WorldWideScience

Sample records for standard assay system

  1. Detection of systemic hypersensitivity to drugs using standard guinea pig assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, James L; Staten, David; Swann, Joslyn; Armstrong, George; Bates, Melissa; Hastings, Kenneth L

    2003-12-01

    The most commonly used assays designed to detect either skin or systemic immune-based hypersensitivity reactions are those using guinea pigs (GP). We obtained data from various FDA records to evaluate the correlation between GP assay results and reported post-marketing systemic hypersensitivity reactions. We examined the new drug application (NDA) reviews of approved drugs for the results of GP assays. Post-marketing human data were extracted from the FDA adverse event reporting system (AERS). Drug usage data were obtained from a commercial database maintained by IMS Health Inc. We found 83 (21%) of 396 drugs approved between 1978 and 1998 had reported GP test results. Among these 83 drugs, 14 (17%) were found to have positive results in at least one GP assay. Simple reporting index (RI) values for systemic hypersensitivity reactions were calculated from AERS data and usage to produce the index of adverse event reports per million shipping units of drug. A variety of definitions of positive human response were examined. A statistically significant association was seen for rash between post-marketing and clinical trials adverse event reports. No statistically significant associations between human data and GP test results were observed. These data suggest that standard GP assays have limited ability to predict human systemic hypersensitivity potential for pharmaceuticals.

  2. Rover waste assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched 235 U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for 137 Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Multicenter Evaluation of Cystatin C Measurement after Assay Standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargnoux, Anne-Sophie; Piéroni, Laurence; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Kuster, Nils; Delanaye, Pierre; Carlier, Marie-Christine; Fellahi, Soraya; Boutten, Anne; Lombard, Christine; González-Antuña, Ana; Delatour, Vincent; Cavalier, Etienne

    2017-04-01

    Since 2010, a certified reference material ERM-DA471/IFCC has been available for cystatin C (CysC). This study aimed to assess the sources of uncertainty in results for clinical samples measured using standardized assays. This evaluation was performed in 2015 and involved 7 clinical laboratories located in France and Belgium. CysC was measured in a panel of 4 serum pools using 8 automated assays and a candidate isotope dilution mass spectrometry reference measurement procedure. Sources of uncertainty (imprecision and bias) were evaluated to calculate the relative expanded combined uncertainty for each CysC assay. Uncertainty was judged against the performance specifications derived from the biological variation model. Only Siemens reagents on the Siemens systems and, to a lesser extent, DiaSys reagents on the Cobas system, provided results that met the minimum performance criterion calculated according to the intraindividual and interindividual biological variations. Although the imprecision was acceptable for almost all assays, an increase in the bias with concentration was observed for Gentian reagents, and unacceptably high biases were observed for Abbott and Roche reagents on their own systems. This comprehensive picture of the market situation since the release of ERM-DA471/IFCC shows that bias remains the major component of the combined uncertainty because of possible problems associated with the implementation of traceability. Although some manufacturers have clearly improved their calibration protocols relative to ERM-DA471, most of them failed to meet the criteria for acceptable CysC measurements. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  4. ARIES nondestructive assay system operation and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremers, Teresa L.; Hansen, Walter J.; Herrera, Gary D.; Nelson, David C.; Sampson, Thomas E.; Scheer, Nancy L.

    2000-01-01

    The ARIES (Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System) Project is an integrated system at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility for the dismantlement of nuclear weapons. The plutonium produced by the ARIES process was measured by an integrated nondestructive assay (NDA) system. The performance of the NDA systems was monitored by a measurement control program which is a part of a nuclear material control and accountability system. In this paper we will report the results of the measurements of the measurement control standards as well as an overview of the measurement of the ARIES process materials

  5. Standard test method for non-destructive assay of nuclear material in waste by passive and active neutron counting using a differential Die-away system

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a system that performs nondestructive assay (NDA) of uranium or plutonium, or both, using the active, differential die-away technique (DDT), and passive neutron coincidence counting. Results from the active and passive measurements are combined to determine the total amount of fissile and spontaneously-fissioning material in drums of scrap or waste. Corrections are made to the measurements for the effects of neutron moderation and absorption, assuming that the effects are averaged over the volume of the drum and that no significant lumps of nuclear material are present. These systems are most widely used to assay low-level and transuranic waste, but may also be used for the measurement of scrap materials. The examples given within this test method are specific to the second-generation Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) passive-active neutron assay system. 1.1.1 In the active mode, the system measures fissile isotopes such as 235U and 239Pu. The neutrons from a pulsed, 14-MeV ne...

  6. Automated amperometric plutonium assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burt, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    The amperometric titration for plutonium assay has been used in the nuclear industry for over twenty years and has been in routine use at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory since 1976 for the analysis of plutonium oxide and mixed oxide fuel material for the Fast Flux Test Facility. It has proven itself to be an accurate and reliable method. The method may be used as a direct end point titration or an excess of titrant may be added and a back titration performed to aid in determination of the end point. Due to the slowness of the PuVI-FeII reaction it is difficult to recognize when the end point is being approached and is very time consuming if the current is allowed to decay to the residual value after each titrant addition. For this reason the back titration in which the rapid FeII-CrVI reaction occurs is used by most laboratories. The back titration is performed by the addition of excess ferrous solution followed by two measured aliquots of standard dichromate with measurement of cell current after each addition

  7. New automated pellet/powder assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, R.N.

    1975-01-01

    This paper discusses an automated, high precision, pellet/ powder assay system. The system is an active assay system using a small isotopic neutron source and a coincidence detection system. The handling of the pellet powder samples has been automated and a programmable calculator has been integrated into the system to provide control and data analysis. The versatile system can assay uranium or plutonium in either active or passive modes

  8. Standardization of portable assay instrumentation: the neutron-coincidence tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O.

    1983-01-01

    Standardization of portable neutron assay instrumentation has been achieved by using the neutron coincidence technique as a common basis for a wide range of instruments and applications. The electronics originally developed for the High-Level Neutron Coincidence Counter has been adapted to both passive- and active-assay instrumentation for field verification of bulk plutonium, inventory samples, pellets, powders, nitrates, high-enriched uranium, and materials-testing-reactor, light-water-reactor, and mixed-oxide fuel assemblies. The family of detectors developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their performance under in-field conditions are described. 16 figures, 3 tables

  9. Expert system for transuranic waste assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoolalian, M.L.; Gibbs, A.; Kuhns, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Transuranic wastes are generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as a result of routine production of nuclear materials. These wastes contain Pu-238 and Pu-239 and are placed into lined 55-gallon waste drums. The drums are placed on monitored storage pads pending shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. A passive-active neutron (PAN) assay system is used to determine the mass of the radioactive material within the waste drums. Assay results are used to classify the wastes as either low-level or transuranic (TRU). During assays, the PAN assay system communicates with an IBM-AT computer. A Fortran computer program, called NEUT, controls and performs all data analyses. Unassisted, the NEUT program cannot adequately interpret assay results. To eliminate this limitation, an expert system shell was used to write a new algorithm, called the Transuranic Expert System (TRUX), to drive the NEUT program and add decision making capabilities for analysis of the assay results. The TRUX knowledge base was formulated by consulting with human experts in the field of neutron assay, by direct experimentation on the PAN assay system, and by observing operations on a daily basis. TRUX, with its improved ability to interpret assay results, has eliminated the need for close supervision by a human expert, allowing skilled technicians to operate the PAN assay system. 4 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  10. Development of Plaque Assay Systems for Poliovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    inter- action must be ascertained for each type of virus to be collected and assayed. The vaccine strain of poliovirus type 1 (Sabin) was chosen as a...1067 DEVELOPMENT OF PLAQUE ASSAY SYSTEMS FOR POLIOVIRUS (U) by R.E. Fulton and K. Munroe Abstract During the summer months of 1978, Ms. Krista Munroe...quantitation of infectious poliovirus type 1. .Two different plaque assay techniques were developed and compared. The results of this work are presented

  11. Nondestructive analysis of nuclear materials by isotopic source assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masui, Jinichi; Tuboya, Takao

    1978-01-01

    Destructive assay is an effective method for the analysis of nuclear materials in nuclear fuels, but is not suitable for some aspects of nuclear fuel cycle, for example, for accounting and control or safeguard purposes. Isotopic Source Assay System was imported from Intelcom Rad. Tech. Company, and the results of assay of enriched uranium and plutonium sealed for passive and active assay by the system are presented. A 252 Cf source is provided for the assay system. Assay of unknown samples by this system is carried out relatively to the measurement of known standards. Several known standards approximating the physical and chemical properties of unknown samples are prepared to make calibration curves. When one fission event occurs in a sample, a few neutrons (2.5 neutrons on the average) and gamma ray (about 7 photons) are emitted simultaneously. By three detector coincidence out of four, one count is registered by the assay system. First, statistical informations and geometry were examined. Then, three kinds of enriched uranium were measured to examine the measurement on 238 U. Passive and active measurements were performed on 4.32 grams of PuO 2 during one month to know reproducibility. In conclusion of these tests, it was proved to be able to apply this system to the analysis of nuclear materials similar in enrichment or isotopic composition, and scraps and wastes containing known matrix materials. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  12. Salmonella detection in poultry meat and meat products by the Vitek immunodiagnostic assay system easy Salmonella method, a LightCycler polymerase chain reaction system, and the International Organization for Standardization method 6579.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temelli, S; Eyigor, A; Carli, K T

    2012-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the capability of the Vitek immunodiagnostic assay system easy Salmonella (VIDAS ESLM) method and a specific real-time PCR system (LightCycler, LCPCR) to complement the International Organization for Standardization Method 6579 (ISO) in detecting Salmonella from a total of 105 naturally contaminated samples comprised of poultry meat and poultry meat products. The detection limit of ISO and LCPCR was 9 cfu/mL for both poultry meat and poultry meat products, whereas that of VIDAS ESLM with both sample types was determined to be 90 cfu/mL. Twelve (33.33%), 11 (30.55%), and 18 (50.00%) out of 36 poultry meat samples were positive for Salmonella by ISO, VIDAS ESLM, and LCPCR, respectively. Salmonella detection rates from poultry meat products were 5.80% for ISO and 8.69% for LCPCR, whereas none of these products tested positive by VIDAS ESLM. In poultry meat samples, VIDAS ESLM and LCPCR detection results were in substantial agreement with ISO, with the relative accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity rates of 97.2, 91.7, and 100%, respectively, for VIDAS ESLM and 83.3, 100, and 75%, respectively, for LCPCR. This is the first report on the evaluation of both VIDAS ESLM and LCPCR to complement ISO for the rapid detection of Salmonella in poultry meat and meat products. We determined that both VIDAS ESLM and LCPCR have the potential to complement the ISO standard culture method in the rapid screening of Salmonella from naturally contaminated poultry meats. For the poultry meat products, VIDAS ESLM and LCPCR can be used for rapid primary screening, and they should be complemented absolutely by ISO. Although LCPCR can preferentially be used for initial screening poultry meat products, the results should definitely be confirmed by ISO. Also, the VIDAS ESLM did not seem to be a suitable method for detecting Salmonella in poultry meat products.

  13. Standard NIM instrumentation system

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    NIM is a standard modular instrumentation system that is in wide use throughout the world. As the NIM system developed and accommodations were made to a dynamic instrumentation field and a rapidly advancing technology, additions, revisions and clarifications were made. These were incorporated into the standard in the form of addenda and errata. This standard is a revision of the NIM document, AEC Report TID- 20893 (Rev 4) dated July 1974. It includes all the addenda and errata items that were previously issued as well as numerous additional items to make the standard current with modern technology and manufacturing practice.

  14. Standardization of Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup B Colorimetric Serum Bactericida Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Tamara; Lastre, Miriam; Cedré, Barbara; Campo, Judith del; Bracho, Gustavo; Zayas, Caridad; Taboada, Carlos; Díaz, Miriam; Sierra, Gustavo; Pérez, Oliver

    2002-01-01

    The correlate of protection for serogroup B meningococci is not currently known, but for serogroup C it is believed to be the serum bactericidal assay (SBA). The current SBAs are labor intensive and the variations in protocols among different laboratories make interpretation of results difficult. A colorimetric SBA (cSBA), based on the ability of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B to consume glucose, leading to acid production, was standardized by using group B strain Cu385-83 as the target. The cSBA results were compared to those obtained for a traditional colony-counting microassay (mSBA). Glucose and bromocresol purple pH indicator were added to the medium in order to estimate growth of cSBA target cell survivors through color change. Different variants of the assay parameters were optimized: growth of target cells (Mueller Hinton agar plates), target cell number (100 CFU/per well), and human complement source used at a final concentration of 25%. After the optimization, three other group B strains (H44/76, 490/91, and 511/91) were used as targets for the cSBA. The selection of the assay parameters and the standardization of cSBA were done with 13 sera from vaccinated volunteers. The titers were determined as the higher serum dilution that totally inhibited the bacterial growth marked by the color invariability of the pH indicator. This was detected visually as well as spectrophotometrically and was closely related to a significant difference in the growth of target cell survivors determined using Student’s t test. Intralaboratory reproducibility was ±1 dilution. The correlation between bactericidal median titers and specific immunoglobulin G serum concentration by enzyme immunoassay was high (r = 0.910, P < 0.01). The bactericidal titers generated by the cSBA and the mSBA were nearly identical, and there was a high correlation between the two assays (r = 0.974, P < 0.01). The standardized cSBA allows easy, fast, and efficient evaluation of samples. PMID

  15. Automated optical sensing system for biochemical assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroszlan, Peter; Duveneck, Gert L.; Ehrat, Markus; Widmer, H. M.

    1994-03-01

    In this paper, we present a new system called FOBIA that was developed and optimized with respect to automated operation of repetitive assay cycles with regenerable bioaffinity sensors. The reliability and precision of the new system is demonstrated by an application in a competitive assay for the detection of the triazine herbicide Atrazine. Using one sensor in more than 300 repetitive cycles, a signal precision better than 5% was achieved.

  16. Calibration method for a radwaste assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulama, C.; Dobrin, R.; Toma, Al.; Paunoiu, C.

    2004-01-01

    A waste assay system entirely designed and manufactured in the Institute for Nuclear Research is used in radwaste treatment and conditioning stream to ensure compliance with national repository radiological requirements. Usually, waste assay systems are calibrated by using various experimental arrangements including calibration phantoms. The paper presents a comparative study concerning the efficiency calibration performed by shell source method and a semiempirical, computational method based on a Monte Carlo algorithm. (authors)

  17. Expert system technology for nondestructive waste assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.K.; Determan, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    Nondestructive assay waste characterization data generated for use in the National TRU Program must be of known and demonstrable quality. Each measurement is required to receive an independent technical review by a qualified expert. An expert system prototype has been developed to automate waste NDA data review of a passive/active neutron drum counter system. The expert system is designed to yield a confidence rating regarding measurement validity. Expert system rules are derived from data in a process involving data clustering, fuzzy logic, and genetic algorithms. Expert system performance is assessed against confidence assignments elicited from waste NDA domain experts. Performance levels varied for the active, passive shielded, and passive system assay modes of the drum counter system, ranging from 78% to 94% correct classifications

  18. Expert system technology for nondestructive waste assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, G.K.; Determan, J.C.

    1998-07-01

    Nondestructive assay waste characterization data generated for use in the National TRU Program must be of known and demonstrable quality. Each measurement is required to receive an independent technical review by a qualified expert. An expert system prototype has been developed to automate waste NDA data review of a passive/active neutron drum counter system. The expert system is designed to yield a confidence rating regarding measurement validity. Expert system rules are derived from data in a process involving data clustering, fuzzy logic, and genetic algorithms. Expert system performance is assessed against confidence assignments elicited from waste NDA domain experts. Performance levels varied for the active, passive shielded, and passive system assay modes of the drum counter system, ranging from 78% to 94% correct classifications.

  19. Automated transuranic assay system for soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trujillo, G.; Nyhan, J.W.; Crowell, J.M.

    1980-07-01

    An automated transuranic assay system for soils (ATASS) has been developed by the Health Physics and Environmental Studies groups of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The instrumentation components of this system are presented in detail, including the germanium detectors, the multichannel analyzer, a PDP-11/04 computer, and an automatic sample changer. The instrumentation costs and facility descriptions are also included, as well as a preliminary evaluation of the system's capabilities. Systems performance characteristics will be presented in more detail in a later report

  20. Test procedure for boxed waste assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, J.

    1994-01-01

    This document, prepared by Los Alamos National Laboratory's NMT-4 group, details the test methodology and requirements for Acceptance/Qualification testing of a Boxed Waste Assay System (BWAS) designed and constructed by Pajarito Scientific Corporation. Testing of the BWAS at the Plutonium Facility (TA55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory will be performed to ascertain system adherence to procurement specification requirements. The test program shall include demonstration of conveyor handling capabilities, gamma ray energy analysis, and imaging passive/active neutron accuracy and sensitivity. Integral to these functions is the system's embedded operating and data reduction software

  1. Experience with local lymph node assay performance standards using standard radioactivity and nonradioactive cell count measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basketter, David; Kolle, Susanne N; Schrage, Arnhild; Honarvar, Naveed; Gamer, Armin O; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2012-08-01

    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is the preferred test for identification of skin-sensitizing substances by measuring radioactive thymidine incorporation into the lymph node. To facilitate acceptance of nonradioactive variants, validation authorities have published harmonized minimum performance standards (PS) that the alternative endpoint assay must meet. In the present work, these standards were applied to a variant of the LLNA based on lymph node cell counts (LNCC) run in parallel as a control with the standard LLNA with radioactivity measurements, with threshold concentrations (EC3) being determined for the sensitizers. Of the 22 PS chemicals tested in this study, 21 yielded the same results from standard radioactivity and cell count measurements; only 2-mercaptobenzothiazole was positive by LLNA but negative by LNCC. Of the 16 PS positives, 15 were positive by LLNA and 14 by LNCC; methylmethacrylate was not identified as sensitizer by either of the measurements. Two of the six PS negatives tested negative in our study by both LLNA and LNCC. Of the four PS negatives which were positive in our study, chlorobenzene and methyl salicylate were tested at higher concentrations than the published PS, whereas the corresponding concentrations resulted in consistent negative results. Methylmethacrylate and nickel chloride tested positive within the concentration range used for the published PS. The results indicate cell counts and radioactive measurements are in good accordance within the same LLNA using the 22 PS test substances. Comparisons with the published PS results may, however, require balanced analysis rather than a simple checklist approach. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Matrix effects of TRU [transuranic] assays using the SWEPP PAN assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.R.

