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilfillan, E.S.; Page, D.S.; Harner, E.J.; Boehm, P.D.

    1995-01-01

    This study describes the biological results of a comprehensive shoreline ecology program designed to assess ecological recovery in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill on march 24, 1989. The program is an application of the ''Sediment Quality Triad'' approach, combining chemical, toxicological, and biological measurements. The study was designed so that results could be extrapolated to the entire spill zone in Prince William Sound. The spill affected four major shoreline habitat types in Prince William Sound: pebble/gravel, boulder/cobble, sheltered bedrock, and exposed bedrock. The study design had two components: (1) one-time stratified random sampling at 64 sites representing four habitats and four oiling levels (including unoiled reference sites) and (2) periodic sampling at 12 nonrandomly chosen sites that included some of the most heavily oiled locations in the sound. Biological communities on rock surfaces and in intertidal and shallow subtidal sediments were analyzed for differences resulting from to oiling in each of 16 habitat/tide zone combinations. Statistical methods included univariate analyses of individual species abundances and community parameter variables (total abundance, species richness, and Shannon diversity), and multivariate correspondence analysis of community structure. 58 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs

  13. Differential pulse polarographic determination of trace antimony in standard biological samples after preconcentration using 2-nitroso-1-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taher, M. A.

    2003-01-01

    A highly selective, rapid and economical differential polarographic method has been developed for the determination of trace amounts of antimony in various standard alloys and biological samples after of its 2-naphthol-4 sulfonic acid tetradecyl dimethylbenzylammonium chloride on microcrystalline naphthalene in the ph range of 7.5-11.0. After filtration, the solid mass is shaken with 8-10 ml of 1 M hydrochloric acid (with preconcentration factor of 10) and antimony is determined by differential pulse polarography. Antimony can alternatively be quantitatively absorbed on 2-nitroso-1-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid tetradecyl dimethylbenzylammonium-naphthalene absorbed packed in a column (with preconcentration factor of 30) and determined similarly. In this case, 1.5 μg of antimony can be concentrated in a column from 300 ml of aqueous sample, where its concentration is as low as 5 ng/ml. Characterization of the electro active process included an examination of the degree of reversibility. The results show that the irreversibility of antimony. Various parameters such as the effect of ph, volume of aqueous phase, HCl concentration, reagent concentration, naphthalene concentration, shaking time and interference of a number of metal ions on the determination of antimony have been studied in detail to optimize the conditions for determination in standard alloys and standard biological samples

  14. Implementing the Science Assessment Standards: Developing and validating a set of laboratory assessment tasks in high school biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Gouranga Chandra

    Very often a number of factors, especially time, space and money, deter many science educators from using inquiry-based, hands-on, laboratory practical tasks as alternative assessment instruments in science. A shortage of valid inquiry-based laboratory tasks for high school biology has been cited. Driven by this need, this study addressed the following three research questions: (1) How can laboratory-based performance tasks be designed and developed that are doable by students for whom they are designed/written? (2) Do student responses to the laboratory-based performance tasks validly represent at least some of the intended process skills that new biology learning goals want students to acquire? (3) Are the laboratory-based performance tasks psychometrically consistent as individual tasks and as a set? To answer these questions, three tasks were used from the six biology tasks initially designed and developed by an iterative process of trial testing. Analyses of data from 224 students showed that performance-based laboratory tasks that are doable by all students require careful and iterative process of development. Although the students demonstrated more skill in performing than planning and reasoning, their performances at the item level were very poor for some items. Possible reasons for the poor performances have been discussed and suggestions on how to remediate the deficiencies have been made. Empirical evidences for validity and reliability of the instrument have been presented both from the classical and the modern validity criteria point of view. Limitations of the study have been identified. Finally implications of the study and directions for further research have been discussed.

  15. Standard practice for process compensated resonance testing via swept sine input for metallic and Non-Metallic parts

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes a general procedure for using the process compensated resonance testing (PCRT) via swept sine input method to identify metallic and non-metallic parts’ resonant pattern differences that can be used to indentify parts with anomalies causing deficiencies in the expected performance of the part in service. This practice is intended for use with instruments capable of exciting, measuring, recording, and analyzing multiple whole body mechanical vibration resonant frequencies within parts exhibiting acoustical ringing in the audio, or ultrasonic, resonant frequency ranges, or both. PCRT is used in the presence of manufacturing process variance to distinguish acceptable parts from those containing significant anomalies in physical characteristics expected to significantly alter the performance. Such physical characteristics include, but are not limited to, cracks, voids, porosity, shrink, inclusions, discontinuities, grain and crystalline structure differences, density related anomalies...

  16. Standard format and content guide for financial assurance mechanisms required for decommissioning under 10 CFR parts 30, 40, 70, and 72

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    The Standard Format and Content Guide for Financial Assurance Mechanisms Required for Decommissioning under 10 CFR Parts 30, 40, 70, and 72, discusses the information to be provided in a license application and established a uniform format for presenting the information required to meet the decommissioning licensing requirements. The use of the Standard Format and Content Guide will (1) help ensure that the license application contains the information required by the regulations, (2) aid the applicant in ensuring that the information is complete, (3) help persons reading the Standard Format and Content Guide to locate information, and (4) contribute to shortening the time required for the review process. The Standard Format and Content Guide ensures that the information required to perform the review is provided, and in a useable format

  17. Current antiviral drugs and their analysis in biological materials - Part II: Antivirals against hepatitis and HIV viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nováková, Lucie; Pavlík, Jakub; Chrenková, Lucia; Martinec, Ondřej; Červený, Lukáš

    2018-01-05

    This review is a Part II of the series aiming to provide comprehensive overview of currently used antiviral drugs and to show modern approaches to their analysis. While in the Part I antivirals against herpes viruses and antivirals against respiratory viruses were addressed, this part concerns antivirals against hepatitis viruses (B and C) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Many novel antivirals against hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV have been introduced into the clinical practice over the last decade. The recent broadening portfolio of these groups of antivirals is reflected in increasing number of developed analytical methods required to meet the needs of clinical terrain. Part II summarizes the mechanisms of action of antivirals against hepatitis B virus (HBV), HCV, and HIV, their use in clinical practice, and analytical methods for individual classes. It also provides expert opinion on state of art in the field of bioanalysis of these drugs. Analytical methods reflect novelty of these chemical structures and use by far the most current approaches, such as simple and high-throughput sample preparation and fast separation, often by means of UHPLC-MS/MS. Proper method validation based on requirements of bioanalytical guidelines is an inherent part of the developed methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Redefining the Practice of Peer Review Through Intelligent Automation Part 1: Creation of a Standardized Methodology and Referenceable Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Bruce I

    2017-10-01

    Conventional peer review practice is compromised by a number of well-documented biases, which in turn limit standard of care analysis, which is fundamental to determination of medical malpractice. In addition to these intrinsic biases, other existing deficiencies exist in current peer review including the lack of standardization, objectivity, retrospective practice, and automation. An alternative model to address these deficiencies would be one which is completely blinded to the peer reviewer, requires independent reporting from both parties, utilizes automated data mining techniques for neutral and objective report analysis, and provides data reconciliation for resolution of finding-specific report differences. If properly implemented, this peer review model could result in creation of a standardized referenceable peer review database which could further assist in customizable education, technology refinement, and implementation of real-time context and user-specific decision support.

  19. The biology of flowering and pollination in umbellate vegetables. Part III. (Apium graveolens L. var. rapaceum Gaud.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Warakomska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried-out on turnip root celery (Apium graveolens L. var. rapaceum Gaud.. Aim of the study was to examine the biology of flowering and the degree of flower atractiveness, as well as the insect influence on their pollination. The research was conducted during 1979 and 1981 vegetation seasons. Observations were made near Lublin on the loessy brown soil. Seeds were the most abundant in IV and V umbel rows. The isolated flowers did not produce less fertile seeds than the non-isolated ones. Recorded pollen production ranged to 100 kg per ha. The Syrphidae which pollinated celery, fed on their pollen.

  20. The Frontlines of Medicine Project: a proposal for the standardized communication of emergency department data for public health uses including syndromic surveillance for biological and chemical terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthell, Edward N; Cordell, William H; Moorhead, John C; Handler, Jonathan; Feied, Craig; Smith, Mark S; Cochrane, Dennis G; Felton, Christopher W; Collins, Michael A

    2002-04-01

    The Frontlines of Medicine Project is a collaborative effort of emergency medicine (including emergency medical services and clinical toxicology), public health, emergency government, law enforcement, and informatics. This collaboration proposes to develop a nonproprietary, "open systems" approach for reporting emergency department patient data. The common element is a standard approach to sending messages from individual EDs to regional oversight entities that could then analyze the data received. ED encounter data could be used for various public health initiatives, including syndromic surveillance for chemical and biological terrorism. The interlinking of these regional systems could also permit public health surveillance at a national level based on ED patient encounter data. Advancements in the Internet and Web-based technologies could allow the deployment of these standardized tools in a rapid time frame.

  1. 42 CFR Appendix E to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Radiation Therapy Technologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... technology; (b) Medical ethics and law; (c) Methods of patient care; (d) Medical terminology; (e) Human...; —Medical terminology; and —Mathematics. (c) Successful demonstration of the following competencies... cancer management centers or meeting demonstrably equivalent standards; (c) Medical schools; and (d...

  2. 13 CFR 107.700 - Compliance with size standards in part 121 of this chapter as a condition of Assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Financing of Small Businesses by Licensees Determining the Eligibility of A Small Business for Sbic Financing § 107.700 Compliance with size... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance with size standards in...

  3. 13 CFR 108.700 - Compliance with size standards in part 121 of this chapter as a condition of Assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Financing of Small Businesses by NMVC Companies Determining the Eligibility of A Small Business for Nmvc Financing § 108.700... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance with size standards in...

  4. Standardization of skin cleansing in vivo: part I. Development of an Automated Cleansing Device (ACiD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonsmann, F K; Strunk, M; Gediga, K; John, C; Schliemann, S; Seyfarth, F; Elsner, P; Diepgen, T L; Kutz, G; John, S M

    2014-05-01

    To date, there are no legally binding requirements concerning product testing in cosmetics. This leads to various manufacturer-specific test methods and absent transparent information on skin cleansing products. A standardized in vivo test procedure for assessment of cleansing efficacy and corresponding barrier impairment by the cleaning process is needed, especially in the occupational context where repeated hand washing procedures may be performed at short intervals. For the standardization of the cleansing procedure, an Automated Cleansing Device (ACiD) was designed and evaluated. Different smooth washing surfaces of the equipment for ACiD (incl. goat hair, felt, felt covered with nitrile caps) were evaluated regarding their skin compatibility. ACiD allows an automated, fully standardized skin washing procedure. Felt covered with nitrile as washing surface of the rotating washing units leads to a homogenous cleansing result and does not cause detectable skin irritation, neither clinically nor as assessed by skin bioengineering methods (transepidermal water loss, chromametry). Automated Cleansing Device may be useful for standardized evaluation of the cleansing effectiveness and parallel assessment of the corresponding irritancy potential of industrial skin cleansers. This will allow objectifying efficacy and safety of industrial skin cleansers, thus enabling market transparency and facilitating rational choice of products. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Standardized assessment to enhance the diagnostic value of prostate volume; Part II: Correlation with prostate-specific antigen levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnink, R. G.; de la Rosette, J. J.; Huynen, A. L.; Giesen, R. J.; Debruyne, F. M.; Wijkstra, H.

    1996-01-01

    Standardized estimations of prostate volumes are used for interpretation of prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels. In 243 patients with clinically benign diagnosis, automated and reference prostate volumes and transition zone volumes are correlated to PSA levels. Besides, growth curves of PSA level

  6. Convergence of regenerative medicine and synthetic biology to develop standardized and validated models of human diseases with clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutmacher, Dietmar Werner; Holzapfel, Boris Michael; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena Maria; Pereira, Brooke Anne; Ellem, Stuart John; Loessner, Daniela; Risbridger, Gail Petuna

    2015-12-01

    In order to progress beyond currently available medical devices and implants, the concept of tissue engineering has moved into the centre of biomedical research worldwide. The aim of this approach is not to replace damaged tissue with an implant or device but rather to prompt the patient's own tissue to enact a regenerative response by using a tissue-engineered construct to assemble new functional and healthy tissue. More recently, it has been suggested that the combination of Synthetic Biology and translational tissue-engineering techniques could enhance the field of personalized medicine, not only from a regenerative medicine perspective, but also to provide frontier technologies for building and transforming the research landscape in the field of in vitro and in vivo disease models. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Rationalization in 20th-century Czechoslovak pharmacy practice - commission for rationalization and standardization in medicine, veterinary medicine and pharmacy - part 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babica, Jan; Rusek, Václav

    2014-06-01

    In the 1920s Czechoslovakia, an increased attention was paid to the new ideas of scientific management (Taylorism), work rationalization and standardization. This was reflected in the foundation of the Masaryk Academy of Work in 1920. An effort to implement the new principles into health care led to the establishment of the Commission for Rationalization and Standardization in Medicine, Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy (RANOK) within the Department of Natural Science and Medicine of the Academy. Within RANOK, the group for pharmacy worked between 1928-1932. The first part of the paper describes the scientific management and standardization movement in interwar Czechoslovakia, and the establishment of Masaryk Academy of Work and RANOK, including the group for pharmacy. The paper discusses the work objectives of the commission and presents concise biographies of the group for pharmacy members, too. The second part will be focused on the work results, relative failure and role of the group. Masaryk Academy of Work Comission for Rationalization and Standardization in Medicine Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy (RANOK) work rationalization standardization pharmacy practice.

  8. Surface functionalization of bioactive glasses with natural molecules of biological significance, Part I: Gallic acid as model molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Ferraris, Sara; Prenesti, Enrico; Verné, Enrica

    2013-12-01

    Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, GA) and its derivatives are a group of biomolecules (polyphenols) obtained from plants. They have effects which are potentially beneficial to heath, for example they are antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and antibacterial, as recently investigated in many fields such as medicine, food and plant sciences. The main drawbacks of these molecules are both low stability and bioavailability. In this research work the opportunity to graft GA to bioactive glasses is investigated, in order to deliver the undamaged biological molecule into the body, using the biomaterial surfaces as a localized carrier. GA was considered for functionalization since it is a good model molecule for polyphenols and presents several interesting biological activities, like antibacterial, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties. Two different silica based bioactive glasses (SCNA and CEL2), with different reactivity, were employed as substrates. UV photometry combined with the Folin&Ciocalteu reagent was adopted to test the concentration of GA in uptake solution after functionalization. This test verified how much GA consumption occurred with surface modification and it was also used on solid samples to test the presence of GA on functionalized glasses. XPS and SEM-EDS techniques were employed to characterize the modification of material surface properties and functional group composition before and after functionalization.

  9. The role of differentiation and standards-based grading in the science learning of struggling and advanced learners in a detracked high school honors biology classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Michelina Ruth Carter

    The accountability movement in education resulting from the passage of The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 has brought to light the disparities that exist in student achievement in the United States which play out along racial and socioeconomic lines. Three educational practices hold promise for reducing this achievement gap: differentiated instruction, standards-based assessment, and elimination of academic tracking. The purpose of this practitioner research study was to examine the ways that differentiation and standards-based assessment can support struggling learners and challenge advanced learners in a detracked, honors biology classroom. To gain insight into the role that differentiation and standards-based assessment played in supporting struggling and advanced learners, I used practitioner research to examine the development and implementation of a differentiated, standards-based instructional unit around the conceptual topic of protein synthesis. I collected multiple data pieces for 10 students in the study: two advanced learners, four struggling learners, and four strong learners who struggled in biology. Data analyzed included formative, self-, and summative assessment results; student artifacts; informal and formal student interviews; and, a practitioner reflection journal chronicling critical incidents and actions taken during the development and implementation of this unit and notes from peer debriefing during and following the unit's implementation. As I analyzed the data collected, my four findings fell into two overarching categories related to student grouping. My first three findings reflect what I learned about homogeneous grouping: (1) Pre-assessment based on unit outcomes is not useful for determining groups for tiered instruction; (2) Decisions about differentiation and grouping for differentiation must be made in the act of teaching using formative assessment results; and, (3) Flexible grouping structures are effective for both struggling

  10. Estimated neutron-activation data for TFTR. Part II. Biological dose rate from sample-materials activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, L.; Kolibal, J.G.

    1982-06-01

    The neutron induced material activation dose rate data are summarized for the TFTR operation. This report marks the completion of the second phase of the systematic study of the activation problem on the TFTR. The estimations of the neutron induced activation dose rates were made for spherical and slab objects, based on a point kernel method, for a wide range of materials. The dose rates as a function of cooling time for standard samples are presented for a number of typical neutron spectrum expected during TFTR DD and DT operations. The factors which account for the variations of the pulsing history, the characteristic size of the object and the distance of observation relative to the standard samples are also presented

  11. Final Report: Part 1. In-Place Filter Testing Instrument for Nuclear Material Containers. Part 2. Canister Filter Test Standards for Aerosol Capture Rates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Austin Douglas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Runnels, Joel T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moore, Murray E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reeves, Kirk Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-11-02

    A portable instrument has been developed to assess the functionality of filter sand o-rings on nuclear material storage canisters, without requiring removal of the canister lid. Additionally, a set of fifteen filter standards were procured for verifying aerosol leakage and pressure drop measurements in the Los Alamos Filter Test System. The US Department of Energy uses several thousand canisters for storing nuclear material in different chemical and physical forms. Specialized filters are installed into canister lids to allow gases to escape, and to maintain an internal ambient pressure while containing radioactive contaminants. Diagnosing the condition of container filters and canister integrity is important to ensure worker and public safety and for determining the handling requirements of legacy apparatus. This report describes the In-Place-Filter-Tester, the Instrument Development Plan and the Instrument Operating Method that were developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to determine the “as found” condition of unopened storage canisters. The Instrument Operating Method provides instructions for future evaluations of as-found canisters packaged with nuclear material. Customized stainless steel canister interfaces were developed for pressure-port access and to apply a suction clamping force for the interface. These are compatible with selected Hagan-style and SAVY-4000 storage canisters that were purchased from NFT (Nuclear Filter Technology, Golden, CO). Two instruments were developed for this effort: an initial Los Alamos POC (Proof-of-Concept) unit and the final Los Alamos IPFT system. The Los Alamos POC was used to create the Instrument Development Plan: (1) to determine the air flow and pressure characteristics associated with canister filter clogging, and (2) to test simulated configurations that mimicked canister leakage paths. The canister leakage scenarios included quantifying: (A) air leakage due to foreign material (i.e. dust and hair

  12. A call for a standard classification system for future biologic research: the rationale for new PRP nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautner, Kenneth; Malanga, Gerard A; Smith, Jay; Shiple, Brian; Ibrahim, Victor; Sampson, Steven; Bowen, Jay E

    2015-04-01

    Autologous cell therapies including platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and bone marrow concentrate (BMC) are increasingly popular options for soft tissue and joint-related diseases. Despite increased clinical application, conflicting research has been published regarding the efficacy of PRP, and few clinical publications pertaining to BMC are available. Preparations of PRP (and BMC) can vary in many areas, including platelet concentration, number of white blood cells, presence or absence of red blood cells, and activation status of the preparation. The potential effect of PRP characteristics on PRP efficacy is often not well understood by the treating clinician, and PRP characteristics, as well as the volume of PRP delivered, are unfortunately not included in the methods of many published research articles. It is essential to establish a standard reporting system for PRP that facilitates communication and the interpretation and synthesis of scientific investigations. Herein, the authors propose a new PRP classification system reflecting important PRP characteristics based on contemporary literature and recommend adoption of minimal standards for PRP reporting in scientific investigations. Widespread adoption of these recommendations will facilitate interpretation and comparison of clinical studies and promote scientifically based progress in the field of regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Biological restoration of central nervous system architecture and function: part 3-stem cell- and cell-based applications and realities in the biological management of central nervous system disorders: traumatic, vascular, and epilepsy disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farin, Azadeh; Liu, Charles Y; Langmoen, Iver A; Apuzzo, Michael L J

    2009-11-01

    STEM CELL THERAPY has emerged as a promising novel therapeutic endeavor for traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, stroke, and epilepsy in experimental studies. A few preliminary clinical trials have further supported its safety and early efficacy after transplantation into humans. Although not yet clinically available for central nervous system disorders, stem cell technology is expected to evolve into one of the most powerful tools in the biological management of complex central nervous system disorders, many of which currently have limited treatment modalities. The identification of stem cells, discovery of neurogenesis, and application of stem cells to treat central nervous system disorders represent a dramatic evolution and expansion of the neurosurgeon's capabilities into the neurorestoration and neuroregeneration realms. In Part 3 of a 5-part series on stem cells, we discuss the theory, experimental evidence, and clinical data pertaining to the use of stem cells for the treatment of traumatic, vascular, and epileptic disorders.

  14. Introduction to the new version of the standard DIN 6814, part 3 'dose magnitudes and dose units'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harder, D

    1985-02-01

    The recent draft of the DIN standard on dose quantities and dose units is presented on original version and explained by the chairman of the Working Comittee Dosimetry. There are important modifications by the introduction of SI units, the new definitions of site dose and individual dose characteristic dose rate and dose rate constant, as well as by corrections of the notions ''secondary electron equilibrium'' and ''free in air''.

  15. Meniscal allograft transplantation. Part 1: systematic review of graft biology, graft shrinkage, graft extrusion, graft sizing, and graft fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samitier, Gonzalo; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Taylor, Dean C; Rill, Brian; Lock, Terrence; Moutzouros, Vasilius; Kolowich, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    To provide a systematic review of the literature regarding five topics in meniscal allograft transplantation: graft biology, shrinkage, extrusion, sizing, and fixation. A systematic literature search was conducted using the PubMed (MEDLINE), ScienceDirect, and EBSCO-CINAHL databases. Articles were classified only in one topic, but information contained could be reported into other topics. Information was classified according to type of study (animal, in vitro human, and in vivo human) and level of evidence (for in vivo human studies). Sixty-two studies were finally included: 30 biology, 3 graft shrinkage, 11 graft extrusion, 17 graft size, and 6 graft fixation (some studies were categorized in more than one topic). These studies corresponded to 22 animal studies, 22 in vitro human studies, and 23 in vivo human studies (7 level II, 10 level III, and 6 level IV). The principal conclusions were as follows: (a) Donor cells decrease after MAT and grafts are repopulated with host cells form synovium; (b) graft preservation alters collagen network (deep freezing) and causes cell apoptosis with loss of viable cells (cryopreservation); (c) graft shrinkage occurs mainly in lyophilized and gamma-irradiated grafts (less with cryopreservation); (d) graft extrusion is common but has no clinical/functional implications; (e) overall, MRI is not superior to plain radiograph for graft sizing; (f) graft width size matching is more important than length size matching; (g) height appears to be the most important factor influencing meniscal size; (h) bone fixation better restores contact mechanics than suture fixation, but there are no differences for pullout strength or functional results; and (i) suture fixation has more risk of graft extrusion compared to bone fixation. Systematic review of level II-IV studies, Level IV.

  16. Structural and functional biological assessment of aggregate dredging intensity on the Belgian part of the North Sea

    OpenAIRE

    De Backer, A.; Hillewaert, H.; Van Hoey, G.; Wittoeck, J.; Hostens, K.

    2014-01-01

    Marine aggregate dredging in the Belgian part of the North Sea (BPNS) is restricted to four dedicated concession zones. Within these zones, there are areas under different dredging pressure, but with the advantage that these are situated within a similar habitat (cfr. similar sediment characteristics) . As such, this study assessed how different degrees of dredging pressure executed on a similar sandy habitat affect the benthic ecosystem. Possible responses of the macrobenthos on the dredging...

  17. Standard schematics for small heat pumps - Part 2: fundamentals and computer simulations; Standardschaltungen fuer Kleinwaermepumpenanlagen. Teil 2: Grundlagen und Computersimulationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afjei, Th.; Schonhardt, U.; Wemhoener, C. [Fachhochschule beider Basel, Muttenz (Switzerland); Erb, M. [Eicher und Pauli AG, Liestal (Switzerland); Gabathuler, H.R.; Mayer, H. [Gabathuler AG, Diessenhofen (Switzerland); Zweifel, G.; Achermann, M.; Euw, R. von; Stoeckli, U. [Hochschule fuer Technik und Architektur (HTA), Fachhochschule Zentralschweiz, Horw (Switzerland)

    2002-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of the second stage of the STASCH project (Standard Schemes for Small Heat Pump Systems up to 25 kW) that, with the aid of computer simulation, was to investigate certain issues in connection with heat pump configurations. The simulations were used to clarify questions resulting from a previous project (FAWA) that involved the analysis of heat pump systems in the field. The findings of the simulation have been incorporated into straightforward design tools for heat pump installers. The methodology behind the development of seven standard installation schematics is discussed. The testing, using computer simulation, of several variants for space heating and combined space-heating / hot water applications in both new and existing buildings is described. The factors taken into consideration when choosing the seven standard schematics, such as comfort, annual efficiency, power consumption, investment and operating costs and technical reliability, are discussed. The design tool, which helps choose correctly-sized heat pumps, piping, circulation pumps, thermal storage and the positioning of temperature sensors is introduced.

  18. A strategic approach for managing conflict in hospitals: responding to the Joint Commission leadership standard, Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Charity; Gerardi, Debra

    2011-02-01

    The Joint Commission's leadership standard for conflict management in hospitals, LD.02.04.01, states, "The hospital manages conflict between leadership groups to protect the quality and safety of care." This standard is one of numerous standards and alerts issued by The Joint Commission that address conflict and communication. They underscore the significant impact of relational dynamics on patient safety and quality of care and the critical need for a strategic approach to conflict in health care organizations. Whether leadership conflicts openly threaten a major disruption of hospital operations or whether unresolved conflicts lurk beneath the surface of daily interactions, unaddressed conflict can undermine a hospital's efforts to ensure safe, high-quality patient care. How leaders manage organizational conflict has a significant impact on achieving strategic objectives. Aligning conflict management approaches with quality and safety goals is the first step in adopting a strategic approach to conflict management. A strategic approach goes beyond reducing costs of litigation or improving grievance processes--it integrates a collaborative mind-set and individual conflict competency with nonadversarial processes. Conflict assessment should determine how conflicts are handled among the leaders at the hospital, the degree of conflict competence already present among the leaders, where the most significant conflicts occur, and how leaders think a conflict management system might work for them. Strategically aligning a conflict management approach that addresses conflict among leadership groups as a means of protecting the quality and safety of patient care is at the heart of LD.02.04.01.

