Kotwani, Anita; Chhabra, Sunil K
Denial of having a chronic condition, poor knowledge of the disease process and lack of adherence to standard treatment are often considered to be important factors that increase morbidity in asthma. We evaluated the effect of standard treatment guidelines and asthma education programme on asthma control among patients enrolled from a referral health facility of Delhi in India. Fifty patients who visited the health facility first time for treatment of asthma were enrolled after confirming the diagnosis of asthma by symptoms and reversible spirometry. Patients were interviewed at baseline using three researcher-administered questionnaires - quality of asthma management questionnaire, asthma control questionnaire (ACQ) and asthma knowledge questionnaire (AKQ). All patients were given pharmacotherapy according to standard treatment guidelines. In addition, every alternate patient was also given a face-to-face educational intervention. Patients were followed up at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. The ACQ was used at each visit, and AKQ was reassessed at the twelfth week. The paired t test was used to detect significant changes in various domains of asthma control. The knowledge of asthma among patients and the care provided by previous health-care providers were found to be poor at baseline assessment. The application of standard treatment guidelines improved asthma control by the second week and the changes became significant by the fourth week, which persisted till the twelfth week (p Standard treatment guidelines and asthma education improved asthma control.
). Allergy and Asthma Clinic, Red Cross War Memorial Hospital. Mike Levin runs a secondary level asthma/ allergy clinic and does a tertiary allergy session once a week, focusing on difficult asthma and food allergies. He has ...
Bäuerle, Kathrin; Feicke, Janine; Scherer, Wolfgang; Spörhase, Ulrike; Bitzer, Eva-Maria
To modify and evaluate a patient education program for adult asthma patients in consideration of quality criteria for teaching. This was a prospective single-center controlled trial in an inpatient rehabilitation center. The control group (n=215) received the usual lecture-based education program, and the intervention group (n=209) the modified patient education program. Data were assessed at admission, discharge, 6 and 12 months post discharge. The primary outcome was asthma control, the secondary outcomes were asthma knowledge, quality of life, and program acceptance. Analysis of change was performed by ANCOVA for each follow-up, adjusting for baseline values. Statistically significant increases in all health outcomes and in asthma control were maintained in both groups at 12 months: CG: +1.9 (95%-CI 1.3-2.6) IG: +1.6 (95%-CI 0.8-2.3). We observed no significant differences between the programs for asthma control and quality of life. Regarding practical asthma knowledge, after 12 months, a group*time interaction emerged with a small effect size (P=0.06, η2=0.01). The modified program was not superior to traditional patient education concerning asthma control. It permanently increased self-management knowledge. Structured and behavioral patient education fosters patient's disease management ability. Possible ways of improving asthma control need to be explored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mirabelli, Maria C; Beavers, Suzanne F; Shepler, Samantha H; Chatterjee, Arjun B
Asthma self-management education improves asthma-related outcomes. We conducted this analysis to evaluate variation in the percentages of adults with active asthma reporting components of asthma self-management education by age at asthma onset. Data from 2011 to 2012 Asthma Call-back Surveys were used to estimate percentages of adults with active asthma reporting six components of asthma self-management education. Components of asthma self-management education include having been taught to what to do during an asthma attack and receiving an asthma action plan. Differences in the percentages of adults reporting each component and the average number of components reported across categories of age at asthma onset were estimated using linear regression, adjusted for age, education, race/ethnicity, sex, smoking status, and years since asthma onset. Overall, an estimated 76.4% of adults with active asthma were taught what to do during an asthma attack and 28.7% reported receiving an asthma action plan. Percentages reporting each asthma self-management education component declined with increasing age at asthma onset. Compared with the referent group of adults whose asthma onset occurred at 5-14 years of age, the percentage of adults reporting being taught what to do during an asthma attack was 10% lower among those whose asthma onset occurred at 65-93 years of age (95% CI: -18.0, -2.5) and the average number of components reported decreased monotonically across categories of age at asthma onset of 35 years and older. Among adults with active asthma, reports of asthma self-management education decline with increasing age at asthma onset.
Faculty of Pharmacy, The University of Sydney, Australia, 1Department of Respiratory ... Key words: Asthma education, asthma knowledge, asthma usual care, ..... are single unit dry powder devices); ***Some children used types of devices.
Wilma M Hopman
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This observational study compared the effectiveness of a standardized adult asthma education program administered in a variety of sites and practice settings on health care utilization, absenteeism, amount of leisure time missed and quality of life (using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form 1.0 [SF-36].
Full Text Available Abstract Asthma is the most common respiratory disorder in Canada. Despite significant improvement in the diagnosis and management of this disorder, the majority of Canadians with asthma remain poorly controlled. In most patients, however, control can be achieved through the use of avoidance measures and appropriate pharmacological interventions. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs represent the standard of care for the majority of patients. Combination ICS/long-acting beta2-agonists (LABA inhalers are preferred for most adults who fail to achieve control with ICS therapy. Allergen-specific immunotherapy represents a potentially disease-modifying therapy for many patients with asthma, but should only be prescribed by physicians with appropriate training in allergy. Regular monitoring of asthma control, adherence to therapy and inhaler technique are also essential components of asthma management. This article provides a review of current literature and guidelines for the appropriate diagnosis and management of asthma.
...) are the co-Principal Investigators for the Partnership for Asthma Trigger-Free Homes. The PATH study's goal is reducing the asthma disease burden on low-income housing residents by means of a peer-based education program...
Cabana, Michael D.; Slish, Kathryn K.; Evans, David; Mellins, Robert B.; Brown, Randall W.; Lin, Xihong; Kaciroti, Niko; Clark, Noreen M.
Objective: We evaluated the effectiveness of a continuing medical education program, Physician Asthma Care Education, in improving pediatricians' asthma therapeutic and communication skills and patients' health care utilization for asthma. Methods: We conducted a randomized trial in 10 regions in the United States. Primary care providers were…
Ghajar-Khosravi, Shadi; Tarlo, Susan M; Liss, Gary M; Chignell, Mark; Ribeiro, Marcos; Levinson, Anthony J; Gupta, Samir
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common chronic condition. Work-related asthma (WRA) has a large socioeconomic impact and is increasing in prevalence but remains under-recognized. Although international guidelines recommend patient education, no widely available educational tool exists.OBJECTIVE: To develop a WRA educational website for adults with asthma.METHODS: An evidence-based database for website content was developed, which applied evidence-based website design principles to create a website pr...
Elliott, Jennifer Padden; Marcotullio, Nicole; Skoner, David P; Lunney, Phil; Gentile, Deborah A
To evaluate the effectiveness of asthma education delivered by student pharmacists and to assess the impact of child and caregiver baseline asthma knowledge on asthma control in children. Student pharmacists developed and implemented asthma self-management education interventions for children and their caregivers and performed asthma screenings for children at a series of asthma camps. Eighty-seven children, ages 5-17 years, and their caregivers were enrolled in this study. A previously validated asthma questionnaire was modified to assess asthma knowledge among children and adults. Asthma knowledge increased significantly in children following participation in the education intervention (pasthma. A significant association was observed between caregiver baseline asthma knowledge and better asthma control in their children (p=0.019). The results of this study demonstrate that student pharmacist-delivered asthma education can positively impact asthma knowledge in children, and that caregivers' knowledge of asthma is strongly correlated with better asthma control in their children.
Delgado, Eva M; Cho, Christine S; Gildengorin, Ginny; Leibovich, Sara A; Morris, Claudia R
Targeted parental education reduces acute visits for pediatric asthma. Whether the use of education sources readily available to parents relates to nonadherence to asthma treatments is uncertain. This study describes asthma education sources and assesses for a relationship to risks for nonadherence. Caregivers of children with asthma completed a cross-sectional survey at 2 sites: a pediatric emergency department (ED) and an asthma clinic (AC). Measured items included the use of 7 education sources (primary care, ED, AC, friends/family, TV, internet, and printed materials), scores of child asthma morbidity, parental asthma knowledge, and risks for nonadherence, the primary outcome. Recruitment site, preferred language (English/Spanish), and demographics were recorded. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses, and multivariate regressions were performed. A total of 260 participants, 158 from ED and 102 from AC, used a variety of education sources. They reported 4.1 (2.0) of 13 risk factors for nonadherence, with more risks in ED parents than AC parents (4.8 vs 3.9, P The ED parents worried more about medications and had worse access to primary care. The regression did not show a significant relationship between education sources and risks for nonadherence, but ED recruitment, Spanish language, and worse morbidity contributed to higher risks. The use of more asthma education sources was not associated with reduced risks for nonadherence. Of the education sources, a primary care provider may benefit ED parents, who also need refills and education about medications. Spanish-speaking parents report more risks for nonadherence, warranting further study of Spanish-language asthma education.
Medication education program for Indian children with asthma: A feasibility study. C Grover, N Goel, C Armour, PP Van Asperen, SN Gaur, RJ Moles, B Saini. Abstract. Objective: It is postulated that children with asthma who receive an interactive, comprehensive, culturally relevant education program would improve their ...
Walter, Helen; Sadeque-Iqbal, Fatema; Ulysse, Rose; Castillo, Doreen; Fitzpatrick, Aileen; Singleton, Joanne
using standardized critical appraisal instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Data were extracted from articles included in the review using the standardized data extraction tool from the Joanna Briggs Institute. The data extracted included specific details about the populations, interventions, study methods and outcomes of significance to the review question and its specific objectives. Due to the heterogeneity among the included studies, statistical pooling and meta-analysis was not possible. Results are presented in narrative form. Six studies examining the intervention were included in this review. All six of the included studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). All six studies compared the effects of school-based asthma education to no school-based asthma education/usual care on quality of life and number of asthma exacerbations. Three out of four RCTs showed that children who participated in school-based family asthma educational programs demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in overall quality of life (P educational programs for children that include caregivers can have a positive impact on the quality of life and asthma management of children with asthma. Other outcomes that can be positively affected by school-based family asthma educational programs include absenteeism from school or work, physical activity intolerance and emergency hospital visits as result of asthma exacerbations.
Dürr, Selina; Hersberger, Kurt E; Zeller, Andreas; Scheuzger, Jonas; Miedinger, David; Gregoriano, Claudia; Leuppi, Jörg D; Steurer-Stey, Claudia
For successful long-term asthma care, self-management education is a cornerstone. Little is known about associations between patients' interest in education, asthma control and care delivery. We compared patients' characteristics, asthma control and patients' perspective about asthma care in subjects with and without interest in asthma education. Moreover, we assessed reasons, why patients denied participating in asthma education. Baseline data of 223 patients with asthma (age 43 ± 12 years, 38% male, 58% non-smokers, 13% current smokers), who participated in a multicentre longitudinal controlled study, are reported. At baseline, patients completed the Asthma Control Test (ACT), the Patient Assessment Chronic Illness Care questionnaire (PACIC 5A) and stated their interest in an asthma education programme. Overall, 34% of all participants showed uncontrolled asthma. One hundred and twenty-five (56%) patients were interested in education. Compared to patients without interest, they were characterised by male gender (p = 0.013), worse asthma control (p < 0.001), and perception of lower quality of chronic asthma care delivery, in particular lower self-management support (p < 0.001). Main reasons for rejecting asthma education were having sufficient asthma knowledge, having only mild asthma, receiving adequate medical support and lack of time. More than half of the patients were interested in asthma education. Interest was associated with worse asthma control and lower receipt of care according to the Chronic Care Model. Considering these aspects, this approach may help to improve care quality and allow targeting interventions to those patients who are interested in becoming active participants in their care and who might benefit most.
Magzamen, Sheryl; Patel, Bina; Davis, Adam; Edelstein, Joan; Tager, Ira B
In urban communities with high prevalence of childhood asthma, school-based educational programs may be the most appropriate approach to deliver interventions to improve asthma morbidity and asthma-related outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implementation of Kickin' Asthma, a school-based asthma curriculum designed by health educators and local students, which teaches asthma physiology and asthma self-management techniques to middle and high school students in Oakland, CA. Eligible students were identified through an in-class asthma case identification survey. Approximately 10-15 students identified as asthmatic were recruited for each series of the Kickin' Asthma intervention. The curriculum was delivered by an asthma nurse in a series of four 50-minute sessions. Students completed a baseline and a 3-month follow-up survey that compared symptom frequency, health care utilization, activity limitations, and medication use. Of the 8488 students surveyed during the first 3 years of the intervention (2003-2006), 15.4% (n = 1309) were identified as asthmatic; approximately 76% of eligible students (n = 990) from 15 middle schools and 3 high schools participated in the program. Comparison of baseline to follow-up data indicated that students experienced significantly fewer days with activity limitations and significantly fewer nights of sleep disturbance after participation in the intervention. For health care utilization, students reported significantly less frequent emergency department visits or hospitalizations between the baseline and follow-up surveys. A school-based asthma curriculum designed specifically for urban students has been shown to reduce symptoms, activity limitations, and health care utilization for intervention participants.
Holzheimer, L; Mohay, H; Masters, I B
Asthma self-management programmes have been shown to increase children's knowledge about asthma and improve their management practices and health status. However, existing programmes have rarely addressed the unique learning needs of very young children. This study aimed to develop and assess the effectiveness of a video tape and picture book designed to teach children about the prevention and management of acute episodes of asthma. The information content of the educational resources was determined by analysis of relevant medical information and asthma management skills. Social Learning Theory and consideration of the developmental stage of the target population informed the format and style of presentation of the resources. Eighty children aged between 2 and 5 years who had been diagnosed with asthma by their medical practitioner and who required daily asthma medication participated in a controlled experimental study. The study evaluated the impact of the asthma education resources on children's knowledge about asthma, compliance with medication regimens and health status. Children were randomly allocated to one of three experimental groups. Children in these groups were exposed to either the video tape alone, the book alone or both the video tape and book, or to a control group who viewed materials unrelated to asthma. The results for the three experimental groups were compared with the control group who did not receive exposure to any of the asthma education resources. The results showed that children in each experimental group had significantly greater gains in asthma-related knowledge than children in the control group and children exposed to both resources showed the greatest increases in knowledge. Children in each of the three experimental groups also had better compliance and health than children in the control group. These findings indicate that carefully designed asthma education resources are useful for providing even the youngest children with
Dürr, Selina; Hersberger, Kurt E; Zeller, Andreas; Scheuzger, Jonas; Miedinger, David; Gregoriano, Claudia; Joos Zellweger, Ladina; Steurer-Stey, Claudia; Leuppi, Jörg Daniel
Despite great efforts in establishing optimal asthma management, asthma may remain uncontrolled. To effectively manage chronic diseases, such as asthma, it is important to train patients in self-management skills. The aim of this study was to assess the potential benefit of standardised asthma education in Switzerland for asthma control and patients' perception of received asthma care and of self-management support. For this multicentre longitudinal controlled study, asthma patients were recruited in Switzerland. The Asthma Control Test (ACT) was used to assess asthma control. The Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care questionnaire (PACIC 5A) was applied to evaluate received health-care services and self-management support. Patients were offered the possibility to attend asthma education sessions conducted by the Swiss Lung League and Swiss Allergy Centre. After 1 year, attenders and non-attenders completed the questionnaires again. Changes in ACT and PACIC 5A scores were analysed using dependent t tests. Overall, 223 patients with asthma were investigated (mean age 43 ± 12 years, 38% male, 13% current smokers, 29% ex-smokers). Sixty-one (27%) patients attended education sessions. Both groups had improved asthma control at follow-up (attenders: t(56) = -3.2, r = 0.4 [medium effect size], p = 0.002; non-attenders: t(141) = -2.6, r = 0.2 [small effect size], p = 0.010). Attenders improved in PACIC and 5A sum scores (t(50) = -3.6, r = 0.5 [medium effect size], p = 0.001). A comprehensive self-management asthma education programme in Switzerland improved asthma control and patients' perception of received asthma care and of self-management support. Professionals should motivate patients to attend asthma education in order to become active partners in managing their disease. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
... Science Education & Training Home Conditions Asthma (Pediatric) Asthma (Pediatric) Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a ... meet the rising demand for asthma care. Our pediatric asthma team brings together physicians, nurses, dietitians, physical ...
Nair, Aiswaria S; DeMuth, Karen; Chih-Wen Cheng; Wang, May D
Asthma is a leading chronic disorder among children and adolescents. Although some children outgrow asthma while transitioning into adulthood, there are others who continue to suffer from life-threatening asthmatic exacerbations. Teenagers tend to have certain misconceptions about their asthmatic condition and treatment which are rarely recognized or addressed in regular clinical consultations. After reviewing the literature in this field, we have identified that improving patient knowledge can be effective in augmenting engagement, and considerably improving their clinical outcomes. It is necessary to develop an effective educational intervention that can help Asthma patients change their perception about self-efficacy and ultimately reduce the total health care costs incurred. Hence, a sound transfer of knowledge during the transition from childcare to adult care is highly recommended. On these very lines, Georgia Institute of Technology designed an interactive educational application called Asthma Academy in conjunction with Children's Healthcare of Atlanta. This website resides in the public cloud and uses a novel animation video-based curriculum to deliver essential healthcare education to asthmatic adolescents in an interactive manner. What distinguishes it from similar initiatives is the use of a cost-effective technique to simulate caregiver-patient interactions and the ability to cater to a wide range of socio-economic statuses and educational levels. A group-based study with twenty asthma adolescents was conducted to evaluate the user acceptance and performance of Asthma Academy supplemented by regular check-ups over a period of eight to ten weeks. Observations recorded post the study clearly indicate higher levels of engagement and the systematic dissemination of information offered by Asthma Academy.
Drummond, David; Monnier, Delphine; Tesnière, Antoine; Hadchouel, Alice
Serious games may be useful tools for asthma education. The objectives of this systematic review were to identify the available articles on serious games designed to educate patients and the general public about asthma and to assess their impact on patient's knowledge, behavior, and clinical outcomes related to asthma. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, PsychInfo, and Web of Science were systematically searched from January 1980 to December 2015 for studies investigating serious games in asthma education. Two investigators independently assessed studies against inclusion criteria and rated those included on indicators of quality. Investigators extracted data on serious games' content and learning objectives, and on outcomes following Kirkpatrick classification. A total of 12 articles were found to be relevant, describing a total of 10 serious games. All serious games were directed toward children, with eight games for children with asthma and two for school-based intervention. The average Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument score was 13.9 of 18, which is high. Most of the serious games were associated with high rates of satisfaction and improvement in children's knowledge. Seven studies evaluated the impact of serious games on clinical outcomes and found no significant difference relative to control groups. Although serious games designed for asthma education have evolved with advances in technology, results of their evaluation remained similar across studies, with clear improvements in knowledge but little or no change in behaviors and clinical outcomes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Geryk, Lorie L; Arrindell, Courtney C; Sage, Adam J; Blalock, Susan J; Reuland, Daniel S; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Lee, Charles; Sleath, Betsy L; Carpenter, Delesha M
This study examines (1) whether youth and their caregivers have different preferences for asthma education video topics and (2) if education topic preferences vary by youth and caregiver sociodemographic characteristics. Youth (n = 83) ages 7-17 years with persistent asthma and their caregivers were recruited at two pediatric practices in North Carolina. Sociodemographic information and youth and caregiver preferences for nine asthma video education topics were collected during in-person interviews. Bonferroni-corrected Chi-square or McNemar tests (α = 0.0056) were used to compare youth and caregivers differences in topic preferences and topic preferences by youth and caregiver sociodemographic characteristics, including gender, race, ethnicity, and age. Youth were primarily male (52%) and from low-income families (74%; caregiver annual income less than $30,000) and many were Hispanic (45%). Youth and parents expressed the most interest in the following two topics: "how to deal with triggers" (90% and 95%, respectively) and "how to keep asthma under control" (87% and 96%, respectively). Caregivers and children were discordant for two topics: "the difference between a rescue and controller medicine" and "how to [help your child] talk to your [his/her] friends about asthma." No differences were found between youth and caregiver sociodemographic characteristics and video topic preferences. Youth with persistent asthma and their caregivers differed in their asthma education topic preferences, but preferences did not vary by caregiver or youth sociodemographic characteristics. Studies examining the effectiveness of interventions tailored to differences in educational preferences of youth with asthma and their caregivers are needed.
Ghajar-Khosravi, Shadi; Tarlo, Susan M; Liss, Gary M; Chignell, Mark; Ribeiro, Marcos; Levinson, Anthony J; Gupta, Samir
Asthma is a common chronic condition. Work-related asthma (WRA) has a large socioeconomic impact and is increasing in prevalence but remains under-recognized. Although international guidelines recommend patient education, no widely available educational tool exists. To develop a WRA educational website for adults with asthma. An evidence-based database for website content was developed, which applied evidence-based website design principles to create a website prototype. This was subsequently tested and serially revised according to patient feedback in three moderated phases (one focus group and two interview phases), followed by face validation by asthma educators. Patients (n=10) were 20 to 28 years of age; seven (70%) were female, three (30%) were in university, two (20%) were in college and five (50%) were currently employed. Key format preferences included: well-spaced, bulleted text; movies (as opposed to animations); photos (as opposed to cartoons); an explicit listing of website aims on the home page; and an exploding tab structure. Participants disliked integrated games and knowledge quizzes. Desired informational content included a list of triggers, prevention⁄control methods, currently available tools and resources, a self-test for WRA, real-life scenario presentations, compensation information, information for colleagues on how to react during an asthma attack and a WRA discussion forum. The website met the perceived needs of young asthmatic patients. This resource could be disseminated widely and should be tested for its effects on patient behaviour, including job choice, workplace irritant⁄allergen avoidance and⁄or protective equipment, asthma medication use and physician prompting for management of WRA symptoms.
Plaza, Vicente; Peiró, Meritxell; Torrejón, Montserrat; Fletcher, Monica; López-Viña, Antolín; Ignacio, José María; Quintano, José Antonio; Bardagí, Santiago; Gich, Ignasi
We assessed the effectiveness of an asthma educational programme based on a repeated short intervention (AEP-RSI) to improve asthma control (symptom control and future risk) and quality of life. A total of 230 adults with mild-to-moderate persistent uncontrolled asthma participated in a 1-year cluster randomised controlled multicentre study. The AEP-RSI was given in four face-to-face sessions at 3-month intervals, and included administration of a written personalised action plan and training on inhaler technique. Centres were randomised to the AEP-RSI (intervention) group or usual clinical practice group. Specialised centres using a standard educational programme were the gold standard group. A significant improvement in the Asthma Control Test score was observed in all three groups (pQuality of Life Questionnaire scores (0.95±1.04 and 0.89±0.84 versus 0.52±0.97, respectively). The AEP-RSI was effective in improving asthma symptom control, future risk and quality of life. Copyright ©ERS 2015.
Li, Tingting; Ju, Jianbao; Yu, Hailing; Xie, Daoyu
To discuss the perioperative treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and asthma. Retrospective analysis of perioperative clinical data of 43 cases with CRSwNP and asthma. The admitted and under endoscopic surgery. Patients with preventing perioperative asthma attacks and corresponding standardized treatment were Observed. Thirty-five cases were stable during perioperative period and without asthma. Seven patients diagnosed as mild and moderate asthma attacks because of low pulse oximetry (SpO2 92%-95%) and scattered wheeze heard in the lungs. So these patients were sent to ICU for the treatment. They went back to ward after their conditions turned to stable and no asthma during perioperative. One patient diagnosed as severe asthma attack, because irritability and suffocation happened, SpO2 decreased from 99% to 84%-81%, diffuse wheeze could be heard in the whole lung . So we give him tracheal intubation and sent him to ICU for advanced treatment after breathing smooth. Five days later the patient retuned to the ward in stable condition and with no asthma attack again. Before operation the patients should be give some corresponding standardized comprehensive treatment according to the nasal symptoms and the degree of asthma attack, such as the application of topical steroid and antiallergic medicine. And some special treatment should be given to reduce airway hyperresponsiveness mucosa during anesthesia. These methods can reduce the risk of the asthma attacks and improve perioperative safety, prevent serious complications.
Francesca S. Cardwell
Full Text Available Physical activity can reduce symptoms and improve wellbeing in people who have asthma, and organized sport is one way for children and youth with asthma to engage in exercise. While asthmatic youth may experience a number of barriers to sport participation, healthy physical and social sport environments supported by coaches can help asthmatic youth athletes maintain long-term engagement in activity. This paper reports results of an assessment of an online coach education tool related to air quality, physical activity, and allergic disease (e.g., asthma. Focus groups with youth team sport coaches in southern Ontario (n=12 participants were conducted to explore how users experience the module and short- and medium-term outcomes of implementation. Although coaches perceive the module as relevant, it is considered less valuable in certain contexts (e.g., indoor environments or when compared with other coach education (e.g., tactical. Although broad asthma management behaviours (e.g., athlete medical forms were recognized, specific module-identified prevention and management techniques (e.g., the Air Quality Health Index were less frequently described. Ensuring environment and health coach education emphasizes athlete performance while reducing risk is critical to promoting module application and providing safe and enjoyable youth team sport spaces.
Turyk, Mary; Banda, Elizabeth; Chisum, Gay; Weems, Dolores; Liu, Yangyang; Damitz, Maureen; Williams, Rhonda; Persky, Victoria
Home-based, multifaceted interventions have been effective in reducing asthma morbidity in children. However, identification of independent components that contribute to outcomes and delineating effectiveness by level of asthma symptoms would help to refine the intervention and target appropriate populations. A community health educator led asthma intervention implemented in a low-income African-American neighborhood included asthma management education, individually tailored low-cost asthma home trigger remediation, and referrals to social and medical agencies, when appropriate. Changes in asthma morbidity measures were assessed in relation to implementation of individual intervention components using multivariable logistic regression. Among the 218 children who completed the year-long program, there were significant reductions in measures of asthma morbidity, including symptoms, urgent care visits, emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, missed school days, and missed work days for caretakers. We also found significant decreases in the prevalence of many home asthma triggers and improvements in asthma management practices. Improvement in caretaker's ability to manage the child's asthma was associated with reduction in ED visits for asthma and uncontrolled asthma. Specific home interventions, such as repair of water leaks and reduced exposure to plants, dust, clutter and stuffed toys, may be related to reduction in asthma morbidity. This program was effective in reducing asthma morbidity in low-income African-American children and identified specific interventions as possible areas to target in future projects. Furthermore, the intervention was useful in children with persistent asthma symptoms as well as those with less frequent asthma exacerbations.
Ruvalcaba, Elizabeth; Chung, Shang-En; Rand, Cynthia; Riekert, Kristin A; Eakin, Michelle
Asthma disproportionately affects minority groups, low income populations, and young children under 5. Head Start (HS) programs predominantly serve this high-risk population, yet staff are not trained on asthma management. The objective of this study was to assess a 5-year, multicomponent HS staff asthma education program in Baltimore City HS programs. All HS programs were offered annual staff asthma education by a medical research team that included didactic lectures and hands-on training. Attendees received continuing education credits. HS staff were anonymously surveyed on asthma knowledge and skills and asthma medication management practices in Year 1 (preimplementation) and Year 5. There was an estimated response rate of 94% for Year 1 and 82% for Year 5. Compared to staff in Year 1, Year 5 staff were significantly more likely to report they had very good knowledge and skills related to asthma [odds ratio (OR) 1.63; p staff reported higher self-assessed knowledge and skills, self-reports of asthma medication management practices, and self-reports of asthma activities compared to Year 1 staff. HS serves high-risk children with asthma, and a multicomponent program can adequately prepare staff to manage asthma in the child care setting. Our results indicate the feasibility of providing efficacious health skill education into child care provider training to reduce asthma knowledge gaps.
... BS, Burks AW, et al, eds. Middleton's Allergy Principles and Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 55. Lugogo N, Que LG, Gilstrap DL, Kraft M. Asthma: clinical diagnosis and management. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et ...
... asthma worse. If so, try to limit time outdoors when the levels of these substances in the outdoor air are high. If animal fur triggers your ... have side effects. Most doctors agree that the benefits of taking inhaled ... have. Also, work with your health care team if you have any questions about ...
Rice, Jessica L; Matlack, Kristen M; Simmons, Marsha D; Steinfeld, Jonathan; Laws, Margaret A; Dovey, Mark E; Cohen, Robyn T
To evaluate the impact of LEAP, a volunteer-based, inpatient asthma education program for families of inner-city children with asthma. 711 children ages 2-17 years admitted with status asthmaticus were randomized to receive usual care or usual care plus a supplemental education intervention. Both groups completed a baseline interview. Trained volunteer lay educators conducted individualized bedside education with the intervention group. Primary outcome was attendance at a post-hospitalization follow-up visit 7-10 days after discharge. Secondary outcomes included parent-reported asthma management behaviors, symptoms, and self-efficacy scores from a one month follow-up interview. Post-hospitalization asthma clinic attendance was poor (38%), with no difference between groups. Families randomized to the intervention group were more likely to report use of a controller (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.2, peducation by trained lay volunteers was associated with improved asthma management behaviors. This novel volunteer-based program could have widespread implications as a sustainable model for asthma education. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Asthma KidsHealth / For Parents / Asthma What's in this article? ... I Know? Print en español Asma What Is Asthma? Asthma is a condition that causes breathing problems. ...
Wilson, Candice; Rapp, Kristi Isaac; Jack, Leonard, Jr.; Hayes, Sandra; Post, Robert; Malveaux, Floyd
Background: Focused risk assessment is essential in the effective management of asthma. Purpose: This study identified and examined correlations among areas of pediatric asthma risk and determined associations between these risks and demographic characteristics. Methods: This exploratory study identified risk factors that affect asthma management…
Pinnock, Hilary; Fletcher, Monica; Holmes, Steve; Keeley, Duncan; Leyshon, Jane; Price, David; Russell, Richard; Versnel, Jenny; Wagstaff, Bronwen
Globally, asthma morbidity remains unacceptably high. If outcomes are to be improved, it is crucial that routine review consultations in primary care are performed to a high standard. Key components of a review include: * Assessment of control using specific morbidity questions to elucidate the presence of symptoms, in conjunction with the frequency of use of short-acting bronchodilators and any recent history of acute attacks * After consideration of the diagnosis, and an assessment of compliance, inhaler technique, smoking status, triggers, and rhinitis, identification of poor control should result in a step-up of treatment in accordance with evidence-based guideline recommendations * Discussion should address understanding of the condition, patient-centred management goals and attitudes to regular treatment, and should include personalised self-management education Regular review of people with asthma coupled with provision of self-management education improves outcomes. Underpinned by a theoretical framework integrating professional reviews and patient self-care we discuss the practical barriers to implementing guided selfmanagement in routine clinical practice.
Maureen L Douglas
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of asthma in Aboriginal children is 6% to 14%. Gaps in knowledge regarding asthma and its management exist in First Nations (FN communities, and culturally relevant education and resources are required. Studies have recommended that the children’s asthma education program, the ‘Roaring Adventures of Puff’, be modified through partnership with FN communities to be culturally appropriate.
... for Educators Search English Español Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth / For Parents / Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Print ... son la causa del asma? Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Allergies don't cause asthma. But kids who ...
... Videos for Educators Search English Español School and Asthma KidsHealth / For Kids / School and Asthma Print en ... Let's find out. Why Do I Need an Asthma Action Plan? When you're dealing with asthma, ...
Nabors, Laura A; Kockritz, Jennifer L; Ludke, Robert L; Bernstein, Jonathan A
Schools are an important site for delivery of asthma education programs. Computer-based educational programs are a critical component of asthma education programs and may be a particularly important education method in busy school environments. The objective of this brief report is to review and critique computer-based education efforts in schools. The results of our literature review indicated that school-based computer education efforts are related to improved knowledge about asthma and its management. In some studies, improvements in clinical outcomes also occur. Data collection programs need to be built into games that improve knowledge. Many projects do not appear to last for periods greater than 1 year and little information is available about cultural relevance of these programs. Educational games and other programs are effective methods of delivering knowledge about asthma management and control. Research about the long-term effects of this increased knowledge, in regard to behavior change, is needed. Additionally, developing sustainable projects, which are culturally relevant, is a goal for future research.
Sobel, Rina M; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Waite, Katherine R; Rittner, Sarah S; Wilson, Elizabeth A H; Wolf, Michael S
Asthma 1-2-3 is a newly-developed low-literacy multimedia education tool designed to promote asthma self-care concepts among African American adults. An expert panel (n = 10) informed content development for the tool. The video script and storyboard imagery were shown to 30 African Americans recruited from the American Lung Association, whose reactions and comments guided further revisions. The final version was pilot tested in three diverse community settings in Chicago to determine the efficacy of Asthma 1-2-3 at improving patient understanding of asthma and its symptoms. In all, 130 adults participated in the pilot test. Knowledge scores significantly improved from pretest to posttest following presentation of the developed tool for subjects across all literacy levels (Pretest: Mean = 4.2 [SD = 1.6]; Posttest: M = 6.8 [SD = 2.0], P < 0.001). Symptom pathophysiology concepts were the least understood. Individuals with low literacy had less total knowledge score gains compared to those with marginal and adequate literacy (1.8, 2.6, and 3.2 respectively; P = 0.002). The multimedia tool significantly improved understanding of asthma. Individuals with limited literacy may require additional instruction, repeated viewing, or added tangible cues (i.e. supplementary print materials) to support knowledge retention. In general, feedback from the target population was particularly helpful in the development of the tool and its initial evaluation, and should be considered as a necessary step in the creation of other patient education materials.
Meurer, J R; McKenzie, S; Mischler, E; Subichin, S; Malloy, M; George, V
Program planners developed an educational program to improve the health of children with asthma in grades three to five in Milwaukee (Wis.) Public Schools. During 1997-1998, 1,400 students from 74 elementary schools participated in the Awesome Asthma School Days education program. In a cross-sectional survey, about 40% of children reported play interrupted and sleep disturbed by asthma, more than 50% of children reported exposure to smoke in their home, most children lacked asthma self-care tools, and most children with persistent symptoms did not use an anti-inflammatory inhaler. The educational program improved students' expectations about normal play and sleep and improved their understanding of asthma. Leaders in Milwaukee used the survey results to develop a community action plan. The educational program, surveys, community partnerships, and strategic plans can be replicated in other schools.
Grover, C; Goel, N; Armour, C; Van Asperen, P P; Gaur, S N; Moles, R J; Saini, B
It is postulated that children with asthma who receive an interactive, comprehensive, culturally relevant education program would improve their asthma knowledge (AK), asthma control, and adherence compared with children receiving usual care. The aim of this study was to develop, implement, and evaluate the efficacy of a culturally relevant asthma education intervention for children with asthma and their parents in India. Children with asthma (7-12 years) and their parents were recruited from an outpatient clinic in a Chest Diseases Hospital in New Delhi, and were randomly assigned to either an intervention or usual care group. At baseline, outcome data collected included pediatric asthma caregiver quality of life (PACQL, primary outcome), AK, asthma control, adherence, inhaler technique, action plan ownership, and goal achievement. These data were collected again at 1 and 6 months after baseline. Outcomes were compared within and between groups using ANOVA techniques. Forty parent-child pairs were recruited. Of these, 24 pairs of children with asthma and their parents received the educational intervention. The PACQL significantly improved from baseline to 6 months in the intervention (5.87 ± 0.94-7.00 ± 0.03) versus the usual care group (5.90 ± 0.52-6.34 ± 0.56) (P management skills.
Occupational lung diseases such as asthma, COPD and pneumoconioses caused by exposure to airborne particulates are a major contributor to mortality and disability globally. However, work-related asthma remains under-recognised, poorly managed and inadequately compensated.
Coombs, Nicole; Allen, Louise; Cooper, Simon; Cant, Robyn; Beauchamp, Alison; Laszcyk, Jacki; Giannis, Anita; Hopmans, Ruben; Bullock, Shane; Waller, Susan; McKenna, Lisa; Peck, Blake
Objective: This study explored young university students' (aged 18-24 years) health literacy, asthma experiences and help-seeking behaviours to inform the development of a web-based asthma education intervention relevant to this age group. Design: Exploratory mixed-methods design incorporateing a health literacy survey and interviews, plus the…
Lewis, Kate Marie; Ruiz, Milagros; Goldblatt, Peter; Morrison, Joana; Porta, Daniela; Forastiere, Francesco; Hryhorczuk, Daniel; Zvinchuk, Oleksandr; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josephe; Lioret, Sandrine; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Vrijheid, Martine; Torrent, Maties; Iniguez, Carmen; Larranaga, Isabel; Harskamp-van Ginkel, Margreet W.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; Klanova, Jana; Svancara, Jan; Barross, Henrique; Correia, Sofia; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Taanila, Anja; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Faresjo, Tomas; Marmot, Michael; Pikhart, Hynek
Highly prevalent and typically beginning in childhood, asthma is a burdensome disease, yet the risk factors for this condition are not clarified. To enhance understanding, this study assessed the cohort-specific and pooled risk of maternal education on asthma in children aged 3-8 across 10 European
Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of asthma has increased significantly in recent decades1 especially in lower socioeconomic groups and in minority populations. Because of the increasing prevalence of asthma among children in worldwide and Iran, the importance of timely control of the disease after its diagnosis and few studies on the effect of education on asthma control in Iran, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of education on asthma control in children. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 104 Iranian children (6-14 years old with asthma referred to asthma and allergy clinic of Children's Medical Center in Tehran were studied via convenience sampling method. Recruitment was occurred between 2011 to 2014. Subjects randomly were divided into two equal groups of intervention and control. For intervention group, common education as well as special education in format of booklet, pamphlets, CD and group training sessions were applied every two weeks within the first two months of follow up and every two months then after. While, the control group received usual careResults: The means of FEV1/ FVC change, frequency of admission to the ED, hospitalization and absence from school and use of steroids were significantly different before and after education in the intervention group. While changes among measured parameters in the control group were not significantly different.Conclusion: The results of this study showed that specific education has significant helpful effect on asthma attack control in children.
The effectiveness of school-based family asthma educational programs on the quality of life and number of asthma exacerbations of children aged five to 18 years diagnosed with asthma: a systematic review protocol.
Walter, Helen; Sadeque-Iqbal, Fatema; Ulysse, Rose; Castillo, Doreen; Fitzpatrick, Aileen; Singleton, Joanne
The objective of this review is to identify the best available quantitative evidence related to the effectiveness of school-based family asthma educational programs on the quality of life and number of asthma exacerbations of children aged five to18 years with a diagnosis of asthma. Asthma is a serious public health issue globally and nationally. The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Asthma Report 2014 estimates that 334 million people worldwide currently suffer from asthma. In the United States, asthma currently affects about 25 million people. Although asthma can occur at any age, it most often begins early in life, and is the most common non-communicable disease among children. Approximately 14% of the world's children have asthma. In the United States, 7.1 million children have asthma. Globally, the burden of asthma, measured by disability and premature death, is greatest in children approaching adolescence (ages 10-14). Asthma is also a serious economic concern in primary health care worldwide. In the United States, the estimated total cost of asthma to society was US$56 billion in 2007, or US$3259 per person. In 2008 asthma caused 10.5 million missed days from school and 14.2 missed days from work for caregivers. The estimated total cost of loss of productivity resulting from missed school or work days is US$3.8 billion per year, and premature death US$2.1 billion per year. Globally, asthma ranks 14 in terms of disability adjusted life years (DALYs), which are the number of years lost to ill health, disability or death attributed to asthma. According to a 2011 European study, the estimated total cost of asthma was €19.3 billion among people aged 15 to 64 years. A study conducted in the Asia-Pacific region reported that the direct and indirect costs of asthma per person ranged from US$184 in Vietnam to US$1189in Hong Kong in 2000. A Canadian study showed that C$184 loss of productivity during one week was attributed to asthma in 2012. In Australia, AU
College Award # W81XWH-07-1-0469 Abt Associates Inc. Final Report p. 158 • Obtaining disease prevention and managemen t tools. Study design~rs intend...suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704...children without asthma for each asthma trigger. A t -test was used to determine if these two means were statistically different from each other. Page
Platts-Mills, T.A.E.; Chapman, M.D.; Pollart, S.M.; Heymann, P.W.; Luczynska, C.M. (Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville (United States))
There is no doubt that a large number of individuals become allergic to foreign proteins that are predominantly or exclusively present indoors. In each case this immune response can be demonstrated either by immediate skin test responses or by measuring serum IgE antibodies. It has also been obvious for some time that patients presenting with asthma, perennial rhinitis and atopic dermatitis have an increased prevalence of IgE antibodies to these indoor allergens. More recently several epidemiological surveys have suggested that both mite exposure and IgE antibodies are important risk factors for asthma. The present situation is that assays have been developed capable of measuring the presence of mite, cockroach and cat allergens in house dust. Further clinical studies will be necessary to test the proposed standards for mite allergens and to define risk levels for other allergens.
Kintner, Eileen; Cook, Gwendolyn; Marti, C Nathan; Stoddard, Debbie; Gomes, Melissa; Harmon, Phyllis; Van Egeren, Laurie A
Asthma morbidity and mortality is higher among older school-age children and early adolescents than other age groups across the lifespan. NIH recommended expanding asthma education to schools and community settings to meet cognitive outcomes that have an impact on morbidity and mortality. Guided by the acceptance of asthma model, an evidence-guided, comprehensive school-based academic health education and counseling program, Staying Healthy-Asthma Responsible & Prepared™ (SHARP), was developed. The program complements existing school curricula by integrating biology, psychology, and sociology content with related spelling, math, and reading and writing assignments. Feasibility, benefits, and efficacy have been established. We compared the effectiveness of SHARP to a non-academic program, Open Airways for Schools, in improving asthma knowledge and reasoning about symptom management. A two-group, cluster-randomized, single-blinded design was used with a sample of 205 students in grades 4-5 with asthma and their caregivers. Schools were matched prior to randomization. The unit of analysis was the student. Certified elementary school teachers delivered the programs during instructional time. Data were collected from student/caregiver dyads at baseline and at 1, 12, and 24 months after the intervention. In multilevel modeling, students enrolled in the academic SHARP program demonstrated significant (pimprovement in asthma knowledge and reasoning over students enrolled in the non-academic program. Knowledge advantages were retained at 24 months. Findings support delivery in schools of the SHARP academic health education program for students with asthma. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
McClure, Natasha; Lutenbacher, Melanie; O'Kelley, Ellen; Dietrich, Mary S
Home environmental assessments and interventions delivered via academic practice partnerships (APP) between clinics and schools of nursing may be a low or no cost delivery model of pediatric asthma care and professional education. Patients receive enhanced clinical resources that can improve self-management and healthcare utilization. Additionally, students can practice chronic disease management skills in actual patient encounters. To describe outcomes of the implementation of an APP between a school of nursing and a pediatric asthma specialty clinic (PASC) to deliver a home visit program (HVP). The HVP was designed to reduce emergency department visits and asthma related hospitalizations in PASC patients and provide clinical experiences for nursing students. PASC referred patients to the HVP based on their level of asthma control. Students provided an individualized number of home visits to 17 participants over a nine month period. A 12-month pre- and post-HVP comparison of emergency department visits and asthma related hospitalizations was conducted. Additional information was gathered from stakeholders via an online survey, and interviews with APP partners and HVP families. Children had fewer asthma related hospitalizations post HVP. Findings suggest a reduction in exposure to environmental triggers, improved patient and family management of asthma, and increased PASC knowledge of asthma triggers in the home and increased student knowledge and skills related to asthma management. Multiple clinical and educational benefits may be realized through the development of APPs as an infrastructure supporting targeted interventions in home visits to pediatric asthma patients and their families. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Konstantaki, E; Priftis, K N; Antonogeorgos, G; Papoutsakis, C; Drakouli, M; Matziou, V
To provide a summary of the existing published knowledge on the association between sedentary lifestyle and childhood asthma. Twelve years ago, the first longitudinal studies carried out in children showed a relationship between physical activity and asthma. Several epidemiological studies confirmed these findings, with sedentary lifestyle predicting the onset of asthma. A systematic review of epidemiological studies was conducted within the MEDLINE database. Epidemiological studies on children subjects, published in English were included in the review. A comprehensive literature search yielded 50 studies for further consideration. Following the application of the eligibility criteria, we identified 11 studies. A positive association and an excess risk of asthma during childhood were revealed to sedentary lifestyle. The findings proved the association between childhood asthma and sedentary lifestyle. The correlation between bronchial asthma and sedentary life during childhood and identifying whether preventable or treatable risk factors exist needs to be determined. Further research on the topic is essential for safer and standardised conclusions. Asthma can be controlled when managed properly. The role of the nurse as an educator should establish and maintain a relationship with patients in order to help them manage their disease. The steps towards asthma management will help paediatric patients to guide their approach to the condition. Copyright © 2013 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
... Videos for Educators Search English Español Traveling and Asthma KidsHealth / For Kids / Traveling and Asthma Print en ... pack it, too. How Can I Avoid My Asthma Triggers? Staying at a hotel Ask for a ...