    1990-08-01

    The Drum Assay System (DAS) at the Stored Waste Experimental Pilot Plant (SWEPP) is a second-generation active-passive neutron assay system. It has been used to assay over 5000 208-liter drums of transuranic waste from the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Data from these assays have been examined and compared with the assays performed at Rocky Flats, mainly utilize counting of 239 Pu gamma rays. For the most part the passive assays are in very good agreement with the Rocky Flats assays. The active assays are strongly correlated with the results of the other two methods, but require matrix-dependent correction factors beyond those provided by the system itself. A set of matrix-dependent correction factors has been developed from the study of the assay results. 3 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  3. System and method for assaying a radionuclide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadieux, James R; King, III, George S; Fugate, Glenn A

    2014-12-23

    A system for assaying a radionuclide includes a liquid scintillation detector, an analyzer connected to the liquid scintillation detector, and a delay circuit connected to the analyzer. A gamma detector and a multi-channel analyzer are connected to the delay circuit and the gamma detector. The multi-channel analyzer produces a signal reflective of the radionuclide in the sample. A method for assaying a radionuclide includes selecting a sample, detecting alpha or beta emissions from the sample with a liquid scintillation detector, producing a first signal reflective of the alpha or beta emissions, and delaying the first signal a predetermined time. The method further includes detecting gamma emissions from the sample, producing a second signal reflective of the gamma emissions, and combining the delayed first signal with the second signal to produce a third signal reflective of the radionuclide.

  4. Intelligent Transportation Systems : critical standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) standards are industry-consensus standards that provide the details about how different systems interconnect and communicate information to deliver the ITS user services described in the National ITS Architect...

  5. Guide to nondestructive assay standards: Preparation criteria, availability, and practical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsue, S.T.; Stewart, J.E.; Sampson, T.E.; Butler, G.W.; Rudy, C.R.; Rinard, P.M.

    1997-10-01

    For certification and measurement control, nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments and methods used for verification measurements of special nuclear materials (SNMs) require calibrations based on certified reference materials (CRMs), or working reference materials (WRMs), traceable to the national system of measurements, and adequately characteristic of the unknowns. The Department of Energy Office of Safeguards and Security is sponsoring production of a comprehensive guide to preparation of NDA standards. The scope of the report includes preparation criteria, current availability of CRMs and WRMs, practical considerations for preparation and characterization, and an extensive bibliography. In preparing the report, based primarily on experience at Los Alamos, they have found that standards preparation is highly dependent on the particular NDA method being applied. They therefore include sections that contain information specific to commonly used neutron and gamma-ray NDA techniques. They also present approaches that are alternatives to, or minimize requirements for physical standards

  6. Guide to nondestructive assay standards: Preparation criteria, availability, and practical considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsue, S.T.; Stewart, J.E.; Sampson, T.E.; Butler, G.W.; Rudy, C.R.; Rinard, P.M.

    1997-10-01

    For certification and measurement control, nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments and methods used for verification measurements of special nuclear materials (SNMs) require calibrations based on certified reference materials (CRMs), or working reference materials (WRMs), traceable to the national system of measurements, and adequately characteristic of the unknowns. The Department of Energy Office of Safeguards and Security is sponsoring production of a comprehensive guide to preparation of NDA standards. The scope of the report includes preparation criteria, current availability of CRMs and WRMs, practical considerations for preparation and characterization, and an extensive bibliography. In preparing the report, based primarily on experience at Los Alamos, they have found that standards preparation is highly dependent on the particular NDA method being applied. They therefore include sections that contain information specific to commonly used neutron and gamma-ray NDA techniques. They also present approaches that are alternatives to, or minimize requirements for physical standards.

  7. Standard guide for making quality nondestructive assay measurements

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This guide is a compendium of Quality Measurement Practices for performing measurements of radioactive material using nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments. The primary purpose of the guide is to assist users in arriving at quality NDA results, that is, results that satisfy the end user’s needs. This is accomplished by providing an acceptable and uniform basis for the collection, analysis, comparison, and application of data. The recommendations are not compulsory or prerequisites to achieving quality NDA measurements, but are considered contributory in most areas. 1.2 This guide applies to the use of NDA instrumentation for the measurement of nuclear materials by the observation of spontaneous or stimulated nuclear radiations, including photons, neutrons, or the flow of heat. Recommended calibration, operating, and assurance methods represent guiding principles based on current NDA technology. The diversity of industry-wide nuclear materials measurement applications and instrumentation precludes disc...

  8. Creatinine Assay Attainment of Analytical Performance Goals Following Implementation of IDMS Standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Sunmin Lee

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The international initiative to standardize creatinine (Cr assays by tracing reference materials to Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS assigned values was implemented to reduce interlaboratory variability and improve assay accuracy. Objective: The aims of this study were to examine whether IDMS standardization has improved Cr assay accuracy (bias, interlaboratory variability (precision, total error (TE, and attainment of recommended analytical performance goals. Methods: External Quality Assessment (EQA data (n = 66 challenge vials from Ontario, Canada, were analyzed. The bias, precision, TE, and the number of EQA challenge vials meeting performance goals were determined by assay manufacturer before (n = 32 and after (n = 34 IDMS implementation. Results: The challenge vials with the worst bias and precision were spiked with known common interfering substances (glucose and bilirubin. IDMS standardization improved assay bias (10.4%-1.6%, P < .001, but precision remained unchanged (5.0%-4.7%, P = .5 with performance goals not consistently being met. Precision and TE goals based on biologic variation were attained by only 29% to 69% and 32% to 62% of challenge vials. Conclusions: While IDMS standardization has improved Cr assay accuracy and thus reduced TE, significant interlaboratory variability remains. Contemporary Cr assays do not currently meet the standards required to allow for accurate and consistent estimated glomerular filtration rate assessment and chronic kidney disease diagnosis across laboratories. Further improvements in Cr assay performance are needed.

  9. Experience of developing an integrated nondestructive assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsue, S.T.; Baker, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    A consortium of laboratories is collaborating with the Savannah River Plant to develop an integrated system of state-of-the-art nondestructive assay (NDA) instrumentation to provide nuclear materials accounting and process control information for a new plutonium scrap recovery facility. Individual instruments report assay results to an instrument control computer (ICC); the ICC, in turn, is part of a larger computer network that includes computers that perform process control and materials accounting functions. The design of the integrated NDA measurement system is shown. Each NDA instrument that is part of the integrated system is microcomputer-based and thus is capable of stand-alone operation if the central computer is out of service. Certain hardware features, such as microcomputers, pulse processing modules, and multichannel analyzers, are standardized throughout the system. Another standard feature is the communication between individual NDA instruments and the ICC. The most unique phase of the project is the integral staging. The primary purpose of this phase is to check the communications between various computers and to verify the ICC software during the operation of the NDA instruments. Implementing this integrated system in a process environment represents a major step in realizing the full capabilities of modern NDA instrumentation

  10. Qualification of standard membrane-feeding assay with Plasmodium falciparum malaria and potential improvements for future assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutoyo Miura

    Full Text Available Vaccines that interrupt malaria transmission are of increasing interest and a robust functional assay to measure this activity would promote their development by providing a biologically relevant means of evaluating potential vaccine candidates. Therefore, we aimed to qualify the standard membrane-feeding assay (SMFA. The assay measures the transmission-blocking activity of antibodies by feeding cultured P. falciparum gametocytes to Anopheles mosquitoes in the presence of the test antibodies and measuring subsequent mosquito infection. The International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH Harmonised Tripartite Guideline Q2(R1 details characteristics considered in assay validation. Of these characteristics, we decided to qualify the SMFA for Precision, Linearity, Range and Specificity. The transmission-blocking 4B7 monoclonal antibody was tested over 6 feeding experiments at several concentrations to determine four suitable concentrations that were tested in triplicate in the qualification experiments (3 additional feeds to evaluate Precision, Linearity and Range. For Specificity, 4B7 was tested in the presence of normal mouse IgG. We determined intra- and inter-assay variability of % inhibition of mean oocyst intensity at each concentration of 4B7 (lower concentrations showed higher variability. We also showed that % inhibition was dependent on 4B7 concentration and the activity is specific to 4B7. Since obtaining empirical data is time-consuming, we generated a model using data from all 9 feeds and simulated the effects of different parameters on final readouts to improve the assay procedure and analytical methods for future studies. For example, we estimated the effect of number of mosquitoes dissected on variability of % inhibition, and simulated the relationship between % inhibition in oocyst intensity and % inhibition of prevalence of infected mosquitos at different mean oocysts in the control. SMFA is one of the few biological assays used in

  11. Measuring enzyme activities under standardized in vivo-like conditions for Systems Biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eunen, K.; Bouwman, J.; Daran-Lapujade, P.A.L.; Postmus, J.; Canelas, A.; Mensonides, F.I.C.; Orij, R.; Tuzun, I.; van der Brink, J.; Smits, G.J.; van Gulik, W.M.; Brul, S.; Heijnen, J.J.; de Winde, J.H.; Teixeira de Mattos, M.J.; Kettner, C.; Nielsen, J.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Bakker, B.M.

    2010-01-01

    Realistic quantitative models require data from many laboratories. Therefore, standardization of experimental systems and assay conditions is crucial. Moreover, standards should be representative of the in vivo conditions. However, most often, enzyme-kinetic parameters are measured under assay

  12. Measuring enzyme activities under standardized in vivo-like conditions for systems biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eunen, Karen; Bouwman, Jildau; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale; Postmus, Jarne; Canelas, Andre B.; Mensonides, Femke I. C.; Orij, Rick; Tuzun, Isil; van den Brink, Joost; Smits, Gertien J.; van Gulik, Walter M.; Brul, Stanley; de Winde, Johannes H.; de Mattos, M. J. Teixeira; Kettner, Carsten; Nielsen, Jens; Westerhoff, Hans V.; Bakker, Barbara M.; Heijnen, J.J.

    Realistic quantitative models require data from many laboratories. Therefore, standardization of experimental systems and assay conditions is crucial. Moreover, standards should be representative of the in vivo conditions. However, most often, enzyme-kinetic parameters are measured under assay

  13. 233U Assay A Neutron NDA System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensley, D.C.; Lucero, A.J.; Pierce, L.

    1998-11-17

    The assay of highly enriched {sup 233}U material presents some unique challenges. Techniques which apply to the assay of materials of Pu or enriched {sup 235}U do not convert easily over to the assay of {sup 233}U. A specialized neutron assay device is being fabricated to exploit the singles neutron signal, the weak correlated neutron signal, and an active correlated signal. These pieces of information when combined with {gamma} ray isotopics information should give a good overall determination of {sup 233}U material now stored in bldg. 3019 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  14. Guide to nondestructive assay standards: Preparation criteria, availability, and practical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.E.; Hsue, S.T.; Sampson, T.E.

    1997-01-01

    For certification and measurement control, nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments and methods used for verification measurement of special nuclear materials (SNMs) require calibrations based on certified reference materials (CRMs), or working reference materials (WRMs), traceable to the national system of measurements, and adequately characteristic of the unknowns. The Department of Energy Office of Safeguards and Security is sponsoring production of a comprehensive guide to preparation of NDA standards. The scope of the report includes preparation criteria, current availability of CRMs and WRMs, practical considerations for preparation and characterization, and an extensive bibliography. In preparing the report, based primarily on experience at Los Alamos, we have found that standards preparation is highly dependent on the particular NDA method being applied. We therefore include sections that contain information specific to commonly used neutron and gamma-ray NDA techniques. 16 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Inter-laboratory variation in DNA damage using a standard comet assay protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Lykke; Ersson, Clara; Loft, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    There are substantial inter-laboratory variations in the levels of DNA damage measured by the comet assay. The aim of this study was to investigate whether adherence to a standard comet assay protocol would reduce inter-laboratory variation in reported values of DNA damage. Fourteen laboratories ...

  16. The synchronous active neutron detection assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickrell, M.M.; Kendall, P.K.

    1994-01-01

    We have begun to develop a novel technique for active neutron assay of fissile material in spent nuclear fuel. This approach will exploit a 14-MeV neutron generator developed by Schlumberger. The technique, termed synchronous active neutron detection (SAND), follows a method used routinely in other branches of physics to detect very small signals in presence of large backgrounds. Synchronous detection instruments are widely available commercially and are termed ''lock-in'' amplifiers. We have implemented a digital lock-in amplifier in conjunction with the Schlumberger neutron generator to explore the possibility of synchronous detection with active neutrons. The Schlumberger system can operate at up to a 50% duty factor, in effect, a square wave of neutron yield. Results are preliminary but promising. The system is capable of resolving the fissile material contained in a small fraction of the fuel rods in a cold fuel assembly; it also appears resilient to background neutron interference. The interrogating neutrons appear to be non-thermal and penetrating. Work remains to fully explore relevant physics and optimize instrument design

  17. Standard test method for nondestructive assay of radioactive material by tomographic gamma scanning

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the nondestructive assay (NDA) of gamma ray emitting radionuclides inside containers using tomographic gamma scanning (TGS). High resolution gamma ray spectroscopy is used to detect and quantify the radionuclides of interest. The attenuation of an external gamma ray transmission source is used to correct the measurement of the emission gamma rays from radionuclides to arrive at a quantitative determination of the radionuclides present in the item. 1.2 The TGS technique covered by the test method may be used to assay scrap or waste material in cans or drums in the 1 to 500 litre volume range. Other items may be assayed as well. 1.3 The test method will cover two implementations of the TGS procedure: (1) Isotope Specific Calibration that uses standards of known radionuclide masses (or activities) to determine system response in a mass (or activity) versus corrected count rate calibration, that applies to only those specific radionuclides for which it is calibrated, and (2) Respo...

  18. SWEPP Assay System Version 2.0 software design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    East, L.V.; Marwil, E.S.

    1996-08-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) operations staff use nondestructive analysis methods to characterize the radiological contents of contact-handled radioactive waste containers. Containers of waste from Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and other Department of Energy (DOE) sites are currently stored at SWEPP. Before these containers can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), SWEPP must verify compliance with storage, shipping, and disposal requirements. This program has been in operation since 1985 at the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). One part of the SWEPP program measures neutron emissions from the containers and estimates the mass of plutonium and other transuranic (TRU) isotopes present. A Passive/Active Neutron (PAN) assay system developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is used to perform these measurements. A computer program named NEUT2 was originally used to perform the data acquisition and reduction functions for the neutron measurements. This program was originally developed at Los Alamos and extensively modified by a commercial vendor of PAN systems and by personnel at the INEL. NEUT2 uses the analysis methodology outlined, but no formal documentation exists on the program itself. The SWEPP Assay System (SAS) computer program replaced the NEUT2 program in early 1994. The SAS software was developed using an `object model` approach and is documented in accordance with American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) standards. The new program incorporates the basic analysis algorithms found in NEUT2. Additional functionality and improvements include a graphical user interface, the ability to change analysis parameters without program code modification, an `object model` design approach and other features for improved flexibility and maintainability.

  19. Standardization of Assays That Detect Anti-Rubella Virus IgG Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangeot-Keros, Liliane; Vauloup-Fellous, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Rubella virus usually causes a mild infection in humans but can cause congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Vaccination programs have significantly decreased primary rubella virus infection and CRS; however, vaccinated individuals usually have lower levels of rubella virus IgG than those with natural infections. Rubella virus IgG is quantified with enzyme immunoassays that have been calibrated against the World Health Organization (WHO) international standard and report results in international units per milliliter. It is recognized that the results reported by these assays are not standardized. This investigation into the reasons for the lack of standardization found that the current WHO international standard (RUB-1-94) fails by three key metrological principles. The standard is not a pure analyte but is composed of pooled human immunoglobulin. It was not calibrated by certified reference methods; rather, superseded tests were used. Finally, no measurement uncertainty estimations have been provided. There is an analytical and clinical consequence to the lack of standardization of rubella virus IgG assays, which leads to misinterpretation of results. The current approach to standardization of rubella virus IgG assays has not achieved the desired results. A new approach is required. PMID:26607813

  20. Standardization of detector control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunaga, Chikara

    2000-01-01

    Current and future detectors for high-energy and/or nuclear physics experiments require highly intelligent detector control systems. In order to reduce resources, the construction of a standardized template for the control systems based on the commercially available superviser control and data acquisition (SCADA) system has been proposed. The possibility of constructing this template is discussed and several key issues for evaluation of SCADA as the basis for such a template are presented. (author)

  1. Importance of 241 Am Determination in the Characterization of PuO2 Standards for Calorimetric Assay.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampson, Thomas E.

    2005-01-01

    Plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) standards are often used both as heat standards and isotopic standards for calorimetric assay. Calorimetric assay is the combination of the power in watts measured in a calorimeter with the effective specific power (P{sub eff}) in watts/g Pu, determined either by nondestructive gamma-ray assay or by destructive mass spectrometry, to yield the total elemental plutonium mass in the sample. To use a PuO{sub 2} sample as a heat standard for calorimetry, one must determine both the plutonium mass and P{sub eff} with very small uncertainties and then calculate the sample watts from the known plutonium mass, specific powers, and isotopic composition. Well-characterized PuO{sub 2} standards have plutonium mass values determined by analytical chemistry with a precision and accuracy on the order of 0.1%-0.2% relative to the total mass of the sample. Mass spectrometry, typically used to determine the isotopic fractions of plutonium standards, is very accurate and precise for the major isotopes but is somewhat less precise for low-abundance isotopes. The characterization of the {sup 241}Am/Pu ratio in the standard is also of great importance because {sup 241}Am can contribute significantly to P{sub eff} and to the heat output of the standard. The determination of the {sup 241}Am/Pu ratio in a plutonium-bearing sample is a process that is less standardized than mass spectrometry. There are no certified reference materials (CRMs) traceable to the national measurement system for {sup 241}Am in plutonium, and routine analytical {sup 241}Am/Pu ratio measurements often exhibit uncertainties of several percent relative to the total plutonium or greater.

  2. Automated reagent-dispensing system for microfluidic cell biology assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Jimmy; Masterman-Smith, Michael; Ramakrishnan, Ravichandran; Sun, Jing; Kokubun, Brent; van Dam, R Michael

    2013-12-01

    Microscale systems that enable measurements of oncological phenomena at the single-cell level have a great capacity to improve therapeutic strategies and diagnostics. Such measurements can reveal unprecedented insights into cellular heterogeneity and its implications into the progression and treatment of complicated cellular disease processes such as those found in cancer. We describe a novel fluid-delivery platform to interface with low-cost microfluidic chips containing arrays of microchambers. Using multiple pairs of needles to aspirate and dispense reagents, the platform enables automated coating of chambers, loading of cells, and treatment with growth media or other agents (e.g., drugs, fixatives, membrane permeabilizers, washes, stains, etc.). The chips can be quantitatively assayed using standard fluorescence-based immunocytochemistry, microscopy, and image analysis tools, to determine, for example, drug response based on differences in protein expression and/or activation of cellular targets on an individual-cell level. In general, automation of fluid and cell handling increases repeatability, eliminates human error, and enables increased throughput, especially for sophisticated, multistep assays such as multiparameter quantitative immunocytochemistry. We report the design of the automated platform and compare several aspects of its performance to manually-loaded microfluidic chips.