  19. Part project 1. Methods and concepts of biological waste composting. Comparison - evaluation - recommendations; Teilbericht 1. Verfahren und Konzepte der Bioabfallkompostierung. Vergleich - Bewertung - Empfehlungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronauer, A.; Helm, M.; Schoen, H. [Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Landtechnik der Technischen Univ. Muenchen-Weihenstephan (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Topics of this article are: composting of biological wastes; techniques, operation modes, regional concepts, engineering, hygienical, ecological, economical aspects. (SR) gardening plots. The project comprised three parts: Composting techniques, applications of compost in agriculture and gardening, and applications in landscaping. This volume comprises the summaries of the three part-projects. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Das uebergeordnete Ziel des Weihenstephaner Verbundvorhabens bestand darin, fachliche Grundlagen und Entscheidungshilfen fuer den Bereich der Kompostierung und der Verwertung von biogenen Reststoffen, insbesondere der getrennt erfassten organischen Abfaelle aus den Haushaltungen (Bioabfall), zu schaffen. In diesem Rahmen sollen sowohl verschiedene Verfahren und Techniken der Kompostierung als auch regionale Konzepte hinsichtlich verfahrenstechnischer, hygienischer, oekologischer, oekonomischer und die Entsorgungssicherheit betreffender Aspekte untersucht und bewertet werden. (orig./SR)

  20. Part project 1. Methods and concepts of biological waste composting. Comparison - evaluation - recommendations; Teilbericht 1. Verfahren und Konzepte der Bioabfallkompostierung. Vergleich - Bewertung - Empfehlungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronauer, A; Helm, M; Schoen, H [Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Landtechnik der Technischen Univ. Muenchen-Weihenstephan (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Topics of this article are: composting of biological wastes; techniques, operation modes, regional concepts, engineering, hygienical, ecological, economical aspects. (SR) gardening plots. The project comprised three parts: Composting techniques, applications of compost in agriculture and gardening, and applications in landscaping. This volume comprises the summaries of the three part-projects. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Das uebergeordnete Ziel des Weihenstephaner Verbundvorhabens bestand darin, fachliche Grundlagen und Entscheidungshilfen fuer den Bereich der Kompostierung und der Verwertung von biogenen Reststoffen, insbesondere der getrennt erfassten organischen Abfaelle aus den Haushaltungen (Bioabfall), zu schaffen. In diesem Rahmen sollen sowohl verschiedene Verfahren und Techniken der Kompostierung als auch regionale Konzepte hinsichtlich verfahrenstechnischer, hygienischer, oekologischer, oekonomischer und die Entsorgungssicherheit betreffender Aspekte untersucht und bewertet werden. (orig./SR)

  1. Research on Chemical Composition and Biological Properties Including Antiquorum Sensing Activity of Angelica pancicii Vandas Aerial Parts and Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileski, Ksenija S; Trifunović, Snežana S; Ćirić, Ana D; Šakić, Željana M; Ristić, Mihailo S; Todorović, Nina M; Matevski, Vlado S; Marin, Petar D; Tešević, Vele V; Džamić, Ana M

    2017-12-20

    The essential oil, different extracts, and isolated compounds of Angelica pancicii Vandas (Apiaceae) were investigated for the first time. The GC-FID and GC-MS analyses revealed sesquiterpenoids as the main constituents of A. pancicii essential oil of aerial parts with bornyl acetate (8.08%), n-octanol (5.82%), kessane (4.26%), and β-selinene (4.26%) as the main constituents. Analysis of methanol extracts, using an HPLC-DAD/ESI-ToF-MS system, showed a total of 52 compounds in the aerial parts and 53 in the roots, indicating coumarins as the main constituents. In addition, new chromone (1) and six known furanocoumarins (2-7) were isolated from the roots and structurally elucidated by combined spectroscopic methods. The aerial part extracts exhibited higher polyphenolic contents and antioxidant activity evaluated by three radical scavenging assays. Using a microwell dilution method, the strongest antibacterial activity profiles were determined for ethanol and methanol root extracts (minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) = 0.25-3.00 mg/mL), which were comparable to the activity of streptomycin (MBCs = 0.34-1.24 mg/mL), while the strongest antibacterial compound of A. pancicii was oxypeucedanin hydrate (MBCs = 0.50-8.00 mg/mL). Antifungal potential was in moderate extent, and the highest activity was obtained for root methanol extract (minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) = 4.00-14.00 mg/mL). Tested sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (subMICs) of the extracts and isolated compounds inhibited selected Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 virulence determinants. The most reduced growth of P. aeruginosa colony was in the presence of isolated oxypeucedanin. Ethanol (17.36-46.98%) and methanol (34.54-52.43%) root extracts showed higher anti-biofilm activity compared to streptomycin (49.40-88.36%) and ampicillin (56.46-92.16%).

  2. Photoreactivity of biologically active compounds. VII. Interaction of antimalarial drugs with melanin in vitro as part of phototoxicity screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, S; Orsteen, A L; Sande, S A; Tønnesen, H H

    1994-10-01

    The drugs commonly used in the treatment of malaria are photochemically unstable. Several of these compounds accumulate in melanin-rich tissues and cause toxic reactions which may be light induced. As part of the screening of the photochemical properties and phototoxic capabilities of antimalarials, the in vitro interaction of eight antimalarials with melanin was studied. The dissociation constant for the drug-melanin complex and the relative number of binding sites on melanin were estimated for six of the drugs using a curve-fitting program. The reaction rate for the formation of the melanin-drug complex was determined, and the complexes were further characterized by zeta potential measurements.

  3. A comprehensive review and update on the non-biologic treatment of adult noninfectious uveitis: part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungmin; Bajwa, Asima; Freitas-Neto, Clovis A; Metzinger, Jamie Lynne; Wentworth, Bailey A; Foster, C Stephen

    2014-10-01

    Treatment of adult, noninfectious uveitis remains a challenge for ophthalmologists around the world. The disease accounts for almost 10% of preventable blindness in the US and can be idiopathic or associated with infectious and systemic disorders. Strong evidence is still emerging to indicate that pharmacologic strategies presently used in rheumatologic or autoimmune disease may be translated to the treatment of intraocular inflammation. Corticosteroid monotherapy is widely regarded as wholly inappropriate, due to the unfavorable risk/benefit profile and poor long-term outcomes. Treatment plans have shifted away from low-dose, chronic corticosteroid therapy for maintenance, towards medium- to high-dose therapy for acute inflammation, followed immediately by initiation of immunomodulatory therapy. These therapies follow the 'stepladder approach', whereby least to more aggressive therapies are trialed to induce remission of inflammation, eventually without corticosteroids of any form (topical, local and systemic). This two-part review gives a comprehensive overview of the existing medical treatment options for patients with adult, noninfectious uveitis, as well as important advances for the treatment of ocular inflammation. Part I covers classic immunomodulation and latest information on corticosteroid therapy. The hazard of chronic corticosteroid use for the treatment of adult, noninfectious uveitis is well-documented. Corticosteroid-sparing therapies, which offer a very favorable risk-benefit profile when administered properly, should be substituted.

  4. Overview of the U.S. DOE Hydrogen Safety, Codes and Standards Program. Part 4: Hydrogen Sensors; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttner, William J.; Rivkin, Carl; Burgess, Robert; Brosha, Eric; Mukundan, Rangachary; James, C. Will; Keller, Jay

    2016-12-01

    Hydrogen sensors are recognized as a critical element in the safety design for any hydrogen system. In this role, sensors can perform several important functions including indication of unintended hydrogen releases, activation of mitigation strategies to preclude the development of dangerous situations, activation of alarm systems and communication to first responders, and to initiate system shutdown. The functionality of hydrogen sensors in this capacity is decoupled from the system being monitored, thereby providing an independent safety component that is not affected by the system itself. The importance of hydrogen sensors has been recognized by DOE and by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office's Safety and Codes Standards (SCS) program in particular, which has for several years supported hydrogen safety sensor research and development. The SCS hydrogen sensor programs are currently led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The current SCS sensor program encompasses the full range of issues related to safety sensors, including development of advance sensor platforms with exemplary performance, development of sensor-related code and standards, outreach to stakeholders on the role sensors play in facilitating deployment, technology evaluation, and support on the proper selection and use of sensors.

  5. A Standard Addition Method to Assay the Concentration of Biologically Interesting Polyphenols in Grape Berries by Reversed-Phase HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkos A. Haroutounian

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A reversed-phase HPLC method which allows the simultaneous assay of (+- catechin, (–-epicatechin, trans-resveratrol, quercetin and quercetin glycosides in grape berries is described. Kromasil 100 served as stationary phase and a gradient of acetic acid, water and methanol was used. The analytical run requires 42 min for complete sample elution. Satisfactory peak resolution was achieved following a novel extraction process and direct injection of a 20 μL sample. The method was used for the analyses of eighteen samples. Linearities were in the range of 0.98 to 0.999 regression coefficient, for all phenolics, while detection limits ranged from 30 μg mL–1 for trans-resveratrol to 1.5 mg mL–1 for (+-catechin. Recoveries ranged from 95.1 to 98.7% while the method provided good precision, with standard deviations between 3.5 and 6.1%, n=5.

  6. Synergistic Synthetic Biology: Units in Concert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trosset, Jean-Yves; Carbonell, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology aims at translating the methods and strategies from engineering into biology in order to streamline the design and construction of biological devices through standardized parts. Modular synthetic biology devices are designed by means of an adequate elimination of cross-talk that makes circuits orthogonal and specific. To that end, synthetic constructs need to be adequately optimized through in silico modeling by choosing the right complement of genetic parts and by experimental tuning through directed evolution and craftsmanship. In this review, we consider an additional and complementary tool available to the synthetic biologist for innovative design and successful construction of desired circuit functionalities: biological synergies. Synergy is a prevalent emergent property in biological systems that arises from the concerted action of multiple factors producing an amplification or cancelation effect compared with individual actions alone. Synergies appear in domains as diverse as those involved in chemical and protein activity, polypharmacology, and metabolic pathway complementarity. In conventional synthetic biology designs, synergistic cross-talk between parts and modules is generally attenuated in order to verify their orthogonality. Synergistic interactions, however, can induce emergent behavior that might prove useful for synthetic biology applications, like in functional circuit design, multi-drug treatment, or in sensing and delivery devices. Synergistic design principles are therefore complementary to those coming from orthogonal design and may provide added value to synthetic biology applications. The appropriate modeling, characterization, and design of synergies between biological parts and units will allow the discovery of yet unforeseeable, novel synthetic biology applications.

  7. Synergistic Synthetic Biology: Units in Concert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosset, Jean-Yves; Carbonell, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology aims at translating the methods and strategies from engineering into biology in order to streamline the design and construction of biological devices through standardized parts. Modular synthetic biology devices are designed by means of an adequate elimination of cross-talk that makes circuits orthogonal and specific. To that end, synthetic constructs need to be adequately optimized through in silico modeling by choosing the right complement of genetic parts and by experimental tuning through directed evolution and craftsmanship. In this review, we consider an additional and complementary tool available to the synthetic biologist for innovative design and successful construction of desired circuit functionalities: biological synergies. Synergy is a prevalent emergent property in biological systems that arises from the concerted action of multiple factors producing an amplification or cancelation effect compared with individual actions alone. Synergies appear in domains as diverse as those involved in chemical and protein activity, polypharmacology, and metabolic pathway complementarity. In conventional synthetic biology designs, synergistic cross-talk between parts and modules is generally attenuated in order to verify their orthogonality. Synergistic interactions, however, can induce emergent behavior that might prove useful for synthetic biology applications, like in functional circuit design, multi-drug treatment, or in sensing and delivery devices. Synergistic design principles are therefore complementary to those coming from orthogonal design and may provide added value to synthetic biology applications. The appropriate modeling, characterization, and design of synergies between biological parts and units will allow the discovery of yet unforeseeable, novel synthetic biology applications. PMID:25022769

  8. H-point standard additions method for simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids with simultaneous addition of two analytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givianrad, M. H.; Saber-Tehrani, M.; Aberoomand-Azar, P.; Mohagheghian, M.

    2011-03-01

    The applicability of H-point standard additions method (HPSAM) to the resolving of overlapping spectra corresponding to the sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is verified by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The results show that the H-point standard additions method with simultaneous addition of both analytes is suitable for the simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in aqueous media. The results of applying the H-point standard additions method showed that the two drugs could be determined simultaneously with the concentration ratios of sulfamethoxazole to trimethoprim varying from 1:18 to 16:1 in the mixed samples. Also, the limits of detections were 0.58 and 0.37 μmol L -1 for sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, respectively. In addition the means of the calculated RSD (%) were 1.63 and 2.01 for SMX and TMP, respectively in synthetic mixtures. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in some synthetic, pharmaceutical formulation and biological fluid samples.

  9. Transition zone dosimetry. Part of a coordinated programme on high-dose standardization and intercomparison for industrial radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, W.

    1981-12-01

    A Non-Destructive Assay system is described for the direct determination of fissile material in extended waste boxes and irradiated fuel elements. It is based on active neutron interrogation with an Sb-Be neutron source and attenuation of the source neutrons relative to the fission neutrons. The system is operating in a hot cell in the presence of some 100Ci of fission products. The count rate, obtained from source neutrons, was finally equivalent to 60 mg U-235. This value indicates the lower detection limit of the system. One part of the system (i) is intended for small samples mainly for calibration purposes. In the other part of the system (II) the samples are continuously moving during the measuring turn. For waste boxes of 16,5cm diameter and 25cm height, the relative counting efficiency in system II is 50% as compared to system I. Different packing positions change the result by 5%, the addition of 500g metal wool by 2% and the measurement of 8 subsamples as a whole by 4%. Performance is demonstrated with irradiated fuel elements of the AVR reactor at burn-up values between 0 and 170.000 MWd/t

  10. Individualized versus standard FSH dosing in women starting IVF/ICSI: an RCT. Part 1: The predicted poor responder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilborg, Theodora C; Torrance, Helen L; Oudshoorn, Simone C; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; Koks, Carolien A M; Verhoeve, Harold R; Nap, Annemiek W; Scheffer, Gabrielle J; Manger, A Petra; Schoot, Benedictus C; Sluijmer, Alexander V; Verhoeff, Arie; Groen, Henk; Laven, Joop S E; Mol, Ben Willem J; Broekmans, Frank J M

    2017-12-01

    Does an increased FSH dose result in higher cumulative live birth rates in women with a predicted poor ovarian response, apparent from a low antral follicle count (AFC), scheduled for IVF or ICSI? In women with a predicted poor ovarian response (AFC IVF/ICSI, an increased FSH dose (225/450 IU/day) does not improve cumulative live birth rates as compared to a standard dose (150 IU/day). In women scheduled for IVF/ICSI, an ovarian reserve test (ORT) can predict ovarian response to stimulation. The FSH starting dose is often adjusted based on the ORT from the belief that it will improve live birth rates. However, the existing RCTs on this topic, most of which show no benefit, are underpowered. Between May 2011 and May 2014, we performed an open-label multicentre RCT in women with an AFC cost-effectiveness of the strategies were evaluated from an intention-to-treat perspective. In total, 511 women were randomized, 234 with an AFC ≤ 7 and 277 with an AFC 8-10. The cumulative live birth rate for increased versus standard dosing was 42.4% (106/250) versus 44.8% (117/261), respectively [relative risk (RR): 0.95 (95%CI, 0.78-1.15), P = 0.58]. As an increased dose strategy was more expensive [delta costs/woman: €1099 (95%CI, 562-1591)], standard FSH dosing was the dominant strategy in our economic analysis. Despite our training programme, the AFC might have suffered from inter-observer variation. As this open study permitted small dose adjustments between cycles, potential selective cancelling of cycles in women treated with 150 IU could have influenced the cumulative results. However, since first cycle live birth rates point in the same direction we consider it unlikely that the open design masked a potential benefit for the individualized strategy. Since an increased dose in women scheduled for IVF/ICSI with a predicted poor response (AFC < 11) does not improve live birth rates and is more expensive, we recommend using a standard dose of 150 IU/day in these women. This

  11. Technical Requirements and Principles for the Standards Development of the Key Parts for Rotor Air-conditioning Compressors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Min; Wen Yun; Fan Zhangzeng

    2011-01-01

    ntroductionSince 2000,air-conditioning sales continues to grow,and the development of air-conditioning market makes a booming market of compressor.At the present time,compressor production rising all the way,and the sales steps up the new steps constantly.Tendency chart is shown in figure 1.Rotor compressor with its simple structure,small volume,light weight,easy processed mechanical parts,reliable operation and other excellent characteristics occupied the dominant position in the market.Compared with reciprocating compressor on the same application situation,decreased in the size by 40%~50%,weight was reduced by 40%~50%.But there were also disadvantages,mainly large friction loss,friction power consumption was about 10%of compressor's total power input.

  12. Evaluation of biodiesel fuel and a diesel oxidation catalyst in an underground metal mine : Part 3 : Biological and chemical characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagley, S.T. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Gratz, L.D. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

    1998-07-24

    A collaborative, international, multidisciplinary effort led to the evaluation of the effects of using a 50 per cent biodiesel fuel blend and an advanced-type diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) on underground metal mine air quality. The location selected for the field trials was the Creighton Mine 3 in Sudbury, Ontario, operated by Inco. Specifically, part 3 of the study evaluated the effects of using a biodiesel blend fuel on potentially health-related diesel particulate matter (DPM) components, with a special emphasis on polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitro-PAH, and mutagenic activity. High volume sampler filters containing submicrometer particles were examined, and comparisons made for DPM and DPM component concentrations. The downwind concentrations of DPM were reduced by 20 per cent with the use of the blend biodiesel fuel as compared with the number 2 diesel fuel with an advanced-type DOC. Significant reductions in solids (up to 30 per cent) and up to 75 per cent in the case of mutagenic activity were noted. Significant reductions in the DPM components potentially harmful to human health should result from the use of this blended fuel combined with an advanced-type DOC in an underground environment. 23 refs., 19 tabs.

  13. Substoichiometric isotope dilution analysis of arsenic in biological and environmental standard reference materials by solvent extraction using toluene-3,4-dithiol in benzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chutke, N.L.; Ambulkar, Ms.M.N.; Weginwar, R.G.; Garg, A.N.

    1994-01-01

    A radiochemical solvent extraction procedure has been developed for the determination of As(III) using 76 As tracer. It is based on the complexation of As(III) with toluene-3,4-dithiol (TDT) at pH 2 and subsequent extraction in benzene. The effect of various parameters such as pH, time of equilibration, nature of solvent, quantitative character and interferences have been studied. The method has been further developed into substoichiometric isotope dilution analysis for the determination of As at < 1μg level and employed for the analysis of several environmental and biological standard Reference Materials from NIST (USA), IAEA (Vienna) and NIES (Japan). (author) 39 refs.; 4 figs.; 4 tabs

  14. Effect of standardizing the lactose content of cheesemilk on the properties of low-moisture, part-skim Mozzarella cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, A C; Govindasamy-Lucey, S; Molitor, M; Jaeggi, J J; Johnson, M E; McSweeney, P L H; Lucey, J A

    2016-10-01

    The texture, functionality, and quality of Mozzarella cheese are affected by critical parameters such as pH and the rate of acidification. Acidification is typically controlled by the selection of starter culture and temperature used during cheesemaking, as well as techniques such as curd washing or whey dilution, to reduce the residual curd lactose content and decrease the potential for developed acidity. In this study, we explored an alternative approach: adjusting the initial lactose concentration in the milk before cheesemaking. We adjusted the concentration of substrate available to form lactic acid. We added water to decrease the lactose content of the milk, but this also decreased the protein content, so we used ultrafiltration to help maintain a constant protein concentration. We used 3 milks with different lactose-to-casein ratios: one at a high level, 1.8 (HLC, the normal level in milk); one at a medium level, 1.3 (MLC); and one at a low level, 1.0 (LLC). All milks had similar total casein (2.5%) and fat (2.5%) content. We investigated the composition, texture, and functional and sensory properties of low-moisture, part-skim Mozzarella manufactured from these milks when the cheeses were ripened at 4°C for 84d. All cheeses had similar pH values at draining and salting, resulting in cheeses with similar total calcium contents. Cheeses made with LLC milk had higher pH values than the other cheeses throughout ripening. Cheeses had similar moisture contents. The LLC and MLC cheeses had lower levels of lactose, galactose, lactic acid, and insoluble calcium compared with HLC cheese. The lactose-to-casein ratio had no effect on the levels of proteolysis. The LLC and MLC cheeses were harder than the HLC cheese during ripening. Maximum loss tangent (LT), an index of cheese meltability, was lower for the LLC cheese until 28d of ripening, but after 28d, all treatments exhibited similar maximum LT values. The temperature where LT=1 (crossover temperature), an index

  15. Individualized versus standard FSH dosing in women starting IVF/ICSI: an RCT. Part 2: The predicted hyper responder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudshoorn, Simone C; van Tilborg, Theodora C; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; Oosterhuis, G Jur E; Friederich, Jaap; van Hooff, Marcel H A; van Santbrink, Evert J P; Brinkhuis, Egbert A; Smeenk, Jesper M J; Kwee, Janet; de Koning, Corry H; Groen, Henk; Lambalk, Cornelis B; Mol, Ben Willem J; Broekmans, Frank J M; Torrance, Helen L

    2017-12-01

    Does a reduced FSH dose in women with a predicted hyper response, apparent from a high antral follicle count (AFC), who are scheduled for IVF/ICSI lead to a different outcome with respect to cumulative live birth rate and safety? Although in women with a predicted hyper response (AFC > 15) undergoing IVF/ICSI a reduced FSH dose (100 IU per day) results in similar cumulative live birth rates and a lower occurrence of any grade of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) as compared to a standard dose (150 IU/day), a higher first cycle cancellation rate and similar severe OHSS rate were observed. Excessive ovarian response to controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) for IVF/ICSI may result in increased rates of cycle cancellation, the occurrence of OHSS and suboptimal live birth rates. In women scheduled for IVF/ICSI, an ovarian reserve test (ORT) can be used to predict response to COS. No consensus has been reached on whether ORT-based FSH dosing improves effectiveness and safety in women with a predicted hyper response. Between May 2011 and May 2014, we performed an open-label, multicentre RCT in women with regular menstrual cycles and an AFC > 15. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (Rotterdam criteria) were excluded. The primary outcome was ongoing pregnancy achieved within 18 months after randomization and resulting in a live birth. Secondary outcomes included the occurrence of OHSS and cost-effectiveness. Since this RCT was embedded in a cohort study assessing over 1500 women, we expected to randomize 300 predicted hyper responders. Women with an AFC > 15 were randomized to an FSH dose of 100 IU or 150 IU/day. In both groups, dose adjustment was allowed in subsequent cycles (maximum 25 IU in the reduced and 50 IU in the standard group) based on pre-specified criteria. Both effectiveness and cost-effectiveness were evaluated from an intention-to-treat perspective. We randomized 255 women to a daily FSH dose of 100 IU and 266 women to a daily FSH dose of 150 IU. The

  16. Standard Review Plan for the review of financial assurance mechanisms for decommissioning under 10 CFR Parts 30, 40, 70, and 72

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    Standard Review Plan (SRP) for the Review of Financial Assurance Mechanisms for Decommissioning under 10 CFR Parts 30, 40, 70 and 72, is prepared for the guidance of Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff reviewers in performing reviews of applications from material licensees affected by the decommissioning regulations established June 27, 1988 (53FR24018). The principal purpose of the SRP is to assure the quality and uniformity of staff reviews and to present a base from which to evaluate the financial assurance aspects of the applications. The SRP identifies who performs the review, the matters that are reviewed, the basis for the review, how the review is performed, and the conclusions that are sought

  17. In response to an open invitation for comments on AAAS project 2061's Benchmark books on science. Part 1: documentation of serious errors in cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Gilbert

    2006-01-01

    Project 2061 was founded by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) to improve secondary school science education. An in-depth study of ten 9 to 12th grade biology textbooks led to the verdict that none conveyed "Big Ideas" that would give coherence and meaning to the profusion of lavishly illustrated isolated details. However, neither the Project report itself nor the Benchmark books put out earlier by the Project carries what deserves the designation of "Big Ideas." Worse, in the two earliest-published Benchmark books, the basic unit of all life forms--the living cell--is described as a soup enclosed by a cell membrane, that determines what can enter or leave the cell. This is astonishing since extensive experimental evidence has unequivocally disproved this idea 60 years ago. A "new" version of the membrane theory brought in to replace the discredited (sieve) version is the pump model--currently taught as established truth in all high-school and college biology textbooks--was also unequivocally disproved 40 years ago. This comment is written partly in response to Bechmark's gracious open invitation for ideas to improve the books and through them, to improve US secondary school science education.

  18. Are Fish and Standardized FETAX Assays Protective Enough for Amphibians? A Case Study on Xenopus laevis Larvae Assay with Biologically Active Substances Present in Livestock Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Martini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biologically active substances could reach the aquatic compartment when livestock wastes are considered for recycling. Recently, the standardized FETAX assay has been questioned, and some researchers have considered that the risk assessment performed on fish could not be protective enough to cover amphibians. In the present study a Xenopus laevis acute assay was developed in order to compare the sensitivity of larvae relative to fish or FETAX assays; veterinary medicines (ivermectin, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim and essential metals (zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium that may be found in livestock wastes were used for the larvae exposure. Lethal (LC50 and sublethal effects were estimated. Available data in both, fish and FETAX studies, were in general more protective than values found out in the current study, but not in all cases. Moreover, the presence of nonlethal effects, caused by ivermectin, zinc, and copper, suggested that several physiological mechanisms could be affected. Thus, this kind of effects should be deeply investigated. The results obtained in the present study could expand the information about micropollutants from livestock wastes on amphibians.

  19. Interim guidance on the Standard Review Plan for the review of financial assurance mechanisms for decommissioning under 10 CFR Parts 30, 40, and 70

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    Interim Guidance on the Standard Review Plan (SRP) for the Review of Financial Assurance Mechanisms for Decommissioning under 10 CFR Parts 30, 40, and 70 is prepared for the guidance of Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff reviewers in performing reviews of applications from material licensees affected by the decommissioning regulations established June 27, 1988 (53FR24018). The principal purpose of the SRP is to assure the quality and uniformity of staff reviews and to present a base from which to evaluate the financial assurance aspects of the applications. NUREG-1337, identifies who performs the review, the matters that are reviewed, the basis of the review, how the review is performed, and the conclusions that are sought. 3 refs

  20. Impact of polarized e- and e+ beams at a future Linear Collider and a Z-factory Part II - Physics beyond the Standard Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moortgat-Pick, G

    2011-01-01

    Polarization of both beams at a future Linear Collider would be ideal for facing both expected and unforeseen challenges in searches for new physics: fixing the chirality of the couplings and enabling the higher precision for the polarization measurement itself as well as for polarization-dependent observables, it provides a powerful tool for studying new physics at the future Linear Collider, such as discovering new particles, analyzing signals model-independently and resolving precisely the underlying model. Techniques and engineering designs for a polarized-positron source are well advanced. Potential constraints concerning luminosity, commissioning and operating issues appear to be under control. This article mainly treats with the impact of polarized beams on physics beyond the Standard Model, whereas the fundamentals in polarization as well as the gain in electroweak precision physics are summarized in the corresponding part I.