Rodriguez Martinez, Carlos; Sossa, Monica Patricia
Bronchial asthma is one of the most frequent respiratory diseases in childhood. Recurrent emergency department visits for asthma produce anxiety and high costs for the system of health and for the family. It is important to know the factors related to these recurrent emergency department visits to assist the targeting of appropriate future interventions aimed at reducing this avoidable presentation. The objective of the present study was to identify factors associated with recurrent emergency department visits for asthma in children liable to be modified by means of an education program. Data obtained from a survey of parents of 146 pediatric patients with asthma attending an asthma clinic and educational program were examined. Parents completed an asthma knowledge and attitudes questionnaire that also included other socio demographic and illness-related variables, including the number of consultations to emergency department by their children asthma in the previous 6 months. Of the 146 asthmatic patients enrolled, 41 (28.1%) consulted repeatedly to the emergency department for asthma. After controlling for age of the patient, educational level of the parents, and functional severity of the disease, we found that parents who reported that they attended to emergency room because asthma attacks of their children were severe enough to go elsewhere (OR, 4.57; CL95%, 1.76- 11.85; P = 0.002), parents who reported that asthma medications should be administered only in symptomatic moments (OR 278, CL 95%, 1.05 - 7.33, P = 0.038 and parents that did not recognize the fact that asthma attacks can be avoided if medications are administered when there are no symptoms (between asthma attacks) (OR 2.61; CL95%; 1.03 - 7.02; p = 0,045), had a greater probability to attend rapidly the emergency room because of asthma of their children. The fact that parents of asthmatic patients have thought that asthma medications should be administered only in symptomatic patients, that they hadn
... Videos for Educators Search English Español Exercise-Induced Asthma KidsHealth / For Parents / Exercise-Induced Asthma What's in ... Exercise-Induced Asthma Print What Is Exercise-Induced Asthma? Most kids and teens with asthma have symptoms ...
Espinoza-Palma, Tatiana; Zamorano, Alejandra; Arancibia, Francisca; Bustos, María-Francisca; Silva, Maria José; Cardenas, Consuelo; De La Barra, Pedro; Puente, Victoria; Cerda, Jaime; Castro-Rodriguez, José A; Prado, Francisco
Background. Formal education in primary care can reduce asthma exacerbations. However, there are few studies in hospitalized children, with none originating in Latin America. Methods. A prospective randomized study was designed to evaluate whether a full education with self-management plan (ESM) was more effective than an education without self-management plan (E) in reducing asthma hospitalization. Children (5 to 15 years of age) who were hospitalized for an asthma attack were divided in two groups. Children in the E group received general instructions based on a booklet. Those in the ESM group received the same booklet plus a self-management guide and a puzzle game that reinforces the lessons learned in the booklet. Patients were interviewed every 3 months, by telephone, for one year. Interviewers recording the number of hospitalizations, exacerbations, and emergency visits for asthma and oral steroid burst uses. Results. From 88 children who met the inclusion criteria, 77 (86%) completed one year of follow-up (41 from E and 36 from ESM group). Overall, after one year, the hospitalization decreased by 66% and the inhaled corticosteroids therapy increased from 36% to 79%. At the end of the study, there was no difference in exacerbations, emergency visits, oral steroid burst uses, or hospitalizations between the two groups. Conclusions. Asthma education with or without a self-management plan during asthma hospitalization were effective in reducing exacerbations, emergency visits, oral steroid burst uses, and future rehospitalizations. This evidence supports the importance of providing a complete asthma education plan in any patient who is admitted for asthma exacerbation.
Gonzalez-Estrada, Alexei; Cuervo-Pardo, Lyda; Ghosh, Bitan; Smith, Martin; Pazheri, Foussena; Zell, Katrina; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Lang, David M
Asthma affects >300 million people globally, including 25 million in the United States. Patients with asthma frequently use the Internet as a source of information. YouTube is one of the three most popular Web sites. To determine the educational quality of YouTube videos for asthma. We performed a YouTube search by using the keyword "asthma." The 200 most frequently viewed relevant videos were included in the study. Asthma videos were analyzed for characteristics, source, and content. Source was further classified as asthma health care provider, other health care provider, patient, pharmaceutical company, and professional society and/or media. A scoring system was created to evaluate quality (-10 to 30 points). Negative points were assigned for misleading information. Two hundred videos were analyzed, with a median of 18,073.5 views, 31.5 likes, and 2 dislikes, which spanned a median of 172 seconds. More video presenters were male (60.5%). The most common type of video source was other health care providers (34.5%). The most common video content was alternative treatments (38.0%), including live-fish ingestion; reflexology; acupressure and/or acupuncture; Ayurveda; yoga; raw food, vegan, gluten-free diets; marijuana; Buteyko breathing; and salt therapy. Scores for videos supplied by asthma health care providers were statistically significantly different from other sources (p YouTube videos of asthma were frequently viewed but were a poor source of accurate health care information. Videos by asthma health care providers were rated highest in quality. The allergy/immunology community has a clear opportunity to enhance the value of educational material on YouTube.
Kintner, Eileen; Cook, Gwendolyn; Marti, C. Nathan; Stoddard, Debbie; Gomes, Melissa; Harmon, Phyllis; Van Egeren, Laurie A.
Asthma morbidity and mortality is higher among older school-age children and early adolescents than other age groups across the lifespan. NIH recommended expanding asthma education to schools and community settings to meet cognitive outcomes that have an impact on morbidity and mortality. Guided by the acceptance of asthma model, an evidence-guided, comprehensive school-based academic health education and counseling program, Staying Healthy—Asthma Responsible & Prepared™ (SHARP), was developed. The program complements existing school curricula by integrating biology, psychology, and sociology content with related spelling, math, and reading and writing assignments. Feasibility, benefits, and efficacy have been established. We compared the effectiveness of SHARP to a non-academic program, Open Airways for Schools, in improving asthma knowledge and reasoning about symptom management. A two-group, cluster-randomized, single-blinded design was used with a sample of 205 students in grades 4–5 with asthma and their caregivers. Schools were matched prior to randomization. The unit of analysis was the student. Certified elementary school teachers delivered the programs during instructional time. Data were collected from student/caregiver dyads at baseline and at 1, 12, and 24 months after the intervention. In multilevel modeling, students enrolled in the academic SHARP program demonstrated significant (pasthma knowledge and reasoning over students enrolled in the non-academic program. Knowledge advantages were retained at 24 months. Findings support delivery in schools of the SHARP academic health education program for students with asthma. PMID:26296595
McQuaid, Elizabeth L; Garro, Aris; Seifer, Ronald; Hammond, S Katharine; Borrelli, Belinda
Caregivers who smoke and have children with asthma are an important group for intervention. Home-based interventions successfully reduce asthma morbidity, yet are costly. This study evaluated the financial return on investment (ROI) of the Parents of Asthmatics Quit Smoking (PAQS) program, a combined asthma education and smoking cessation intervention. Participants included caregivers (n = 224) that smoked, had a child with asthma, and were enrolled in a Medicaid managed care plan. Participants received nurse-delivered asthma education and smoking counseling in three home visits. Program implementation costs were estimated, and healthcare expenses were obtained from insurance claims data 12 months pre- and 12 months post intervention. ROI was calculated for all participants, children <6 years, children 6-18 years, and children with moderate/severe persistent asthma. Total program implementation cost was $34,481. After intervention, there was increased mean annual refills of beta-agonist (0.51 pre, 1.64 post; P < 0.001), and controller medications (0.65 pre, 2.44 post; P < 0.001). Reductions were found in mean annual emergency department visits (0.33 pre, 0.14 post; P < 0.001), hospitalizations (0.23 pre, 0.08 post; P < 0.001), and outpatient visits (2.33 pre, 1.45 post, P < 0.001). The program had negative ROI (-21.8%) for the entire sample. The ROI was positive (+106.9) for children <6 years, negative (-150.3) for children 6-18, and negligible for moderate/severe persistent asthma (+6.9%). PAQS was associated with increased medication use and decreased healthcare utilization. While the overall ROI for PAQS was negative, PAQS had a positive ROI for caregivers of young children with asthma. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Barretto Cardoso, Laís Souza; de Souza-Machado, Carolina; Souza-Machado, Adelmir
Objective. To review the literature on the impact of educational asthma interventions in schools regarding the knowledge and morbidity of the disease among children and adolescents. Methods. A systematic review was conducted for controlled clinical trials investigating the effectiveness of educational asthma interventions for students, asthmatic or nonasthmatic, families, and school staff. Databases were CENTRAL, PubMed, LILACS, MEDLINE, and SciELO. Articles published in any language were considered, in the period from 2005 to 2014, according to the PRISMA guidelines. Results. Seventeen articles were selected (N = 5,879 subjects). 94% of the interventions (16 of 17 studies) were applied in developed countries that were led by health professionals and most of them targeted asthmatics. Asthma education promotes the improvement of knowledge about the disease in at least one of the evaluated areas. 29% of the interventions (5 of 17 studies) showed a reduction of the asthma symptoms, 35% (6 of 17 studies) reduction of the hospitalization instances and emergency visits, 29% (5 of 17 studies) reduction of school absenteeism, and 41% (7 of 17 studies) increase in the quality of life of the individuals. Conclusions. Educational interventions in schools raise the awareness of asthma and weaken the impact of morbidity indicators. PMID:27656097
Ana Carla Carvalho Coelho
Full Text Available Objective. To review the literature on the impact of educational asthma interventions in schools regarding the knowledge and morbidity of the disease among children and adolescents. Methods. A systematic review was conducted for controlled clinical trials investigating the effectiveness of educational asthma interventions for students, asthmatic or nonasthmatic, families, and school staff. Databases were CENTRAL, PubMed, LILACS, MEDLINE, and SciELO. Articles published in any language were considered, in the period from 2005 to 2014, according to the PRISMA guidelines. Results. Seventeen articles were selected (N=5,879 subjects. 94% of the interventions (16 of 17 studies were applied in developed countries that were led by health professionals and most of them targeted asthmatics. Asthma education promotes the improvement of knowledge about the disease in at least one of the evaluated areas. 29% of the interventions (5 of 17 studies showed a reduction of the asthma symptoms, 35% (6 of 17 studies reduction of the hospitalization instances and emergency visits, 29% (5 of 17 studies reduction of school absenteeism, and 41% (7 of 17 studies increase in the quality of life of the individuals. Conclusions. Educational interventions in schools raise the awareness of asthma and weaken the impact of morbidity indicators.
Rodriguez-Martinez, Carlos E; Sossa-Briceño, Monica P; Castro-Rodriguez, Jose A
Asthma educational interventions have been shown to improve several clinically and economically important outcomes. However, these interventions are costly in themselves and could lead to even higher disease costs. A cost-effectiveness threshold analysis would be helpful in determining the threshold value of the cost of educational interventions, leading to these interventions being cost-effective. The aim of the present study was to perform a cost-effectiveness threshold analysis to determine the level at which the cost of a pediatric asthma educational intervention would be cost-effective and cost-saving. A Markov-type model was developed in order to estimate costs and health outcomes of a simulated cohort of pediatric patients with persistent asthma treated over a 12-month period. Effectiveness parameters were obtained from a single uncontrolled before-and-after study performed with Colombian asthmatic children. Cost data were obtained from official databases provided by the Colombian Ministry of Health. The main outcome was the variable "quality-adjusted life-years" (QALYs). A deterministic threshold sensitivity analysis showed that the asthma educational intervention will be cost-saving to the health system if its cost is under US$513.20. Additionally, the analysis showed that the cost of the intervention would have to be below US$967.40 in order to be cost-effective. This study identified the level at which the cost of a pediatric asthma educational intervention will be cost-effective and cost-saving for the health system in Colombia. Our findings could be a useful aid for decision makers in efficiently allocating limited resources when planning asthma educational interventions for pediatric patients.
Lewis, Kate Marie; Ruiz, Milagros; Goldblatt, Peter; Morrison, Joana; Porta, Daniela; Forastiere, Francesco; Hryhorczuk, Daniel; Zvinchuk, Oleksandr; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josephe; Lioret, Sandrine; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Vrijheid, Martine; Torrent, Maties; Iniguez, Carmen; Larranaga, Isabel; Harskamp-van Ginkel, Margreet W; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Klanova, Jana; Svancara, Jan; Barross, Henrique; Correia, Sofia; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Taanila, Anja; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Faresjo, Tomas; Marmot, Michael; Pikhart, Hynek
Highly prevalent and typically beginning in childhood, asthma is a burdensome disease, yet the risk factors for this condition are not clarified. To enhance understanding, this study assessed the cohort-specific and pooled risk of maternal education on asthma in children aged 3-8 across 10 European countries. Data on 47,099 children were obtained from prospective birth cohort studies across 10 European countries. We calculated cohort-specific prevalence difference in asthma outcomes using the relative index of inequality (RII) and slope index of inequality (SII). Results from all countries were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis procedures to obtain mean RII and SII scores at the European level. Final models were adjusted for child sex, smoking during pregnancy, parity, mother's age and ethnicity. The higher the score the greater the magnitude of relative (RII, reference 1) and absolute (SII, reference 0) inequity. The pooled RII estimate for asthma risk across all cohorts was 1.46 (95% CI 1.26, 1.71) and the pooled SII estimate was 1.90 (95% CI 0.26, 3.54). Of the countries examined, France, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands had the highest prevalence's of childhood asthma and the largest inequity in asthma risk. Smaller inverse associations were noted for all other countries except Italy, which presented contradictory scores, but with small effect sizes. Tests for heterogeneity yielded significant results for SII scores. Overall, offspring of mothers with a low level of education had an increased relative and absolute risk of asthma compared to offspring of high-educated mothers.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood asthma is common in Cape Town, a province of South Africa, but is underdiagnosed by general practitioners. Medications are often prescribed inappropriately, and care is episodic. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of educational outreach to general practitioners on asthma symptoms of children in their practice. Methods This is a cluster randomised trial with general practices as the unit of intervention, randomisation, and analysis. The setting is Mitchells Plain (population 300,000, a dormitory town near Cape Town. Solo general practitioners, without nurse support, operate from storefront practices. Caregiver-reported symptom data were collected for 318 eligible children (2 to 17 years with moderate to severe asthma, who were attending general practitioners in Mitchells Plain. One year post-intervention follow-up data were collected for 271 (85% of these children in all 43 practices. Practices randomised to intervention (21 received two 30-minute educational outreach visits by a trained pharmacist who left materials describing key interventions to improve asthma care. Intervention and control practices received the national childhood asthma guideline. Asthma severity was measured in a parent-completed survey administered through schools using a symptom frequency and severity scale. We compared intervention and control group children on the change in score from pre-to one-year post-intervention. Results Symptom scores declined an additional 0.84 points in the intervention vs. control group (on a nine-point scale. p = 0.03. For every 12 children with asthma exposed to a doctor allocated to the intervention, one extra child will have substantially reduced symptoms. Conclusion Educational outreach was accepted by general practitioners and was effective. It could be applied to other health care quality problems in this setting.
Full Text Available Bronchial thermoplasty (BT is a recently developed treatment for patients with moderate-to-severe asthma. A few studies have suggested the clinical efficacy of this intervention. However, no study has evaluated the cost-effectiveness of BT compared to other alternative treatments for moderate-to-severe allergic asthma, which currently include omalizumab and standard therapy.To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of standard therapy, BT, and omalizumab for moderate-to-severe allergic asthma in the USA.A probabilistic Markov model with weekly cycles was developed to reflect the course of asthma progression over a 5-year time horizon. The study population was adults with moderate-to-severe allergic asthma whose asthma remained uncontrolled despite using high-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS, with or without long-acting beta-agonists [LABA]. A perspective of the health-care system was adopted with asthma-related costs as well as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs and exacerbations as the outcomes.For standard therapy, BT, and omalizumab, the discounted 5-year costs and QALYs were $15,400 and 3.08, $28,100 and 3.24, and $117,000 and 3.26, respectively. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER of BT versus standard therapy and omalizumab versus BT was $78,700/QALY and $3.86 million/QALY, respectively. At the willingness-to-pay (WTP of $50,000/QALY and $100,000/QALY, the probability of BT being cost-effective was 9%, and 67%, respectively. The corresponding expected value of perfect information (EVPI was $155 and $1,530 per individual at these thresholds. In sensitivity analyses, increasing the costs of BT from $14,900 to $30,000 increased its ICER relative to standard therapy to $178,000/QALY, and decreased the ICER of omalizumab relative to BT to $3.06 million/QALY. Reducing the costs of omalizumab by 25% decreased its ICER relative to BT by 29%.Based on the available evidence, our study suggests that there is more than 60% chance that BT becomes
Zafari, Zafar; Sadatsafavi, Mohsen; Marra, Carlo A; Chen, Wenjia; FitzGerald, J Mark
Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) is a recently developed treatment for patients with moderate-to-severe asthma. A few studies have suggested the clinical efficacy of this intervention. However, no study has evaluated the cost-effectiveness of BT compared to other alternative treatments for moderate-to-severe allergic asthma, which currently include omalizumab and standard therapy. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of standard therapy, BT, and omalizumab for moderate-to-severe allergic asthma in the USA. A probabilistic Markov model with weekly cycles was developed to reflect the course of asthma progression over a 5-year time horizon. The study population was adults with moderate-to-severe allergic asthma whose asthma remained uncontrolled despite using high-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS, with or without long-acting beta-agonists [LABA]). A perspective of the health-care system was adopted with asthma-related costs as well as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and exacerbations as the outcomes. For standard therapy, BT, and omalizumab, the discounted 5-year costs and QALYs were $15,400 and 3.08, $28,100 and 3.24, and $117,000 and 3.26, respectively. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of BT versus standard therapy and omalizumab versus BT was $78,700/QALY and $3.86 million/QALY, respectively. At the willingness-to-pay (WTP) of $50,000/QALY and $100,000/QALY, the probability of BT being cost-effective was 9%, and 67%, respectively. The corresponding expected value of perfect information (EVPI) was $155 and $1,530 per individual at these thresholds. In sensitivity analyses, increasing the costs of BT from $14,900 to $30,000 increased its ICER relative to standard therapy to $178,000/QALY, and decreased the ICER of omalizumab relative to BT to $3.06 million/QALY. Reducing the costs of omalizumab by 25% decreased its ICER relative to BT by 29%. Based on the available evidence, our study suggests that there is more than 60% chance that BT becomes cost
S. N. Nedelskaya
Full Text Available Entry. Asthma remains the medical, social, economic issue of the day of modern society and industry of health protection. Research works on questions asthma are sanctified to mainly the improvement of diagnostics and treatment of asthma and a sanitary-educational help is underestimated. In the modern terms of structural alteration of network of establishments of health care in Ukraine a sanitary-educational help must be an effective complex in strategy of therapy of patients with asthma. Research aim. To ground importance, modern forms and methods of sanitary -educational help in providing of control above asthma on the stage of structural reorganization of establishments of health care in Ukraine. Materials and research methods. Scientifically-methodical literature was analyzed on general questions of organization and realization of sanitary-educational work in asthma. Long-term of own experience of realization of this work is generalized in the conditions of stationary treatment of patients with asthma. Research results. Sanitary-educational work in a form of education in the program "Asthma school". General practitioner, as a key figure of establishments of primary medical and sanitary help, must own the psychological methods including medical-psychology programs of before- and after graduation medical education. Conclusions. In providing of effective control above bronchial asthma in children a sanitary-educational help must be logical continuation and addition of curative help. Application of the educational programs and volume of work of doctors at their implementation must be legislatively lighted up in "Protocols of diagnostics and treatment of bronchial asthma for children".
Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia Z; Stuart, Meg; Mackson, Judith; Cvetkovski, Biljana; Sainsbury, Erica; Armour, Carol; Mavritsakis, Sofia; Mendrela, Gosia; Travers-Mason, Pippa; Williamson, Margaret
Background Inter-professional learning has been promoted as the solution to many clinical management issues. One such issue is the correct use of asthma inhaler devices. Up to 80% of people with asthma use their inhaler device incorrectly. The implications of this are poor asthma control and quality of life. Correct inhaler technique can be taught, however these educational instructions need to be repeated if correct technique is to be maintained. It is important to maximise the opportunities...
Perez, Maria Gabriela; Feldman, Lya; Caballero, Fernan
Evaluates the effects of a self-management educational program on 29 children and their parents. Program consists of six sessions of information giving and cognitive-behavioral strategies for the children, and two talks and a brochure for the parents. Results indicate a significant effect on children's asthma knowledge and practice of…
Tzeng, Yu-Fen; Gau, Bih-Shya
To investigate the suitability of asthma education materials for school-age children with asthma and elucidate how these children used their health-literacy abilities to identify whether the materials can be accepted, comprehended and applied. Effective asthma self-management education is influenced by the suitability of materials and an individual's health literacy. A mixed-method research design was developed using quantitative and qualitative surveys. The suitability of the materials was assessed on the basis of the Chinese version of the Suitability Assessment of Materials by five experts. In addition, five school-age children (age: 8-12 years) were recruited and interviewed. In total, 25 pieces of asthma education material for children were collected. On the basis of their type, the materials were categorised as nine brochures, 11 leaflets and five videos. Of the 25 materials, 17 were rated as superior materials, whereas eight were rated as adequate materials. The suitability scores of the video-based materials were significantly higher than those of the brochures and leaflets (p = .006). One print material was considered to have a reading level suitable for fifth-grade or younger children, whereas the remaining materials were considered suitable for sixth-grade or older children. The following six health-literacy domains were identified: recognising asthma through body knowledge, posing reflective questions, identifying self-care difficulties, receiving adult guidance, learning with enjoyment and addressing learning requirements. The video-based materials had integrated content and were appealing to children. Cartoon animations, interactive computer games, and skill demonstrations may enhance learning stimulation and motivation and increase learning effects in children. The present results may help healthcare providers to understand children's capacities to manage their disease, effectively address children's requirements and function as a key resource for
Responses to the questionnaire on the diagnosis, patient education and management of asthma indicated that a reduced number of patients with severe asthma were seen in 1993 in both Pediatric and Internal Medicine Departments compared with 5 years before, despite the increase in total number of asthma patients in Japan. Specifiic IgE radioallergosorbent test (RAST measurements were frequently performed instead of skin testing for diagnosis, and eosinophil count and bronchodilator response served as an adjunct to the diagnosis. Patients were frequently asked detailed questions about aspirin-induced asthma, which accounted for 8.8, 2.2 and 1.5% of patients with asthma in the adult, schoolchildren (6–16 years and infant (≤ 5 years groups, respectively. In achieving ‘control of asthma’, first priority was given to coping with the symptoms in children aged 5 years or less and to enabling routine daily life activities in patients 6 years of age or older. Usefulness of peak flow measurements was widely recognized and a detailed plan for allergen avoidance (house dust was often given to patients.
Zhao, Hai-jin; Cai, Shao-xi; Tong, Wan-cheng; Li, Wen-jun; Fu, Liang
To investigate the effect of education on self-evaluation and control level in patients with bronchial asthma. Seventy-five asthmatic patients with the initial diagnosis in line with the American Thoracic Society criteria, including 46 with junior high school education or below (group A) and 29 with senior high school education or above (group B), were asked to complete a survey to assess their symptoms and asthma attacks. Asthma control test (ACT) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) evaluation were performed 8, 12 and 24 weeks after salmeterol/fluticasone therapy. Step-down treatment was administered according to GINA guidelines. The self-evaluation of the patients was assessed according to ACT score, physical signs and pulmonary function. An ACT score over 19 indicate well controlled condition. The effect of education on the self-evaluation and control level of bronchial asthma was assessed. The two groups had similar basal level of pulmonary function (FEV1). Eight weeks after the therapy, 29 patients in group A had ACT score over 19, including 11 with high control level; in group B, 17 had ACT score over 19, of whom 4 showed high control level. There was no significant difference between the two groups in control levels and self-evaluation (P>0.05). At 12 weeks, 37 patients in group A had ACT score over 19, with 17 having high control level; 22 patients in group B had ACT score over 19, 4 showing high control level; the two groups were similar in the control levels (P>0.05) but showed significant difference in self-evaluation (Pevaluation (Peducation level may play a role in self-evaluation and control level of bronchial asthma, but its impact differs in the course of the treatment.
Stone, James R., III
Describes a study which sought to establish outcome standards very important for secondary marketing education. Business people, former students, and marketing educators were asked to judge the standards identified from the literature in terms of importance to secondary marketing education. (CT)
Dempsey, Ian; Dally, Kerry
Although professional standards for Australian teachers were developed several years ago, this country is yet to develop such standards for special education teachers. The lack of standards for the special education profession is associated with the absence of a consistent process of accreditation in Australia and a lack of clarity in the pathways…
Latycheva, O; Chera, R; Hampson, C; Masuda, J R; Stewart, M; Elliott, S J; Fenton, N E
Asthma is a growing concern in First Nations and Inuit communities. As with many health indicators and outcomes, Aboriginal peoples living in remote areas experience greater disparities in respiratory health compared with non-Aboriginal Canadians. Therefore, it is critically important to take into account their unique needs when developing asthma educational materials and resources. The purpose of this study is to assess the cultural relevance of existing asthma education materials for First Nations and Inuit peoples. Five First Nations and Inuit communities from across Canada participated in the project. A combination of quantitative evaluations (eg surveys) and qualitative approaches (eg open discussion, live chats) were used to assess printed and web-based asthma education materials. Participants represented First Nations and Inuit communities from across Canada and were selected on the basis of age and role: 6 to 12 years old (children), 12 and over (youth), parents and grandparents, community leaders and teachers, and community advisory group members. In general, the results showed that although participants of all age categories liked the selection of asthma educational materials and resources, they identified pictures and images related to First Nations and Inuit people living and coping with asthma as ways of improving cultural relevance. This reinforces findings that tailoring materials to include Aboriginal languages, ceremonies and traditions would enhance their uptake. Our findings also demonstrate that visually based content in both printed and virtual form were the preferred style of learning of all participants, except young children who preferred to learn through play and interactive activities. Asthma is a growing concern in First Nations and Inuit communities. Given this concern, it is essential to understand cultural needs and preferences when developing asthma education materials and resources. The findings from this research emphasize the need
Odajima, Hiroshi; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Nagakura, Toshikazu; Fujisawa, Takao; Akasawa, Akira; Ito, Komei; Doi, Satoru; Yamaguchi, Koichi; Katsunuma, Toshio; Kurihara, Kazuyuki; Kondo, Naomi; Sugai, Kazuko; Nambu, Mitsuhiko; Hoshioka, Akira; Yoshihara, Shigemi; Sato, Norio; Seko, Noriko; Nishima, Sankei
Omalizumab has demonstrated clinical benefits in children with moderate to severe allergic asthma. However, no studies have been performed in Japanese asthmatic children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy including free IgE suppression and safety of omalizumab in Japanese children with severe allergic asthma. The primary objective was to examine whether omalizumab decreases serum free IgE levels to less than 25 ng/ml (target level of suppression). Thirty-eight Japanese children (6-15 years) with uncontrolled severe allergic asthma despite inhaled corticosteroids (>200 μg/day fluticasone propionate or equivalent) and two or more controller therapies received add-on treatment with omalizumab in a 24-week, multicenter, uncontrolled, open-label study. The geometric mean serum free IgE level at 24 weeks was 15.6 ng/mL. Compared with baseline, total asthma symptom scores, daily activity scores and nocturnal sleep scores at 24 weeks were significantly improved. The rates of asthma exacerbation and hospitalization due to asthma were reduced by 69.2% and 78.2%, respectively (p omalizumab decreased free IgE levels to less than 25 ng/mL. Omalizumab improved asthma control and was well-tolerated, as well. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Asthma costs Canadians over $1.2 billion per annum and, despite advances, many asthmatic patients still have poor control. An action plan, symptom diary and measurement of peak expiratory flow have been shown to improve clinical outcomes. Effective educational interventions are an important component of good care. However, many rural sites lack not only access to education but physician care as well. It is reasonable, therefore, that an Internet-based asthma management program may be used as an approach. In the present case report, a novel approach that may increase access in these poorly serviced areas is presented. In an Internet-based asthma management program, patients are reviewed by a physician, receive education and are given a unique password that provides program access. Patients record symptoms and peak expiratory flow rates. The present case report shows that a patient can be assisted through an exacerbation, thus averting emergency intervention and stabilizing control, even when travelling on another continent.
TESOL Press, 2013
What are the components of a quality education ESL program? TESOL's "Standards for Adult Education ESL Programs" answers this question by defining quality components from a national perspective. Using program indicators in eight distinct areas, the standards can be used to review an existing program or as a guide in setting up a new…
Yarovaya, Yelena B.
The article examines the standardization of primary education as one of the development trends of the British school at the present moment in the context of improving its efficiency and quality. It analyses the positive results of the standard-based reforms (modernization of primary education content, improvement of younger students' outcomes,…
National Art Education Association, 2009
The National Art Education Association (NAEA) is committed to ensuring that all students have access to a high quality, certified visual arts educator in every K-12 public school across the United States, recognizing that effective arts instruction is a core component of 21st-century education. "Professional Standards for Visual Arts…
E Elahiyan Borojeni
Full Text Available Background & aim: In recent decades, the use of media education to control the problems of patients with chronic diseases has been taken into consideration by medical staff, but few studies have been done on their effectiveness in improving the quality of sleep in patients with bronchial asthma. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of film-based education on sleep quality in patients with bronchial asthma. Methods: The present study was a quasi-experimental study and all of the patients with bronchial asthma referred to the Asthma clinic of Boroujen were included in this study. Fifty one patients who were eligible for inclusion in the study were selected by non probability sampling method. The samples were assigned to randomly assigned blocks between the two test and control groups. For patients in the test group, patient education was performed through a 15-minute video clip by computer, DVD player and mobile phone, but patients in the control group only received routine care. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire was used to collect data one week before intervention and one month after intervention. The collected data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and t-test, Chi-square, Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests. Results: There was no significant difference before the intervention, in the overall score of sleep quality and its dimensions in the two groups (p = 0.66. There was a significant difference between the two groups after the intervention in the general score of sleep quality and the dimensions of sleep quality, sleep disturbances and sleep latency (p = 0.001 However, there was no significant difference in the use of sleep apnea, sleep duration, adequacy of sleep and daily dysfunction in the test and control groups. Conclusion: The movie-based instruction has been able to improve the quality of sleep in patients with bronchial asthma. Considering the ease of implementation of this educational method
Experienced school reporters know plenty about standards. The struggle to set standards that define what students should know and be able to do at various stages of their education has been at the heart of school reform since the late 1980s. So if journalists are going to understand the value of standards, it will be those covering schools. It is…
Developed jointly by the American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, and the National Council on Measurement in Education, Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing (Revised 2014) addresses professional and technical issues of test development and use in education, psychology, and employment. It includes changes in federal law and measurement trends affecting validity, testing individuals with disabilities or different linguistic backgrounds, and new types of tests, as well as new uses of existing tests.
Dill, David D.
The most recent research on college-student learning in the US by respected scholars such as Richard Arum, Josipa Roksa, and Ernest Pascarella suggests that the nation's means of ensuring academic standards in US colleges and universities are not working effectively. Like US K-12 education and health care, the US higher education system is…
This paper proposes a coherent and unique set of 12 standards, adopting a neuroscience framework for biologically based on school reform. This model of educational principles and practices aligns with the long-standing principles and practices of the Progressive Education Movement in the United States and the emerging principles of neuroscience.…
... Educators Search English Español What's an Asthma Action Plan? KidsHealth / For Parents / What's an Asthma Action Plan? ... acción contra el asma? What's an Asthma Action Plan? An asthma action plan (or management plan) is ...
... links) Health Topic: Allergy Health Topic: Asthma Health Topic: Asthma in Children Additional NIH Resources (1 link) National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Educational Resources (12 links) American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology: Allergies Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America: What ...
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Smoking and Asthma KidsHealth / For Teens / Smoking and Asthma Print en español Fumar y el asma Does Smoking Make Asthma Worse? Yes. If you have asthma, ...
Galloway, Mollie K.; Ishimaru, Ann M.
Background: The widely adopted Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium standards are designed to guide the preparation and professional development of educational leaders. However, the standards' limited mention of race, class, ethnicity, ability, gender, sexuality, or other marginalized identities suggests that addressing persistent…
Aldalalah, Osamah Ahmad; Ababneh, Ziad Waleed Mohamed
This study aims to determine Standards of Multimedia Graphic Design in Education through the analysis of the theoretical basis and previous studies related to this subject. This study has identified the list of standards of Multimedia, Graphic Design, each of which has a set indicator through which the quality of Multimedia can be evaluated in…
Dorevitch, Samuel; Karandikar, Abhijay; Washington, Gregory F; Walton, Geraldine Penny; Anderson, Renate; Nickels, Leslie
Asthma management guidelines recommend avoiding exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants. A limitation of such recommendations is that they do not provide information about how the public should obtain and act on air quality information. Although the Air Quality Index (AQI) provides simplified outdoor air quality forecasts, communities with high rates of asthma morbidity tend to have low rates of internet access due to factors such as low socioeconomic status. Assessments of knowledge about air quality among low-income minority communities are lacking, as are community-based programs to educate the public about using the AQI. An air quality education program and system for disseminating air quality information were developed to promote pollutant avoidance during the reconstruction of a major highway in a low-income minority community on Chicago's South Side. The program, which centered on workshops run by community asthma educators, was evaluated using a pre-test, post-test, and 1-year follow-up questionnaire. A total of 120 community workshop participants completed at least a portion of the evaluation process. At baseline, knowledge about air quality was limited. Following the workshops, substantial increases were noted in rates of correct answers to questions about health effects of air pollution, the availability of air quality information, and the color code for an AQI category. Approximately 1 year after the workshops were held, few participants could recall elements of the training. Few participants have internet access, and alternative means of distributing air quality information were suggested by study participants. Baseline knowledge of air quality information was limited in the community studied. Air quality education workshops conducted by community educators can increase knowledge about outdoor air quality and its impact on health over the short term. Refresher workshops or other efforts to sustain the knowledge increase may be useful. Given the
Yawn, Barbara P
Many adolescents and adults with asthma continue to have poorly controlled disease, often attributable to poor adherence to asthma therapy. Failure to adhere to recommended treatment may result from a desire to avoid regular reliance on medications, inappropriate high tolerance of asthma symptoms, failure to perceive the chronic nature of asthma, and poor inhaler technique. Primary care physicians need to find opportunities and methods to address these and other issues related to poor asthma control. Few adolescents or adults with asthma currently have asthma "checkup" visits, usually seeking medical care only with an exacerbation. Therefore, nonrespiratory-related office visits represent an important opportunity to assess baseline asthma control and the factors that most commonly lead to poor control. Tools such as the Asthma Control Test, the Asthma Therapy Assessment Questionnaire, the Asthma Control Questionnaire, and the Asthma APGAR provide standardized, patient-friendly ways to capture necessary asthma information. For uncontrolled asthma, physicians can refer to the stepwise approach in the 2007 National Asthma Education and Prevention Program guidelines to adjust medication use, but they must consider step-up decisions in the context of quality of the patient's inhaler technique, adherence, and ability to recognize and avoid or eliminate triggers. For this review, a literature search of PubMed from 2000 through August 31, 2010, was performed using the following terms (or a combination of these terms): asthma, asthma control, primary care, NAEPP guidelines, assessment, uncontrolled asthma, burden, impact, assessment tools, triggers, pharmacotherapy, safety. Studies were limited to human studies published in English. Articles were also identified by a manual search of bibliographies from retrieved articles and from article archives of the author.
Wilson, Elizabeth A H; Park, Denise C; Curtis, Laura M; Cameron, Kenzie A; Clayman, Marla L; Makoul, Gregory; Vom Eigen, Keith; Wolf, Michael S
We examined the effects of presentation medium on immediate and delayed recall of information and assessed the effect of giving patients take-home materials after initial presentations. Primary-care patients received video-based, print-based or no asthma education about asthma symptoms and triggers and then answered knowledge-based questions. Print participants and half the video participants received take-home print materials. A week later, available participants completed the knowledge assessment again. Participants receiving either intervention outperformed controls on immediate and delayed assessments (pprint and video participants. A week later, receiving take-home print predicted better performance (pprint (pprint participants immediately after seeing the materials (pmaterials, review predicted marginally better recall (p=0.06). Video and print interventions can promote recall of health-related information. Additionally, reviewable materials, if they are utilized, may improve retention. When creating educational tools, providers should consider how long information must be retained, its content, and the feasibility of providing tangible supporting materials. Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Full Text Available Objective. Childhood asthma is a frequent cause of absenteeism that affects school performance. We aimed to investigate the impact of asthma on absenteeism and school performance level of elementary and high school students. Methods. Data about sociodemographics, absenteeism, and academic achievement were obtained from 1539 students attending 98 schools in Greece. School performance was assessed for the last two years of school attendance using parents’ and teachers’ reports and grade point average promotion. Results. The mean of the days of absence of students with asthma was higher compared to the healthy students (6.2 ± 11.7 versus 0.3 ± 3.1, resp., P<0.001. Students with reduced healthcare use presented less absenteeism than those with increased healthcare use for asthma (4.3 ± 8.6 versus 12.4 ± 17.0 days, resp., P<0.001. Asthma and healthcare use for asthma accounted for an overall estimated variability in absence days of 13.8% and 9%, respectively. Absenteeism was associated with poor school performance for the last two years of school (P=0.002 and with lower grade point promotion in elementary school students (P=0.001 but not in high school students (P=0.316. Higher level of parental education was associated with better school performance (P<0.001. Asthma was associated with a decreased possibility for excellent performance (OR = 0.64, P=0.049, 95%CI = 0.41–1.00 in elementary students. Students with asthma using inhalers were four times more likely to perform excellently in elementary school (OR = 4.3, P=0.028, 95%CI = 1.17–15.95 than their asthmatic peers with alternative asthma treatments. Conclusions. Asthma and increased healthcare use enhance school absenteeism. Inhaled steroid use and the higher parental education level were the most important predicting factors for good school performance in elementary school asthmatic children.
Maricoto, Tiago; Madanelo, Sofia; Rodrigues, Luís; Teixeira, Gilberto; Valente, Carla; Andrade, Lília; Saraiva, Alcina
To assess the impact that educational interventions to improve inhaler techniques have on the clinical and functional control of asthma and COPD, we evaluated 44 participants before and after such an intervention. There was a significant decrease in the number of errors, and 20 patients (46%) significantly improved their technique regarding prior exhalation and breath hold. In the asthma group, there were significant improvements in the mean FEV1, FVC, and PEF (of 6.4%, 8.6%, and 8.3% respectively). Those improvements were accompanied by improvements in Control of Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma Test scores but not in Asthma Control Test scores. In the COPD group, there were no significant variations. In asthma patients, educational interventions appear to improve inhaler technique, clinical control, and functional control. RESUMO Para avaliar o impacto do ensino da técnica inalatória no controle clínico e funcional de pacientes com asma ou DPOC, incluíram-se 44 participantes antes e após essa intervenção. Houve uma diminuição significativa no número de erros cometidos, sendo que 20 pacientes (46%) melhoraram significativamente sua técnica na expiração prévia e apneia final. No grupo asma, houve significativa melhora nas médias de FEV1 (6,4%), CVF (8,6%) e PFE (8,3%), e essa melhora correlacionou-se com os resultados no Control of Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma Test, mas não com os do Asthma Control Test. No grupo DPOC, não houve variações significativas. O ensino da técnica inalatória parece melhorar seu desempenho e os controles clínico e funcional em pacientes com asma.
Tsakiris, A; Iordanidou, M; Paraskakis, E; Tsalkidis, A; Rigas, A; Zimeras, S; Katsardis, C; Chatzimichael, A
Childhood asthma is a frequent cause of absenteeism that affects school performance. We aimed to investigate the impact of asthma on absenteeism and school performance level of elementary and high school students. Data about sociodemographics, absenteeism, and academic achievement were obtained from 1539 students attending 98 schools in Greece. School performance was assessed for the last two years of school attendance using parents' and teachers' reports and grade point average promotion. The mean of the days of absence of students with asthma was higher compared to the healthy students (6.2 ± 11.7 versus 0.3 ± 3.1, resp., P absenteeism than those with increased healthcare use for asthma (4.3 ± 8.6 versus 12.4 ± 17.0 days, resp., P Absenteeism was associated with poor school performance for the last two years of school (P = 0.002) and with lower grade point promotion in elementary school students (P = 0.001) but not in high school students (P = 0.316). Higher level of parental education was associated with better school performance (P performance (OR = 0.64, P = 0.049, 95%CI = 0.41-1.00) in elementary students. Students with asthma using inhalers were four times more likely to perform excellently in elementary school (OR = 4.3, P = 0.028, 95%CI = 1.17-15.95) than their asthmatic peers with alternative asthma treatments. Conclusions. Asthma and increased healthcare use enhance school absenteeism. Inhaled steroid use and the higher parental education level were the most important predicting factors for good school performance in elementary school asthmatic children.
Basheti, Iman A; Armour, Carol L; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia Z; Reddel, Helen K
To evaluate the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of a brief intervention about inhaler technique, delivered by community pharmacists to asthma patients. Thirty-one pharmacists received brief workshop education (Active: n=16, CONTROL: n=15). Active Group pharmacists were trained to assess and teach dry powder inhaler technique, using patient-centered educational tools including novel Inhaler Technique Labels. Interventions were delivered to patients at four visits over 6 months. At baseline, patients (Active: 53, CONTROL: 44) demonstrated poor inhaler technique (mean+/-S.D. score out of 9, 5.7+/-1.6). At 6 months, improvement in inhaler technique score was significantly greater in Active cf. CONTROL patients (2.8+/-1.6 cf. 0.9+/-1.4, p<0.001), and asthma severity was significantly improved (p=0.015). Qualitative responses from patients and pharmacists indicated a high level of satisfaction with the intervention and educational tools, both for their effectiveness and for their impact on the patient-pharmacist relationship. A simple feasible intervention in community pharmacies, incorporating daily reminders via Inhaler Technique Labels on inhalers, can lead to improvement in inhaler technique and asthma outcomes. Brief training modules and simple educational tools, such as Inhaler Technique Labels, can provide a low-cost and sustainable way of changing patient behavior in asthma, using community pharmacists as educators.
Noaman, Amin Y.; Ragab, Abdul Hamid M.; Madbouly, Ayman I.; Khedra, Ahmed M.; Fayoumi, Ayman G.
This paper presents a developed higher education quality assessment model (HEQAM) that can be applied for enhancement of university services. This is because there is no universal unified quality standard model that can be used to assess the quality criteria of higher education institutes. The analytical hierarchy process is used to identify the…
Moonie, Sheniz; Sterling, David A; Figgs, Larry W; Castro, Mario
Children with asthma experience more absenteeism from school compared with their nonasthma peers. Excessive absenteeism is related to lower student grades, psychological, social, and educational adjustment. Less is known about the relationship between the presence of asthma and the academic achievement in school-aged children. Since students with asthma miss more days from school, this may negatively impact their academic achievement. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationships between absenteeism, presence of asthma, and asthma severity level with standardized test level performance in a predominantly African American urban school district. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of 3812 students (aged 8-17 years) who took the Missouri Assessment Program (MAP) standardized test during the 2002-2003 academic year. After adjustment for covariates, a significant inverse relationship was found between absenteeism and test level performance on the MAP standardized test in all children (F = 203.9, p achievement between those with and without asthma (p = .12). Though not statistically different, those with persistent asthma showed a modestly increased likelihood of scoring below Nearing Proficient compared with those with mild intermittent asthma (adjusted odds ratio = 1.93, 95% confidence intervals = 0.93-4.01, p = .08). A negative impact of absenteeism on standardized test level achievement was demonstrated in children from an urban African American school district. Children with asthma perform the same academically as their nonasthma peers. However, those with persistent asthma show a trend of performing worse on MAP standardized test scores and have more absence days compared with other students. More research is warranted on the effects of persistent asthma on academic achievement.