  3. Metadata Standards and Workflow Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermann, T.

    2012-12-01

    All modern workflow systems include mechanisms for recording inputs, outputs and processes. These descriptions can include details required to reproduce the workflows exactly and, in some cases, can include virtual images of the hardware and operating system. There are several on-going and emerging standards for representing these detailed workflows including the Open Provenance Model (OPM) and the W3C PROV. At the same time, ISO metadata standards include a simple provenance or lineage model that includes many important elements of workflows. The ISO model could play a critical role in sharing and discovering workflow information for collections and perhaps in recording some details in granules. In order for this goal to be reached, connections between the detailed standards and ISO must be understood and conventions for using them must be developed.

  4. Measuring Cytotoxicity by Bioluminescence Imaging Outperforms the Standard Chromium-51 Release Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mobin A.; Lee, Eric; Bachmann, Michael H.; Salicioni, Ana Maria; Behrens, Edward M.; Kambayashi, Taku; Baldwin, Cynthia L.

    2014-01-01

    The chromium-release assay developed in 1968 is still the most commonly used method to measure cytotoxicity by T cells and by natural killer cells. Target cells are loaded in vitro with radioactive chromium and lysis is determined by measuring chromium in the supernatant released by dying cells. Since then, alternative methods have been developed using different markers of target cell viability that do not involve radioactivity. Here, we compared and contrasted a bioluminescence (BLI)-based cytotoxicity assay to the standard radioactive chromium-release assay using an identical set of effector cells and tumor target cells. For this, we stably transduced several human and murine tumor cell lines to express luciferase. When co-cultured with cytotoxic effector cells, highly reproducible decreases in BLI were seen in an effector to target cell dose-dependent manner. When compared to results obtained from the chromium release assay, the performance of the BLI-based assay was superior, because of its robustness, increased signal-to-noise ratio, and faster kinetics. The reduced/delayed detection of cytotoxicity by the chromium release method was attributable to the association of chromium with structural components of the cell, which are released quickly by detergent solubilization but not by hypotonic lysis. We conclude that the (BLI)-based measurement of cytotoxicity offers a superior non-radioactive alternative to the chromium-release assay that is more robust and quicker to perform. PMID:24586714

  5. Standardizing electrophoresis conditions: how to eliminate a major source of error in the comet assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Brunborg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the alkaline comet assay, cells are embedded in agarose, lysed, and then subjected to further processing including electrophoresis at high pH (>13. We observed very large variations of mean comet tail lengths of cell samples from the same population when spread on a glass or plastic substrate and subjected to electrophoresis. These variations might be cancelled out if comets are scored randomly over a large surface, or if all the comets are scored. The mean tail length may then be representative of the population, although its standard error is large. However, the scoring process often involves selection of 50 – 100 comets in areas selected in an unsystematic way from a large gel on a glass slide. When using our 96-sample minigel format (1, neighbouring sample variations are easily detected. We have used this system to study the cause of the comet assay variations during electrophoresis and we have defined experimental conditions which reduce the variations to a minimum. We studied the importance of various physical parameters during electrophoresis: (i voltage; (ii duration of electrophoresis; (iii electric current; (iv temperature; and (v agarose concentration. We observed that the voltage (V/cm varied substantially during electrophoresis, even within a few millimetres of distance between gel samples. Not unexpectedly, both the potential ( V/cm and the time were linearly related to the mean comet tail, whereas the current was not. By measuring the local voltage with microelectrodes a few millimetres apart, we observed substantial local variations in V/cm, and they increased with time. This explains the large variations in neighbouring sample comet tails of 25% or more. By introducing simple technology (circulation of the solution during electrophoresis, and temperature control, these variations in mean comet tail were largely abolished, as were the V/cm variations. Circulation was shown to be particularly important and optimal conditions

  6. Quantitative Fissile Assay In Used Fuel Using LSDS System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee YongDeok

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative assay of isotopic fissile materials (U235, Pu239, Pu241 was done at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI, using lead slowing down spectrometer (LSDS. The optimum design of LSDS was performed based on economics, easy maintenance and assay effectiveness. LSDS system consists of spectrometer, neutron source, detection and control. LSDS system induces fissile fission and fast neutrons are collected at fission chamber. The detected signal has a direct relation to the mass of existing fissile isotopes. Many current commercial assay technologies have a limitation in direct application on isotopic fissile assay of spent fuel, except chemical analysis. In the designed system, the fissile assay model was setup and the correction factor for self-shield was obtained. The isotopic fissile content assay was performed by changing the content of Pu239. Based on the fuel rod, the isotopic content was consistent with ~2% uncertainty for Pu239. By applying the covering (neutron absorber, the effective shielding was obtained and the activation was calculated on the target. From the assay evaluation, LSDS technique is very powerful and direct to analyze the isotopic fissile content. LSDS is applicable for nuclear fuel cycle and spent fuel management for safety and economics. Additionally, an accurate fissile content will contribute to the international transparency and credibility on spent fuel.

  7. Partnership on Rotational ViscoElastic Test Standardization (PROVETS): evidence-based guidelines on rotational viscoelastic assays in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggs, Robert; Brainard, Benjamin; de Laforcade, Armelle M; Flatland, Bente; Hanel, Rita; McMichael, Maureen; Wiinberg, Bo

    2014-01-01

    To systematically examine the evidence relating to the performance of rotational viscoelastic testing in companion animals, to develop assay guidelines, and to identify knowledge gaps. Multiple questions were considered within 5 parent domains, specifically system comparability, sample handling, assay activation and test protocol, definitions and data reporting, and nonstandard assays. Standardized, systematic evaluation of the literature was performed. Relevant articles were categorized according to level of evidence and assessed for quality. Consensus was developed regarding conclusions for application of concepts to clinical practice. Academic and referral veterinary medical centers. Databases searched included Medline, Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux abstracts, and Google Scholar. Worksheets were prepared evaluating 28 questions across the 5 domains and generating 84 assay guidelines. Evidence-based guidelines for the performance of thromboelastography in companion animals were generated through this process. Some of these guidelines are well supported while others will benefit from additional evidence. Many knowledge gaps were identified and future work should be directed to address these gaps and to objectively evaluate the impact of these guidelines on assay comparability within and between centers. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2014.

  8. Evaluation of standard reagents for radial-immunodiffusion assays. In vitro control of rabies vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICELI Graciela S.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The RID assay is one of the in vitro methods used for in-process control in the production of rabies vaccines for veterinary use. It has been shown to be very useful for determining antigen concentration in the final bulk product. The work presented in this paper, including the production and standardization of candidate standard reagents for use in the Radial Immunodiffusion Assay (RID was carried out at the Pan American Institute for Food Protection and Zoonoses (INPPAZ/PAHO/WHO. The study was completed with the cooperation of the Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, National University of La Plata (NULP, Argentina, where the validation of the proposed standards and the quality control of samples from 28 different batches of rabies vaccines produced with Pasteur strain rabies virus (PV in BHK cells were performed. The activity of the vaccines was determined by in vivo (NIH and in vitro (RIDassays. The results of the candidate reagents for the reagent standardization tests showed stability, sensitivity and reproducibility. The Relative Potency the 1.2 between the problem vaccines and the reference vaccine was estimated by variance and regression analysis. The results of our validation study show that the INPPAZ (PAHO/WHO is capable of producing and distributing the above-mentioned standard reagents, as well as of providing support for the incorporation of the RID technique (sensitive, rapid and inexpensive to the laboratories that manufacture rabies vaccines in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  9. The network formation assay: a spatially standardized neurite outgrowth analytical display for neurotoxicity screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimat, Jean-Philippe; Sisnaiske, Julia; Subbiah, Subanatarajan; Menne, Heike; Godoy, Patricio; Lampen, Peter; Leist, Marcel; Franzke, Joachim; Hengstler, Jan G; van Thriel, Christoph; West, Jonathan

    2010-03-21

    We present a rapid, reproducible and sensitive neurotoxicity testing platform that combines the benefits of neurite outgrowth analysis with cell patterning. This approach involves patterning neuronal cells within a hexagonal array to standardize the distance between neighbouring cellular nodes, and thereby standardize the length of the neurite interconnections. This feature coupled with defined assay coordinates provides a streamlined display for rapid and sensitive analysis. We have termed this the network formation assay (NFA). To demonstrate the assay we have used a novel cell patterning technique involving thin film poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microcontact printing. Differentiated human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells colonized the array with high efficiency, reliably producing pattern occupancies above 70%. The neuronal array surface supported neurite outgrowth, resulting in the formation of an interconnected neuronal network. Exposure to acrylamide, a neurotoxic reference compound, inhibited network formation. A dose-response curve from the NFA was used to determine a 20% network inhibition (NI(20)) value of 260 microM. This concentration was approximately 10-fold lower than the value produced by a routine cell viability assay, and demonstrates that the NFA can distinguish network formation inhibitory effects from gross cytotoxic effects. Inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) ERK1/2 and phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI-3K) signaling pathways also produced a dose-dependent reduction in network formation at non-cytotoxic concentrations. To further refine the assay a simulation was developed to manage the impact of pattern occupancy variations on network formation probability. Together these developments and demonstrations highlight the potential of the NFA to meet the demands of high-throughput applications in neurotoxicology and neurodevelopmental biology.

  10. Variability of assay methods for total and free PSA after WHO standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foj, L; Filella, X; Alcover, J; Augé, J M; Escudero, J M; Molina, R

    2014-03-01

    The variability of total PSA (tPSA) and free PSA (fPSA) results among commercial assays has been suggested to be decreased by calibration to World Health Organization (WHO) reference materials. To characterize the current situation, it is necessary to know its impact in the critical cutoffs used in clinical practice. In the present study, we tested 167 samples with tPSA concentrations of 0 to 20 μg/L using seven PSA and six fPSA commercial assays, including Access, ARCHITECT i2000, ADVIA Centaur XP, IMMULITE 2000, Elecsys, and Lumipulse G1200, in which we only measured tPSA. tPSA and fPSA were measured in Access using the Hybritech and WHO calibrators. Passing-Bablok analysis was performed for PSA, and percentage of fPSA with the Hybritech-calibrated access comparison assay. For tPSA, relative differences were more than 10 % at 0.2 μg/L for ARCHITECT i2000, and at a critical concentration of 3, 4, and 10 μg/L, the relative difference was exceeded by ADVIA Centaur XP and WHO-calibrated Access. For percent fPSA, at a critical concentration of 10 %, the 10 % relative difference limit was exceeded by IMMULITE 2000 assay. At a critical concentration of 20 and 25 %, ADVIA Centaur XP, ARCHITECT i2000, and IMMULITE 2000 assays exceeded the 10 % relative difference limit. We have shown significant discordances between assays included in this study despite advances in standardization conducted in the last years. Further harmonization efforts are required in order to obtain a complete clinical concordance.

  11. Pi overlapping ring systems contained in a homogeneous assay: a novel homogeneous assay for antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, David A.

    1993-05-01

    A novel immunoassay, Pi overlapping ring systems contained in a homogeneous assay (PORSCHA), is described. This assay relies upon the change in fluorescent spectral properties that pyrene and its derivatives show with varying concentration. Because antibodies and other biomolecules can bind two molecules simultaneously, they can change the local concentration of the molecules that they bind. This concentration change may be detected spectrally as a change in the fluorescence emission wavelength of an appropriately labeled biomolecule. Several tests of PORSCHA have been performed which demonstrate this principle. For example: with streptavidin as the binding biomolecule and a biotin labeled pyrene derivative, the production of the excimer emitting at 470 nm is observed. Without the streptavidin present, only the monomer emitting at 378 and 390 nm is observed. The ratio of monomer to excimer provides the concentration of unlabeled biotin in the sample. Approximately 1 ng/mL of biotin may be detected with this system using a 50 (mu) l sample (2 X 10-16 moles biotin). The principles behind PORSCHA, the results with the streptavidin/biotin system are discussed and extensions of the PORSCHA concept to antibodies as the binding partner and DNA in homogeneous assays are suggested.

  12. Reference assays for Clostridium difficile infection: one or two gold standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planche, Timothy; Wilcox, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is essential for optimal treatment, prevention and control. There are two reference assays for CDI diagnosis: the cell cytotoxicity assay (CCTA) and toxigenic culture (TC). Importantly, these tests actually detect different targets: CCTA detects the presence of C difficile toxins (primarily toxin B, but also toxin A), whereas TC detects the presence in the stool of C difficile with the potential to produce toxin. Not surprisingly studies comparing the results of these assays show imperfect agreement. Thus, a faecal sample may be CCTA negative but TC positive, and this raises the crucial question about the clinical significance of the presence of C difficile with the capacity to produce toxin but no actual detectable free toxin. A positive TC result indicates that a patient with diarrhoea is potentially infectious. TC also has the advantage that the cultured isolate is available for typing and for susceptibility testing. In general, however, CCTA has been shown to be a better test for the laboratory confirmation of CDI, although additional culture may be needed to optimise sensitivity. Crucially, when these reference assays are used to determine the accuracy of alternative diagnostic tests, care should be taken to compare methods with their appropriate standard (ie, compare tests that target equivalent end-points). Such issues have contributed to the variable and often suboptimal performance of rapid diagnostic tests for CDI. Further research is urgently needed to improve knowledge of the utility of routine diagnostic tests in CDI and the factors that influence their performance.

  13. Development of recombinant human IgA for anticardiolipin antibodies assay standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappik, Achim; Capuano, Francesco; Frisch, Christian; Ylera, Francisco; Bonelli, Fabrizio

    2009-09-01

    Controls and calibrators in autoimmune assays are typically developed from patient sera. However, the use of sera is accompanied by a number of disadvantages, such as lack of monospecificity, lack of assay comparability, and supply limitations. Ideally, the control reagent would be an antigen-specific human monoclonal antibody preparation that is defined and pure, easy to produce without any supply limitations, and of defined isotype (IgG, IgM, or IgA). The generation of antigen-specific human monoclonal antibodies has been complicated, but recent advances in development of fully human antibodies by means of in vitro antibody gene library selection has opened a way for the isolation of human antibodies to virtually any antigen, including self-antigens. Such antibodies can be converted to any isotype by gene cloning. Here we developed a set of human monoclonal IgA antibodies specific for the cardiolipin-beta2-glycoprotein 1 complex, using the HuCAL technology. We evaluated the IgA variants of those antibodies for their use as standards in IgA anticardiolipin antibody assays and compared these reagents with serum controls. Such recombinant antibodies may ultimately replace patient sera as assay control and calibration reagents.

  14. Standardized quantitative RT-PCR assays for quantitation of yellow fever and chimeric yellow fever-dengue vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantel, N; Aguirre, M; Gulia, S; Girerd-Chambaz, Y; Colombani, S; Moste, C; Barban, V

    2008-07-01

    Yellow fever-dengue chimeras (CYDs) are being developed currently as live tetravalent dengue vaccine candidates. Specific quantitative assays are needed to evaluate the viral load of each serotype in vaccine batches and biological samples. A quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) system was developed comprising five one-step qRT-PCRs targeting the E/NS1 junction of each chimera, or the NS5 gene in the yellow fever backbone. Each assay was standardized using in vitro transcribed RNA qualified according to its size and purity, and precisely quantified. A non RNA-extracted virus sample was introduced as external quality control (EQC), as well as 2 extraction controls consisting of 2 doses, 40 and 4,000 GEQ (genomic equivalents), of this EQC extracted in parallel to the samples. Between 6 and 10 GEQ/reaction were reproducibly measured with all assays and similar titers were obtained with the two methods when chimeric virus samples were quantified with the E/NS1- or the NS5-specific assays. Reproducibility of RNA extraction was ensured by automation of the process (yield>or=50%), and infectious virus was isolated in >or=80% of PCR-positive sera from immune monkeys.

  15. Computerized low-level waste assay system operation manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.F.; Cowder, L.R.; Martin, E.R.

    1976-01-01

    An operation and maintenance manual for the computerized low-level waste box counter is presented, which describes routine assay techniques as well as theory of operation treated in sufficient depth so that an experienced assayist can make nonroutine assays. In addition, complete system schematics are included, along with a complete circuit description to facilitate not only maintenance and troubleshooting, but also reproduction of the instrument if desired. Complete software system descriptions are included so far as calculational algorithms are concerned, although detailed instruction listings would have to be obtained from Group R-1 at LASL in order to make machine-language code changes

  16. Fissile Content Assay of Spent Fuel Using LSDS System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Ju Young; Lee, Yong Deok; Park, Chang Je

    2016-01-01

    About 1.5 % fissile materials still exist in the spent fuel. Therefore, for reutilization of fissile materials in spent fuel at SFR, resource material is produced through the pyro process. Fissile material contents in the resource material must be analyzed before fabricating SFR fuel for reactor safety and economics. The new technology for an isotopic fissile material content assay is under development at KAERI using a lead slowing down spectrometer (LSDS). LSDS is very sensitive to distinguish fission signals from each fissile isotope in spent and recycled fuel. In an assay of fissile content of spent fuel and recycled fuel, an intense radiation background gives limits the direct analysis of fissile materials. However, LSDS is not influenced by such a radiation background in a fissile assay. Based on the decided LSDS geometry set up, a self shielding parameter was calculated at the fuel assay zone by introducing spent fuel or pyro produced nuclear material. When nuclear material is inserted into the assay area, the spent fuel assembly or pyro recycled fuel material perturbs the spatial distribution of slowing down neutrons in lead and the prompt fast fission neutrons produced by fissile materials are also perturbed. The self shielding factor is interpreted as how much of the absorption is created inside the fuel area when it is in the lead. The self shielding effect provides a non-linear property in the isotopic fissile assay. When the self shielding is severe, the assay system becomes more complex and needs a special parameter to treat this non linear effect. Additionally, an assay of isotopic fissile content will contribute to an accuracy improvement of the burn-up code and increase the transparency and credibility for spent fuel storage and usage, as internationally increasing demand. The fissile contents result came out almost exactly with relative error ∼ 2% in case of Pu239, Pu241 for two different plutonium contents. In this study, meaningful results were

  17. Standard-E hydrogen monitoring system shop acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.C.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document that the Standard-E Hydrogen Monitoring Systems (SHMS-E), fabricated by Mid-Columbia Engineering (MCE) for installation on the Waste Tank Farms in the Hanford 200 Areas, are constructed as intended by the design. The ATP performance will verify proper system fabrication

  18. Standard-E hydrogen monitoring system shop acceptance test procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, T.C.