  1. Part 1. Assessment of carcinogenicity and biologic responses in rats after lifetime inhalation of new-technology diesel exhaust in the ACES bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jacob D; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Seagrave, JeanClare; Gigliotti, Andrew P; Chow, Judith; Zielinska, Barbara; Mauderly, Joe L; Seilkop, Steven K; Miller, Rodney A

    2015-01-01

    The Health Effects Institute and its partners conceived and funded a program to characterize the emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines compliant with the 2007 and 2010 on-road emissions standards in the United States and to evaluate indicators of lung toxicity in rats and mice exposed repeatedly to 2007-compliant new-technology diesel exhaust (NTDE*). The a priori hypothesis of this Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) was that 2007-compliant on-road diesel emissions "... will not cause an increase in tumor formation or substantial toxic effects in rats and mice at the highest concentration of exhaust that can be used ... although some biological effects may occur." This hypothesis was tested at the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI) by exposing rats by chronic inhalation as a carcinogenicity bioassay. Indicators of pulmonary toxicity in rats were measured after 1, 3, 12, 24, and 28-30 months of exposure. Similar indicators of pulmonary toxicity were measured in mice, as an interspecies comparison of the effects of subchronic exposure, after 1 and 3 months of exposure. A previous HEI report (Mauderly and McDonald 2012) described the operation of the engine and exposure systems and the characteristics of the exposure atmospheres during system commissioning. Another HEI report described the biologic responses in mice and rats after subchronic exposure to NTDE (McDonald et al. 2012). The primary motivation for the present chronic study was to evaluate the effects of NTDE in rats in the context of previous studies that had shown neoplastic lung lesions in rats exposed chronically to traditional technology diesel exhaust (TDE) (i.e., exhaust from diesel engines built before the 2007 U.S. requirements went into effect). The hypothesis was largely based on the marked reduction of diesel particulate matter (DPM) in NTDE compared with emissions from older diesel engine and fuel technologies, although other emissions were also reduced. The DPM

  2. A novel hybrid tobacco product that delivers a tobacco flavour note with vapour aerosol (Part 2): In vitro biological assessment and comparison with different tobacco-heating products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breheny, Damien; Adamson, Jason; Azzopardi, David; Baxter, Andrew; Bishop, Emma; Carr, Tony; Crooks, Ian; Hewitt, Katherine; Jaunky, Tomasz; Larard, Sophie; Lowe, Frazer; Oke, Oluwatobiloba; Taylor, Mark; Santopietro, Simone; Thorne, David; Zainuddin, Benjamin; Gaça, Marianna; Liu, Chuan; Murphy, James; Proctor, Christopher

    2017-08-01

    This study assessed the toxicological and biological responses of aerosols from a novel hybrid tobacco product. Toxicological responses from the hybrid tobacco product were compared to those from a commercially available Tobacco Heating Product (c-THP), a prototype THP (p-THP) and a 3R4F reference cigarette, using in vitro test methods which were outlined as part of a framework to substantiate the risk reduction potential of novel tobacco and nicotine products. Exposure matrices used included total particulate matter (TPM), whole aerosol (WA), and aqueous aerosol extracts (AqE) obtained after machine-puffing the test products under the Health Canada Intense smoking regime. Levels of carbonyls and nicotine in these matrices were measured to understand the aerosol dosimetry of the products. The hybrid tobacco product tested negative across the in vitro assays including mutagenicity, genotoxicity, cytotoxicity, tumour promotion, oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. All the THPs tested demonstrated significantly reduced responses in these in vitro assays when compared to 3R4F. The findings suggest these products have the potential for reduced health risks. Further pre-clinical and clinical assessments are required to substantiate the risk reduction of these novel products at individual and population levels. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of post-sintering treatments on the fatigue and biological behavior of Ti-6Al-4V ELI parts made by selective laser melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, M; Torresani, E; Leoni, M; Fontanari, V; Bandini, M; Pederzolli, C; Potrich, C

    2017-07-01

    Fatigue resistance and biocompatibility are key parameters for the successful implantation of hard-tissue prostheses, which nowadays are more and more frequently manufactured by selective laser melting (SLM). For this purpose, the present paper is aimed at investigating the effect of post-sintering treatments on the fatigue behavior and biological properties of Ti samples produced by SLM. After the building process, all samples are heat treated to achieve a complete stress relief. The remaining ones are tribofinished with the aim of reducing the surface roughness of the as-sintered condition. Part of the tribofinished samples are then subjected to one of the following post-sintering treatments: (i) shot peening, (ii) hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and (iii) electropolishing. It is found that shot peening and HIP are the most effective treatments to improve the high and the very-high cycle fatigue resistance, respectively. At the same time, they preserve the good biocompatibility ensured by the biomedical Titanium Grade 23. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Integrating biological redesign: where synthetic biology came from and where it needs to go.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Jeffrey C; Collins, James J; Keasling, Jay D; Silver, Pamela A

    2014-03-27

    Synthetic biology seeks to extend approaches from engineering and computation to redesign of biology, with goals such as generating new chemicals, improving human health, and addressing environmental issues. Early on, several guiding principles of synthetic biology were articulated, including design according to specification, separation of design from fabrication, use of standardized biological parts and organisms, and abstraction. We review the utility of these principles over the past decade in light of the field's accomplishments in building complex systems based on microbial transcription and metabolism and describe the progress in mammalian cell engineering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Building Better Scientists through Cross-Disciplinary Collaboration in Synthetic Biology: A Report from the Genome Consortium for Active Teaching Workshop 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolyniak, Michael J.; Alvarez, Consuelo J.; Chandrasekaran, Vidya; Grana, Theresa M.; Holgado, Andrea; Jones, Christopher J.; Morris, Robert W.; Pereira, Anil L.; Stamm, Joyce; Washington, Talitha M.; Yang, Yixin

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic biology is the application of engineering and mathematical principles to develop novel biological devices and circuits. What separates synthetic biology from traditional molecular biology is the development of standardized interchangeable DNA "parts," just as advances in engineering in the nineteenth century brought about standardized…

  6. [Synthetic biology and rearrangements of microbial genetic material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Quan-Feng; Wang, Qian; Qi, Qing-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    As an emerging discipline, synthetic biology has shown great scientific values and application prospects. Although there have been many reviews of various aspects on synthetic biology over the last years, this article, for the first time, attempted to discuss the relationship and difference between microbial genetics and synthetic biology. We summarized the recent development of synthetic biology in rearranging microbial genetic materials, including synthesis, design and reduction of genetic materials, standardization of genetic parts and modularization of genetic circuits. The relationship between synthetic biology and microbial genetic engineering was also discussed in the paper.

  7. Challenges and opportunities in synthetic biology for chemical engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yunzi; Lee, Jung-Kul; Zhao, Huimin

    2013-11-15

    Synthetic biology provides numerous great opportunities for chemical engineers in the development of new processes for large-scale production of biofuels, value-added chemicals, and protein therapeutics. However, challenges across all scales abound. In particular, the modularization and standardization of the components in a biological system, so-called biological parts, remain the biggest obstacle in synthetic biology. In this perspective, we will discuss the main challenges and opportunities in the rapidly growing synthetic biology field and the important roles that chemical engineers can play in its advancement.

  8. Challenges and opportunities in synthetic biology for chemical engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yunzi; Lee, Jung-Kul; Zhao, Huimin

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic biology provides numerous great opportunities for chemical engineers in the development of new processes for large-scale production of biofuels, value-added chemicals, and protein therapeutics. However, challenges across all scales abound. In particular, the modularization and standardization of the components in a biological system, so-called biological parts, remain the biggest obstacle in synthetic biology. In this perspective, we will discuss the main challenges and opportunities in the rapidly growing synthetic biology field and the important roles that chemical engineers can play in its advancement. PMID:24222925

  9. A Unifying Mathematical Framework for Genetic Robustness, Environmental Robustness, Network Robustness and their Trade-offs on Phenotype Robustness in Biological Networks. Part III: Synthetic Gene Networks in Synthetic Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bor-Sen; Lin, Ying-Po

    2013-01-01

    Robust stabilization and environmental disturbance attenuation are ubiquitous systematic properties that are observed in biological systems at many different levels. The underlying principles for robust stabilization and environmental disturbance attenuation are universal to both complex biological systems and sophisticated engineering systems. In many biological networks, network robustness should be large enough to confer: intrinsic robustness for tolerating intrinsic parameter fluctuations; genetic robustness for buffering genetic variations; and environmental robustness for resisting environmental disturbances. Network robustness is needed so phenotype stability of biological network can be maintained, guaranteeing phenotype robustness. Synthetic biology is foreseen to have important applications in biotechnology and medicine; it is expected to contribute significantly to a better understanding of functioning of complex biological systems. This paper presents a unifying mathematical framework for investigating the principles of both robust stabilization and environmental disturbance attenuation for synthetic gene networks in synthetic biology. Further, from the unifying mathematical framework, we found that the phenotype robustness criterion for synthetic gene networks is the following: if intrinsic robustness + genetic robustness + environmental robustness ≦ network robustness, then the phenotype robustness can be maintained in spite of intrinsic parameter fluctuations, genetic variations, and environmental disturbances. Therefore, the trade-offs between intrinsic robustness, genetic robustness, environmental robustness, and network robustness in synthetic biology can also be investigated through corresponding phenotype robustness criteria from the systematic point of view. Finally, a robust synthetic design that involves network evolution algorithms with desired behavior under intrinsic parameter fluctuations, genetic variations, and environmental

  10. NODC Standard Product: International ocean atlas Volume 2 - Biological atlas of the Arctic Seas 2000 - Plankton of the Barents and Kara Seas (1 disc set) (NODC Accession 0098568)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Presented in this CD-ROM are physical and biological data for the region extending from the Barents Sea to the Kara Sea during 158 scientific cruises for the period...

  11. FY 1999 project on the development of new industry support type international standards. Standardization of a testing/evaluation method of biological use fine ceramics; 1999 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Seitaiyo fine ceramics no shiken hyoka hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of standardizing/international standardizing an evaluation method of the characteristics required for biological use fine ceramics, and the FY 1999 results were summed up. In the study of characteristics of biological use fine ceramic materials, it was confirmed that zirconia ceramics are more excellent than alumina ceramics in static strength, repeated loads and fatigue properties in the atmospheric air at room temperature. In the study of the evaluation method of biological affinity, the standardization of the simulated body liquid preparation process was studied, and the simulated body liquid was prepared. To evaluate the bioactivity of biological use fine ceramics without making animal experiments, the simulated body liquid in which the ion concentration was made exactly equal to that of human being was prepared using 2-hydroxyethyl-1-piperazinyl ethane sulfonic acid as buffer. There were seen no changes in ion concentration for four weeks at longest as long as this liquid is kept in airtight container at temperature of 36.5 degrees C or below. The present situation of the standardization of bioceramics was surveyed. (NEDO)

  12. Enhancement of Recreation Service to Disabled Children. Part II, Recommended Standards with Evaluative Criteria for Recreation Services in Residential Institutions. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Doris L.

    The suggested standards and evaluative criteria are designed to assist hospitals and other residential institutions in evaluating recreation services provided to residents, primarily children and youth. Described are the development of the standards and the rating instrument, guidelines for using the standards, evaluation and scoring procedures,…

  13. Biological, oceanographic and meteorological data collected as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 1946-01-01 to 1990-10-11

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection contains physical, biological, chemical and meteorological data collected from various platforms by various organizations. Data were collected as...

  14. Training Standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2003-01-01

    The article describes the benefits of and required process and recommendations for implementing the standardization of training in the nuclear power industry in the United States and abroad. Current Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) enable training standardization in the nuclear power industry. The delivery of training through the Internet, Intranet and video over IP will facilitate this standardization and bring multiple benefits to the nuclear power industry worldwide. As the amount of available qualified and experienced professionals decreases because of retirements and fewer nuclear engineering institutions, standardized training will help increase the number of available professionals in the industry. Technology will make it possible to use the experience of retired professionals who may be interested in working part-time from a remote location. Well-planned standardized training will prevent a fragmented approach among utilities, and it will save the industry considerable resources in the long run. It will also ensure cost-effective and safe nuclear power plant operation

  15. Proceedings from the National Cancer Institute's Second International Workshop on the Biology, Prevention, and Treatment of Relapse after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Part I. Biology of relapse after transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gress, Ronald E; Miller, Jeffrey S; Battiwalla, Minoo; Bishop, Michael R; Giralt, Sergio A; Hardy, Nancy M; Kröger, Nicolaus; Wayne, Alan S; Landau, Dan A; Wu, Catherine J

    2013-11-01

    In the National Cancer Institute's Second Workshop on the Biology, Prevention, and Treatment of Relapse after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, the Scientific/Educational Session on the Biology of Relapse discussed recent advances in understanding some of the host-, disease-, and transplantation-related contributions to relapse, emphasizing concepts with potential therapeutic implications. Relapse after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) represents tumor escape, from the cytotoxic effects of the conditioning regimen and from immunologic control mediated by reconstituted lymphocyte populations. Factors influencing the biology of the therapeutic graft-versus-malignancy (GVM) effect-and relapse-include conditioning regimen effects on lymphocyte populations and homeostasis, immunologic niches, and the tumor microenvironment; reconstitution of lymphocyte populations and establishment of functional immune competence; and genetic heterogeneity within the malignancy defining potential for clonal escape. Recent developments in T cell and natural killer cell homeostasis and reconstitution are reviewed, with implications for prevention and treatment of relapse, as is the application of modern genome sequencing to defining the biologic basis of GVM, clonal escape, and relapse after HSCT. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Utilization of ionizing radiation for the sterilization of membraneous connective tissue allografts. Part of a coordinated programme on radiation sterilization of medical products and biological tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triantafyllou, N.

    1978-05-01

    The work carried out, covered several aspects of radiation sterilization of membraneous allografts. In general the findings show that the sterilization of biological membranes with gamma irradiation using doses of up to 3 Mrads is a very satisfactory method for the sterilization of the material, since it does not seriously alter the biological properties of allografts. As for the changes of the mechanical properties, this is not considered to be a serious draw back, because the membraneous allografts cover surgical needs where the mechanical strength is not of paramount importance

  17. A Short History of the Hatching Enzyme Studies in Medaka(Development of Medaka Biology in Japan-Part II)

    OpenAIRE

    Yamagami, Kenjiro

    1997-01-01

    The studies on the hatching enzyme of the medaka, Oryzias latipes, have a history of about 50 years, which is only a half of whole history of the studies on the hatching enzyme in animals since the first conjecture of it in a lung fish in 1900. Medaka, however, has served as the material most intensively studied for the enzyme, and the studies have given invaluable information to establish some significant concepts in the field of developmental and cell biology as well as the hatching biology...

  18. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Quantum Biology and Quantum Pharmacology (14th) Held in Marineland, Florida on March 12-14 1987. Annual Sanibel Symposia (27th). Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    degradation of penicillin. It is a drug of great biolog- ical interest and presents different properties with regard to its D and L chiral forms. D...to protolytic degradation 1621. In general, any process, such as inhala- tion of cigarette smoke, that resulted in oxidation of the elastomeric chains...a common part 5 which, with X = H, Y = Me, and Z = OH or OEt. is represen- tative of the well-known analgesics paracetamol or phenacetine

  19. Biological production in the Indian Ocean upwelling zones - Part 1: refined estimation via the use of a variable compensation depth in ocean carbon models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geethalekshmi Sreeush, Mohanan; Valsala, Vinu; Pentakota, Sreenivas; Venkata Siva Rama Prasad, Koneru; Murtugudde, Raghu

    2018-04-01

    Biological modelling approach adopted by the Ocean Carbon-Cycle Model Intercomparison Project (OCMIP-II) provided amazingly simple but surprisingly accurate rendition of the annual mean carbon cycle for the global ocean. Nonetheless, OCMIP models are known to have seasonal biases which are typically attributed to their bulk parameterisation of compensation depth. Utilising the criteria of surface Chl a-based attenuation of solar radiation and the minimum solar radiation required for production, we have proposed a new parameterisation for a spatially and temporally varying compensation depth which captures the seasonality in the production zone reasonably well. This new parameterisation is shown to improve the seasonality of CO2 fluxes, surface ocean pCO2, biological export and new production in the major upwelling zones of the Indian Ocean. The seasonally varying compensation depth enriches the nutrient concentration in the upper ocean yielding more faithful biological exports which in turn leads to accurate seasonality in the carbon cycle. The export production strengthens by ˜ 70 % over the western Arabian Sea during the monsoon period and achieves a good balance between export and new production in the model. This underscores the importance of having a seasonal balance in the model export and new productions for a better representation of the seasonality of the carbon cycle over upwelling regions. The study also implies that both the biological and solubility pumps play an important role in the Indian Ocean upwelling zones.

  20. The application of semianalytic method for calculating the thickness of biological shields of nuclear reactors. Part 2. Attenuation of gamma rays. An example of shield's thickness calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukaszek, W.; Kucypera, S.

    1982-01-01

    The semianalytic method was used for calculating the attenuation of gamma rays and the thickness of biological shield of graphite moderated reactor. A short description of computer code as well as the exemplary results of calculations are given. (A.S.)

  1. Soybean meal enriched with microelements by biosorption--a new biological feed supplement for laying hens. Part I. Performance and egg traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska, Z; Chojnacka, K; Korczyński, M; Świniarska, M; Saeid, A; Opaliński, S; Dobrzański, Z

    2014-05-15

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of soybean meal enriched with Cu(II), Zn(II), Fe(II) and Cr(III) by biosorption on egg traits (egg weight, eggshell strength, eggshell thickness, yolk colour, albumen height) and performance of laying hens. Also, the effect of increased microelement doses in biological form on egg quality parameters and hens performance was investigated. A consumer questionnaire was undertaken to evaluate the organoleptic parameters of the eggs. Generally, our study showed that in the groups fed with the new biological supplement, egg quality parameters improved, including eggshell strength, eggshell thickness, albumen height and yolk colour. The biological form of microelements also improved the feed conversion rate, especially in the group fed with a biological form of Cr(III). Moreover, the new supplement improved organoleptic parameters of the eggs, in comparison to the inorganic form of microelements as well as to chelate. Enriched soybean meal could constitute an alternative for currently used feed additives with microelements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The biological assessment of flora and fauna as standards for changes in the near-shore ocean environment: a study of Barbers Point Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokama, Y; Wachi, K M; Shiraki, A; Goo, C; Ebesu, J S

    2001-02-01

    The biological assessments of the flora and fauna in the near-shore ocean environment, specifically Barbers Point Harbor (BPH), demonstrate the usefulness of these biological analyses for evaluation of the changes occurring following man-made excavation for expansion of the harbor. The study included identification and enumeration of macroalgae and dinoflagellates and analyses of herbivores and carnivores in four areas within the perimeter of the harbor and the north and south entrances into the harbor. Numbers of macroalgae varied between 1994 and 1999 surveys, with significant decrease in numbers in stations C, D and E. Stations A and B were similar between 1994 and 1999 with a slight increase in 1999. The significant differences were shown with the appearance of Gambierdiscus toxicus (G toxicus) in 1999 among the algae in stations A and B. Assessment of herbivores and carnivores with the immunological membrane immunobead assay using monoclonal antibody to ciguatoxin and related polyethers demonstrated an increase in fish toxicity among the herbivore from 1994-1999 (22% increase) with a decrease (22%) in non-toxic fish. This was also demonstrated in the carnivores, but to a lesser degree. It is suggested that the biological analyses of the flora and the fauna of the near-shore ocean environment are appropriate to assess the changes that occur from natural and man-made alterations.

  3. Reexamination of Color Vision Standards, Part I: Status of Color Use in ATC Displays and Demography of Color-Deficit Controllers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xing, Jing; Schroeder, David J

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the status of color use in current air traffic control (ATC) displays. It represents the first step in an effort to reexamine the color vision standards for air traffic controllers...

  4. Amendments to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's public health and environmental radiation protection standards for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (40 CFR PART 197) - 16156

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Raymond L.; Czyscinski, Kenneth; Rosnick, Reid J.; Schultheisz, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    In 2001, as directed by the Energy Policy Act of 1992, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued public health and environmental radiation protection standards for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Several parties sued the Agency on numerous aspects of the rule. A Federal Court upheld EPA on all counts except for the compliance period associated with the individual-protection standard, which the Agency had limited to 10,000 years for a number of technical and policy reasons. However, the National Academy of Sciences WAS) had recommended that the standard be set for the time of peak risk, within the limits imposed by the long-term stability of the geologic environment, which NAS estimated at 1 million years. EPA's standards required that the Department of Energy (DOE) project doses to the time of peak dose but did not apply a compliance standard to these longer term projections. The Court ruled that EPA's 10,000-year compliance period was inconsistent with the NAS recommendation. This aspect of the rule was vacated and remanded to the Agency for revision. In 2005, EPA proposed amendments to the standards. Following public hearings and a public review period, the final amendments were issued in September 2008. This paper discusses the new requirements. (authors)

  5. Diretrizes da World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP para tratamento biológico de transtornos depressivos unipolares, 2ª parte: tratamento de manutenção do transtorno depressivo maior e tratamento dos transtornos depressivos crônicos e das depressões subliminares World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP Guidelines for biological treatment of unipolar depressive disorders, part 2: maintenance treatment of major depressive disorder and treatment of chronic depressive disorders and subthreshold depressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bauer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Estas diretrizes práticas para o tratamento biológico de transtornos depressivos unipolares foram desenvolvidas por uma Força-Tarefa internacional da Federação Mundial de Sociedades de Psiquiatria Biológica (WFSBP. O objetivo ao desenvolver tais diretrizes foi rever sistematicamente todas as evidências existentes referentes ao tratamento de transtornos depressivos unipolares e produzir uma série de recomendações práticas com significado clínico e científico, baseadas nas evidências existentes. Têm como objetivo seu uso por todos os médicos que atendam e tratem pacientes com essas afecções. Os dados usados para o desenvolvimento das diretrizes foram extraídos primariamente de várias diretrizes e painéis nacionais de tratamento para transtornos depressivos, bem como de metanálises e revisões sobre a eficácia dos antidepressivos e outras intervenções de tratamento biológico identificadas por uma busca no banco de dados MEDLINE e Cochrane Library. A literatura identificada foi avaliada quanto à força das evidências sobre sua eficácia e, então, categorizada em quatro níveis de evidências (A a D. Esta primeira parte das diretrizes abrange definição, classificação, epidemiologia e evolução dos transtornos depressivos unipolares, bem como tratamento das fases aguda e de manutenção. As diretrizes se referem primariamente ao tratamento biológico (incluindo antidepressivos, outros medicamentos psicofarmacológicos e hormonais, eletroconvulsoterapia, fototerapia, estratégias terapêuticas complementares e novas de adultos jovens e também, embora em menor grau, de crianças, adolescentes e adultos idosos.These practice guidelines for the biological treatment of unipolar depressive disorders were developed by an international Task Force of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP. The goal for developing these guidelines was to systematically review all available evidence pertaining to the

  6. Bilateral comparison of 10 V standards between the NSAI-NML (Ireland) and the BIPM, March to April 2011 (part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.b)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, O.; Solve, S.; Chayramy, R.; Stock, M.

    2011-01-01

    As a part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.b, a comparison of the 10 V voltage reference standards of the BIPM and the National Standards Authority of Ireland-National Metrology Laboratory (NSAI-NML), Dublin, Ireland, was carried out from March to April 2011. Two BIPM Zener diode-based travelling standards (Fluke 732B) were transported by freight to NSAI-NML. At NSAI-NML, the 10 V output EMF of each travelling standard was measured by direct comparison with a group of characterized Zener diode-based electronic voltage standards. At the BIPM, the travelling standards were calibrated before and after the measurements at NSAI-NML, with the Josephson Voltage Standard. Results of all measurements were corrected for the dependence of the output voltages on internal temperature and ambient pressure. The comparison results show that the voltage standards maintained by NSAI-NML and the BIPM were equivalent, within their stated expanded uncertainties, on the mean date of the comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  7. Biological and chemical effects of the disposal of dredged material in the Belgian Part of the North Sea (licensing period 2010-2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Van Hoey, G.; Delahaut, V.; Derweduwen, J.; Devries, L.; Dewitte, B.; Hostens, K.; Robbens, J.

    2011-01-01

    It is important to investigate the effects of dumping of dredged material in the marine environment from ecosystem perspective, because it could lead to different responses of the ecosystem. Therefore, the regular dredging program from ILVO Fisheries is evaluating the impact of these dumping activities at different levels by looking at: i) differences in biological characteristics of the ecosystem components macrobenthos, epibenthos and demersal fish ii) the (bio)accumulation of contaminants ...

  8. Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Biology in Developing Countries (Part 1): Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhikoo, Riyaz; Srinivasa, Sanket; Yu, Tzu-Chieh; Moss, David; Hill, Andrew G

    2011-01-01

    There has been no systematic appraisal of ethnicity-based variations in breast cancer (BC) biology amongst women from developing countries. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of breast cancer size, stage, grade, histological type, extra-mammary involvement, hormone receptor status as well as patient demographics. This review includes patients from Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. BC in these regions present at an earlier age with large aggressive tumours. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. African women have a higher frequency of triple negative tumours. Over half of Middle Eastern women have lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Despite experiencing a lower incidence compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Palestinian women have poorer five-year survival outcomes. The majority of women from Mexico and South America have stage two or three disease whilst over sixty percent of women from Eastern Europe have either stage one or stage two disease. The biological characteristics of BC in the Caribbean cannot be fully assessed due to a paucity of data from the region. BC amongst the developing world is characterised by an early peak age of onset with aggressive biological characteristics. Strategies that improve breast cancer awareness, address amenable risk factors and improve early detection are essential

  9. A modified Wright-Fisher model that incorporates Ne: A variant of the standard model with increased biological realism and reduced computational complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Gossmann, Toni I; Waxman, David

    2016-03-21

    The Wright-Fisher model is an important model in evolutionary biology and population genetics. It has been applied in numerous analyses of finite populations with discrete generations. It is recognised that real populations can behave, in some key aspects, as though their size that is not the census size, N, but rather a smaller size, namely the effective population size, Ne. However, in the Wright-Fisher model, there is no distinction between the effective and census population sizes. Equivalently, we can say that in this model, Ne coincides with N. The Wright-Fisher model therefore lacks an important aspect of biological realism. Here, we present a method that allows Ne to be directly incorporated into the Wright-Fisher model. The modified model involves matrices whose size is determined by Ne. Thus apart from increased biological realism, the modified model also has reduced computational complexity, particularly so when Ne⪡N. For complex problems, it may be hard or impossible to numerically analyse the most commonly-used approximation of the Wright-Fisher model that incorporates Ne, namely the diffusion approximation. An alternative approach is simulation. However, the simulations need to be sufficiently detailed that they yield an effective size that is different to the census size. Simulations may also be time consuming and have attendant statistical errors. The method presented in this work may then be the only alternative to simulations, when Ne differs from N. We illustrate the straightforward application of the method to some problems involving allele fixation and the determination of the equilibrium site frequency spectrum. We then apply the method to the problem of fixation when three alleles are segregating in a population. This latter problem is significantly more complex than a two allele problem and since the diffusion equation cannot be numerically solved, the only other way Ne can be incorporated into the analysis is by simulation. We have

  10. Environmental standards for management and disposal of spent nuclear fuel, high-level and transuranic radioactive wastes, 40 CFR part 191: draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The establishment of environmental standards for management and disposal of spent nuclear reactor fuel and high-level and transuranic radioactive wastes is proposed. The standards would require that maximum individual doses from all normal operations be limited to 25 millirem to the whole body, 75 millirem to the thyroid, and 25 millirem to any other organ. Regarding disposal of subject materials in geologic sites, the standards would include numerical containment requirements for the first 10,000 years following disposal, assurance requirements, and procedural requirements. The assurance requirements would provide seven principles necessary for developing confidence that long-term containment requirements would be upheld. The principles would call for well-designed, multiple-barrier disposal systems that would not rely on future generations for maintenance and would not be located near potential valuable resources. The principles would also require that future generations be provided with information about the location and dangers of the wastes and an option to recover the wastes if necessary. Procedural requirements would be developed to assure that the containment requirements were upheld. The implementation of the standards would protect public health and the environment against emissions of radioactivity. The maximum impact expected from a disposal system complying with the proposed standards would be less than 1000 premature cancer deaths over the first 10,000 years for disposal of high-level wastes produced by all currently operating reactors over their lifetime

  11. UMTRA Project remedial action planning and disposal cell design to comply with the proposed EPA [Environmental Protection Agency] standards (40 CFR Part 192)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project involves stabilizing 24 inactive uranium mill tailings piles in 10 states. Remedial work must meet standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Remedial action must be designed and constructed to prevent dispersion of the tailings and other contaminated materials, and must prevent the inadvertent use of the tailings by man. This report is prepared primarily for distribution to parties involved in the UMTRA Project, including the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and states and tribes. It is intended to record the work done by the DOE since publication of the proposed EPA groundwater protection standards, and to show how the DOE has attempted to respond and react in a positive way to the new requirements that result from the proposed standards. This report discusses the groundwater compliance strategies now being defined and implemented by the DOE, and details the changes in disposal cell designs that result from studies to evaluate ways to facilitate compliance with the proposed EPA groundwater protection standards. This report also serves to record the technical advances, planning, and progress made on the UMTRA Project since the appearance of the proposed EPA groundwater protection standards. The report serves to establish, document, and disseminate technical approaches and engineering and groundwater information to people who may be interested or involved in similar or related projects. 24 refs., 27 figs., 8 tabs

  12. Nuclear standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichtner, N.; Becker, K.; Bashir, M.

    1981-01-01

    This compilation of all nuclear standards available to the authors by mid 1980 represents the third, carefully revised edition of a catalogue which was first published in 1975 as EUR 5362. In this third edition several changes have been made. The title has been condensed. The information has again been carefully up-dated, covering all changes regarding status, withdrawal of old standards, new projects, amendments, revisions, splitting of standards into several parts, combination of several standards into one, etc., as available to the authors by mid 1980. The speed with which information travels varies and requires in many cases rather tedious and cumbersome inquiries. Also, the classification scheme has been revised with the goal of better adjustment to changing situations and priorities. Whenever it turned out to be difficult to attribute a standard to a single subject category, multiple listings in all relevant categories have been made. As in previous editions, within the subcategories the standards are arranged by organization (in Categorie 2.1 by country) alphabetically and in ascending numerical order. It covers all relevant areas of power reactors, the fuel cycle, radiation protection, etc., from the basic laws and governmental regulations, regulatory guides, etc., all the way to voluntary industrial standards and codes of pratice. (orig./HP)

  13. Standard Compliance: Guidelines to Help State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Meet Their Energy Policy Act Requirements, 10 CFR Part 490 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-03-01

    This guidebook addresses the primary requirements of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program to help state and alternative fuel provider fleets comply with the Energy Policy Act via the Standard Compliance option. It also addresses the topics that covered fleets ask about most frequently.