Countries in Europe, through the European Union, are creating, as part of the market and its governance, a new policy space in education. It is being formed through law, regulation, networking and harmonization. The development of standards across the different fields of policy, statistical calculation and commerce underpins and extends the…
Brazil, Kevin; McLean, Leslie; Abbey, David; Musselman, Carol
Differences in asthma management among families with a child who has moderate to severe asthma were examined when they participated in an in-patient versus a day-camp program. Two broad categories of outcome were examined: illness and self-management skills. Findings and observations regarding children's feelings about asthma are discussed.…
Rage, Estelle; Siroux, Valérie; Künzli, Nino; Pin, Isabelle; Kauffmann, Francine
Objectives There is evidence that exposure to air pollution affects asthma, but the effect of air pollution on asthma severity has not been addressed. The aim was to assess the relation between asthma severity during the past 12 months and home outdoor concentrations of air pollution. Methods Asthma severity over the last 12 months was assessed in two complementary ways among 328 adult asthmatics from the French Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA) examined between 1991 and 1995. The 4-class severity score integrated clinical events and type of treatment. The 5-level asthma score is based only on the occurrence of symptoms. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3) concentrations were assigned to each residence using two different methods. The first was based on the closest monitor data from 1991–1995. The second consisted in spatial models that used geostatistical interpolations and then assigned air pollutants to the geo-coded residences (1998). Results Higher asthma severity score was significantly related to the 8-hour average of ozone during April-September (O3-8hr) and the number of days (O3-days) with 8-hour ozone averages above 110 μg.m−3 (for a 36-day increase, equivalent to the inter quartile range, in O3-days, odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 2.22 (1.61–3.07) for one class difference in score). Adjustment for age, sex, smoking habits, occupational exposure, and educational level did not alter results. Asthma severity was unrelated to NO2. Both exposure assessment methods and severity scores resulted in very similar findings. SO2 correlated with severity but reached statistical significance only for the model based assignment of exposure. Conclusions The observed associations between asthma severity and air pollution, in particular O3, support the hypothesis that air pollution at levels far below current standards increases asthma severity. PMID:19017701
Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia Z; Stuart, Meg; Mackson, Judith; Cvetkovski, Biljana; Sainsbury, Erica; Armour, Carol; Mavritsakis, Sofia; Mendrela, Gosia; Travers-Mason, Pippa; Williamson, Margaret
Inter-professional learning has been promoted as the solution to many clinical management issues. One such issue is the correct use of asthma inhaler devices. Up to 80% of people with asthma use their inhaler device incorrectly. The implications of this are poor asthma control and quality of life. Correct inhaler technique can be taught, however these educational instructions need to be repeated if correct technique is to be maintained. It is important to maximise the opportunities to deliver this education in primary care. In light of this, it is important to explore how health care providers, in particular pharmacists and general medical practitioners, can work together in delivering inhaler technique education to patients, over time. Therefore, there is a need to develop and evaluate effective inter-professional education, which will address the need to educate patients in the correct use of their inhalers as well as equip health care professionals with skills to engage in collaborative relationships with each other. This mixed methods study involves the development and evaluation of three modules of continuing education, Model 1, Model 2 and Model 3. A fourth group, Model 4, acting as a control.Model 1 consists of face-to-face continuing professional education on asthma inhaler technique, aimed at pharmacists, general medical practitioners and their practice nurses.Model 2 is an electronic online continuing education module based on Model 1 principles.Model 3 is also based on asthma inhaler technique education but employs a learning intervention targeting health care professional relationships and is based on sociocultural theory.This study took the form of a parallel group, repeated measure design. Following the completion of continuing professional education, health care professionals recruited people with asthma and followed them up for 6 months. During this period, inhaler device technique training was delivered and data on patient inhaler technique
Welker, Kristen; Nabors, Laura; Lang, Myia; Bernstein, Jonathan
This review examined the impact of environmental change and educational interventions targeting young children from minority groups living in urban environments and who were from low-income families. A scoping methodology was used to find research across six databases, including CINAHL, ERIC, PsycINFO, PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE. 299 studies were identified. Duplicates were removed leaving 159 studies. After reviewing for inclusion and exclusion criteria, 23 manuscripts were identified for this study: 11 featured home-environment change interventions and 12 emphasized education of children. Studies were reviewed to determine key interventions and outcomes for children. Both environmental interventions and educational programs had positive outcomes. Interventions did not always impact health outcomes, such as emergency department visits. Results indicated many of the environmental change and education interventions improved asthma management and some symptoms. A multipronged approach may be a good method for targeting both education and change in the home and school environment to promote the well-being of young children in urban areas. New research with careful documentation of information about study participants, dose of intervention (i.e., number and duration of sessions, booster sessions) and specific intervention components also will provide guidance for future research.
Martin, Richard J.; Price, David; Roche, Nicolas; Israel, Elliot; van Aalderen, Willem M. C.; Grigg, Jonathan; Postma, Dirkje S.; Guilbert, Theresa W.; Hillyer, Elizabeth V.; Burden, Anne; von Ziegenweidt, Julie; Colice, Gene
Real-life studies are needed to determine the cost-effectiveness of asthma therapies in clinical practice. To compare the cost-effectiveness of extrafine-particle inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) with standard size-particle ICS in the United Kingdom (UK) and United States (US). These retrospective
Martin, Richard J.; Price, David; Roche, Nicolas; Israel, Elliot; van Aalderen, Willem M. C.; Grigg, Jonathan; Postma, Dirkje S.; Guilbert, Theresa W.; Hillyer, Elizabeth V.; Burden, Anne; von Ziegenweidt, Julie; Colice, Gene
BACKGROUND: Real-life studies are needed to determine the cost-effectiveness of asthma therapies in clinical practice. AIM: To compare the cost-effectiveness of extrafine-particle inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) with standard size-particle ICS in the United Kingdom (UK) and United States (US). METHODS:
Full Text Available Introduction: Due to an insufficient knowledge of the real asthma prevalence rate among children and adults in Belarus, we conducted a population-based respiratory health survey. Aim of the study: The study aimed at estimating the prevalence rate of asthma and major respiratory symptoms among students of the Grodno Region (Western Belarus. Material and methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 and included 833 students aged 20-40 (young adults. Physician-diagnosed respiratory diseases and symptoms were ascertained using electronic version of the ISAAC questionnaire (web LimeSurvey. Results: The prevalence of asthma was 2.88% (physician-diagnosed. The obstructive (asthmatic bronchitis (without established diagnosis of asthma was found in 5.04% of the respondents. A chronic respiratory symptom occurring in the past 12 months and suggestive of asthma included attacks of dyspnea at rest, cough (5.88% or in previous periods (8.88%, and wheezing in the chest (one of the most characteristic symptoms of asthma - 8.04%, which may indicate a higher prevalence of asthma among patients. Wheezing and wheeze without diagnosed asthma, colds or infections were reported in a small number of cases (about 1.0%. 32 respondents (3.84% can be attributed to the group of risk for asthma due to the presence of specific respiratory symptoms. Conclusions: The findings show a low prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma among students of Western Belarus. Relatively low prevalence of allergic disorders among respondents of Belarus suggest underdiagnosis of allergic diseases, in particular of asthma. Presumably, cases of asthma might be diagnosed as spastic bronchitis, “obstructive bronchitis”, “asthmatic bronchitis”, a traditional label for clinical manifestation of asthma in medical practice in the region.
Gaude, Gajanan S; Hattiholi, Jyothi; Chaudhury, Alisha
Considering the prevalence and associated burden of disease due to bronchial asthma, it is mandatory to obtain an optimal control of the disease and to improve outcomes for these patients. But it has been observed that there is very poor adherence to the inhalational therapy which leads to the suboptimal control of the disease. To study the adherence for aerosol therapy in bronchial asthma patients and to assess the impact of health education and self-action plan in improving the compliance to the therapy. A prospective study was done in a total of 500 bronchial asthma patients over a period of 2 years. Once included in the study, the patients were followed-up for a total of 12 weeks for calculation of nonadherence to the aerosol therapy. In nonadherent patients, we employed various health education strategies to improve the compliance in these cases. A total of 500 patients of bronchial asthma who were started on aerosol therapy over duration of 2 years were included in the study. At the end of 12 weeks, it was observed that, only 193 patients (38.6%) had regular compliance and 307 patients (61.4%) were noncompliant to aerosol therapy as prescribed for bronchial asthma. Factors that were associated with poor compliance were: Lower educational level status, poor socioeconomic status, cumbersome regimens, dislike of medication, and distant pharmacies. Nondrug factors that reduced the compliance were: Fears about side effects, anger about condition or its treatment, forgetfulness or complacency, and patient's ill attitudes toward health. After employing the various strategies for improving the compliance in these patients, the compliance increased in 176 patients (57.3%) among the earlier defaulted patients, while the remaining 131 patients (42.7%) were found to be noncompliant even after various educational techniques. Noncompliance in asthma management is a fact of life and no single compliance improving strategy probably will be as effective as a good physician
Liccardi, Gennaro; Salzillo, Antonello; Sofia, Matteo; D'Amato, Maria; D'Amato, Gennaro
The aim of this review is to underline the need for an adequate clinical and functional evaluation of respiratory function and asthma control in patients undergoing surgical procedures requiring general anesthesia to obtain useful information for an adequate preoperative pharmacological approach. It has been shown that baseline uncontrolled clinical/functional conditions of airways represent the most important risk factors for perioperative bronchospasm. In nonemergency conditions, asthma patients should undergo clinical/functional assessment at least 1 week before the surgery intervention to obtain, the better feasible control of asthma symptoms in the single patient. Some simple preoperative information given by the patient in preoperative consultation may be sufficient to identify individuals with uncontrolled or poor controlled asthmatic conditions. Spirometric evaluation is essential in individuals with poor control of symptoms, as well as in those patients with uncertain anamnestic data or limited perception of respiratory symptoms, and in those requiring lung resection. A better control of asthma must be considered the 'gold standard' for a patient at 'a reasonable low risk' to develop perioperative/postoperative bronchospasm. International consensus promoted by pulmonologists, anesthesiologists, and allergists might be useful to define a better diagnostic and therapeutic approach.
Pink, J.; Pink, K.; Elwyn, G.
BACKGROUND: Asthma self-management education is a key component of international guidelines. No gold standard patient centred outcome measure exists for asthma knowledge. Our aim was to identify high-quality, validated, and reliable outcome measures suitable for use in either the research or
The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which National Standards in Personal Finance for Business Education correlate with National Standards in Personal Finance Education. A content analysis revealed that the National Standards in Personal Finance for Business Education, established by the National Business Education Association…
Suzuki, Cibele; Lopes da Silva, Nilceia; Kumar, Praveen; Pathak, Purnima; Ong, Siew Hwa
Omalizumab add-on to standard-of-care therapy has proven to be efficacious in severe asthma patients for whom exacerbations cannot be controlled otherwise. Moreover, evidence from different healthcare settings suggests reduced healthcare resource utilization with omalizumab. Based on these findings, this study aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of the addition of omalizumab to standard-of-care therapy in patients with uncontrolled severe allergic asthma in a Brazilian healthcare setting. A previously published Markov model was adapted using Brazil-specific unit costs to compare the costs and outcomes of the addition of omalizumab to standard-of-care therapy vs standard-of-care therapy alone. Model inputs were largely based on the eXpeRience study. Costs and health outcomes were calculated for lifetime-years and were annually discounted at 5%. Both one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. An additional cost of R$280,400 for 5.20 additional quality-adjusted life-years was estimated with the addition of omalizumab to standard-of-care therapy, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of R$53,890. One-way sensitivity analysis indicated that discount rates, standard-of-care therapy exacerbation rates, and exacerbation-related mortality rates had the largest impact on incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Assumptions of lifetime treatment adherence and rate of future exacerbations, independent of previous events, might affect the findings. The lack of Brazilian patients in the eXpeRience study may affect the findings, although sample size and baseline characteristics suggest that the modeled population closely resembles Brazilian severe allergic asthma patients. Results indicate that omalizumab as an add-on therapy is more cost-effective than standard-of-care therapy alone for Brazilian patients with uncontrolled severe allergic asthma, based on the World Health Organization's cost-effectiveness threshold of up to 3-times the gross
Nowakowski, Alexandra C H; Carretta, Henry J; Dudley, Julie K; Forrest, Jamie R; Folsom, Abbey N
To assess gaps in emergency department (ED) asthma management at Florida hospitals. Survey instrument with open- and closed-ended questions. Topics included availability of specific asthma management modalities, compliance with national guidelines, employment of specialized asthma care personnel, and efforts toward performance improvement. Emergency departments at 10 large hospitals in the state of Florida. Clinical care providers and health administrators from participating hospitals. Compliance with national asthma care guideline standards, provision of specific recommended treatment modalities and resources, employment of specialized asthma care personnel, and engagement in performance improvement efforts. Our results suggest inconsistency among sampled Florida hospitals' adherence to national standards for treatment of asthma in EDs. Several hospitals were refining their emergency care protocols to incorporate guideline recommendations. Despite a lack of formal ED protocols in some hospitals, adherence to national guidelines for emergency care nonetheless remained robust for patient education and medication prescribing, but it was weaker for formal care planning and medical follow-up. Identified deficiencies in emergency asthma care present a number of opportunities for strategic mitigation of identified gaps. We conclude with suggestions to help Florida hospitals achieve success with ED asthma care reform. Team-based learning activities may offer an optimal strategy for sharing and implementing best practices.
Design and recruitment for the GAP trial, investigating the preventive effect on asthma development of an SQ-standardized grass allergy immunotherapy tablet in children with grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis
Valovirta, Erkka; Berstad, Aud Katrine Herland; de Blic, Jacques
Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis is a risk factor for asthma development. Treating the underlying allergy may represent an attractive method of asthma prevention. No regulatory guidance exists in this area, and, to our knowledge, no clinical investigations meeting modern regulatory standards have bee...
Koppelman, GH; Postma, DS; Meijer, G.
Genetic studies have been hampered by the lack of a gold standard to diagnose asthma. The complex nature of asthma makes it more difficult to identify asthma genes. Therefore, approaches to define phenotypes, which have been successful in other genetically complex diseases, may be applied to define
... www.aanma.org American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology 414–272–6071 www.aaaai.org American Academy ... www.aasa.org American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology 847–427–1200 www.acaai.org American Lung ...
Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey; Getch, Yvette Q.
Limited information exists about management of asthma in child care settings and primary school classrooms. The goal of this study was to evaluate a brief asthma management intervention for child care providers and primary school teachers. Child care providers and primary school teachers were recruited to participate in two 3-h workshops on asthma…
Cho, Youngji; Shore, Stephanie A.
Obesity is a risk factor for asthma, but standard asthma drugs have reduced efficacy in the obese. Obesity alters the gastrointestinal microbial community structure. This change in structure contributes to some obesity-related conditions and also could be contributing to obesity-related asthma. Although currently unexplored, obesity may also be altering lung microbiota. Understanding the role of microbiota in obesity-related asthma could lead to novel treatments for these patients.
American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just ...
American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just ...
Johnsen, Susan K.
Educators need to know the professional standards in their field to maintain high levels of professional competence. This article focuses on four sets of teacher preparation standards in gifted education. They address initial and advanced preparation of educators who teach students with gifts and talents. Initial preparation standards include the…
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Asthma Flare-Ups KidsHealth / For Parents / Asthma Flare-Ups ... español ¿Qué es una crisis asmática? What Are Asthma Flare-Ups? Keeping asthma under control helps kids ...
The Novice Teen Driver Education and Training Administrative Standards set forth in this document serve to guide all novice teen driver education and training programs in States striving to provide quality, consistent driver education and training. W...
Missouri State Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Jefferson City. Div. of Special Education.
This manual contains special education standards and indicators for educating children with disabilities in Missouri. It is divided into four main sections. Section 1 contains special education compliance standards based upon the federal Office of Special Education Programs Continuous Improvement Monitoring Program clusters and indicators. The…
Evans-Agnew, Robin A; Klein, Nicole; Lecce, Sally
Managing asthma in the schools is complex and requires careful planning. This article highlights key steps in implementing guideline-based care for children with asthma in Washington State schools: assessing students, establishing acuity, communicating with parents, and training staff. Advance planning can improve outcomes for students, parents, and school staff in managing this complex and prevalent disease. NASN recently developed asthma management guidelines. Developing state-specific guidelines provides an opportunity to speak specifically to state laws and nurse practice acts while also reinforcing the importance of specialized practice to school nurses, school administrators and teachers, parents, and students. © 2015 The Author(s).
Krutzch, Christine B.; And Others
A technology transfer project for getting initial community adoption of childhood asthma management programs is described. The evolution of the project, including development of programs, packaging considerations, establishment of partnerships, implementation, and evaluation are discussed. (Author/CH)
Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.
Standardized course titles and core contents for seven marketing and cooperative vocational education courses in Mississippi are provided: (1) marketing education, part one; (2) marketing education, part two; (3) fashion merchandising; (4) marketing cooperative education, part one; (5) marketing cooperative education, part two; (6) diversified…
Education brings about awareness and increases opportunities for growth and development. On the individual level, education brings about economic opportunities and improves individual standard of living. On the aggregate level, education improves labour skills leading to increase in productivity and overall standard of ...
Helena F. Velasco
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Inhalation therapy is the main treatment for asthma and its adequate use has been a factor responsible for disease control; therefore, the aim of the study was to determine whether a digital media tool, which features portability on mobile phones, modifies the assimilation of the inhalation technique. METHODS: A total of 66 professionals working in the health care area with the pediatric population were selected. They were submitted to a pre-test on their knowledge of inhalation therapy. The professionals were randomized into two groups (A and B. Group A received a media application on their mobile phones showing the steps of inhalation therapy, while group B received the same information in written form only. A post-test was applied after 15 days. The results (pre- and post- were analyzed by two pediatric pulmonologists. RESULTS: Of the 66 professionals, 87.9% were females. Of a total possible score of ten, the mean score obtained in the pre-test was 5.3 ± 3, and in the second test, 7.5 ± 2 (p < 0.000. There were no significant differences when comparing the two groups (p = 0.726. The nurses had the lowest mean scores in the initial test (2.3 ± 2; however, they were the group that learned the most with the intervention, showing similar means to those of other groups in the second test (6.1 ± 3. CONCLUSION: There was significant improvement in knowledge about inhalation therapy in all professional categories using both methods, demonstrating that education, when available to professionals, positively modifies medical practice.
Khalid, Ayesha N
Stepwise management of asthma remains an area of evolving research. Asthma is one of the most expensive chronic diseases in the United States; stepwise management is an important area of focus, with several recent guidelines recommending management. This is a review of published English language literature, focusing on management guidelines for asthma in adult and pediatric patients. Asthma is a chronic disease whose assessment of severity allows for therapeutic goals to match the impairment noted. Good evidence exists to aid risk reduction, leading to decreased emergency room visits, preventing loss of lung function in adults and lung growth in children, and optimizing pharmacotherapy with reduced side effects profile. Recent asthma management guidelines incorporate 4 components of asthma care including: monitoring of severity, patient education, controlling external triggers, and medications, including recent attention to medication adherence. Asthma is an expensive chronic disease with preventive measures leading to reduced healthcare costs. Future targeted cytokine therapy to decrease serum and blood eosinophils may become an integral part of asthma management. © 2015 ARS-AAOA, LLC.
Vázquez-Rodríguez, Carlos F; Vázquez-Nava, Francisco; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Eliza M; Morales-Romero, Jaime; Iribar-Ibabe, María C; Peinado-Herreros, José
The association between some factors of the familial and social environment with smoking in non-student adolescents with asthma has not been explored. The aim of the study was to determine the association between family structure, educational level, parental approval of smoking, parents who smoke, and smoking friends with smoking in non-student adolescents with asthma. In a cross-sectional study, data were obtained by means of a structured questionnaire applied to 4,778 non-student adolescents aged 13-18 years. Diagnosis of asthma was performed using a questionnaire based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood questionnaire. The smoking habit was determined by application of a self-administered questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) were determined for smoking using logistic regression. From the total sample, asthma prevalence was 6.6% and of active smoking, 34.2%. Age at initiation of asthma symptoms was 5.15±3.52 years, and that of active smoking was 13.65±2.07 years. Percentage of non-intact family (40.1 vs. 32.7%) was greater in the group of adolescents with asthma. Logistic regression models show that parental approval of smoking (adjusted OR=5.57; 95% confidence interval=2.48-12.51) and smoking friends (adjusted OR=2.92; 95% confidence interval=1.04-8.19) are associated with smoking in non-student adolescents with asthma. In this study, parental approval of smoking and having friends who smoke appear to be associated with smoking among non-student adolescents with asthma. Copyright © 2011 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Sleath, Betsy; Carpenter, Delesha M; Lee, Charles; Loughlin, Ceila E; Etheridge, Dana; Rivera-Duchesne, Laura; Reuland, Daniel S; Batey, Karolyne; Duchesne, Cristina I; Garcia, Nacire; Tudor, Gail
Our objective was to develop a series of short educational videos for teens and parents to watch before pediatric visits to motivate teens to be more actively involved during their visits. The development of the short educational videos was theoretically guided by Social Cognitive Theory. First we conducted four focus groups with teens (ages 11 to 17) with asthma, four focus groups with the teens' parents, and seven focus groups with pediatric providers from four clinics. The research team, which included two teens with asthma and their parents, analyzed the focus group transcripts for themes and then developed the initial video script. Next, a visual storyboard was reviewed by focus groups with parents and four with teens to identify areas of the script for improvement. The English videos were then produced. Focus groups with Hispanic parents and teens were then conducted for advice on how to modify the videos to make a more culturally appropriate Spanish version. Based on focus group results, teen newscasters narrate six one- to two-minute videos with different themes: (a) how to get mom off your back, (b) asthma triggers, (c) staying active with asthma, (d) tracking asthma symptoms, (e) how to talk to your doctor and (f) having confidence with asthma. Each video clip has three key messages and emphasizes how teens should discuss these messages with their providers. Teens, parents, and providers gave us excellent insight into developing videos to increase teen involvement during medical visits.
Full Text Available The problematic aspects of the current educational standards in Ukraine as important legal instruments of regional educational systems were viewed. The regulated areas of education standards in Ukraine and the traditional approach based on the identified areas of their innovative changes where described. The main directions of innovation education standards depending on their subject focus where systemised.
Schweinhart, Lawrence J.
This paper presents some ideas to preschool educators and policy makers about how to make validated educational models central in standards for preschool education and care programs that are available to all 3- and 4-year-olds. Defining an educational model as a coherent body of program practices, curriculum content, program and child, and teacher…
American Educational Research Association (AERA), 2014
Developed jointly by the American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, and the National Council on Measurement in Education, "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing" (Revised 2014) addresses professional and technical issues of test development and use in education, psychology, and…
Connecticut State Board of Education, Hartford.
These Connecticut vocational and technical performance standards and competencies are a guide for overall quality attainment in these seven vocational and technical program areas: agricultural science technology education; business and finance technology education; cooperative work education; family and consumer sciences education; marketing…
Supports the shift from educating the masses as music consumers to educating a population of competent music makers through the integration of the standards into the music curriculum. Believes that, by transforming the teacher-education programs and creating advocacy agendas, the barriers to educational reform will be overcome. (CMK)
Gharagozlou, Mohammad; Abdollahpour, Hengameh; Moinfar, Zahra; Bemanian, Mohammad Hassan; Sedaghat, Mojtaba
Asthma is one of the most common acute and chronic conditions in children, and the pediatricians are expected to provide an important role for asthma care in this age group, however there is no published information describing the different aspects of their practices about children asthma in Iran. This study was done to characterize the knowledge of the Iranian pediatricians about the diagnosis, treatment and education of asthma in children. Validated questionnaires were completed by 193 pediatricians from different parts of Iran during the International Congress of Pediatrics in Tehran. A total of 193 returned questionnaires (96.5%) were eligible for the survey and analysis. About 49% of the respondents were male and 18% were sub-specialists. Wheezing was the most common mentioned symptoms in taking asthma into consideration. About 40% of these physicians had no plan for doing spirometry in eligible children and 35.2% of them did not have familiarity with peak flowmeter. Also about 17.6% of them paid no regular visits to their asthmatic patients. Only 29% of the respondents indicated that they would prescribe inhaled corticosteroids for a 6-year-old child with moderate persistent asthma and 73.3% of them would prescribe inhaled bronchodilator (Salbutamol) for an acute asthmatic attack as the first drug, while 17.1% of them used epinephrine injection for this purpose. About 42.2% of the respondents did not consider any education or action plan for their patients and only 60.6% of them had access to standard guidelines and educational programs. The results show that there are numerous aspects of children asthma management in Iran which are not consistent with standardized guidelines and recommendations. This survey and the attained information suggest areas for interventions to improve the pediatricians' knowledge about asthma and the disease management.
Mitchell, Stephanie J; Bilderback, Andrew L; Okelo, Sande O
To elucidate whether there may be a higher morbidity threshold for African American versus white children to be referred to or seek asthma specialist care. Secondary analysis of registry data captured from children presenting for an initial routine outpatient asthma consultation. Parents completed standard survey instruments, and spirometry was conducted when deemed appropriate by the provider. Wilcoxon rank sum tests revealed that African American patients had been hospitalized twice as often and admitted to the intensive care unit or intubated significantly more than 1½ times more frequently than their white patient counterparts. t tests indicated African American patients' forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) percentage predicted was significantly worse than that of whites, but there was no significant difference for FEV1/forced vital capacity ratio. t tests suggested that African American patients had statistically worse asthma control than did white patients at the time of initial presentation to the pulmonologist, but there was no difference in the distribution of asthma severity categories. Multivariate regression models indicated that racial differences in parent education did not explain the disparities in asthma morbidity. African American patients had significantly worse asthma morbidity than their white counterparts, including higher rates of hospitalization and intensive care unit admission and poorer lung functioning. Given that receipt of asthma specialist care can improve those outcomes that are disparately experienced by African American children, methods of increasing their access to and use of asthma specialist care need to be developed. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... in the airways of the lungs. When an asthma attack occurs, the lining of the air passages swells ... small amount of the substance can trigger an asthma attack. Using a respiratory device to protect or reduce ...
EPA is working to explore the role of common air pollutants in the development and exacerbation of asthma at different life stages as well as other environmental and genetic factors that might make a person more sensitive to developing asthma.
Ellis, Justin; Richardson, Brent H.
Since gaining independence from South Africa in 1990, Namibia has placed considerable emphasis on education, including adult learning. As a means of improving the quality of adult learning, the Namibian Ministry of Education commissioned the development of national standards in 2010 to express competency requirements for adult educators. Particular attention was paid to the views of adult learners who participated through thirty focus groups. The participatory process revealed that the work of an adult educator is more complex and demanding than had previously been appreciated. The required competencies were categorised under four headings: (1) Knowledge as an adult educator, (2) Practice as an adult educator, (3) Relationships as an adult educator and (4) Ethics and professionalism as an adult educator. The Namibia Qualifications Authority, acting under its legislative mandate of setting occupational standards for occupations, jobs, posts and positions, approved the national standards in 2011.
Edwards Nancy C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is a significant public health problem in the Caribbean. Prevalence surveys using standardized measures of asthma provide valid prevalence estimates to facilitate regional and international comparisons and monitoring of trends. This paper describes methods used in the Jamaica Asthma and Allergies National Prevalence Survey, challenges associated with this survey and strategies used to overcome these challenges. Methods/Design An island wide, cross-sectional, community-based survey of asthma, asthma symptoms and allergies was done among adults and children using the European Community Respiratory Health Survey Questionnaire for adults and the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children. Stratified multi-stage cluster sampling was used to select 2, 163 adults aged 18 years and older and 2, 017 children aged 2-17 years for the survey. The Kish selection table was used to select one adult and one child per household. Data analysis accounted for sampling design and prevalence estimates were weighted to produce national estimates. Discussion The Jamaica Asthma and Allergies National Prevalence Survey is the first population- based survey in the Caribbean to determine the prevalence of asthma and allergies both in adults and children using standardized methods. With response rates exceeding 80% in both groups, this approach facilitated cost-effective gathering of high quality asthma prevalence data that will facilitate international and regional comparison and monitoring of asthma prevalence trends. Another unique feature of this study was the partnership with the Ministry of Health in Jamaica, which ensured the collection of data relevant for decision-making to facilitate the uptake of research evidence. The findings of this study will provide important data on the burden of asthma and allergies in Jamaica and contribute to evidence-informed planning of comprehensive asthma management and education programs.
D.G. Choi (Dong Geun); H.J. de Vries (Henk)
textabstractThe Republic of Korea is a forerunner in integrating the topic of standardization into engineering education at the academic level. This study investigates developments and evolutions in the planning and operating of the University Education Promotion on Standardization (UEPS) in Korea.
Malcolm R Sears
Full Text Available Many markers of asthma morbidity have shown substantial increases over the past two decades, including family physician visits, use of anti-asthma medications, emergency room visits and hospital admissions. The reported prevalence of diagnosed asthma and of wheezing has increased, especially in children, with accompanying evidence of increased atopy and increased airway responsiveness. Allergen exposure and parental smoking are significant risk factors for childhood wheezing, whereas the influence of outdoor air pollution is uncertain. Increasing use of beta-agonist treatment, which appears to increase the severity of asthma by increasing early and late responses to allergen, may contribute to increased morbidity and mortality, especially if potent beta-agonists are used. Risk factors for asthma mortality include age, smoking, allergy and airway lability, as well as over-reliance on beta-agonists and poor compliance with other aspects of treatment. Following withdrawal of the potent beta-agonist fenoterol in New Zealand, both hospital admissions and mortality from asthma fell abruptly. Continued patient and physician education, with emphasis on avoidance of risk factors and use of appropriate treatment, should reduce morbidity and mortality from asthma in Canada.
Carpenter, Delesha M; Estrada, Robin Dawson; Roberts, Courtney A; Elio, Alice; Prendergast, Melissa; Durbin, Kathy; Jones, Graceann Clyburn; North, Steve
Few studies have examined school nurses preferences' for asthma training. Our purpose was to: 1) assess school nurses' perceived asthma training needs, 2) describe nurses' access to asthma educational resources, and 3) identify urban-rural differences in training needs and access to resources in southern states. A convenience sample of school nurses (n=162) from seven counties (two urban and five rural) in North Carolina and South Carolina completed an online, anonymous survey. Chi-square tests were used to examine urban-rural differences. Although most nurses (64%) had received asthma training within the last five years, urban nurses were more likely to have had asthma training than rural nurses (χ 2 =10.84, p=0.001). A majority of nurses (87%) indicated they would like to receive additional asthma training. Approximately half (45%) of nurses reported access to age-appropriate asthma education materials, but only 16% reported that their schools implemented asthma education programs. Urban nurses were more likely than rural nurses to have access to asthma education programs (χ 2 =4.10, p=0.04) and age-appropriate asthma education materials (χ 2 =8.86, p=0.003). Few schools are implementing asthma education programs. Rural nurses may be disadvantaged in terms of receiving asthma training and having access to asthma education programs and materials. Schools are an ideal setting for delivering age-appropriate asthma education. By providing school nurses with access to age-appropriate asthma education resources and additional asthma training, we can help them overcome several of the barriers that impede their ability to deliver asthma care to their students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma and COPD are major health problems and an extensive burden for the patient and the health care system. Patient education has been recommended, but the influence on knowledge and health outcomes is not fully examined. Our aims were to compare patient characteristics, education and knowledge in patients who had an emergency room (ER visit, to explore factors related to disease knowledge, and to investigate patient characteristics, patient education and knowledge in relation to further ER visits over a 12 month period. Methods Eighty-four patients with asthma and 52 with COPD, who had had an ER visit, were included. They were interviewed by telephone 4 to 6 weeks after the ER visit and followed for a year. Results Patients with COPD were older, more sedentary, had had more ER visits the previous year, and had more co morbidity than patients with asthma. About 80% of the patients had received information from health professionals or participated in education/rehabilitation, but a minority ( Conclusion Patients with asthma had a better self reported knowledge of disease management and were less likely to have new exacerbations than patients with COPD. Reported level of knowledge was, however, in it self not a predictor of exacerbations. This indicates that information is not sufficient to reduce the burden of disease. Patient education focused on self-management and behavioral change should be emphasized.
Duffy, Francis M.
The ten professional standards form what Francis Duffy refers to as a "National Framework of Professional Standards for Change Leadership in Education." Each standard has examples of the knowledge, skills, and dispositions that the research suggests are important for effective change leadership. Duffy's hope is that this proposed…
Fengchun, Cheng; Vogel, Linda R.; Zhaoyu, Zheng
While nations measure the quality of educational systems by different standards, many nations, such as China, have adopted the ISO9000 quality standards to assess the quality of schools. This article explores the various elements of the the ISO9000 standards and how each element relates to the various groups that are consumers or stakeholders in…
Johnson, Tyler G.
The presence of the "meaning standard" in both national and state content standards suggests that professionals consider it an important outcome of a quality physical education program. However, only 10 percent of states require an assessment to examine whether students achieve this standard. The purpose of this article is to introduce…
María Paola Fasciglione
majority of such programs consist of educational interventions or include some type of educational component. In this study, we attempted to determine the characteristics and the impact of educational interventions on asthma by means of the following: a an updated review of the various educational interventions developed and implemented for asthma patients; b the identification of aspects that are common to all of these interventions; and c the analysis of the findings in the literature regarding the impact that these interventions have on the health and quality of life of patients. We conclude that educational interventions are effective in improving the health and quality of life of asthma patients, as well as in reducing the use and costs of health resources. These findings indicate the importance of including an educational component as part of an integrated approach to this population. Likewise, the inherent complexity of the educational process highlights the importance of a complementary joint effort including various health professionals.
Laila El Abbadi
Full Text Available Quality as a new requirement for the field of higher education leads institutions to seek to satisfy generic or specific quality standards imposed directly or indirectly by its customers. The aim of this study is to compare between ISO9001, as a generic quality standard, and the Code of Practice of the Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education (QAA, as a specific quality standard. A correlation matrix is drawn and correlation rates are calculated to show similarities and differences between them. This paper shows, first, that ISO9001 and QAA Code of Practice are compatible. Second, implementing a quality management system in accordance with ISO9001 requirements can constitute an adequate framework for the application of the QAA Code of Practice requirements. Third, to make the ISO9001 requirements closer to a specific quality standard in the field of higher education, it is recommended to complete these standards by specific requirements to the field of higher education.
Standards for Academic and Professional Instruction in Foundations of Education, Educational Studies, and Educational Policy Studies Third Edition, 2012, Draft Presented to the Educational Community by the American Educational Studies Association's Committee on Academic Standards and Accreditation
Tutwiler, Sandra Winn; deMarrais, Kathleen; Gabbard, David; Hyde, Andrea; Konkol, Pamela; Li, Huey-li; Medina, Yolanda; Rayle, Joseph; Swain, Amy
This third edition of the "Standards for Academic and Professional Instruction in Foundations of Education, Educational Studies, and Educational Policy Studies" is presented to the educational community by the American Educational Studies Association's Committee on Academic Standards and Accreditation. The Standards were first developed and…
Fraser, James W.
Reform of teacher preparation is once again in the air. In his first major speech about education, President Obama said that "recruiting, preparing, and rewarding outstanding teachers" will be one of the new administration's top priorities. The priorities set forth in the stimulus package, as well as the Congressional debates about the…
O'Leary, Rae; Wallace, James
The purpose of this article is to better understand asthma triggers and possible causes of exacerbations among BREATHE participants on the Cheyenne River Indian Reservation in western South Dakota. To qualify for enrollment, participants had to have physician-diagnosed asthma, be uncontrolled and have persistent symptoms. Participants were asked to identify their top two asthma triggers throughout their one-year enrollment during initial visits and subsequent phone follow-ups. In addition, participant's medical records were reviewed for visits to the emergency department (ED) to demonstrate asthma exacerbations. In 2008, 127 interviews were conducted with 45 enrolled participants for a total of 254 results. Overall, the three most common self reported triggers were cold air, dust and smoke and these comprised nearly half (48.4 percent) of all reports. Dust was reported in 16.5 percent of interviews and ranked among the top four for every season. Smoke (12.6 percent) and cold air (19.3 percent) were leaders in all seasons except summer, but humid air, pollens and strong odors were unique to summer. Exercise/activity ranked high during the winter and spring, but was reported less in summer and fall. There was no identifiable trend in ER visits by season. People with asthma living on the Cheyenne River Indian Reservation or other locations with similar community and geographic demographics are most likely to suffer an asthma exacerbation from exposure to cold air, dust, smoke and exercise/activity. Asthma education is necessary on all levels, but information on avoidance and control of these most common reported triggers is especially important.
Gibson, Peter G; McDonald, Vanessa M
Severe asthma is a complex heterogeneous disease that is refractory to standard treatment and is complicated by multiple comorbidities and risk factors. In mild to moderate asthma, the burden of disease can be minimised by inhaled corticosteroids, bronchodilators and self-management education. In severe asthma, however, management is more complex. When patients with asthma continue to experience symptoms and exacerbations despite optimal management, severe refractory asthma (SRA) should be suspected and confirmed, and other aetiologies ruled out. Once a diagnosis of SRA is established, patients should undergo a systematic and multidimensional assessment to identify inflammatory endotypes, risk factors and comorbidities, with targeted and individualised management initiated. We describe a practical approach to assessment and management of patients with SRA. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
Natalia G. Astafieva
Full Text Available Background. The importance of psychosocial factors in the management of bronchial asthma (BA is discussed in clinical guidelines, including in international and national clinical guidelines. However, a specific evaluation of their role as a cause of poor asthma control in susceptible patients is required. Aim. Assessment of psychological health of women with different levels of asthma control.Materials and methods. The study included 108 women with asthma observed in Saratov center for Allergology who were stratified into 3 groups according to the control level (good, partial, uncontrolled, according to GINA. In establishing a diagnosis of asthma, standard methods were used (medical history, symptoms, spirography. To assess the level of control, ACQ-5 (Asthma Control Questionnaire 5 items-self-administered was used, to assess the quality of life, questionnaires AQLQ-S (Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire S; SF-36 (36-ltem MOS Short-Form Health Survey, a standardized and validated Russian version of the women’s health questionnaire WHQ (Women’s Health Questionnaire were used; for psychological diagnosis and evaluation of social and personal competencies that contribute to the preservation and improvement of human health (the intellectual, personal, emotional, physical, social, creative, spiritual aspects, integrated multimodal questionnaire was used. The comparison was conducted with a control group of men with bronchial asthma, comparable in age and level of control.Results. Women with poorly controlled asthma had worse performance of AQLQ-S (combined median score of 3,43 instead of 5,13 in the group of good control; p < 0,05; all scales of the SF-36, including the general condition (43,48 against 55,07, role of physical (25,93 against 57,76 and emotional problems (43,83 against 64,37; at p < 0.05. According to the WHQ questionnaire (the inverse relationship: the higher the score, the lower the quality of life in the group with poor control
... Asthma Associated Conditions Asthma & Pregnancy Asthma & Pregnancy: Medications Asthma & Pregnancy: Medications Make an Appointment Refer a Patient ... make sure you are using it correctly. Other Asthma Related Medication Treatment Annual influenza vaccine (flu shot) ...
Schmitz, Birgit; Kelle, Sebastian
Schmitz, B., & Kelle, S. (2010, 1-6 February). Rethinking Game Based Learning: applying pedagogical standards to educational games. Presentation at JTEL Winter School 2010 on Advanced Learning Technologies, Innsbruck, Austria.
Tayyari Dehbarez, Nasrin; Lynggaard, Vibeke; May, Ole
Background Learning and coping education strategies (LC) was implemented to enhance patient attendance in the cardiac rehabilitation programme. This study assessed the cost-utility of LC compared to standard education (standard) as part of a rehabilitation programme for patients with ischemic heart...... disease and heart failure. Methods The study was conducted alongside a randomised controlled trial with 825 patients who were allocated to LC or standard rehabilitation and followed for 5 months. The LC approach was identical to the standard approach in terms of physical training and education...... to estimate the net benefit of the LC and to illustrate cost effectiveness acceptability curves. The statistical analysis was based on means and bootstrapped standard errors. Results An additional cost of DKK 6,043 (95 % CI −5,697; 17,783) and a QALY gain of 0.005 (95 % CI −0.001; 0.012) was estimated for LC...
Motova, Galina; Pykko, Ritta
This article considers the relevance and implementation of European approaches to quality assurance in the context of the Russian educational system. It covers the issues of transformation of the higher education system during the post-Soviet period, specific features of the state accreditation system, the impact of the European Standards and…
Falling Standards of Education in Nigeria: An Empirical Evidence in Delta State of Nigeria. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... the results are often devastating leading especially to poor quality output and wastage which in ... annual budget, inculcation of the tenets of traditional education, and utilization of research ...
... business assistance, SBA establishes small business size definitions (referred to as size standards) for... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG29 Small Business Size Standards: Educational Services AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The U.S...
Purinton, Ted; Khalil, Dalia
This paper is a case study of one leadership preparation program, utilizing US school leadership standards and practices, offered in Egypt. This case study illuminates how cultural and policy distinctions impact differing necessities of educational leadership, and how those necessities conflict or concur with the international standards and…
Rosti, Luisa; Chelli, Francesco
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to verify whether higher education increases the likelihood of young Italian workers moving from non-standard to standard wage contracts. Design/methodology/approach: The authors exploit a data set on labour market flows, produced by the Italian National Statistical Office, by interviewing about 85,000…
Bybee, Rodger W.
The release of A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas (NRC, 2012) provides the basis for the next generation of science standards. This article first describes that foundation for the life sciences; it then presents a draft standard for natural selection and evolution. Finally, there is a…
Gonçalves, Gisela Marques Pereira; Spínola, Susana de Carvalho; Padamo, Celma
By using international reports on PR education as a benchmark we analyse the status of PR higher education in Portugal. Despite differences among the study programs, the findings reveal that the standard five courses recommendation by the Commission on Public Relations Education (CPRE) are a part of Portuguese undergraduate curriculum. This includes 12 of the 14 content field guidelines needed to achieve the ideal master's program. Data shows, however, the difficulty of positioning public rel...
Lura, Carolina Bryne; Hauch, Sophie Misser Pallesgaard; Gøeg, Kirstine Rosenbeck
for developing standard digital patient education programs for patients in self-administration of blood samples drawn from CVC. The Design Science Research Paradigm was used to develop a digital patient education program, called PAVIOSY, to increase patient safety during execution of the blood sample collection...... of the educational patient system, health professionals must be engaged early in the development of content and design phase....
Isik, Elif; Isik, Ismet S
Asthma is a common chronic disease in children. Uncontrolled asthma is a significant contributor to school absenteeism, emergency room visits, and hospitalization, all of which can lead to low school performance, financial burdens, and emotional problems for children and their parents. Asthma in children restricts the activities of school-aged children, such as participating in before- and after-school activity and extracurricular activities such as sports. Uncontrolled asthma has the potential to impact a student's self-confidence and social interactions. This article reviews the physical, emotional, and social burden of asthma on school-aged children/parents as well as recounting school asthma intervention programs. One of the roles of the school nurse is to be the leader of the intervention programs, manage asthma, and provide education for the students, parents, and school community to promote knowledge about asthma and its management.
Full Text Available Education quality assurance is the necessity for today’s competitive environment in university education. Quality assurance standards and strategies are being used in most of universities and higher education institutions. But the perception of quality standards is being usually seen from the perspective of a university management. This study aims to analyze and present perceptions of students towards a measurement of education quality standards and to identify significant groups of students according to their preferences in education quality. Students’ questionnaires and focus groups collected the data. Two dimensional and multi-dimensional statistical methods were used to evaluate the results. The outputs show five groups of students based on their perception of the education quality. Examination of students’ interest in specific areas, subjects and courses leads to identification of factors which affect their preferences in education. The paper found five significant groups of perceived quality by students. These are Quality receptionists, Business oriented, Expert innovators, Distance learners and Arrangement oriented. Limit of the study is a narrow focus on one private university. This study may encourage other papers to develop and test further the impact of education quality on students’ preferences for measurable improvements. The paper is an extension of the conference paper presented on ERIE conference 2017.
Luckie, Kate; Pang, Tsz Chun; Kritikos, Vicky; Saini, Bandana; Moles, Rebekah Jane
There is no gold standard outcome assessment for asthma first-aid knowledge. We therefore aimed to develop and validate an asthma first-aid knowledge questionnaire (AFAKQ) to be used before and after educational interventions. The AFAKQ was developed based on a content analysis of existing asthma knowledge questionnaires and current asthma management guidelines. Content and face validity was performed by a review panel consisting of expert respiratory physicians, researchers and parents of school aged children. A 21 item questionnaire was then pilot tested among a sample of caregivers, health professionals and pharmacy students. Exploratory Factor analysis was performed to determine internal consistency. The initial 46 item version of the AFAKQ, was reduced to 21 items after revision by the expert panel. This was then pilot tested amongst 161 participants and further reduced to 14 items. The exploratory factor analysis revealed a parsimonious one factor solution with a Cronbach's Alpha of 0.77 with the 14 item AFAKQ. The AFAKQ is a valid tool ready for application in evaluating the impact of educational interventions on asthma first-aid knowledge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Luzkarime Calle Díaz
Full Text Available The reconfiguration of geographical and cultural boundaries has caused a growing concern among countries in regard to raising awareness of the importance of educating people to become “citizens of the world.” The language classroom seems to be the ideal place to incorporate the teaching and learning of global citizenship education, given its cross-cultural nature. This article intends to analyze the potential opportunities for the development of global citizenship education in the English as a foreign language classroom through a documentary analysis of the national standards and its connection to the national citizenship competences standards and the UNESCO global citizenship education topics and learning objectives. Finally, important recommendations are given to foster global citizenship in the English language classroom.