    1997-10-02

    The purpose of this report is to document that the Standard-E Hydrogen Monitoring Systems (SHMS-E), fabricated by Mid-Columbia Engineering (MCE) for installation on the Waste Tank Farms in the Hanford 200 Areas, are constructed as intended by the design. The ATP performance will verify proper system fabrication.

  19. A single-centre evaluation of two new anti-Mullerian hormone assays and comparison with the current clinical standard assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Paul; Smith, Karen; Nelson, Scott M

    2014-05-01

    .0%, P Gen II assay and may be suitable for clinical and epidemiological use. Enhanced sensitivity of the Ansh Labs picoAMH assay enables measurement of low AMH concentrations. These results re-emphasize the need for an AMH international standard. Ansh Labs provided kits for this study free of charge. The manufacturer played no part in conducting assays or data analysis. S.M.N. has received speaker's fees and participated in advisory boards for Beckman Coulter, Merck Serono, MSD and Ferring regarding AMH. P.W. is supported by British Heart Foundation fellowship FS/12/62/29889. We declare no other financial relationship or competing interests.

  20. Standardization of automated 25-hydroxyvitamin D assays: How successful is it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsenberg, E H A M; Ten Boekel, E; Huijgen, H; Heijboer, A C

    2017-12-01

    Multiple 25(OH)D assays have recently been aligned to improve comparibility. In this study we investigated the performance of these assays using both native single-donor sera with target values certified by a reference method as well as single donor sera from a heterogeneous patient population. 25(OH)D levels were measured in twenty reference samples (Ref!25OHD; Labquality, Finland) using five automated methods (Lumipulse, Liaison, Cobas, iSYS and Access) and one aligned ID-XLC-MS/MS method (slope: 1,00; intercept: 0,00; R=0,996). Furthermore, 25(OH)D concentrations measured in 50 pregnant women and 52 random patients using the 5 automated assays were compared to the ID-XLC-MS/MS. In addition, Vitamin D binding protein (DBP) was measured. Most automated assays showed significant differences in 25(OH)D levels measured in reference samples. Slopes varied from 1,00 to 1,33, intercepts from -5.48 to -15,81nmol/L and the R from 0,971 to 0,997. This inaccuracy was even more prominent in a heterogeneous patient population. Slopes varied from 0,75 to 1,35, intercepts from -9.02 to 11,51nmol/L and the R from 0,840 to 0,949. For most assays the deviation in 25(OH)D concentration increased with elevating DBP concentrations suggesting that DBP might be one of the factors contributing to the inaccuracy in currently used automated 25(OH)D methods. Despite the use of standardized assays, we observed significant differences in 25(OH)D concentrations in some automated methods using reference material obtained from healthy single donor sera. In sera of a patient population this inaccuracy was even worse which is highly concerning as patient samples are being investigated in clinical laboratories. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. European Multicenter Study on Analytical Performance of DxN Veris System HCV Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Patrick; Delgado, Rafael; Drago, Monica; Fanti, Diana; Fleury, Hervé; Gismondo, Maria Rita; Hofmann, Jörg; Izopet, Jacques; Kühn, Sebastian; Lombardi, Alessandra; Marcos, Maria Angeles; Sauné, Karine; O'Shea, Siobhan; Pérez-Rivilla, Alfredo; Ramble, John

    2017-01-01

    The analytical performance of the Veris HCV Assay for use on the new and fully automated Beckman Coulter DxN Veris Molecular Diagnostics System (DxN Veris System) was evaluated at 10 European virology laboratories. Precision, analytical sensitivity, specificity, and performance with negative samples, linearity, and performance with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes were evaluated. Precision for all sites showed a standard deviation (SD) of 0.22 log10 IU/ml or lower for each level tested. Anal...

  2. Global Positioning System Standard Positioning Service Performance Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    The U.S. Global Positioning System (GPS) Standard Positioning Service (SPS) consists of space-based positioning, navigation, and timing (PNT) signals delivered free of direct user fees for peaceful civil, commercial, and scientific uses worldwide. Th...

  3. Confinement Vessel Assay System: Calibration and Certification Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frame, Katherine C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bourne, Mark M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crooks, William J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Evans, Louise [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gomez, Cipriano [Retired CMR-OPS: OPERATIONS; Mayo, Douglas R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Miko, David K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salazar, William R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stange, Sy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vigil, Georgiana M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-17

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has a number of spherical confinement vessels (CVs) remaining from tests involving nuclear materials. These vessels have an inner diameter of 6 feet with 1 to 2 inch thick steel walls. The goal of the Confinement Vessel Disposition (CVD) project is to remove debris and reduce contamination inside the vessels. The Confinement Vessel Assay System (CVAS) was developed to measure the amount of SNM in CVs before and after cleanout. Prior to cleanout, the system will be used to perform a verification measurement of each vessel. After cleanout, the system will be used to perform safeguards-quality assays of {le} 100-g {sup 239}Pu equivalent in a vessel for safeguards termination. The system was calibrated in three different mass regions (low, medium, and high) to cover the entire plutonium mass range that will be assayed. The low mass calibration and medium mass calibration were verified for material positioned in the center of an empty vessel. The systematic uncertainty due to position bias was estimated using an MCNPX model to simulate the response of the system to material localized at various points along the inner surface of the vessel. The background component due to cosmic ray spallation was determined by performing measurements of an empty vessel and comparing to measurements in the same location with no vessel present. The CVAS has been tested and calibrated in preparation for verification and safeguards measurements of CVs before and after cleanout.

  4. INTEGRATIVE AUGMENTATION OF STANDARDIZED MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Karapetrovic

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The development, features and integrating abilities of different international standards related to management systems are discussed. A group of such standards that augment the performance of quality management systems in organizations is specifically focused on. The concept, characteristics and an illustrative example of one augmenting standard, namely ISO 10001, are addressed. Integration of standardized augmenting systems, both by themselves and within the overall management system, is examined. It is argued that, in research and practice alike, integrative augmentation represents the future of standardized quality and other management systems.

  5. Assessing the cleanliness of surfaces: Innovative molecular approaches vs. standard spore assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, M.; Duc, M.T. La; Probst, A.; Vaishampayan, P.; Stam, C.; Benardini, J.N.; Piceno, Y.M.; Andersen, G.L.; Venkateswaran, K.

    2011-04-01

    A bacterial spore assay and a molecular DNA microarray method were compared for their ability to assess relative cleanliness in the context of bacterial abundance and diversity on spacecraft surfaces. Colony counts derived from the NASA standard spore assay were extremely low for spacecraft surfaces. However, the PhyloChip generation 3 (G3) DNA microarray resolved the genetic signatures of a highly diverse suite of microorganisms in the very same sample set. Samples completely devoid of cultivable spores were shown to harbor the DNA of more than 100 distinct microbial phylotypes. Furthermore, samples with higher numbers of cultivable spores did not necessarily give rise to a greater microbial diversity upon analysis with the DNA microarray. The findings of this study clearly demonstrated that there is not a statistically significant correlation between the cultivable spore counts obtained from a sample and the degree of bacterial diversity present. Based on these results, it can be stated that validated state-of-the-art molecular techniques, such as DNA microarrays, can be utilized in parallel with classical culture-based methods to further describe the cleanliness of spacecraft surfaces.

  6. Control system architecture: The standard and non-standard models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuot, M.E.; Dalesio, L.R.

    1993-01-01

    Control system architecture development has followed the advances in computer technology through mainframes to minicomputers to micros and workstations. This technology advance and increasingly challenging accelerator data acquisition and automation requirements have driven control system architecture development. In summarizing the progress of control system architecture at the last International Conference on Accelerator and Large Experimental Physics Control Systems (ICALEPCS) B. Kuiper asserted that the system architecture issue was resolved and presented a ''standard model''. The ''standard model'' consists of a local area network (Ethernet or FDDI) providing communication between front end microcomputers, connected to the accelerator, and workstations, providing the operator interface and computational support. Although this model represents many present designs, there are exceptions including reflected memory and hierarchical architectures driven by requirements for widely dispersed, large channel count or tightly coupled systems. This paper describes the performance characteristics and features of the ''standard model'' to determine if the requirements of ''non-standard'' architectures can be met. Several possible extensions to the ''standard model'' are suggested including software as well as the hardware architectural feature

  7. Standardization of CalyculinA induced PCC assay and its advantages over Okadaic acid PCC assay in Biodosimetry applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairy, Rajesha K; Yerol, Narayana; Bhat, Nagesh N; Desai, Utkarsha; Shirsath, Kapil; Yadav, Usha; K Chaurasia, Rajesh; B K, Sapra

    2016-11-29

    In the present study an attempt was made to estimate coefficients of dose response curves for PCC aberrations induced by CalyculinA and Okadaic acid, using 60 Co gamma radiation and 8 MeV pulsed electron beam for biodosimetry application. The modified method outlined by Puig et al. 2013 was used to conduct Calyculin A and Okadaic acid induced PCC assay in human blood lymphocytes.Chemical treatment was given for the last 1 h of a 48 h culture. The study was carried out in the dose range 2.5 to 20 Gy using 60 Co gamma rays and 8 MeV pulsed electron beam. Results show a linear dose dependent increase with a slope of 0.047 ± 0.001 from Calycalin A PCC and 0.048 ± 0.002 form Okadaic acid PCC. The slope of the fragments curve was 0.327 ± 0.006 from Calyculin A and 0.328 ± 0.006 from Okadaic acid PCC. Further, dose calibration studies were carried out for 8 MeV electron using Calyculin A PCC assay and the obtained slope from ring yield was 0.054 ± 0.002 and 0.427 ± 0.009 from fragment yield.

  8. A Functional Henipavirus Envelope Glycoprotein Pseudotyped Lentivirus Assay System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broder Christopher C

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hendra virus (HeV and Nipah virus (NiV are newly emerged zoonotic paramyxoviruses discovered during outbreaks in Queensland, Australia in 1994 and peninsular Malaysia in 1998/9 respectively and classified within the new Henipavirus genus. Both viruses can infect a broad range of mammalian species causing severe and often-lethal disease in humans and animals, and repeated outbreaks continue to occur. Extensive laboratory studies on the host cell infection stage of HeV and NiV and the roles of their envelope glycoproteins have been hampered by their highly pathogenic nature and restriction to biosafety level-4 (BSL-4 containment. To circumvent this problem, we have developed a henipavirus envelope glycoprotein pseudotyped lentivirus assay system using either a luciferase gene or green fluorescent protein (GFP gene encoding human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 genome in conjunction with the HeV and NiV fusion (F and attachment (G glycoproteins. Results Functional retrovirus particles pseudotyped with henipavirus F and G glycoproteins displayed proper target cell tropism and entry and infection was dependent on the presence of the HeV and NiV receptors ephrinB2 or B3 on target cells. The functional specificity of the assay was confirmed by the lack of reporter-gene signals when particles bearing either only the F or only G glycoprotein were prepared and assayed. Virus entry could be specifically blocked when infection was carried out in the presence of a fusion inhibiting C-terminal heptad (HR-2 peptide, a well-characterized, cross-reactive, neutralizing human mAb specific for the henipavirus G glycoprotein, and soluble ephrinB2 and B3 receptors. In addition, the utility of the assay was also demonstrated by an examination of the influence of the cytoplasmic tail of F in its fusion activity and incorporation into pseudotyped virus particles by generating and testing a panel of truncation mutants of NiV and HeV F

  9. Observation and control system of the thermohydraulic assays laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santome, D.; Hualde, R.

    1990-01-01

    The Thermohydraulic Assays Laboratory (L.E.T.) is an installation whose purpose will be the components testing and the CAREM-25 reactor thermohydraulic processes operation dynamics. This plant is located at Pilcaniyeu, province of Rio Negro. Part of the tests which will be carried out consist in the use of different control strategies. The control of the systems by digital processors (control by software) has been decided to proceed with a maximum flexibility and capacity to make changes in the algorithms. This work describes the design and implementation of a digital control system to command the three circuits of the installation. (Author) [es

  10. Toxin activity assays, devices, methods and systems therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Chung-Yan; Schaff, Ulrich Y.; Sommer, Gregory Jon

    2016-04-05

    Embodiments of the present invention are directed toward devices, system and method for conducting toxin activity assay using sedimentation. The toxin activity assay may include generating complexes which bind to a plurality of beads in a fluid sample. The complexes may include a target toxin and a labeling agent, or may be generated due to presence of active target toxin and/or labeling agent designed to be incorporated into complexes responsive to the presence of target active toxin. The plurality of beads including the complexes may be transported through a density media, wherein the density media has a lower density than a density of the beads and higher than a density of the fluid sample, and wherein the transporting occurs, at least in part, by sedimentation. Signal may be detected from the labeling agents of the complexes.

  11. Plasmonic Interrogation of Biomimetic Systems for Enhanced Toxicity Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinman, Samuel Stuart

    In light of their escalating exposure to possible environmental toxicants, there are many biological systems that need to be evaluated in a resource and time efficient manner. Understanding how toxicants behave in relation to their physicochemical properties and within complex biological media is especially important toward developing a stronger scientific foundation of these systems so that adequate regulatory decisions may be made. While there are many emerging methods available for the detection and characterization of these chemicals, nanotechnology has presented itself as a promising alternative toward creating more efficient assays. In particular, metallic nanoparticles and thin films exhibit unique optical properties that allow for highly sensitive and multiplexed studies to be performed. These plasmonic materials often preclude the use of molecular tags and labels, enabling direct characterizations and enhancing the throughput of biomolecular studies. However, their lack of specificity toward certain targets and potential toxicity has thus far precluded their widespread use in toxicity testing. The cell membrane, a natural signal transducer, represents one of the fundamental structures for biological recognition and communication. These interfaces principally function as a selective barrier to exogenous materials, including ions, signaling molecules, growth factors, and toxins; therefore, understanding interactions at membrane interfaces is a vital step in elucidating how biological responses are effected. Supported lipid bilayers, which may easily be tailored in composition and complexity, are ideal interfaces for coupling to plasmonic assays since they may be supported in close proximity to metallic nanoparticles and thin films, where measurements are most sensitive. This research will focus on the coupling of plasmonic materials and biomimetic interfaces to increase the sensitivity, efficiency, and throughput of conventional toxicity assays. The

  12. Control system architecture: The standard and non-standard models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuot, M.E.; Dalesio, L.R.

    1993-01-01

    Control system architecture development has followed the advances in computer technology through mainframes to minicomputers to micros and workstations. This technology advance and increasingly challenging accelerator data acquisition and automation requirements have driven control system architecture development. In summarizing the progress of control system architecture at the last International Conference on Accelerator and Large Experimental Physics Control Systems (ICALEPCS) B. Kuiper asserted that the system architecture issue was resolved and presented a open-quotes standard modelclose quotes. The open-quotes standard modelclose quotes consists of a local area network (Ethernet or FDDI) providing communication between front end microcomputers, connected to the accelerator, and workstations, providing the operator interface and computational support. Although this model represents many present designs, there are exceptions including reflected memory and hierarchical architectures driven by requirements for widely dispersed, large channel count or tightly coupled systems. This paper describes the performance characteristics and features of the open-quotes standard modelclose quotes to determine if the requirements of open-quotes non-standardclose quotes architectures can be met. Several possible extensions to the open-quotes standard modelclose quotes are suggested including software as well as the hardware architectural features

  13. Radiometric assay of bacterial growth: analysis of factors determining system performance and optimization of assay technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonkitticharoen, V.; Ehrhardt, J.C.; Kirchner, P.T.

    1987-01-01

    A quantitative technique for the measurement of 14 CO 2 released from a bacterial culture was evaluated. The technique uses liquid scintillation counting to record 14 CO 2 accumulation on a fluor-impregnated filter paper within a double-chambered scintillation vial that also houses the bacterial growth medium. We have successfully identified and corrected the major causes for a variably low detection efficiency, and also established the optimum mixture of reagents for the detection system. Incorporation of Triton X-100 into the scintillation fluid used for the detector reduced the variability between identical assays in a single batch from 50% to 5%, and, in conjunction with an increase in the scintillator concentration, raised the counting efficiency from 30% to 70-88%. The response of the improved detector is linear over a wide range of count-rates. Another significant modification was the interchange of growth and detector chambers. Overall, a 40-fold increase in count-rate during the exponential phase of bacterial growth was obtained by improving 14 CO 2 detection efficiency, increasing the rate of 14 CO 2 transfer from liquid to gas phases and enlarging the growth supporting capacity of the detector system. The minimum detection time for bacterial growth was shortened and the exponential phase of bacterial proliferation was lengthened by at least 2 hr. High counting efficiency, precision, and linearity make the improved detector a sensitive and reliable tool for radiometry of bacterial growth and metabolism

  14. On the efficiency calibration of a drum waste assay system

    CERN Document Server

    Dinescu, L; Cazan, I L; Macrin, R; Caragheorgheopol, G; Rotarescu, G

    2002-01-01

    The efficiency calibration of a gamma spectroscopy waste assay system, constructed by IFIN-HH, was performed. The calibration technique was based on the assumption of a uniform distribution of the source activity in the drum and also a uniform sample matrix. A collimated detector (HPGe--20% relative efficiency) placed at 30 cm from the drum was used. The detection limit for sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs and sup 6 sup 0 Co is approximately 45 Bq/kg for a sample of about 400 kg and a counting time of 10 min. A total measurement uncertainty of -70% to +40% was estimated.

  15. The history and development of FETAX (ASTM standard guide, E-1439 on conducting the frog embryo teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, J.N.; Bantle, J.A.; Linder, G.; ,

    2003-01-01

    The energy crisis of the 1970's and 1980's prompted the search for alternative sources of fuel. With development of alternate sources of energy, concerns for biological resources potentially adversely impacted by these alternative technologies also heightened. For example, few biological tests were available at the time to study toxic effects of effluents on surface waters likely to serve as receiving streams for energy-production facilities; hence, we began to use Xenopus laevis embryos as test organisms to examine potential toxic effects associated with these effluents upon entering aquatic systems. As studies focused on potential adverse effects on aquatic systems continued, a test procedure was developed that led to the initial standardization of FETAX. Other .than a limited number of aquatic toxicity tests that used fathead minnows and cold-water fishes such as rainbow trout, X. laevis represented the only other aquatic vertebrate test system readily available to evaluate complex effluents. With numerous laboratories collaborating, the test with X. laevis was refined, improved, and developed as ASTM E-1439, Standard Guide for the Conducting Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX). Collabrative work in the 1990s yielded procedural enhancements, for example, development of standard test solutions and exposure methods to handle volatile organics and hydrophobic compounds. As part of the ASTM process, a collaborative interlaboratory study was performed to determine the repeatability and reliability of FETAX. Parallel to these efforts, methods were also developed to test sediments and soils, and in situ test methods were developed to address "lab-to-field extrapolation errors" that could influence the method's use in ecological risk assessments. Additionally, a metabolic activation system composed of rat liver microsomes was developed which made FETAX more relevant to mammalian studies.