  14. 20 CFR Appendix B to Part 718 - Standards for Administration and Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests. Tables B1, B2, B3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT... the entire maximum inspiration and the entire maximum forced expiration. The instrument shall, in... unacceptable when the patient: (A) Has not reached full inspiration preceding the forced expiration; or (B) Has...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a daily maximum hourly average ozone measurement that is greater than the level of the standard... determining the expected number of annual exceedances relate to accounting for incomplete sampling. In general... measurement. In some cases, a measurement might actually have been missed but in other cases no measurement...

  16. Analysis of oxidative DNA damage, Part II: Synthesis of the internal standard 8-[18O]hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermanns RCA; Zomer G; Stavenuiter JFC; Westra G; Visser T; van de Werken G

    1993-01-01

    In the project 'Oxidative DNA Damage' the first aim is to develop a mass spectrometric method for the quantification of 8-hydroxy-2'- deoxyguanosine (oh8dG). The required precision of the method requires the application of a labeled analogue as an internal standard. This report

  17. Portable, transportable or installed X or gamma radiation ratemeters for environmental monitoring. Part 1: Ratemeters (International Electrotechnical Commission Standard Publication 61017-1:1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanik, J.

    2000-01-01

    This standard is applicable to portable, transportable or installed assemblies intended to measure environmental air kerma rates from 30 nGy h -1 to 10 μGy h -1 (3 μrad h -1 to 1 mrad h -1 ) due to X or gamma radiation of energy between at least 50 keV and 1.5MeV * . If the assembly is to be used to measure air measure air kerma rates in the area surrounding a nuclear reactor producing 6 MeV radiation it will be necessary to determine the response at this energy. For the purpose of radiation protection these assemblies comprise at least: - a detection sub-assembly (e.g. ionization chamber, GM counter tube, scintillation detector, etc.); - a measuring sub-assembly including a display device, which may be connected together either rigidly or by means of a flexible cable or incorporated into a single assembly. The installed assembly may also comprise a continuous recorder (e.g. chart or magnetic cassette recorder or telemetry equipment). The requirements of this standard are also applicable to assemblies that use integration of ionization current, count-rate, etc. to enable a mean air kerma rate to be indicated or determined. For the assemblies described above, this standard specifies general characteristics, general test procedures, radiation characteristics, electrical, mechanical, safety and environmental characteristics as well the identification certificate. Assemblies that indicate air kerma from integration of the detector's signal will be dealt with in the future IEC Publication 1017-2. This standard does not apply to thermoluminescence dosimetry systems or other passive integrating devices. This standard does not provide for the measurement of beta radiation

  18. Development of the common standard for revenue recording as a part of the US GAAP and IAS/IFRS systems convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Bohušová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The most significant difference between US GAAP and IFRSs is in the area of general approach. IFRSs are based on basic accounting principles1 with limited application guidance, US GAAPs are based especially on rules with specific application guidance. FASB and IASB initiated their joint project on revenue recording to converge IFRS and US GAAP in this area. The main objective of this paper is comparative analysis of revenue recognition under both systems, evaluation of the most significant differences in revenue recognition and measurements as a starting point for the preparation of the new general standard for revenue recognition and the new approach to the revenue recognition development.In this paper, the current approaches to revenue recognition under both systems are compared. The most significant difference is the general approach to revenue recognition. There is the Conceptual Framework where revenue is defined, two standards on revenue recognition and interpretations concerning revenue recognition and measurement in the IAS/IFRS. On the other hand, there are many standards and guidance concerning revenue in the US GAAP. Revenue is defined in the Statements of Financial Accounting concepts (CON 5, CON 6. There is not any general standard for revenue recognition under the US GAAP. The most significant differences in revenue recognition concern the long-term contracts and deferred payments. Despite this difference, there are many similarities between both systems.Based on the results of the comparative analysis which was done in the paper, a new approach for re­ve­nue recognition based on principles for the new general standard for revenue recognition common for both systems is being developed.

  19. Bilateral comparison of 10 V standards between the NSAI-NML (Ireland) and the BIPM, January to February 2013 (part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.b)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, O.; Chayramy, R.; Solve, S.; Stock, M.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.b, a comparison of the 10 V voltage reference standards of the BIPM and the National Standards Authority of Ireland-National Metrology Laboratory (NSAI-NML), Dublin, Ireland, was carried out from January to February 2013. Two BIPM Zener diode-based travelling standards (Fluke 732B), BIPM_8 (Z8) and BIPM_9 (Z9), were transported by freight to NSAI-NML. At NSAI-NML, the reference standard for DC voltage at the 10 V level consists of a group of characterized Zener diode-based electronic voltage standards. The output EMF (electromotive force) of each travelling standard was measured by direct comparison with the group standard. At the BIPM the travelling standards were calibrated, before and after the measurements at NSAI-NML, with the Josephson Voltage Standard. Results of all measurements were corrected for the dependence of the output voltages of the Zener standards on internal temperature and ambient atmospheric pressure. The final result of the comparison is presented as the difference between the value assigned to DC voltage standard by NSAI-NML, at the level of 10 V, at NSAI-NML, UNML, and that assigned by the BIPM, at the BIPM, UBIPM, at the reference date of 5 February 2013. UNML - UBIPM = -0.63 µV uc = 1.31 µV, at 10 V where uc is thecombined standard uncertainty associated with the measured difference, including the uncertainty of the representation of the volt at the BIPM and at NSAI-NML,based on KJ-90, and the uncertainty related to the comparison. The comparison results show that the voltage standards maintained by NSAI-NML and the BIPM were equivalent, within their stated standard uncertainties, on the mean date of the comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according

  20. Bilateral comparison of 10 V standards between the NSAI-NML (Ireland) and the BIPM, February to March 2012 (part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.b)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, O.; Solve, S.; Chayramy, R.; Stock, M.

    2012-01-01

    As part of the on-going BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.b, a comparison of the 10 V voltage reference standards of the BIPM and the National Standards Authority of Ireland-National Metrology Laboratory (NSAI-NML), Dublin, Ireland, was carried out from February to March 2012. Two BIPM Zener diode-based travelling standards (Fluke 732B), BIPM_C (ZC) and BIPM_D (ZD), were transported by freight to NSAI-NML. At NSAI-NML, the reference standard for DC voltage at the 10 V level consists of a group of characterized Zener diode-based electronic voltage standards. The output EMF (electromotive force) of each travelling standard was measured by direct comparison with the group standard. At the BIPM the travelling standards were calibrated, before and after the measurements at NSAI-NML, with the Josephson voltage standard. Results of all measurements were corrected for the dependence of the output voltages on internal temperature and ambient atmospheric pressure. The final result of the comparison is presented as the difference between the value assigned to DC voltage standard by NSAI-NML, at the level of 10 V, at NSAI-NML, UNML, and that assigned by the BIPM, at the BIPM, UBIPM, at the reference date of 23 February 2012. UNML - UBIPM = +0.83 µV, uc = 1.35 µV, at 10 V where uc is the combined standard uncertainty associated with the measured difference, including the uncertainty of the representation of the volt at the BIPM and at NSAI-NML, based on KJ-90, and the uncertainty related to the comparison. The final result is impacted by the anomalous offset between the NSAI-NML results for the two transfer standards. The reason for this offset hasn't been determined. However, the difference remains within the total combined standard uncertainty. Therefore, the comparison result shows that the voltage standards maintained by NSAI-NML and the BIPM were equivalent, within their stated expanded uncertainties, on the mean date of the comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of

  1. Bilateral comparison of 10 V standards between the NSAI-NML (Ireland) and the BIPM, March 2014 (part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.b)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solve, S.; Chayramy, R.; Power, O.; Stock, M.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.b, a comparison of the 10 V voltage reference standards of the BIPM and the National Standards Authority of Ireland-National Metrology Laboratory (NSAI-NML), Dublin, Ireland, was carried out in February and March 2014. Two BIPM Zener diode-based travelling standards (Fluke 732B), BIPM_4 (Z4) and BIPM_5 (Z5), were transported by freight to NSAI-NML. At NSAI-NML, the reference standard for DC voltage at the 10 V level consists of a group of characterized Zener diode-based electronic voltage standards. The output EMF (Electromotive Force) of each travelling standard was measured by direct comparison with the group standard. At the BIPM the travelling standards were calibrated, before and after the measurements at NSAI-NML, with the Josephson Voltage Standard. Results of all measurements were corrected for the dependence of the output voltages of the Zener standards on internal temperature and ambient atmospheric pressure. The final result of the comparison is presented as the difference between the value assigned to DC voltage standard by NSAI-NML, at the level of 10 V, at NSAI-NML, UNML, and that assigned by the BIPM, at the BIPM, UBIPM, at the reference date of 10 March 2014. UNML - UBIPM = -0.64 µV uc = 1.35 µV, at 10 V where uc is thecombined standard uncertainty associated with the measured difference, including the uncertainty of the representation of the volt at the BIPM and at NSAI-NML,based on KJ-90, and the uncertainty related to the comparison. The comparison results show that the voltage standards maintained by NSAI-NML and the BIPM were equivalent, within their stated standard uncertainties, on the mean date of the comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to

  2. SBOLme: a Repository of SBOL Parts for Metabolic Engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Kuwahara, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-12

    The Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL) is a community-driven open language to promote standardization in synthetic biology. To support the use of SBOL in metabolic engineering, we developed SBOLme, the first open-access repository of SBOL 2-compliant biochemical parts for a wide range of metabolic engineering applications. The URL of our repository is http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/sbolme.

  3. Report of the Panel on Nuclear Standards Needed for Neutron Cross Section Measurements. Brussels, Belgium, 8-12 May 1967. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-05-15

    The International Nuclear Data Committee (INDC), in September of 1965, recommended to the International Atomic Energy Agency that a panel be convened to examine the nuclear standards needed for neutron cross section measurements. The accuracy requirements for cross sections of structural and fuel materials needed for the design of nuclear reactors and for precision neutron dosimetry have fostered an interest in the selection and investigation of standard cross sections and in the neutron flux measuring techniques. A Panel met in Brussels during the second week of May 1967 to review the problems and progress associated with these standards activities, and to make specific recommendations concerning these matters to the IAEA. This Panel consisted of 23 scientists representing 11 countries, European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), the IAEA, and Bureau International des Poids and Mesures (BIPM). The field of neutron cross section standards is not one in which rapid progress can be expected. Very rarely is there a breakthrough to initiate a spectacular advance; on the contrary it is necessary to depend upon persistent application of effort to effect gradual improvements in accuracies or the clearing up of aggravating discrepancies. Despite this, however, the progress of recent years has been very encouraging. There are no doubt many reasons for this, but three are worthy of mention here. First the Symposium on Neutron Flux Standards in the 1-100 keV Region held at Oxford, United Kingdom, 1963, suggested and strongly supported by the European American Nuclear Data Committee (EANDC), certainly stimulated much activity in the field. Second, the EANDC itself has kept a watchful eye on the subsequent activity and has made sure that the interest has been sustained. Third, the recognized Standards laboratories in several countries have become more aware of the problems and are rapidly becoming major contributors to the field. The Panel of which the present report is the

  4. Report of the Panel on Nuclear Standards Needed for Neutron Cross Section Measurements. Brussels, Belgium, 8-12 May 1967. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-05-01

    The International Nuclear Data Committee (INDC), in September of 1965, recommended to the International Atomic Energy Agency that a panel be convened to examine the nuclear standards needed for neutron cross section measurements. The accuracy requirements for cross sections of structural and fuel materials needed for the design of nuclear reactors and for precision neutron dosimetry have fostered an interest in the selection and investigation of standard cross sections and in the neutron flux measuring techniques. A Panel met in Brussels during the second week of May 1967 to review the problems and progress associated with these standards activities, and to make specific recommendations concerning these matters to the IAEA. This Panel consisted of 23 scientists representing 11 countries, European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), the IAEA, and Bureau International des Poids and Mesures (BIPM). The field of neutron cross section standards is not one in which rapid progress can be expected. Very rarely is there a breakthrough to initiate a spectacular advance; on the contrary it is necessary to depend upon persistent application of effort to effect gradual improvements in accuracies or the clearing up of aggravating discrepancies. Despite this, however, the progress of recent years has been very encouraging. There are no doubt many reasons for this, but three are worthy of mention here. First the Symposium on Neutron Flux Standards in the 1-100 keV Region held at Oxford, United Kingdom, 1963, suggested and strongly supported by the European American Nuclear Data Committee (EANDC), certainly stimulated much activity in the field. Second, the EANDC itself has kept a watchful eye on the subsequent activity and has made sure that the interest has been sustained. Third, the recognized Standards laboratories in several countries have become more aware of the problems and are rapidly becoming major contributors to the field. The Panel of which the present report is the

  5. Providing Comprehensive Educational Opportunity to Low Income Students. Part 5: A Proposal for Essential Standards and Resources. A Report of the Task Force on Comprehensive Educational Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebell, Michael A.; Wolff, Jessica R.

    2011-01-01

    This fifth in a five part series, states that, if comprehensive educational opportunity is conceived as a right, then the state must commit to providing it and must develop a policy infrastructure to assure broad access, uniform quality, regularized funding, and firm accountability strictures to ensure all students a meaningful opportunity to…

  6. Guidelines for preparing and reviewing applications for the licensing of non-power reactors: Standard review plan and acceptance criteria. NUREG - 1537, Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    NUREG - 1537, Part 2 gives guidance on the conduct of licensing action reviews to NRC staff who review non-power reactor licensing applications. These licensing actions include construction permits and initial operating licenses, license renewals, amendments, conversions from highly enriched uranium to low-enriched uranium, decommissioning, and license termination

  7. Guidelines for preparing and reviewing applications for the licensing of non-power reactors: Standard review plan and acceptance criteria. NUREG - 1537, Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    NUREG - 1537, Part 2 gives guidance on the conduct of licensing action reviews to NRC staff who review non-power reactor licensing applications. These licensing actions include construction permits and initial operating licenses, license renewals, amendments, conversions from highly enriched uranium to low-enriched uranium, decommissioning, and license termination.

  8. Toward an international standard for PCR-based detection of Escherichia coli O157 - Part 1. Assay development and multi-center validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdulmawjood, A.; Bulte, M.; Cook, N.

    2003-01-01

    As part of a major European research project, a diagnostic PCR assay, including an internal amplification control, was developed and validated in a collaborative trial for the detection of Escherichia coli O157. The assay is based on amplification of sequences of the rJbE O157 gene. The collabora...

  9. SCALE: A modular code system for performing Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation. Volume 1, Part 2: Control modules S1--H1; Revision 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    SCALE--a modular code system for Standardized Computer Analyses Licensing Evaluation--has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The SCALE system utilizes well-established computer codes and methods within standard analysis sequences that (1) allow an input format designed for the occasional user and/or novice, (2) automated the data processing and coupling between modules, and (3) provide accurate and reliable results. System development has been directed at problem-dependent cross-section processing and analysis of criticality safety, shielding, heat transfer, and depletion/decay problems. Since the initial release of SCALE in 1980, the code system has been heavily used for evaluation of nuclear fuel facility and package designs. This revision documents Version 4.3 of the system

  10. SCALE: A modular code system for performing Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation. Volume 2, Part 3: Functional modules F16--F17; Revision 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    SCALE--a modular code system for Standardized Computer Analyses Licensing Evaluation--has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The SCALE system utilizes well-established computer codes and methods within standard analysis sequences that (1) allow an input format designed for the occasional user and/or novice, (2) automated the data processing and coupling between modules, and (3) provide accurate and reliable results. System development has been directed at problem-dependent cross-section processing and analysis of criticality safety, shielding, heat transfer, and depletion/decay problems. Since the initial release of SCALE in 1980, the code system has been heavily used for evaluation of nuclear fuel facility and package designs. This revision documents Version 4.3 of the system

  11. SCALE: A modular code system for performing Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation. Volume 2, Part 3: Functional modules F16--F17; Revision 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    SCALE--a modular code system for Standardized Computer Analyses Licensing Evaluation--has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The SCALE system utilizes well-established computer codes and methods within standard analysis sequences that (1) allow an input format designed for the occasional user and/or novice, (2) automated the data processing and coupling between modules, and (3) provide accurate and reliable results. System development has been directed at problem-dependent cross-section processing and analysis of criticality safety, shielding, heat transfer, and depletion/decay problems. Since the initial release of SCALE in 1980, the code system has been heavily used for evaluation of nuclear fuel facility and package designs. This revision documents Version 4.3 of the system.

  12. Development of Nordic Standard for analysis of oil and fat in water based on supercritical fluid extraction. Preliminary study, part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenssen, L.

    1994-06-01

    This report describes a preliminary study of a method of determining oil in water. The method is based on solid phase extraction and supercritical fluid extraction (SPE-SFE). The oil is extracted from the water by absorption to extraction disks from which it is then desorbed by supercritical carbon dioxide and detected by means of infrared spectrophotometry or gas chromatography. The results of the study will indicate if the method is suitable as a future substitute for the present Norwegian Standard, NS 9803 (Swedish Standard, SS 02 8145). The method has been validated using water samples with addition of real oil to 1-100 ppm. The accuracy is almost 70%, and the method has good repeatability and is linear in the 1-100 ppm range. 5 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs

  13. Variability and connectivity of plaice populations from the Eastern North Sea to the Baltic Sea, part II. Biological evidence of population mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Clara; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Boje, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    in parallel. Genetic markers suggested the existence of different genetic populations in the transition area. Growth backcalculation with otoliths resulted in significant although limited differences in growth rates between North Sea and Skagerrak, indicating weak differentiation or important mixing......A multi-disciplinary study was conducted to clarify stock identity and connectivity patterns in the populations of European plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) in the Skagerrak-Kattegat transition area between the Eastern North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Five independent biological studies were carried out...... constitute a large share of the catches in this area. The mixing of different populations within a management area has implications for stock assessment and management. Choice must be made to either lump or split the populations, and the feasibility and constraints of both options are discussed. The outcomes...

  14. Dapson in heterocyclic chemistry, part VIII: synthesis, molecular docking and anticancer activity of some novel sulfonylbiscompounds carrying biologically active 1,3-dihydropyridine, chromene and chromenopyridine moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Said Mansour S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several new sulfonebiscompounds having a biologically active 1,2-dihydropyridine-2-one 3–19, acrylamide 20, chromene 21, 22 and chromenopyridine 23, 24 moieties were synthesized and evaluated as potential anticancer agents. The structures of the products were confirmed via elemental analyses and spectral data. The screening tests showed that many of the biscompounds obtained exhibited good anticancer activity against human breast cell line (MCF7 comparable to doxorubicin which was used as reference drug. Compounds 11, 17 and 24 showed IC50 values 35.40 μM, 29.86 μM and 30.99 μM, respectively. In order to elucidate the mechanism of action of the synthesized compounds as anticancer agents, docking on the active site of farnesyltransferase and arginine methyltransferase was also performed and good results were obtained.

  15. Developmental engineering: a new paradigm for the design and manufacturing of cell-based products. Part II: from genes to networks: tissue engineering from the viewpoint of systems biology and network science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenas, Petros; Moos, Malcolm; Luyten, Frank P

    2009-12-01

    The field of tissue engineering is moving toward a new concept of "in vitro biomimetics of in vivo tissue development." In Part I of this series, we proposed a theoretical framework integrating the concepts of developmental biology with those of process design to provide the rules for the design of biomimetic processes. We named this methodology "developmental engineering" to emphasize that it is not the tissue but the process of in vitro tissue development that has to be engineered. To formulate the process design rules in a rigorous way that will allow a computational design, we should refer to mathematical methods to model the biological process taking place in vitro. Tissue functions cannot be attributed to individual molecules but rather to complex interactions between the numerous components of a cell and interactions between cells in a tissue that form a network. For tissue engineering to advance to the level of a technologically driven discipline amenable to well-established principles of process engineering, a scientifically rigorous formulation is needed of the general design rules so that the behavior of networks of genes, proteins, or cells that govern the unfolding of developmental processes could be related to the design parameters. Now that sufficient experimental data exist to construct plausible mathematical models of many biological control circuits, explicit hypotheses can be evaluated using computational approaches to facilitate process design. Recent progress in systems biology has shown that the empirical concepts of developmental biology that we used in Part I to extract the rules of biomimetic process design can be expressed in rigorous mathematical terms. This allows the accurate characterization of manufacturing processes in tissue engineering as well as the properties of the artificial tissues themselves. In addition, network science has recently shown that the behavior of biological networks strongly depends on their topology and has

  16. Toward the establishment of standardized in vitro tests for lipid-based formulations, part 4: proposing a new lipid formulation performance classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Hywel D; Sassene, Philip; Kleberg, Karen; Calderone, Marilyn; Igonin, Annabel; Jule, Eduardo; Vertommen, Jan; Blundell, Ross; Benameur, Hassan; Müllertz, Anette; Porter, Christopher J H; Pouton, Colin W

    2014-08-01

    The Lipid Formulation Classification System Consortium looks to develop standardized in vitro tests and to generate much-needed performance criteria for lipid-based formulations (LBFs). This article highlights the value of performing a second, more stressful digestion test to identify LBFs near a performance threshold and to facilitate lead formulation selection in instances where several LBF prototypes perform adequately under standard digestion conditions (but where further discrimination is necessary). Stressed digestion tests can be designed based on an understanding of the factors that affect LBF performance, including the degree of supersaturation generated on dispersion/digestion. Stresses evaluated included decreasing LBF concentration (↓LBF), increasing bile salt, and decreasing pH. Their capacity to stress LBFs was dependent on LBF composition and drug type: ↓LBF was a stressor to medium-chain glyceride-rich LBFs, but not more hydrophilic surfactant-rich LBFs, whereas decreasing pH stressed tolfenamic acid LBFs, but not fenofibrate LBFs. Lastly, a new Performance Classification System, that is, LBF composition independent, is proposed to promote standardized LBF comparisons, encourage robust LBF development, and facilitate dialogue with the regulatory authorities. This classification system is based on the concept that performance evaluations across three in vitro tests, designed to subject a LBF to progressively more challenging conditions, will enable effective LBF discrimination and performance grading. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  17. Validation of a standard forensic anthropology examination protocol by measurement of applicability and reliability on exhumed and archive samples of known biological attribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Raffaela Arrabaça; Evison, Martin Paul; Costa Junior, Moacyr Lobo da; Silveira, Teresa Cristina Pantozzi; Secchieri, José Marcelo; Guimarães, Marco Aurelio

    2017-10-01

    Forensic anthropology makes an important contribution to human identification and assessment of the causes and mechanisms of death and body disposal in criminal and civil investigations, including those related to atrocity, disaster and trafficking victim identification. The methods used are comparative, relying on assignment of questioned material to categories observed in standard reference material of known attribution. Reference collections typically originate in Europe and North America, and are not necessarily representative of contemporary global populations. Methods based on them must be validated when applied to novel populations. This study describes the validation of a standardized forensic anthropology examination protocol by application to two contemporary Brazilian skeletal samples of known attribution. One sample (n=90) was collected from exhumations following 7-35 years of burial and the second (n=30) was collected following successful investigations following routine case work. The study presents measurement of (1) the applicability of each of the methods: used and (2) the reliability with which the biographic parameters were assigned in each case. The results are discussed with reference to published assessments of methodological reliability regarding sex, age and-in particular-ancestry estimation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Chernobyl'-90. Reports of the 1. International conference on biological and radioecological aspects of the Chernobyl' NPP accident effects. V. 2, part 2. Radiation sanitary. Radiobiology. Agricultural radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senin, E.V.

    1990-01-01

    The results of works done in 1988-1990 within the ecology part of the complex program dealing with elimination of the Chernobyl' NPP accident effect in regions of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, as well as the data of foreign specialists on the Chernobyl' radioactive fallout effects in many countries are analyzed. Comparative analysis of the methods, means and results of acitivities dealing with accident effect eliminations on South Urals and at the Chernobyl' NPP is given

  19. Chernobyl'-90. Reports of the 1. International conference on biological and radioecological aspects of the Chernobyl' NPP accident effects. V. 2, part 1. Radiation sanitary. Radiobiology. Agricultural radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senin, E.V.

    1990-01-01

    The results of works done in 1988-1990 within the ecology part of the complex program dealing with elimination of the Chernobyl' NPP accident effects in regions of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, as well as the data of foreign specialists on the Chernobyl' radioactive fallout effects in many countries are analyzed. Comparative analysis of the methods, means and results of activities dealing with accident effect eliminations on South Urals and at the Chernobyl' NPP is given

  20. The evolution of myiasis in humans and other animals in the Old and New Worlds (part II): biological and life-history studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jamie R; Wallman, James F; Otranto, Domenico; Wall, Richard; Pape, Thomas

    2006-04-01

    Myiasis, which is the dipteran parasitism of living vertebrates, occurs in several forms - ranging from benign to fatal, opportunistic to obligate - and seems to have evolved through two distinct routes: saprophagous and sanguinivorous. However, the convergent evolution of morphological and life-history traits seems to have had a major role in confusing the overall picture of how myiasis evolved and this simplistic division is further complicated by the existence of both ectoparasitic and endoparasitic species of myiasis-causing Diptera, the evolutionary affinities of which remain to be resolved. As discussed in part I of this review, if we are to elucidate how the different forms of parasitism arose, it is essential to separate the evolution of the various groups of myiasis-causing flies from the evolution of the myiasis habit per se. Accordingly, whereas we focused on recent landmark phylogenetics studies in part I, we use this framework to analyse relevant biochemical, immunological, behavioural, biogeographical and fossil evidence to elucidate the evolution of myiasis in part II.

  1. Standards for holdup measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Holdup measurement, needed for material balance, depend intensively on standards and on interpretation of the calibration procedure. More than other measurements, the calibration procedure using the standard becomes part of the standard. Standards practical for field use and calibration techniques have been developed. While accuracy in holdup measurements is comparatively poor, avoidance of bias is a necessary goal

  2. Marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index

  3. Isolation of verbascoside and validation of method to standardize the crude extract of the aerial parts of Buddleja stachyoides Cham. and Schltdl. (Scrophulariaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Daniella M.S. de; Miguel, Marilis D.; Kalegari, Milena; Miguel, Obdulio G.; Moreira, Thais F.

    2014-01-01

    Phenylpropanoid glycoside verbascoside was isolated and identified from the ethyl acetate fraction of the aerial parts of Buddleja stachyoides Cham. and Schltdl. by 1 H-NMR. A method using high-performance liquid chromatography has been developed and validated for determination of verbascoside in alcoholic crude extract of the aerial parts of B. stachyoides. Analysis was performed on a Phenomenex® Gemini-NX C18 analytical column (250 mm × 4.6 mm; 5 μm) using a mobile phase (pump A - aqueous solution containing H 2 SO 4 (0.01 M), H 3 PO 4 (0.4%), and (C 2 H 5 ) 2 NH (0.4%); pump B - methanol:aqueous (95:5) solution containing H 2 SO 4 (0.05 M), H 3 PO 4 (2%), and (C 2 H 5 ) 2 NH (0.2%); pump C - acetonitrile:aqueous (90:10) solution containing H 2 SO 4 (0.05 M) and H 3 PO 4 (2%)) and a diode array detector at 325 nm. The method was validated in accordance with ANVISA guidelines and may be applied to quality control of herbal medicine with aerial parts of B. stachyoides. (author)

  4. Synthetic Biology with Cytochromes P450 Using Photosynthetic Chassis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnanasekaran, Thiyagarajan

    , this modern field of synthetic biology is completely dependent on the nature of the chassis - the host organisms - for its endeavor. Of all the chassis, photosynthetic organisms such as cyanobacteria and plants gains special attention due to the remarkable amount of sunlight that is striking the Earth...... in cyanobacteria and plant chloroplasts for the purpose of light driven synthesis of bioactive compounds by using synthetic biology approaches. As model pathways, in this thesis, the pathway involved in the synthesis of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin from Sorghum bicolor, and the pathway involved......Synthetic biology is a rapidly growing engineering discipline in biology. It aims at building novel biological systems that do not exist in nature by selecting the interchangeable standardized biological parts that are already available in the nature, and assembling them in a specific order. Today...