Ninan, T K; Russell, G
To evaluate the effects on growth of inhaled corticosteroid treatment (ICT) and of the quality of control of asthma, height velocity was studied in 58 prepubertal children attending a specialist asthma clinic because of chronic asthma that was difficult to control. The height velocity standard deviation (SD) score was maximal when the asthma was well controlled both before (0.01) and after (-0.07) starting ICT. It was least when the asthma was poorly controlled both before (-1.50) and after (...
Full Text Available ABSTRACTDescribing drug treatment given by general practitioners, and quantifying changes in their prescribingbehaviour due to educational intervention, were important parts of the method developed and appliedby the European Drug Education Project. Based on the physicians’ prescription data, individual patientswere defined as having either asthma or urinary tract infections. Prescribing indicators were establishedfor assessing the quality (acceptable or unacceptable of the drug treatment. The diagnose definitionsand prescribing indicators are discussed in more detail in relation to feeding back individual prescribingdata to educational groups of physicians to improve the quality of their drug therapy.
Raundhal, Mahesh; Oriss, Timothy B.; Ray, Prabir; Wenzel, Sally E.
The term asthma encompasses a disease spectrum with mild to very severe disease phenotypes whose traditional common characteristic is reversible airflow limitation. Unlike milder disease, severe asthma is poorly controlled by the current standard of care. Ongoing studies using advanced molecular and immunological tools along with improved clinical classification show that severe asthma does not identify a specific patient phenotype, but rather includes patients with constant medical needs, whose pathobiologic and clinical characteristics vary widely. Accordingly, in recent clinical trials, therapies guided by specific patient characteristics have had better outcomes than previous therapies directed to any subject with a diagnosis of severe asthma. However, there are still significant gaps in our understanding of the full scope of this disease that hinder the development of effective treatments for all severe asthmatics. In this Review, we discuss our current state of knowledge regarding severe asthma, highlighting different molecular and immunological pathways that can be targeted for future therapeutic development. PMID:27367183
van der Meer, Victor; Bakker, Moira J.; van den Hout, Wilbert B.; Rabe, Klaus F.; Sterk, Peter J.; Kievit, Job; Assendelft, Willem J. J.; Sont, Jacob K.; Assendelft, W. J. J.; Thiadens, H. A.; Bakker, M. J.; van den Hout, W. B.; Kievit, J.; van der Meer, V.; Sont, J. K.; Kaptein, A. A.; Rikkers-Mutsaerts, E. R. V. M.; Rabe, K. F.; Bel, E. H. D.; Detmar, S. B.; Otten, W.; van Stel, H. F.; Roldaan, A. C.; de Jongste, J. C.; Toussaint, P. J.
BACKGROUND: The Internet may support patient self-management of chronic conditions, such as asthma. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of Internet-based asthma self-management. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled trial. SETTING: 37 general practices and 1 academic outpatient department in the
Full Text Available The Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards (EPAS combines social work educational policies and accreditation standards within a single document. The EPAS establishes guidelines for baccalaureate and masters’ level social work education throughout the United States. In this article, the authors discuss the implications of the EPAS for Bachelor of Social Work (BSW programs. They focus especially upon those aspects of the EPAS that relate to foundation-level program objectives and curriculum content.
... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... Can I Deal With My Asthma? Allergy Testing Definition: Allergy-Triggered Asthma Asthma Center Asthma View more ...
... Español Text Size Email Print Share Exercise and Asthma Page Content Article Body Almost every child (and ... of Pediatrics about asthma and exercise. What is asthma Asthma is the most common chronic medical problem ...
... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Asthma Asthma and Hispanic Americans In 2015, 2.2 million Hispanics reported that they currently have asthma. Puerto Rican Americans have almost twice the asthma ...
Kulgemeyer, Christoph; Schecker, Horst
This paper gives an overview of research on modelling science competence in German science education. Since the first national German educational standards for physics, chemistry and biology education were released in 2004 research projects dealing with competences have become prominent strands. Most of this research is about the structure of…
Velasco, Helena F; Cabral, Catiane Z; Pinheiro, Paula P; Azambuja, Rita de Cassia S; Vitola, Luciano S; Costa, Márcia Rosa da; Amantéa, Sérgio L
Inhalation therapy is the main treatment for asthma and its adequate use has been a factor responsible for disease control; therefore, the aim of the study was to determine whether a digital media tool, which features portability on mobile phones, modifies the assimilation of the inhalation technique. A total of 66 professionals working in the health care area with the pediatric population were selected. They were submitted to a pre-test on their knowledge of inhalation therapy. The professionals were randomized into two groups (A and B). Group A received a media application on their mobile phones showing the steps of inhalation therapy, while group B received the same information in written form only. A post-test was applied after 15 days. The results (pre- and post-) were analyzed by two pediatric pulmonologists. Of the 66 professionals, 87.9% were females. Of a total possible score of ten, the mean score obtained in the pre-test was 5.3 ± 3, and in the second test, 7.5 ± 2 (peducation, when available to professionals, positively modifies medical practice. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Background Regular review and support for asthma self-management is promoted in guidelines. A randomised controlled trial suggested that unscheduled health care usage was similar when patients were offered self management support by a lay-trainer or practice nurses. Methods Following the RCT, a costing study was undertaken using the trial data to account for the cost of delivery of the service under both strategies and the resulting impact on unscheduled healthcare (measure of effectiveness) in this trial. Results One year data (n = 418) showed that 29% (61/205) of the nurse group required unscheduled healthcare (177 events) compared with 30.5% (65/213) for lay-trainers (178 events). The training costs for the lay-trainers were greater than nurses (£36 versus £18 respectively per patient, play-trainers were lower than nurses (£6 per patient versus £24, play-trainers (mean difference £25, [95% CI = −£97, £149, p = 0.681]). The total costs (delivery and unscheduled healthcare) were £202 per patient for nurses versus £178 for lay-trainers, (mean difference £24, [95%CI = −£100, £147, p = 0.707]). Conclusions There were no significant differences in the cost of training and healthcare delivery between nurse and lay trainers, and no significant difference in the cost of unscheduled health care use. PMID:22958541
Rangel, Jaime C; Cartmill, Carrie; Kuper, Ayelet; Martimianakis, Maria A; Whitehead, Cynthia R
By understanding its history, the medical education community gains insight into why it thinks and acts as it does. This piece provides a Foucauldian archaeological critical discourse analysis (CDA) of the journal Medical Education on the publication of its 50th Volume. This analysis draws upon critical social science perspectives to allow the examination of unstated assumptions that underpin and shape educational tools and practices. A Foucauldian form of CDA was utilised to examine the journal over its first half-century. This approach emphasises the importance of language, and the ways in which words used affect and are affected by educational practices and priorities. An iterative methodology was used to organise the very large dataset (12,000 articles). A distilled dataset, within which particular focus was placed on the editorial pieces in the journal, was analysed. A major finding was the diversity of the journal as a site that has permitted multiple - and sometimes contradictory - discursive trends to emerge. One particularly dominant discursive tension across the time span of the journal is that between a persistent drive for standardisation and a continued questioning of the desirability of standardisation. This tension was traced across three prominent areas of focus in the journal: objectivity and the nature of medical education knowledge; universality and local contexts, and the place of medical education between academia and the community. The journal has provided the medical education community with a place in which to both discuss practical pedagogical concerns and ponder conceptual and social issues affecting the medical education community. This dual nature of the journal brings together educators and researchers; it also gives particular focus to a major and rarely cited tension in medical education between the quest for objective standards and the limitations of standard measures. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
І. M. Alieksieieva
Full Text Available Socially significant steps of Ukraine in the issue of European integration are measures to reform the legislation on higher education in the context of the Bologna process, namely: the adoption of the National Qualifications Framework and the new edition of the Law of Ukraine "On Higher Education." The National Qualifications Framework (NQF, 2011 provides for "the introduction of European standards and principles to ensure the quality of education, taking into account the requirements of the labor market to the competence of specialists." According to formal characteristics, NQF is a matrix with static support elements – descriptors, which determine the vector of movement to a specific goal. The legal basis for the modernization of educational activities and standards of higher education was the new edition of the Law of Ukraine "On Higher Education" (2014. The purpose of the article is a scientific and analytical study of the process of forming national standards for higher education, in particular, the standards of pharmaceutical higher education. Materials and methods. The study was based on the analysis of normative and legal and other normative acts on higher education, the issues of standardization of higher education and the systematization of qualifications, as well as scientific developments on this issue. Methods of research – bibliographic, linguistic, contextual, substantive-legal, comparative-legal, generalization, description of results. Results. Updating the wording of the Law of Ukraine "On Higher Education," which is the basic normative legal act of higher legal action in higher education, the adjustment of its basic principles, concepts and approaches, objectively entailed the renewal of the entire regulatory and legal framework regulating the organization of higher education. Equally, this also affected the standards of higher education. This issue in the Act is reserved Section III: Standards of educational activity and
Gartland, Debi; Strosnider, Roberta
This is an official document of the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD), of which Council for Learning Disabilities is a long-standing, active member. With this position paper, NJCLD advocates for the implementation of high-quality education standards (HQES) for students with learning disabilities (LD) and outlines the…
Bartoška, Jan; Flégl, Martin; Jarkovská, Martina
The authors of the paper endeavoured to find out key competences in IPMA standard for educational approaches in project management. These key competences may be used as a basis for project management university courses. An incidence matrix was set up, containing relations between IPMA competences described in IPMA competence baseline. Further,…
Glahn, Christian; Kalz, Marco; Gruber, Marion; Specht, Marcus
Glahn, C., Kalz, M., Gruber, M., & Specht, M. (2010). Supporting the Reuse of Open Educational Resources through Open Standards. In T. Hirashima, A. F. Mohd Ayub, L. F. Kwok, S. L. Wong, S. C. Kong, & F. Y. Yu (Eds.), Workshop Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computers in
Fiore, Douglas J.
Organized around the ISLLC standards, this text introduces students to the concepts and theories of educational leadership. The new edition adds coverage of such topics as data usage, ethics, innovative hiring practices, and student discipline. Appearing in the second edition are chapter-ending sections called "Point-Counterpoint" which prompt…
McKim, Aaron J.; Lambert, Misty D.; Sorensen, Tyson J.; Velez, Jonathan J.
The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) represent a shift in the American education system. Included in the CCSS are opportunities for agriculture teachers to integrate math and English language arts content into their curriculum. Using the theory of planned behavior, we sought to identify Oregon agriculture teachers' attitudes, familiarity with,…
New York is ahead of most states in its work to design detailed curricula and professional development for the common core and to build brand-new tests to reflect them. What's unfolding in the Empire State as a result of that work illustrates the way the common standards can pressure changes in the education landscape, and torque the tensions…
Full Text Available This paper analyzes scholar standardized testing as a dispositif of educational biopolitics. It describes a theoretical review of biopolitics, an analytic of power of the economic agencies that legitimize global education policies and a socio- technical mapping of teacher control technologies. The dispositif of educational biopolitics causes the legitimizing of disciplinary logic in students, along with the perpetuation of dividing lines (normality/abnormality and the hegemony of standardization as regularization of population sets. The effects brought about in teachers are presented with in-depth interviews of empirical research, including two qualities: «comparability», of which the characteristics are computing/center and relationship with everything, and «dividuality» where the properties are competitiveness and subjection.
Polina V. Baranova
Full Text Available The application of plastic cards has been widely increasing in various fields of life, business and education. They have already become up-to-date and convenient attribute of our daily life. There are emerging more and more areas where they can be used in a convenient and practical way. Contactless smart cards can be used in access control in the educational systems. This article gives an overview of existing standards dealing with contactless identification smart-cards. All standards covered in this article are developed by the Federal State Unitary Enterprise VNIINMASH jointly with TC 22 «Information Technology» based on their own authentic Russian translation of international standards.
Cvetkovski, Biljana; Armour, Carol; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia
To investigate the perceptions and attitudes towards asthma management of general practitioners, pharmacists and people with asthma in a rural area. Qualitative semistructured interviews. Small rural centre in New South Wales. General practitioners, pharmacists and people with asthma in a rural area. General practitioners perceived that the patient provided a barrier to the implementation of optimal asthma services. They were aware that other health care professionals had a role in asthma management but were not aware of the details, particularly in relation to that of the pharmacist and would like to improve communication methods. Pharmacists also perceived the patient to be a barrier to the delivery of optimal asthma management services and would like to improve communication with the general practitioner. The impact of the rural environment for the health care professionals included workforce shortages, availability of support services and access to continuing education. People with asthma were satisfied with their asthma management and the service provided by the health care professionals and described the involvement of family members and ambulance officers in their overall asthma management. The rural environment was an issue with regards to distance to the hospital during an emergency. General practitioners and pharmacists confirmed their existing roles in asthma management while expressing a desire to improve communication between the two professions to help overcome barriers and optimise the asthma service delivered to the patient. The patient described minimal barriers to optimising asthma management, which might suggest that they might not have great expectations of asthma care.
Pade, Kathryn H; Seik-Ismail, Sophia T; Chang, Todd P; Wang, Vincent J
Just-in-time training (JITT) has been used to teach and re-teach known medical techniques, but has not been used to teach novel techniques. We aimed to assess the performance retention of JITT on a novel asthma exacerbation severity assessment technique known as Los Angeles (LA) Phonospirometry. This was a prospective cohort study using a convenience sample of pediatric emergency department registered nurses (RNs) who were asked to watch a brief instructional digital video on LA Phonospirometry, and then asked to practice the technique on a research assistant (RA). A checklist was used to evaluate proficiency with the primary outcome being the number correct on the checklist. The secondary outcome included whether or not they could identify a common error demonstrated by the RA. RNs were re-tested after 4-6 months to assess skill retention. Forty RNs were enrolled in the study and six were lost to follow-up. The mean time from the first to second testing was 5.4 months ± 0.5 months. The mean score of the first part of the checklist on the initial testing was 4.6 ± 0.7 and on second testing was 3.8 ± 1.5 (p = 0.008). This represented a drop in scores and thus minimal knowledge decay of 18% (from 91% to 73%). The mean values for number of errors picked up for the first test and second test were 1.3 and 1.5, respectively (p = 0.2). JITT demonstrated feasibility as a rapid instructional tool for RNs, with a limited decay in cognitive knowledge surrounding the LA Phonospirometry technique.
Full Text Available Competition in the field of adult education in Slovenia has become very tough in the second half of the 1990s. Therefore, educational institutions are forced to use every advantage over the competitors in the educational market. One of them is the quality system in educational process. Such competitive position setting strategic development objectives is also the strategy of UPI - Ljudska univerza Žalec. Through development objectives, relationships with our partners and customers, as well as on the basis of analysis of the position and connections of Slovenia within the European Union and its involvement in international projects we estimated that we should set up a quality system in our institution involving managerial, organisational and professional function. It is important that the system should be comparable and verifiable according to the European standards. We have chosen the Quality System according to ISO 9000 quality standards as the most suitable model. It offers an institutional framework as well as a good basis for an internal and external verification of the efficiency of the system in real life. It also enables corrections to deviations. However, it lacks a stronger stress on internal self-control and self-evaluation, which is emphasised in the model of quality assurance in education developed by a group of experts to order of Ministry of Education and Sport. Both model s can be combined and are mutually compatible. I am convinced of the great importance of self-evaluation in education. Yet, without an appropriate institutional framework and basic external verification the self-evaluation remains on the interna! and subjective level of judgement within an individual educational institution.
Wysession, M. E.
This is a critical time for the geoscience community. The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) have been released and are now being adopted by states (a dozen states and Washington, DC, at the time of writing this), with dramatic implications for national K-12 science education. Curriculum developers and textbook companies are working hard to construct educational materials that match the new standards, which emphasize a hands-on practice-based approach that focuses on working directly with primary data and other forms of evidence. While the set of 8 science and engineering practices of the NGSS lend themselves well to the observation-oriented approach of much of the geosciences, there is currently not a sufficient number of geoscience educational modules and activities geared toward the K-12 levels, and geoscience research organizations need to be mobilizing their education & outreach programs to meet this need. It is a rare opportunity that will not come again in this generation. There are other significant issues surrounding the implementation of the NGSS. The NGSS involves a year of Earth and space science at the high school level, but there does not exist a sufficient workforce is geoscience teachers to meet this need. The form and content of the geoscience standards are also very different from past standards, moving away from a memorization and categorization approach and toward a complex Earth Systems Science approach. Combined with the shift toward practice-based teaching, this means that significant professional development will therefore be required for the existing K-12 geoscience education workforce. How the NGSS are to be assessed is another significant question, with an NRC report providing some guidance but leaving many questions unanswered. There is also an uneasy relationship between the NGSS and the Common Core of math and English, and the recent push-back against the Common Core in many states may impact the implementation of the NGSS.
... resources Asthma - children Patient Instructions Asthma and school Asthma - child - discharge Asthma - control drugs Asthma - quick-relief drugs Asthma - what to ask the doctor - adult Asthma - what to ask your doctor - child Exercise-induced asthma Exercising and asthma at school ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma have been published over the last 15 years; however, there has been little focus on issues relating to asthma in childhood. Since the last revision of the 1999 Canadian Asthma Consensus Report, important new studies, particularly in children, have highlighted the need to incorporate new information into the asthma guidelines. The objectives of this article are to review the literature on asthma published between January 2000 and June 2003 and to evaluate the influence of new evidence on the recommendations made in the 1999 Canadian Asthma Consensus Report and its 2001 update, with a major focus on pediatric issues. Methods The diagnosis of asthma in young children and prevention strategies, pharmacotherapy, inhalation devices, immunotherapy, and asthma education were selected for review by small expert resource groups. The reviews were discussed in June 2003 at a meeting under the auspices of the Canadian Network For Asthma Care and the Canadian Thoracic Society. Data published through December 2004 were subsequently reviewed by the individual expert resource groups. Results This report evaluates early-life prevention strategies and focuses on treatment of asthma in children, emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis and preventive therapy, the benefits of additional therapy, and the essential role of asthma education. Conclusion We generally support previous recommendations and focus on new issues, particularly those relevant to children and their families. This document is a guide for asthma management based on the best available published data and the opinion of health care professionals, including asthma experts and educators.
Duncan, Christina L; Walker, Heather A; Brabson, Laurel; Williford, Desireé N; Hynes, Lisa; Hogan, Mary Beth
Asthma action plans (AAPs) provide asthma management instructions to families; however, AAPs typically are written at a 7th-9th grade reading level, making them less useful in lower literacy families. There is a need to develop simpler AAP formats and content to optimize their utility across all families, including those who are rural and may be at a risk for literacy concerns. Because using pictures can simplify and enhance health education, our study's aim was to develop a pictorial AAP through a series of focus groups with key stakeholders - youth with asthma, caregivers, and physicians. Fourteen caregiver/youth dyads and four physicians participated in separate focus groups where their preferences for pictorial AAP structure and content were obtained. Focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed, coded with ATLAS.ti, and analyzed for themes. Youth and their caregivers prefer that the AAPs include simple, cartoon-like pictures customized to the patient. Physicians emphasized AAP's capability to display pictures of controller medication given its importance in preventing asthma exacerbations. A stoplight format, currently used in most written AAPs, received positive reviews. Specific suggestions for pictures showing symptoms, medications, and how to take medication were suggested. Words and short phrases accompanying the pictures were thought to add clarity. Key stakeholders viewed pictorial AAPs as positive and potentially effective alternatives to standard written AAPs. It is expected that low literacy youth and caregivers would more easily understand a pictorial AAP presentation, which should facilitate better medication adherence and asthma outcomes in these children.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o conhecimento da doença e a melhora clínica de portadores de asma persistente moderada e grave antes e após a sua participação em um programa de educação realizado durante as visitas ambulatoriais de rotina. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo piloto, prospectivo que envolveu 164 pacientes durante um período de dois anos. O programa de educação, oferecido para pequenos grupos nos dias de consulta, consistiu de aulas expositivas divididas em três módulos: fisiopatologia, controle ambiental e tratamento, incluindo o treinamento da técnica inalatória. Para a avaliação do programa, foram utilizados questionários padronizados sobre a melhora clínica e conhecimento da doença. RESULTADOS: Em um ano, 120 pacientes completaram três visitas, e 51 pacientes foram reavaliados em dois anos. A média de idade dos pacientes foi de 44 anos, 70% eram do sexo feminino, e 43% tinham até oito anos de educação formal. A intervenção educacional aumentou o conhecimento da doença de forma significativa (p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the understanding of asthma and the clinical improvement in patients with moderate or severe persistent asthma prior to and after their participation in an educational program presented during the routine outpatient visits. METHODS: This was a prospective pilot study involving 164 patients over a two-year period. The educational program, presented to small groups on outpatient visit days, consisted of lectures divided into three parts: pathophysiology; environmental control; and treatment, including training in the inhalation technique. The program was evaluated using standardized questionnaires on clinical improvement and understanding of the disease. RESULTS: By the end of the first year, 120 patients had completed three visits, and 51 of those patients were revaluated at the end of the second year. The mean age of the patients was 44 years, 70% were female, and 43% had up to eight years of schooling
McCleary, Nicola; Andrews, Amanda; Morrow, Susan; Wiener-Ogilvie, Sharon; Fletcher, Monica; Steed, Liz; Taylor, Stephanie J C; Pinnock, Hilary
Supported self-management for asthma helps people adjust their treatment in response to symptom changes. This improves day-to-day control and reduces the risk of asthma attacks and the need for emergency healthcare. However, implementation remains poor in routine clinical practice. This systematic review is part of a programme of work developing an intervention to help primary care practice teams embed self-management support into routine asthma care. The aim of the review is to synthesise the evidence regarding the effectiveness of educational interventions for professionals supporting self-management in people with asthma or diabetes (type 1 and type 2). These two conditions have the most robust evidence base for the effectiveness of implementing supported self-management. Electronic searches will be conducted in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, CINAHL, PsycINFO, AMED, Global Health, WHO Global Health Library, ERIC, BNI, RDRB/CME and Google Scholar. Eligible studies are randomised controlled trials or controlled clinical trials published between 1990 and 2016 which evaluated professional education interventions facilitating asthma or diabetes supported self-management. Further relevant work will be identified from trial registries, citation searching and through contact with authors of included studies. This will be supplemented by scoping potentially relevant educational packages described in English language policy literature or health service websites. Screening, data extraction and risk of bias assessment (using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool) will be completed by two independent reviewers, with a third reviewer arbitrating where necessary. We plan a theoretically informed narrative synthesis of the aggregated data as heterogeneity is likely to preclude meta-analysis. Ethical approval is not required for this systematic review. The results will be described in a paper submitted for peer-reviewed publication and will inform the development of an
Full Text Available Three factors in recent medical research and treatment (advances in the field of psychoneuroimmunology, epidemiological evidence regarding important interaction between psychosocial factors and development of disease, and the recognition of the importance of patient education for self-management of asthma have led clinicians and researchers to reconsider the role of psychosocial stress in asthma. There are many reports suggesting that stressful life events, family problems and a behavior pattern that increases psychological conflict may influence the development or relapse of asthma and influence its clinical course. Depression is known as one of the risk factors of fatal asthmatic attack. In laboratory studies, about 20% of asthmatics were considered reactors who showed an airway change after exposure to emotional stress. Studies regarding the pathway of stress effect on allergy and asthma are reviewed and discussed from the standpoint of psychoneuroimmunology; for example, the enhancement of IgE production and increased susceptibility to respiratory infection by stress, conditioned anaphylaxis and nerve/mast cell interaction, the effect of stress on various bronchial responses and the inhibition of the immediate and late asthmatic response by anterior hypothalamic lesioning.
Mortaz Hejri, Sara; Jalili, Mohammad
The process of determining the minimum pass level to separate the competent students from those who do not perform well enough is called standard setting. A large number of methods are widely used to set cut-scores for both written and clinical examinations. There are some challenging issues pertaining to any standard setting procedure. Ignoring these concerns would result in a large dispute regarding the credibility and defensibility of the method. The goal of this review is to provide a basic understanding of the key concepts and challenges in standard setting and to suggest some recommendations to overcome the challenging issues for educators and policymakers who are dealing with decision-making in this field.
Tucker, Pamela D.; Anderson, Erin; Reynolds, Amy L.; Mawhinney, Hanne
This document analysis provides a summary of the research from high-impact journals published between 2008 and 2013 with the explicit purpose of determining the extent to which the current empirical evidence supports the individual 2011 Educational Leadership Constituent Council Program Standards and their elements. We found that the standards are…
Sarver, Nancy; Murphy, Kevin
The high burden of asthma indicates suboptimal control of this chronic condition. This review describes approaches for establishing asthma control based on an understanding of potential issues in the achievement and maintenance of asthma control, recent changes in asthma management guidelines that facilitate attainment of treatment goals, and the importance of the healthcare provider-patient partnership to emphasize treatment based on asthma control. Review of the published literature, asthma management guidelines, and patient asthma education resources. Asthma control is best achieved by patient-oriented versus disease-oriented management strategies that incorporate a combination of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment modalities. Tools that assess and monitor asthma may facilitate the achievement and maintenance of asthma control. Key components of an optimal management strategy include solid partnerships between healthcare providers and patients, comprehensive patient and caregiver education, personalized written asthma action plans, patient-reported evaluation of symptom control, appropriate drug therapy, strategies for improving compliance with asthma medication regimens, and a treatment algorithm that outlines the facets of asthma management. Information presented in this article will guide nurse practitioners in helping patients with asthma achieve and maintain long-term disease control.
Van den Bosch J
Full Text Available Judith Van den Bosch,1 D Simone Warren,1 Peter A Rutherford21Pallas Health Research and Consultancy BV, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; 2Baxter Healthcare SA, Zürich, SwitzerlandAbstract: To make an informed decision on renal replacement therapy, patients should receive education about dialysis options in a structured program covering all modalities. Many patients do not receive such education, and there is disparity in the information they receive. This review aims to compile evidence on effective components of predialysis education programs as related to modality choice and outcomes. PubMed MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Ovid searches (from January 1, 1995 to December 31, 2013 with the main search terms of “predialysis”, “peritoneal dialysis”, “home dialysis”, “education”, “information”, and “decision” were performed. Of the 1,005 articles returned from the initial search, 110 were given full text reviews as they potentially met inclusion criteria (for example, they included adults or predialysis patients, or the details of an education program were reported. Only 29 out of the 110 studies met inclusion criteria. Ten out of 13 studies using a comparative design, showed an increase in home dialysis choice after predialysis education. Descriptions of the educational process varied and included individual and group education, multidisciplinary intervention, and varying duration and frequency of sessions. Problem-solving group sessions seem to be an effective component for enhancing the proportion of home dialysis choice. Evidence is lacking for many components, such as timing and staff competencies. There is a need for a standardized approach to evaluate the effect of predialysis educational interventions.Keywords: dialysis, end-stage renal disease, informed decision, modality choice
Zahran, Hatice S; Bailey, Cathy M; Qin, Xiaoting; Moorman, Jeanne E
Monitoring the level of asthma control is important in determining the effectiveness of current treatment which may decrease the frequency and intensity of symptoms and functional limitations. Uncontrolled asthma has been associated with decreased quality of life and increased health care use. The objectives of this study were to assess the level of asthma control and identify related risk factors among persons with current asthma. Using the 2006 to 2010 BRFSS child and adult Asthma Call-back Survey, asthma control was classified as well-controlled or uncontrolled (not-well-controlled or very-poorly-controlled) using three impairment measures: daytime symptoms, night-time symptoms, and taking short-acting β2-agonists for symptom control. Multivariate logistic regression identified predictors of asthma control. Fifty percent of adults and 38.4% of children with current asthma had uncontrolled asthma. About 63% of children and 53% of adults with uncontrolled asthma were on long-term asthma control medications. Among children, uncontrolled asthma was significantly associated with being younger than 5 years, having annual household income asthma (low educational attainment, low income, cigarette smoking, and co-morbid conditions including obesity and depression) could improve asthma control.
Pike, Katharine C; Levy, Mark L; Moreiras, John; Fleming, Louise
This review discusses issues related to managing problematic severe asthma in children and young people. A small minority of children have genuinely severe asthma symptoms which are difficult to control. Children with genuinely severe asthma need investigations and treatments beyond those described within conventional guidelines. However, the majority of children with poor symptom control despite high-intensity treatment achieve improvement in their asthma control once attention has been paid to the basics of asthma management. Basic asthma management requires optimisation of inhaler technique and treatment adherence, avoidance of environmental triggers and self-management education. It is also important that clinicians recognise risk factors that predispose patients to asthma exacerbations and potentially life-threatening attacks. These correctable issues need to be tackled in partnership with children and young people and their families. This requires a coordinated approach between professionals across healthcare settings. Establishing appropriate infrastructure for coordinated asthma care benefits not only those with problematic severe asthma, but also the wider asthma population as similar correctable issues exist for children with asthma of all severities. Investigation and management of genuine severe asthma requires specialist multidisciplinary expertise and a systematic approach to characterising patients' asthma phenotypes and delivering individualised care. While inhaled corticosteroids continue to play a leading role in asthma therapy, new treatments on the horizon might further support phenotype-specific therapy. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Horner, Sharon D; Brown, Adama; Brown, Sharon A; Rew, D Lynn
To test the effects of 2 modes of delivering an asthma educational intervention on health outcomes and asthma self-management in school-aged children who live in rural areas. Longitudinal design with data collected 4 times over 12 months. The target sample was composed of children in grades 2-5 who had a provider diagnosis of asthma. Elementary schools were stratified into high or low socioeconomic status based on student enrollment in the free or reduced-cost lunch program. Schools were then randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment arms: in-school asthma class, asthma day camp, or the attention-control group. Sample retention was good (87.7%) and equally distributed by study arm. Improvements in emergency department visits and office visits were related to attending either the asthma class or asthma day camp. Asthma severity significantly decreased in both asthma treatment groups. Other factors such as hospitalizations, parent asthma management, and child asthma management improved for all groups. Both asthma class and asthma day camp yielded significant reductions in asthma severity. There were reductions in the emergency department and office visits for the 2 asthma arms, and hospitalizations declined significantly for all groups. Asthma self-management also improved in all groups, while it was somewhat higher in the asthma arms. This may be due to the attention being drawn to asthma management by study participation and the action of completing questionnaires about asthma management, asthma symptoms, and health outcomes. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.
... BS, Burks AW, et al, eds. Middleton's Allergy Principles and Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 53. Lugogo N, Que LG, Gilstrap DL, Kraft M. Asthma: clinical diagnosis and management. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et ...
Duplaga, Mariusz; Juszkiewicz, Krzysztof; Leszczuk, Mikolaj
Medial education, both on the graduate and postgraduate levels, has become a real challenge nowadays. The volume of information in medical sciences grows so rapidly that many health professionals experience essential problems in keeping track of the state of the art in this domain. e-learning offers important advantages to medical education continuation due to its universal availability and opportunity for implementation of flexible patterns of training. An important trace of medical education is developing practical skills. Some examples of standardization efforts include: the CEN/ISSS Workshop on Learning Technology (WSLT), the Advanced Learning Infrastructure Consortium (ALIC), Education Network Australia (EdNA) and PROmoting Multimedia access to Education and Training in European Society (PROMETEUS). Sun Microsystems' support (Sun ONE, iPlanetTM ) for many of the above-mentioned standards is described as well. Development of a medical digital video library with recordings of invasive procedures incorporating additional information and commentary may improve the efficiency of the training process in interventional medicine. A digital video library enabling access to videos of interventional procedures performed in the area of thoracic medicine may be a valuable element for developing practical skills. The library has been filled with video resources recorded at the Department of Interventional Pulmonology; it enhances training options for pulmonologists and thoracic surgeons. The main focus was put on demonstration of bronchofiberoscopic and videothoracoscopic procedures. The opportunity to browse video recordings of procedures performed in the specific field also considerably enhances the options for training in other medical specialties. In the era of growing health consumer awareness, patients are also perceived as the target audience for medical digital libraries. As a case study of Computer-Based Training systems, the Medical Digital Video Library is
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equal quality and standard of education. 273.38 Section... EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT PROGRAM EDUCATION CONTRACTS UNDER JOHNSON-O'MALLEY ACT Funding Provisions § 273.38 Equal quality and standard of education. Contracts with State education agencies or school districts...
Jørgensen, Inger Merete; Jensen, V B; Bülow, S
Child death due to asthma is a rare and potentially preventable event. We investigated possible risk factors for death due to asthma in children and adolescents, as a step towards preventing or minimizing asthma death in this age group, and improving asthma management and care. We reviewed all 108...... children and young adults should regularly receive medical care and assessment, even if they suffer only a few symptoms. This study underlines the need for ongoing education of the patient's family, the patient, and doctors on long-term management and management of acute attacks. Copies of clearly written...
Gabriels, R L; Wamboldt, M Z; McCormick, D R; Adams, T L; McTaggart, S R
This study examines the relationship between children's abilities to perceive their symptoms of asthma via several previously researched subjective and objective procedures compared with their performance on a standardized children's drawing task and scale criteria. Results indicated that girls verbalized significantly more emotions about their drawings and were better able to detect airflow changes in their small airways than boys. The Gabriels Asthma Perception Drawing Scales (GAPDS) is a promising clinical tool for assessing children's perceptions and emotions about asthma via nonverbal methods. Varying methods of measuring asthma symptom awareness are not highly correlated; thus, more than one methodology is appropriate for use with children.
Background: Bronchial asthma is a global health problem that causes significant morbidity and mortality in all age groups. Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) seeks to standardize the care asthma patients receive. We assessed the knowledge, attitude, and practices of doctors in Umuahia, Southeast Nigeria, regarding ...
... Guidelines Asthma & Community Health Learn How to Control Asthma Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Arabic Chinese Français ... Is Asthma Treated? Select a Language What Is Asthma? Asthma is a disease that affects your lungs. ...
... Español Text Size Email Print Share Asthma and Food Allergies Page Content Article Body A family history of ... child may develop asthma . Children with asthma and food allergies are at increased risk for anaphylaxis, a severe ...
EPA provides the general public, partners, media outlets and health care professionals with a wide variety of asthma resources at no-cost. EPA develops resources to share information about asthma, its triggers, and comprehensive asthma management.
Public Health Agency
This action plans allow each child (or parent/carer) to record his or her asthma treatment to help manage their asthma when they are well, when their symptoms get worse and when they are suffering an asthma attack.
Reactive airway disease - dust; Bronchial asthma - dust; Triggers - dust ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Dust is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to dust, you are ...
Reactive airway - mold; Bronchial asthma - mold; Triggers - mold; Allergic rhinitis - pollen ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Mold is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to mold, you are ...
Levy, M L; Robb, M; Allen, J; Doherty, C; Bland, J M; Winter, R J
We investigated whether hospital-based specialist asthma nurses improved recognition and self-treatment of asthma episodes by patients followed up after attending accident and emergency departments (A&E) for asthma exacerbations. We carried out a randomized prospective controlled trial of adult asthma self-management, following a hospital outpatient nurse consultation in two outer-London District General Hospitals (secondary care centres). The study included 211 adults, over 18 years old (mean age 40 years) who attended for asthma in two accident and emergency departments over 13 months. One hundred and eight evaluable patients were randomized into the control group who continued with their usual medical treatment and were not offered any intervention during the study period. One hundred and three evaluable patients were randomized into the intervention group. They were offered three 6-weekly outpatient appointments with one of two specialist asthma nurses for a structured asthma consultation, after attendance at the accident and emergency department. Following assessment of their asthma treatment and control, the nurses advised patients, through the use of self-management-plans, how to recognize and manage uncontrolled asthma and when to seek medical assistance. Medication and inhaler device type were altered if necessary The primary outcome was patient reported self-management of asthma exacerbations for 6 months. Secondary outcomes were assessed at baseline, 3 months and 6 months. These included home peak flow and symptom diaries, structured telephone questionnaires and audit of general practitioner records to determine utilization of services (6 months before and after A&E). Data were analysed on an intention to treat basis by multiple and logistic regression. The intervention group increased their use of inhaled topical steroids in 31/61 (51%) vs. 15/70 (21%) attacks in controls (OR 3.91 CI 1.8-8.4, Pentry. Thirty-four percent of intervention patients vs. 42
Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic, reversible obstructive disease that when in exacerbation can present to the emergency department in a spectrum of severity. Prompt recognition of the potentially severely ill asthmatic requires a careful history and physical exam while considering alternative diagnoses for the presenting symptoms. Early administration of salbutamol and corticosteroids is indicated in almost all patients with other medications such as ipratropium and magnesium and supportive modalities like BiPAP reserved for sicker patients. The global impact of asthma is increasing, especially amongst children. While the benign clinical presentation is most common and mortality has decreased in recent decades due to improved recognition and care, the ubiquity of the condition and frequent lack of regular outpatient management contribute to the disease claiming 250,000 lives worldwide annually. The emergency physician must be prepared to assess and appropriately manage both the young child with a mild wheeze and the adult in respiratory failure.
Fletcher, Carol Louise Parsons
teachers are unlikely to embrace national standards while others choose to utilize them as a tool for reforming science education in their classrooms, schools, or districts. As such, it can be used by reformers to design and diagnostically evaluate the implementation process and its related staff development.
Gennady V. Abramov
Full Text Available The article discusses the development of a technique that allows for a comparative assessment of the requirements of the professional standard and the federal state educational standards. The results can be used by universities to adjust the learning process for the analysis of their curricula to better compliance with professional standards.
American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just ...
Urquhart, M. L.; Hairston, M.
As with all NASA missions, the Coupled Ion Neutral Dynamics Investigation (CINDI) is required to have an education and public outreach program (E/PO). Through our partnership between the University of Texas at Dallas William B. Hanson Center for Space Sciences and Department of Science/Mathematics Education, the decision was made early on to design our educational outreach around the needs of teachers. In the era of high-stakes testing and No Child Left Behind, materials that do not meet the content and process standards teachers must teach cannot be expected to be integrated into classroom instruction. Science standards, both state and National, were the fundamental drivers behind the designs of our curricular materials, professional development opportunities for teachers, our target grade levels, and even our popular informal educational resource, the "Cindi in Space" comic book. The National Science Education Standards include much more than content standards, and our E/PO program was designed with this knowledge in mind as well. In our presentation we will describe how we came to our approach for CINDI E/PO, and how we have been successful in our efforts to have CINDI materials and key concepts make the transition into middle school classrooms. We will also present on our newest materials and high school physics students and professional development for their teachers.
Donnelly, Amy; Shah, Smita; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia
Objectives: The aim of this study was: (1) to investigate the feasibility of incorporating the Triple A programme into the undergraduate pharmacy curriculum; (2) to compare the effect of the Triple A programme versus problem-based learning methods on the asthma knowledge of final-year pharmacy students and their perceived confidence in dealing…
Australian Government Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency, 2015
The Australian Government Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency's (TEQSA's) role is to assure that quality standards are being met by all registered higher education providers. This paper explains how TEQSA's risk-based approach to assuring higher education standards is applied in broad terms to a diverse sector. This explanation is…
Simsek, Omer; Yazar, Taha
Problem Statement: The educational technology standards for teachers set by the International Society for Technology in Education (the ISTE Standards-T) represent an important framework for using technology effectively in teaching and learning processes. These standards are widely used by universities, educational institutions, and schools. The…
Lura, Carolina Bryne; Hauch, Sophie Misser Pallesgaard; Gøeg, Kirstine Rosenbeck; Pape-Haugaard, Louise
In Denmark, patients being treated on Haematology Outpatients Departments get instructed to self-manage their blood sample collection from Central Venous Catheter (CVC). However, this is a complex and risky procedure, which can jeopardize patient safety. The aim of the study was to suggest a method for developing standard digital patient education programs for patients in self-administration of blood samples drawn from CVC. The Design Science Research Paradigm was used to develop a digital patient education program, called PAVIOSY, to increase patient safety during execution of the blood sample collection procedure by using videos for teaching as well as procedural support. A step-by-step guide was developed and used as basis for making the videos. Quality assurance through evaluation with a nurse was conducted on both the step-by-step guide and the videos. The quality assurance evaluation of the videos showed; 1) Errors due to the order of the procedure can be determined by reviewing the videos despite that the guide was followed. 2) Videos can be used to identify errors - important for patient safety - in the procedure, which are not identifiable in a written script. To ensure correct clinical content of the educational patient system, health professionals must be engaged early in the development of content and design phase.
Farey, John E; Sandeford, Jonathan C; Evans-McKendry, Greg D
The diminishing number of hours dedicated to formal instruction in anatomy has led to a debate within medical education as to the level required for safe clinical practice. We provide a review of the current state of anatomical education in Australian medical schools and state the case for national standards. In light of the review presented, council members of the Australian Medical Students' Association voted to affirm that consideration should be given to developing undergraduate learning goals for anatomy, providing a codified medical student position on the teaching of anatomy in Australian medical schools. Crucially, the position states that time-intensive methods of instruction such as dissection should be a rite of passage for medical students in the absence of evidence demonstrating the superiority of modern teaching methods. We believe the bodies with a vested interest in the quality of medical graduates, namely the Australian Medical Council, Medical Deans Australia & New Zealand, and the postgraduate colleges should collaborate and develop clear guidelines that make explicit the core knowledge of anatomy expected of medical graduates at each stage of their career with a view to safe clinical practice. In addition, Australian universities have a role to play in conducting further research into contemporary learning styles and the most efficacious methods of delivering anatomical education. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Sugahara, Satoshi; Wilson, Rachel
The development and implementation of the International Education Standards (IES) for professional accountants is currently an important issue in accounting education and for educators interested in a shift toward international education standards more broadly. The purpose of this study is to investigate professional and research discourse…
Full Text Available Introduction: It has been suggested that a cesarean section increases risk of developing asthma due to lack of exposure to maternal microflora during birth. To investigate the association between the mode of delivery and the risk of asthma in children aged 5-14 years in Tabriz, Iran. Methods: A case-control study was performed on 233 (case = 81, control = 152 children aged 5-14 years referred to outpatient clinics of Tabriz Children’s Hospital and Sheikhorrais Clinic in 2014. Clinical asthma diagnosis was done according to Global Initiative for Asthma Criteria. A questionnaire was administered to obtain a demographic, environmental, and clinical history. Age-sex frequency matching with cases was carried out during sampling for controlling of possible cofounding effects of age and sex for asthma. Results: Of 233 children, 53.6% of them were male (case group = 54.3% and control group = 53.3%. Over half (54.5%, the participants had been delivered by caesarian section. Cases were not significantly more likely to have been delivered by caesarian section as compared to controls [adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 0.69; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.34-1.42]. However, more frequent episodes of common cold [b = 0.094; standard error (SE (b = 0.031, P < 0.001], birth order (second born children compared to firstborns (AOR = 2.54; 95% CI = 1.18-5.46, high maternal education levels: 12 years (AOR = 3.76; 95% CI = 1.10-12.9, collegiate (AOR = 6.12; 95% CI = 1.43-26.20, and intra-family marriage (AOR = 2.89; 95% CI = 1.21-6.89 were associated with childhood asthma. Conclusion: Delivery mode was not associated with risk of developing childhood asthma in our study. Intra-family marriage increased the odds of childhood asthma. Further study on the relationship between maternal education and the odds of asthma is proposed.
Amani K. Abu-Shaheen
Full Text Available Introduction. Parental perceptions and practices are important for improving the asthma outcomes in children; indeed, evidence shows that parents of asthmatic children harbor considerable misperceptions of the disease. Objective. To investigate the perceptions and practices of parents toward asthma and its management in Saudi children. Methods. Using a self-administered questionnaire, a two-stage cross-sectional survey of parents of children aged between 3 and 15 years, was conducted from schools located in Riyadh province in central Saudi Arabia. Results. During the study interval, 2000 parents were asked to participate in the study; 1450 parents responded, of whom 600 (41.4% reported that their children had asthma, dyspnea, or chest allergy (recurrent wheezing or coughing, while 478 (32.9% of the parents reported that their children were diagnosed earlier with asthma by a physician. Therefore, the final statistical analyses were performed with 600 participants. Furthermore, 321 (53.5% respondents believed that asthma is solely a hereditary disease. Interestingly, 361 (60.3% were concerned about side effects of inhaled corticosteroids and 192 (32% about the development of dependency on asthma medications. Almost 76% of parents had previously visited a pediatric emergency department during an asthma attack. Conclusions. Parents had misperceptions regarding asthma and exhibited ineffective practices in its management. Therefore, improving asthma care and compliance requires added parental education.