  16. Establishment and intra-/inter-laboratory validation of a standard protocol of reactive oxygen species assay for chemical photosafety evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoue, Satomi; Hosoi, Kazuhiro; Wakuri, Shinobu; Iwase, Yumiko; Yamamoto, Toshinobu; Matsuoka, Naoko; Nakamura, Kazuichi; Toda, Tsuguto; Takagi, Hironori; Osaki, Naoto; Matsumoto, Yasuhiro; Kawakami, Satoru; Seto, Yoshiki; Kato, Masashi; Yamada, Shizuo; Ohno, Yasuo; Kojima, Hajime

    2013-11-01

    A reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay was previously developed for photosafety evaluation of pharmaceuticals, and the present multi-center study aimed to establish and validate a standard protocol for ROS assay. In three participating laboratories, two standards and 42 coded chemicals, including 23 phototoxins and 19 nonphototoxic drugs/chemicals, were assessed by the ROS assay according to the standardized protocol. Most phototoxins tended to generate singlet oxygen and/or superoxide under UV-vis exposure, but nonphototoxic chemicals were less photoreactive. In the ROS assay on quinine (200 µm), a typical phototoxic drug, the intra- and inter-day precisions (coefficient of variation; CV) were found to be 1.5-7.4% and 1.7-9.3%, respectively. The inter-laboratory CV for quinine averaged 15.4% for singlet oxygen and 17.0% for superoxide. The ROS assay on 42 coded chemicals (200 µm) provided no false negative predictions upon previously defined criteria as compared with the in vitro/in vivo phototoxicity, although several false positives appeared. Outcomes from the validation study were indicative of satisfactory transferability, intra- and inter-laboratory variability, and predictive capacity of the ROS assay. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. The use of calibration standards and the correction for sample self-attenuation in gamma-ray nondestructive assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.L.

    1986-11-01

    The efficient use of appropriate calibration standards and the correction for the attenuation of the gamma rays within an assay sample by the sample itself are two important and closely related subjects in gamma-ray nondestructive assay. Much research relating to those subjects has been done in the Nuclear Safeguards Research and Development program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory since 1970. This report brings together most of the significant results of that research. Also discussed are the nature of appropriate calibration standards and the necessary conditions on the composition, size, and shape of the samples to allow accurate assays. Procedures for determining the correction for the sample self-attenuation are described at length including both general principles and several specific useful cases. The most useful concept is that knowing the linear attenuation coefficient of the sample (which can usually be determined) and the size and shape of the sample and its position relative to the detector permits the computation of the correction factor for the self-attenuation. A major objective of the report is to explain how the procedures for determining the self-attenuation correction factor can be applied so that calibration standards can be entirely appropriate without being particularly similar, either physically or chemically, to the items to be assayed. This permits minimization of the number of standards required to assay items with a wide range of size, shape, and chemical composition

  18. Reconfigurable radio systems network architectures and standards

    CERN Document Server

    Iacobucci, Maria Stella

    2013-01-01

    This timely book provides a standards-based view of the development, evolution, techniques and potential future scenarios for the deployment of reconfigurable radio systems.  After an introduction to radiomobile and radio systems deployed in the access network, the book describes cognitive radio concepts and capabilities, which are the basis for reconfigurable radio systems.  The self-organizing network features introduced in 3GPP standards are discussed and IEEE 802.22, the first standard based on cognitive radio, is described. Then the ETSI reconfigurable radio systems functional ar

  19. Control Systems Cyber Security Standards Support Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Evans

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security’s Control Systems Security Program (CSSP) is working with industry to secure critical infrastructure sectors from cyber intrusions that could compromise control systems. This document describes CSSP’s current activities with industry organizations in developing cyber security standards for control systems. In addition, it summarizes the standards work being conducted by organizations within the sector and provides a brief listing of sector meetings and conferences that might be of interest for each sector. Control systems cyber security standards are part of a rapidly changing environment. The participation of CSSP in the development effort for these standards has provided consistency in the technical content of the standards while ensuring that information developed by CSSP is included.

  20. Evaluation of Hologic Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx Assay on the Panther System on HIV Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manak, Mark M; Hack, Holly R; Nair, Sangeetha V; Worlock, Andrew; Malia, Jennifer A; Peel, Sheila A; Jagodzinski, Linda L

    2016-10-01

    Quantitation of the HIV-1 viral load in plasma is the current standard of care for clinical monitoring of HIV-infected individuals undergoing antiretroviral therapy. This study evaluated the analytical and clinical performances of the Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx assay (Hologic, San Diego, CA) for monitoring viral load by using 277 well-characterized subtype samples, including 171 cultured virus isolates and 106 plasma samples from 35 countries, representing all major HIV subtypes, recombinants, and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) currently in circulation worldwide. Linearity of the Aptima assay was tested on each of 6 major HIV-1 subtypes (A, B, C, D, CRF01_AE, and CRF02_AG) and demonstrated an R(2) value of ≥0.996. The performance of the Aptima assay was also compared to those of the Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 v.2 (CAP/CTM) and Abbott m2000 RealTime HIV-1 (RealTime) assays on all subtype samples. The Aptima assay values averaged 0.21 log higher than the CAP/CTM values and 0.30 log higher than the RealTime values, and the values were >0.4 log higher than CAP/CTM values for subtypes F and G and than RealTime values for subtypes C, F, and G and CRF02_AG. Two samples demonstrated results with >1-log differences from RealTime results. When the data were adjusted by the average difference, 94.9% and 87.0% of Aptima results fell within 0.5 log of the CAP/CTM and RealTime results, respectively. The linearity and accuracy of the Aptima assay in correctly quantitating all major HIV-1 subtypes, coupled with the completely automated format and high throughput of the Panther system, make this system well suited for reliable measurement of viral load in the clinical laboratory. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Confinement Vessel Assay System: Design and Implementation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frame, Katherine C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bourne, Mark M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crooks, William J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Evans, Louise [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mayo, Douglas R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gomez, Cipriano D. [Retired CMR-OPS: OPERATIONS; Miko, David K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salazar, William R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stange, Sy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vigil, Georgiana M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-18

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has a number of spherical confinement vessels remaining from tests involving nuclear materials. These vessels have an inner diameter of 6 feet with 1- to 2-inch thick steel walls. The goal of the Confinement Vessel Disposition (CVD) project is to remove debris and reduce contamination inside the vessels. We have developed a neutron assay system for the purposes of Materials Control and Accountability (MC&A) measurements of the vessel prior to and after cleanout. We present our approach to confronting the challenges in designing, building, and testing such a system. The system was designed to meet a set of functional and operational requirements. A Monte Carlo model was developed to aid in optimizing the detector design as well as to predict the systematic uncertainty associated with confinement vessel measurements. Initial testing was performed to optimize and determine various measurement parameters, and then the system was characterized using {sup 252}Cf placed a various locations throughout the measurement system. Measurements were also performed with a {sup 252}Cf source placed inside of small steel and HDPE shells to study the effect of moderation. These measurements compare favorably with their MCNPX model equivalent, making us confident that we can rely on the Monte Carlo simulation to predict the systematic uncertainty due to variations in response to material that may be localized at different points within a vessel.

  2. Software Development Standard for Mission Critical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-17

    6.2 for the OCD DID identifier. 5.3.3 System Requirements Definition 1. Based on the analysis of user needs, the operational concepts, and other...AEROSPACE REPORT NO. TR-RS-2015-00012 Software Development Standard for Mission Critical Systems March 17, 2014 Richard. J. Adams1, Suellen...Final 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Software Development Standard for Mission Critical Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8802-14-C-0001

  3. European Multicenter Study on Analytical Performance of DxN Veris System HCV Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Patrick; Delgado, Rafael; Drago, Monica; Fanti, Diana; Fleury, Hervé; Gismondo, Maria Rita; Hofmann, Jörg; Izopet, Jacques; Kühn, Sebastian; Lombardi, Alessandra; Marcos, Maria Angeles; Sauné, Karine; O'Shea, Siobhan; Pérez-Rivilla, Alfredo; Ramble, John; Trimoulet, Pascale; Vila, Jordi; Whittaker, Duncan; Artus, Alain; Rhodes, Daniel W

    2017-04-01

    The analytical performance of the Veris HCV Assay for use on the new and fully automated Beckman Coulter DxN Veris Molecular Diagnostics System (DxN Veris System) was evaluated at 10 European virology laboratories. Precision, analytical sensitivity, specificity, and performance with negative samples, linearity, and performance with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes were evaluated. Precision for all sites showed a standard deviation (SD) of 0.22 log 10 IU/ml or lower for each level tested. Analytical sensitivity determined by probit analysis was between 6.2 and 9.0 IU/ml. Specificity on 94 unique patient samples was 100%, and performance with 1,089 negative samples demonstrated 100% not-detected results. Linearity using patient samples was shown from 1.34 to 6.94 log 10 IU/ml. The assay demonstrated linearity upon dilution with all HCV genotypes. The Veris HCV Assay demonstrated an analytical performance comparable to that of currently marketed HCV assays when tested across multiple European sites. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. An International Collaboration To Standardize HIV-2 Viral Load Assays: Results from the 2009 ACHIEV2E Quality Control Study▿

    OpenAIRE

    Damond, F.; Benard, A.; Balotta, Claudia; Böni, Jürg; Cotten, Matthew; Duque, Vitor; Ferns, Bridget; Garson, Jeremy; Gomes, Perpetua; Gonçalves, Fátima; Gottlieb, Geoffrey; Kupfer, Bernd; Ruelle, Jean; Rodes, Berta; Soriano, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    Accurate HIV-2 plasma viral load quantification is crucial for adequate HIV-2 patient management and for the proper conduct of clinical trials and international cohort collaborations. This study compared the homogeneity of HIV-2 RNA quantification when using HIV-2 assays from ACHIEV2E study sites and either in-house PCR calibration standards or common viral load standards supplied to all collaborators. Each of the 12 participating laboratories quantified blinded HIV-2 samples, using its own H...

  5. Toward an international standard for PCR-based detection of food-borne thermotolerant Campylobacters: Assay development and analytical validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübeck, Peter Stephensen; Wolffs, P.; On, Stephen L.W.

    2003-01-01

    As part of a European research project (FOOD-PCR), we developed a standardized and robust PCR detection assay specific for the three most frequently reported food-borne pathogenic Campylobacter species, C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari. Fifteen published and unpublished PCR primers targeting the 16S...... carcass rinse, unlike both Taq DNA polymerase and DyNAzyme. Based on these results, Tth was selected as the most suitable enzyme for the assay. The standardized PCR test described shows potential for use in large-scale screening programs for food-borne Campylobacter species under the assay conditions....... The inclusivity and exclusivity were 100 and 97%, respectively. In an attempt to find a thermostable DNA polymerase more resistant than Taq to PCR inhibitors present in chicken samples, three DNA polymerases were evaluated. The DNA polymerase Tth was not inhibited at a concentration of 2% (vol/vol) chicken...

  6. Automated chromatographic laccase-mediator-system activity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Nico; Schelden, Maximilian; Roth, Simon; Spiess, Antje C

    2017-08-01

    To study the interaction of laccases, mediators, and substrates in laccase-mediator systems (LMS), an on-line measurement was developed using high performance anion exchange chromatography equipped with a CarboPac™ PA 100 column coupled to pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD). The developed method was optimized for overall chromatographic run time (45 to 120 min) and automated sample drawing. As an example, the Trametes versicolor laccase induced oxidation of 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-1,3-dihydroxypropane (adlerol) using 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT) as mediator was measured and analyzed on-line. Since the Au electrode of the PAD detects only hydroxyl group containing substances with a limit of detection being in the milligram/liter range, not all products are measureable. Therefore, this method was applied for the quantification of adlerol, and-based on adlerol conversion-for the quantification of the LMS activity at a specific T. versicolor laccase/HBT ratio. The automated chromatographic activity assay allowed for a defined reaction start of all laccase-mediator-system reactions mixtures, and the LMS reaction progress was automatically monitored for 48 h. The automatization enabled an integrated monitoring overnight and over-weekend and minimized all manual errors such as pipetting of solutions accordingly. The activity of the LMS based on adlerol consumption was determined to 0.47 U/mg protein for a laccase/mediator ratio of 1.75 U laccase/g HBT. In the future, the automated method will allow for a fast screening of combinations of laccases, mediators, and substrates which are efficient for lignin modification. In particular, it allows for a fast and easy quantification of the oxidizing activity of an LMS on a lignin-related substrate which is not covered by typical colorimetric laccase assays. ᅟ.

  7. Are Fish and Standardized FETAX Assays Protective Enough for Amphibians? A Case Study on Xenopus laevis Larvae Assay with Biologically Active Substances Present in Livestock Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Martini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biologically active substances could reach the aquatic compartment when livestock wastes are considered for recycling. Recently, the standardized FETAX assay has been questioned, and some researchers have considered that the risk assessment performed on fish could not be protective enough to cover amphibians. In the present study a Xenopus laevis acute assay was developed in order to compare the sensitivity of larvae relative to fish or FETAX assays; veterinary medicines (ivermectin, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim and essential metals (zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium that may be found in livestock wastes were used for the larvae exposure. Lethal (LC50 and sublethal effects were estimated. Available data in both, fish and FETAX studies, were in general more protective than values found out in the current study, but not in all cases. Moreover, the presence of nonlethal effects, caused by ivermectin, zinc, and copper, suggested that several physiological mechanisms could be affected. Thus, this kind of effects should be deeply investigated. The results obtained in the present study could expand the information about micropollutants from livestock wastes on amphibians.

  8. Quality Assurance Objectives for Nondestructive Assay with the Residues Segmented Gamma Scan Assay System at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WESTSIK, G.A.

    2001-01-01

    The PFP facility utilizes a Segmented Gamma Scanner Assay System (SGSAS) to perform assays on cans of ash for WIPP characterization measurements. This report documents the conformance of SGSAS to the precision and accuracy radioassay QAOs, and reports the minimum detectable concentration (MDC). The QAO measurement runs supplied in this document were for a billet can geometry. The billet cans containing stabilized residues will be loaded into pipe overpack containers (POC) for shipment to WIPP. The measurements were performed in March, 2001 following a system reconfiguration which occurred on October 27, 2000. The actual system recalibration was performed in March 2001. The new calibration will be used for all assay data collected after October 27, 2000. No parameter changes have been made and the system has been in measurement control during this period of time. The WIPP-WAC defines four nominal test levels for NDA, which are in alpha curies and grams of weapons grade (WG) Pu. Due to intended utilization of the SGSAS system for the materials mentioned above, it is presently only being qualified for the two highest QAO ranges. The sources used for the QAO measurement are the WPP NDA Performance Demonstration Project working reference materials. This report documents the analysis of test data for the SGSAS system at the nominal 10 gram and 160 gram levels. The MDC was determined using a billet can filled with diatomaceous earth but no plutonium present. Since the system is not being qualified for TRU vs low-level waste (LLW) sorting the MDC will primarily provide verification that the detection level for the system is well below the QAO ranges for which the system is being qualified. The MDC reflects the best sensitivity for a particular assay system and specific assay conditions (i.e. count time, sample configuration) when no added radioactivity is present. As such, no radioactive sources were required for the MDC determination. As with the accuracy and precision

  9. Americal National Standard critical accident alarm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.R.

    1975-01-01

    An American National Standard has been developed to provide guidance for the design, maintenance, and use of criticality accident alarm systems. Discussion includes several details of this Standard, N16.2-1969, and of a revised version which is now nearing certification

  10. Standard Procurement System Use and User Satisfaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    The audit was performed in response to concerns expressed by the Chairman, House of Representatives Committee on Budget that DoD was not effectively spending Federal funds to acquire the Standard Procurement System (SPS...

  11. The synchronous active neutron detection system for spent fuel assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickrell, M.M.; Kendall, P.K.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have begun to develop a novel technique for active neutron assay of fissile material in spent nuclear fuel. This approach will exploit the unique operating features of a 14-MeV neutron generator developed by Schlumberger. This generator and a novel detection system will be applied to the direct measurement of the fissile material content in spent fuel in place of the indirect measures used at present. The technique they are investigating is termed synchronous active neutron detection (SAND). It closely follows a method that has been used routinely in other branches of physics to detect very small signals in the presence of large backgrounds. Synchronous detection instruments are widely available commercially and are termed open-quotes lock-inclose quotes amplifiers. The authors have implemented a digital lock-in amplifier in conjunction with the Schlumberger neutron generator to explore the possibility of synchronous detection with active neutrons. This approach is possible because the Schlumberger system can operate at up to a 50% duty factor, in effect, a square wave of neutron yield. The results to date are preliminary but quite promising. The system is capable of resolving the fissile material contained in a small fraction of the fuel rods in a cold fuel assembly. It also appears to be quite resilient to background neutron interference. The interrogating neutrons appear to be nonthermal and penetrating. Although a significant amount of work remains to fully explore the relevant physics and optimize the instrument design, the underlying concept appears sound

  12. Evaluation of the dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in comparison with standard ELISA for the immunodiagnosis of human toxocariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roldán William

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA was standardized using excretory-secretory antigens of Toxocara canis for the rapid immunodiagnosis of human toxocariasis. Thirty patients with clinical signs of toxocariasis, 20 cases with other parasitic diseases, and 40 healthy subjects were tested. A total of 0.2 ng of antigen per dot, serum dilution of 1:160 and dilution conjugate of 1:1000 were found optimal. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 100 and 95%, respectively. Comparable sensitivity of dot-ELISA and the standard ELISA was obtained, but only 3 cross-reactions occurred in the dot-ELISA, compared with 6 in the standard ELISA. Dot-ELISA is simple to perform, rapid, and low cost. Large-scale screening studies should be done to evaluate its usefulness under field conditions.