  5. In view of standardization Part 2: Management of challenges in the initial treatment of burn patients in Burn Centers in Germany, Austria and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Benjamin; Hirche, Christoph; Horter, Johannes; Kiefer, Jurij; Grützner, Paul Alfred; Kremer, Thomas; Kneser, Ulrich; Münzberg, Matthias

    2017-03-01

    Initial therapy of severe burns in specialized burn trauma centers is a challenging task faced by the treating multi-professional and interdisciplinary team. A lack of consistent operating procedures and varying structural conditions was recently demonstrated in preliminary data of our group. These results raised the question on how specific treatment measures in acute burn care are met in the absence of standardized guidelines. A specific questionnaire containing 57 multiple-choice questions was sent to all 22 major burn centers in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The survey included standards of airway management and ventilation, fluid management and circulation, body temperature monitoring and management, topical burn wound treatment and a microbiological surveillance. Additionally, the distribution of standardized course systems was covered. 17 out of 22 questionnaires (77%) were returned completed. Regarding volume resuscitation, results showed a similar approach in estimating initial fluid while discrepancies persisted in the use of colloidal fluid and human albumin. Elective tracheostomy and the need for bronchoscopy with suspected inhalation injury were the most controversial issues revealed by the survey. Topical treatment of burned body surface also followed different principles regarding the use of synthetic epidermal skin substitutes or enzymatic wound debridement. Less discrepancy was found in basic diagnostic measures, body temperature management, estimation of the extent of burns and microbiological surveillance. While many burn-related issues are clearly not questionable and managed in a similar way in most participating facilities, we were able to show that the most contentious issues in burn trauma management involve initial volume resuscitation, management of inhalation trauma and topical burn wound treatment. Further research is required to address these topics and evaluate a potential superiority of a regime in order to increase the level of

  6. Standard Review Plan for a petition for rulemaking on radioactive waste streams below regulatory concern: Expedited review in accordance with Appendix B to 10 CFR, Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larkins, P.M.

    1989-10-01

    The Standard Review Plan (SRP) provides guidance to staff reviewers acting on rulemaking petitions in an expeditious manner to exempt from regulation radioactive waste determined to be Below Regulatory Concern (BRC), as called for in the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985. The review plan is designed to ensure the quality and uniformity of staff reviews and to present a well-defined basis for the staff's evaluation of BRC petitions. The plan serves to improve the understanding of the staff's review by interested members of the public and the industry. It also provides information about the BRC rulemaking process to a wider audience. 6 refs., 7 figs

  7. Biological Clocks & Circadian Rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura; Jones, M. Gail

    2009-01-01

    The study of biological clocks and circadian rhythms is an excellent way to address the inquiry strand in the National Science Education Standards (NSES) (NRC 1996). Students can study these everyday phenomena by designing experiments, gathering and analyzing data, and generating new experiments. As students explore biological clocks and circadian…

  8. Metabolites from nematophagous fungi and nematicidal natural products from fungi as alternatives for biological control. Part II: metabolites from nematophagous basidiomycetes and non-nematophagous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenkolb, Thomas; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    In this second section of a two-part mini-review article, we introduce 101 further nematicidal and non-nematicidal secondary metabolites biosynthesized by nematophagous basidiomycetes or non-nematophagous ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. Several of these compounds have promising nematicidal activity and deserve further and more detailed analysis. Thermolides A and B, omphalotins, ophiobolins, bursaphelocides A and B, illinitone A, pseudohalonectrins A and B, dichomitin B, and caryopsomycins A-C are excellent candidates or lead compounds for the development of biocontrol strategies for phytopathogenic nematodes. Paraherquamides, clonostachydiol, and nafuredins offer promising leads for the development of formulations against the intestinal nematodes of ruminants.

  9. Bilateral comparison of 1 V and 10 V standards between the NMISA (South Africa) and the BIPM April to June 2017 (part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.a and b)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solve, S.; Chayramy, R.; Matlejoane, A. M.; Magagula, L.; Stock, M.

    2018-01-01

    As part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.a and b, a comparison of the 1.018 V and 10 V voltage reference standards of the BIPM and the National Metrology Institute of South Africa, NMISA (South Africa), was carried out from April to June 2017. Two BIPM Zener diode-based travelling standards (Fluke 732B), BIPMA (ZA) and BIPMB (ZB), were transported by freight to NMISA and back to BIPM. In order to keep the Zeners powered during their transportation phase, a voltage stabilizer developed by BIPM was connected in parallel to the internal battery. It consists of a set of two batteries, electrically protected from surcharge-discharge, easy to recharge and is designed to power two transfer standards for ten consecutive days. At NMISA, the reference standard for DC voltage is a Josephson Voltage Standard. The output EMF (Electromotive Force) of each travelling standard was measured by direct comparison with the primary standard. At the BIPM, the travelling standards were calibrated, before and after the measurements at NMISA, with the Josephson Voltage Standard. Results of all measurements were corrected for the dependence of the output voltages of the Zener standards on internal temperature and atmospheric pressure. The final result of the comparison is presented as the difference between the values assigned to DC voltage standards by NMISA, at the level of 1.018 V and 10 V, at NMISA, UNMISA, and those assigned by the BIPM, at the BIPM, UBIPM, at the reference dates of the 19th and 18th of May 2017, respectively. UNMISA - UBIPM = + 0.07 μV uc = 0.02 μV, at 1.018 V UNMISA - UBIPM = + 0.001 μV uc = 0.34 μV, at 10 V where uc is the combined standard uncertainty associated with the measured difference, including the uncertainty of the representation of the volt at the BIPM and at NMISA, based on KJ-90, and the uncertainty related to the comparison. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which

  10. Bilateral Comparison of 10 V Standards between the NSAI - NML (Ireland) and the BIPM, March 2015 (part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.b)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solve, S.; Chayramy, R.; Stock, M.; Power, O.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.b, a comparison of the 10 V voltage reference standards of the BIPM and the National Standards Authority of Ireland - National Metrology Laboratory (NSAI - NML), Dublin, Ireland, was carried out in February and March 2015. Two BIPM Zener diode-based travelling standards (Fluke 732B), BIPM6 (Z6) and BIPMC (ZC), were transported by freight to NSAI-NML. At NSAI-NML, the reference standard for DC voltage at the 10 V level consists of a group of characterized Zener diode-based electronic voltage standards. The output EMF (Electromotive Force) of each travelling standard was measured by direct comparison with the group standard. At the BIPM the travelling standards were calibrated, before and after the measurements at NSAI-NML, with the Josephson Voltage Standard. Results of all measurements were corrected for the dependence of the output voltages of the Zener standards on internal temperature and ambient atmospheric pressure. The final resultof the comparison is presented as the difference between the values assigned to DC voltage standards by NSAI - NML, at the level of 10 V,at NSAI - NML, UNML, and those assigned by the BIPM, at the BIPM, UBIPM, at the reference date of 24 February 2015. UNML - UBIPM = - 0.82 mV; uc = 1.35 mV , at 10 V where uc is the combined standard uncertainty associated with the measured difference, including the uncertainty of the representation of the volt at the BIPM and at NSAI-NML, based on KJ-90, and the uncertainty related to the comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  11. Bilateral comparison of 1 V and 10 V standards between the DEFNAT (Tunisia) and the BIPM February to March 2016 (part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.a and b)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solve, S.; Chayramy, R.; Ben Salah, B.; Mallat, A.; Abene, L.; Stock, M.

    2016-01-01

    As part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.a and b, a comparison of the 1 V and 10 V voltage reference standards of the BIPM and the Laboratoire de Métrologie Electrique, DEFNAT (Tunisia), was carried out from February to March 2016. Two BIPM Zener diode-based travelling standards (Fluke 732B), BIPMC (ZC) and BIPM6 (Z6), were transported by freight to DEFNAT and back to BIPM. In order to keep the Zeners powered during their transportation phase, a BIPM in-house voltage stabiliser was connected in parallel to the internal battery. The voltage stabiliser consists of a set of two batteries, electrically protected from surcharge-discharge, easy to recharge and is designed to power two transfer standards for 10 consecutive days. At DEFNAT, the reference standard for DC voltage is a Josephson Voltage Standard. The output EMF (Electromotive Force) of each travelling standard was measured by direct comparison with the primary standard. At the BIPM, the travelling standards were calibrated, before and after the measurements at DEFNAT, with the Josephson Voltage Standard. Results of all measurements were corrected for the dependence of the output voltages of the Zener standards on internal temperature and ambient atmospheric pressure. The final result of the comparison is presented as the difference between the values assigned to DC voltage standards by DEFNAT, at the level of 1.018 V and 10 V, at DEFNAT, UDEFNAT, and those assigned by the BIPM, at the BIPM, UBIPM, at the reference date of the 26th of February 2016. UDEFNAT - UBIPM = + 0.07 μV uc = 0.04 μV, at 1.018 V UDEFNAT - UBIPM = + 0.38 μV uc = 0.10 μV, at 10 V where uc is the combined standard uncertainty associated with the measured difference, including the uncertainty of the representation of the volt at the BIPM and at NSAI-NML, based on KJ-90, and the uncertainty related to the comparison. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which

  12. Bilateral comparison of 10 V standards between the NSAI - NML (Ireland) and the BIPM, February 2016 (part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.b)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solve, S.; Chayramy, R.; Power, O.; Stock, M.

    2016-01-01

    As part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.b, a comparison of the 10 V voltage reference standards of the BIPM and the National Standards Authority of Ireland - National Metrology Laboratory (NSAI - NML), Dublin, Ireland, was carried out in January and February 2016. Two BIPM Zener diode-based travelling standards (Fluke 732B), BIPM7 (Z7) and BIPM9 (Z9), were transported by freight to NSAI-NML. At NSAI-NML, the reference standard for DC voltage at the 10 V level consists of a group of characterized Zener diode-based electronic voltage standards. The output EMF (Electromotive Force) of each travelling standard was measured by direct comparison with the group standard. At the BIPM the travelling standards were calibrated, before and after the measurements at NSAI-NML, with the Josephson Voltage Standard. Results of all measurements were corrected for the dependence of the output voltages of the Zener standards on internal temperature and ambient atmospheric pressure. The final result of the comparison is presented as the difference between the values assigned to DC voltage standards by NSAI - NML, at the level of 10 V, at NSAI - NML, UNML, and those assigned by the BIPM, at the BIPM, UBIPM, at the reference date of the 31 of January 2016. UNML - UBIPM = + 0.22 μV uc = 1.35 μV , at 10 V where uc is the combined standard uncertainty associated with the measured difference, including the uncertainty of the representation of the volt at the BIPM and at NSAI-NML, based on KJ-90, and the uncertainty related to the comparison. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  13. Further development of semiconductography for low energy beta nuclides and its application for standard radioactive sources and in chemistry and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tykva, R.

    1975-05-01

    A method called semiconductography has been developed and applied to determine distribution of radionuclides emitting corpuscular radiation. This method is fully automated and is based on a programmed detection of the distribution of radionuclides by means of a special surface barrier silicon detector. Simultaneously with the record of the distribution of activity the contour of the sample can also be determined. A special technology has been developed for production of semiconductor detectors permitting detection of low-energy electrons at room temperature and under normal pressure. In comparison to the detectors from Ortec, U.S.A. and diffused silicon detectors from General Electric, U.S.A., the detectors developed by investigators under the research contract are superior in performance in determining the distribution of radionuclides including the low-energy beta-nuclides in tracer experiments in the life sciences. Compared to current ionisation, scintillation, spark chamber, and autoradiographic methods, semiconductography exhibits several special features. It has a high energy resolution permitting discrimination between radionuclides of energies close to each other (e.g., 14 C and 35 S) and determination of the volume distribution of radionuclides in a non-destructive manner. The results obtained under the contract show that in various life-sciences (biochemistry, molecular biology, embryology, teratology, botany, pharmacology), semiconductography with radionuclide-labelled compounds can offer better means to solve such problems which are difficult to approach by usual isotopic methods. The semiconductography has also been successfully used in the determination of non-homogeneity of planar reference sources and in production of labelled substances

  14. SCALE: A modular code system for performing standardized computer analyses for licensing evaluation. Functional modules F1--F8 -- Volume 2, Part 1, Revision 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, N.M.; Petrie, L.M.; Westfall, R.M.; Bucholz, J.A.; Hermann, O.W.; Fraley, S.K.

    1995-04-01

    SCALE--a modular code system for Standardized Computer Analyses Licensing Evaluation--has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The SCALE system utilizes well-established computer codes and methods within standard analysis sequences that (1) allow an input format designed for the occasional user and/or novice, (2) automate the data processing and coupling between modules, and (3) provide accurate and reliable results. System development has been directed at problem-dependent cross-section processing and analysis of criticality safety, shielding, heat transfer, and depletion/decay problems. Since the initial release of SCALE in 1980, the code system has been heavily used for evaluation of nuclear fuel facility and package designs. This revision documents Version 4.2 of the system. The manual is divided into three volumes: Volume 1--for the control module documentation; Volume 2--for functional module documentation; and Volume 3--for documentation of the data libraries and subroutine libraries

  15. SCALE: A modular code system for performing standardized computer analyses for licensing evaluation. Functional modules F9--F16 -- Volume 2, Part 2, Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J.T.; Hoffman, T.J.; Emmett, M.B.; Childs, K.W.; Petrie, L.M.; Landers, N.F.; Bryan, C.B.; Giles, G.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-04-01

    SCALE--a modular code system for Standardized Computer Analyses Licensing Evaluation--has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The SCALE system utilizes well-established computer codes and methods within standard analysis sequences that (1) allow an input format designed for the occasional user and/or novice, (2) automate the data processing and coupling between modules, and (3) provide accurate and reliable results. System development has been directed at problem-dependent cross-section processing and analysis of criticality safety, shielding, heat transfer, and depletion/decay problems. Since the initial release of SCALE in 1980, the code system has been heavily used for evaluation of nuclear fuel facility and package designs. This revision documents Version 4.2 of the system. The manual is divided into three volumes: Volume 1--for the control module documentation, Volume 2--for functional module documentation; and Volume 3--for documentation of the data libraries and subroutine libraries. This volume discusses the following functional modules: MORSE-SGC; HEATING 7.2; KENO V.a; JUNEBUG-II; HEATPLOT-S; REGPLOT 6; PLORIGEN; and OCULAR.

  16. SCALE: A modular code system for performing standardized computer analyses for licensing evaluation. Functional modules F1--F8 -- Volume 2, Part 1, Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, N.M.; Petrie, L.M.; Westfall, R.M.; Bucholz, J.A.; Hermann, O.W.; Fraley, S.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-04-01

    SCALE--a modular code system for Standardized Computer Analyses Licensing Evaluation--has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The SCALE system utilizes well-established computer codes and methods within standard analysis sequences that (1) allow an input format designed for the occasional user and/or novice, (2) automate the data processing and coupling between modules, and (3) provide accurate and reliable results. System development has been directed at problem-dependent cross-section processing and analysis of criticality safety, shielding, heat transfer, and depletion/decay problems. Since the initial release of SCALE in 1980, the code system has been heavily used for evaluation of nuclear fuel facility and package designs. This revision documents Version 4.2 of the system. The manual is divided into three volumes: Volume 1--for the control module documentation; Volume 2--for functional module documentation; and Volume 3--for documentation of the data libraries and subroutine libraries.

  17. An investigation of pre-activity cardiovascular screening procedures in health/fitness facilities--part II: rationale for low adherence with national standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Judy B; Eickhoff-Shemek, JoAnn M; Zuberbuehler, Ernest J

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the rationale provided by program directors and general managers of health/fitness facilities for low adherence to nationally accepted standards related to pre-activity cardiovascular screening procedures (PACSPs) for members and clients of personal trainers. Qualitative interviews were conducted with the directors/managers in a Midwest region representing 76 facilities who indicated they did not conduct PACSPs for members and clients of personal trainers. Analysis of the rationale provided revealed 6 major clusters: (1) Purpose or need for screening; (2) time and staffing; (3) barrier to participation; (4) personal responsibility for health and actions; (5) legal issues; and (6) company or franchise policy that categorized the reasons for low adherence to PACSPs. These findings highlight the need to increase awareness of the relevance of PACSPs among health/fitness managers, staff members, and current exercise science students as well as engage those in risk management for informed dialogue for consistent application of the standard of care. Copyright 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. SCALE: A modular code system for performing standardized computer analyses for licensing evaluation. Functional modules F9--F16 -- Volume 2, Part 2, Revision 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, J.T.; Hoffman, T.J.; Emmett, M.B.; Childs, K.W.; Petrie, L.M.; Landers, N.F.; Bryan, C.B.; Giles, G.E.

    1995-04-01

    SCALE--a modular code system for Standardized Computer Analyses Licensing Evaluation--has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The SCALE system utilizes well-established computer codes and methods within standard analysis sequences that (1) allow an input format designed for the occasional user and/or novice, (2) automate the data processing and coupling between modules, and (3) provide accurate and reliable results. System development has been directed at problem-dependent cross-section processing and analysis of criticality safety, shielding, heat transfer, and depletion/decay problems. Since the initial release of SCALE in 1980, the code system has been heavily used for evaluation of nuclear fuel facility and package designs. This revision documents Version 4.2 of the system. The manual is divided into three volumes: Volume 1--for the control module documentation, Volume 2--for functional module documentation; and Volume 3--for documentation of the data libraries and subroutine libraries. This volume discusses the following functional modules: MORSE-SGC; HEATING 7.2; KENO V.a; JUNEBUG-II; HEATPLOT-S; REGPLOT 6; PLORIGEN; and OCULAR

  19. Effectiveness of GAEC cross-compliance Standard 4.2c for biodiversity conservation in set-asides, part II (ground-dwelling Arthropods and Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Biaggini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The MO.NA.CO. project has been set up to evaluate the effectiveness of some GAECs (Good Agricultural and Environmental Conditions through the institution of a monitoring network throughout the Italian territory. The present work deals with the evaluation of the Standard 4.2c, concerning biomass and biodiversity in set-asides, in relation to fauna conservation. Monitoring was performed in three areas, using the following indicators: ground-dwelling Arthropods identified at the order level, Coleoptera identified at the family level and Lacertids. Our results seem to indicate that a mild management of set-asides, consisting in mowing once a year (mid July in the examined areas, may enhance faunal diversity, above all Arthropod diversity. After mowing, the set-asides managed following Standard 4.2, hosted higher levels of Arthropod diversity and a more balanced faunistic composition in comparison to unmoved set-asides and arable lands. On the contrary, we did not find significant effects of mowing on lizard abundance. We also discussed some measures to mitigate the negative direct effects of mechanical mowing on fauna. 

  20. Chemical composition and biological evaluation of the volatile constituents from the aerial parts of Nephrolepis exaltata (L.) and Nephrolepis cordifolia (L.) C. Presl grown in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tantawy, Mona E; Shams, Manal M; Afifi, Manal S

    2016-01-01

    The essential oil from the aerial parts of Nephrolepis exaltata and Nephrolepis cordifolia obtained by hydro-distillation were analyzed by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. The essential oils exhibited potential antibacterial and antifungal activities against a majority of the selected microorganisms. NEA oil showed promising cytotoxicity in breast, colon and lung carcinoma cells. The results presented indicate that NEA oil could be useful alternative for the treatment of dermatophytosis. Comparative investigation of hydro-distilled volatile constituents from aerial parts (A) of Nephrolepis exaltata (NE) and Nephrolepis cordifolia (NC) (Family Nephrolepidaceae) was carried out. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed that oils differ in composition and percentages of components. Oxygenated compounds were dominant in NEA and NCA. 2,4-Hexadien-1-ol (16.1%), nonanal (14.4%), β-Ionone (6.7%) and thymol (2.7%) were predominant in NEA. β-Ionone (8.0%), eugenol (7.2%) and anethol (4.6%) were the main constituents in NCA. Volatile samples were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities using agar diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentrations. The cytotoxic activity was evaluated using viability assay in breast (MCF-7), colon (HCT-116) and lung carcinoma (A-549) cells by the MTT assay. The results revealed that NEA oil exhibited potential antimicrobial activity against most of the tested organisms and showed promising cytotoxicity.

  1. [The coroner's autopsies in the Great Britain: the problems related to the quality of the studies, standardization, auditing, financial support and the approaches to their solution (part 2)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, I Ju; Kuprina, T A; Gusarov, A A; Fetisov, V A

    This article extends the previous publication of the authors based on the analysis of the detailed report of the experts of the National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death program (NCEPOD) issued in the Great Britain in 2006. The analysis has demonstrated that all autopsy studies should invariably involve measurement of the corpse length and weight (including body mass index) as well as the detailed description of all injuries to the body (or references to their absence). All autopsy studies should be carried out only by a medical professional (e.g. a pathologist, histologist, forensic medical expert, etc.). The thorough examination of the cadaver is mandatory prior to evisceration. The maximum scope of the examination of all body cavities with the comprehensive description of all internal organs and systems is compulsory. Putrefaction and decomposition of the corpse can not be regarded as a justification for its perfunctory ('restricted') inspection; on the contrary, these dictate the necessity of a more careful examination with the compulsory description of all organs and body systems as well as harvesting biological fluids and tissues for the laboratory analyses (including histological, toxicological, and other relevant studies).

  2. ETHNO-BIOLOGICAL NOTES ON THE MEYAH TRIBE FROM THE NORTHERN PART OF MANOKWARI, WEST PAPUA (Catatan Etnobiologi Pada Suku Meyah di Pantai Utara Manokwari, Papua Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepus Fatem

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Tropical forests provide many products such as fruits, seeds, resin, medicines, meat and by-products such as non-timber forest products. In June 2005, February 2008 and June 2009, ethno botanical and ethno zoological surveys were conducted among Meyah hunter-gatherers and on the flora and fauna. This paper aims to reveal the interaction between the Meyah Tribe in the Northern Part of Manokwari and utilization of forest products. Our study reports that the tribe used about 67 species of plants and 11 wild animals to support their livelihood. Due to the expansion of the Manokwari regency as part of the development process in West Papua Province, we would therefore like to suggest that the local government should pay attention to developing and preserving the biodiversity in this area. ABSTRAK Hutan tropis pada prinsipnya menyediakan berbagai kebutuhan manusia baik buah, biji, resin, tumbuhan obat, daging dan dikenal sebagai  hasil hutan bukan kayu. Survei etnobiologi ini dilakukan pada bulan June 2005, Februari 2008 dan Juni 2009 pada masyarakat yang melakukan kegiatan pemanfaatan tumbuhan dan berburu satwa liar. Tulisan ini bermaksud untuk mengungkapkan interaksi Suku Meyah di Wilayah Pantai Utara Manokwari dalam pemanfaatan produk hasil hutan bukan kayu. Studi ini mencatat sekitar 67 spesies tumbuhan dan 11 jenis satwa lair yang di manfaatkan untuk menopang kehidupan suku Meyah. Data jumlah jenis tumbuhan dan satwa liar yang di manfaatkan ini, di harapkan dapat berguna bagi  pemerintah daerah dan lembaga lainnya dalam mengatur pola pemanfaatan sumberdaya hutan non kayu. Dalam hubungan dengan pemekaran wilayah, maka tantangan terhadap kelestarian sumberdaya hutan ini sangat besar, karena diprediksi akan mengalami tekanan dan kerusakan. Dengan demikian siklus kehidupan masyarakat akan terganggu. Sehingga di butuhkan kebijakan guna  mengakomodir kepentingan masyarakat asli dan juga kebutuhan pembangunan.

  3. Chemical Composition and Biological Studies of the Essential Oil from Aerial Parts of Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima (L.) Arcang. Growing in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardi-Bergaoui, Afifa; Ben Nejma, Aymen; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia; Flamini, Guido; Ascrizzi, Roberta; Ben Jannet, Hichem

    2017-10-01

    The chemical composition, antioxidant, cytotoxic, anticholinesterase and anti-tyrosinase activities of the hydrodistilled essential oil of the aerial parts of Beta vulgaris subsp. maritime (L.) Arcang. from Tunisia have been evaluated. The chemical composition of the oil (yield 0.037% [w/w]), determined by GC-FID and GC/MS is reported for the first time. Twenty five components, accounting for 98.1% of the total oil have been identified. The oil was characterized by a high proportion of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (39.2%), followed by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (30.3%) and one apocarotenoids (26.3%). The main compounds were γ-irone (26.3%), α-cadinol (12.1%), T-cadinol (10.6%), bicyclogermacrene (10.4%) and δ-cadinene (6.0%). The isolated oil was tested for its antioxidant activity using the DPPH · , ABTS +· , catalase, and paraoxonase assays and also for its cytotoxic, anticholinesterase, and anti-tyrosinase activities. The essential oil exhibited high antioxidant activity (IC 50  = 0.055 ± 0.006 mg/ml) and important result oncatalase (524.447 ± 2.58 Units/mg protein). Furthermore, it exerted a significant cytotoxic effect against A549 cell line, with IC 50  = 42.44 ± 1.40 μg/ml. The results indicate that the essential oil of B. vulgaris subsp. maritima (L.) Arcang. aerial parts may be used in future as an alternative to synthetic antioxidant agents, with potential application in the food and pharmaceutical industries. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  4. The five essential ('key') elements of severe accident management. To be developed as part of a SAMG industry standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vayssier, George

    2017-01-01

    The Fukushima-Daiichi accident has caused a renewed interest in tools and guidelines to mitigate severe accidents. Notably, industry approaches have been reviewed and features added from the lessons learned. The various severe accident management approaches vary considerably: they have different measures, different priorities for the various actions, different staff responsibilities and different sorts of communication to the off-site authorities. It appears that there is no common basis from which the approaches have been developed. In this paper, the five elements are treated which the author considers essential for proper tools to terminate severe accidents and mitigate their consequences. These five elements should be trained in well-developed drills/exercises, involving all functions of accident management. An industrial standard to define a minimum common basis, to which individual approaches should adhere and so decrease the large scatter in these approaches present now.

  5. Neutral kaon mixing beyond the Standard Model with nf=2+1 chiral fermions. Part 1: bare matrix elements and physical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garron, Nicolas; Hudspith, Renwick J.; Lytle, Andrew T.

    2016-01-01

    We compute the hadronic matrix elements of the four-quark operators relevant for K 0 −K̄ 0 mixing beyond the Standard Model. Our results are from lattice QCD simulations with n f =2+1 flavours of domain-wall fermion, which exhibit continuum-like chiral-flavour symmetry. The simulations are performed at two different values of the lattice spacing (a∼0.08 and a∼0.11 fm) and with lightest unitary pion mass ∼300 MeV. For the first time, the full set of relevant four-quark operators is renormalised non-perturbatively through RI-SMOM schemes; a detailed description of the renormalisation procedure is presented in a companion paper. We argue that the intermediate renormalisation scheme is responsible for the discrepancies found by different collaborations. We also study different normalisations and determine the matrix elements of the relevant four-quark operators with a precision of ∼5% or better.

  6. The five essential ('key') elements of severe accident management. To be developed as part of a SAMG industry standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vayssier, George [NSC Netherlands, Hansweert (Netherlands)

    2017-07-15

    The Fukushima-Daiichi accident has caused a renewed interest in tools and guidelines to mitigate severe accidents. Notably, industry approaches have been reviewed and features added from the lessons learned. The various severe accident management approaches vary considerably: they have different measures, different priorities for the various actions, different staff responsibilities and different sorts of communication to the off-site authorities. It appears that there is no common basis from which the approaches have been developed. In this paper, the five elements are treated which the author considers essential for proper tools to terminate severe accidents and mitigate their consequences. These five elements should be trained in well-developed drills/exercises, involving all functions of accident management. An industrial standard to define a minimum common basis, to which individual approaches should adhere and so decrease the large scatter in these approaches present now.