Abu-Shaheen, Amani K; Nofal, Abdullah; Heena, Humariya
Introduction . Parental perceptions and practices are important for improving the asthma outcomes in children; indeed, evidence shows that parents of asthmatic children harbor considerable misperceptions of the disease. Objective. To investigate the perceptions and practices of parents toward asthma and its management in Saudi children. Methods . Using a self-administered questionnaire, a two-stage cross-sectional survey of parents of children aged between 3 and 15 years, was conducted from schools located in Riyadh province in central Saudi Arabia. Results . During the study interval, 2000 parents were asked to participate in the study; 1450 parents responded, of whom 600 (41.4%) reported that their children had asthma, dyspnea, or chest allergy (recurrent wheezing or coughing), while 478 (32.9%) of the parents reported that their children were diagnosed earlier with asthma by a physician. Therefore, the final statistical analyses were performed with 600 participants. Furthermore, 321 (53.5%) respondents believed that asthma is solely a hereditary disease. Interestingly, 361 (60.3%) were concerned about side effects of inhaled corticosteroids and 192 (32%) about the development of dependency on asthma medications. Almost 76% of parents had previously visited a pediatric emergency department during an asthma attack. Conclusions . Parents had misperceptions regarding asthma and exhibited ineffective practices in its management. Therefore, improving asthma care and compliance requires added parental education.
Azad, Meghan B; Becker, Allan B; Kozyrskyj, Anita L
Perinatal programming is an emerging theory for the fetal origins of chronic disease. Maternal asthma and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are two of the best-known triggers for the perinatal programming of asthma, while the potential role of maternal diabetes has not been widely studied. To determine if maternal diabetes is associated with child asthma, and if so, whether it modifies the effects of ETS exposure and maternal asthma. We studied 3,574 Canadian children, aged 7-8 years, enrolled in a population-based birth cohort. Standardized questionnaires were completed by the children's parents, and data were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression. Asthma was reported in 442 children (12.4%). Compared to those without asthma, asthmatic children were more likely to have mothers (P = 0.003), but not fathers (P = 0.89), with diabetes. Among children without maternal history of diabetes, the likelihood of child asthma was 1.4-fold higher in those exposed to ETS (adjusted odds ratio, 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.73), and 3.6-fold higher in those with maternal asthma (3.59; 2.71-4.76). Among children born to diabetic mothers, these risks were amplified to 5.7-fold (5.68; 1.18-27.37) and 11.3-fold (11.30; 2.26-56.38), respectively. In the absence of maternal asthma or ETS, maternal diabetes was not associated with child asthma (0.65, 0.16-2.56). Our findings suggest that maternal diabetes may contribute to the perinatal programming of child asthma by amplifying the detrimental effects of ETS exposure and maternal asthma. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Zahran, Hatice S; Bailey, Cathy M; Damon, Scott A; Garbe, Paul L; Breysse, Patrick N
Asthma is the most common chronic lung disease of childhood, affecting approximately 6 million children in the United States. Although asthma cannot be cured, most of the time, asthma symptoms can be controlled by avoiding or reducing exposure to asthma triggers (allergens and irritants) and by following recommendations for asthma education and appropriate medical care. CDC analyzed asthma data from the 2001-2016 National Health Interview Survey for children aged 0-17 years to examine trends and demographic differences in health outcomes and health care use. Asthma was more prevalent among boys (9.2%) than among girls (7.4%), children aged ≥5 years (approximately 10%) than children aged Asthma prevalence among children increased from 8.7% in 2001 to 9.4% in 2010, and then decreased to 8.3% in 2016. Although not all changes were statistically significant, a similar pattern was observed among subdemographic groups studied, with the exception of Mexican/Mexican-American children, among whom asthma prevalence increased from 5.1% in 2001 to 6.5% in 2016. Among children with asthma, the percentage who had an asthma attack in the past 12 months declined significantly from 2001 to 2016. Whereas asthma prevalence was lower among children aged 0-4 years than among older children, the prevalence of asthma attacks (62.4%), emergency department or urgent care center (ED/UC) visits (31.1%), and hospitalization (10.4%) were higher among children with asthma aged 0-4 years than among those aged 12-17 years (44.8%, 9.6%, and 2.8%, respectively). During 2013, children with asthma aged 5-17 years missed 13.8 million days of school per year (2.6 days per child). Compared with 2003, in 2013, the prevalence of adverse health outcomes and health care use were significantly lower and the prevalence of having an action plan to manage asthma was higher. Asthma remains an important public health and medical problem. The health of children with asthma can be improved by promoting asthma
Gilmour M Ian
Full Text Available Abstract PM10 (the mass of particles present in the air having a 50% cutoff for particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm is the standard measure of particulate air pollution used worldwide. Epidemiological studies suggest that asthma symptoms can be worsened by increases in the levels of PM10. Epidemiological evidence at present indicates that PM10 increases do not raise the chances of initial sensitisation and induction of disease, although further research is warranted. PM10 is a complex mixture of particle types and has many components and there is no general agreement regarding which component(s could lead to exacerbations of asthma. However pro-inflammatory effects of transition metals, hydrocarbons, ultrafine particles and endotoxin, all present to varying degrees in PM10, could be important. An understanding of the role of the different components of PM10 in exacerbating asthma is essential before proper risk assessment can be undertaken leading to advice on risk management for the many asthmatics who are exposed to air pollution particles.
Beeh, Kai-Michael; Kirsten, Anne-Marie; Dusser, Daniel
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to confirm the 24-hour bronchodilator efficacy and pharmacokinetic profile of once-daily tiotropium Respimat(®) 5 μg add-on to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in adults with symptomatic asthma. It used a trial protocol designed to minimize the risk of pharmacoki...
Juel, Caroline Trunk-Black; Ali, Zarqa; Nilas, Lisbeth
Obesity is a major health problem, and obesity is associated with a high incidence of asthma and poor asthma control. The aim of the present paper is to systematically review the current knowledge of the effect on overall asthma control of weight reduction in overweight and obese adults with asthma....
Nobiling, Brandye D; Lyde, Adrian R
The landmark School Health Education Study (SHES) project influenced by the conceptual approach to teaching and learning provides perspective on modern school health instruction. Conceptual education, the cornerstone of the SHES curriculum framework (CF), Health Education: A Conceptual Approach to Curriculum Design, fosters a student's understanding of information that develops with experience. Data were collected through content analysis of the SHES CF and the National Health Education Standards: Achieving Excellence (NHES), 2nd edition. Similarity of essential framework elements was established. Inter-rater reliability was established. Alignment of the SHES components with the NHES reveals parallel conceptual structures around which to develop curriculum. The conceptual approach to curriculum planning has enduring value. It provides a foundation for teaching and learning that is adaptable, flexible, and can maintain permanence in conjunction with emerging scientific evidence and cultural and political influences on health behavior. © 2015, American School Health Association.
Wilson, Sandra R.; Rand, Cynthia S.; Cabana, Michael D.; Foggs, Michael B.; Halterman, Jill S.; Olson, Lynn; Vollmer, William M.; Wright, Rosalind J.; Taggart, Virginia
Background “Asthma-related quality of life” refers to the perceived impact that asthma has on the patient’s quality of life. Objective National Institutes of Health (NIH) institutes and other federal agencies convened an expert group to recommend standardized measures of the impact of asthma on quality of life for use in future asthma clinical research. Methods We reviewed published documentation regarding the development and psychometric evaluation; clinical research use since 2000; and extent to which the content of each existing quality of life instrument provides a unique, reliable, and valid assessment of the intended construct. We classified instruments as core (required in future studies), supplemental (used according to the study’s aims and standardized), or emerging (requiring validation and standardization). This work was discussed at an NIH-organized workshop convened in March 2010 and finalized in September 2011. Results Eleven instruments for adults and 6 for children were identified for review. None qualified as core instruments because they predominantly measured indicators of asthma control (symptoms and/or functional status); failed to provide a distinct, reliable score measuring all key dimensions of the intended construct; and/or lacked adequate psychometric data. Conclusions In the absence of existing instruments that meet the stated criteria, currently available instruments are classified as either supplemental or emerging. Research is strongly recommended to develop and evaluate instruments that provide a distinct, reliable measure of the patient’s perception of the impact of asthma on all of the key dimensions of quality of life, an important outcome that is not captured in other outcome measures. PMID:22386511
Nurses are expected to treat children, young people and their parents as individuals and respect their dignity. Some information about asthma symptoms and about what is most important to children can only be obtained by communicating directly with children themselves rather than relying on parents. Consultations about children's asthma usually have three participants--nurse, parent and child. Children often take a passive role or are marginalised, sometimes by parents' interventions. Nurses need to take account of children's views and preferences, and build alliances with parents and children. Nursing needs to develop its own evidence base for practice, to underpin training and education.
Lutz, Rebecca M
of human trafficking among students enrolled in a nurse practitioner program. Informed nurse practitioners have the ability to identify, treat, and refer victims of trafficking. As an integral part of the health care team, nurse practitioners should receive trafficking education as part of the standard course curricula. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Friedman, Ariella A; Ahmed, Haris; Gitlin, Jordan S; Palmer, Lane S
lacking, suggesting both ineffective education in the well-child setting and inappropriately timed education during or after pain occurrence. Awareness was most commonly anecdotal or taught unreliably, as even familiar parents were no more likely to seek emergent attention. Therefore, standardized, effective parental education on testicular torsion and the need for prompt presentation is needed, as is improvement in the quality of information taught in the healthcare setting. Further assessment of knowledge among preadolescent and adolescent boys regarding testicular torsion is warranted. It is hopeful that pre-hospital delay may be minimized and greater rates of testicular salvageability may be achieved through these efforts. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wu, Brian H; Cabana, Michael D; Hilton, Joan F; Ly, Ngoc P
The racially unique population of Hawaii has one of the highest prevalences of childhood asthma in America. We estimate the prevalence of impaired asthma control among asthmatic children in Hawaii and determine which factors are associated with impaired control. We analyzed data from 477 asthmatic children living in Hawaii participating in the 2006-2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Asthma Call-Back Surveys. Impaired asthma control was modeled after 2007 National Asthma Education and Prevention Program guidelines. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify factors associated with impaired asthma control. Children (53.8%) with asthma were either part or full Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander. While 35.6% of asthmatic children met criteria for impaired asthma control, being part or full Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander was not associated with impaired control. Only 31.1% of children with impaired control reported the use of inhaled corticosteroids despite >80% having had a routine checkup for asthma in the past year and receipt of asthma education from a healthcare provider. A large proportion of asthmatic children in Hawaii have impaired asthma control that does not appear to be associated with race but may be associated with inadequate pharmacologic therapy. While a significant percentage reported receiving routine asthma care and asthma education, a minority reported using inhaled corticosteroids. Reasons for this discrepancy between asthma assessment and treatment are unclear. However, additional education on part of the physician, community, and healthcare system are likely to improve management and reduce morbidity in this population. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Iwona Czerwińska Pawluk
Streszczenie Edukacja pacjentów z astmą jest jednym z elementów warunkujących osiąganie celów leczenia, a w konsekwencji poprawia jakość życia chorych. Pośród wielu czynników warunkujących skuteczność edukacji prowadzonej wobec pacjentów z chorobą przewlekłą i / lub ich opiekunów na szczególną uwagę zasługują: partnerskie relacje między lekarzem a pacjentem/ jego opiekunem, dostosowanie zakresu wiedzy w zależności do wieku, poziomu wykształcenia oraz oczekiwań pacjentów/ opiekunów. Istotna też jest ciągłość kształcenia, mająca na celu weryfikację zdobytej wiedzy i nabytych umiejętności. Chory na astmę musi zaakceptować chorobę i z pełnym przekonaniem podjąć zadanie współuczestnictwa w jej leczeniu. Edukacja jest podstawą interakcji między pracownikami opieki zdrowotnej a pacjentem. Może mieć charakter edukacji bezpośredniej, szkoleń w małych grupach, seminariów, sympozjów, konferencji, dystrybucji materiałów edukacyjnych, kampanii medialnych, portali internetowych. Abstract Education of patients with asthma is one of the prerequisites for achieving the goals of treatment and consequently improves the quality of life of patients. Among the many factors determining the effectiveness of education provided to patients with chronic disease and / or their carers deserve special attention: partnerships between doctor and patient / his guardian, adjust the scope of knowledge according to age, educational level and expectations of patients / caregivers. Also important is the continuity of education, in order to verify their knowledge and acquired skills. Suffering from asthma must accept the disease and confidently take on the task of participation in its treatment. Education is the basis of the interaction between health care professionals and patients. It may be of direct education, training in small groups, seminars, symposia, conferences, distribution of educational materials, media
Ninan, T K; Russell, G
To evaluate the effects on growth of inhaled corticosteroid treatment (ICT) and of the quality of control of asthma, height velocity was studied in 58 prepubertal children attending a specialist asthma clinic because of chronic asthma that was difficult to control. The height velocity standard deviation (SD) score was maximal when the asthma was well controlled both before (0.01) and after (-0.07) starting ICT. It was least when the asthma was poorly controlled both before (-1.50) and after (-1.55) starting ICT. The effectiveness of control correlated significantly with the height velocity SD score, both before and after ICT was started. No evidence was found that the administration of ICT has an adverse effect on growth.
Acute exacerbations of asthma can lead to respiratory failure requiring ventilatory assistance. Noninvasive ventilation may prevent the need for endotracheal intubation in selected patients. For patients who are intubated and undergo mechanical ventilation, a strategy that prioritizes avoidance of ventilator-related complications over correction of hypercapnia was first proposed 30 years ago and has become the preferred approach. Excessive pulmonary hyperinflation is a major cause of hypotension and barotrauma. An appreciation of the key determinants of hyperinflation is essential to rational ventilator management. Standard therapy for patients with asthma undergoing mechanical ventilation consists of inhaled bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and drugs used to facilitate controlled hypoventilation. Nonconventional interventions such as heliox, general anesthesia, bronchoscopy, and extracorporeal life support have also been advocated for patients with fulminant asthma but are rarely necessary. Immediate mortality for patients who are mechanically ventilated for acute severe asthma is very low and is often associated with out-of-hospital cardiorespiratory arrest before intubation. However, patients who have been intubated for severe asthma are at increased risk for death from subsequent exacerbations and must be managed accordingly in the outpatient setting.
David Van Sickle
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Adequate symptom control is a problem for many people with asthma. We asked whether weekly email reports on monitored use of inhaled, short-acting bronchodilators might improve scores on composite asthma-control measures. METHODS: Through an investigational electronic medication sensor attached to each participant's inhaler, we monitored 4 months' use of inhaled, short-acting bronchodilators. Participants completed surveys, including the Asthma Control Test(TM (ACT, to assess asthma control at entry and monthly thereafter. After the first month, participants received weekly email reports for 3 months. The reports summarized inhaled bronchodilator use during the preceding week and provided suggestions derived from National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP guidelines. Paired t-tests and random-effects mixed models were implemented to assess changes in primary asthma endpoints. RESULTS: Thirty individuals participated in the 4-month study; 29 provided complete asthma control information. Mean age was 36.8 years (range: 19-74 years; 52% of respondents were female. Mean ACT scores were 17.6 (Standard Deviation [SD] = 3.35 at entry and 18.4 (SD = 3.60 at completion of the first month. No significant difference appeared between ACT values at entry and completion of the first month (p = 0.66; however, after participants began receiving email reports and online information about their inhaler use, mean ACT scores increased 1.40 points (95% CI: 0.61, 2.18 for each subsequent study month. Significant decreases occurred in 2-week histories of daytime symptoms (β = -1.35, 95% CI: -2.65, -0.04 and nighttime symptoms (β = -0.84, 95% CI: -1.25, -0.44; no significant change in activity limitation (β = -0.21, 95% CI: -0.69, 0.26 was observed. Participants reported increased awareness and understanding of asthma patterns, level of control, bronchodilator use (timing, location and triggers, and improved
Juel, Caroline Trunk-Black; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli
Asthma is more prevalent in obese compared with normal weight subjects. Our aim has been to review current knowledge of the impact of obesity on asthma severity, asthma control, and response to therapy.Several studies have shown that overweight and obesity is associated with more severe asthma...... and impaired quality of life compared with normal weight individuals. Furthermore, obesity is associated with poorer asthma control, as assessed by asthma control questionnaires, limitations in daily activities, breathlessness and wheezing, use of rescue medication, unscheduled doctor visits, emergency...... department visits, and hospitalizations for acute asthma. Studies of the impact of a high body mass index (BMI) on response to asthma therapy have, however, revealed conflicting results. Most studies show that overweight and obesity is associated with less favorable response to asthma therapy with regard...
Al-Jahdali, Hamdan H.; Al-Hajjaj, Mohamed S.; Alanezi, Mohamed O.; Zeitoni, Mohamed O.; Al-Tassan, Turki H.
Objective was the evaluation of asthma control using the Asthma Control Test (ACT). The ACT was used to assess asthma control among patients with bronchial asthma visiting pulmonary clinics in 5 major tertiary care hospitals in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Each hospital had target of 300 patients to recruit over the period of the study from 1st September to 30th November 2006. The total number of patients studied was 1060 patients. Males constituted 442 (42%) and the females constituted 618 (58%), the median age was 38.56 years range 15-75. One-third of the patients had no formal education. The ACT score revealed uncontrolled asthma in 677 (64%), well controlled asthma in 328 (31%) and complete controlled in 55 (5%). There were no significant correlation between the age below 40 and above 40 years and level of asthma control p=0.12. However, the younger age group less than 20 had better control of asthma in comparison with older patients p=0.0001. There was significant correlation between level of asthma control and gender, males 44% had better asthma control than females (30%, p=0.0001). Control of bronchial asthma is still major concern in our population. Further studies are needed to explore the factors leading to poor asthma control. (author)
Lakupoch, Kingthong; Manuyakorn, Wiparat; Preutthipan, Aroonwan; Kamalaporn, Harutai
Providing asthma education about controller medication use and appropriate management of asthma exacerbation are the keys to improving the disease outcome. Many asthma guidelines recommend that physicians provide written asthma action plan (WAAP) to all of their asthmatic patients. However, the benefit of WAAP is unclear. Thus, we have created a new WAAP which is simplified in Thai and more user friendly. To determine the effectiveness of the newly developed asthma action plan in management of children with asthma. Asthmatic children who meet inclusion criteria all received the WAAP and they were followed up for 6 months with measurement of outcome variables, such as asthma exacerbation that required emergency room visit, unscheduled OPD visit, admission and school absence in order to compare with the past 6 months before receiving the WAAP. The analyzed outcomes of forty-nine children show significantly reduced emergency room visit (P-value 0.005), unscheduled OPD visit (P-value 0.046), admission days (P-value 0.026) and school absence days (P-value 0.022). Well controlled group and mild severity group were not the factors that contribute to decreased emergency room visit but step up therapy may be the co-factor to decreased ER visit. The results of this study suggest that the provision of newly developed WAAP is useful for improving self-care of asthma patients and reducing asthma exacerbation.
Al Aloola, Noha Abdullah; Nissen, Lisa; Alewairdhi, Huda Abdullaziz; Al Faryan, Nawaf; Saini, Bandana
This study sought to investigate parents' needs and preferences for school-based asthma support in Saudi Arabian primary schools. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted in the period between November 2015 and February 2016, with a convenience sample that comprised Saudi parents and carers of children with asthma. Recruitment of participants was primarily driven through Saudi primary schools; passive snowballing and social networks were used to boost participation rates further. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, translated and data were thematically organised using a latent content analysis approach. Twenty interviews were conducted. Six themes emerged from the interviews and were grouped into three major categories: (1) general asthma management issues; (2) school-based asthma management issues; and (3) communication dissatisfaction. Participants expressed concern at schools' social and physical environments and a lack of confidence in the ability of schools to manage their child's asthma, especially when their child was ill. Most of the participants advocated for staff training and school community engagement to improve the management of asthma in Saudi primary schools. This research clearly describes a need for school-based asthma support, including asthma-related policies, procedures and education on asthma and first aid in Saudi primary schools.
Quality is the core of education and it is important to standardization construction of primary and secondary education in urban (U) and rural (R) areas. The ultimate goal of the integration of urban and rural education is to pursuit quality urban and rural education. Based on analysing the related policy basis and the existing assessment models…
The North American medical physics community validates the education received by medical physicists and the clinical qualifications for medical physicists through accreditation of educational programs and certification of medical physicists. Medical physics educational programs (graduate education and residency education) are accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Medical Physics Education Programs (CAMPEP), whereas medical physicists are certified by several organizations, the most familiar of which is the American Board of Radiology (ABR). In order for an educational program to become accredited or a medical physicist to become certified, the applicant must meet certain specified standards set by the appropriate organization. In this Symposium, representatives from both CAMPEP and the ABR will describe the process by which standards are established as well as the process by which qualifications of candidates for accreditation or certification are shown to be compliant with these standards. The Symposium will conclude with a panel discussion. Learning Objectives: Recognize the difference between accreditation of an educational program and certification of an individual Identify the two organizations primarily responsible for these tasks Describe the development of educational standards Describe the process by which examination questions are developed GS is Executive Secretary of CAMPEP
Patton, Ryan M.; Buffington, Melanie L.
This article addresses the standards of technology in the visual arts, arguing the standards function as de facto policy, the guidelines that shape what teachers teach. In this study, we investigate how art education standards approach technology as a teaching tool and artmaking medium, analyzing the current National Visual Arts Standards, the…
... Asthma information. American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. http://acaai.org/asthma/about. Accessed Dec. 8, ... Asthma symptoms. American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. http://acaai.org/asthma/symptoms. Accessed Dec. 8, ...
Full Text Available ... 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Asthma & Community Health Know How to Use Your ... 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Asthma & Community Health File Formats Help: How do ...
... Asthma > Managing Asthma For Parents of Children with Asthma Watch On Demand Living with Asthma: Pathways to Better Management Register to watch a recording of our recent webcast on asthma treatment and management. Register Register While asthma affects ...
Del Giacco, S R; Bakirtas, A; Bel, E; Custovic, A; Diamant, Z; Hamelmann, E; Heffler, E; Kalayci, Ö; Saglani, S; Sergejeva, S; Seys, S; Simpson, A; Bjermer, L
It is well recognized that atopic sensitization is an important risk factor for asthma, both in adults and in children. However, the role of allergy in severe asthma is still under debate. The term 'Severe Asthma' encompasses a highly heterogeneous group of patients who require treatment on steps 4-5 of GINA guidelines to prevent their asthma from becoming 'uncontrolled', or whose disease remains 'uncontrolled' despite this therapy. Epidemiological studies on emergency room visits and hospital admissions for asthma suggest the important role of allergy in asthma exacerbations. In addition, allergic asthma in childhood is often associated with severe asthma in adulthood. A strong association exists between asthma exacerbations and respiratory viral infections, and interaction between viruses and allergy further increases the risk of asthma exacerbations. Furthermore, fungal allergy has been shown to play an important role in severe asthma. Other contributing factors include smoking, pollution and work-related exposures. The 'Allergy and Asthma Severity' EAACI Task Force examined the current evidence and produced this position document on the role of allergy in severe asthma. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Chappelow, Marsha A.
Describes National School Public Relations Association standards for school public relations and communications professionals and program. Includes reactions and comments about new Association standards from seven superintendents and four school public-relations professionals. (PKP)
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to find out efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy, as an adjunct to standard pharmacotherapy, in bronchial asthma. In a random-ized two-group design with pre-and post assessments, forty asthma patients were randomly allotted to two groups: self management group and cognitive behavior therapy group. Both groups were exposed to 6-8 weeks of intervention, asthma self management program and cognitive behavior therapy. Assessment measures used were-Semi structured interview schedule, Asthma Symptom Checklist, Asthma di-ary, Asthma Bother Profile, Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale, AQLQ and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate. Within group comparison showed significant improvement in both groups at the post assessment. Between group comparisons showed that CBT group reported significantly greater change than that of SM group. Cognitive behavior therapy helps in improving the managment of asthma.
Acute asthma is one of the most common reasons for children presenting to the emergency department. International guidelines for the management of acute paediatric asthma are widely available. In this study we examined how acute asthma in children is managed across hospitals in Ireland and compared Irish practice with standard international guidelines. We surveyed 54 paediatricians across 18 centres in Ireland. A total of 30 (55.5%) individual paediatricians across 17 (94%) centres replied. The majority of centres had a written protocol for the management of acute asthma. A large number of centres use MDI and spacer devices in acute management although doses used varied widely. Only 29% of centres had written asthma action plans available from the emergency department and 53% had plans available from the ward. Irish practice is largely inline with established guidelines. A national asthma strategy could further help to improve asthma care.
Ricciardolo, Fabio L M; Sorbello, Valentina; Ciprandi, Giorgio
The current review aims to revisit literature on exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in asthma phenotyping and management to clarify the utility of this test in clinical practice. It is increasingly evident that multiple profiles characterize asthma as a complex disease for which is necessary to find tools able to discriminate among these phenotypes to achieve the best therapeutic strategy for all asthmatic patients. Current findings indicate that FeNO, a noninvasive and easy-to-obtain biomarker, can be considered a useful tool in predicting asthma developing and exacerbation, in identifying specific asthma phenotypes, in improving asthma diagnosis and management in a selected population, and in monitoring efficacy of standard corticosteroid and biologic therapy. Based on this evidence, FeNO might become an appropriate tool for physicians to better define specific asthma phenotypes and to better deal with asthma worsening.
Underwood, Ryan; Spann, Lynda; Erickson, Karin; Povilaitis, Judy; Menditto, Louis; Jones, Terri; Sario, Vivienne; Verbeck, Kimberlee; Jacobi, Katherine; Michnal, Kenneth; Shelton-Meader, Sheree; Richens, Greg; Jones, Karin Erickson; Tighe, Denise; Wilhelm, Lee; Scott, Melissa
The standards in this document are for Hospitality and Tourism programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program. Minimally, the student will complete a two-year program to achieve all standards. The Hospitality and Tourism Standards Writing Team followed…
Klincarov, Ilija; Popeska, Biljana
The aim of this article is to propose a model for designing national physical education content standards in early stages of primary education in the Republic of Macedonia. Proposed model is based on the findings about motor structure of children at the early stage of primary education obtained in researches realized in 5 primary schools in Skopje, the Republic of Macedonia, in relation with Macedonian PE curriculum, and overarching standards for children at this age in California, USA,chosen...
... is to avoid being around those allergens. The doctor also may prescribe medicine for your allergies if you can't completely avoid ... Allergy-Triggered Asthma Your House: How to Make It Asthma-Safe Air Pollution & ...
Prins, L.C.; van Son, M.J.M.; Keimpema, A.R.; van Ranst, D; Pommer, A; Meijer, J.W.; Pop, V.J.M.
OBJECTIVE: Within the asthma population, difficult asthma (DA) is a severe condition in which patients present with frequent exacerbations, hospitalizations and emergency room visits. The identification and treatment of psychopathology is included in the management of DA. Psychopathology is supposed
Reactive airway - pollen; Bronchial asthma - pollen; Triggers - pollen; Allergic rhinitis - pollen ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. It is important to know your triggers because avoiding them is your first step toward feeling better. ...
Pediatric asthma - discharge; Wheezing - discharge; Reactive airway disease - discharge ... Your child has asthma , which causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow. In the hospital, the doctors and nurses helped ...
Qi, Zhi-Ye; Duan, Jing; Zhang, Quan; Cao, Zhi-Lan; Dai, Mei; Xiong, Jing-Jing; Mo, Ya-Xiong; Lu, Ping
To investigate the prevalence of childhood asthma, and to find the distribution characteristics, precipitating factors, diagnosis and treatment status, and to provide scientific data for improving the prevention and management of asthma in children in Kunming City, China. Children were selected by random cluster sampling. A standardized preliminary questionnaire was used for screening out possible patients in the survey. Diagnosis of asthma was confirmed by diagnostic criteria in suspected asthmatic children. Asthmatic children were further asked for past diagnosis and treatment with the questionnaire of asthma in children. The total asthma incidence rate was 1.40%. The prevalence of asthma in male and female children was 1.89% and 0.88% respectively (Pasthma (1.69%) than that of school-age children (6-14 years old, 1.21%). In all asthmatic children, 51.3% were previously diagnosed with classical asthma or cough variant asthma, 26.0% were suffered attacks from December to February, and 54.0% were suffered attacks at midnight or dawn. Respiratory tract infection (87.3%) was the most common triggers of asthma exacerbation. Antibiotics were used in 80.0%, bronchodilators in 66.0%, inhaled corticosteroid in 64.0%. A peak flow meter for monitoring lung function was used in 17% of asthmatic children over 5 years old. The prevalence of asthma is associated with age and gender in children aged 0-14 years old in Kunming City. Acute asthma attack occurs mostly in winter and at midnight or dawn. Respiratory tract infection is the most common trigger of asthma exacerbation. Nearly a half of patients with asthma had not been diagnosed with asthma in the early stage. Most asthmatic children use antibiotics and only two-thirds use bronchodilators or inhaled corticosteroid in the treatment. The treatment and management of asthma in children awaits improvement as well.
Westerheijden, Donald F.; Kohoutek, Jan; Eggins, Heather
The Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area (ESG for short) have been part of the regulative infrastructure of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) since 2005 (European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education, 2009).
When an adequate standard of asthma control is not achieved with maintenance treatment of inhaled corticosteroids, the addition of a long-acting beta(2)-adrenergic receptor agonist (LABA) bronchodilator is recommended. Using a combination product, salmeterol/fluticasone propionate (Seretide or Advair) or budesonide/formoterol (Symbicort) is preferred for convenience and avoids any risk that LABA might be used as monotherapy. As formoterol has a rapid onset of bronchodilator effect, the budesonide/formoterol combination can be used for both the maintenance and reliever components of asthma treatment (Symbicort SMART) and this is endorsed as an effective treatment by the Global Initiative for Asthma. The efficacy of this approach has been evaluated in a series of well conducted, controlled studies. Current control of asthma symptoms is improved or achieved with reduced total dose administration with Symbicort SMART compared with any reasonable alternate option. In every study, the risk of severe exacerbations was lower with Symbicort SMART than comparator treatment. Patients who benefit to the greatest extent are those with evidence of more severe asthma and greater exacerbation risk. When initiated in suitable patients in conjunction with appropriate education, Symbicort SMART is dominant in pharmacoeconomic terms. Symbicort SMART delivers improved asthma outcomes with lower treatment and social costs than any alternative.
Welsh, EJ; Bara, A; Barley, E; Cates, CJ
Background\\ud \\ud Caffeine has a variety of pharmacological effects; it is a weak bronchodilator and it also reduces respiratory muscle fatigue. It is chemically related to the drug theophylline which is used to treat asthma. It has been suggested that caffeine may reduce asthma symptoms and interest has been expressed in its potential role as an asthma treatment. A number of studies have explored the effects of caffeine in asthma, this is the first review to systematically examine and summar...
Addo-Yobo, Emmanuel O. D; Woodcock, Ashley; Allotey, Adorkor; Baffoe-Bonnie, Benjamin; Strachan, David; Custovic, Adnan
Editors' Summary Background. The proportion of children with asthma is thought to be increasing worldwide, and particularly among children that live in more developed countries. However, it is not clear why this is, since many different aspects of lifestyle and the environment have been linked with the onset of asthma. In Africa, asthma has typically been thought of as being very uncommon, and indeed in many African dialects there is no word for asthma or the symptoms, such as wheezing, that ...
Gerald, Joe K.; Zhang, Bin; McClure, Leslie A.; Bailey, William C.; Harrington, Kathy F.
Background Viral upper respiratory infections have been implicated as a major cause of asthma exacerbations among school age children. Regular hand washing is the most effective method to prevent the spread of viral respiratory infections but, effective hand washing practices are difficult to establish in schools. Objectives This randomized controlled trial evaluated whether a standardized regimen of hand washing plus alcohol-based hand sanitizer could reduce asthma exacerbations more than schools’ usual hand hygiene practices. Methods This was a two year, community-based, randomized controlled crossover trial. Schools were randomized to usual care then intervention (Sequence 1) or intervention then usual care (Sequence 2). Intervention schools were provided with alcohol-based hand sanitizer, hand soap, and hand hygiene education. The primary outcome was the proportion of students experiencing an asthma exacerbation each month. Generalized estimating equations were used to model the difference in the marginal rate of exacerbations between sequences while controlling for individual demographic factors and the correlation within each student and between students within each school. Results 527 students with asthma were enrolled among 31 schools. The hand hygiene intervention did not reduce the number of asthma exacerbations as compared to the schools’ usual hand hygiene practices (p=0.132). There was a strong temporal trend as both sequences experienced fewer exacerbations during Year 2 as compared to Year 1 (phand hygiene behaviors and resources in usual care schools. Therefore, these results should be viewed cautiously. PMID:23069487
Jassal, Mandeep S; Diette, Gregory B; Dowdy, David W
Applied environmental strategies for asthma control are often expensive, but may save longer-term healthcare costs. Whether these savings outweigh additional costs of implementing these strategies is uncertain. We conducted a systematic review to estimate the expenditures and savings of environmental interventions for asthma in the state of Maryland. Direct costs included hospitalizations, emergency room, and clinic visits. Indirect expenditures included costs of lost work productivity and travel incurred during the usage of healthcare services. We used decision analysis, assuming a hypothetical cohort of the approximated 49,290 pediatric individuals in Maryland with persistent asthma, to compare costs and benefits of environmental asthma interventions against the standard of care (no intervention) from the societal perspective. Three interventions among nine articles met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review: 1) environmental education using medical professionals; 2) education using non-medical personnel; and 3) multi-component strategy involving education with non-medical personnel, allergen-impermeable covers, and pest management. All interventions were found to be cost-saving relative to the standard of care. Home environmental education using non-medical professionals yielded the highest net savings of $14.1 million (95% simulation interval (SI): $-.283 million, $19.4 million), while the multi-component intervention resulted in the lowest net savings of $8.1 million (95% SI: $-4.9 million, $15.9 million). All strategies were most sensitive to the baseline number of hospitalizations in those not receiving targeted interventions for asthma. Limited environmental reduction strategies for asthma are likely to be cost-saving to the healthcare system in Maryland and should be considered for broader scale-up in other economically similar settings.
Salgado, Carlos E; Caballero A, Andres S; Garcia G, Elizabeth
The paper defines the asthma, includes topics as diagnostic, handling of the asthma, special situations as asthma and pregnancy, handling of the asthmatic patient's perioperatory and occupational asthma
Tice, Cori J; Cummings, Karen R; Gelberg, Kitty H
The objective of this paper is to determine the percent of adults with asthma attributable to work and describe characteristics of the work-related asthma population in New York State. Sociodemographic and control characteristics of those with and without work-related asthma are compared. Data from three population-based surveys and one case-based surveillance system were analyzed. Work-relatedness of asthma was determined by self-report for the population-based surveys and by physician report for the case-based system. Self-reported sociodemographic and control characteristics were analyzed for the population-based surveys by work-relatedness. The percent of work-relatedness among adults with current asthma in New York State ranged from 10.6% to 44.5%. Significantly more adults with work-related asthma had poorly controlled asthma than those without work-related asthma. More adults with work-related asthma also tended to be employed in the manufacturing, educational services, and public administration industries than the general population. The most frequently reported exposure was dust. Adults with work-related asthma have decreased control and adverse socioeconomic impacts compared to those with asthma that is not work-related. Increased recognition and physician reporting is necessary to further prevent the impact of work-related exposures.
Objectives. To detennine whether asthma in goldminers is caused by or contributed to by their working environment. Design. A case-control stUdy in which men with asthma working underground in goldmines were compared with underground goldminers without asthma in relation to their age, duration of exposure to the ...
Ali, Zarqa; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli
Epidemiological data has established increasing adiposity as a risk factor for incident asthma. However, the mechanisms underlying the association between obesity and asthma are incompletely understood. In the present paper, we review current knowledge of possible mechanisms mediating the observed...... association between obesity and asthma....
Bel, Elisabeth H.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma is a phenotypically heterogeneous disorder and, over the years, many different clinical subtypes of asthma have been described. A precise definition of asthma phenotypes is now becoming more and more important, not only for a better understanding of pathophysiologic
Del Giacco, Stefano R.; Bakirtas, A.; Bel, E.; Custovic, A.; Diamant, Z.; Hamelmann, E.; Heffler, E.; Kalayci, O.; Saglani, S.; Sergejeva, S.; Seys, S.; Simpson, A.; Bjermer, Leif
It is well recognized that atopic sensitization is an important risk factor for asthma, both in adults and in children. However, the role of allergy in severe asthma is still under debate. The term 'Severe Asthma' encompasses a highly heterogeneous group of patients who require treatment on steps
M. R. Partridge
Full Text Available Asthma currently affects an estimated 300 million people worldwide and the number is expected to rise to 400 million by 2025. Asthma morbidity remains high and the economic burden is significant. Approximately 20% of patients have severe persistent asthma. As patients with severe asthma often have a variety of conditions that may coexist with or be mistaken for asthma, careful diagnosis and management are essential, and adhering to a protocol for investigations is helpful. For patients with severe persistent asthma, the Global Initiative for Asthma 2005 guidelines recommend the use of high-dose inhaled corticosteroids in combination with a long-acting beta2-agonist, with one or more additional controller medications if required (step 4 therapy. However, recent studies have shown that asthma remains inadequately controlled in many patients with severe asthma, despite treatment in accordance with guidelines. Patients with severe asthma have the highest healthcare utilisation and mortality, and there is clearly an unmet need for the effective and safe treatment of patients with severe persistent allergic asthma who remain symptomatic despite optimised standard treatment. The latest guidelines suggest that omalizumab may address this unmet need.
The article examines how and why the method of "comparison against standards" has benefited non-state actors and businesses in the education sector. Drawing on brief examples from international standard schools in Qatar, Indonesia and Mongolia, the author examines how the global education industry uses the reference to…
Kersten, Jennifer Anna
In recent years there has been increasing interest in engineering education at the K-12 level, which has resulted in states adopting engineering standards as a part of their academic science standards. From a national perspective, the basis for research into engineering education at the K-12 level is the belief that it is of benefit to student…
Zancanella, Don; Alsup, Janet
When someone uses the term "standards," one tends to assume the topic under discussion is K-12 education, but standards for teacher preparation have their own parallel history. In English teacher education, that history has two strands: the NCTE Guidelines for the Preparation of Teachers of English Language Arts, which predate the "standards…
Collier-Harris, Christine A.; Goldman, Juliette D. G.
In many countries, there are no professional standards determining attributes, praxis, effectiveness and evaluation for teachers of relationships and sexuality education in schools. However, in the USA, a new set of pre-service teacher preparation standards has been developed for sexuality education and health. Australia has a set of generic…
Hung, David; Lee, Shu-Shing; Wu, Longkai
Educational innovations in Singapore have reached fruition. It is now important to consider different innovations and issues that enable innovations to scale and become widespread. This proposition paper outlines two views of scaling and its relation to education systems. We argue that a linear model used in the medical field stresses top-down…
Grubbs, Michael E.; Strimel, Greg J.; Huffman, Tanner
Interest in engineering at the P-12 level has increased in recent years, largely in response to STEM educational reform. Despite greater attention to the value, importance, and use of engineering for teaching and learning, the educational community has engaged minimally in its deliberate and coherent study. Specifically, few efforts have been…
Camara, Wayne J.
Real and perceived misuses of educational tests, errors in test scoring and test use, and incidents of cheating on tests have been widely reported in local and national media. As educational tests take on additional importance for students, teachers, and schools, there is appropriate concern about the quality of assessments and the appropriate use…
Engel, George L.
The central principle of education education advocated by Flexner was mastery of the scientific method and its application to all dimensions of medicine. The biomedical model has been responsible for curricular designs that have understressed the application of the scientific method to clinical data and the more person-oriented, psychosocial…
Kuethe, Maarten; Vaessen-Verberne, Anja; Mulder, Paul; Bindels, Patrick; van Aalderen, Wim
For children with stable asthma, to test non-inferiority of care provided by a hospital-based specialised asthma nurse versus a general practitioner (GP) or paediatrician. Randomised controlled trial evaluating standard care by a GP, paediatrician or an asthma nurse, with two-year follow-up. 107
M.C. Kuethe (Maarten ); A.A.P.H. Vaessen-Verberne (Anja); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul); P.J.E. Bindels (Patrick); W.M.C. van Aalderen (Willem)
textabstractAims: For children with stable asthma, to test non-inferiority of care provided by a hospital-based specialised asthma nurse versus a general practitioner (GP) or paediatrician. Methods: Randomised controlled trial evaluating standard care by a GP, paediatrician or an asthma nurse, with
Selroos, Olof; Kupczyk, Maciej; Kuna, Piotr; Łacwik, Piotr; Bousquet, Jean; Brennan, David; Palkonen, Susanna; Contreras, Javier; FitzGerald, Mark; Hedlin, Gunilla; Johnston, Sebastian L; Louis, Renaud; Metcalf, Leanne; Walker, Samantha; Moreno-Galdó, Antonio; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Rosado-Pinto, José; Powell, Pippa; Haahtela, Tari
This review presents seven national asthma programmes to support the European Asthma Research and Innovation Partnership in developing strategies to reduce asthma mortality and morbidity across Europe. From published data it appears that in order to influence asthma care, national/regional asthma programmes are more effective than conventional treatment guidelines. An asthma programme should start with the universal commitments of stakeholders at all levels and the programme has to be endorsed by political and governmental bodies. When the national problems have been identified, the goals of the programme have to be clearly defined with measures to evaluate progress. An action plan has to be developed, including defined re-allocation of patients and existing resources, if necessary, between primary care and specialised healthcare units or hospital centres. Patients should be involved in guided self-management education and structured follow-up in relation to disease severity. The three evaluated programmes show that, thanks to rigorous efforts, it is possible to improve patients' quality of life and reduce hospitalisation, asthma mortality, sick leave and disability pensions. The direct and indirect costs, both for the individual patient and for society, can be significantly reduced. The results can form the basis for development of further programme activities in Europe. Copyright ©ERS 2015.
Full Text Available This review presents seven national asthma programmes to support the European Asthma Research and Innovation Partnership in developing strategies to reduce asthma mortality and morbidity across Europe. From published data it appears that in order to influence asthma care, national/regional asthma programmes are more effective than conventional treatment guidelines. An asthma programme should start with the universal commitments of stakeholders at all levels and the programme has to be endorsed by political and governmental bodies. When the national problems have been identified, the goals of the programme have to be clearly defined with measures to evaluate progress. An action plan has to be developed, including defined re-allocation of patients and existing resources, if necessary, between primary care and specialised healthcare units or hospital centres. Patients should be involved in guided self-management education and structured follow-up in relation to disease severity. The three evaluated programmes show that, thanks to rigorous efforts, it is possible to improve patients' quality of life and reduce hospitalisation, asthma mortality, sick leave and disability pensions. The direct and indirect costs, both for the individual patient and for society, can be significantly reduced. The results can form the basis for development of further programme activities in Europe.
Stenner, A. Jackson; And Others
Three assumptions underlying the use of norm referenced tests are examined: (1) that expressing treatment effects in a standard score metric permits aggregation of effects across grades; (2) commonly used standardized tests are sufficiently comparable to permit aggregation of results across tests; and (3) the summer loss of achievement observed in…
Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Wage and Hour Div.
The Fair Labor Standards Act contains provisions and standards concerning minimum wages, equal pay, maximum hours and overtime pay, recordkeeping, and child labor. These basic requirements apply to employees engaged in interstate commerce or in the production of goods for interstate commerce and also to employees in certain enterprises that are so…
Reardon, Betty A.