  13. An expert system framework for nondestructive waste assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.K.

    1996-01-01

    Management and disposition of transuranic (RU) waste forms necessitates determining entrained RU and associated radioactive material quantities as per National RU Waste Characterization Program requirements. Technical justification and demonstration of a given NDA method used to determine RU mass and uncertainty in accordance with program quality assurance is difficult for many waste forms. Difficulties are typically founded in waste NDA methods that employ standards compensation and/or employment of simplifying assumptions on waste form configurations. Capability to determine and justify RU mass and mass uncertainty can be enhanced through integration of waste container data/information using expert system and empirical data-driven techniques with conventional data acquisition and analysis. Presented is a preliminary expert system framework that integrates the waste form data base, alogrithmic techniques, statistical analyses, expert domain knowledge bases, and empirical artificial intelligence modules into a cohesive system. The framework design and bases in addition to module development activities are discussed

  14. Antibiotic microbial assay using kinetic-reading microplate system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Rebello Lourenço

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the optimal experimental conditions to develop a methodology for microbiological assay of apramycin employing microplate and kinetic reading mode, and to validate the developed method, through evaluation of parameters of selectivity, linearity, linear range, limits of detection and quantification, accuracy and precision. The turbidimetric assay principle is simple: the test solution is added to a suspension of test microorganism in culture media, the mixture is incubated under appropriate conditions and the microbial growth is measured by photometric reading. Microplate with kinetic reading mode employed in antibiotic assay is of considerable interest since it allows reduction of material and analysis time and enables a large number of samples to be analyzed simultaneously, with automated reading and calculating. Established conditions considered the standard-curve of apramycin at concentrations from 5.0 to 35.0 μg mL-1, and tryptic soy broth inoculated with 5% Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739 suspension. Satisfactory results were obtained with 2 hours of incubation. The developed method showed appropriate selectivity, linearity in the range from 5.0 to 35.0 μg mL-1, limits of detection and quantification of 0.1 and 0.4 μg mL-1, respectively, as well as satisfactory accuracy (recuperation = 98.5% and precision (RSD = 6.0%. Microplate assay combined the characteristics of microbiological (evaluation of antibiotic activity against sensitive test microorganism and physico-chemical (operationally straightforward and faster results assays.O objetivo deste trabalho é determinar as condições experimentais ideais para o desenvolvimento de metodologia para a dosagem microbiológica de apramicina empregando microplacas e modo de leitura cinético e validar o método desenvolvido, através da avaliação dos parâmetros de especificidade e seletividade, linearidade, faixa ou intervalo linear, limite de detecção e

  15. Traceability system for radioactivity standards in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Yoshio

    2000-01-01

    The electrotechnical laboratory (ETL) is the one of the largest national research institute, affiliated with the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI). The ETL has a role to maintain the national standards of electricity, acoustics, visible light, ionizing radiation and radioactivity. The primary radioactivity standards have been established in ETL mainly with the 4πβ-γ coincidence method. The liquid scintillation counters and multi-wire proportional counters are also used for pure-beta and surface emission rate standards, respectively. As for the traceability, the primary standard sources are transferred to the Japan Radio Isotope Association (JRIA), and the JRIA measure these sources to calibrate their secondary standard equipments such as high pressurized 4π ionization chambers, high pore Ge and Nal (Tl) gamma spectrometers. The primary sources are also sent to the BIPM and neighboring countries for the intercomparisons to keep the consistency of the national standards. In this paper, these measurement techniques for the primary standardization and transfer system will be introduced, and some results of comparisons for certificate the traceability system will be described. (author)

  16. Traceability system for radioactivity standards in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hino, Yoshio [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-10-01

    The electrotechnical laboratory (ETL) is the one of the largest national research institute, affiliated with the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI). The ETL has a role to maintain the national standards of electricity, acoustics, visible light, ionizing radiation and radioactivity. The primary radioactivity standards have been established in ETL mainly with the 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence method. The liquid scintillation counters and multi-wire proportional counters are also used for pure-beta and surface emission rate standards, respectively. As for the traceability, the primary standard sources are transferred to the Japan Radio Isotope Association (JRIA), and the JRIA measure these sources to calibrate their secondary standard equipments such as high pressurized 4{pi} ionization chambers, high pore Ge and Nal (Tl) gamma spectrometers. The primary sources are also sent to the BIPM and neighboring countries for the intercomparisons to keep the consistency of the national standards. In this paper, these measurement techniques for the primary standardization and transfer system will be introduced, and some results of comparisons for certificate the traceability system will be described. (author)

  17. Controlled droplet microfluidic systems for multistep chemical and biological assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, T S; Garstecki, P

    2017-10-16

    Droplet microfluidics is a relatively new and rapidly evolving field of science focused on studying the hydrodynamics and properties of biphasic flows at the microscale, and on the development of systems for practical applications in chemistry, biology and materials science. Microdroplets present several unique characteristics of interest to a broader research community. The main distinguishing features include (i) large numbers of isolated compartments of tiny volumes that are ideal for single cell or single molecule assays, (ii) rapid mixing and negligible thermal inertia that all provide excellent control over reaction conditions, and (iii) the presence of two immiscible liquids and the interface between them that enables new or exotic processes (the synthesis of new functional materials and structures that are otherwise difficult to obtain, studies of the functions and properties of lipid and polymer membranes and execution of reactions at liquid-liquid interfaces). The most frequent application of droplet microfluidics relies on the generation of large numbers of compartments either for ultrahigh throughput screens or for the synthesis of functional materials composed of millions of droplets or particles. Droplet microfluidics has already evolved into a complex field. In this review we focus on 'controlled droplet microfluidics' - a portfolio of techniques that provide convenient platforms for multistep complex reaction protocols and that take advantage of automated and passive methods of fluid handling on a chip. 'Controlled droplet microfluidics' can be regarded as a group of methods capable of addressing and manipulating droplets in series. The functionality and complexity of controlled droplet microfluidic systems can be positioned between digital microfluidics (DMF) addressing each droplet individually using 2D arrays of electrodes and ultrahigh throughput droplet microfluidics focused on the generation of hundreds of thousands or even millions of

  18. Standardization of penetrating radiation testing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiley, P.A.; Aronson, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    Standardization is provided to control system gain of a penetrating radiation testing system by periodically inspecting a reference object in the same manner as the product samples so as to generate a stabilization signal which is compared to a reference signal. The difference, if any, between the stabilization signal and the reference signal is integrated and the integrated signal is used to correct the gain of the system

  19. Toward an International Standard for PCR-Based Detection of Food-Borne Thermotolerant Campylobacters: Assay Development and Analytical Validation

    OpenAIRE

    Lübeck, P. S.; Wolffs, P.; On, S. L. W.; Ahrens, P.; Rådström, P.; Hoorfar, J.

    2003-01-01

    As part of a European research project (FOOD-PCR), we developed a standardized and robust PCR detection assay specific for the three most frequently reported food-borne pathogenic Campylobacter species, C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari. Fifteen published and unpublished PCR primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene were tested in all possible pairwise combinations, as well as two published primers targeting the 23S rRNA gene. A panel of 150 strains including target an...

  20. Safety standards of IAEA for management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincze, P.

    2005-01-01

    IAEA has developed a new series of safety standards which are assigned for constitution of the conditions and which give the instruction for setting up the management systems that integrate the aims of safety, health, life environment and quality. The new standard shall replace IAEA 50-C-Q - Requirements for security of the quality for safety in nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities as well as 14 related safety instructions mentioned in the Safety series No. 50-C/SG-Q (1996). When developing of this complex, integrated set of requirements for management systems, the IAEA requirements 50-C-Q (1996) were taken into consideration as well as the publications developed within the International organisation for standardization (ISO) ISO 9001:2000 and ISO14001: 1996. The experience of European Union member states during the development, implementation and improvement of the management systems were also taken into consideration

  1. PROWAY - a standard for distributed control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellie, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The availability of cheap and powerful microcomputer and data communications equipment has led to a major revision of instrumentation and control systems. Intelligent devices can now be used and distributed about the control system in a systematic and economic manner. These sub-units are linked by a communications system to provide a total system capable of meeting the required plant objectives. PROWAY, an international standard process data highway for interconnecting processing units in distributed industrial process control systems, is currently being developed. This paper describes the salient features and current status of the PROWAY effort. (auth)

  2. LANL`s mobile nondestructive assay and examination systems for radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taggart, D.P. Betts, S.E.; Vigil, J.J.

    1996-04-09

    The ability to accurately and rapidly measure nuclear material within drums and examine their contents without having to unpack the drums saves time, reduces characterization costs and minimizes radiation exposure. Over the past two years, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has developed and fielded a suite of mobile nondestructive assay and examination systems for use primarily on its own transuranic (TRU) waste but that also have application to low level, mixed and hazardous wastes. It has become obvious that systems like these are generally useful and have applications at other Department of Energy (DOE) production and environmental technology sites. Mobile capabilities present a potential cost savings where waste drums have to be transported to a fixed NDA facility. In other cases they fill a void where there is no fixed facility available because construction costs are prohibitive (as in the case of small quantity sites) or the available facilities may not meet current or evolving safety standards. Rather than bringing waste to a facility to be characterized, one can bring the characterization capability to the waste. The three systems described are: (1) mobile radiography system; (2) mobile segmented/tomographic gamma scanner; and (3) mobile passive/active neutron assay system.

  3. Business School's Performance Management System Standards Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azis, Anton Mulyono; Simatupang, Togar M.; Wibisono, Dermawan; Basri, Mursyid Hasan

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to compare various Performance Management Systems (PMS) for business school in order to find the strengths of each standard as inputs to design new model of PMS. There are many critical aspects and gaps notified for new model to improve performance and even recognized that self evaluation performance management is not well…

  4. Development of a standardized and safe airborne antibacterial assay, and its evaluation on antibacterial biomimetic model surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al-Ahmad

    Full Text Available Bacterial infection of biomaterials is a major concern in medicine, and different kinds of antimicrobial biomaterial have been developed to deal with this problem. To test the antimicrobial performance of these biomaterials, the airborne bacterial assay is used, which involves the formation of biohazardous bacterial aerosols. We here describe a new experimental set-up which allows safe handling of such pathogenic aerosols, and standardizes critical parameters of this otherwise intractable and strongly user-dependent assay. With this new method, reproducible, thorough antimicrobial data (number of colony forming units and live-dead-stain was obtained. Poly(oxonorbornene-based Synthetic Mimics of Antimicrobial Peptides (SMAMPs were used as antimicrobial test samples. The assay was able to differentiate even between subtle sample differences, such as different sample thicknesses. With this new set-up, the airborne bacterial assay was thus established as a useful, reliable, and realistic experimental method to simulate the contamination of biomaterials with bacteria, for example in an intraoperative setting.

  5. Analysis and suggestions on standard system for general nuclear instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Zhenglong

    1999-08-01

    The standard system has been analyzed and researched for the general nuclear instruments and propounded following suggestions against the problems in standard's system: seriously adopting the international standards and recommending Chinese standards toward the world; appropriately regularizing the system's frame and the standard's configurations to make it more scientific, perfect and applicable; enhancing the construction of technical and basic standards, promoting the standardization of entire nuclear instruments; replenishing the standards of the testing methods and straightening out the standard's level, further completing the standard's system. In short, all of them are to enhance quality, readability and maneuverability of standards, to exert sufficiently the effects of standards

  6. Bias in segmented gamma scans arising from size differences between calibration standards and assay samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampson, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    Recent advances in segmented gamma scanning have emphasized software corrections for gamma-ray self-adsorption in particulates or lumps of special nuclear material in the sample. another feature of this software is an attenuation correction factor formalism that explicitly accounts for differences in sample container size and composition between the calibration standards and the individual items being measured. Software without this container-size correction produces biases when the unknowns are not packaged in the same containers as the calibration standards. This new software allows the use of different size and composition containers for standards and unknowns, as enormous savings considering the expense of multiple calibration standard sets otherwise needed. This paper presents calculations of the bias resulting from not using this new formalism. These calculations may be used to estimate bias corrections for segmented gamma scanners that do not incorporate these advanced concepts

  7. Standard guide for the selection, training and qualification of nondestructive assay (NDA) personnel

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 This guide contains good practices for the selection, training, qualification, and professional development of personnel performing analysis, calibration, physical measurements, or data review using nondestructive assay equipment, methods, results, or techniques. The guide also covers NDA personnel involved with NDA equipment setup, selection, diagnosis, troubleshooting, or repair. Selection, training, and qualification programs based on this guide are intended to provide assurance that NDA personnel are qualified to perform their jobs competently. This guide presents a series of options but does not recommend a specific course of action.

  8. Multipurpose laboratory test system applying CAMAC standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, J.L.

    1976-11-01

    A flexible electronic product test and evaluation system is proposed. A system study was performed to determine how increasingly complex telemetry systems could be effectively evaluated during development and preproduction and after first production units were built. A primary requirement was that this system remain flexible with respect to configuration and mission and that it be easily maintainable. In addition, the system must be upgraded easily as old product requirements and definitions are replaced by new designs. As a result of this study it is concluded that this project would involve the expenditure of considerable funds and manpower at the beginning of the project and that the cost effectiveness of the system would be dependent upon its utilization and management. This study also demonstrates how the use of computer interface hardware standards (IEEE 583) can minimize requirements for expensive specially designed test equipment for each application.

  9. Nest expansion assay: a cancer systems biology approach to in vitro invasion measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrada Lourdes

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional in vitro cell invasion assays focus on measuring one cell parameter at a time and are often less than ideal in terms of reproducibility and quantification. Further, many techniques are not suitable for quantifying the advancing margin of collectively migrating cells, arguably the most important area of activity during tumor invasion. We have developed and applied a highly quantitative, standardized, reproducible Nest Expansion Assay (NEA to measure cancer cell invasion in vitro, which builds upon established wound-healing techniques. This assay involves creating uniform circular "nests" of cells within a monolayer of cells using a stabilized, silicone-tipped drill press, and quantifying the margin expansion into an overlaid extracellular matrix (ECM-like component using computer-assisted applications. Findings The NEA was applied to two human-derived breast cell lines, MCF10A and MCF10A-CA1d, which exhibit opposite degrees of tumorigenicity and invasion in vivo. Assays were performed to incorporate various microenvironmental conditions, in order to test their influence on cell behavior and measures. Two types of computer-driven image analysis were performed using Java's freely available ImageJ software and its FracLac plugin to capture nest expansion and fractal dimension, respectively – which are both taken as indicators of invasiveness. Both analyses confirmed that the NEA is highly reproducible, and that the ECM component is key in defining invasive cell behavior. Interestingly, both analyses also detected significant differences between non-invasive and invasive cell lines, across various microenvironments, and over time. Conclusion The spatial nature of the NEA makes its outcome susceptible to the global influence of many cellular parameters at once (e.g., motility, protease secretion, cell-cell adhesion. We propose the NEA as a mid-throughput technique for screening and simultaneous examination of factors

  10. Reevaluation of the Harboe assay as a standardized method of assessment for the hemolytic performance of ventricular assist devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chris H H; Hilton, Andrew; Foster, Graham; Hawkins, Karl

    2012-08-01

    The Harboe spectrophotometric assay is regarded as one of the safest and most reproducible methods for measuring plasma free hemoglobin (pfHb). However, there is still some ambiguity in the application of the assay when assessing the hemolytic performance of ventricular assist devices (VADs). The purpose of this study was to reexamine and compare values of pfHb obtained using different concentrations of plasma diluent (Na(2) CO(3) ) as cited by various studies such that a standard practice may be recommended for the application of the Harboe assay in the hemolytic evaluation of VADs, allowing reliable comparisons to be made between laboratories. As a means to examine the Harboe assay, a BioMedicus BPX-80 was tested using both whole blood and a washed suspension of red blood cells (RBCs). Results show that for whole blood, the pfHb may be underestimated by 13-23%, dependent upon the concentration of Na(2) CO(3) diluent solution. This trend was not observed for the washed suspension of RBCs. Furthermore, it is shown that the concentration of diluent influences the stability of a sample. The results of this study show that the problems associated with the incongruity of pfHb readings are a direct result of the precipitation of proteins from the plasma under alkaline conditions; as the molarity of the diluent controls pH, it becomes essential to use the appropriate concentration of Na(2) CO(3) diluent in order to avoid turbidity of the solution and the consequent misrepresentation of pfHb values. Such standardization is pertinent when measuring the very low levels of pfHb observed during the in vivo testing of modern ventricular assist devices. © 2012, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2012, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. NASA's SDR Standard: Space Telecommunications Radio System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Johnson, Sandra K.

    2007-01-01

    A software defined radio (SDR) architecture used in space-based platforms proposes to standardize certain aspects of radio development such as interface definitions, functional control and execution, and application software and firmware development. NASA has charted a team to develop an open software defined radio hardware and software architecture to support NASA missions and determine the viability of an Agency-wide Standard. A draft concept of the proposed standard has been released and discussed among organizations in the SDR community. Appropriate leveraging of the JTRS SCA, OMG s SWRadio Architecture and other aspects are considered. A standard radio architecture offers potential value by employing common waveform software instantiation, operation, testing and software maintenance. While software defined radios offer greater flexibility, they also poses challenges to the radio development for the space environment in terms of size, mass and power consumption and available technology. An SDR architecture for space must recognize and address the constraints of space flight hardware, and systems along with flight heritage and culture. NASA is actively participating in the development of technology and standards related to software defined radios. As NASA considers a standard radio architecture for space communications, input and coordination from government agencies, the industry, academia, and standards bodies is key to a successful architecture. The unique aspects of space require thorough investigation of relevant terrestrial technologies properly adapted to space. The talk will describe NASA s current effort to investigate SDR applications to space missions and a brief overview of a candidate architecture under consideration for space based platforms.

  12. Determining airborne concentrations of spatial repellent chemicals in mosquito behavior assay systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Martin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mosquito behavior assays have been used to evaluate the efficacy of vector control interventions to include spatial repellents (SR. Current analytical methods are not optimized to determine short duration concentrations of SR active ingredients (AI in air spaces during entomological evaluations. The aim of this study was to expand on our previous research to further validate a novel air sampling method to detect and quantitate airborne concentrations of a SR under laboratory and field conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A thermal desorption (TD gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS method was used to determine the amount of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT in samples of air. During laboratory experiments, 1 L volumes of air were collected over 10 min intervals from a three-chamber mosquito behavior assay system. Significantly higher levels of airborne DDT were measured in the chamber containing textiles treated with DDT compared to chambers free of AI. In the field, 57 samples of air were collected from experimental huts with and without DDT for onsite analysis. Airborne DDT was detected in samples collected from treated huts. The mean DDT air concentrations in these two huts over a period of four days with variable ambient temperature were 0.74 µg/m(3 (n = 17; SD = 0.45 and 1.42 µg/m(3 (n = 30; SD = 0.96. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results from laboratory experiments confirmed that significantly different DDT exposure conditions existed in the three-chamber system establishing a chemical gradient to evaluate mosquito deterrency. The TD GC-MS method addresses a need to measure short-term (<1 h SR concentrations in small volume (<100 L samples of air and should be considered for standard evaluation of airborne AI levels in mosquito behavior assay systems. Future studies include the use of TD GC-MS to measure other semi-volatile vector control compounds.