  7. Proposed standardized definitions for vertical resolution and uncertainty in the NDACC lidar ozone and temperature algorithms - Part 2: Ozone DIAL uncertainty budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Thierry; Sica, Robert J.; van Gijsel, Joanna A. E.; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; Haefele, Alexander; Trickl, Thomas; Payen, Guillaume; Liberti, Gianluigi

    2016-08-01

    A standardized approach for the definition, propagation, and reporting of uncertainty in the ozone differential absorption lidar data products contributing to the Network for the Detection for Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) database is proposed. One essential aspect of the proposed approach is the propagation in parallel of all independent uncertainty components through the data processing chain before they are combined together to form the ozone combined standard uncertainty. The independent uncertainty components contributing to the overall budget include random noise associated with signal detection, uncertainty due to saturation correction, background noise extraction, the absorption cross sections of O3, NO2, SO2, and O2, the molecular extinction cross sections, and the number densities of the air, NO2, and SO2. The expression of the individual uncertainty components and their step-by-step propagation through the ozone differential absorption lidar (DIAL) processing chain are thoroughly estimated. All sources of uncertainty except detection noise imply correlated terms in the vertical dimension, which requires knowledge of the covariance matrix when the lidar signal is vertically filtered. In addition, the covariance terms must be taken into account if the same detection hardware is shared by the lidar receiver channels at the absorbed and non-absorbed wavelengths. The ozone uncertainty budget is presented as much as possible in a generic form (i.e., as a function of instrument performance and wavelength) so that all NDACC ozone DIAL investigators across the network can estimate, for their own instrument and in a straightforward manner, the expected impact of each reviewed uncertainty component. In addition, two actual examples of full uncertainty budget are provided, using nighttime measurements from the tropospheric ozone DIAL located at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Table Mountain Facility, California, and nighttime measurements from the JPL

  8. Contribution to pressure vessels design of innovative methods and comparative application with standardized rules on a realistic structure – Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohart, Philippe; Panier, Stéphane; Hariri, Saïd; Simonet, Yves; Afzali, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Design of pressure vessels, which are subjected to various natures of loading, must prevent damage mechanisms occurrence. For a load applied or maintained with a given intensity, primary failure modes can appear, such as gross plastic deformation, plastic instability or buckling. For design-by-analysis, the reference methodology is based on an elastic stress calculation. During the last decade, studies have shown that this ingenious procedure could provide conservative design limits. They can become actually overly conservative in a context of increasing complexity of geometry and loading modelling. In parallel, technological and theoretical developments enabled limit analysis to be considered as an interesting design methodology. This is suggested in standards and codes (EN 13445, CODAP, Boiler and Pressure Vessels Code) since the early 2000"'"s. In this first of two companion papers, a set of standardized and innovative procedures is introduced. These approaches rely on various concepts, such as elasticity, incremental elastoplasticity, or elastic compensation (Modified Elastic Compensation Method, Linear Matching Method). Each methodology is presented on theoretical aspects, eventually adapted so as to take into account safety margins. They are then applied on a model inspired from a real industrial reactor, using Abaqus. Results are compared to reference data from codes, in terms of accuracy and computing time. A final assessment underlines practical benefits that could be expected. - Highlights: • A review of pressure vessels design methods against gross plastic deformation is made. • Innovative methodologies are introduced in order to overcome practical limits of classical methods. • Comparative tests are performed on one Benchmark with both classical and innovative procedures. • Results show the ability of innovative methodologies to improve the ratio ‘accuracy’ – ‘computationnal time’.

  9. Large Pelagics Biological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Biological Survey (LPBS) collects additional length and weight information and body parts such as otoliths, caudal vertebrae, dorsal spines, and...

  10. Data Integration and Mining for Synthetic Biology Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mısırlı, Göksel; Hallinan, Jennifer; Pocock, Matthew; Lord, Phillip; McLaughlin, James Alastair; Sauro, Herbert; Wipat, Anil

    2016-10-21

    One aim of synthetic biologists is to create novel and predictable biological systems from simpler modular parts. This approach is currently hampered by a lack of well-defined and characterized parts and devices. However, there is a wealth of existing biological information, which can be used to identify and characterize biological parts, and their design constraints in the literature and numerous biological databases. However, this information is spread among these databases in many different formats. New computational approaches are required to make this information available in an integrated format that is more amenable to data mining. A tried and tested approach to this problem is to map disparate data sources into a single data set, with common syntax and semantics, to produce a data warehouse or knowledge base. Ontologies have been used extensively in the life sciences, providing this common syntax and semantics as a model for a given biological domain, in a fashion that is amenable to computational analysis and reasoning. Here, we present an ontology for applications in synthetic biology design, SyBiOnt, which facilitates the modeling of information about biological parts and their relationships. SyBiOnt was used to create the SyBiOntKB knowledge base, incorporating and building upon existing life sciences ontologies and standards. The reasoning capabilities of ontologies were then applied to automate the mining of biological parts from this knowledge base. We propose that this approach will be useful to speed up synthetic biology design and ultimately help facilitate the automation of the biological engineering life cycle.

  11. Proposed standardized definitions for vertical resolution and uncertainty in the NDACC lidar ozone and temperature algorithms - Part 3: Temperature uncertainty budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Thierry; Sica, Robert J.; van Gijsel, Joanna A. E.; Haefele, Alexander; Payen, Guillaume; Liberti, Gianluigi

    2016-08-01

    A standardized approach for the definition, propagation, and reporting of uncertainty in the temperature lidar data products contributing to the Network for the Detection for Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) database is proposed. One important aspect of the proposed approach is the ability to propagate all independent uncertainty components in parallel through the data processing chain. The individual uncertainty components are then combined together at the very last stage of processing to form the temperature combined standard uncertainty. The identified uncertainty sources comprise major components such as signal detection, saturation correction, background noise extraction, temperature tie-on at the top of the profile, and absorption by ozone if working in the visible spectrum, as well as other components such as molecular extinction, the acceleration of gravity, and the molecular mass of air, whose magnitudes depend on the instrument, data processing algorithm, and altitude range of interest. The expression of the individual uncertainty components and their step-by-step propagation through the temperature data processing chain are thoroughly estimated, taking into account the effect of vertical filtering and the merging of multiple channels. All sources of uncertainty except detection noise imply correlated terms in the vertical dimension, which means that covariance terms must be taken into account when vertical filtering is applied and when temperature is integrated from the top of the profile. Quantitatively, the uncertainty budget is presented in a generic form (i.e., as a function of instrument performance and wavelength), so that any NDACC temperature lidar investigator can easily estimate the expected impact of individual uncertainty components in the case of their own instrument. Using this standardized approach, an example of uncertainty budget is provided for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) lidar at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawai'i, which is

  12. Metabolites from nematophagous fungi and nematicidal natural products from fungi as an alternative for biological control. Part I: metabolites from nematophagous ascomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenkolb, Thomas; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are estimated to cause global annual losses of more than US$ 100 billion. The number of registered nematicides has declined substantially over the last 25 years due to concerns about their non-specific mechanisms of action and hence their potential toxicity and likelihood to cause environmental damage. Environmentally beneficial and inexpensive alternatives to chemicals, which do not affect vertebrates, crops, and other non-target organisms, are therefore urgently required. Nematophagous fungi are natural antagonists of nematode parasites, and these offer an ecophysiological source of novel biocontrol strategies. In this first section of a two-part review article, we discuss 83 nematicidal and non-nematicidal primary and secondary metabolites found in nematophagous ascomycetes. Some of these substances exhibit nematicidal activities, namely oligosporon, 4',5'-dihydrooligosporon, talathermophilins A and B, phomalactone, aurovertins D and F, paeciloxazine, a pyridine carboxylic acid derivative, and leucinostatins. Blumenol A acts as a nematode attractant. Other substances, such as arthrosporols and paganins, play a decisive role in the life cycle of the producers, regulating the formation of reproductive or trapping organs. We conclude by considering the potential applications of these beneficial organisms in plant protection strategies.

  13. Neutral kaon mixing beyond the Standard Model with n{sub f}=2+1 chiral fermions. Part 1: bare matrix elements and physical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garron, Nicolas [Theoretical Physics Division, Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Liverpool,Brownlow Hill, Liverpool, L69 3BX (United Kingdom); Hudspith, Renwick J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University,4700 Keele Street, Toronto, Ontario, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Lytle, Andrew T. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow,University Avenue, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Collaboration: The RBC/UKQCD collaboration

    2016-11-02

    We compute the hadronic matrix elements of the four-quark operators relevant for K{sup 0}−K̄{sup 0} mixing beyond the Standard Model. Our results are from lattice QCD simulations with n{sub f}=2+1 flavours of domain-wall fermion, which exhibit continuum-like chiral-flavour symmetry. The simulations are performed at two different values of the lattice spacing (a∼0.08 and a∼0.11 fm) and with lightest unitary pion mass ∼300 MeV. For the first time, the full set of relevant four-quark operators is renormalised non-perturbatively through RI-SMOM schemes; a detailed description of the renormalisation procedure is presented in a companion paper. We argue that the intermediate renormalisation scheme is responsible for the discrepancies found by different collaborations. We also study different normalisations and determine the matrix elements of the relevant four-quark operators with a precision of ∼5% or better.

  14. Collaboration Between Multistakeholder Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Maclean, Camilla

    Public interest in corporate social responsibility (CSR) has resulted in a wide variety of multistakeholder CSR standards in which companies can choose to participate. While such standards reflect collaborative governance arrangements between public and private actors, the market for corporate...... responsibility is unlikely to support a great variety of partly competing and overlapping standards. Increased collaboration between these standards would enhance both their impact and their adoption by firms. This report examines the nature, benefits, and shortcomings of existing multistakeholder standards...

  15. Charge transfer complex of some nervous and brain drugs - Part 1: Synthesis, spectroscopic, analytical and biological studies on the reaction between haloperidol antipsychotic drugs with π-acceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Habeeb, Abeer A.; Al-Saif, Foziah A.; Refat, Moamen S.

    2013-02-01

    Donor-acceptor interactions between the electron donor haloperidol (HPL) and π-acceptors like 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) and picric acid (PA) have been studied spectrophotometrically in CH3OH solvent. The donor-acceptor (charge transfer complexes) were discussed in terms of formation constant (KCT), molar extinction coefficient (ɛCT), standard free energy (ΔGo), oscillator strength (ƒ), transition dipole moment (μ), resonance energy (RN) and ionization potential (ID). The stoichiometry of these complexes was found to be 1:1 M ratio and having the formulas [(HPL)(TCNQ)] and [(HPL)(PA)], respectively. The charge transfer interaction was successfully applied to determine of HPL drug using mentioned common π-acceptors also, the results obtained herein are satisfactory for estimation of HPL compound in the pharmaceutical form. The formed solid charge-transfer complexes were also isolated and characterized using elemental analysis, conductivity, (infrared, Raman, and 1H NMR) spectra and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The experimental data of elemental analyses are in agreement with calculated data. The infrared spectra of both HPL complexes are confirming the participation of sbnd OH of 4-hydroxy-1-piperidyl moiety in the donor-acceptor chelation. The morphological surface of the resulted charge transfer complexes were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were performed to give knowledge about the thermal stability behavior of the synthesized charge transfer complexes. Thermodynamic parameters were computed from the thermal decomposition data. These complexes were also tested for their antimicrobial activity against six different microorganisms, and the results were compared with the parent drug.

  16. The marked and rapid therapeutic effect of tofacitinib in combination with subcutaneous methotrexate in a rheumatoid arthritis patient with poor prognostic factors who is resistant to standard disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and biologicals: A clinical case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Demidova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, it is generally accepted that it is necessary to achieve clinical remission in rheumatoid arthritis (RA or as minimum a low disease activity. The paper describes a clinical case of a female patient diagnosed with RA who was observed to have inefficiency of standard disease-modifying antirheumatic therapy with methotrexate 25 mg/week, secondary inefficiency of tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors (adalimumab, and inefficiency/poor tolerance of the interlukin-6 receptor antagonist tocilizumab. This determined the need to use fofacitinib (TOFA, a drug with another mechanism of action. TOFA is the first agent from a new group of immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory drugs, intracellular kinase inhibitors. Disease remission could be achieved during therapy with TOFA, which enables one to consider this synthetic drug as a therapy option that potentially competes with therapy with biologicals.

  17. Biological Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... E-Tools Safety and Health Topics / Biological Agents Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... 202) 693-2300 if additional assistance is required. Biological Agents Menu Overview In Focus: Ebola Frederick A. ...

  18. Comparison of Threshold Saccadic Vector Optokinetic Perimetry (SVOP) and Standard Automated Perimetry (SAP) in Glaucoma. Part II: Patterns of Visual Field Loss and Acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTrusty, Alice D; Cameron, Lorraine A; Perperidis, Antonios; Brash, Harry M; Tatham, Andrew J; Agarwal, Pankaj K; Murray, Ian C; Fleck, Brian W; Minns, Robert A

    2017-09-01

    We compared patterns of visual field loss detected by standard automated perimetry (SAP) to saccadic vector optokinetic perimetry (SVOP) and examined patient perceptions of each test. A cross-sectional study was done of 58 healthy subjects and 103 with glaucoma who were tested using SAP and two versions of SVOP (v1 and v2). Visual fields from both devices were categorized by masked graders as: 0, normal; 1, paracentral defect; 2, nasal step; 3, arcuate defect; 4, altitudinal; 5, biarcuate; and 6, end-stage field loss. SVOP and SAP classifications were cross-tabulated. Subjects completed a questionnaire on their opinions of each test. We analyzed 142 (v1) and 111 (v2) SVOP and SAP test pairs. SVOP v2 had a sensitivity of 97.7% and specificity of 77.9% for identifying normal versus abnormal visual fields. SAP and SVOP v2 classifications showed complete agreement in 54% of glaucoma patients, with a further 23% disagreeing by one category. On repeat testing, 86% of SVOP v2 classifications agreed with the previous test, compared to 91% of SAP classifications; 71% of subjects preferred SVOP compared to 20% who preferred SAP. Eye-tracking perimetry can be used to obtain threshold visual field sensitivity values in patients with glaucoma and produce maps of visual field defects, with patterns exhibiting close agreement to SAP. Patients preferred eye-tracking perimetry compared to SAP. This first report of threshold eye tracking perimetry shows good agreement with conventional automated perimetry and provides a benchmark for future iterations.

  19. STrategically Acquired Gradient Echo (STAGE) imaging, part I: Creating enhanced T1 contrast and standardized susceptibility weighted imaging and quantitative susceptibility mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongsheng; Liu, Saifeng; Wang, Yu; Kang, Yan; Haacke, E Mark

    2018-02-01

    To provide whole brain grey matter (GM) to white matter (WM) contrast enhanced T1W (T1WE) images, multi-echo quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), proton density (PD) weighted images, T1 maps, PD maps, susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI), and R2* maps with minimal misregistration in scanning times creating enhanced GM/WM contrast (the T1WE). The proposed T1WE image was created from a combination of the proton density weighted (6°, PDW) and T1W (24°) images and corrected for RF transmit field variations. Prior to the QSM calculation, a multi-echo phase unwrapping strategy was implemented using the unwrapped short echo to unwrap the longer echo to speed up computation. R2* maps were used to mask deep grey matter and veins during the iterative QSM calculation. A weighted-average sum of susceptibility maps was generated to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). The proposed T1WE image has a significantly improved CNR both for WM to deep GM and WM to cortical GM compared to the acquired T1W image (the first echo of 24° scan) and the T1MPRAGE image. The weighted-average susceptibility maps have 80±26%, 55±22%, 108±33% SNR increases across the ten subjects compared to the single echo result of 17.5ms for the putamen, caudate nucleus, and globus pallidus, respectively. STAGE imaging offers the potential to create a standardized brain imaging protocol providing four pieces of quantitative tissue property information and multiple types of qualitative information in just 5min. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. A comparison of biological and cultural evolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the intellectual and moral characters of man have emerged as results of biological ..... tural selection is at least partly based on conscious action. In cultural evolution .... Transfer of information in biological and cultural evolution. In biological.

  1. Biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.R.

    1973-01-01

    Following an introduction into the field of cellular radiation effect considering the most important experimental results, the biological significance of the colony formation ability is brought out. The inactivation concept of stem cells does not only prove to be good, according to the present results, in the interpretation of the pathogenesis of acute radiation effects on moult tissue, it also enables chronicle radiation injuries to be interpreted through changes in the fibrous part of the organs. Radiation therapy of tumours can also be explained to a large extent by the radiation effect on the unlimited reproductiveness of tumour cells. The more or less similar dose effect curves for healthy and tumour tissue in practice lead to intermittent irradiation. The dependence of the intermittent doses and intervals on factors such as Elkind recovery, synchronisation, redistribution, reoxygenation, repopulation and regeneration are reviewed. (ORU/LH) [de

  2. Geologic Interpretation of Data Sets Collected by Planetary Analog Geology Traverses and by Standard Geologic Field Mapping. Part 1; A Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Dean B.; Bleacher, Jacob F.; Evans, Cynthia A.; Feng, Wanda; Gruener, John; Hurwitz, Debra M.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Whitson, Peggy; Janoiko, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Geologic maps integrate the distributions, contacts, and compositions of rock and sediment bodies as a means to interpret local to regional formative histories. Applying terrestrial mapping techniques to other planets is challenging because data is collected primarily by orbiting instruments, with infrequent, spatiallylimited in situ human and robotic exploration. Although geologic maps developed using remote data sets and limited "Apollo-style" field access likely contain inaccuracies, the magnitude, type, and occurrence of these are only marginally understood. This project evaluates the interpretative and cartographic accuracy of both field- and remote-based mapping approaches by comparing two 1:24,000 scale geologic maps of the San Francisco Volcanic Field (SFVF), north-central Arizona. The first map is based on traditional field mapping techniques, while the second is based on remote data sets, augmented with limited field observations collected during NASA Desert Research & Technology Studies (RATS) 2010 exercises. The RATS mission used Apollo-style methods not only for pre-mission traverse planning but also to conduct geologic sampling as part of science operation tests. Cross-comparison demonstrates that the Apollo-style map identifies many of the same rock units and determines a similar broad history as the field-based map. However, field mapping techniques allow markedly improved discrimination of map units, particularly unconsolidated surficial deposits, and recognize a more complex eruptive history than was possible using Apollo-style data. Further, the distribution of unconsolidated surface units was more obvious in the remote sensing data to the field team after conducting the fieldwork. The study raises questions about the most effective approach to balancing mission costs with the rate of knowledge capture, suggesting that there is an inflection point in the "knowledge capture curve" beyond which additional resource investment yields progressively

  3. Measuring the activity of BioBrick promoters using an in vivo reference standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Jason R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The engineering of many-component, synthetic biological systems is being made easier by the development of collections of reusable, standard biological parts. However, the complexity of biology makes it difficult to predict the extent to which such efforts will succeed. As a first practical example, the Registry of Standard Biological Parts started at MIT now maintains and distributes thousands of BioBrick™ standard biological parts. However, BioBrick parts are only standardized in terms of how individual parts are physically assembled into multi-component systems, and most parts remain uncharacterized. Standardized tools, techniques, and units of measurement are needed to facilitate the characterization and reuse of parts by independent researchers across many laboratories. Results We found that the absolute activity of BioBrick promoters varies across experimental conditions and measurement instruments. We choose one promoter (BBa_J23101 to serve as an in vivo reference standard for promoter activity. We demonstrated that, by measuring the activity of promoters relative to BBa_J23101, we could reduce variation in reported promoter activity due to differences in test conditions and measurement instruments by ~50%. We defined a Relative Promoter Unit (RPU in order to report promoter characterization data in compatible units and developed a measurement kit so that researchers might more easily adopt RPU as a standard unit for reporting promoter activity. We distributed a set of test promoters to multiple labs and found good agreement in the reported relative activities of promoters so measured. We also characterized the relative activities of a reference collection of BioBrick promoters in order to further support adoption of RPU-based measurement standards. Conclusion Relative activity measurements based on an in vivoreference standard enables improved measurement of promoter activity given variation in measurement

  4. Preparing sewage sludge for land application or surface disposal: A guide for preparers of sewage sludge on the monitoring, record keeping, and reporting requirements of the federal standards for the use of disposal of sewage sludge, 40 CFR part 503

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The document focuses on the monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements that apply to persons who prepare sewage sludge or a material derived from sewage sludge. It defines persons who prepare sewage sludge and then summarizes their general responsibilities. USEPA promulgated at 40 CFR Part 503 Phase 1 of the risk-based regulations that govern the final use or disposal of sewage sludge. The intent of the Federal program is to ensure that the use or disposal of sewage sludge occurs in a way that protects both human health and the environment. The Part 503 regulation establishes general requirements, pollutant limits, operational standards, and management practices, as well as monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements. These requirements apply to sewage sludge that is land applied, placed on a surface disposal site, or incinerated in a sewage sludge-only incinerator.

  5. Effectiveness of the GAEC cross compliance standards Rational management of set aside, Grass strips to control soil erosion and Vegetation buffers along watercourses on surface animal diversity and biological quality of soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Biaggini

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Landscape simplification and loss of natural and semi-natural habitats are the major causes of biodiversity decrease in agricultural landscapes. In order to mitigate the effects of intensive agricultural management the Ministry of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Policies in Italy has included the agronomic measures Rational management of set aside, Grass strips to control soil erosion and Vegetation buffers along watercourses in the decree on cross compliance. In this paper we review the results of a field research performed in Central Italy. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of the above mentioned GAEC standards for animal diversity enhancement. Using different animal groups as indicators, superficial Arthropod fauna and Herpetofauna, we found striking differences in the biodiversity levels of areas characterized by the application or by the lack of GAEC standards, with the latter being characterized by a significatively impoverished fauna. In particular, the set aside area and the buffer of riparian vegetation resulted of primary importance to allow higher biodiversity levels. Also the analysis of the biological quality of the soil, as assessed through the QBS-ar index based on edaphic micro-Arthropod fauna, indicated a higher quality of semi-natural habitats with respect to arable lands.

  6. A systems study of the waste management system in Gothenburg. Part of the project: Thermal and biological waste treatment in a systems perspective; Systemstudie Avfall i Goeteborg. Delprojekt i Termisk och biologisk avfallsbehandling i ett systemperspektiv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisaillon, Mattias; Sundberg, Johan; Haraldsson, Maarten; Norrman Eriksson, Ola

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of the project A system study of waste management in Gothenburg is to evaluate new waste treatment options for municipal and industrial waste from a system perspective. The project has been carried out as a part of the project Thermal and biological waste treatment in a systems perspective - WR21. The focus is set to the waste and district heating system in Gothenburg. The project has been running for 2,5 years with an active group consisting of persons from Renova, Kretsloppskontoret, Goeteborg Energi, Gryaab and Profu. The work on development of models and of methods of handling strategic questions within the field has gone back and forth within the group. This report focuses on presenting the final results from the project, which means that the process in which we've excluded several treatment options and scenarios are only briefly described

  7. Plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-05-01

    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nursing Care Hour Standards Study. Part 2 thru Part 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    2.5749 5.1498 7.7247 10.2996 15*4494 20.5992 (. 8583 ) 1 2 3 3 5 7 Measuring & Recording (3) (6) (9) (12) (24) (48) Output - Urine/Liquid 3.2631 6.5262...UnitP 0 __ __ __ _ __ _0 o.O S 0 Ohi a t~ C Sn,0,, ., 0 400-. o o iso U - 0 ,19 U 0No. Age -of Pain asC U hi - .oU . 6. C- 3 i- CRITICAL CARE...Intravenous 2 4 6 8 10 12 (6.0009) Measuring and Recording (1) (3) (6) (9) (12) (24) Intake . 8583 2.5749 5.1498 7.7247 10.2996 20.5992 I (. 8583 ) .5 1 2 3 3

  9. [The biology of Dipylidium caninum. Part 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinaidy, H K

    1991-07-01

    From 198 cats and 182 dogs in Austria 9,134 fleas were collected. Ctenocephalides felis is the main flea of our cats (98.5%) and dogs (77.5%). Demonstration of cysticercoids of Dipylidium caninum through bleaching of fleas failed. Dissection of fleas gave, however, positive results. Each 44th flea from cats and 61st flea from dogs harbours cysticercoids. Infection intensity rates were 2.3% for C. felis (cats), 1.2% for C. felis (dogs), and 3.1% for C. canis (dogs). Male fleas are more extensively, but less intensively infected than female fleas. Cysticercoids form fleas of feline origin are more infective to cats than those from fleas found on dogs. The longest patency in cats lasted 3 years.

  10. Machine intelligence. Part 2. Biological foundations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanlon, R.; Johnson, M.

    1990-08-01

    This report describes the material aspects of how perceptions, existing as codons within the neocortex, are formed through synaptogenesis, synaptic potentiation, depotentiation, and shedding. A simulation of this process on an array of transputers is also discussed.

  11. Nuclear standardization development study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Jianjun

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear industry is the important part of national security and national economic development is key area of national new energy supported by government. nuclear standardization is the important force for nuclear industry development, is the fundamental guarantee of nuclear safe production, is the valuable means of China's nuclear industry technology to the world market. Now nuclear standardization faces to the new development opportunity, nuclear standardization should implement strategy in standard system building, foreign standard research, company standard building, and talented people building to meet the requirement of nuclear industry development. (author)

  12. Towards common technical standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmat, H.; Suardi, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, PETRONAS launched its Total Quality Management (TQM) program. In the same year the decision was taken by the PETRONAS Management to introduce common technical standards group wide. These standards apply to the design, construction, operation and maintenance of all PETRONAS installations in the upstream, downstream and petrochemical sectors. The introduction of common company standards is seen as part of an overall technical management system, which is an integral part of Total Quality Management. The Engineering and Safety Unit in the PETRONAS Central Office in Kuala Lumpur has been charged with the task of putting in place a set of technical standards throughout PETRONAS and its operating units

  13. Modern Biology

    OpenAIRE

    ALEKSIC, Branko

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this course is to learn the philosophy, principles, and techniques of modern biology. The course is particularly designed for those who have not learned biology previously or whose major is other than biology, and who may think that they do not need to know any biology at all. The topics are covered in a rather general, overview manner, but certain level of diligence in grasping concepts and memorizing the terminology is expected.

  14. The Standard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Cliff; Moore, Guy

    2012-04-01

    List of illustrations; List of tables; Preface; Acknowledgments; Part I. Theoretical Framework: 1. Field theory review; 2. The standard model: general features; 3. Cross sections and lifetimes; Part II. Applications: Leptons: 4. Elementary boson decays; 5. Leptonic weak interactions: decays; 6. Leptonic weak interactions: collisions; 7. Effective Lagrangians; Part III. Applications: Hadrons: 8. Hadrons and QCD; 9. Hadronic interactions; Part IV. Beyond the Standard Model: 10. Neutrino masses; 11. Open questions, proposed solutions; Appendix A. Experimental values for the parameters; Appendix B. Symmetries and group theory review; Appendix C. Lorentz group and the Dirac algebra; Appendix D. ξ-gauge Feynman rules; Appendix E. Metric convention conversion table; Select bibliography; Index.

  15. Chemical applicability domain of the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) for skin sensitisation potency. Part 2. The biological variability of the murine Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) for skin sensitisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David W; Api, Anne Marie; Aptula, Aynur O

    2016-10-01

    The Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) is the most common in vivo regulatory toxicology test for skin sensitisation, quantifying potency as the EC3, the concentration of chemical giving a threefold increase in thymidine uptake in the local lymph node. Existing LLNA data can, along with clinical data, provide useful comparator information on the potency of sensitisers. Understanding of the biological variability of data from LLNA studies is important for those developing non-animal based risk assessment approaches for skin allergy. Here an existing set of 94 EC3 values for 12 chemicals, all tested at least three times in the same vehicle have been analysed by calculating standard deviations (SD) for logEC3 values. The SDs range from 0.08 to 0.22. The overall SD for the 94 logEC3 values is 0.147. Thus the 95% confidence limits (2xSD) for LLNA EC3 values are within a factor of 2, comparable to those for physico-chemical measurements such as partition coefficients and solubility. The residual SDs of Quantitative Mechanistic Models (QMMs) based on physical organic chemistry parameters are similar to the overall SD of the LLNA, indicating that QMMs of this type are unlikely to be bettered for predictive accuracy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A Converter from the Systems Biology Markup Language to the Synthetic Biology Open Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tramy; Roehner, Nicholas; Zundel, Zach; Myers, Chris J

    2016-06-17

    Standards are important to synthetic biology because they enable exchange and reproducibility of genetic designs. This paper describes a procedure for converting between two standards: the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) and the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL). SBML is a standard for behavioral models of biological systems at the molecular level. SBOL describes structural and basic qualitative behavioral aspects of a biological design. Converting SBML to SBOL enables a consistent connection between behavioral and structural information for a biological design. The conversion process described in this paper leverages Systems Biology Ontology (SBO) annotations to enable inference of a designs qualitative function.

  17. Mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, James D

    1993-01-01

    The book is a textbook (with many exercises) giving an in-depth account of the practical use of mathematical modelling in the biomedical sciences. The mathematical level required is generally not high and the emphasis is on what is required to solve the real biological problem. The subject matter is drawn, e.g. from population biology, reaction kinetics, biological oscillators and switches, Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction, reaction-diffusion theory, biological wave phenomena, central pattern generators, neural models, spread of epidemics, mechanochemical theory of biological pattern formation and importance in evolution. Most of the models are based on real biological problems and the predictions and explanations offered as a direct result of mathematical analysis of the models are important aspects of the book. The aim is to provide a thorough training in practical mathematical biology and to show how exciting and novel mathematical challenges arise from a genuine interdisciplinary involvement with the biosci...