Asserts that, in teaching about human rights, the international standards should be the fundamental core of the content and values to be communicated. Recommends that teachers should use the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as the standard by which the actions of individuals and governments should be compared. (CFR)
Kamalaporn, Harutai; Chawalitdamrong, Pongpan; Preutthipan, Aroonwan
Childhood asthma is a substantial health burden in Thailand. Due to a lack of pediatric respiratory specialists (pediatric pulmonologists and allergists; RS), most Thai children are cared for by general pediatricians (pediatric primary care providers (PCP)). We investigated whether current practices of Thai pediatricians complied with asthma guidelines and compared practices (diagnosis and treatments) provided by PCP and RS. A cross-sectional study was conducted using electronic surveys including four case scenarios of different asthma phenotypes distributed to Thai pediatricians. Asthma diagnosis and management were evaluated for compliance with standard guidelines. The practices of PCP and RS were compared. From 800 surveys distributed, there were 405 respondents (51%). Most respondents (81%) were PCP, who preferred to use clinical diagnosis rather than laboratory investigations to diagnose asthma. For acute asthmatic attacks, 58% of the pediatricians prescribed a systemic corticosteroid. For uncontrolled asthma, 89% of the pediatricians prescribed at least one controller. For exercise-induced bronchospasm, 55% of the pediatricians chose an inhaled bronchodilator, while 38% chose a leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA). For virus-induced wheeze, 40% of the respondents chose an LTRA, while 15% chose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). PCP prescribed more oral bronchodilators (31% vs. 18%, p = 0.02), antibiotics (20% vs. 6%, p attack. Most of the Thai pediatricians' practices toward diagnosis and treatment of acute asthmatic attack and uncontrolled asthma conform to the guidelines. PCP prescribed more oral bronchodilators, antibiotics, and antihistamines than RS.
Full Text Available The article discusses the ways of problem solving in the sphere of pedagogical education to prepare teachers for lifelong professional self-development. The analysis and fulfillment of requirements of modern educational standards help to solve the problem of training future teachers based on system-activity approach, using personal experience of students and modern technologies. The professional teacher standard - is the main point in improving the quality of education in training teachers.
Sorokina, T S
The article considers actual issues of teaching of history of medicine in Russia in connection with transition of higher medical school of Russia to the new Federal state educational standard of high education if the third generation meaning placement of discipline in education process, programs of training, personnel support.
Ayad, Fuad Ismail; Ajrami, Sameh Jamil
In light of this successive technological change, there has been an ongoing need for the development of technical education, so that the graduate is able to keep up with the requirements of the labor market on the one hand, and has a continuing education skills on the other. International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) standards are…
Joyce, Kathryn E.; Cartwright, Nancy
The United States considers educating all students to a threshold of adequate outcomes to be a central goal of educational justice. The No Child Left Behind Act introduced evidence-based policy and accountability protocols to ensure that all students receive an education that enables them to meet adequacy standards. Unfortunately, evidence-based…
James, Alisa R.; Bullock, Kerri
Physical education teachers are expected to implement the English language arts (ELA) Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in their instruction. This has proved to be challenging for many physical educators. The purpose of this article is to provide developmentally appropriate examples of how to incorporate the ELA CCSS into physical education,…
Sivapalan, Pradeesh; Diamant, Zuzana; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has significant impact on asthma incidence and manifestations. The purpose of the review is to discuss recent observations regarding the association between obesity and asthma focusing on underlying mechanisms, clinical presentation, response to therapy and effect...... of weight reduction. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical and epidemiological studies indicate that obese patients with asthma may represent a unique phenotype, which is more difficult to control, less responsive to asthma medications and by that may have higher healthcare utilization. A number of common comorbidities...... have been linked to both obesity and asthma, and may, therefore, contribute to the obese-asthma phenotype. Furthermore, recently published studies indicate that even a modest weight reduction can improve clinical manifestations and outcome of asthma. SUMMARY: Compared with normal-weight patients, obese...
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Riera, Antonio; Ocasio, Agueda; Tiyyagura, Gunjan; Krumeich, Lauren; Ragins, Kyle; Thomas, Anita; Trevino, Sandra; Vaca, Federico E
In this article, we analyze qualitative data from a purposeful sample of limited English proficiency (LEP) asthma health caregivers. We used ethnically concordant, semistructured, in-depth Spanish-language interviews and a follow-up focus group to explore issues related to communication during pediatric asthma encounters in medical settings. Inductive coding of Spanish transcripts by a bilingual research team was performed until thematic saturation was reached. Several key findings emerged. LEP caregivers encountered significant asthma burdens related to emotional stress, observed physical changes, and communication barriers. Language-discordant communication and the use of ad hoc interpreters were common. This finding is complex, and was influenced by perceptions of interpreter availability, delays in care, feelings of mistrust toward others, and individual emotional responses. Language-concordant education and suitable action plans were valued and desired. We discuss a revealing depiction of the LEP caregiver experience with asthma health communication and recommend areas for further inquiry. © The Author(s) 2014.
Emily Joy Callander
Full Text Available Education attainment will impact upon an individual’s capacity to engage in the labour force, their living standards and hence their poverty status. As such, education should be included in measures of poverty. However, it is not known what a sufficient level of education to have a decent standard of living is. Using the 2003 Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers different levels of education attainment were tested for their association with labour force participation and income. Based upon this, it was concluded that Year 12 or higher is a sufficient level of education attainment for 15 to 64 year olds; and Year 10 or higher for people over the age of 65 years. This is in line with current government policies to improve Year 12 completion rates. Knowing what a ‘sufficient level of education attainment’ is, allows education to be included in multidimensional measures of poverty that view education as a key dimension of disadvantage.
Backer, V; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Harving, H
Suboptimal asthma control may be caused by a combination of factors, such as nonadherence to guidelines, lack of compliance, and poor asthma education. The aim was to assess patients' knowledge of asthma and different management strategies, including patients' attitudes toward involvement...... of uncontrolled disease with night asthma (16%), daily symptoms (18%), or exercise-induced asthma (11%) were found. Of 285 participants with persistent asthma, 70% used inhaled corticosteroids. Lung function was measured within the preceding 6 months in 24% of patients, whereas 7% had never had their lung...
Backer, Vibeke; Ulrik, Charlotte S.; Harving, Henrik
Suboptimal asthma control may be caused by a combination of factors, such as nonadherence to guidelines, lack of compliance, and poor asthma education. The aim was to assess patients' knowledge of asthma and different management strategies, including patients' attitudes toward involvement...... of uncontrolled disease with night asthma (16%), daily symptoms (18%), or exercise-induced asthma (11%) were found. Of 285 participants with persistent asthma, 70% used inhaled corticosteroids. Lung function was measured within the preceding 6 months in 24% of patients, whereas 7% had never had their lung...
Brett, Jennifer; Brimhall, Joseph; Healey, Dale; Pfeifer, Joseph; Prenguber, Marcia
This review examines the educational accreditation standards of four licensed complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) disciplines (naturopathic medicine, chiropractic health care, acupuncture and oriental medicine, and massage therapy), and identifies public health and other competencies found in those standards that contribute to cooperation and collaboration among the health care professions. These competencies may form a foundation for interprofessional education. The agencies that accredit the educational programs for each of these disciplines are individually recognized by the United States Department (Secretary) of Education. Patients and the public are served when healthcare practitioners collaborate and cooperate. This is facilitated when those practitioners possess competencies that provide them the knowledge and skills to work with practitioners from other fields and disciplines. Educational accreditation standards provide a framework for the delivery of these competencies. Requiring these competencies through accreditation standards ensures that practitioners are trained to optimally function in integrative clinical care settings. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maspero, Jorge F; Jardim, Jose R; Aranda, Alvaro; Tassinari C, Paolo; Gonzalez-Diaz, Sandra N; Sansores, Raul H; Moreno-Cantu, Jorge J; Fish, James E
In 2011 the Latin America Asthma Insight and Management (LA AIM) survey explored the realities of living with asthma. We investigated perception, knowledge, and attitudes related to asthma among Latin American asthma patients. Asthma patients aged ≥12 years from four Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Venezuela) and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico responded to questions during face-to-face interviews. A sample size of 2,169 patients (approximately 400 patients/location) provided an accurate representation of asthma patients' opinions. Questions probed respondents' views on topics such as levels of asthma control, frequency and duration of exacerbations, and current and recent use of asthma medications. A total of 2,169 adults or parents of children with asthma participated in the LA AIM survey. At least 20% of respondents experienced symptoms every day or night or most days or nights. Although 60% reported their disease as well or completely controlled, only 8% met guideline criteria for well-controlled asthma. 47% of respondents reported episodes when their asthma symptoms were more frequent or severe than normal, and 44% reported seeking acute care for asthma in the past year. Asthma patients in Latin America overestimated their degree of asthma control. The LA AIM survey demonstrated the discrepancy between patient perception of asthma control and guideline-mandated criteria. Additional education is required to teach patients that, by more closely following asthma management strategies outlined by current guidelines more patients can achieve adequate asthma control.
Full Text Available Objective: Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. However, few data on occupational and environmental risk factors of asthma are available, particularly in Asian adults. Based on a national cross-sectional survey, we assessed the prevalence and risk factors of asthma in Chinese adults. Methods: A total of 9974 participants aged 15 years and over in seven Chinese cities were selected using a stratified four-stage random sampling. All participants were interviewed face-to-face in their homes using a standardized self-administered questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were adopted to determine various risk factors for asthma. Results: The prevalence of self-reported lifetime asthma was 2.46% among the entire adult population, 3.02% among males and 1.93% among females. The prevalence varied by age group, ethnicity, marital status, education, and floor space per person (p < 0.05. After adjusting for socio-demographic variables and smoking, we found independent occupational and environmental determinants of asthma, including a clearance-related job (OR = 2.28, 95%CI: 1.07–4.89, occupational exposure to industrial or occupational poisonous gas (OR = 4.21, 95%CI: 2.43–7.30, having large amounts of carpet in the workplace (OR = 2.61, 95%CI: 1.20–5.69 and using coal for cooking (OR = 2.65, 95%CI: 1.26–5.57. Conclusions: Asthma is a serious public health problem in China. Our study provides important updated information on the prevalence of asthma and its associated risk factors, which may help us better understand the epidemiology of asthma and prevent this disorder.
Fu, Qing-Ling; Du, Yue; Xu, Geng; Zhang, Hua; Cheng, Lei; Wang, Yan-Jun; Zhu, Dong-Dong; Lv, Wei; Liu, Shi-Xi; Li, Pei-Zhong; Shi, Jian-Bo; Ou, Chun-Quan
Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. However, few data on occupational and environmental risk factors of asthma are available, particularly in Asian adults. Based on a national cross-sectional survey, we assessed the prevalence and risk factors of asthma in Chinese adults. A total of 9974 participants aged 15 years and over in seven Chinese cities were selected using a stratified four-stage random sampling. All participants were interviewed face-to-face in their homes using a standardized self-administered questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were adopted to determine various risk factors for asthma. The prevalence of self-reported lifetime asthma was 2.46% among the entire adult population, 3.02% among males and 1.93% among females. The prevalence varied by age group, ethnicity, marital status, education, and floor space per person ( p occupational and environmental determinants of asthma, including a clearance-related job (OR = 2.28, 95%CI: 1.07-4.89), occupational exposure to industrial or occupational poisonous gas (OR = 4.21, 95%CI: 2.43-7.30), having large amounts of carpet in the workplace (OR = 2.61, 95%CI: 1.20-5.69) and using coal for cooking (OR = 2.65, 95%CI: 1.26-5.57). Asthma is a serious public health problem in China. Our study provides important updated information on the prevalence of asthma and its associated risk factors, which may help us better understand the epidemiology of asthma and prevent this disorder.
Garwick, Ann W; Svavarsdóttir, Erla Kolbrun; Seppelt, Ann M; Looman, Wendy S; Anderson, Lori S; Örlygsdóttir, Brynja
To identify and compare how school nurses in Reykjavik, Iceland and St. Paul, Minnesota coordinated care for youth with asthma (ages 10-18) and to develop an asthma school nurse care coordination model. Little is known about how school nurses coordinate care for youth with asthma in different countries. A qualitative descriptive study design using focus group data. Six focus groups with 32 school nurses were conducted in Reykjavik (n = 17) and St. Paul (n = 15) using the same protocol between September 2008 and January 2009. Descriptive content analytic and constant comparison strategies were used to categorize and compare how school nurses coordinated care, which resulted in the development of an International School Nurse Asthma Care Coordination Model. Participants in both countries spontaneously described a similar asthma care coordination process that involved information gathering, assessing risk for asthma episodes, prioritizing healthcare needs and anticipating and planning for student needs at the individual and school levels. This process informed how they individualized symptom management, case management and/or asthma education. School nurses played a pivotal part in collaborating with families, school and healthcare professionals to ensure quality care for youth with asthma. Results indicate a high level of complexity in school nurses' approaches to asthma care coordination that were responsive to the diverse and changing needs of students in school settings. The conceptual model derived provides a framework for investigators to use in examining the asthma care coordination process of school nurses in other geographic locations. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Heikkinen, Sirpa A M; Mäkikyrö, Elina M S; Hugg, Timo T; Jaakkola, Maritta S; Jaakkola, Jouni J K
According to our systematic literature review, no previous study has assessed potential effects of regular exercise on asthma control among young adults. We hypothesized that regular exercise improves asthma control among young adults. We studied 162 subjects with current asthma recruited from a population-based cohort study of 1,623 young adults 20-27 years of age. Asthma control was assessed by the occurrence of asthma-related symptoms, including wheezing, shortness of breath, cough, and phlegm production, during the past 12 months. Asthma symptom score was calculated based on reported frequencies of these symptoms (range: 0-12). Exercise was assessed as hours/week. In Poisson regression, adjusting for gender, age, smoking, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, and education, the asthma symptom score reduced by 0.09 points per 1 hour of exercise/week (95% CI: 0.00 to 0.17). Applying the "Low exercise" quartile as the reference, "Medium exercise" reduced the asthma symptom score by 0.66 (-0.39 to 1.72), and "High exercise" reduced it significantly by 1.13 (0.03 to 2.22). The effect was strongest among overweight subjects. Our results provide new evidence that regular exercising among young adults improves their asthma control. Thus, advising about exercise should be included as an important part of asthma self-management in clinical practice.
Andriana I. Papaioannou
Full Text Available Although studies show that control of asthma can be achieved in the majority of patients, surveys repeatedly show that this is not the case in real life. Important measures to implement in order to achieve asthma control are trained healthcare professionals, a good patient–doctor relationship, patient education, avoidance of exposure to triggers, personalised management and adherence to treatment. These measures help the majority of asthma patients but have not yet been widely implemented and there should be a concerted action for their implementation. Moreover, further and focused research is needed in severe/refractory asthma.
Barr, Elissa M.; Goldfarb, Eva S.; Russell, Susan; Seabert, Denise; Wallen, Michele; Wilson, Kelly L.
Background: Teaching sexuality education to support young people's sexual development and overall sexual health is both needed and supported. Data continue to highlight the high rates of teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted disease, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, among young people in the United States as well as the…
Examination malpractice had been and is still a serious canker-worm toNigerian education system. This hydra-headed monster has eaten deep intothe bone marrows of Nigerians even from primary school levels to tertiaryinstitutions. No wonder, the researchers sought to find out the opinions ofprincipals, teachers and ...
PhD Everard van Kemenade
The hard side in total quality management of measurement and data analysis can only be successful if it is replenished with the soft side, the people side. This conclusion has serious consequences for the education of professionals, especially managers. Managers should be trained in soft skills,
Alsu Raufovna Kamaleeva
Full Text Available The article presents an experience of educational courses planning and technologies of it realization considering level and type of training at the time of new educational standards introduction in Russia. The research was conducted on the basis of specially developed questionnaire, the experimental educational courses and programs observation, the study of existing teachers experience, that permitted to develop methodical recommendations, didactic and experimental supplies. It reveals that planning of educational course within the framework of educational module and student’s competence forming approaches in accordance with the requirements of The Federal State Educational Standards (FSES, is accompanied with the range of difficulties. They are: determination of the course related to the formation of certain required competences; defining the content of the modules; establishing of inter subject connections (preliminary, parallel, and subsequent; strengthening of student’s vocational determination (professional abilities development of the future employee.
Feeley, Thomas Hugh; Anker, Ashley E.; Soriano, Rainier; Friedman, Erica
Medical students at Mount Sinai School of Medicine participated in an intervention designed to promote knowledge and improved communication skills related to cadaveric organ donation. The intervention required students to interact with a standardized patient for approximately 10 minutes and respond to questions posed about organ donation in a…
Tackett, Sean; Grant, Janet; Mmari, Kristin
To create an evaluation plan for the World Federation for Medical Education (WFME) accreditation standards for basic medical education. We conceptualized the 100 basic standards from "Basic Medical Education: WFME Global Standards for Quality Improvement: The 2012 Revision" as medical education program objectives. Standards were simplified into evaluable items, which were then categorized as inputs, processes, outputs and/or outcomes to generate a logic model and corresponding plan for data collection. WFME standards posed significant challenges to evaluation due to complex wording, inconsistent formatting and lack of existing assessment tools. Our resulting logic model contained 244 items. Standard B 5.1.1 separated into 24 items, the most for any single standard. A large proportion of items (40%) required evaluation of more than one input, process, output and/or outcome. Only one standard (B 3.2.2) was interpreted as requiring evaluation of a program outcome. Current WFME standards are difficult to use for evaluation planning. Our analysis may guide adaptation and revision of standards to make them more evaluable. Our logic model and data collection plan may be useful to medical schools planning an institutional self-review and to accrediting authorities wanting to provide guidance to schools under their purview.
Jacquemin, Bénédicte; Kauffmann, Francine; Pin, Isabelle; Le Moual, Nicole; Bousquet, Jean; Gormand, Frédéric; Just, Jocelyne; Nadif, Rachel; Pison, Christophe; Vervloet, Daniel; Künzli, Nino; Siroux, Valérie
Background The associations between exposure to air pollution and asthma control are not well known. The objective is to assess the association between long term exposure to NO2, O3 and PM10 and asthma control in the EGEA2 study (2003–2007). Methods Modeled outdoor NO2, O3 and PM10 estimates were linked to each residential address using the 4-km grid air pollutant surface developed by the French Institute of Environment for 2004. Asthma control was assessed in 481 subjects with current asthma using a multidimensional approach following the 2006–2009 GINA guidelines. Multinomial and ordinal logistic regressions were conducted adjusted on sex, age, BMI, education, smoking and use of inhaled corticosteroids. The association between air pollution and the three domains of asthma control (symptoms, exacerbations and lung function) was assessed. Odds Ratios (ORs) are reported per Inter Quartile Range (IQR). Results Median concentrations (μg.m−3) were 32(IQR 25–38) for NO2 (n=465), 46(41–52) for O3 and 21(18–21) for PM10 (n=481). In total, 44%, 29% and 27% had controlled, partly-controlled and uncontrolled asthma. The ordinal ORs for O3 and PM10 with asthma control were 1.69(95%CI 1.22–2.34) and 1.35(95%CI 1.13–1.64) respectively. When including both pollutants in the same model, both associations persisted. Associations were not modified by sex, smoking status, use of inhaled corticosteroids, atopy, season of examination or BMI. Both pollutants were associated with each of the three main domains of control. Conclusions The results suggest that long-term exposure to PM10 and O3 is associated with uncontrolled asthma in adults, defined by symptoms, exacerbations and lung function. Abstract Word count: 250 Key words: air pollution, asthma, asthma control PMID:21690606
Background: Asthma is a chronic disease which places considerable economic, social and public health burdens on the society. Education, occupation and income are the most widely used indicators of socioeconomic status (SES). Studies have shown increased asthma hospital admissions for those who are materially ...
MELLIS, CM; BOWES, G; HENRY, RL; MITCHELL, CA; PHELAN, PD; SHAH, S; SHAROTA, L; STAUGAS, R; SLY, PD; YOUNG, L
Since asthma is the most common chronic illness in childhood, many of the problems associated with this condition will impact on the child's education. Because of widespread concerns regarding the management of asthma in schools, a subcommittee of the Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand,
Chittleborough, Catherine R; Taylor, Anne W; Dal Grande, Eleonora; Gill, Tiffany K; Grant, Janet F; Adams, Robert J; Wilson, David H; Ruffin, Richard E
Socioeconomic inequalities in health have been shown to vary for different diseases and by gender. This study aimed to examine gender differences in associations between asthma and socioeconomic disadvantage. Socioeconomic variables were assessed among men and women in the North West Adelaide Health Study, a representative population cohort (n = 4060) aged 18 years and over in metropolitan South Australia. Asthma was determined from spirometry and self-reported doctor diagnosis. The prevalence of asthma was 12.0% (95% CI: 11.1-13.1), and was significantly higher among women (13.5%) than men (10.5%). For participants aged 18-64 years a higher prevalence of asthma was associated with an education level of secondary school or lower, or not being in the paid labour force among men, and with a gross annual household income of $20,000 or less among women. Among socioeconomically advantaged groups, the prevalence of asthma was significantly higher among women than men. Socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with higher asthma prevalence, although this varied by gender depending on the indicator of socioeconomic position used. Men with low education or those not employed in the paid labour force had higher asthma prevalence than more socioeconomically advantaged men. Women with low income had higher asthma prevalence than those with higher income. Among all socioeconomically advantaged groups, and also the low-income group, women experienced a higher prevalence of asthma than men.
de Groot, Jantina C.; ten Brinke, Anneke; Bel, Elisabeth H. D.
Now that it is generally accepted that asthma is a heterogeneous condition, phenotyping of asthma patients has become a mandatory part of the diagnostic workup of all patients who do not respond satisfactorily to standard therapy with inhaled corticosteroids. Late-onset eosinophilic asthma is
Full Text Available ... CDC Publications on Asthma National Asthma Control Program America Breathing Easier Guide for State Programs Interventions Community ... over their asthma. Quick Links Asthma Action Plan America Breathing Easier [PDF – 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma ...
Asthma triggers - stay away from; Asthma triggers - avoiding; Reactive airway disease - triggers; Bronchial asthma - triggers ... clothes. They should leave the coat outside or away from your child. Ask people who work at ...
... Swine Variant Pandemic Other Flu and People with Asthma Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Take Steps to Fight the Flu What is Asthma? Asthma is a lung disease that is caused ...
Reddy, Monica B; Covar, Ronina A
This review describes the literature over the past 18 months that evaluated childhood asthma phenotypes, highlighting the key aspects of these studies, and comparing these studies to previous ones in this area. Recent studies on asthma phenotypes have identified new phenotypes on the basis of statistical analyses (using cluster analysis and latent class analysis methodology) and have evaluated the outcomes and associated risk factors of previously established early childhood asthma phenotypes that are based on asthma onset and patterns of wheezing illness. There have also been investigations focusing on immunologic, physiologic, and genetic correlates of various phenotypes, as well as identification of subphenotypes of severe childhood asthma. Childhood asthma remains a heterogeneous condition, and investigations into these various presentations, risk factors, and outcomes are important since they can offer therapeutic and prognostic relevance. Further investigation into the immunopathology and genetic basis underlying childhood phenotypes is important so therapy can be tailored accordingly.
Ulrik, Charlotte S
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has significant negative impact on asthma control and risk of exacerbations. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent studies evaluating the effects of weight reduction on asthma control in obese adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical studies have shown that weight...... reduction in obese patients is associated with improvements in symptoms, use of controller medication, and asthma-related quality of life together with a reduction in the risk for severe exacerbations. Furthermore, several studies have also revealed improvements in lung function and airway responsiveness...... reduction in obese adults with asthma leads to an overall improvement in asthma control, including airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. Weight reduction should be a cornerstone in the management of obese patients with asthma....
Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli
Late-onset asthma is common, associated with poor outcome, underdiagnosed and undertreated, possibly due to the modifying effect of ageing on disease expression. Although the diagnostic work-up in elderly individuals suspected of having asthma follows the same steps as in younger individuals (case......, to objectively confirm asthma. If necessary, a trial of oral or inhaled corticosteroid might be necessary. Asthma can be diagnosed when increased airflow variability is identified in a symptomatic patient, and if the patient does not have a history of exposure, primarily smoking, known to cause chronic...... obstructive pulmonary disease, the diagnosis is asthma even if the patient does not have fully reversible airflow obstruction. Pharmacological therapy in patients with late-onset asthma follows international guidelines, including treatment with the lowest effective dose of inhaled corticosteroid to minimize...
This quantitative ex post facto study examined how race and gender, as elements of culture, influence the development of common misconceptions among STEM students. Primary data came from a standardized test: the Digital Logic Concept Inventory (DLCI) developed by Drs. Geoffrey L. Herman, Michael C. Louis, and Craig Zilles from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The sample consisted of a cohort of 82 STEM students recruited from three universities in Northern Louisiana. Microsoft Excel and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) were used for data computation. Two key concepts, several sub concepts, and 19 misconceptions were tested through 11 items in the DLCI. Statistical analyses based on both the Classical Test Theory (Spearman, 1904) and the Item Response Theory (Lord, 1952) yielded similar results: some misconceptions in the DLCI can reliably be predicted by the Race or the Gender of the test taker. The research is significant because it has shown that some misconceptions in a STEM discipline attracted students with similar ethnic backgrounds differently; thus, leading to the existence of some cultural bias in the standardized test. Therefore the study encourages further research in cultural validity in standardized tests. With culturally valid tests, it will be possible to increase the effectiveness of targeted teaching and learning strategies for STEM students from diverse ethnic backgrounds. To some extent, this dissertation has contributed to understanding, better, the gap between high enrollment rates and low graduation rates among African American students and also among other minority students in STEM disciplines.
Full Text Available Taking as a reference the existing literature, through this article intends to make a brief presentation of curriculum standardization and its implementation in the field of education. Standards, taken from the business field, are considered to be a necessary instrument for assurance of educational quality. However, empirical research, as well as critical voices in relation to their applicability, in all educational contexts, emphasize that these cultural homogenized and unify teaching, which does not guarantee an improvement in learning, since it tends to ignore cultural diversity in schools. Standards, taken from the business field, are considered to be a necessary instrument for assurance of educational quality. However, empirical research, as well as critical voices in relation to their applicability, in all educational contexts, emphasize that these cultural homogenized and unify teaching, which does not guarantee an improvement in learning, since it tends to ignore cultural diversity in schools.
Saini, Bandana; LeMay, Kate; Emmerton, Lynne; Krass, Ines; Smith, Lorraine; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Stewart, Kay; Burton, Deborah; Armour, Carol
To assess any improvements in knowledge of asthma patients after a tailored education program delivered by pharmacists and measure the sustainability of any improvements. To ascertain patients' perceptions about any changes in their knowledge. Ninety-six specially trained pharmacists recruited patients based on their risk of poor asthma control. A tailored intervention was delivered to patients based on individual needs and goals, and was conducted at three or four time points over six months. Asthma knowledge was assessed at the beginning and end of the service, and six and 12 months after it had ended. Patients' perceptions of the impact of the service on their knowledge were explored qualitatively in interviews. The 96 pharmacists recruited 570 patients, 398 (70%) finished. Asthma knowledge significantly improved as a result of the service (7.65 ± 2.36, n=561, to 8.78 ± 2.14, n=393). This improvement was retained for at least 12 months after the service. Patients reported how the knowledge and skills gained had led to a change in the way they managed their asthma. Improvements in knowledge are achievable and sustainable if pharmacists used targeted educational interventions. Pharmacist educational interventions are an efficient way to improve asthma knowledge in the community. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wu, Fang-qin; Wang, Yan-ling; Wu, Ying; Guo, Ming
Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of nursing core competency standard education in undergraduate nursing training. Methods: Forty-two nursing undergraduates from the class of 2007 were recruited as the control group receiving conventional teaching methods, while 31 students from the class of 2008 were recruited as the experimental group receiving nursing core competency standard education. Teaching outcomes were evaluated using comprehensive theoretical knowledge examination and objec...
Full Text Available Asthma is the most common chronic lower respiratory tract disease in childhood throughout the world. Despite advances in asthma management, acute exacerbations continue to be a major problem in patients and they result in a considerable burden on direct/indirect health care providers. A severe exacerbation occurring within 1 year is an independent risk factor. Respiratory tract viruses have emerged as the most frequent triggers of exacerbations in children. It is becoming increasingly clear that interactions may exist between viruses and other triggers, increasing the likelihood of an exacerbation. In this study, we provide an overview of current knowledge about asthma exacerbations, including its definition, impact on health care providers, and associated factors. Prevention management in intermittent asthma as well as intermittent wheeze in pre-school children and those with persistent asthma are discussed. Our review findings support the importance of controlling persistent asthma, as indicated in current guidelines. In addition, we found that early episodic intervention appeared to be crucial in preventing severe attacks and future exacerbations. Besides the use of medication, timely education after an exacerbation along with a comprehensive plan in follow up is also vitally important.
Foroughi, Shabnam; Thyagarajan, Ananth; Stone, Kelly D
Allergic diseases, including asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, food allergy, and urticaria are common in general pediatric practice. This review highlights several significant advances in pediatric allergy over the past year, focusing on asthma and atopic dermatitis. With increasing options for the treatment of allergic diseases, much work is now focused on methods for individualizing treatments to a patient's phenotype and genotype. Progress over the past year includes the characterization of effects of regular albuterol use in patients with genetic variations in the beta-adrenergic receptor. Maintenance asthma regimens for children in the first years of life are also an ongoing focus. The relation between upper airway allergic inflammation and asthma has continued to accumulate support and now extends to the middle ear. Environmental influences on asthma and interventions have been described, including environmental controls for asthma and the role of air pollution on lung development in children. Finally, concerns have been raised regarding the use of topical immunomodulators in young children with atopic dermatitis. Progress continues in the care of children with atopic diseases. Attention to treatment with appropriate medications, patient-individualized environmental controls, and extensive education are the keys to successfully treating atopic children. This review highlights several recent advances but is not intended to be a comprehensive review.
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Colice, Gene L
The goal of asthma therapy is to reduce symptoms to the extent that patients can lead active, unlimited lives and to minimize concern about exacerbations. Unfortunately, despite advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of asthma and the existence of consensus asthma-management guidelines, patients with asthma still suffer considerable morbidity and, on rare occasions, death. Part of the reason for suboptimal asthma control is poor adherence, by both providers and patients, to the recommended asthma regimens and guidelines. However, even under the ideal circumstances of a motivated patient and a knowledgeable physician, the available asthma drugs are not effective in all patients at all times. The market for asthma drugs has been dynamic; numerous new products have recently been approved for marketing by the Food and Drug Administration. Unfortunately, the products recently approved and those likely to enter the market soon mostly are either reformulations or combinations of established molecules. Developing new drugs to treat asthma, particularly with novel anti-inflammatory properties, should be a priority.
Grøntved, Berit; Carstensen, Ole; Petersen, Rolf
We report two cases of asthma among mink workers. The first case is about a mink farmer who had asthma that was difficult to treat. In the medical history there was no clear relation to work, and no conclusive work relation with peak flow monitoring. He had a positive histamine release test to mink...... urine. The second case is about a mink farm worker, who had an asthma attack when handling mink furs. Peak flow monitoring showed a clear relation to this work, but there were no signs of allergy. We conclude that these two cases suggest an increased risk of asthma among mink workers....
Malmstrom, Kerstin; Peszek, Iza; Al Botto; Lu, Susan; Enright, Paul L; Reiss, Theodore F
Accuracy and repeatability of spirometry measurements are essential to obtain reliable efficacy data in randomized asthma clinical trials. We report our experience with a centralized spirometry quality assurance program that we implemented in our phase III asthma trials. Six asthma trials of 4 to 21 weeks in duration were conducted at 232 clinical centers in 31 countries. Approximately 23,100 prebronchodilator and 13,700 postbronchodilator spirometry tests were collected from 2523 adult and 336 pediatric asthmatic patients. The program used a standard spirometer (the Renaissance spirometry system) with maneuver quality messages and automated quality grading of the spirometry tests. Each clinical center transmitted spirometry data weekly to a central database, where uniform monitoring of data quality was performed and feedback was provided in weekly quality reports. Seventy-nine percent of all patients performed spirometry sessions with quality that either met or exceeded American Thoracic Society standards and improved over time. Good-quality spirometry was associated with (1) less severe asthma; (2) active treatment; (3) infrequent nocturnal awakenings; (4) age above 15 years; and (5) low body weight. Maneuver-induced bronchospasm was rare. Good-quality spirometry was observed in multicenter asthma clinical trials that employed a standard spirometer and continuous monitoring. Both within- and between-patient variability decreased. Spirometry quality improved with time as study participants and technicians gained experience.
Full Text Available This study examined the educational tools used in teaching ethics in the Tunisian audit context. Data collection was based observation of ethics education sessions. The findings identified a large difference between the observed teaching practices of ethics education and the requirements of international education standards. The data collected and the discussion of the findings revealed the main challenges in teaching ethics to auditors in addition to certain innovative educational tools that can be used by future professionals when confronted with difficult situations in the workplace.
Househ, Mowafa; Hossain, Nassif; Jamal, Amr; Zakaria, Nasriah; Elmetwally, Ashraf; Alsalamah, Majid; Khalifa, Mohamed
Providing patients opportunities for self-management and education about their disease, asthma applications designed for use on an Android operating system can have positive health outcomes across the range of demographics who use mHealth applications. This study provides a content analysis of freely available Google Android Platform Mobile Applications for Asthma. A list of applications was collected on 26 October 2014, using the search feature of the Google Play Android platform and using the words and phrases "Asthma," "Lung Function" and "Peak Flow." Each application was coded for its approach to asthma self-management, based on categories adapted by Huckvale et al., which are based on the Global Initiative for Asthma and the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program. The characteristics of the 15 asthma applications are described. Most of the asthma applications' primary function focused on patient self-monitoring and self-assessment. Using the HON Code, we found low health information quality across all asthma applications. Android asthma applications can have positive outcomes in helping patients as they provide opportunities for self-management and education about their disease. Future research should continue to monitor and evaluate the development and use of mHealth Asthma Applications. Based on these findings, and their indication of a gap in existing research, subsequent studies can continue to evaluate the development and use of mHealth Asthma Applications with increasing methodological consistency to improve the quality of in-app health information.
Witschge, Jacqueline; van de Werfhorst, Herman G.
In this paper, the relation between the standardization of civic education and the inequality of civic engagement is examined. Using data from the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study 2009 among early adolescents and Eurydice country-level data, three-level analysis and variance function regression are applied to examine whether…
Hill, Kory; Thornburg, Roland
Physical educators are often held to a higher standard of physical fitness. The ability to effectively convey the importance of physical fitness may depend upon the ability to appear physically fit. The ability to perform at a minimal level of proficiency on fitness tests was deemed important by the faculty of one physical education teacher…
Bentley, Duncan; Henderson, Fiona; Lim, Choon Boey
Australian universities have been actively engaged in transnational education since the 1990s. The challenges of assuring quality have seen a changing regulatory framework increasingly designed to ensure equivalence of standards wherever a course of study is offered and however it is delivered. Transnational Higher Education has grown…
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost Accounting Standards... Clauses 52.230-5 Cost Accounting Standards—Educational Institution. As prescribed in 30.201-4(e), insert the following clause: Cost Accounting Standards—Educational Institution (OCT 2010) (a) Unless the...
Woolf, Sara B.
Teacher performance evaluation represents a high stakes issue as evidenced by its pivotal emphasis in national and local education reform initiatives and federal policy levers. National, state, and local education leaders continue to experience unprecedented pressure to adopt standardized benchmarks to reflect and link student achievement data to…
Kniffin, Mike; Foley, John; MacDonald, Lynn Couturier; Howarth, Kath
Only a handful of research studies have been conducted to determine whether or not physical educators or pre-service physical education teachers are utilizing learning standards in their teaching. While pre-service teachers are typically required to align lesson objectives and content, their extent of their understanding of how learning standards…
Gardner, James E. (Compiler); Jacobs, James A. (Compiler)
Presented here is a collection of experiments presented and demonstrated at the National Educators' Workshop: Update 88, held May 10 to 12, 1988 at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersberg, Maryland. The experiments related to the nature and properties of engineering materials and provided information to assist in teaching about materials in the education community.
Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.
Although the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are not federally mandated national standards or performance expectations for K-12 schools in the United States, they stand poised to become a de facto national science and education policy, as state governments, publishers of curriculum materials, and assessment providers across the country…
Apple, Michael W.
Discusses the ideological and social grounding and effects of the NCTM's "Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics" and "Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics." Includes issues regarding the financial crisis in education, inequality in schools, the possibilities and limitations of a mathematics…
English, Fenwick W.
This article examines the concept of misrecognition as advanced by Pierre Bourdieu in the development and implementation of educational leadership standards in the USA and in England. The line of argument advanced is that leadership standards were promulgated as an agenda to control and dominate a contested field in both countries by certain…
Alves, Paulo; Uhomoibhi, James
Purpose: This paper seeks to investigate and report on the status of identity management systems and e-learning standards across Europe for promoting mobility, collaboration and the sharing of contents and services in higher education institutions. Design/methodology/approach: The present research work examines existing e-learning standards and…
With the failure of the No Child Left Behind policies of the 1990's, educational reformers wished to establish a "new and improved" set of standards for the United States to follow. However, since their inception in 2006-2007, the new Common Core State Standards have become increasingly unpopular due to the fact that they remain largely…
DURER, Salih; AKBAŞ, Halil Emre; ZEYTİNOĞLU, Emin
This study aims to examine the perceptions of accountingacademicians about incorporating International Financial ReportingStandards (IFRS) into the accounting education. Results of thestudy indicate that uncertainty in the implementation of IFRS isseen as the most challenging aspect of incorporating IFRS into theaccounting education and the most appropriate path that shouldbe followed in accounting education is to give equal weight to AccountingSystem Implementation General Communiqués, tax l...
The reform of higher education in Russia, based on standardized tests and educational vouchers, was intended to reduce inequalities in access to higher education. The initiative with the vouchers has failed and by now is already forgotten while the national test is planned to be introduced nationwide in 2009. The national test called to replace the present corrupt system of entry examinations has experienced numerous problems so far and will likely have even more problems in the future. This ...
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to describe possible approaches to transforming the management of the educational program into an educational institution of higher education in the context of implementing the principles laid down in the Standards and Recommendations for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area (ESG, as well as the updated Russian state higher education standards (RSHES 3 ++. The article analyzes the ESG, examines the main models of managing educational programs, as well as their possible transformations in terms of the formation of mechanisms for internal assessment of the quality of educational activities and the training of students, introduced in the updated federal state educational standards.
Johnsen, Susan K., Ed.
The new Pre-K-Grade 12 Gifted Education Programming Standards should be part of every school district's repertoire of standards to ensure that the learning needs of advanced students are being met. "NAGC Pre-K-Grade 12 Gifted Education Programming Standards: A Guide to Planning and Implementing High-Quality Services" details six standards that…
Alla A. Kizima
Full Text Available The article gives a methodological analysis of MGIMO-University own education standards and programmes. The relevance of the article is explained by the necessity to define the goals and contents of professional language training of IR economics students at MGIMO-University after a transfer to own education standards. The researcher used competence-based and cultural studies approaches with reference to the didactic principles of accessibility, systematic, consistency, necessity and sufficiency. The author used a set of methods including the method of theoretical analysis, the method of synthesis and systematization, summative method. The article addresses the difference in the training of IR economists and economists in other spheres of economics, underlines the importance of professional language training of IR economics students, analyses the specifics of professional language training of IR economists from the standpoint of competence-based approach by comparing the competences presented in the Federal State Education Standards of Higher Education and MGIMO own education standards. The author gives a definition of goal and contents of professional language training of IR economics students as well as didactic principles of contents choice that define the effectiveness of training. In conclusion the author points out that the contents of professional language training of IR economics students based on MGIMO own education standards are approached as the system of professional knowledge, skills and competence leading to successful intercultural communication.
Cockcroft Donald W
Full Text Available Abstract Numerous recombinant therapies are being investigated for the treatment of asthma. This report reviews the current status of several of these novel agents. Anti-immunoglobulin (IgE (omalizumab, Xolair markedly inhibits all aspects of the allergen challenge in subjects who have reduction of free serum IgE to undetectable levels. Several clinical studies in atopic asthma have demonstrated benefit by improved symptoms and lung function and a reduction in corticosteroid requirements. Early use in atopic asthmatics may be even more effective. Several approaches target interleukin (IL-4. Soluble IL-4 receptor has been shown to effectively replace inhaled corticosteroid; further studies are under way. Recombinant anti-IL-5 and recombinant IL-12 inhibit blood and sputum eosinophils and allergen-induced eosinophilia without any effect on airway responsiveness, allergen-induced airway responses, or allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness. Efalizumab, a recombinant antibody that inhibits lymphocyte trafficking, is effective in psoriasis. A bronchoprovocation study showed a reduction in allergen-induced late asthmatic response and allergen-induced eosinophilia, which suggests that it should be effective in clinical asthma. These exciting novel therapies provide not only promise of new therapies for asthma but also valuable tools for investigation of asthma mechanisms.
Full Text Available This paper describes developments in Welsh-language terminology within the education system in Wales. Following an outline of historical terminology work, it concentrates on the consolidation of terminology standardization at the Language Technologies Unit, Bangor University, with particular reference to two projects, one concerned with terminology for school-age and further education, the second concerned with higher education. The developments described include the adoption of international standards in terminology standardization and their incorporation in an online terminology standardization environment and dissemination platform that enable access to the centralized terminological dictionaries via a number of sophisticated websites, portals and mobile apps featuring rich dictionary entries. Some of the issues in managing large term collections are explored, and usage statistics are presented for the resources described.
Dumas, Orianne; Varraso, Raphaëlle; Zock, Jan Paul; Henneberger, Paul K; Speizer, Frank E; Wiley, Aleta S; Le Moual, Nicole; Camargo, Carlos A
Nurses are at increased risk of occupational asthma, an observation that may be related to disinfectants exposure. Whether asthma history influences job type or job changes among nurses is unknown. We investigated this issue in a large cohort of nurses. The Nurses' Health Study II is a prospective study of US female nurses enrolled in 1989 (ages 24-44 years). Job status and asthma were assessed in biennial (1989-2011) and asthma-specific questionnaires (1998, 2003). Associations between asthma history at baseline (diagnosis before 1989, n=5311) and job type at baseline were evaluated by multinomial logistic regression. The relations of asthma history and severity during follow-up to subsequent job changes were evaluated by Cox models. The analytic cohort included 98 048 nurses. Compared with nurses in education/administration (likely low disinfectant exposure jobs), women with asthma history at baseline were less often employed in jobs with likely high disinfectant exposure, such as operating rooms (odds ratio 0.73 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.86)) and emergency room/inpatient units (0.89 (0.82 to 0.97)). During a 22-year follow-up, nurses with a baseline history of asthma were more likely to move to jobs with lower exposure to disinfectants (HR 1.13 (1.07 to 1.18)), especially among those with more severe asthma (HR for mild persistent: 1.13; moderate persistent 1.26; severe persistent: 1.50, compared with intermittent asthma, p trend: 0.004). Asthma history was associated with baseline job type and subsequent job changes among nurses. This may partly reflect avoidance of tasks involving disinfectant use, and may introduce bias in cross-sectional studies on disinfectant exposure and asthma in nurses. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Kang, Min-Koo; Kim, Byung-Keun; Kim, Tae-Wan; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Kang, Hye-Ryun; Park, Heung-Woo; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Sun-Sin; Min, Kyung-Up; Kim, You-Young; Cho, Sang-Heon
Patient care based on asthma guidelines is cost-effective and leads to improved treatment outcomes. However, ineffective implementation strategies interfere with the use of these recommendations in clinical practice. This study investigated physicians' preferences for asthma guidelines, including content, supporting evidence, learning strategies, format, and placement in the clinical workplace. We obtained information through a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire was distributed to physicians attending continuing medical education courses and sent to other physicians by airmail, e-mail, and facsimile. A total of 183 physicians responded (male to female ratio, 2.3:1; mean age, 40.4±9.9 years); 89.9% of respondents were internists or pediatricians, and 51.7% were primary care physicians. Physicians preferred information that described asthma medications, classified the disease according to severity and level of control, and provided methods of evaluation/treatment/monitoring and management of acute exacerbation. The most effective strategies for encouraging the use of the guidelines were through continuing medical education and discussions with colleagues. Physicians required supporting evidence in the form of randomized controlled trials and expert consensus. They preferred that the guidelines be presented as algorithms or flow charts/flow diagrams on plastic sheets, pocket cards, or in electronic medical records. This study identified the items of the asthma guidelines preferred by physicians in Korea. Asthma guidelines with physicians' preferences would encourage their implementation in clinical practice.