  13. In vitro systems: standardization of endpoints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewey, W.C.

    1979-01-01

    Principles are discussed for utilizing cell culture systems to assay for interactions between drugs and radiation. Emphasis is based on the necessity of using synchronous cultures to determine whether the interaction is independent, additive, or synergistic, and to determine the effect of drugs on recovery from sublethal x-ray damage (SLD). Furthermore, in studies of drug effects on SLD, adequate controls must be included to distinguish between effects associated with the interaction of 2 x-ray doses and the effects associated with interaction of a second x-ray dose with prior drug exposure. Finally, different methods of expressing drug exposure are reviewed, and associated problems related to predicting in vivo effects from in vitro results are mentioned

  14. A new internal standard for HPLC assay of conjugated linoleic acid in animal tissues and milk

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Czauderna, M.; Kowalczyk, J.; Marounek, Milan; Michalski, J. P.; Rozbicka-Wieczorek, A. J.; Krajewska, K. A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2011), s. 23-29 ISSN 1212-1819 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : sorbic acid * internal standard * CLA isomers Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 1.079, year: 2011

  15. Standard test method for plutonium assay by plutonium (III) diode array spectrophotometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the determination of total plutonium as plutonium(III) in nitrate and chloride solutions. The technique is applicable to solutions of plutonium dioxide powders and pellets (Test Methods C 697), nuclear grade mixed oxides (Test Methods C 698), plutonium metal (Test Methods C 758), and plutonium nitrate solutions (Test Methods C 759). Solid samples are dissolved using the appropriate dissolution techniques described in Practice C 1168. The use of this technique for other plutonium-bearing materials has been reported (1-5), but final determination of applicability must be made by the user. The applicable concentration range for plutonium sample solutions is 10–200 g Pu/L. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropria...

  16. Bias in segmented gamma scans arising from size differences between calibration standards and assay samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampson, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    Recent advances in segmented gamma scanning have emphasized software corrections for gamma-ray self-absorption in particulates or lumps of special nuclear material in the sample. Another feature of this software is an attenuation correction factor formalism that explicitly accounts for differences in sample container size and composition between the calibration standards and the individual items being measured. Software without this container-size correction produces biases when the unknowns are not packaged in the same containers as the calibration standards. This new software allows the use of different size and composition containers for standards and unknowns, an enormous savings considering the expense of multiple calibration standard sets otherwise needed. This report presents calculations of the bias resulting from not using this new formalism. The calculations may be used to estimate bias corrections for segmented gamma scanners that do not incorporate these advanced concepts. This paper describes this attenuation-correction-factor formalism in more detail and illustrates the magnitude of the biases that may arise if it is not used. 5 refs., 7 figs

  17. Towards an international standard for PCR-based detection of food-borne thermotolerant Campylobacters: assay development and analytical validation.

    OpenAIRE

    Lübeck, P S; Wolffs, Petra; On, S L; Ahrens, P; Rådström, Peter; Hoorfar, J

    2003-01-01

    As part of a European research project (FOOD-PCR), we developed a standardized and robust PCR detection assay specific for the three most frequently reported food-borne pathogenic Campylobacter species, C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari. Fifteen published and unpublished PCR primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene were tested in all possible pairwise combinations, as well as two published primers targeting the 23S rRNA gene. A panel of 150 strains including target and nontarget strains was used in ...

  18. Global Positioning System wide area augmentation system (WAAS) performance standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-31

    The U.S. Global Positioning System (GPS) Standard Positioning Service (SPS) consists of spacebased : positioning, navigation, and timing (PNT) signals generated from space vehicles orbiting the : earth and delivered free of direct user fees for civil...

  19. The Physcomitrella patens System for Transient Gene Expression Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thévenin, Johanne; Xu, Wenjia; Vaisman, Louise; Lepiniec, Loïc; Dubreucq, Bertrand; Dubos, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Transient expression assays are valuable techniques to study in vivo the transcriptional regulation of gene expression. These methods allow to assess the transcriptional properties of a given transcription factor (TF) or a complex of regulatory proteins against specific DNA motifs, called cis-regulatory elements. Here, we describe a fast, efficient, and reliable method based on the use of Physcomitrella patens protoplasts that allows the study of gene expression in a qualitative and quantitative manner by combining the advantage of GFP (green fluorescent protein) as a marker of promoter activity with flow cytometry for accurate measurement of fluorescence in individual cells.

  20. Mutagenicity of irradiated food in the host mediated assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston-Arthur, T.; Turanitz, K.; Hruby, R.; Stehlik, G.; Brena-Valle, M.

    1975-01-01

    Groups of Swiss albino mice (SPF) fed with normal and gamma-irradiated food at doses of 0.75, 1.5 and 3.0 Mrad, were injected intraperitoneally with SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM TA 1530 for the host mediated assay test of mutagenesis. The mutation frequency was calculated in terms of the number of mutant colonies per unit number of surviving cells. The results indicate that there is a significant increase in mutation frequency induced by the 3 Mrad sterilized food. No difference was observed in the 0.75 Mrad dose when compared with the control

  1. Smelling Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections using a whole-cell biosensor - An alternative for the gold-standard culturing assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kviatkovski, Igor; Shushan, Sagit; Oron, Yahav; Frumin, Idan; Amir, Daniel; Secundo, Lavi; Livne, Eitan; Weissbrod, Aharon; Sobel, Noam; Helman, Yael

    2018-02-10

    Improved easy-to-use diagnostic tools for infections are in strong demand worldwide. Yet, despite dramatic advances in diagnostic technologies, the gold-standard remains culturing. Here we offer an alternative tool demonstrating that a bacterial biosensor can efficiently detect Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in patients suffering from otitis externa. Detection was based on specific binding between the biosensor and 2-aminoacetophenone (2-AA), a volatile produced by P. aeruginosa in high amounts. We collected pus samples from ears of 26 subjects exhibiting symptoms of otitis externa. Detection of P. aeruginosa using the biosensor was compared to detection using gold-standard culturing assay and to gas-chromatograph-mass-spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses of 2-AA. The biosensor strain test matched the culture assay in 24 samples (92%) and the GC-MS analyses in 25 samples (96%). With this result in hand, we designed a device containing a whole-cell luminescent biosensor combined with a photo-multiplier tube. This device allowed detection of 2-AA at levels as low as 2 nmol, on par with detection level of GC-MS. The results of the described study demonstrate that the volatile 2-AA serves as an effective biomarker for P. aeruginosa in ear infections, and that activation of the biosensor strain by 2-AA provides a unique opportunity to design an easy-to-use device that can specifically detect P. aeruginosa infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Novel Lack-of-Fit Assessment as a System Suitability Test for Potency Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruojia; Cai, Weiguo; Zocher, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Bioassay data analysis is used to determine the potency of protein therapeutics. To properly determine potency, the experimental data need to be fitted to a model that adequately describes the observed dose-response relationship. Typical models include 4-parameter logistic curve fits, 5-parameter logistic curve fits or parallel line analysis. Lack-of-fit assessment can be used as a measure of potency assay system suitability to ensure appropriate closeness of the chosen model fit to the experimental data. We present a novel lack-of-fit approach that overcomes the shortcomings of previously described lack-of-fit tests, such as the conventional analysis of variance (ANOVA) F-test and the lack-of-fit sum of squares test. Simulation studies and examples are used to assess the performance of the new lack-of-fit test. The results show that the described lack-of-fit approach can effectively reject poorly fitted data while retaining well-fitted data, and has advantages in potency assay applications where instrument-to-instrument variability in absolute readout is expected. LAY ABSTRACT: Potency assays are analytical procedures used for characterization as well as release and stability analysis in drug development and for approved products. Dose-response data generated from a drug sample and a well-characterized reference standard are evaluated to determine the potency of the drug sample relative to the reference standard. In order to obtain a potency determination, dose-response data need to be fitted to a proper model that adequately describes the observed dose-response relationship. There are different options described to assess the goodness-of-fit of the data. One approach is the goodness-of-fit assessment based on F-test. This approach compares the lack-of-fit error (representing the discrepancy between observed data and fitted curve) to the pure error (representing the random noise between replicate measurement) to determine if the observed lack-of-fit error can be

  3. Assessing Immunity to Rubella Virus: a Plea for Standardization of IgG (Immuno)assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouthry, Elise; Huzly, Daniela; Ogee-Nwankwo, Adaeze; Hao, LiJuan; Adebayo, Adebola; Icenogle, Joseph; Sarasini, Antonella; Revello, Maria Grazia; Grangeot-Keros, Liliane

    2016-01-01

    Immunity to rubella virus (RV) is commonly determined by measuring specific immunoglobulin G (RV IgG). However, RV IgG results and their interpretation may vary, depending on the immunoassay, even though most commercial immunoassays (CIAs) have been calibrated against an international standard and results are reported in international units per milliliter. A panel of 322 sera collected from pregnant women that tested negative or equivocal for RV IgG in a prior test (routine screening) was selected. This panel was tested with two reference tests, immunoblotting (IB) and neutralization (Nt), and with 8 CIAs widely used in Europe. IB and Nt gave concordant results on 267/322 (82.9%) sera. Of these, 85 (26.4%) sera were negative and 182 (56.5%) sera were positive for both tests. All 85 IB/Nt-negative samples were classified as negative with all CIAs. Of the 182 IB/Nt-positive samples, 25.3 to 61.5% were classified as equivocal and 6 to 64.8% were classified as positive with the CIAs. Wide variations in titers in international units per milliliter were observed. In our series, more than half of the women considered susceptible to RV based on CIA results tested positive for RV antibodies by IB/Nt. Our data suggest that (i) sensitivity of CIAs could be increased by considering equivocal results as positive and (ii) the definition of immunity to RV as the 10-IU/ml usual cutoff as well as the use of quantitative results for clinical decisions may warrant reconsideration. A better standardization of CIAs for RV IgG determination is needed. PMID:27147722

  4. Standardization and performance evaluation of mononuclear cell cytokine secretion assays in a multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grindle Kristine

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryopreservation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells has been used to preserve and standardize immunologic measurements for multicenter studies, however, effects of cryopreservation on cytokine responses are incompletely understood. In designing immunologic studies for a new multicenter birth cohort study of childhood asthma, we performed a series of experiments to determine the effects of two different methods of cryopreservation on the cytokine responses of cord and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Results Paired samples of PBMC were processed freshly, or after cryopreservation in a Nalgene container (NC or a controlled-rate freezer (CRF. Although there were some differences between the methods, cryopreservation inhibited PHA-induced IL-10 secretion and Der f 1-induced IL-2 secretion, and augmented PHA-induced IL-2 secretion and spontaneous secretion of TNF-α. In separate experiments, NC cryopreservation inhibited secretion of several cytokines (IL-13, IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α by PHA-stimulated cord blood mononuclear cells. With the exception of PHA-induced IL-13, results from fresh and cryopreserved cord blood samples were not significantly correlated. Finally, in reproducibility studies involving processing of identical cell samples in up to 4 separate laboratories, variances in cytokine responses of fresh cells stimulated at separate sites did not exceed those in cryopreserved cells stimulated at a central site. Conclusion Collectively, these studies indicate that cryopreservation can affect mononuclear cell cytokine response profiles, and that IL-10 secretion and antigen-induced responses may be especially vulnerable. These studies also demonstrate that mononuclear cell responses can be standardized for performance in a small number of laboratories for multicenter studies, and underscore the importance of measuring reproducibility and of testing whether cryopreservation techniques alter specific immunologic outcomes.

  5. The Adoption of Management Systems Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Mohd Azman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Considers the extent to which Standards Based Management Systems and best practices are being successfully implemented in Malaysian organizations. A survey on Malaysian organizations was conducted in June 2011 and has produced 143 positive responses. Highlights the findings of the survey such as the status of ISO 9000, TQM, 5-S, QCCs and quality tools & techniques, the benefits and difficulties, best practices most frequently used and the future trend of Malaysian quality improvement activities. Also highlights a model for the implementation of TQM for Malaysian organizations.

  6. Surveillance evaluation of the standardization of assay values for serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, Hiroshi; Kiuchi, Sachiko; Ishige, Takayuki; Nishimura, Motoi; Matsushita, Kazuyuki; Satoh, Mamoru; Nomura, Fumio; Yamashita, Mine; Kitajima, Isao; Tsugawa, Naoko; Okano, Toshio; Hirota, Kouichi; Miura, Masakazu; Totani, Masayuki; Hashizume, Naotaka

    2018-01-01

    Background To assess the vitamin D nutritional status, serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration is measured. We used six automated 25(OH)D immunoassays (AIAs) available in Japan and certified by the Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) at the U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention to assess the concordance of the assay results. Methods Serum total 25(OH)D concentrations in SRM 972a and 20 serum samples from patients were determined using three liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and six AIAs (pilot study), and an additional 110 serum samples were assessed by the six AIAs (surveillance study). The assay bias from the results of LC-MS/MS by Chiba University or consensus values (i.e. average of six AIAs) was estimated using the procedure described in CLSI document EP09-A3. Results LC-MS/MS at Chiba University could completely separate 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3 and 3-epi-25(OH)D3, and the observed values including total 25(OH)D in SRM 972a were all within ±1·SD of the assigned values. All AIAs produced results greater than ±3·SD. In the pilot study, four of the six AIAs had an average percentage bias, as estimated by confidence interval (CI), larger than ±5% (acceptance criterion in CLSI); the bias converged from -6.5% to 3.2% after adjustment by LC-MS/MS. In the surveillance study, 25(OH)D concentrations in AIAs all adjusted to LC-MS/MS converged within ±5% from consensus values. However, some AIAs showed negative or positive bias from the consensus values. Conclusions Current AIAs in Japan continue to lack standardization. Manufacturers should implement quality assurance strategies so that their values more closely align to those of standard reference material 972a.

  7. Absolute standards as a useful addition to the avian quantitative PCR telomere assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrett, Emma L. B.; Boner, Winifred; Mulder, Ellis; Monaghan, Pat; Verhulst, Simon; Richardson, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Bird populations provide excellent systems to investigate variation in longevity in the wild since individuals can often be monitored over their lifetime. A number of recent studies suggest that the dynamics of protective telomere chromosome caps (telomere length and rate of loss) are indicative of

  8. Standardization of a Continuous Assay for Glycosidases and Its Use for Screening Insect Gut Samples at Individual and Populational Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson S. Profeta

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Glycoside Hydrolases (GHs are enzymes able to recognize and cleave glycosidic bonds. Insect GHs play decisive roles in digestion, in plant-herbivore, and host-pathogen interactions. GH activity is normally measured by the detection of a release from the substrate of products as sugars units, colored, or fluorescent groups. In most cases, the conditions for product release and detection differ, resulting in discontinuous assays. The current protocols result in using large amounts of reaction mixtures for the obtainment of time points in each experimental replica. These procedures restrain the analysis of biological materials with limited amounts of protein and, in the case of studies regarding small insects, implies in the pooling of samples from several individuals. In this respect, most studies do not assess the variability of GH activities across the population of individuals from the same species. The aim of this work is to approach this technical problem and have a deeper understanding of the variation of GH activities in insect populations, using as models the disease vectors Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Triatominae and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Phlebotominae. Here we standardized continuous assays using 4-methylumbelliferyl derived substrates for the detection of α-Glucosidase, β-Glucosidase, α-Mannosidase, N-acetyl-hexosaminidase, β-Galactosidase, and α-Fucosidase in the midgut of R. prolixus and L. longipalpis with results similar to the traditional discontinuous protocol. The continuous assays allowed us to measure GH activities using minimal sample amounts with a higher number of measurements, resulting in data that are more reliable and less time and reagent consumption. The continuous assay also allows the high-throughput screening of GH activities in small insect samples, which would be not applicable to the previous discontinuous protocol. We applied continuous GH measurements to 90 individual samples of R. prolixus

  9. Standardization of a Continuous Assay for Glycosidases and Its Use for Screening Insect Gut Samples at Individual and Populational Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profeta, Gerson S; Pereira, Jessica A S; Costa, Samara G; Azambuja, Patricia; Garcia, Eloi S; Moraes, Caroline da Silva; Genta, Fernando A

    2017-01-01

    Glycoside Hydrolases (GHs) are enzymes able to recognize and cleave glycosidic bonds. Insect GHs play decisive roles in digestion, in plant-herbivore, and host-pathogen interactions. GH activity is normally measured by the detection of a release from the substrate of products as sugars units, colored, or fluorescent groups. In most cases, the conditions for product release and detection differ, resulting in discontinuous assays. The current protocols result in using large amounts of reaction mixtures for the obtainment of time points in each experimental replica. These procedures restrain the analysis of biological materials with limited amounts of protein and, in the case of studies regarding small insects, implies in the pooling of samples from several individuals. In this respect, most studies do not assess the variability of GH activities across the population of individuals from the same species. The aim of this work is to approach this technical problem and have a deeper understanding of the variation of GH activities in insect populations, using as models the disease vectors Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Triatominae) and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Phlebotominae). Here we standardized continuous assays using 4-methylumbelliferyl derived substrates for the detection of α-Glucosidase, β-Glucosidase, α-Mannosidase, N-acetyl-hexosaminidase, β-Galactosidase, and α-Fucosidase in the midgut of R. prolixus and L. longipalpis with results similar to the traditional discontinuous protocol. The continuous assays allowed us to measure GH activities using minimal sample amounts with a higher number of measurements, resulting in data that are more reliable and less time and reagent consumption. The continuous assay also allows the high-throughput screening of GH activities in small insect samples, which would be not applicable to the previous discontinuous protocol. We applied continuous GH measurements to 90 individual samples of R. prolixus anterior midgut

  10. QA Objectives for NDA with the Residues Segmented Gamma Scan Assay System at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WESTSIK, G.A.