  18. FDA Recognized Consensus Standards

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database consists of those national and international standards recognized by FDA which manufacturers can declare conformity to and is part of the information...

  19. Physics and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frauenfelder, H.

    1988-01-01

    The author points out that the coupling between physics and biology is becoming closer as time goes on. He tries to show that physical studies on biological systems not only yield insight into biology but also provide results of interest to physics. Biological systems are extremly complex system. Ideally one would like to understand the behavior of such systems in terms of the behavior of its constituent atoms. Since in small organisms this may be 10 20 atoms, it is clear these are not simple many-body systems. He reviews the basic elements of cells and then considers the broader questions of structure, complexity, and function, which must be looked at on levels from the cell to the organism. Despite the vast amount of observational material already in existence, biophysics and biological physics are only at a beginning. We can expect that physics will continue to interact strongly with biology. Actually, the connection also includes chemistry and mathematics. New tools that become available in physics will continue to be applied to biological problems. We can expect that the flow of information will not be one way; biological systems will provide new information on many old and new parts of physics, from reaction theory and transport phenomena to complexity, cooperativity, and nonlinear processes

  20. Standard classification: Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This is a draft standard classification of physics. The conception is based on the physics part of the systematic catalogue of the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek and on the classification given in standard textbooks. The ICSU-AB classification now used worldwide by physics information services was not taken into account. (BJ) [de

  1. F. Biological hazards of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Plutonium is an unavoidable result of present nuclear power programmes. Its predominant isotopes are extremely long-lived and very toxic if absorbed in the body. In view of the increasing potential for plutonium and man to come into contact, the consequences of any plutonium release into the environment should be scientifically examined. This report is an attempt to place in one document a fully referenced account of the on-going work in many areas. There are three sections. Part 1 deals with the amounts of plutonium available in the fuel cycle, its properties and the probability of routine or accidental release. Part 2 examines the ways in which plutonium can reach man, in particular through food chains or inhalation. Part 3 details the biological effects of plutonium once it is absorbed into the body, assesses the amounts likely to be harmful and discusses the adequacy of present standards for plutonium burdens. There are two appendices. The likely differences between Pu-239, the most studied isotope, and other plutonium isotopes or transuranic nuclides are outlined in Appendix A. Appendix B contains a fuller account of the ways in which the fate of ingested or inhaled plutonium have been determined

  2. Biological therapeutics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenstein, Ben; Brook, Daniel A

    2011-01-01

    This introductory textbook covers all the main categories of biological medicines, including vaccines, hormonal preparations, drugs for rheumatoid arthritis and other connective tissue diseases, drugs...

  3. Actinides: why are they important biologically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durbin, P.W.

    1978-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: actinide elements in energy systems; biological hazards of the actinides; radiation protection standards; and purposes of actinide biological research with regard to toxicity, metabolism, and therapeutic regimens

  4. Neutron dosimetry in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigurbjoernsson, B.; Smith, H.H.; Gustafsson, A.

    1965-01-01

    To study adequately the biological effects of different energy neutrons it is necessary to have high-intensity sources which are not contaminated by other radiations, the most serious of which are gamma rays. An effective dosimetry must provide an accurate measure of the absorbed dose, in biological materials, of each type of radiation at any reactor facility involved in radiobiological research. A standardized biological dosimetry, in addition to physical and chemical methods, may be desirable. The ideal data needed to achieve a fully documented dosimetry has been compiled by H. Glubrecht: (1) Energy spectrum and intensity of neutrons; (2) Angular distribution of neutrons on the whole surface of the irradiated object; (3) Additional undesired radiation accompanying the neutrons; (4) Physical state and chemical composition of the irradiated object. It is not sufficient to note only an integral dose value (e.g. in 'rad') as the biological effect depends on the above data

  5. European standards for composite construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stark, J.W.B.

    2000-01-01

    The European Standards Organisation (CEN) has planned to develop a complete set of harmonized European building standards. This set includes standards for composite steel and concrete buildings and bridges. The Eurocodes, being the design standards, form part of this total system of European

  6. Repeated Interaction in Standard Setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larouche, Pierre; Schütt, Florian

    2016-01-01

    As part of the standard-setting process, certain patents become essential. This may allow the owners of these standard-essential patents to hold up implementers of the standard, who can no longer turn to substitute technologies. However, many real-world standards evolve over time, with several

  7. Treatment guidelines for Circadian Rhythm Sleep-Wake Disorders of the Polish Sleep Research Society and the Section of Biological Psychiatry of the Polish Psychiatric Association. Part I. Physiology, assessment and therapeutic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichniak, Adam; Jankowski, Konrad S; Skalski, Michal; Skwarło-Sońta, Krystyna; Zawilska, Jolanta B; Żarowski, Marcin; Poradowska, Ewa; Jernajczyk, Wojciech

    2017-10-29

    Majority of the physiological processes in the human organism are rhythmic. The most common are the diurnal changes that repeat roughly every 24 hours, called circadian rhythms. Circadian rhythms disorders have negative influence on human functioning. The aim of this article is to present the current understanding of the circadian rhythms physiological role, with particular emphasis on the circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders (CRSWD), principles of their diagnosis and chronobiological therapy. The guidelines are based on the review of recommendations from the scientific societies involved in sleep medicine and the clinical experiences of the authors. Researchers participating in the preparation of guidelines were invited by the Polish Sleep Research Society and the Section of Biological Psychiatry of the Polish Psychiatric Association, based on their significant contributions in circadian rhythm research and/or clinical experience in the treatment of such disorders. Finally, the guidelines were adjusted to the questions and comments given by the members of both Societies. CRSWD have a significant negative impact on human health and functioning. Standard methods used to assess CRSWD are sleep diaries and sleep logs, while the actigraphy, when available, should be also used. The most effective methods of CRSWD treatment are melatonin administration and light therapy. Behavioral interventions are also recommended. Afourteen-day period of sleep-wake rhythm assessment in CRSWD enables accurate diagnosis, adequate selection of chronobiological interventions, and planning adequate diurnal timing of their application. This type of assessment is quite easy, low-cost, and provides valuable indications how to adjust the therapeutic approach to the circadian phase of the particular patient.

  8. Treatment guidelines for Circadian Rhythm Sleep - Wake Disorders of the Polish Sleep Research Society and the Section of Biological Psychiatry of the Polish Psychiatric Association. Part II. Diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichniak, Adam; Jankowski, Konrad S; Skalski, Michał; Skwarło-Sońta, Krystyna; Zawilska, Jolanta B; Żarowski, Marcin; Poradowska, Ewa; Jernajczyk, Wojciech

    2017-10-29

    Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders (CRSWD) are a group of disorders, in which the timing of sleep and wakefulness significantly differs from a patient's expectations or socially acceptable times. The aimof the article is to present the current principles for the diagnosis and treatment of CRSWD in adults and children. Guidelines proposed as CRSWD treatment standard are based on the recommendations from the scientific societies involved in the sleep research and medicine. Researchers participating in the guidelines preparation were invited by the Polish Sleep Research Society and the Section of Biological Psychiatry of the Polish Psychiatric Association based on their significant contribution to the circadian rhythm research and/or clinical experience in the treatment of these disorders. Finally, the guidelines were adjusted to the questions and comments given by the members of both Societies. Patients with endogenous CRSWD are often misdiagnosed and treated for insomnia or hypersomnia. Therefore, each patient reporting sleep-wake disorders should be interviewed about the quality of sleep and its timing during free days (e.g. weekends, holidays). Avalid CRSWD diagnosis can be also established by using sleep diaries/logs and actigraphy. The treatment of choice for CRSWD is chronotherapy, which involves melatonin application, light therapy, and behavioral interventions. Sleep disorders associated with shift work and time zone changes are a growing health problem. Interventions for these disorders should primarily focus on prevention. The main problem in the treatment of CRSWD is an invalid diagnosis. Hypnotics and/or psychostimulants are often used instead of chronotherapeutic interventions, what can alleviate symptoms but is not an effective treatment.

  9. Liposomes as potential masking agents in sport doping. Part 1: analysis of phospholipids and sphingomyelins in drugs and biological fluids by aqueous normal-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Simone; Colicchia, Sonia; de la Torre, Xavier; Mazzarino, Monica; Botrè, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, aqueous normal-phase liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), in different acquisition modes, was employed for the direct analysis and profiling of nine phospholipid classes (phosphatidic acids, phosphatidylserines, phosphatidylethanolamines, lysophosphatidylethanolamines, phosphatidylglycerols, phosphatidylinositols, phosphatidylcholines, lysophosphatidylcholines, and sphingomyelins) in biological and pharmaceutical matrices. After chromatographic separation by a diol column, detection and elucidation of phospholipid and sphingomyelin classes and molecular species were performed by different scan acquisition modes. For screening analysis, molecular ions [M + H] + were detected in positive precursor ion scan of m/z 184 for the classes of phosphatidylcholines, lyso-phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelins; while phosphatidylethanolamines and lyso-phosphatidylethanolamines were detected monitoring neutral loss scan of 141 Da; and phosphatidylserines detected using neutral loss scan of 184 Da. Molecular ions [M-H] - were instead acquired in negative precursor ion scan of m/z 153 for the classes of phosphatidic acids and phosphatidylglycerols; and of m/z 241 for the phosphatidylinositols. For the identification of the single molecular species, product ion scan mass spectra of the [M + HCOO] - ions for phosphatidylcholines and [M + H] + ions for the other phospholipids considered were determined for each class and compared with the fragmentation pattern of model phospholipid reference standard. By this approach, nearly 100 phospholipids and sphingomyelins were detected and identified. The optimized method was then used to characterize the phospholipid and sphingomyelin profiles in human plasma and urine samples and in two phospholipid-based pharmaceutical formulations, proving that it also allows to discriminate compounds of endogenous origin from those resulting from the intake of pharmaceutical products

  10. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  11. RELAP5 / MOD3.2 analysis of INSC standard problem INSCSP - V4 : investigation of heat transfer for partly uncovered VVER-1000 core at the test facility KS (RRC K1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tentner, A.; Ahrens, J. W.

    2002-01-01

    The RELAP5/MOD3.2 computer program has been used to analyze a series of tests investigating heat-transfer from a partly uncovered VVER-1000 core in the KS test facility at the Russian Research Center ''Kurchatov Institute'' (RRC-KI). The analysis documented represents VVER Standard Problem 4 in Joint Project 6, which is the investigation of Computer Code Validation for Transient Analysis of RBMK and VVER Reactors, between the United States and Russian International Nuclear Safety Centers. The experiment facility and data, RELAP5 nodalization, and results are shown for one of the six tests defined in Standard Problem 4. Only part of the data was analyzed due to our conclusion that the available experimental data is not sufficient to allow the modeling of the actual experiment sequence. The experiment initial conditions were reached through a series of transient processes, about which no quantitative information was available. This has required the modeling of an arbitrary computational transient, with the goal of reaching initial conditions similar to those observed during the experiment. The use of an arbitrary transient introduces many degrees of freedom in the analysis, i.e. initial computational values that influence the entire sequence of events, including the loop behavior during the experiment time window. Reasonable agreement between RELAP5 and the experiment data can be obtained by manipulating a number of initial computational values, including the liquid level in the fuel assembly model, the liquid level in the annular region, the quality of the saturated vapor in the voided loop regions, etc. Our study has focused on exploring the sensitivity of results to changes in these initial values which are not based on experimental information, but are selected with the goal of matching the experimentally observed behavior during the experiment time window. We have shown that changes in several initial arbitrary values can lead to similar changes in the

  12. Computational biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Lars Røeboe; Jones, Neil; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    Computation via biological devices has been the subject of close scrutiny since von Neumann’s early work some 60 years ago. In spite of the many relevant works in this field, the notion of programming biological devices seems to be, at best, ill-defined. While many devices are claimed or proved t...

  13. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. Novel biomolecular machines, governed by coded information at the level of DNA and proteins, operate at these length scales in biological ...

  14. INNOVATION IN ACCOUNTING BIOLOGIC ASSETS

    OpenAIRE

    Stolуarova M. A.; Shcherbina I. D.

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the innovations in the classification and measurement of biological assets according to IFRS (IAS) 41 "Agriculture". The difficulties faced by agricultural producers using standard, set out in article. The classification based on the adopted amendments, according to which the fruit-bearing plants, previously accounted for as biological assets are measured at fair value are included in the category of fixed assets. The structure of biological assets and main means has bee...

  15. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same

  16. Decommissioning standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crofford, W.N.

    1980-01-01

    EPA has agreed to establish a series of environmental standards for the safe disposal of radioactive waste through participation in the Interagency Review Group on Nuclear Waste Management (IRG). One of the standards required under the IRG is the standard for decommissioning of radioactive contaminated sites, facilities, and materials. This standard is to be proposed by December 1980 and promulgated by December 1981. Several considerations are important in establishing these standards. This study includes discussions of some of these considerations and attempts to evaluate their relative importance. Items covered include: the form of the standards, timing for decommissioning, occupational radiation protection, costs and financial provisions. 4 refs

  17. Quantum Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sergi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical assessment of the recent developmentsof molecular biology is presented.The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptualunderstanding of life and biological systems is defended.Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketchedand its logical circularity avoided by postulatingthe existence of underlying living processes,entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale,with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other.Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces,is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretationof quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so onas quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of includinglong-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them incondensed matter theories of biological processes.Some quantum effects in biology are reviewedand quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since withoutit most (if not all of the biological structuresand signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-rangequantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization,may be invoked to explain signal amplificationprocess in biological systems in general.

  18. Biological desulfurisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, B.J. [UOP LLC (United States); Benschop, A.; Janssen, A. [Paques Natural Solutions (Netherlands); Kijlstra, S. [Shell Global Solutions (Netherlands)

    2001-03-01

    This article focuses on the biological THIOPAQ process for removing hydrogen sulphide from refinery gases and recovering elemental sulphur. Details are given of the process which absorbs hydrogen sulphide-containing gas in alkaline solution prior to oxidation of the dissolved sulphur to elemental sulphur in a THIOPAQ aerobic biological reactor, with regeneration of the caustic solution. Sulphur handling options including sulphur wash, the drying of the sulphur cake, and sulphur smelting by pressure liquefaction are described. Agricultural applications of the biologically recovered sulphur, and application of the THIOPAQ process to sulphur recovery are discussed.

  19. Tumor Biology and Microenvironment Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part of NCI's Division of Cancer Biology's research portfolio, research in this area seeks to understand the role of tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment (TME) in driving cancer initiation, progression, maintenance and recurrence.

  20. The Promises of Biology and the Biology of Promises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jieun

    2015-01-01

    commitments with differently imagined futures. I argue that promises are constitutive of the stem cell biology, rather than being derivative of it. Since the biological concept of stem cells is predicated on the future that they promise, the biological life of stem cells is inextricably intertwined...... patients’ bodies in anticipation of materializing the promises of stem cell biology, they are produced as a new form of biovaluable. The promises of biology move beyond the closed circuit of scientific knowledge production, and proliferate in the speculative marketplaces of promises. Part II looks at how...... of technologized biology and biological time can appear promising with the backdrop of the imagined intransigence of social, political, and economic order in the Korean society....

  1. Synthetic biology of polyketide synthases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuzawa, Satoshi; Backman, Tyler W.H.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2018-01-01

    ). The modules are composed of enzymatic domains that share sequence and functional similarity across all known PKSs. We have used the nomenclature of synthetic biology to classify the enzymatic domains and modules as parts and devices, respectively, and have generated detailed lists of both. In addition, we...... realize the potential that synthetic biology approaches bring to this class of molecules....

  2. Accounting standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellinga, B.; Mügge, D.

    2014-01-01

    The European and global regulation of accounting standards have witnessed remarkable changes over the past twenty years. In the early 1990s, EU accounting practices were fragmented along national lines and US accounting standards were the de facto global standards. Since 2005, all EU listed

  3. Standardization Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Specifications and Standards; Guide Specifications; CIDs; and NGSs . Learn. Perform. Succeed. STANDARDIZATION DOCUMENTS Federal Specifications Commercial...national or international standardization document developed by a private sector association, organization, or technical society that plans ...Maintain lessons learned • Examples: Guidance for application of a technology; Lists of options Learn. Perform. Succeed. DEFENSE HANDBOOK

  4. Systems Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    study and understand the function of biological systems, particu- larly, the response of such .... understand the organisation and behaviour of prokaryotic sys- tems. ... relationship of the structure of a target molecule to its ability to bind a certain ...

  5. Issues in Biological Shape Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilger, Klaus Baggesen

    This talk reflects parts of the current research at informatics and Mathematical Modelling at the Technical University of Denmark within biological shape modelling. We illustrate a series of generalizations, modifications, and applications of the elements of constructing models of shape or appear......This talk reflects parts of the current research at informatics and Mathematical Modelling at the Technical University of Denmark within biological shape modelling. We illustrate a series of generalizations, modifications, and applications of the elements of constructing models of shape...

  6. Knowledge base and functionality of concepts of some Filipino biology teachers in five biology topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquilla, Manuel B.

    2018-01-01

    This mixed research, is a snapshot of some Filipino Biology teachers' knowledge structure and how their concepts of the five topics in Biology (Photosynthesis, Cellular Respiration, human reproductive system, Mendelian genetics and NonMendelian genetics) functions and develops inside a biology classroom. The study focuses on the six biology teachers and a total of 222 students in their respective classes. Of the Six (6) teachers, three (3) are under the Science curriculum and the other three (3) are under regular curriculum in both public and private schools in Iligan city and Lanao del Norte, Philippines. The study utilized classroom discourses, concept maps, interpretative case-study method, bracketing method, and concept analysis for qualitative part; the quantitative part uses a nonparametric statistical tool, Kendall's tau Coefficient for determining relationship and congruency while measures of central tendencies and dispersion (mean, and standard deviation) for concept maps scores interpretation. Knowledge Base of Biology teachers were evaluated by experts in field of specialization having a doctorate program (e.g. PhD in Genetics) and PhD Biology candidates. The data collection entailed seven (7) months immersion: one (1) month for preliminary phase for the researcher to gain teachers' and students' confidence and the succeeding six (6) months for main observation and data collection. The evaluation of teachers' knowledge base by experts indicated that teachers' knowledge of (65%) is lower than the minimum (75%) recommended by ABD-el-Khalick and Boujaoude (1997). Thus, the experts believe that content knowledge of the teachers is hardly adequate for their teaching assignment. Moreover, the teachers in this study do not systematically use reallife situation to apply the concepts they teach. They can identify concepts too abstract for their student; however, they seldom use innovative ways to bring the discussion to their students' level of readiness and

  7. 77 FR 43196 - Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION 25 CFR Parts 543 and 547 Minimum Internal Control Standards [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Part 543 addresses minimum internal control standards (MICS) for Class II gaming operations. The regulations require tribes to establish controls and implement...

  8. Biological radiolesions and repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskowski, W.

    1981-01-01

    In 7 chapters, the book answers the following questions: 1) What reactions are induced in biological matter by absorption of radiation energy. 2) In what parts of the cell do the radiation-induced reactions with detectable biological effects occur. 3) In which way are these cell components changed by different qualities of radiation. 4) What are the cell mechanisms by which radiation-induced changes can be repaired. 5) What is the importance of these repair processes for man, his life and evolution. At the end of each chapter, there is a bibliography of relevant publications in this field. (orig./MG) [de

  9. Chemical and biological data collected as part of the CArbon Retention In A Colored Ocean (CARIACO) program in the Cariaco Basin off the coast of Venezuela, May 23, 2005 - November 11, 2006 (NODC Accession 0038513)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and biological data were collected using bottle casts on the continental shelf of Venezuela from the HERMANO GINES from May 23, 2005 to November 11, 2006....

  10. Physical and biological data collected with CDT, fluorometer, and SeaSoar aboard the ship WECOMA as part of Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics (GLOBEC) in the North Pacific Ocean from May 30 to June 16 2000 (NODC Accession 0000986)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and biological data collected with CDT, fluorometer, and SeaSoar aboard the ship WECOMA in the North Pacific Ocean from May 30 to June 16 2000. These data...

  11. Chemical and biological data collected as part of the CArbon Retention In A Colored Ocean (CARIACO) program in the Cariaco Basin off the coast of Venezuela, January 17, 2005 - January 16, 2006 (NODC Accession 0013170)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and biological data were collected using bottle casts on the continental shelf of Venezuela from the HERMANO GINES from January 17, 2005 to January 16,...

  12. Physical, biological, and chemical data from radiometer, profiling reflectance radiometer, and CTD casts in a world-wide distribution as part of the SeaWiFS/SIMBIOS project from 13 September 1981 to 16 December 1999 (NODC Accession 0000632)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, biological, and chemical data were collected using radiometer, profiling reflectance radiometer, and CTD casts in a world-wide distribution from 13...

  13. Stochastic narrow escape in molecular and cellular biology analysis and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Holcman, David

    2015-01-01

    This book covers recent developments in the non-standard asymptotics of the mathematical narrow escape problem in stochastic theory, as well as applications of the narrow escape problem in cell biology. The first part of the book concentrates on mathematical methods, including advanced asymptotic methods in partial equations, and is aimed primarily at applied mathematicians and theoretical physicists who are interested in biological applications. The second part of the book is intended for computational biologists, theoretical chemists, biochemists, biophysicists, and physiologists. It includes a summary of output formulas from the mathematical portion of the book and concentrates on their applications in modeling specific problems in theoretical molecular and cellular biology. Critical biological processes, such as synaptic plasticity and transmission, activation of genes by transcription factors, or double-strained DNA break repair, are controlled by diffusion in structures that have both large and small sp...

  14. Biological and medical sensor technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Iniewski, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    Biological and Medical Sensor Technologies presents contributions from top experts who explore the development and implementation of sensors for various applications used in medicine and biology. Edited by a pioneer in the area of advanced semiconductor materials, the book is divided into two sections. The first part covers sensors for biological applications. Topics include: Advanced sensing and communication in the biological world DNA-derivative architectures for long-wavelength bio-sensing Label-free silicon photonics Quartz crystal microbalance-based biosensors Lab-on-chip technologies fo

  15. [Biological agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Koichi

    2009-03-01

    There are two types of biological agents for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins. Among the latter, etanercept, a recombinant fusion protein of soluble TNF receptor and IgG was approved in 2005 in Japan. The post-marketing surveillance of 13,894 RA patients revealed the efficacy and safety profiles of etanercept in the Japanese population, as well as overseas studies. Abatacept, a recombinant fusion protein of CTLA4 and IgG, is another biological agent for RA. Two clinical trials disclosed the efficacy of abatacept for difficult-to-treat patients: the AIM for MTX-resistant cases and the ATTAIN for patients who are resistant to anti-TNF. The ATTEST trial suggested abatacept might have more acceptable safety profile than infliximab. These biologics are also promising for the treatment of RA for not only relieving clinical symptoms and signs but retarding structural damage.

  16. Biological preconcentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P [Albuquerque, NM; Bunker, Bruce C [Albuquerque, NM; Huber, Dale L [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-09-09

    A biological preconcentrator comprises a stimulus-responsive active film on a stimulus-producing microfabricated platform. The active film can comprise a thermally switchable polymer film that can be used to selectively absorb and desorb proteins from a protein mixture. The biological microfabricated platform can comprise a thin membrane suspended on a substrate with an integral resistive heater and/or thermoelectric cooler for thermal switching of the active polymer film disposed on the membrane. The active polymer film can comprise hydrogel-like polymers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), that are tethered to the membrane. The biological preconcentrator can be fabricated with semiconductor materials and technologies.

  17. Communications standards

    CERN Document Server

    Stokes, A V

    1986-01-01

    Communications Standards deals with the standardization of computer communication networks. This book examines the types of local area networks (LANs) that have been developed and looks at some of the relevant protocols in more detail. The work of Project 802 is briefly discussed, along with a protocol which has developed from one of the LAN standards and is now a de facto standard in one particular area, namely the Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP). Factors that affect the usage of networks, such as network management and security, are also considered. This book is divided into three se

  18. Synthetic biology: engineering molecular computers

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Complicated systems cannot survive the rigors of a chaotic environment, without balancing mechanisms that sense, decide upon and counteract the exerted disturbances. Especially so with living organisms, forced by competition to incredible complexities, escalating also their self-controlling plight. Therefore, they compute. Can we harness biological mechanisms to create artificial computing systems? Biology offers several levels of design abstraction: molecular machines, cells, organisms... ranging from the more easily-defined to the more inherently complex. At the bottom of this stack we find the nucleic acids, RNA and DNA, with their digital structure and relatively precise interactions. They are central enablers of designing artificial biological systems, in the confluence of engineering and biology, that we call Synthetic biology. In the first part, let us follow their trail towards an overview of building computing machines with molecules -- and in the second part, take the case study of iGEM Greece 201...

  19. Wireless installation standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hwang Bin

    2007-12-01

    This is divided six parts which are radio regulation law on securing of radio resource, use of radio resource, protection of radio resource, radio regulation enforcement ordinance with securing, distribution and assignment of radio regulation, radio regulation enforcement regulation on utility of radio resource and technical qualification examination, a wireless installation regulation of technique standard and safety facility standard, radio regulation such as certification regulation of information communicative machines and regulation of radio station on compliance of signal security, radio equipment in radio station, standard frequency station and emergency communication.

  20. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining licensees and applicants for reactor operator and senior reactor operator licenses at power reactor facilities pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). The Examiner Standards are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to better understand the initial and requalification examination processes and to ensure the equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator licensing policy changes

  1. Environmental biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschumi, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    Environmental biology illustrates the functioning of ecosystems and the dynamics of populations with many examples from limnology and terrestrial ecology. On this basis, present environmental problems are analyzed. The present environmental crisis is seen as a result of the failure to observe ecological laws. (orig.) [de

  2. Biological timekeeping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lloyd, David

    2016-01-01

    , the networks that connect differenttime domains and the oscillations, rhythms and biological clocks that coordinate andsynchronise the complexity of the living state.“It is the pattern maintained by this homeostasis, which is the touchstone ofour personal identity. Our tissues change as we live: the food we...

  3. Scaffolded biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minelli, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Descriptions and interpretations of the natural world are dominated by dichotomies such as organism vs. environment, nature vs. nurture, genetic vs. epigenetic, but in the last couple of decades strong dissatisfaction with those partitions has been repeatedly voiced and a number of alternative perspectives have been suggested, from perspectives such as Dawkins' extended phenotype, Turner's extended organism, Oyama's Developmental Systems Theory and Odling-Smee's niche construction theory. Last in time is the description of biological phenomena in terms of hybrids between an organism (scaffolded system) and a living or non-living scaffold, forming unit systems to study processes such as reproduction and development. As scaffold, eventually, we can define any resource used by the biological system, especially in development and reproduction, without incorporating it as happens in the case of resources fueling metabolism. Addressing biological systems as functionally scaffolded systems may help pointing to functional relationships that can impart temporal marking to the developmental process and thus explain its irreversibility; revisiting the boundary between development and metabolism and also regeneration phenomena, by suggesting a conceptual framework within which to investigate phenomena of regular hypermorphic regeneration such as characteristic of deer antlers; fixing a periodization of development in terms of the times at which a scaffolding relationship begins or is terminated; and promoting plant galls to legitimate study objects of developmental biology.

  4. Biological digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosevear, A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the biological degradation of non-radioactive organic material occurring in radioactive wastes. The biochemical steps are often performed using microbes or isolated enzymes in combination with chemical steps and the aim is to oxidise the carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur to their respective oxides. (U.K.)

  5. Marine Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  6. Microfluidic Technologies for Synthetic Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Kuk Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic technologies have shown powerful abilities for reducing cost, time, and labor, and at the same time, for increasing accuracy, throughput, and performance in the analysis of biological and biochemical samples compared with the conventional, macroscale instruments. Synthetic biology is an emerging field of biology and has drawn much attraction due to its potential to create novel, functional biological parts and systems for special purposes. Since it is believed that the development of synthetic biology can be accelerated through the use of microfluidic technology, in this review work we focus our discussion on the latest microfluidic technologies that can provide unprecedented means in synthetic biology for dynamic profiling of gene expression/regulation with high resolution, highly sensitive on-chip and off-chip detection of metabolites, and whole-cell analysis.