Walker, Jennifer; Winkelstein, Marilyn; Land, Cassia; Lewis-Boyer, Lapricia; Quartey, Ruth; Pham, Luu; Butz, Arlene
Among rural children with asthma and their parents, this study examined the relationship between parental and child reports of quality of life and described the relationship of several factors such as asthma severity, missed days of work, and asthma education on their quality of life. Two hundred one rural families with asthma were enrolled in a school-based educational program. Intervention parents and children participated in interactive asthma workshop(s) and received asthma devices and literature. Parent and child quality of life measurements were obtained before and after the intervention using Juniper's Paediatric Caregivers Quality of Life and Juniper's Paediatric Quality of Life Questionnaires. Asthma severity was measured using criteria from the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program guidelines. There was no association between parent and child total quality of life scores, and mean parental total quality of life scores were higher at baseline and follow-up than those of the children. All the parents' quality of life scores were correlated with parental reports of missed days of work. For all children, emotional quality of life (EQOL) was significantly associated with parental reports of school days missed (P = .03) and marginally associated with parental reports of hospitalizations due to asthma (P = .08). Parent's EQOL and activity quality of life (AQOL) were significantly associated with children's asthma severity (EQOL, P = .009; AQOL, P = .03), but not the asthma educational intervention. None of the child quality of life measurements was associated with asthma severity. Asthma interventions for rural families should help families focus on gaining and maintaining low asthma severity levels to enjoy an optimal quality of life. Health care providers should try to assess the child's quality of life at each asthma care visit independently of the parents.
asthma is under control for at least three months, consider reducing the therapy. Apply extra cautious when reducing therapy (even if good control is achieved) in children who have experienced previous life-threatening asthma, or who have concomitant severe food allergies /anaphylaxis due to the increased risks of severe ...
Barreto do Carmo, Maria Beatriz; Neves Santos, Darci; Alves Ferreira Amorim, Leila Denise; Fiaccone, Rosemeire Leovigildo; Souza da Cunha, Sergio; Cunha Rodrigues, Laura; Barreto, Mauricio L
Recent studies have shown that asthma represents a major health issue not only in children of developed countries but also in urban centers in some middle-income countries. Brazil has one of the highest prevalences of asthma worldwide. Recently, interest has grown in the relationship between psychosocial factors and asthma. This article examines the relationship between maternal mental disorders and the prevalence of asthma in low-income children from an inner city area of Salvador in the state of Bahia, Brazil, and is part of the SCAALA program (Social Change, Allergy and Asthma in Latin America). A total of 1,087 children between the ages of 5 and 12 were investigated, together with their mothers. The mothers' mental health was evaluated using the SRQ-20, an instrument for the psychiatric screening of minor psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety and somatic complaints). The prevalence of asthma was investigated using the ISAAC survey, a standardized, validated questionnaire for asthma and other allergic diseases. Cases were defined as asthma if the patient reported having had wheezing in the previous 12 months in addition to at least one of the following: having asthma, wheezing while exercising, waking during the night because of wheezing, or having had at least four episodes of wheezing in the previous 12 months. Atopy was defined as a positive skin prick test to allergens. The presence of minor psychiatric disorders in the mothers was significantly associated with the presence of asthma in the children, and this association was consistent with all forms of asthma, irrespective of whether it was atopic or nonatopic. Future studies should be carried out to further investigate this association and the potential biological mechanisms involved. Programs for asthma control should include strategies for stress reduction and psychological support for the families of asthmatic children.
Viswanathan, Ravi K; Busse, William W
Although airway inflammation is an intrinsic and key feature of asthma, this response varies in its intensity and translation to clinical characteristics and responsiveness to treatment. The observations that clinical heterogeneity is an important aspect of asthma and a feature that likely dictates and determines responses to treatment in severe asthma, patient responsiveness to medication is incomplete, and risks for exacerbation are increased. The development of biologics, which target selected and specific components of inflammation, has been a promising advance to achieve asthma control in patients with severe disease. This article reviews the current biologics available and under development and how their use has affected asthma and which subpopulations appear to benefit the greatest. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Belanger, Kathleen; Triche, Elizabeth W
Indoor combustion produces both gases (eg, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide) and particulate matter that may affect the development or exacerbation of asthma. Sources in the home include both heating devices (eg, fireplaces, woodstoves, kerosene heaters, flued [ie, vented] or nonflued gas heaters) and gas stoves for cooking. This article highlights the recent literature examining associations between exposure to indoor combustion and asthma development and severity. Since asthma is a chronic condition affecting both children and adults, both age groups are included in this article. Overall, there is some evidence of an association between exposure to indoor combustion and asthma, particularly asthma symptoms in children. Some sources of combustion such as coal stoves have been more consistently associated with these outcomes than other sources such as woodstoves.
The goal of asthma management is to achieve disease control. Poorly controlled asthma is associated with an increased number of days lost from school, exacerbations and days in hospital. Furthermore, children with uncontrolled asthma have more frequent contacts with the health-care system. Recent...... studies have added new information about the effects of poorly controlled asthma on a range of important, but less studied outcomes, including risk of obesity, daily physical activity, cardiovascular fitness, stress, concentration and focused attention, learning disabilities and risk of depression. From...... these studies it seems that poor asthma control may have a greater impact on the child than previously thought. This may have important long-term consequences for the child such as an increased risk of life-style associated diseases and poorer school performance. The level of control seems to be the most...
Gade, Elisabeth Juul; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Lindenberg, Svend
Evidence is increasing of an association between asthma and aspects of female reproduction. However, current knowledge is limited and furthermore relies on questionnaire studies or small populations. In a prospective observational cohort study to investigate whether time to pregnancy, the number...... of fertility treatments, and the number of successful pregnancies differ significantly between women with unexplained infertility with and without asthma.245 women with unexplained infertility (aged 23-45 years) underwent questionnaires and asthma and allergy testing while undergoing fertility treatment. 96...... women entering the study had either a former doctor's diagnosis of asthma or were diagnosed with asthma when included. After inclusion they were followed for a minimum of 12 months in fertility treatment, until they had a successful pregnancy, stopped treatment, or the observation ended.The likelihood...
Thomsen, Simon F
Asthma runs in families, and children of asthmatic parents are at increased risk of asthma. Prediction of disease risk is pivotal for the clinician when counselling atopic families. However, this is not always an easy task bearing in mind the vast and ever-increasing knowledge about asthma genetics....... The advent of new genotyping technologies has made it possible to sequence in great detail the human genome for asthma-associated variants, and accordingly, recent decades have witnessed an explosion in the number of rare and common variants associated with disease risk. This review presents an overview...... of methods and advances in asthma genetics in an attempt to help the clinician keep track of the most important knowledge in the field....
McClain, Brandi L; Ivy, Zalaya K; Bryant, Valencia; Rodeghier, Mark; DeBaun, Michael R
In children with sickle cell disease (SCD), concomitant asthma is associated with increased morbidity and mortality when compared with children with SCD without asthma. Despite the well-established burden of asthma in children with SCD, no paradigm of care exists for the co-management of these two diseases. To address this gap, an integrated SCD and asthma clinic was created in a community health center that included (1) a dual respiratory therapist/asthma case manager; (2) an SCD nurse practitioner with asthma educator certification; (3) an onsite pulmonary function test laboratory; (4) a pediatric hematologist with expertise in managing SCD and asthma; and (5) application of the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program guidelines. A before (2010-2012) and after (2013-2014) study design was used to assess for improved quality of care with implementation of an integrative care model among 61 children with SCD and asthma followed from 2010 to 2014. Asthma action plan utilization after initial diagnosis increased with the integrative care model (n=16, 56% before, 100% after, p=0.003), as did the use of spirometry in children aged ≥5 years (n=41, 65% before, 95% after, pintegrative care model for SCD and asthma improved evidence-based asthma care, longer follow-up and evaluation will be needed to determine the impact on SCD-related morbidity. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pett, Ryan G; Nye, Shane
To observe whether American Indian and Alaskan Native (AI/AN) patients at the Yakama Indian Health Service seen at the pharmacist-managed asthma clinic improved asthma outcomes. Retrospective chart review, single group, preintervention and postintervention. Pharmacist-managed asthma clinic at an Indian Health Service ambulatory care clinic. Sixty-one AI/AN patients who were seen at least once in the asthma clinic from 2010 to 2014. Pharmacist-provided asthma education and medication management. Asthma-related hospitalizations and emergency department or urgent care (ED) visits. The total number of asthma-related hospitalizations and ED visits between the 12-month periods preceding and following the initial asthma clinic visit were 11 versus 2 hospitalizations (P = 0.02) and 43 versus 25 ED visits (P = 0.02), respectively. Over the same period, asthma-related oral corticosteroid use showed a nonsignificant decrease in the number of prescriptions filled (n = 59, P = 0.08). In contrast, inhaled corticosteroid prescription fills significantly increased (n = 42, P = 0.01). A reduction of asthma-related hospitalizations and ED visits were observed during the course of the intervention. Increased access to formal asthma education and appropriate asthma care benefit the Yakama AI/AN people. A controlled trial is needed to confirm that the intervention causes the intended effect. Published by Elsevier Inc.
illness, disability, and premature death.10. Corvalan and ... Keywords: Education, Occupation, Monthly income, Asthma control. Ann Ibd. Pg. ... medications.12 The results of another study in Canada showed that ... Inclusion criteria include 1.
Nguyen, Trang; Lurie, Melissa; Gomez, Marta; Reddy, Amanda; Pandya, Kruti; Medvesky, Michael
The National Asthma Survey--New York State (NYS), a telephone survey of NYS residents, was conducted in 2002-2003 to further understand the burden of asthma among adults and children and to identify health, socioeconomic, behavioral, and environmental factors associated with asthma. A total of 1,412 households with at least one member with current asthma and 2,290 control households answered questions about their home environment (e.g., presence of asthma triggers and practices that promote or reduce common asthma triggers). RESULTS; For children younger than 18 years of age, we found statistically significant positive associations between current asthma and the presence of mold (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3, 3.3), air cleaners (AOR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 2.1), dehumidifiers (AOR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.4, 2.7), and humidifiers (AOR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.1, 2.3). For adults, there were statistically significant positive associations with the presence of mold (AOR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.8, 3.4), air cleaners (AOR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.7, 2.8), and humidifiers (AOR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.1, 1.8). There were no statistically significant associations with the presence of cockroaches, pets, or tobacco smoke, while use of a wood-burning stove or fireplace was significantly more prevalent in control homes. Asthma guidelines emphasize the importance of reducing triggers in the home as part of a multifaceted approach to asthma control. Despite these guidelines, many asthma triggers (specifically, mold) were as prevalent or more so in the homes of New Yorkers with asthma as compared with control households. Public health interventions in NYS should focus on educating households about potential asthma triggers and their sources and teach methods to prevent, reduce, or eliminate them.
Vargas, Perla A; Robles, Elias; Harris, Judith; Radford, Peggy
Low health literacy has been identified as an independent predictor of poor asthma control. The Institute of Medicine considers the role of information technology (IT) as critical in providing "safe, effective, patient centered, timely, efficient, and equitable" care with the potential to reduce health disparities in underserved populations. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate an interactive computer-based questionnaire to assess asthma symptoms in children of parents with limited health literacy and/or limited English proficiency. Volunteer caregivers attending a mobile asthma clinic were randomly assigned to complete the electronic or the paper-and-pencil version of an asthma screening questionnaire (ASQ) in their language of choice (English or Spanish). In the electronic version, a tablet computer was used to present the ASQ questions as video clips and to collect information through the touchscreen. Participants also completed a demographic questionnaire, a brief health literacy questionnaire, and a system usability and satisfaction questionnaire. Reliability of the paper and electronic self-assessments was evaluated by comparing each participant's answers to information they provided during a nurse-guided structured interview (gold standard). A total of 48 parents participated in the study, 26 completed the electronic ASQ and 21 the paper-and-pencil form. Thirty-five percent of the children had well-controlled asthma (n = 17). Most participants were Spanish speaking (67%) Hispanic (n = 44) mothers (n = 43) with a median age of 32 years. More than half had ≤8 years of education (n = 25) and earned education was significant (ρ = .47, p higher than concordance between the paper ASQ and the nurse interview (68% versus 54%; p technology tools may help reduce barriers to access due to inadequate levels of English proficiency and health literacy.
Nobiling, Brandye D.; Lyde, Adrian R.
Background: The landmark School Health Education Study (SHES) project influenced by the conceptual approach to teaching and learning provides perspective on modern school health instruction. Conceptual education, the cornerstone of the SHES curriculum framework (CF), "Health Education: A Conceptual Approach to Curriculum Design," fosters…
Porsbjerg, Celeste; Sverrild, Asger; Backer, Vibeke
The mannitol test was developed as an easy-to-use, safe, standardized bronchial challenge test for diagnosing asthma in a wide range of clinical settings. The mannitol test has a moderate sensitivity and will only detect approximately 60% of asthma cases. Hence, a negative mannitol test cannot be......-inflammatory therapy. In this review, the current knowledge on the usefulness of the mannitol in a clinical setting as well as in clinical trials is presented and outstanding questions on the usefulness of the test are discussed.......The mannitol test was developed as an easy-to-use, safe, standardized bronchial challenge test for diagnosing asthma in a wide range of clinical settings. The mannitol test has a moderate sensitivity and will only detect approximately 60% of asthma cases. Hence, a negative mannitol test cannot...... be used to rule out asthma. The advantage of the mannitol test is a high specificity. In an individual with symptoms suggestive of asthma, a positive test indicates a high likelihood of asthma with ongoing airway inflammation and seems useful for detecting asthma requiring regular anti...
disturbing levels of patients adherence with management recommendations. Asthma education strategies need to be modified to engage ... and quick procedure. ... Participants' medication adherence and skills at using .... In this study 17 of the 67 patients studied .... adherence: changing behaviour to promote better self-.
higher prevalence of childhood asthma,[5,6] or no association. In contrast, the ... resource-limited countries such as India and Brazil have identified ... health and education. .... school teachers/principals, religious leaders, ..... Wright G. Findings from the Indicators of Poverty and Social Exclusion Project: A Profile of Poverty.
Zhaldak Hanna P
Full Text Available The article considers the marketing standards for enterprises and higher educational institutions in the EU and Ukraine. The basic components of the formation of the marketing standards in our country and the European Union member countries are identified, some legislative restrictions on advertising in certain EU countries are systematized. The features of the EU standards are determined. The main idea of the article is to examine the European marketing standards, determine the level of their adaptation to the national ones, as well as collect data on the effectiveness of the application of marketing standards to higher educational institutions, provide quality education and establish collaboration with the European partner universities. The general understanding of the quality of education, use of harmonized approaches and evaluation criteria is important for the European integration. The majority of national organizations have a number of difficulties associated with the undeveloped system of indicators oriented towards the client and other interested parties. The application of the EU marketing standards sets an appropriate vector of development for the domestic economy and opens up new competitive opportunities
"Earth Science for Educators" is an innovative, standards-based, graduate level teacher education curriculum that presents science content and pedagogic technique in parallel. The curriculum calls upon the resources and expertise of the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) to prepare novice New York City teachers for teaching Earth Science. One of the goals of teacher education is to assure and facilitate science education reform through preparation of K-12 teachers who understand and are able to implement standard-based instruction. Standards reflect not only the content knowledge students are expected to attain but also the science skills and dispositions towards science they are expected to develop. Melding a list of standards with a curriculum outline to create inquiry-based classroom instruction that reaches a very diverse population of learners is extremely challenging. "Earth Science for Educators" helps novice teachers make the link between standards and practice by constantly connecting standards with instruction they receive and activities they carry out. Development of critical thinking and enthusiasm for inquiry is encouraged through engaging experience and contact with scientists and their work. Teachers are taught Earth systems science content through modeling of a wide variety of instruction and assessment methods based upon authentic scientific inquiry and aimed at different learning styles. Use of fieldwork and informal settings, such as the Museum, familiarizes novice teachers with ways of drawing on community resources for content and instructional settings. Metacognitive reflection that articulates standards, practice, and the teachers' own learning experience help draw out teachers' insights into their students' learning. The innovation of bring science content together with teaching methods is key to preparing teachers for standards-based, inquiry instruction. This curriculum was successfully piloted with a group of 28 novice teachers as
... Triggers Allergens and Allergic Asthma Tobacco Smoke Air Pollution Indoor Air Quality Respiratory Infections Pneumococcal Disease Flu (Influenza) Exercise Weather Asthma Symptoms Asthma Diagnosis ...
Full Text Available ... City Asthma YES WE CAN Bibliography Breathing Easier Success Stories State Contacts and Programs Evaluation Evaluation Guide Evaluation Webinars 1. Avoiding Evaluation Roadblocks 1A. Focus On: Walking Through the Steps and Standards 2. Getting Started 3. Describing ...
Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Lange, Peter
Cigarette smoking is a well-known health hazard, probably not least for patients suffering from asthma. This review gives a short overview of the effects of passive and active smoking on the inception and outcome with of longitudinal changes in the lung function and mortality of patients with ast......Cigarette smoking is a well-known health hazard, probably not least for patients suffering from asthma. This review gives a short overview of the effects of passive and active smoking on the inception and outcome with of longitudinal changes in the lung function and mortality of patients...... with asthma. Substantial evidence suggests that smoking affects asthma adversely. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, especially maternal smoking in children, may be a significant risk factor for asthma. Such exposure in patients with established asthma is not only associated with more severe symptoms......, but also with a poorer quality of life, reduced lung function, and increased utilisation of health care including hospital admissions. Active smoking does not appear to be a significant risk factor for asthma, but is associated with a worse outcome with regard to both longitudinal changes in lung function...
Patients with severe asthma are clinically, physiologically and biologically a heterogeneous group. About half of children referred for medical examination for severe asthma have true severe, therapy resistant asthma. The rest of referred patients have difficult to treat asthma. Symptoms persist mostly due to drug non-compliance, inappropriate inhalation technique, persistent environmental exposures or co-morbid conditions. Compared with adults have children more frequently atopic form of severe asthma. This is associated with eosinophilia in peripheral blood and sensitization to inhaled allergens. The IgE levels are high. Therapy of co-morbidities and improvement of treatment compliance lead in most cases to full asthma control. Proportion of children will benefit from biologics like anti-IgE monoclonal antibody, administered by subcutaneous injections in 2 to 4 week intervals. By this therapy it is not only possible to suppress symptoms, but also decrease the total steroid dose and the risk of adverse effects associated with its long-term administration. By achieving a full asthma control we lower future risk of exacerbations and probably improve long-term prognosis of disease, frequently persisting for the rest of life. (author)
Edgar Javier Carmona Suarez
Full Text Available Free courses, full academic programs, and partially and totally virtual universities are now offered, which shows an increase in the offer and coverage in higher education. With growth, new needs emerge from questions about the quality of education, which depends on many factors; for example, the standardization of online or virtual academic spaces. This research proposed the creation of a set of technical, administrative, communicative and pedagogical specifications to improve virtual training at the University of Quindío, which serves as a reference for good practices for university teachers. In this process, significant experiences were collected and, as a final result, a proposal was built in the light of categories created by international organizations specialized in standards. This led to standardization processes, which contribute to the strengthening of the quality of education.
Parvin, I A; Ahmad, S A; Islam, M N
This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted among the chronic asthma patients attending three Institutes of Dhaka city namely National Asthma Center, The National Institute of Diseases of Chest and Hospital (NIDCH), Mohakhali, and Dhaka Medical College Hospital to assess the level of knowledge regarding inhaler use. Convenient sampling was adopted. Data were collected using one semi-structured questionnaire through face-to-face interview. The patients were aged from 18 to 75 years with mean age being 40.68 years and sd +/- 11.659 years. The mean monthly income of the respondents found was 8278.52 taka with standard deviation +/- 3523.315 taka. Mean duration of bronchial asthma was 9.44 years with sd +/- 4.862 years. Out of the total 298 respondents 103(35.8%) possessed "excellent knowledge" on inhalers. Ninety one (31.6%) had "adequate knowledge", sixty nine (24.0%) had "poor knowledge" and thirty five (8.7%) respondents were found having "no knowledge" about inhalers. Males were seen having better knowledge than the females (chi2 =66.582, df=3, pknowledge than those from the outdoors (pLevel of Knowledge was also found to be associated with the educational status of the respondents. Respondents with higher education possessed more than the respondents with lower education (p<0.001). Though most of the physicians now prescribe inhalers, but many of them do not explain the proper use of inhaler. This may be corrected through training and motivation of physicians at Medical Colleges and Hospitals and during various medical conferences and other programs. To reduce the extent of suffering and economic burden of asthma patients and their families, active education program for the patients and training program for the health care providers, regarding "inhaler use technique" demands early consideration.
Aleman, Fernando; Lim, Hui Fang; Nair, Parameswaran
Asthma is a heterogeneous disease that can be classified into different clinical endotypes, depending on the type of airway inflammation, clinical severity, and response to treatment. This article focuses on the eosinophilic endotype of asthma, which is defined by the central role that eosinophils play in the pathophysiology of the condition. It is characterized by elevated sputum and/or blood eosinophils on at least 2 occasions and by a significant response to treatments that suppress eosinophilia. Histopathologic demonstration of eosinophils in the airways provides the most direct diagnosis of eosinophilic asthma; but it is invasive, thus, impractical in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Setting standards for language teacher education programs, materials, and evaluation sparks some hope in attempts to improve the quality of the programs. Yet, this very fact augmented by my examination of ten language teacher education programs in Java, Bali, and Lampung (FKIP and PGRI triggers a critical look at the idea of standard development. In particular, I would like to explore whether it can lead to a better professionalism or we are just lost in the complexity of the standardization itself. This paper consists of four sections. Departing from an overview of language teacher education programs in Indonesia and the theoretical foundations, some major problems in this area are identified. Following this, the discussion is focused on the idea of standard development for language teacher education programs in Indonesia. Eventually, some suggestions are put forth to highlight the need for establishing coherent curriculum framework bridging the two realms of language teacher education and school milieu as well as providing learners with knowledge base that enables them to cope with complex demands of school settings and more essentially, to act as an agent in the social change process.
Jones, Tammie R; Coke, Lola
This study, implemented on 2 medical-surgical units, evaluated the impact of a standardized, evidence-based new medication education program. Outcomes evaluated included patient postdischarge knowledge of new medication purpose and side effects, patient satisfaction with new medication, and Medicare reimbursement earn-back potential. As a result, knowledge scores for new medication purpose and side effects were high post intervention. Patient satisfaction with new medication education increased. Value-based purchasing reimbursement earn-back potential improved.
Hill, Anne E; Davidson, Bronwyn J; Theodoros, Deborah G
The use of standardized patients has been reported as a viable addition to traditional models of professional practice education in medicine, nursing and allied health programs. Educational programs rely on the inclusion of work-integrated learning components in order to graduate competent practitioners. Allied health programs world-wide have reported increasing difficulty in attaining sufficient traditional placements for students within the workplace. In response to this, allied health professionals are challenged to be innovative and problem-solving in the development and maintenance of clinical education placements and to consider potential alternative learning opportunities for students. Whilst there is a bank of literature describing the use of standardized patients in medicine and nursing, reports of its use in speech-language pathology clinical education are limited. Therefore, this paper aims to (1) provide a review of literature reporting on the use of standardized patients within medical and allied health professions with particular reference to use in speech-language pathology, (2) discuss methodological and practical issues involved in establishing and maintaining a standardized patient program and (3) identify future directions for research and clinical programs using standardized patients to build foundation clinical skills such as communication, interpersonal interaction and interviewing.
Wolever, Ruth Q.; Lawson, Karen; Moore, Margaret
The purpose of this article is twofold: (1) to announce the findings of the job task analysis as well as national training and education standards for health and wellness coaching (HWC) that have been developed by the large-scale, collaborative efforts of the National Consortium for Credentialing Health and Wellness Coaches (NCCHWC) and (2) to invite commentary from the public. The rapid proliferation of individuals and organizations using the terms of health and/or wellness coaches and the propagation of private industry and academic coach training and education programs endeavoring to prepare these coaches has created an urgent and pressing need for national standards for use of the term health and wellness coach, as well as minimal requirements for training, education, and certification. Professionalizing the field with national standards brings a clear and consistent definition of health and wellness coaching and accepted practice standards that are uniform across the field. In addition, clear standards allow for uniform curricular criteria to ensure a minimal benchmark for education, training, and skills and knowledge evaluation of professional health and wellness coaches. PMID:25984418
Jarvis, D; Newson, R; Lotvall, J
. The prevalence of self-reported current asthma by age group was determined. The association of asthma with CRS in each participating centre was assessed using logistic regression analyses, controlling for age, sex and smoking, and the effect estimates were combined using standard methods of meta....... Conclusion: Geographical variation in the prevalence of self-reported asthma was observed across Europe, but overall, self-reported asthma was more common in young adults, women and smokers. In all age groups, men and women, and irrespective of smoking behaviour, asthma was also associated with CRS....
Majeed, R.; Rajar, U.D.M.
To identify the risk factors associated with childhood asthma, in children attending Isra University Hospital, Hyderabad. The study included 398 age-matched children (200 asthmatic and 198 non-asthmatic). Information was collected concerning their familial history of atopy, birth weight, environment, breastfeeding, disease and treatment history. Odds ratio was calculated for determining the risk. The children were aged between 12 months and 8 years and 60% were male. The asthmatic children were hospitalized more frequently than the non-asthmatic children (p < 0.0001). Most of the asthmatic children lived in the urban areas of Hyderabad (odd ratio (OR) 16.7, 95% CI = 3.1-14.6, p < 0.0001), had a parental history of asthma (OR 26.8, 95% CI = 10.8-68.2, p < 0.0001) or allergic rhinitis (OR 4, 95% CI 1.2-13.4, p= 0.01), 38.5% had at least one person who smoked, and were weaned earlier than the non-asthmatic children (OR =12.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.4, p < 0.01). Childhood asthma was strongly associated with a family history of asthma and allergic rhinitis, the urban place of residence, having smokers as parents and early weaning from maternal breast milk. The results highlight the need to educate the parents about the risk of smoking and early weaning in the development of asthma. (author)
Sleath, Betsy; Carpenter, Delesha M; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Williams, Dennis; Davis, Stephanie; Tudor, Gail; Yeatts, Karin; Gillette, Chris
This study investigated how provider demonstration of and assessment of child use of asthma medication devices and certain aspects of provider-patient communication during medical visits is associated with device technique 1 month later. Two hundred and ninety-six children aged 8-16 years with persistent asthma and their caregivers were recruited at five North Carolina pediatric practices. All of the medical visits were audio-tape recorded. Children were interviewed 1 month later and their device technique was observed and rated. If the provider asked the child to demonstrate metered dose inhaler technique during the medical visit, then the child was significantly more likely to perform a greater percentage of inhaler steps correctly 1 month later. Children with higher asthma management self-efficacy scores were significantly more likely to perform a greater percentage of diskus steps correctly. Additionally, children were significantly more likely to perform a greater percentage of diskus steps correctly if the provider discussed a written action plan during the visit. Children were significantly more likely to perform a greater percentage of turbuhaler steps correctly if they asked more medication questions. Providers should ask children to demonstrate their inhaler technique during medical visits so that they can educate children about proper technique and improve child asthma management self-efficacy. Providers should encourage children to ask questions about asthma medication devices during visits and they should discuss asthma action plans with families.
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to investigate the impact of new Turkish commercial code and Turkish accounting standards on accounting education. This study takes advantage of the survey method for gathering information and running the research analysis. For this purpose, questionnaire forms are distributed to university students personally and via the internet.This paper includes significant research questions such as “Are accounting academicians informed and knowledgeable on new Turkish commercial code and Turkish accounting standards?”, “Do accounting academicians integrate new Turkish commercial code and Turkish accounting standards to their lectures?”, “How does modern accounting education methodology and technology coincides with the teaching of new Turkish commercial code and Turkish accounting standards?”, “Do universities offer mandatory and elective courses which cover the new Turkish commercial code and Turkish accounting standards?” and “If such courses are offered, what are their names, percentage in the curriculum and degree of coverage?”Research contributes to the literature in several ways. Firstly, new Turkish commercial code and Turkish accounting standards are current significant topics for the accounting profession. Furthermore, the accounting education provides a basis for the implementations in public and private sector. Besides, one of the intentions of new Turkish commercial code and Turkish accounting standards is to foster transparency. That is definitely a critical concept also in terms of mergers, acquisitions and investments. Stakeholders of today’s business world such as investors, shareholders, entrepreneurs, auditors and government are in need of more standardized global accounting principles Thus, revision and redesigning of accounting educations plays an important role. Emphasized points also clearly prove the necessity and functionality of this research.
Full Text Available Anne-Marie Madore, Catherine LapriseUniversité du Québec à Chicoutimi, Département des sciences fondamentales, Saguenay, CanadaAbstract: Prevalence of allergy and allergic asthma are increasing worldwide. More than half of the US population has a positive skin prick test and approximately 10% are asthmatics. Many studies have been conducted to define immunological pathways underlying allergy and asthma development and to identify the main genetic determinants. In the effort to find missing pieces of the puzzle, new genomic approaches and more standardized ones, such as the candidate gene approach, have been used collectively. This article proposes an overview of the actual knowledge about immunological and genetic aspects of allergy and asthma. Special attention has been drawn to the challenges linked to genetic research in complex traits such as asthma and to the contribution of new genomic approaches.Keywords: immune response, allergy, asthma, genetics, genomics
Budnevsky, A V; Malysh, E Yu; Ovsyannikov, E S; Drobysheva, E S
Asthma and metabolic syndrome (MS) are common and social diseases. External and internal factors influencing the development and manifestations of asthma are identified; among which there is obesity that is a major risk factor for MS. Accordingly, the concurrence of asthma and MS and to study their clinical and pathogenetic relationships are a topical problem. There is a tendency to identify a particular asthma phenotype that is characterized by later-onset disease in the presence of obesity; the low prevalence of atopy, low serum level of IgE, and a poorly-controlled course with a trend of standard therapy resistance. It is necessary to understand the essence of asthma cause-effect relationships in the presence of obesity for defining management tactics for this group of patients.
Hansen, Susanne; Hoffmann-Petersen, Benjamin; Sverrild, Asger
in death only in extreme cases, the disease is associated with significant morbidity, reduced quality of life, increased absenteeism, and large costs for society. Asthma can be diagnosed based on report of characteristic symptoms and/or the use of several different diagnostic tests. However......, there is currently no gold standard for making a diagnosis, and some degree of misclassification and inter-observer variation can be expected. This may lead to local and regional differences in the treatment, monitoring, and follow-up of the patients. The Danish National Database for Asthma (DNDA) is slated...... control visits, appropriate pharmacological treatment, measurement of lung function, and asthma challenge testing; second, tools used for diagnosis in new cases; and third, annual assessment of smoking status, height, and weight measurements, and the proportion of patients with acute hospital treatment...
Sitati, Emmily M.; Ndirangu, Mwangi; Kennedy, Bota; Rapongo, George S.
In 2006, the Kenyan Ministry of Education (MoE) developed an early childhood development education (ECDE) service standard guidelines to guide the ECDE stakeholders in provision of early childhood education (ECE) programmes. The study sought to investigate the implementation of the ECDE service standard guidelines on provision of physical…
Tan, Chee Chun; McDowell, Karen M; Fenchel, Matthew; Szczesniak, Rhonda; Kercsmar, Carolyn M
Asthma is the most common chronic disorder of childhood and continues to be a leading cause of pediatric hospital admission. The National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP) recommends that spirometry be obtained for asthma patients upon hospital admission, after bronchodilation during the acute phase of asthma symptoms, and at least one additional time before discharge from the hospital. The objectives of this study were to describe the use of spirometry in children hospitalized with asthma and to determine association of pulmonary function with future exacerbations. A retrospective cohort study design was utilized involving review of medical records of children ≥5 years old admitted with asthma to Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center from September 1, 2009 to March 31, 2011. Hospitalization or emergency department (ED) visits were identified by the ICD-9-CM codes of having either a primary diagnosis of asthma (493) or a respiratory illness (460-496) plus a secondary diagnosis of asthma. Asthma re-exacerbation was defined as either having an ED visit or hospitalization for asthma that occurred within 3 months after the index hospitalization. All spirometries were performed in a pediatric pulmonary function laboratory. Among 1,037 admissions included in this study, 89 (8.6%) had spirometry that was recommended by a consulting asthma specialist and usually performed on the day of discharge. Spirometries for forty-five of these patients (54.9%) met all acceptability and repeatability criteria of the American Thoracic Society. Patients who performed acceptable spirometry were significantly older (12.4 ± 3.8 vs. 10.7 ± 3.0 years; P = 0.041). The average forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1 ) was 84.4 ± 19.7% predicted; forced vital capacity (FVC) was 98.1 ± 16.0% predicted; FEV1 /FVC was 74.6 ± 9.6%; forced expiratory flow at 25-75% (FEF25-75 ) was 61.2 ± 30.1% predicted. Ten patients (22%) who
Svavarsdottir, Erla Kolbrun; Garwick, Ann W; Anderson, Lori S; Looman, Wendy S; Seppelt, Ann; Orlygsdottir, Brynja
This article is a report of an international study of barriers to asthma care from the perspectives of school nurses in Reykjavik, Iceland and St. Paul, Minnesota, in the context of their schools, communities and countries. Globally, asthma affects the health and school performance of many adolescents. School nurses play a key role by providing care to adolescents with asthma in school settings. Understanding universal barriers to asthma management in schools is important for developing interventions that are effective in multiple societal contexts. Exploratory, descriptive study. Parallel studies were conducted from September 2008-January 2009, through six focus groups among school nurses (n = 32, in Reykjavik n = 17 and St. Paul n = 15) who were managing asthma in adolescents. Focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim in English or Icelandic. The Icelandic transcripts were translated into English. Descriptive content analytic techniques were used to systematically identify and categorize types of barriers to asthma care. School nurses in both countries identified common barriers, such as time constraints, communication challenges and school staff barriers. The primary difference was that St. Paul school nurses identified more socio-economic and health access barriers than school nurses in Reykjavik. Greater cultural and linguistic diversity and socio-economic differences in the student population in St. Paul and lack of universal healthcare coverage in the US contributed to school nurses' need to focus more on asthma management than school nurses in Reykjavik, who were able to focus more on asthma prevention and education. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Holt/Hale, Shirley Ann; Persse, Dan
It is during the early educational years that skills are developed, habits are formed, and values are shaped. The skills for a lifetime of physical activity are developed through quality teaching, deliberate practice, assessment and reflection. Research supports the importance of elementary physical education experiences and the importance of…
Dodd, Katelynn E; Mazurek, Jacek M
Workers in various industries and occupations are at risk for work-related asthma* (1). Data from the 2006-2007 adult Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Asthma Call-back Survey (ACBS), an in-depth asthma survey conducted with respondents who report an asthma diagnosis, from 33 states indicated that up to 48% of adult current asthma might be related to work and could therefore potentially be prevented (2). Identification of the industries and occupations with increased prevalence of asthma might inform work-related asthma intervention and prevention efforts. To assess the industry-specific and occupation-specific proportions of adults with current asthma by state, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 BRFSS industry and occupation module, collected from 21 states for participants aged ≥18 years who, at the time of the survey interview, were employed or had been out of work for industry and occupation were observed. By state, current asthma prevalence was highest among workers in the information industry (18.0%) in Massachusetts and in health care support occupations (21.5%) in Michigan. Analysis of BRFSS industry and occupation and optional asthma modules can be used to identify industries and occupations to assess for asthma among workers, identify workplace exposures, and guide the design and evaluation of effective work-related asthma prevention and education programs (1).
Bereznicki, Bonnie J; Chapman, Millicent P; Bereznicki, Luke R E
To investigate actual and perceived disease control in Australians with asthma, and identify factors associated with overestimation of asthma control. This was a cross-sectional study of Australian adults with asthma, who were recruited via Facebook to complete an online survey. The survey included basic demographic questions, and validated tools assessing asthma knowledge, medication adherence, medicine beliefs, illness perception and asthma control. Items that measured symptoms and frequency of reliever medication use were compared to respondents' self-rating of their own asthma control. Predictors of overestimation of asthma control were determined using multivariate logistic regression. Of 2971 survey responses, 1950 (65.6%) were complete and eligible for inclusion. Overestimation of control was apparent in 45.9% of respondents. Factors independently associated with overestimation of asthma control included education level (OR = 0.755, 95% CI: 0.612-0.931, P = 0.009), asthma knowledge (OR = 0.942, 95% CI: 0.892-0.994, P = 0.029), total asthma control, (OR = 0.842, 95% CI: 0.818-0.867, P addictive (OR = 1.144, 95% CI: 1.017-1.287, P = 0.025), and increased feelings of control over asthma (OR = 1.261, 95% CI: 1.191-1.335), P < 0.001). Overestimation of asthma control remains a significant issue in Australians with asthma. The study highlights the importance of encouraging patients to express their feelings about asthma control and beliefs about medicines, and to be more forthcoming with their asthma symptoms. This would help to reveal any discrepancies between perceived and actual asthma control.
D'Souza, W; Burgess, C; Ayson, M; Crane, J; Pearce, N; Beasley, R
The "credit card" asthma self-management plan provides the adult asthmatic patient with simple guidelines for the self-management of asthma, which are based on the self-assessment of peak expiratory flow rate recordings and symptoms. The study was a trial of the clinical efficacy of the credit card plan in a high-risk group of asthmatic patients. In this "before-and-after" trial, patients discharged from the emergency department of Wellington Hospital, after treatment for severe asthma were invited to attend a series of hospital outpatient clinics at which the credit card plan was introduced. Questionnaires were used to compare markers of asthma morbidity, requirement for emergency medical care, and medication use during the 6-month period before and after intervention with the credit card plan. Of the 30 patients with asthma who attended the first outpatient clinic, 26 (17 women and 9 men) completed the program. In these 26 participants, there was a reduction in both morbidity and requirement for acute medical services: specifically, the proportion waking with asthma more than once a week decreased from 65% to 23% (p = 0.005) and the proportion visiting the emergency department for treatment of severe asthma decreased from 58% to 15% (p = 0.004). The patients attending the clinics commented favorably on the plan, in particular on its usefulness as an educational tool for monitoring and treating their asthma. Although the interpretation of this study is limited by the lack of a randomized control group, the findings are consistent with other evidence that the credit card asthma self-management plan can be an effective and acceptable system for improving asthma care in a high-risk group of adult patients with asthma.
Azuma, Naoto; Katada, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Kojima, Makiko; Nakajima, Yumi; Shibano, Miyo; Tomita, Hitomi; Yamanaka, Takao; Harada, Yoshinori; Ishii, Taeko; Saeki, Yukihiko
There have been few reports of clinical pathway (CP) for treatment of asthma attack, because patients with asthma always admit emergently and the severity varies. We introduced CP so that standard asthma treatment can be widely used, and investigated its clinical usefulness. We designed a new CP for treating asthma attack according to the guideline (Japanese guideline (JGL) and Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA)). 136 patients who admitted to our hospital due to asthma attack from January 1999 to November 2006, were enrolled our study. Excluding cases complicated with pneumonia, COPD or cardiac failure, we evaluated 46 cases treated with the CP comparing with 19 cases treated without the CP. The clinical evaluations include systemic and inhaled steroid use, FEV1.0%, history of asthma, and the duration of asthma attack. Furthermore, we investigated difference between cases with and without prolonged admission. While the rates of systemic and inhaled steroid use in cases without the CP were 57.9% and 52.6% respectively, those in cases with the CP were approximately 100%. Employing the CP, FEV 1.0% at discharge time was elevated from 71.7% to 76.3% and the duration of hospitalization was shortened from 14.2 days to 11.5 days. Mean age of the cases with prolonged admission was higher than the rest. The asthma CP is an effective way for the standard treatment according to the guideline to be used widely even by doctors who are not familiar with asthma treatment. It improves the efficacy of in-hospital treatment.
... Accessed February 28, 2018. Durrani SR, Busse WW. Management of asthma in adolescents and adults. In: Adkinson NF Jr, Bochner BS, Burks AW, et al, eds. Middleton's Allergy: Principles and Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap ...
... teacher School nurse School office Gym teachers and coaches Alternative Names Asthma action plan - school; Wheezing - school; ... Children Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the ...
Garmendia, Jenny V; Moreno, Dolores; Garcia, Alexis H; De Sanctis, Juan B
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a syndrome that involves at least three disorders dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, obesity and/or hypertension. MetS has been associated with several chronic diseases in the adulthood; however, in the recent years, the syndrome was redefined in children. Girls with early menarche and asthma, and children with MetS and asthma that reach adulthood appear to have higher risk to develop severe or difficult to control asthma and a higher probability to suffer cardiovascular diseases. It has been proposed that patients with MetS and endocrinological disorders should be considered a different entity in which pharmacologic treatment should be adjusted according to the individual. Recent patents on the field have addressed new issues on how endocrine control should be managed along with asthma therapeutics. In the near future, new approaches should decrease the high morbidity and mortality associated to these types of patients.
... warm, moist air helps keep asthma symptoms away. Football, baseball, and other sports with periods when you ... herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any ...
... bursts of energy are also recommended. These include: • Hiking • Baseball • Golf • Walking • Leisure biking Because cold, dry ... plan. Exercise is important and provides many health benefits, especially for people with asthma. So don’t ...
Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic disorder affecting millions of people worldwide. The prevalence of asthma is around 300 million and is expected to increase another 100 million by 2025. Obesity, on the other hand, also affects a large number of individuals. Overweight in adults is defined when body mass index (BMI is between 25 to 30 kg/m 2 and obesity when the BMI >30 kg/m 2 . It has been a matter of interest for researchers to find a relation between these two conditions. This knowledge will provide a new insight into the management of both conditions. At present, obese asthma patients may be considered a special category and it is important to assess the impact of management of obesity on asthma symptoms.
occupational exposure is 16% and for work-exacerbated asthma around 10%.3,4 ... Mohamed Jeebhay is a Professor of Occupational Medicine at the University of Cape Town. He convenes .... (obtain material safety data sheets. (MSDs) for ...
Brygge, T; Heinig, J H; Collins, P
Many asthma patients seek alternative or adjunctive therapies. One such modality is reflexology, whereby finger pressure is applied to certain parts of the body. The aim of the study was to examine the popular claim that reflexology treatment benefits bronchial asthma. Ten weeks of active...... or simulated (placebo) reflexology given by an experienced reflexologist, were compared in an otherwise blind, controlled trial of 20+20 outpatients with asthma. Objective lung function tests (peak flow morning and evening, and weekly spirometry at the clinic) did not change. Subjective scores (describing...... diaries was carried out. It was accompanied by a significant pattern compatible with subconscious unblinding, in that patients tended to guess which treatment they had been receiving. No evidence was found that reflexology has a specific effect on asthma beyond placebo influence....
Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke
Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...... their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of ß2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however......, be noted that daily use of ß-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of ß2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should...
Brygge, Thor; Heinig, John Hilligsøe; Collins, Philippa
INTRODUCTION: Many patients with asthma seek alternative or adjunctive therapies. One such modality is reflexology. Our aim was to examine the popular claim that reflexology treatment benefits bronchial asthma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten weeks of either active or simulated (placebo) reflexology were...... compared in an otherwise blind, controlled trial of 40 patients with asthma. RESULTS: Objective lung function tests did not change. Subjective scores and bronchial sensitivity to histamine improved on both regimens, but no differences were found in the groups receiving active or placebo reflexology....... However, a trend in favour of reflexology became significant when a supplementary analysis of symptom diaries was carried out. At the same time a significant pattern compatible with subconscious un-blinding was found. DISCUSSION: We found no evidence that reflexology has a specific effect on asthma beyond...
Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke
Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...... their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of β2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however......, be noted that daily use of β-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of β2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should...
This checklist guides home care visitors in identifying environmental asthma triggers most commonly found in homes. It includes sections on the building, home interior and room interior and provides low-cost action steps for remediation.
... Asthma is a serious, sometimes life-threatening chronic respiratory disease that affects the quality of life for more ... the public of health risks from outdoor air pollution. The Partner website provides information to help children ...
Svetlana Petrovna Akutina
Full Text Available The goal: the educational research of educational effectiveness FGOS PVO for the professional preparation.The research method and the methodological approach: to enlighten the goals of the Federal Governmental Education Standard (FGOS of the high professional education (VPO of the psycho-pedagogical field within the education system reforming; to create new didactical materials, programs, plans, training courses; to model the educational effectiveness of a high education institution according to the competence approach.The clue of the educational effectiveness is in the developing an individual educational path for students in the comprehensive phase, and as a result the role of an educator, and a tutor increases; the changes in social cultural sphere of an educational institution, the importance of students self-management are to remodel the formulating personal needs paradigm in professional, private, intellectual, cultural and modal advancing.The research results are to open valuable possibilities of educational effectiveness in FGOS VPO influencing the professional preparation, that is filled with innovative forms, me-thods, technological approaches in cooperation between students and educators; to organize socially oriented process within the educational and extra educational context, to construct an individual educational path to obtain a qualification, to guaranty the realization of a new educational system for educators’ cooperation, for tutors and social partners; all these permit to act in different cultural spheres acquiring positive experience of professional training.The application field: the research results are applied in the pedagogical activity to prepare professional figures in the psycho pedagogical area, in educational projects with students, in cooperating with various social partners.