  7. A European randomised controlled trial of the addition of etoposide to standard vincristine and carboplatin induction as part of an 18-month treatment programme for childhood (≤16 years) low grade glioma - A final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnekow, Astrid K; Walker, David A; Kandels, Daniela; Picton, Susan; Giorgio Perilongo; Grill, Jacques; Stokland, Tore; Sandstrom, Per Eric; Warmuth-Metz, Monika; Pietsch, Torsten; Giangaspero, Felice; Schmidt, René; Faldum, Andreas; Kilmartin, Denise; De Paoli, Angela; De Salvo, Gian Luca

    2017-08-01

    The use of chemotherapy to manage newly diagnosed low grade glioma (LGG) was first introduced in the 1980s. One randomised trial has studied two- versus four-drug regimens with a duration of 12 months of treatment after resection. Within the European comprehensive treatment strategy for childhood LGG, the International Society of Paediatric Oncology-Low Grade Glioma (SIOP LGG) Committee launched a randomised trial involving 118 institutions and 11 countries to investigate the addition of etoposide (100 mg/m 2 , days 1, 2 & 3) to a four-course induction of vincristine (1.5 mg/m 2  × 10 wkly) and carboplatin (550 mg/m 2 q 3 weekly) as part of 18-month continuing treatment programme. Patients were recruited after imaging diagnosis, resection or biopsy with progressive disease/symptoms. Some 497 newly diagnosed patients (M/F 231/266; median age 4.26 years (interquartile range (IQR) 2.02-7.06)) were randomised to receive vincristine carboplatin (VC) (n = 249) or VC plus etoposide (VCE) during induction (n = 248), stratified by age and tumour site. No differences between the two arms were found in term of survival and radiological response. Response and non-progression rates at 24 weeks for VC and VCE, were 46% versus 41%, and 93% versus 91% respectively; 5-year Progression-Free Survival (PFS) and Overall Survival (OS) were 46% (StDev 3.5) versus 45% (StDev 3.5) and 89% (StDev 2.1) versus 89% (StDev 2.1) respectively. Age and diencephalic syndrome are adverse clinical risk factors for PFS and OS. 5-year OS for patients in early progression at week 24 were 46% (StDev 13.8) and 49% (StDev 16.5) in the two arms, respectively. The addition of etoposide to VC did not improve PFS or OS. High non-progression rates at 24 weeks justify retaining VC as standard first-line therapy. Infants with diencephalic syndrome and early progression need new treatments to be tested. Future trials should use neurological/visual and toxicity outcomes and be designed to

  8. SIMS applications in biological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, K.E.; Burke, P.T.; Kelly, I.J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: SIMS has been utilised as a tool for biological research since the early 1970's. SIMS' abilities in isotopic detection with high sensitivity, imaging capabilities at a subcellular level, and the possibility of molecular imaging have been the main areas of interest for biological development. However, whilst hundreds of instruments are available in industrial and university laboratories for semiconductor and materials analysis, only a handful successfully perform biological research. For this reason there is generally a lack of awareness of SIMS by the biological community. Biological SIMS analysis requires a working knowledge of both biology and SIMS. Sample preparation is a critical and time consuming prerequisite for any successful biological SIMS study. In addition, for quantification to be possible a homogeneous, matrix matched standard must be available. Once these difficulties are more widely understood and overcome there will be a greater motivation for the biological community to embrace SIMS as a unique tool in their research. This paper provides an overview of some of the more successful biological SIMS application areas internationally, and summarises the types of biological SIMS requests received by ANSTO

  9. Paleoreconstruction by biological markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, W K; Moldowan, J M

    1981-06-01

    During diagenesis and conversion of the original lipid fraction of biological systems to petroleum hydrocarbons, the following four basic events needed for paleoreconstruction may be monitored by biological markers: (1) sourcing, (2) maturation, (3) migration and (4) biodegradation. Actual cases of applying biological markers to petroleum exploration problems in different parts of the world are demonstrated. Cretaceous- and Phosphoria-sourced oils in the Wyoming Thrust Belt can be distinguished from one another by high quality source fingerprinting of biomarker terpanes using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Identification of recently discovered biological markers, head-to-head isoprenoids, allows source differentiation between some oils from Sumatra. The degree of crude oil maturation in basins from California, Alaska, Russia, Wyoming and Louisiana can be assessed by specific biomarker ratios (20S/20R sterane epimers). Field evidence from such interpretation is augmented by laboratory pyrolysis of the rock. Extensive migration is documented by biomarkers in several oils. Biological marker results are consistent with the geological setting and add a dimension in assisting the petroleum explorationist towar paleoreconstruction.

  10. KEY COMPARISON Bilateral comparison of 1.018 V and 10 V standards between the NSAI-NML (Ireland) and the BIPM, March to April 2010 (part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.a and b)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, O.; Solve, S.; Chayramy, R.; Stock, M.

    2010-01-01

    As a part of the ongoing BIPM key comparisons BIPM.EM-K11.a and b, a comparison of the 1.018 V and 10 V voltage reference standards of the BIPM and of the National Standards Authority of Ireland-National Metrology Laboratory (NSAI-NML), Dublin, Ireland, was carried out from March to April 2010. Two BIPM Zener diode-based travelling standards were transported by freight to NSAI-NML. At NSAI-NML, the reference standard for DC voltage is maintained at the 10 V level by means of a group of characterized Zener diode-based electronic voltage standards. The output EMF of each travelling standard, at the 10 V output terminals, was measured by direct comparison with the group standard. Measurements of the output EMF of the travelling standards at the 1.018 V output terminals were made using a potentiometer, standardized against the local 10 V reference standard. At the BIPM, the travelling standards were calibrated at both voltages before and after the measurements at NSAI-NML, using the BIPM Josephson Voltage Standard. Results of all measurements were corrected for the dependence of the output voltages on internal temperature and ambient pressure. The comparison results show that the voltage standards maintained by NSAI-NML and the BIPM were equivalent, within their stated expanded uncertainties, on the mean date of the comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  11. Effluent standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisler, G C [Pennsylvania State University (United States)

    1974-07-01

    At the conference there was a considerable interest in research reactor standards and effluent standards in particular. On the program, this is demonstrated by the panel discussion on effluents, the paper on argon 41 measured by Sims, and the summary paper by Ringle, et al. on the activities of ANS research reactor standards committee (ANS-15). As a result, a meeting was organized to discuss the proposed ANS standard on research reactor effluents (15.9). This was held on Tuesday evening, was attended by members of the ANS-15 committee who were present at the conference, participants in the panel discussion on the subject, and others interested. Out of this meeting came a number of excellent suggestions for changes which will increase the utility of the standard, and a strong recommendation that the effluent standard (15.9) be combined with the effluent monitoring standard. It is expected that these suggestions and recommendations will be incorporated and a revised draft issued for comment early this summer. (author)

  12. 9 CFR 311.39 - Biological residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biological residues. 311.39 Section... Biological residues. Carcasses, organs, or other parts of carcasses of livestock shall be condemned if it is determined that they are adulterated because of the presence of any biological residues. ...

  13. MATE standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, R. E.

    1982-11-01

    The MATE (Modular Automatic Test Equipment) program was developed to combat the proliferation of unique, expensive ATE within the Air Force. MATE incorporates a standard management approach and a standard architecture designed to implement a cradle-to-grave approach to the acquisition of ATE and to significantly reduce the life cycle cost of weapons systems support. These standards are detailed in the MATE Guides. The MATE Guides assist both the Air Force and Industry in implementing the MATE concept, and provide the necessary tools and guidance required for successful acquisition of ATE. The guides also provide the necessary specifications for industry to build MATE-qualifiable equipment. The MATE architecture provides standards for all key interfaces of an ATE system. The MATE approach to the acquisition and management of ATE has been jointly endorsed by the commanders of Air Force Systems Command and Air Force Logistics Command as the way of doing business in the future.

  14. Biological radioprotector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ioan; Titescu, Gheorghe; Tamaian, Radu; Haulica, Ion; Bild, Walther

    2002-01-01

    According to the patent description, the biological radioprotector is deuterium depleted water, DDW, produced by vacuum distillation with an isotopic content lower than natural value. It appears as such or in a mixture with natural water and carbon dioxide. It can be used for preventing and reducing the ionizing radiation effects upon humans or animal organisms, exposed therapeutically, professionally or accidentally to radiation. The most significant advantage of using DDW as biological radioprotector results from its way of administration. Indeed no one of the radioprotectors currently used today can be orally administrated, what reduces the patients' compliance to prophylactic administrations. The biological radioprotector is an unnoxious product obtained from natural water, which can be administrated as food additive instead of drinking water. Dose modification factor is according to initial estimates around 1.9, what is a remarkable feature when one takes into account that the product is toxicity-free and side effect-free and can be administrated prophylactically as a food additive. A net radioprotective action of the deuterium depletion was evidenced experimentally in laboratory animals (rats) hydrated with DDW of 30 ppm D/(D+H) concentration as compared with normally hydrated control animals. Knowing the effects of irradiation and mechanisms of the acute radiation disease as well as the effects of administration of radiomimetic chemicals upon cellular lines of fast cell division, it appears that the effects of administrating DDW result from stimulation of the immunity system. In conclusion, the biological radioprotector DDW presents the following advantages: - it is obtained from natural products without toxicity; - it is easy to be administrated as a food additive, replacing the drinking water; - besides radioprotective effects, the product has also immunostimulative and antitumoral effects

  15. Synthetic biology: an emerging engineering discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Allen A; Lu, Timothy K

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, synthetic biology has emerged as an engineering discipline for biological systems. Compared with other substrates, biology poses a unique set of engineering challenges resulting from an incomplete understanding of natural biological systems and tools for manipulating them. To address these challenges, synthetic biology is advancing from developing proof-of-concept designs to focusing on core platforms for rational and high-throughput biological engineering. These platforms span the entire biological design cycle, including DNA construction, parts libraries, computational design tools, and interfaces for manipulating and probing synthetic circuits. The development of these enabling technologies requires an engineering mindset to be applied to biology, with an emphasis on generalizable techniques in addition to application-specific designs. This review aims to discuss the progress and challenges in synthetic biology and to illustrate areas where synthetic biology may impact biomedical engineering and human health.

  16. Biostatistics primer: part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholser, Brian R; Sowinski, Kevin M

    2007-12-01

    Biostatistics is the application of statistics to biologic data. The field of statistics can be broken down into 2 fundamental parts: descriptive and inferential. Descriptive statistics are commonly used to categorize, display, and summarize data. Inferential statistics can be used to make predictions based on a sample obtained from a population or some large body of information. It is these inferences that are used to test specific research hypotheses. This 2-part review will outline important features of descriptive and inferential statistics as they apply to commonly conducted research studies in the biomedical literature. Part 1 in this issue will discuss fundamental topics of statistics and data analysis. Additionally, some of the most commonly used statistical tests found in the biomedical literature will be reviewed in Part 2 in the February 2008 issue.

  17. Biological monitoring results for cadmium exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDiarmid, M A; Freeman, C S; Grossman, E A; Martonik, J

    1996-11-01

    As part of a settlement agreement with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) involving exposure to cadmium (Cd), a battery production facility provided medical surveillance data to OSHA for review. Measurements of cadmium in blood, cadmium in urine, and beta 2-microglobulin in urine were obtained for more than 100 workers over an 18-month period. Some airborne Cd exposure data were also made available. Two subpopulations of this cohort were of primary interest in evaluating compliance with the medical surveillance provisions of the Cadmium Standard. These were a group of 16 workers medically removed from cadmium exposure due to elevations in some biological parameter, and a group of platemakers. Platemaking had presented a particularly high exposure opportunity and had recently undergone engineering interventions to minimize exposure. The effect on three biological monitoring parameters of medical removal protection in the first group and engineering controls in platemakers is reported. Results reveal that both medical removal from cadmium exposures and exposure abatement through the use of engineering and work practice controls generally result in declines in biological monitoring parameters of exposed workers. Implications for the success of interventions are discussed.

  18. GoldenBraid: An Iterative Cloning System for Standardized Assembly of Reusable Genetic Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrion-Perdigones, Alejandro; Falconi, Erica Elvira; Zandalinas, Sara I.; Juárez, Paloma; Fernández-del-Carmen, Asun; Granell, Antonio; Orzaez, Diego

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic Biology requires efficient and versatile DNA assembly systems to facilitate the building of new genetic modules/pathways from basic DNA parts in a standardized way. Here we present GoldenBraid (GB), a standardized assembly system based on type IIS restriction enzymes that allows the indefinite growth of reusable gene modules made of standardized DNA pieces. The GB system consists of a set of four destination plasmids (pDGBs) designed to incorporate multipartite assemblies made of standard DNA parts and to combine them binarily to build increasingly complex multigene constructs. The relative position of type IIS restriction sites inside pDGB vectors introduces a double loop (“braid”) topology in the cloning strategy that allows the indefinite growth of composite parts through the succession of iterative assembling steps, while the overall simplicity of the system is maintained. We propose the use of GoldenBraid as an assembly standard for Plant Synthetic Biology. For this purpose we have GB-adapted a set of binary plasmids for A. tumefaciens-mediated plant transformation. Fast GB-engineering of several multigene T-DNAs, including two alternative modules made of five reusable devices each, and comprising a total of 19 basic parts are also described. PMID:21750718

  19. Temperature profile data from XBT casts from the WASHINGTON STANDARD and other platforms as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration (IDOE) from 1968-10-18 to 1972-10-18 (NODC Accession 7300888)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from XBT casts from the WASHINGTON STANDARD and other platforms from 18 October 1968 to 18 October 1972. Data were collected...

  20. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Structural Biology Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area PDF Version (688 KB) Other Fact Sheets What is structural biology? Structural biology is the study of how biological ...

  1. Position paper on standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    The ''NPOC Strategic Plan for Building New Nuclear Plants'' creates a framework within which new standardized nuclear plants may be built. The Strategic Plan is an expression of the nuclear energy industry's serious intent to create the necessary conditions for new plant construction and operation. One of the key elements of the Strategic Plan is a comprehensive industry commitment to standardization: through design certification, combined license, first-of-a-kind engineering, construction, operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. The NPOC plan proposes four stages of standardization in advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). The first stage is established by the ALWR Utility Requirements Document which specifies owner/operator requirements at a functional level covering all elements of plant design and construction, and many aspects of operations and maintenance. The second stage of standardization is that achieved in the NRC design certification. This certification level includes requirements, design criteria and bases, functional descriptions and performance requirements for systems to assure plant safety. The third stage of standardization, commercial standardization, carries the design to a level of completion beyond that required for design certification to enable the industry to achieve potential increases in efficiency and economy. The final stage of standardization is enhanced standardization beyond design. A standardized approach is being developed in construction practices, operating, maintenance training, and procurement practices. This comprehensive standardization program enables the NRC to proceed with design certification with the confidence that standardization beyond the regulations will be achieved. This confidence should answer the question of design detail required for design certification, and demonstrate that the NRC should require no further regulatory review beyond that required by 10 CFR Part 52

  2. Preliminary physical, nutrients, biological, meteorological, and other data from bottle casts, CTD casts, ADCP casts, moored current meters, and meteorological sensors from the GYRE from as part of the Texas-Louisiana Shelf Circulation and Transport Processes Study (LATEX PART A) from 04 November 1992 to 05 August 1994 (NODC Accession 9500054)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Preliminary physical, nutrients, biological, meteorological, and other data from bottle casts, CTD casts, ADCP casts, and meteorological sensors from the GYRE from...

  3. Marine biology, intertidal ecology, and a new place for biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Keith R

    2015-01-01

    At the present time, there is considerable interest for the physical setting of science, that is, its actual 'place' of practice. Among historians of biology, place has been considered to be a crucial component for the study of ecology. Other historians have noted the 'built' environments (laboratories) for the study of biology along the seashore, even referring to these places in terms more applicable to vacation sites. In this paper, I examine the place of intertidal ecology investigations, both in terms of the physical space and the built space. Part of the examination will investigate the aesthetic aspect of the Pacific Coast, part will evaluate the unique character of the intertidal zone, and part will consider the construction of natural laboratories and built laboratories as characteristic places for biology.

  4. Physical and biological data collected off the Florida coast in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico as part of the Harmful Algal Bloom Historical Database from February 5, 1954 to December 30, 1998 (NODC Accession 0000585)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the later part of 1999, a relational Microsoft Access database was created to accommodate a wide range of data on the phytoplankton Karenia brevis. This database,...

  5. Biology Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, W F

    1974-12-31

    Progress is reported on the following studies in biochemistry and molecular biology: study of long pyrimidine polynucleotides in DNA; isolation of thymine dimers from Schizosaccharomyces pombe; thermal stability of high molecular weight RNA; nucleases of Micrococcus radiodurans; effect of ionizing radiation on M. radiodurans cell walls and cell membranes; chemical modification of nucleotides; exonucleases of M. radiodurans; and enzymatic basis of repair of radioinduced damage in M. radiodurans. Genetics, development, and population studies include repair pathways and mutation induction in yeast; induction of pure mutant clones in yeast; radiosensitivity of bacteriophage T4; polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of bacteriophage T4; radiation genetics of Dahibominus; and radiation studies on bitting flies. (HLW)

  6. [Biologics and mycobacterial diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuguchi, Kazunari; Matsumoto, Tomoshige

    2013-03-01

    developing TB. Lastly, Dr. Matsumoto stressed the risk of discontinuing TNF-alpha inhibitor during treatment for tuberculosis. He showed from his clinical experience that TNF-alpha inhibitor can be safely used in active TB patient receiving effective antituberculosis chemotherapy and it is even more effective for prevention of paradoxical response. Active discussion was done about the four topics, including the matter beyond present guidelines. We hope these discussions will form the basis for the establishment of new guideline for the management of mycobacterial disease when using immunosuppressive agents including biologics. 1. The risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) and situations of screening for TB risk at administration of biologics-the case of rheumatoid arthritis: Shigeto TOHMA (Clinical Research Center for Allergy and Rheumatology, National Hospital Organization Sagamihara National Hospital) We calculated the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of TB from the clinical data on National Database of Rheumatic Diseases by iR-net in Japan (NinJa) and compared with the SIR of TB from the data of the post-marketing surveillances of five biologics. Among 43584 patient-years, forty patients developed TB. The SIR of TB in NinJa was 4.34 (95%CI: 3.00-5.69). According to the post-marketing surveillances of 5 biologics, the SIR of TB were 3.62-34.4. The incidence of TB in patients with RA was higher than general population in Japan, and was increased more by some biologics. We have to recognize the risk of TB when we start biologics therapy to patients with RA. Although the frequency of implementation of QuantiFERON test (QFT) had gradually increased, it was still limited to 41%. In order to predict the risk of developing TB and to prevent TB, it might be better to check all RA patients by QFT at time time of biologics administration. 2. Biologics and nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases: Hitoshi TOKUDA (Social Insurance Central General Hospital) Several topics about the

  7. Frequency standards

    CERN Document Server

    Riehle, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    Of all measurement units, frequency is the one that may be determined with the highest degree of accuracy. It equally allows precise measurements of other physical and technical quantities, whenever they can be measured in terms of frequency.This volume covers the central methods and techniques relevant for frequency standards developed in physics, electronics, quantum electronics, and statistics. After a review of the basic principles, the book looks at the realisation of commonly used components. It then continues with the description and characterisation of important frequency standards

  8. Controlled parts management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, C.M.; Hidalgo, S.P.; Martinez, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    The Controlled Parts Management (CPM) system is based on industry standard practices for managing inventory. CPM is designed to record the movement of any type of inventory in a defined region referred to as an Account or SubAccount. The system is used to track the receiving, processing, storing and transfer of inventory parts. CPM provides information on parts, quantity and the exact location of the inventory. CPM is a barcode-based-part tracking system currently used to track controlled parts that are used in the R and D and testing of weapons; this tracking helps maintain the part pedigree that is required for certification of a weapon or weapon test. CPM includes bar code data collection software programmed into portable bar code readers for automating physical inventory services and remote transaction capture. CPM interfaces to other Engineering systems and supports a 'material content' of a weapons test through the test Bill of Materials and assignment of a unique inventory part in CPM. Additional functionality includes the ability to group or join parts, logically or physically and temporary or permanent, to represent discrete parts, containers, subassemblies and assemblies, and groupings.

  9. Motorcycle Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    An article in NASA Tech Briefs describing a vacuum bagging process for forming composite parts helped a small Oklahoma Company to improve its manufacturing process. President of Performance Extremes, Larry Ortega, and his partners make motorcycle parts from carbon/epoxy to reduce weight. Using vacuum bags, parts have a better surface and fewer voids inside. When heat used in the vacuum bag process caused deformation upon cooling, a solution found in another tech brief solved the problem. A metal plate inside the vacuum bag made for more even heat transfer. A third article described a simple procedure for repairing loose connector pins, which the company has also utilized.

  10. Biological biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge-Herrero, E. [Servicio de Cirugia Experimental. Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-05-01

    There are a number of situations in which substances of biological origin are employed as biomaterials. Most of them are macromolecules derived from isolated connective tissue or the connective tissue itself in membrane form, in both cases, the tissue can be used in its natural form or be chemically treated. In other cases, certain blood vessels can be chemically pretreated and used as vascular prostheses. Proteins such as albumin, collagen and fibrinogen are employed to coat vascular prostheses. Certain polysaccharides have also been tested for use in controlled drug release systems. Likewise, a number of tissues, such as dura mater, bovine pericardium, procine valves and human valves, are used in the preparation of cardiac prostheses. We also use veins from animals or humans in arterial replacement. In none of these cases are the tissues employed dissimilar to the native tissues as they have been chemically modified, becoming a new bio material with different physical and biochemical properties. In short, we find that natural products are being utilized as biomaterials and must be considered as such; thus, it is necessary to study both their chemicobiological and physicomechanical properties. In the present report, we review the current applications, problems and future prospects of some of these biological biomaterials. (Author) 84 refs.

  11. Design of the RFID for Storage of Biological Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hee Son

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in RFID (radio frequency identification technology promises to create a wireless circuitry capable of interfacing with biological systems for acquisition, identification and processing of biological data based on radio frequency interaction. Thus, the RFID tag can be attached not only to consumer products and form part of the supply chain, but also to animals, plants and in particular human body. This paper describes the strategy for the design of a novel RFID tag, which stores vital biological information such as body temperature and blood pressure and heartbeat in accordance with the EPC global Class-1 standard. Biological data is obtained from a sensor technology that is based on resistance deviation-to-pulse width converter. The integrated chip consists of an analog front end, command interpreter, collision avoidance block, data storage, sensors, and interface circuitry. The system is capable of supporting heartbeats in the range of 40~200 beats per a minute and blood pressure 0~300mmHg. The proposed system employs collision free algorithm that supports access to single tag within a multiple tag environment. The approach facilitates intelligent management of patients in hospitals as part of an integrated healthcare management system.

  12. Relevant Standards

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    .86: Ethernet over LAPS. Standard in China and India. G.7041: Generic Framing Procedure (GFP). Supports Ethernet as well as other data formats (e.g., Fibre Channel); Protocol of ... IEEE 802.3x for flow control of incoming Ethernet data ...

  13. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...

  14. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...

  15. Standard Fortran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, N.H.

    1981-01-01

    Because of its vast software investment in Fortran programs, the nuclear community has an inherent interest in the evolution of Fortran. This paper reviews the impact of the new Fortran 77 standard and discusses the projected changes which can be expected in the future

  16. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining and licensing of applicants for NRC operator licenses pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). They are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to understand the examination process better and to provide for equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants by NRC examiners. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator examination licensing policy changes

  17. Dominating biological networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijana Milenković

    Full Text Available Proteins are essential macromolecules of life that carry out most cellular processes. Since proteins aggregate to perform function, and since protein-protein interaction (PPI networks model these aggregations, one would expect to uncover new biology from PPI network topology. Hence, using PPI networks to predict protein function and role of protein pathways in disease has received attention. A debate remains open about whether network properties of "biologically central (BC" genes (i.e., their protein products, such as those involved in aging, cancer, infectious diseases, or signaling and drug-targeted pathways, exhibit some topological centrality compared to the rest of the proteins in the human PPI network.To help resolve this debate, we design new network-based approaches and apply them to get new insight into biological function and disease. We hypothesize that BC genes have a topologically central (TC role in the human PPI network. We propose two different concepts of topological centrality. We design a new centrality measure to capture complex wirings of proteins in the network that identifies as TC those proteins that reside in dense extended network neighborhoods. Also, we use the notion of domination and find dominating sets (DSs in the PPI network, i.e., sets of proteins such that every protein is either in the DS or is a neighbor of the DS. Clearly, a DS has a TC role, as it enables efficient communication between different network parts. We find statistically significant enrichment in BC genes of TC nodes and outperform the existing methods indicating that genes involved in key biological processes occupy topologically complex and dense regions of the network and correspond to its "spine" that connects all other network parts and can thus pass cellular signals efficiently throughout the network. To our knowledge, this is the first study that explores domination in the context of PPI networks.

  18. Land application of sewage sludge: A guide for land appliers on the requirements of the federal standards for the use or disposal of sewage sludge, 40 CFR part 503

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency promulgated a regulation at 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 503 to ensure that sewage sludge is used or disposed of in a way that protects human health and the environment. Part 503 imposes requirements for the land application, surface disposal, and incineration of sewage sludge. The manual focuses on land application, providing guidance to land appliers of sewage sludge. The purpose of the document is to provide the land applier with sufficient guidance to comply fully with all applicable Part 503 requirements. The guidance is structured to first provide a general understanding of the Rule and its underlying principles, including definitions of sewage sludge, land application, and an explanation of who under the Rule is considered a land applier.

  19. Nonlinear dimensionality reduction methods for synthetic biology biobricks' visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiaoyun; Wang, Haipeng; Ding, Huitong; An, Ning; Alterovitz, Gil

    2017-01-19

    Visualizing data by dimensionality reduction is an important strategy in Bioinformatics, which could help to discover hidden data properties and detect data quality issues, e.g. data noise, inappropriately labeled data, etc. As crowdsourcing-based synthetic biology databases face similar data quality issues, we propose to visualize biobricks to tackle them. However, existing dimensionality reduction methods could not be directly applied on biobricks datasets. Hereby, we use normalized edit distance to enhance dimensionality reduction methods, including Isomap and Laplacian Eigenmaps. By extracting biobricks from synthetic biology database Registry of Standard Biological Parts, six combinations of various types of biobricks are tested. The visualization graphs illustrate discriminated biobricks and inappropriately labeled biobricks. Clustering algorithm K-means is adopted to quantify the reduction results. The average clustering accuracy for Isomap and Laplacian Eigenmaps are 0.857 and 0.844, respectively. Besides, Laplacian Eigenmaps is 5 times faster than Isomap, and its visualization graph is more concentrated to discriminate biobricks. By combining normalized edit distance with Isomap and Laplacian Eigenmaps, synthetic biology biobircks are successfully visualized in two dimensional space. Various types of biobricks could be discriminated and inappropriately labeled biobricks could be determined, which could help to assess crowdsourcing-based synthetic biology databases' quality, and make biobricks selection.

  20. Request for Travel Funds for Systems Radiation Biology Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen [NYU School of Medicine

    2014-03-22

    The 3rd International Systems Radiation Biology Workshop brought together the major European, US and Japanese research programs on radiation risk as well as selected experts representing systems biological approaches to discuss how the new methodologies could be best exploited for low dose research. A significant part of the workshop was devoted to discussions organised as breakout group sessions. To facilitate discussions number of participants was limited to 60 persons. To achieve the goals of this symposium in this international conference, support from DOE is vital. Hence, this proposal requested support in the amount of $15,000 to cover the travel expenses of international experts and radiation biology scientists from the United States. This supporting mechanism was clearly identified to the selected US participants as a conference support award from the DOE (See attached PDF). The workshop was an outstanding opportunity to strengthen interactions between leading experts in the emerging areas of radiation sciences, and will also provide opportunities for younger scientists to meet with experts and discuss their results. This workshop was designed to endorse active engagement in international collaboration. A major objective of this conference was to effectively communicate research results, in order to ensure that current thinking reflects sound science of radiation biology. Further, this international event addressed the use and success of scientific initiatives in radiation biology for policymakers, standard-setters, and the general public.