Full Text Available ... Work-related Asthma NCHS Asthma FastStats Survey Questions Resources for Health Professionals and Schools Healthcare Professionals Public Health Professionals School and Childcare Providers CDC Publications on Asthma National Asthma Control Program ...
Full Text Available ... the Underlying Cause of Death Flu Vaccination among Adults with Current Asthma Flu Vaccination among Children with ... Children aged 5–17 Years Asthma Severity among Adults with Current Asthma Asthma Severity among Children with ...
Full Text Available ... Current Asthma Overuse of quick-relief medication among persons with active asthma Use of long-term control medication among persons with active asthma Uncontrolled Asthma among Persons with ...
Full Text Available ... In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, and Surveillance Most Recent ... AsthmaStats Asthma as the Underlying Cause of Death Flu Vaccination among Adults with Current Asthma Flu Vaccination ...
... English Español Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma? KidsHealth / For Parents / Can the Weather Affect My ... Asthma? Print Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma? Yes. Weather conditions can bring on asthma symptoms. ...
Zhong, Connie S.; Melendez-Torres, G. J.
Background: Adolescents with asthma face unique challenges due to hormonal changes, psychosocial development and healthcare transition. Peer-led self-management programmes may increase treatment adherence and social adjustment by addressing these challenges. The purpose of this study was to assess whether peer-led self-management programmes…
Kang, Sung-Yoon; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Kwon, Yong-Eun; Kim, Tae-Bum; Park, Hye-Kyung; Park, Heung-Woo; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Jee, Young-Koo; Moon, Hee-Bom; Min, Kyung-Up; Cho, Sang-Heon
Effective educational tools are important for increasing adherence to asthma guidelines and clinical improvement of asthma patients. We developed a computer-based interactive education program for asthma guideline named the Virtual Learning Center for Asthma Management (VLCAM). We evaluated the usefulness of program in terms of its effects on user awareness of asthma guideline and level of satisfaction. Physicians-in-training at tertiary hospitals in Korea were enrolled in a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. The e-learning program on asthma guideline was conducted over a 2-week period. We investigated changes in the awareness of asthma guideline using 35-item self-administered questionnaire aiming at assessing physicians' knowledge, attitude, and practice. Satisfaction with the program was scored on 4-point Likert scales. A total of 158 physicians-in-training at six tertiary hospitals completed the survey. Compared with baseline, the overall awareness obtained from the scores of knowledge, attitude, and practice was improved significantly. Participants were satisfied with the VLCAM program in the following aspects: helpfulness, convenience, motivation, effectiveness, physicians' confidence, improvement of asthma management, and willingness to recommend. All items in user satisfaction questionnaires received high scores over 3 points. Moreover, the problem-based learning with a virtual patient received the highest user satisfaction among all parts of the program. Our computer-based e-learning program is useful for improving awareness of asthma management. It could improve adherence to asthma guidelines and enhance the quality of asthma care.
Beer, S; Laver, J; Karpuch, J; Chabut, S; Aladjem, M
One hundred and thirty four ambulatory children with bronchial asthma were investigated in the Pediatric Pulmonary-Allergic Service. In 95 patients an interval characterised by prodromal respiratory symptoms (cough, rhinorrhoea, and wheezing), behavioural changes (irritability, apathy, anxiety, and sleep disorders), gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal pain and anorexia), fever, itching, skin eruptions, and toothache preceded the onset of the attack of asthma. Each child had his own constant ...
Full Text Available Science standards and textbooks have a huge impact on the manner in which evolution is taught in American classrooms. Standards dictate how much time and what points have to be dedicated to the subject in order to prepare students for state-wide assessments, while the textbooks will largely determine how the subject is presented in the classroom. In the United States both standards and textbooks are determined at the state-level through a political process. Currently there is a tremendous amount of pressure arising from anti-evolutionists in the United States to weaken or omit the teaching of evolution despite recommendations from central institutions such as the National Academy of Science. Results from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA showed that not only are American students performing below average, but also that their performance is declining as they scored worse in 2012 than they did in 2010. Interestingly PISA also found that the internal variation within a country is often greater than between countries with a variation of up to 300 points, which is equivalent to seven years of education pointing to the extreme heterogeneous quality of education within a country (OECD, 2012. An implementation of strong standards would not only help to increase the average performance of American students but could also alleviate the vast discrepancy between the highest and lowest scoring groups of American students. Although the Next Generation Science Standards have been in existence since 2013 and A Framework for K-12 Science Education has been available to the public since 2011 many American states still continue to create their own standards that, according to the Fordham study, are well below par (Lerner et al., 2012. Due to the political nature of the adoption procedure of standards and textbooks, there are many opportunities for interested individuals to get involved in the process of improving these fundamental elements of
Ross, Mindy K; Yoon, Jinsung; van der Schaar, Auke; van der Schaar, Mihaela
Pediatric asthma has variable underlying inflammation and symptom control. Approaches to addressing this heterogeneity, such as clustering methods to find phenotypes and predict outcomes, have been investigated. However, clustering based on the relationship between treatment and clinical outcome has not been performed, and machine learning approaches for long-term outcome prediction in pediatric asthma have not been studied in depth. Our objectives were to use our novel machine learning algorithm, predictor pursuit (PP), to discover pediatric asthma phenotypes on the basis of asthma control in response to controller medications, to predict longitudinal asthma control among children with asthma, and to identify features associated with asthma control within each discovered pediatric phenotype. We applied PP to the Childhood Asthma Management Program study data (n = 1,019) to discover phenotypes on the basis of asthma control between assigned controller therapy groups (budesonide vs. nedocromil). We confirmed PP's ability to discover phenotypes using the Asthma Clinical Research Network/Childhood Asthma Research and Education network data. We next predicted children's asthma control over time and compared PP's performance with that of traditional prediction methods. Last, we identified clinical features most correlated with asthma control in the discovered phenotypes. Four phenotypes were discovered in both datasets: allergic not obese (A + /O - ), obese not allergic (A - /O + ), allergic and obese (A + /O + ), and not allergic not obese (A - /O - ). Of the children with well-controlled asthma in the Childhood Asthma Management Program dataset, we found more nonobese children treated with budesonide than with nedocromil (P = 0.015) and more obese children treated with nedocromil than with budesonide (P = 0.008). Within the obese group, more A + /O + children's asthma was well controlled with nedocromil than with budesonide (P = 0.022) or with placebo
Ray, Anuradha; Wenzel, Sally E.
Our understanding of asthma has evolved over time from a singular disease to a complex of various phenotypes, with varied natural histories, physiologies, and responses to treatment. Early therapies treated most patients with asthma similarly, with bronchodilators and corticosteroids, but these therapies had varying degrees of success. Similarly, despite initial studies that identified an underlying type 2 inflammation in the airways of patients with asthma, biologic therapies targeted toward these type 2 pathways were unsuccessful in all patients. These observations led to increased interest in phenotyping asthma. Clinical approaches, both biased and later unbiased/statistical approaches to large asthma patient cohorts, identified a variety of patient characteristics, but they also consistently identified the importance of age of onset of disease and the presence of eosinophils in determining clinically relevant phenotypes. These paralleled molecular approaches to phenotyping that developed an understanding that not all patients share a type 2 inflammatory pattern. Using biomarkers to select patients with type 2 inflammation, repeated trials of biologics directed toward type 2 cytokine pathways saw newfound success, confirming the importance of phenotyping in asthma. Further research is needed to clarify additional clinical and molecular phenotypes, validate predictive biomarkers, and identify new areas for possible interventions. PMID:26161792
Black, William R.; Karanxha, Zorka
The authors describe their attempt to develop students' critical perspectives on the content and assumptions in the 2008 Florida Principal Leadership Standards (FPLS) through a reflective essay assignment in a class titled Ethics, Equity, and Leadership in Education. The authors conducted textual analysis of 92 student essays (a total of 922…
Stair, Kristin S.; Warner, Wendy J; Hock, Gaea; Conrad, Michelle; Levy, Natalie
The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) have been adopted in 43 states within the U.S. However, Career and Technical Education (CTE) teachers are often unsure how their programs can successfully integrate CCSS. The purpose of this study was to understand how participants in a CCSS professional development project perceive the CCSS and how they are…
McComas, Kim Krusen
Discusses the parallels between Klein's position at the forefront of a movement to reform mathematics education and that of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics' (NCTM) Standards. Draws a picture of Klein as an important historical figure who saw equal importance in studying pure mathematics, applying mathematics, and teaching…
Yemini, Miri; Gordon, Noa
This study applies discourse analysis to Israeli media coverage of national and international standardized examinations within Israel's public education system. Through systematic analysis of the topic in the two main Israeli financial publications between the years 2000 and 2013, we explore the nature and narrative of the media and compare the…
The purpose of this study is to develop, and test the validity and reliability of a scale for the use of researchers to determine the accreditation standards of open and distance education based on the views of administrators, teachers, staff and students. This research was designed according to the general descriptive survey model since it aims…
Our current conceptions of educational adequacy emerged out of an era dominated by equity-based school resource litigation. During that time of transitioning between successful litigation strategies, legal opinions provided clues as to how future courts might view a norm-referenced approach to establishing an adequacy standard--an approach that…
Lee, Lena; Misco, Thomas
In this article, we explored Chinese moral education standards for grades one and two by using the heuristic of moral autonomy and by employing a typology of moral autonomy, one based on Kantian and Deweyan ideas about moral autonomy and agency. Given the larger charge for all of schooling to develop independence, problem-solving, and creativity…
Matarazzo, Joseph D.; Herman, David O.
Analyzed the total number of years of schooling completed against the Verbal IQ (VIQ), Performance IQ (PIQ), and Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) of the 1,880 individuals who were used to standardize the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R). Analysis revealed a progressive increase in mean FSIQ with increasing education. (JAC)
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Radiographers A Appendix A to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... film evaluation; (k) Methods of patient care; (l) Pathology; (m) Radiologic physics; and (n) Radiation...
Floyd, Carlyn; Rice, Elisabeth Hess
This study examined the beliefs of individuals providing the mathematics instruction to elementary students with ED in a self-contained setting as compared to general educators in the same school. The study also attempted to determine the factors that influence beliefs of the NCTM Standards. Through analyzing teachers' beliefs of the NCTM…
Warner, Connor K.
In this study the author surveys social studies standards from 14 U.S. states seeking to answer: (a) what social studies knowledge about American Indians is deemed essential by those states mandating the development of American Indian Education curricula for all public K-12 students? and (b) at what grade levels is this social studies content…
Lieberman, Gerald A.
In this timely book, curriculum expert Gerald A. Lieberman provides an innovative guide to creating and implementing a new type of environmental education that combines standards-based lessons on English language arts, math, history, and science with community investigations and service learning projects. By connecting academic content with local…
Liu, Ye; Palmer, Bart; Recker, Mimi
Professional education is increasingly facing accessibility challenges with the emergence of webbased learning. This paper summarizes related U.S. legislation, standards, guidelines, and validation tools to make web-based learning accessible for all potential learners. We also present lessons learned during the implementation of web accessibility…
Kaufman, David M.; Mann, Karen V.; Muijtjens, Arno M. M.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.
Compared four standard-setting procedures for an objective structure clinical examination (OSCE) in medical education. Applied Angoff, borderline, relative, and holistic procedures to the data used to establish a cutoff score for a pass/fail decision. The Angoff and borderline procedures gave similar results; however, the relative and holistic…
In the past several years, curriculum reform has received increasing attention from educators in many countries around the world. Recently, Taiwan has developed new Science and Life Technology Curriculum Standards (SaLTS) for grades 1-9. SaLTS features a systematic way for developing students' understanding and appreciation of…
The paper seeks to determine whether programmes of initial teacher education (ITE) can contribute to the development of beginning teachers' inclusive attitudes, values and practices. The majority of ITE programmes are based on government prescribed competence or standards frameworks, which are underpinned by Codes of Professional Values. It is…
Licskai, Christopher; Sands, Todd; Ong, Michael; Paolatto, Lisa; Nicoletti, Ivan
Quality problem International guidelines establish evidence-based standards for asthma care; however, recommendations are often not implemented and many patients do not meet control targets. Initial assessment Regional pilot data demonstrated a knowledge-to-practice gap. Choice of solutions We engineered health system change in a multi-step approach described by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research knowledge translation framework. Implementation Knowledge translation occurred at multiple levels: patient, practice and local health system. A regional administrative infrastructure and inter-disciplinary care teams were developed. The key project deliverable was a guideline-based interdisciplinary asthma management program. Six community organizations, 33 primary care physicians and 519 patients participated. The program operating cost was $290/patient. Evaluation Six guideline-based care elements were implemented, including spirometry measurement, asthma controller therapy, a written self-management action plan and general asthma education, including the inhaler device technique, role of medications and environmental control strategies in 93, 95, 86, 100, 97 and 87% of patients, respectively. Of the total patients 66% were adults, 61% were female, the mean age was 35.7 (SD = ± 24.2) years. At baseline 42% had two or more symptoms beyond acceptable limits vs. 17% (P< 0.001) post-intervention; 71% reported urgent/emergent healthcare visits at baseline (2.94 visits/year) vs. 45% (1.45 visits/year) (P< 0.001); 39% reported absenteeism (5.0 days/year) vs. 19% (3.0 days/year) (P< 0.001). The mean follow-up interval was 22 (SD = ± 7) months. Lessons learned A knowledge-translation framework can guide multi-level organizational change, facilitate asthma guideline implementation, and improve health outcomes in community primary care practices. Program costs are similar to those of diabetes programs. Program savings offset costs in a ratio of 2.1:1.
Licskai, Christopher; Sands, Todd; Ong, Michael; Paolatto, Lisa; Nicoletti, Ivan
Quality problem International guidelines establish evidence-based standards for asthma care; however, recommendations are often not implemented and many patients do not meet control targets. Initial assessment Regional pilot data demonstrated a knowledge-to-practice gap. Choice of solutions We engineered health system change in a multi-step approach described by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research knowledge translation framework. Implementation Knowledge translation occurred at multiple levels: patient, practice and local health system. A regional administrative infrastructure and inter-disciplinary care teams were developed. The key project deliverable was a guideline-based interdisciplinary asthma management program. Six community organizations, 33 primary care physicians and 519 patients participated. The program operating cost was $290/patient. Evaluation Six guideline-based care elements were implemented, including spirometry measurement, asthma controller therapy, a written self-management action plan and general asthma education, including the inhaler device technique, role of medications and environmental control strategies in 93, 95, 86, 100, 97 and 87% of patients, respectively. Of the total patients 66% were adults, 61% were female, the mean age was 35.7 (SD = ±24.2) years. At baseline 42% had two or more symptoms beyond acceptable limits vs. 17% (Pabsenteeism (5.0 days/year) vs. 19% (3.0 days/year) (P< 0.001). The mean follow-up interval was 22 (SD = ±7) months. Lessons learned A knowledge-translation framework can guide multi-level organizational change, facilitate asthma guideline implementation, and improve health outcomes in community primary care practices. Program costs are similar to those of diabetes programs. Program savings offset costs in a ratio of 2.1:1 PMID:22893665
Christensen, Leif; Karle, Hans; Nystrup, Jørgen
An outcome-based approach to medical education compared to a process/content orientation is currently being discussed intensively. In this article, the process and outcome interrelationship in medical education is discussed, with specific emphasis on the relation to the definition of standards in basic medical education. Perceptions of outcome have always been an integrated element of curricular planning. The present debate underlines the need for stronger focus on learning objectives and outcome assessment in many medical schools around the world. The need to maintain an integrated approach of process/content and outcome is underlined in this paper. A worry is expressed about the taxonomy of learning in pure outcome-based medical education, in which student assessment can be a major determinant for the learning process, leaving the control of the medical curriculum to medical examiners. Moreover, curricula which favour reductionism by stating everything in terms of instrumental outcomes or competences, do face a risk of lowering quality and do become a prey for political interference. Standards based on outcome alone rise unclarified problems in relationship to licensure requirements of medical doctors. It is argued that the alleged dichotomy between process/content and outcome seems artificial, and that formulation of standards in medical education must follow a comprehensive line in curricular planning.
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2015
The Australian Institute of Health and Welfare developed a national data standards strategy and implementation plan to enhance the comparability, quality and coherence of information across the Australian education and training sectors, including early childhood education, school education, vocational education and training (VET) and higher…
People with intellectual disability are a vulnerable group of people with asthma that has, to date, largely been ignored in the medical literature. Although guidelines for medication management for people with intellectual disability suggest asthma is treated as for other populations, there are special considerations that should be taken into account when managing asthma in this group. Due to their cognitive impairment as well as comorbidities, they are likely to require support with asthma self-management, including inhaler use. Their varying degrees of autonomy mean that there is often a need to provide education and information to both the person and their caregivers. Educational aims To understand general principles of health of people with intellectual disability and how this affects the healthcare professional’s approach to asthma management. To understand how intellectual disability affects cognition, autonomy and communication, and therefore the ability of a person to self-manage asthma. To recognise ways of mitigating respiratory disease risk in people with intellectual disability. To describe ways for healthcare professionals to support people with intellectual disability and their caregivers in asthma management. PMID:28210318
Full Text Available Aim: Bronchial asthma is among the most common chronic pediatric diseases that can result in variable restriction in the physical, emotional and social aspects of the patient%u2019s life. The aim of this study was to assess impairment on quality of life (QOL in asthmatic children. Material and Method: Ninety seven patients aged between 7 and 15 years which followed up at Pediatric Pulmonology Department of Dicle University Hospital were included into the study, during October 2009 %u2013 January 2010. To assess the quality of life Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life questionnaire%u2019s (PAQLQ self-applied Turkish version was used. In addition, the severity of asthma was measured using by Childhood Asthma Control Test (C-ACT. Results: The male to female ratio of asthmatic children was 2/1 and the mean age was 10.0 %uF0B1 2.5 years. Severity of asthma, history of steroid use and low family income were found as having negative effect on the PAQLQ scores (p < 0.001. Mother%u2019s education level also had statistically significant effect on the PAQLQ scores (P = 0.02. Father%u2019s education level; patient%u2019s age, gender, passive smoking exposure, family history of asthma or eczema and duration of disease did not have statistically significant effect on PAQLQ scores (p>0.05. Asthma control test score had a significant correlation with PAQLQ score (p
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... re feeling better. Work with your parents and doctor to follow an asthma action plan. Reviewed by: Elana Pearl Ben-Joseph, MD Date reviewed: May 2017 More on this topic for: Kids Asthma Center Asthma Action Plan Dealing With Asthma Triggers Your House: How to Make It Asthma-Safe Asthma View ...
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Kuethe, Maarten; Vaessen-Verberne, Anja; Mulder, Paul; Bindels, Patrick; Aalderen, Willem
textabstractAims: For children with stable asthma, to test non-inferiority of care provided by a hospital-based specialised asthma nurse versus a general practitioner (GP) or paediatrician. Methods: Randomised controlled trial evaluating standard care by a GP, paediatrician or an asthma nurse, with two-year follow-up. Results: 107 children were recruited, 45 from general practice and 62 from hospital. After two years, no significant differences between groups were found for airway responsiven...
Full Text Available Policies Minimum Service Standards for Basic Education has rolled out since 2002 by the minister in accordance with the Decree No. 129a U 2004 About Minimum Service Standards Education is continually updated and lastly Regulation of the Minister of Education and Culture No. 23 of 2013. All of the district government town should achieve the target of achieving 100 per cent in each of the indicators listed in the minimum service standards for the end of 2014. achievement pad on each indicator is just one measure of the performance of the local government department of education. Unfortunately from the announced target for 27 indicators that exist almost all regions including local governments do not reach Tangerang Regency. It is necessary for measuring the performance of local authorities particularly the education department. One performance measure modern enough that measurements can be done that The Balance Scorecard BSc. In the Balanced Scorecard is a management tool contemporare complete measure company performance not only of the financial perspective but also non-financial performance such as Customer Perspective Internal Business Processes and Learning and Growth. This approach is actually ideally suited for multinational companies because this approach requires very expensive but can be used to measure the profit performance of the company in addition to the combination of a long-term strategic and short-strategic. Balanced Scorecard it can also be done in measuring the performance of public sector services as well by modifying a few things so it can be used to measure the performance of the public sector including the Performance Measurement Minimum Service Standards for Basic Education.
The National Academy of Sciences has created a committee of 18 National Academy of Science and Engineering members, academic scientists, cognitive and learning scientists, and educators, educational policymakers and researchers to develop a framework to guide new K-12 science education standards. The committee began its work in January, 2010, released a draft of the framework in July, 2010, and intends to have the final framework in the first quarter of 2011. The committee was helped in early phases of the work by consultant design teams. The framework is designed to help realize a vision for science and engineering education in which all students actively engage in science and engineering practices in order to deepen their understanding of core ideas in science over multiple years of school. These three dimensions - core disciplinary ideas, science and engineering practices, and cross-cutting elements - must blend together to build an exciting, relevant, and forward looking science education. The framework will be used as a base for development of next generation K-12 science education standards.
The purpose of this study was to compare the achievement of general education students within regular education classes to the achievement of general education students in inclusion/co-teach classes to determine whether there was a significant difference in the achievement between the two groups. The school district's inclusion/co-teach model included ongoing professional development support for teachers and administrators. General education teachers, special education teachers, and teacher assistants collaborated to develop instructional strategies to provide additional remediation to help students to acquire the skills needed to master course content. This quantitative study reviewed the end-of course test (EoCT) scores of Grade 10 physical science and math students within an urban school district. It is not known whether general education students in an inclusive/co-teach science or math course will demonstrate a higher achievement on the EoCT in math or science than students not in an inclusive/co-teach classroom setting. In addition, this study sought to determine if students classified as low socioeconomic status benefited from participating in co-teaching classrooms as evidenced by standardized tests. Inferential statistics were used to determine whether there was a significant difference between the achievements of the treatment group (inclusion/co-teach) and the control group (non-inclusion/co-teach). The findings can be used to provide school districts with optional instructional strategies to implement in the diverse classroom setting in the modern classroom to increase academic performance on state standardized tests.
Akcay, Hakan; Yager, Robert
The purpose of this study was to investigate the advantages of an approach to instruction using current problems and issues as curriculum organizers and illustrating how teaching must change to accomplish real learning. The study sample consisted of 41 preservice science teachers (13 males and 28 females) in a model science teacher education program. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used to determine success with science discipline-specific “Societal and Educational Applications” courses as one part of a total science teacher education program at a large Midwestern university. Students were involved with idea generation, consideration of multiple points of views, collaborative inquiries, and problem solving. All of these factors promoted grounded instruction using constructivist perspectives that situated science with actual experiences in the lives of students.
Heffler, Enrico; Terranova, Giovanni; Chessari, Carlo; Frazzetto, Valentina; Crimi, Claudia; Fichera, Silvia; Picardi, Giuseppe; Nicolosi, Giuliana; Porto, Morena; Intravaia, Rossella; Crimi, Nunzio
One of the main severe asthma phenotypes is severe eosinophilic or eosinophilic refractory asthma for which novel biologic agents are emerging as therapeutic options. In this context, blood eosinophil counts are one of the most reliable biomarkers. To evaluate the performance of a point-of-care peripheral blood counter in a patients with severe asthma. The blood eosinophil counts of 76 patients with severe asthma were evaluated by point-of-care and standard analyzers. A significant correlation between blood eosinophils assessed by the 2 devices was found (R 2 = 0.854, P asthma and the ELEN index, a composite score useful to predict sputum eosinophilia. The results of our study contribute to the validation of a point-of-care device to assess blood eosinophils and open the possibility of using this device for the management of severe asthma management. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Garwick, Ann W.; Svavarsdóttir, Erla Kolbrun; Seppelt, Ann M.; Looman, Wendy S.; Anderson, Lori S.; Örlygsdóttir, Brynja
Aim To identify and compare how school nurses in Reykjavik, Iceland and St. Paul, Minnesota coordinated care for youth with asthma (ages 10–18) and to develop an asthma school nurse care coordination model. Background Little is known about how school nurses coordinate care for youth with asthma in different countries. Design A qualitative descriptive study design using focus group data. Methods Six focus groups with 32 school nurses were conducted in Reykjavik (n=17) and St. Paul (n=15) using the same protocol between September 2008 – January 2009. Descriptive content analytic and constant comparison strategies were used to categorize and compare how school nurses coordinated care, which resulted in the development of an International School Nurse Asthma Care Coordination Model. Findings Participants in both countries spontaneously described a similar asthma care coordination process that involved information gathering, assessing risk for asthma episodes, prioritizing health care needs and anticipating and planning for student needs at the individual and school levels. This process informed how they individualized symptom management, case management and/or asthma education. School nurses played a pivotal part in collaborating with families, school and health care professionals to ensure quality care for youth with asthma. Conclusions Results indicate a high level of complexity in school nurses’ approaches to asthma care coordination that were responsive to the diverse and changing needs of students in school settings. The conceptual model derived provides a framework for investigators to use in examining the asthma care coordination process of school nurses in other geographic locations. PMID:25223389
Solé, Dirceu; Aranda, Carolina Sanchez; Wandalsen, Gustavo Falbo
Asthma is reported as one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood, impairing the quality of life of patients and their families and incurring high costs to the healthcare system and society. Despite the development of new drugs and the availability of international treatment guidelines, asthma is still poorly controlled, especially in Latin America. Original and review articles on asthma control or epidemiology with high levels of evidence have been selected for analysis among those published in PubMed referenced journals during the last 20 years, using the following keywords: "asthma control" combined with "Latin America", " epidemiology", "prevalence", "burden", "mortality", "treatment and unmet needs", "children", "adolescents", and "infants". There was a high prevalence and severity of asthma during the period analyzed, especially in children and adolescents. Wheezing in infants was a significant reason for seeking medical care in Latin American health centers. Moreover, the frequent use of quick-relief bronchodilators and oral corticosteroids by these patients indicates the lack of a policy for providing better care for asthmatic patients, as well as poor asthma control. Among adults, studies document poor treatment and control of the disease, as revealed by low adherence to routine anti-inflammatory medications and high rates of emergency care visits and hospitalization. In conclusion, although rare, studies on asthma control in Latin America repeatedly show that patients are inadequately controlled and frequently overestimate their degree of asthma control according to the criteria used by international asthma treatment guidelines. Additional education for doctors and patients is essential for adequate control of this illness, and therefore also for reduction of the individual and social burden of asthma.
Garcia-Marcos, Luis; Robertson, Colin F; Ross Anderson, H; Ellwood, Philippa; Williams, Hywel C; Wong, Gary Wk
Immigrants to Westernized countries adopt the prevalence of allergic diseases of native populations, yet no data are available on immigrants to low-income or low-disease prevalence countries. We investigated these questions using data from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Standardized questionnaires were completed by 13-14-year-old adolescents and by the parent/guardians of 6-7-year-old children. Questions on the symptom prevalence of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema, and a wide range of factors postulated to be associated with these conditions, including birth in or not in the country and age at immigration, were asked. Odds ratios for risk of the three diseases according to immigration status were calculated using generalized linear mixed models. These were adjusted for: world region; language and gross national income; and individual risk factors including gender, maternal education, antibiotic and paracetamol use, maternal smoking, and diet. Effect modification by gross national income and by prevalence was examined. There were 326 691 adolescents from 48 countries and 208 523 children from 31 countries. Immigration was associated with a lower prevalence of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema in both age groups than among those born in the country studied, and this association was mainly confined to high-prevalence/affluent countries. This reduced risk was greater in those who had lived fewer years in the host country. Recent migration to high prevalence/affluent countries is associated with a lower prevalence of allergic diseases. The protective pre-migration environment quickly decreases with increasing time in the host country. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.
Nieuwenhof, L. van den
Asthma is a chronic, inflammatory, pulmonary disease with a significant impact on patients, their families, and society. When symptomatic asthma is diagnosed, often irreversible changes in the airways have occurred. Therefore it is important to detect persons at high risk of asthma as early as
Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Daoud, Farah; Tuffaha, Marwa; Kravitz, Hannah; Al Saeedi, Mohammad; Basulaiman, Mohammed; Memish, Ziad A; AlMazroa, Mohammad A; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A; Mokdad, Ali H
There are not enough data on the epidemiology of asthma in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). We analyzed data from a national household survey conducted in KSA in 2013 to estimate prevalence, associated risk factors and control measurements of asthma. The Saudi Health Interview Survey was a cross-sectional national multistage survey of 10,735 individuals aged 15 years or older. The survey included a detailed household questionnaire and a physical exam. We used self-reported clinical diagnosis of asthma to assess prevalence of asthma. The prevalence of asthma in KSA was 4.05 % (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 3.54-4.62 %). Asthma was less frequent in individuals with higher education but higher in former smokers and obese individuals. Around 76.7 % of asthma patients (95 % CI: 70.6-82.0 %) experienced an asthmatic attack, and 61.6 % (95 % CI: 54.4-68.4 %) visited a hospital/emergency room because of asthma during the past year. Asthma attack was less frequent in older patients (odds ratio [OR] = 0.78, 95 %CI: 0.59-0.96 for each decade of life). Current use of medication for asthma was highly associated with asthma attacks (OR = 9.14, 95 % CI: 3.29-25.38). Asthma attack was also more frequent in individuals who were exposed to secondhand smoking (OR = 2.17, 95 %CI: 1.05-4.45) and those who were obese (OR = 3.01, 95 %CI: 1.34-6.78). Saudi Arabia has a relatively low prevalence of diagnosed asthma; however, many of the patients with known asthma do not have it under good control. Our study calls for programs to inform patients about the importance and proper means of controlling their condition. Implementing and monitoring of clinical guidelines can also help to improve asthma control among patients as well as identify undiagnosed cases.
Asunda, Paul A.
At a minimum, employers rely on career and technical education (CTE) and workforce training systems to supply workers able to perform in their jobs. In CTE classes that seek to integrate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) concepts, it falls to the instructors to design and sequence the learning experiences that will promote…
Full Text Available Michael E March,1 Patrick MA Sleiman,1,2 Hakon Hakonarson1,2 1Center for Applied Genomics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Research Institute, 2Department of Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Genetic studies of asthma have revealed that there is considerable heritability to the phenotype. An extensive history of candidate-gene studies has identified a long list of genes associated with immune function that are potentially involved in asthma pathogenesis. However, many of the results of candidate-gene studies have failed to be replicated, leaving in question the true impact of the implicated biological pathways on asthma. With the advent of genome-wide association studies, geneticists are able to examine the association of hundreds of thousands of genetic markers with a phenotype, allowing the hypothesis-free identification of variants associated with disease. Many such studies examining asthma or related phenotypes have been published, and several themes have begun to emerge regarding the biological pathways underpinning asthma. The results of many genome-wide association studies have currently not been replicated, and the large sample sizes required for this experimental strategy invoke difficulties with sample stratification and phenotypic heterogeneity. Recently, large collaborative groups of researchers have formed consortia focused on asthma, with the goals of sharing material and data and standardizing diagnosis and experimental methods. Additionally, research has begun to focus on genetic variants that affect the response to asthma medications and on the biology that generates the heterogeneity in the asthma phenotype. As this work progresses, it will move asthma patients closer to more specific, personalized medicine. Keywords: asthma, genetics, GWAS, pharmacogenetics, biomarkers
Full Text Available This paper is a critique of the approach in which the issue of accounting ethics and governance has been tackled through education. In light of the existence of the International Education Standard (IES 4 specifically on ethics as the relevant framework developed by the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC, the discussion in this paper centres on the requirement of IES 4 and the manner it is suggested for implementation. Based on the ontological and epistemological reality of the world as reflected in science which also parallels religion and Eastern belief system, we are sceptical of the degree of representation of reality of the model of ethics and governance that is currently upheld by accounting curriculum designers. A framework on ethics education that is more holistic is proposed.
Wall, Catherine L; Gearry, Richard B; Pearson, John; Parnell, Winsome; Skidmore, Paula M L
Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in New Zealand, but risk factors may be decreased by consuming a heart healthy diet. This pilot study investigated whether participants met the guidelines for a heart healthy diet and whether a novel heart healthy dietary pattern could be identified using principal components analysis (PCA). The second aim of this project was to assess if higher education, standard of living and nutrition literacy are associated with a heart healthy dietary pattern. This exploratory study was undertaken using data from the first participants enrolled in the Canterbury Health Ageing and Lifecourse study: an observational study of 50 year olds in the Canterbury District Health Board region. Eighty-two people were selected from the General and Maori electoral role and interviewed prior to the 22 February 2011 Christchurch Earthquake. PCA was conducted to identify dietary patterns, based on intake of specific nutrients as indicated by the New Zealand and international heart healthy dietary guidelines. 62 participants completed questionnaires and an estimated food record. No participants met all five of the heart healthy dietary guidelines. One dietary pattern was produced by PCA: a "higher CVD risk" pattern. Regression analysis indicated that higher standard of living, education and nutrition literacy were inversely associated with a "higher CVD risk" pattern. Higher standard of living, education and nutrition literacy were associated with a healthier dietary eating pattern. However, as no participants met all the dietary recommendations more education and support is needed to help people meet these.
The Next Generation Science Standards will have a profound impact on the future science education of students and professional development for teachers. The science and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and disciplinary core ideas laid out in the Framework for K-12 Science Education (NRC, 2011) will change the focus and methods of how we prepare teachers to meet these new standards. Extending beyond just the use of inquiry in the classroom, teachers will need support designing and implementing integrated experiences for students that require them to apply knowledge of content and practices. Integrating the three dimensions central to the new standards will pose curricular challenges and create opportunities for innovative space science projects and instruction. The science research and technology community will have an important role in supporting authentic classroom practices as well as training and support of teachers in these new ways of presenting science and technology. These changes will require a new focus for teacher professional development and new ways to research impacts of teacher training and changes in classroom practice. In addition, new and innovative tools will be needed to assess mastery of students’ knowledge of practices and the ways teachers effectively help students achieve these new goals. The astronomy education community has much to offer as K-12 and undergraduate level science educators rethink and redefine what it means to be scientifically literate and figure out how to truly measure the success of these new ways of teaching science.
Introduction. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways, ... of the airway, constriction of the airway via smooth muscle ... Avoiding these factors can help to reduce asthma exacerbations .... Nutritional and exercise-related factors.
Prins, L.C.J.; van Son, M.A.C.; van Keimpema, A.R.J.; van Ranst, D.; Antonissen-Pommer, A.M.; Meijer, J.W.G.; Pop, V.J.M.
Objective: Within the asthma population, difficult asthma (DA) is a severe condition in which patients present with frequent exacerbations, hospitalizations and emergency room visits. The identification and treatment of psychopathology is included in the management of DA. Psychopathology is supposed
Yu, Sanhong; Kim, Hye Young; Chang, Ya-Jen; DeKruyff, Rosemarie H; Umetsu, Dale T
Asthma is a complex and heterogeneous disease with several phenotypes, including an allergic asthma phenotype characterized by TH2 cytokine production and associated with allergen sensitization and adaptive immunity. Asthma also includes nonallergic asthma phenotypes, such as asthma associated with exposure to air pollution, infection, or obesity, that require innate rather than adaptive immunity. These innate pathways that lead to asthma involve macrophages, neutrophils, natural killer T cells, and innate lymphoid cells, newly described cell types that produce a variety of cytokines, including IL-5 and IL-13. We review the recent data regarding innate lymphoid cells and their role in asthma. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Arridjal, F.; Aldila, D.; Bustamam, A.
The Result of The Programme of International Student Assessment (PISA) on 2012 shows that Indonesia is on 64'th position from 65 countries in Mathematics Mean Score. The 2013 Learning Curve Mapping, Indonesia is included in the 10th category of countries with the lowest performance on cognitive skills aspect, i.e. 37'th position from 40 countries. Competency is built by 3 aspects, one of them is cognitive aspect. The low result of mapping on cognitive aspect, describe the low of graduate competences as an output of Indonesia National Education System (INES). INES adopting a concept Eight Educational System Standards (EESS), one of them is graduate competency standard which connected directly with Indonesia's students. This research aims is to model INES by using KSIM cross-impact. Linear regression models of EESS constructed using the accreditation national data of Senior High Schools in Indonesia. The results then interpreted as impact value on the construction of KSIM cross-impact INES. The construction is used to analyze the interaction of EESS and doing numerical simulation for possible public policy in the education sector, i.e. stimulate the growth of education staff standard, content, process and infrastructure. All simulations of public policy has been done with 2 methods i.e with a multiplier impact method and with constant intervention method. From numerical simulation result, it is shown that stimulate the growth standard of content in the construction KSIM cross-impact EESS is the best option for public policy to maximize the growth of graduate competency standard.
Wijngaart, L.S. van den; Roukema, J.; Boehmer, A.L.M.; Brouwer, M.L.; Hugen, C.A.C.; Niers, L.E.M.; Sprij, A.J.; Rikkers-Mutsaerts, E.; Rottier, B.L.; Donders, A.R.T.; Verhaak, C.M.; Pijnenburg, M.W.; Merkus, P.J.
eHealth is an appealing medium to improve healthcare and its value (in addition to standard care) has been assessed in previous studies. We aimed to assess whether an eHealth intervention could improve asthma control while reducing 50% of routine outpatient visits.In a multicentre, randomised
Asthma bronchiale is a very common chronic disorder of airways with not fully elucidated pathology, which is not fully curable at the moment. It is estimated that 300 millions of persons suffer from asthma. About 8% of adult population and 10% of children are affected in the Czech republic. The aim of this thesis is to give an overview of contemporary modern pharmacotherapy of asthma. Firstly, this work describes asthma from pathophysiological and epidemiological point of view, among others: ...
Lima, John J.; Blake, Kathryn V.; Tantisira, Kelan G.; Weiss, Scott T.
Purpose of review Patient response to the asthma drug classes, bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids and leukotriene modifiers, are characterized by a large degree of heterogeneity, which is attributable in part to genetic variation. Herein, we review and update the pharmacogenetics and pharmaogenomics of common asthma drugs. Recent findings Early studies suggest that bronchodilator reversibility and asthma worsening in patients on continuous short-acting and long-acting β-agonists are related to the Gly16Arg genotype for the ADRB2. More recent studies including genome-wide association studies implicate variants in other genes contribute to bronchodilator response heterogeneity and fail to replicate asthma worsening associated with continuous β-agonist use. Genetic determinants of the safety of long-acting β-agonist require further study. Variants in CRHR1, TBX21, and FCER2 contribute to variability in response for lung function, airways responsiveness, and exacerbations in patients taking inhaled corticosteroids. Variants in ALOX5, LTA4H, LTC4S, ABCC1, CYSLTR2, and SLCO2B1 contribute to variability in response to leukotriene modifiers. Summary Identification of novel variants that contribute to response heterogeneity supports future studies of single nucleotide polymorphism discovery and include gene expression and genome-wide association studies. Statistical models that predict the genomics of response to asthma drugs will complement single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in moving toward personalized medicine. PMID:19077707
Moosavi, S. C.
Societal controversy over the content taught in K-12 science classrooms continues at a time of increasing demand for teacher and school accountability enacted through legislative mandates such as the No Child Left Behind Law. As teachers are held increasingly to nationally-inspired state standards, building blocks for future controversy are being built via inclusion of social and environmental policy agendas related to diversity, multiculturalism and environmental stewardship into these same science standards. While the authors' attempts to include such policies are well intended, they undermine the narrow answer to the question, "What is science?" leaving the door open to inclusion of pseudo-scientific content into the science curriculum in compliance with the perceived mandate of the standards. Disparate interpretation of the language and intent of the standards between that written by scientists, science educators and policy makers relative to that of the teachers, school administrators and parents tasked to implement and work within these standards leaves room for inclusion of much content that most scientists would object to. The resulting controversy and confusion have the potential to undermine public confidence in the scientific community's opinions on geoscience issues precisely at the time that full societal engagement is necessary to deal with climate change and other major environmental challenges. Results from this study suggest using the standards to mandate opening the scientific curriculum to political and social agendas, even under the guise of diversity, multiculturalism and environmental awareness, has created a whole raft of unintended consequences. These same mandates can be interpreted by the general public as also opening the curriculum to other views of science ranging from traditional religious and cultural views to intelligent design and alternative ways of knowing, thereby undermining scientific literacy in the general population
Correia Junior, Marco Aurélio de Valois; Sarinho, Emanuel Sávio Cavalcanti; Rizzo, José Angelo; Sarinho, Silvia Wanick
To estimate asthma prevalence, severity, and associated factors in adolescents who live in a low relative humidity environment. In this cross-sectional study, adolescents aged 13-14 years from the city of Petrolina located in the Brazilian semiarid region answered the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. The possible explanatory variables of the study were gender, family income, mother's education, smokers in the household, parental history of asthma, personal history of allergic rhinitis or atopic dermatitis, and physical activity level. Poisson regression analysis was used to assess the association between asthma and the explanatory variables. A total of 1591 adolescents participated in the study, of whom 49.7% were male. The prevalence of active asthma, severe asthma, and physician-diagnosed asthma were 14.0%, 10.4%, and 17.8%, respectively. Adolescents with asthma missed more school days than their peers (33 vs. 22 days/year; pclimate might hamper disease control and this may have contributed to the higher school absenteeism observed. The association of asthma with allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis as well as a history of asthma in parents suggests that atopy is an important risk factor for asthma in this population. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Elena A. Sidenko
Full Text Available RETRACTED ARTICLEThe aim of this publication is to familiarize readers with the particularities of training of school teams for the introduction of the Federal State Educational Standard (hereinafter – FSES in the initial stage and considering the features of creating a component of model, namely, program of management training to the introduction of the (FSES. The purpose of the study is to developmethodological bases of construction models of implementation of the Federal state educational standard as a system innovation.Methods. The theoretical and methodological basis of the investigation involves: concepts of motivation of work and reflexive-humanistic psychology; ideas of contextual and projective training, and also acmeological approach to continuous education of adults.Results and scientific novelty. The specifics of the program of professional development of shots for education corresponding to modern realities are described. This program assumes preparation of the school teams consisting of heads of the educational organizations, their deputies, methodologists and teachers. Adequate forms of carrying out internal and correspondence occupations with the organization of productive educational activity of listeners are selected; the complex of tasks for course and intersession occupations is developed. Training of listeners according to the developed program is based as the organizational and pedagogical cascade and cluster model combining resident instruction of the managerial personnel in the organizations of system of professional development with their innovative activity in the educational organizations. The course includes some levels: the basic, technological and organizational-activity-based. The basic level assumes development of the maintenance of FSES and development of innovative potential of listeners; technological level – technologies of conducting group work on development of FSES are mastered
Khan, Rubina Samer
This was an interpretive qualitative study that focused on how three elementary school science teachers from three different public schools perceived and implemented the National Science Education Standards based on the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol and individual interviews with the teachers. This study provided an understanding of the standards movement and teacher change in the process. Science teachers who were experienced with the National Science Education Standards were selected as the subjects of the study. Grounded in the theory of teacher change, this study's phenomenological premise was that the extent to which a new reform has an effect on students' learning and achievement on standardized tests depends on the content a teacher teaches as well as the style of teaching. It was therefore necessary to explore how teachers understand and implement the standards in the classrooms. The surveys, interviews and observations provided rich data from teachers' intentions, reflections and actions on the lessons that were observed while also providing the broader contextual framework for the understanding of the teachers' perspectives.
... relief to a person who's having trouble breathing! What Are Long-Term Control Medicines? Long-term control medicines (also called controller ... problems and they need to take long-term control medicines every day. If you have asthma, your doctor will decide which type ... an Asthma Flare-Up What Medicines Are and What They Do Asthma View ...
Hansen, J W; Thomsen, S F; Nolte, H
Asthma and rhinitis often co-occur, and this potentially increases the disease severity and impacts negatively on the quality of life. We studied disease severity, airway responsiveness, atopy, quality of life and treatment in subjects with both asthma and rhinitis compared to patients with asthma...
Verstegen, Deborah A.
Discusses need for reinventing state education finance systems to provide adequacy and equity aligned to standards-based reform. Provides initial specifications for "The New Finance." Examines in depth approaches for determining a base spending level considered adequate for the average child to reach high educational standards. (Contains…
Plake, Barbara S.; Wise, Lauress L.
With the 2014 publication of the 5th revision of the "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing," the cochairs of the Joint Committee for the revision process were asked to consider the role and importance of the "Standards" for the educational testing community, and in particular for members of the National Council…