    2001-01-01

    The PFP facility utilizes a Segmented Gamma Scanner Assay System (SGSAS) to perform assays on cans of ash for WIPP characterization measurements. This report documents the conformance of SGSAS to the precision and accuracy radioassay QAOs, and reports the minimum detectable concentration (MDC). The QAO measurement runs supplied in this document were for a billet can geometry. The measurements were performed in August 2000. This document covers assays performed until October 27, 2000. The billet cans containing stabilized residues will be loaded into pipe overpack containers (POC) for shipment to WIPP. The WIPP-WAC defines four nominal test levels for NDA, which are in alpha curies and grams of weapons grade (WG) Pu. Due to intended utilization of the SGSAS system for the materials mentioned above, it is presently only being qualified for the two highest QAO ranges. The sources used for the QAO measurements are plutonium standards, which have been calibrated using calorimetry techniques. This report documents the analysis of test data for the SGSAS system at the nominal 10 gram and 160 gram levels. The MDC was determined using a billet can filled with diatomaceous earth but no plutonium present. Since the system is not being qualified for TRU vs low-level waste (LLW) sorting the MDC will primarily provide verification that the detection level for the system is well below the QAO ranges for which the system is being qualified. The MDC reflects the best sensitivity for a particular assay system and specific assay conditions (i.e. count time, sample configuration) when no added radioactivity is present. As such, no radioactive sources were required for the MDC determination. As with the accuracy and precision QAOs, the MDC is valid for the billet cans

  11. Evaluation of a CLEIA automated assay system for the detection of a panel of tumor markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzarano, Renato; Viggiani, Valentina; Michienzi, Simona; Longo, Flavia; Tudini, Silvestra; Frati, Luigi; Anastasi, Emanuela

    2013-10-01

    Tumor markers are commonly used to detect a relapse of disease in oncologic patients during follow-up. It is important to evaluate new assay systems for a better and more precise assessment, as a standardized method is currently lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the concordance between an automated chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay system (LUMIPULSE® G1200) and our reference methods using seven tumor markers. Serum samples from 787 subjects representing a variety of diagnoses, including oncologic, were analyzed using LUMIPULSE® G1200 and our reference methods. Serum values were measured for the following analytes: prostate-specific antigen (PSA), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cancer antigen 125 (CA125), carbohydrate antigen 15-3 (CA15-3), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), and cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA 21-1). For the determination of CEA, AFP, and PSA, an automatic analyzer based on chemiluminescence was applied as reference method. To assess CYFRA 21-1, CA125, CA19-9, and CA15-3, an immunoradiometric manual system was employed. Method comparison by Passing-Bablok analysis resulted in slopes ranging from 0.9728 to 1.9089 and correlation coefficients from 0.9977 to 0.9335. The precision of each assay was assessed by testing six serum samples. Each sample was analyzed for all tumor biomarkers in duplicate and in three different runs. The coefficients of variation were less than 6.3 and 6.2 % for within-run and between-run variation, respectively. Our data suggest an overall good interassay agreement for all markers. The comparison with our reference methods showed good precision and reliability, highlighting its usefulness in clinical laboratory's routine.

  12. Calibration and characterization of a low level waste assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giesler, G.C.; Henry, S.A.; Johnson, S.L.; Vehar, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    In today's rapidly changing regulatory environment, increasingly detailed information is required about the composition of items intended for disposal. We have examined a system that can be used to measure the radioactivity in a container of waste destined for disposal. In order to better understand the capabilities and limitations of the system, we performed a number of measurements to calibrate and characterize this system. The results of this characterization including detectability limits for 235 U and 239 Pu are presented

  13. Urolithins display both antioxidant and pro-oxidant activities depending on assay system and conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Tuija; Kallio, Johanna; Jaakkola, Mari; Mäki, Marianne; Kilpeläinen, Pekka; Virtanen, Vesa

    2013-11-13

    The biological effects of polyphenolic ellagitannins are mediated by their intestinal metabolites, urolithins. This study investigated redox properties of urolithins A and B using ORAC assay, three cell-based assays, copper-initiated pro-oxidant activity (CIPA) assay, and cyclic voltammetry. Urolithins were strong antioxidants in the ORAC assay, but mostly pro-oxidants in cell-based assays, although urolithin A was an antioxidant in cell culture medium. Parent compound ellagic acid was a strong extracellular antioxidant, but showed no response in the intracellular assay. The CIPA assay confirmed the pro-oxidant activity of ellagitannin metabolites. In the cell proliferation assay, urolithins but not ellagic acid decreased growth and metabolism of HepG2 liver cells. In cyclic voltammetry, the oxidation of urolithin A was partly reversible, but that of urolithin B was irreversible. These results illustrate how strongly measured redox properties depend on the employed assay system and conditions and emphasize the importance of studying pro-oxidant and antioxidant activities in parallel.

  14. Integration of Standardized Management Systems: A Dilemma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ferreira Rebelo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The growing proliferation of management systems standards (MSSs, and their individualized implementation, is a real problem faced by organizations. On the other hand, MSSs are aimed at improving efficiency and effectiveness of organizational responses in order to satisfy the requirements, needs and expectations of the stakeholders. Each organization has its own identity and this is an issue that cannot be neglected; hence, two possible approaches can be attended. First, continue with the implementation of individualized management systems (MSs; or, integrate the several MSSs versus related MSs into an integrated management system (IMS. Therefore, in this context, organizations are faced with a dilemma, as a result of the increasing proliferation and diversity of MSSs. This paper takes into account the knowledge gained through a case study conducted in the context of a Portuguese company and unveils some of the advantages and disadvantages of integration. A methodology is also proposed and presented to support organizations in developing and structuring the integration process of their individualized MSs, and consequently minimize problems that are generators of inefficiencies, value destruction and loss of competitiveness. The obtained results provide relevant information that can support Top Management decision in solving that dilemma and consequently promote a successful integration, including a better control of business risks associated to MSSs requirements and enhancing sustainable performance, considering the context in which organizations operate.

  15. Enzyme assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodelius, P E

    1991-02-01

    The past year or so has seen the development of new enzyme assays, as well as the improvement of existing ones. Assays are becoming more rapid and sensitive as a result of modifications such as amplification of the enzyme product(s). Recombinant DNA technology is now being recognized as a particularly useful tool in the search for improved assay systems.

  16. The development of a state-of-the-art assay system for uranium-235 in solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, J.L.; Sampson, T.E.; Cowder, L.R.; Kern, E.A.; Garcia, D.L.; Ensslin, N.

    1986-12-01

    We describe the development of a high-accuracy, high-precision, and high-throughput system for the assay of /sup 235/U in solution samples. The tradeoffs involved in the various development steps are discussed and the ultimate system performance is documented. Assay accuracy and precision better than 0.2% should be attained in routine use. This is a significant improvement in the state of the art.

  17. The development of a state-of-the-art assay system for uranium-235 in solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.L.; Sampson, T.E.; Cowder, L.R.; Kern, E.A.; Garcia, D.L.; Ensslin, N.

    1986-12-01

    We describe the development of a high-accuracy, high-precision, and high-throughput system for the assay of 235 U in solution samples. The tradeoffs involved in the various development steps are discussed and the ultimate system performance is documented. Assay accuracy and precision better than 0.2% should be attained in routine use. This is a significant improvement in the state of the art

  18. INEL test plan for evaluating waste assay systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandler, J.W.; Becker, G.K.; Harker, Y.D.; Menkhaus, D.E.; Clements, T.L. Jr.

    1996-09-01

    A test bed is being established at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). These tests are currently focused on mobile or portable radioassay systems. Prior to disposal of TRU waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), radioassay measurements must meet the quality assurance objectives of the TRU Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan. This test plan provides technology holders with the opportunity to assess radioassay system performance through a three-tiered test program that consists of: (a) evaluations using non-interfering matrices, (b) surrogate drums with contents that resemble the attributes of INEL-specific waste forms, and (c) real waste tests. Qualified sources containing a known mixture and range of radionuclides will be used for the non-interfering and surrogate waste tests. The results of these tests will provide technology holders with information concerning radioassay system performance and provide the INEL with data useful for making decisions concerning alternative or improved radioassay systems that could support disposal of waste at WIPP

  19. Rough Standard Neutrosophic Sets: An Application on Standard Neutrosophic Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Xuan Thao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A rough fuzzy set is the result of the approximation of a fuzzy set with respect to a crisp approximation space. It is a mathematical tool for the knowledge discovery in the fuzzy information systems. In this paper, we introduce the concepts of rough standard neutrosophic sets and standard neutrosophic information system, and give some results of the knowledge discovery on standard neutrosophic information system based on rough standard neutrosophic sets.

  20. Reproducibility of microbial mutagenicity assays. I. Tests with Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli using a standardized protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkel, V.C.; Zeiger, E.; Brusick, D.; McCoy, E.; McGregor, D.; Mortelmans, K.; Rosenkranz, H.S.; Simmon, V.F.

    1984-01-01

    The Salmonella/microsome test developed by Ames and his coworkers has been widely used in the evaluation of chemicals for genotoxic potential. Although the value of this assay is well recognized, there have been no comprehensive studies on the interlaboratory reproducibility of the method using a standardized protocol. A program was therefore initiated to compare the results obtained in four laboratories from testing a series of coded mutagens and nonmutagens using a standardized protocol. Additional objectives of this study were to compare male Fisher 344 rat, B6C3F1 mouse, and Syrian hamster liver S-9 preparations for the activation of chemicals; to compare Aroclor 1254-induced liver S-9 from all three species with the corresponding non-induced liver S-9's; and to compare the response of Escherichia coli WP-2 uvrA with the Salmonella typhimurium tester strains recommended by Ames. Since a primary use of in vitro microbial mutagenesis tests is the identification of potential carcinogens by their mutagenicity, the authors decided to compare the animal species and strains used by the National Cancer Institute/National Toxicology Program (NCI/NTP) for animal carcinogenicity studies

  1. Process Control System Cyber Security Standards - An Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert P. Evans

    2006-05-01

    The use of cyber security standards can greatly assist in the protection of process control systems by providing guidelines and requirements for the implementation of computer-controlled systems. These standards are most effective when the engineers and operators, using the standards, understand what each standard addresses. This paper provides an overview of several standards that deal with the cyber security of process measurements and control systems.

  2. Survey of standards applicable to a database management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urena, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Industry, government, and NASA standards, and the status of standardization activities of standards setting organizations applicable to the design, implementation and operation of a data base management system for space related applications are identified. The applicability of the standards to a general purpose, multimission data base management system is addressed.

  3. Enrichment Assay Methods Development for the Integrated Cylinder Verification System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Leon E.; Misner, Alex C.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Curtis, Michael M.

    2009-10-22

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors currently perform periodic inspections at uranium enrichment plants to verify UF6 cylinder enrichment declarations. Measurements are typically performed with handheld high-resolution sensors on a sampling of cylinders taken to be representative of the facility's entire product-cylinder inventory. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing a concept to automate the verification of enrichment plant cylinders to enable 100 percent product-cylinder verification and potentially, mass-balance calculations on the facility as a whole (by also measuring feed and tails cylinders). The Integrated Cylinder Verification System (ICVS) could be located at key measurement points to positively identify each cylinder, measure its mass and enrichment, store the collected data in a secure database, and maintain continuity of knowledge on measured cylinders until IAEA inspector arrival. The three main objectives of this FY09 project are summarized here and described in more detail in the report: (1) Develop a preliminary design for a prototype NDA system, (2) Refine PNNL's MCNP models of the NDA system, and (3) Procure and test key pulse-processing components. Progress against these tasks to date, and next steps, are discussed.

  4. Medically Relevant Assays with a Simple Smartphone and Tablet Based Fluorescence Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Wargocki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cell phones and smart phones can be reconfigured as biomedical sensor devices but this requires specialized add-ons. In this paper we present a simple cell phone-based portable bioassay platform, which can be used with fluorescent assays in solution. The system consists of a tablet, a polarizer, a smart phone (camera and a box that provides dark readout conditions. The assay in a well plate is placed on the tablet screen acting as an excitation source. A polarizer on top of the well plate separates excitation light from assay fluorescence emission enabling assay readout with a smartphone camera. The assay result is obtained by analysing the intensity of image pixels in an appropriate colour channel. With this device we carried out two assays, for collagenase and trypsin using fluorescein as the detected fluorophore. The results of collagenase assay with the lowest measured concentration of 3.75 µg/mL and 0.938 µg in total in the sample were comparable to those obtained by a microplate reader. The lowest measured amount of trypsin was 930 pg, which is comparable to the low detection limit of 400 pg for this assay obtained in a microplate reader. The device is sensitive enough to be used in point-of-care medical diagnostics of clinically relevant conditions, including arthritis, cystic fibrosis and acute pancreatitis.

  5. Computer systems and software description for Standard-E+ Hydrogen Monitoring System (SHMS-E+)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tate, D.D.

    1997-01-01

    The primary function of the Standard-E+ Hydrogen Monitoring System (SHMS-E+) is to determine tank vapor space gas composition and gas release rate, and to detect gas release events. Characterization of the gas composition is needed for safety analyses. The lower flammability limit, as well as the peak burn temperature and pressure, are dependent upon the gas composition. If there is little or no knowledge about the gas composition, safety analyses utilize compositions that yield the worst case in a deflagration or detonation. Knowledge of the true composition could lead to reductions in the assumptions and therefore there may be a potential for a reduction in controls and work restrictions. Also, knowledge of the actual composition will be required information for the analysis that is needed to remove tanks from the Watch List. Similarly, the rate of generation and release of gases is required information for performing safety analyses, developing controls, designing equipment, and closing safety issues. This report outlines the computer system design layout description for the Standard-E+ Hydrogen Monitoring System

  6. Relationship between in vitro assays and standardized ileal amino acid digestibility of animal protein meals in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochell, S J; Kuhlers, D L; Dozier, W A

    2013-01-01

    Two identical trials were conducted to determine the relationship of a novel digestive enzyme assay, Poultry Complete IDEA (PC IDEA), and the pepsin digestibility assay with standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 20 animal protein meals (APM) fed to broilers from 25 to 30 d of age. Animal protein meals included 10 meat and bone meals (MBM) consisting of bovine, porcine, or mixed bovine and porcine raw materials (BP), and 10 animal protein blends containing animal proteins from various species. Treatments consisted of 20 semi-purified diets containing 1 APM as the sole source of dietary amino acids (AA), and 1 N-free diet to determine endogenous ileal AA flow. With the exception of the N-free diet, diets were formulated to contain 20% CP. In each trial, 756 Ross × Ross 708 male broilers were housed in battery cages and randomly assigned to 21 dietary treatments on d 25 (12 birds per cage; 3 replicate cages), and ileal digesta were collected on d 30 for determination of SIAAD. Pepsin digestibility and PC IDEA were determined for APM samples from each experimental diet (3 replicates per trial; 6 total replicates). Pepsin digestibility and PC IDEA were both correlated (P digestibility on SIAAD resulted in the following equations: % Lys SIAAD = [-9.65 + (0.38 × % PC IDEA predicted Lys digestibility) + (0.69 × % pepsin digestibility)], % Met SIAAD = [-35.95 + (0.62 × % PC IDEA predicted Met digestibility) + (0.75 × % pepsin digestibility)], % Thr SIAAD = [-77.5 + (0.39 × % PC IDEA predicted Thr digestibility) + (1.37 × % pepsin digestibility)]. Values of R(2) were 0.46, 0.47, and 0.55 for Lys, Met, and Thr, respectively. The relatively low R(2) values may have been due to the limited range in SIAAD observed for the 20 APM, and additional data on APM varying in SIAAD are needed.

  7. Development and implementation of tPA clot lysis activity assay using ACL TOP™ hemeostasis testing system in QC laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichun Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the design, development, validation and long-term performance of tPA clot lysis activity assay using Advanced Chemistry Line Total Operational Performance (ACL TOP™ Homeostasis Testing System. The results of the study demonstrated robust and stable performance of the analytical method. The accuracy of the assay, expressed by percent recovery is 98–99%. The intermediate precision and repeatability precision, expressed as Relative Standard Deviation (RSD, was 3% and less than 2% respectively. The validated range is from 70% to 130% of the target potency of 5.8 × 105 IU/mg. The linearity of this range, expressed in correlation coefficient, is 0.997. After the assay is transferred to a QC laboratory, the assay retained high accuracy and precision with a success rate of >99%. Keywords: Potency assay, Clot lysis, Comparability, Automation

  8. Clenbuterol Assay by Spectral Imaging Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yichuan; Yao, Manwen; Fang, Xiangyi; Yang, Yucong; Cheng, Xiaoli

    2015-11-01

    To prevent illegal use of clenbuterol and for quality control in the food industry, more efficient and reliable methods for clenbuterol detection are needed. In this study, clenbuterol was detected using a spectral imaging surface plasmon resonance sensor system via two inhibition methods: (1) the target site compensation method, in which anti-clenbuterol antibody was immobilized on the sensor chip as a bioprobe and (2) the solution competition method in which a clenbuterol-BSA conjugate was immobilized on the sensor chip as the bioprobe. The detectable clenbuterol concentration ranged between 6.25 and 100 μg/mL for both methods. The clenbuterol limit of detection for the target site compensation method and solution competition method are estimated to be 6.7 and 4.5 μg/mL, respectively. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the detection of clenbuterol molecules and were found to have high specificity and high-throughput and were label free and operationally convenient.

  9. 7 CFR 277.6 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standards for financial management systems. 277.6... ADMINISTRATIVE COSTS OF STATE AGENCIES § 277.6 Standards for financial management systems. (a) General. This section prescribes standards for financial management systems in administering program funds by the State...

  10. 46 CFR 154.1205 - Mechanical ventilation system: Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. 154.1205... CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1205 Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. (a...

  11. Nondestructive verification and assay systems for spent fuels. Technical appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, D.D.; Phillips, J.R.; Baker, M.P.

    1982-04-01

    Six technical appendixes are presented that provide important supporting technical information for the study of the application of nondestructive measurements to spent-fuel storage. Each appendix addresses a particular technical subject in a reasonably self-contained fashion. Appendix A is a comparison of spent-fuel data predicted by reactor operators with measured data from reprocessors. This comparison indicates a rather high level of uncertainty in previous burnup calculations. Appendix B describes a series of nondestructive measurements at the GE-Morris Operation Spent-Fuel Storage Facility. This series of experiments successfully demonstrated a technique for reproducible positioning of fuel assemblies for nondestructive measurement. The experimental results indicate the importance of measuring the axial and angular burnup profiles of irradiated fuel assemblies for quantitative determination of spent-fuel parameters. Appendix C is a reasonably comprehensive bibliography of reports and symposia papers on spent-fuel nondestructive measurements to April 1981. Appendix D is a compendium of spent-fuel calculations that includes isotope production and depletion calculations using the EPRI-CINDER code, calculations of neutron and gamma-ray source terms, and correlations of these sources with burnup and plutonium content. Appendix E describes the pulsed-neutron technique and its potential application to spent-fuel measurements. Although not yet developed, the technique holds the promise of providing separate measurements of the uranium and plutonium fissile isotopes. Appendix F describes the experimental program and facilities at Los Alamos for the development of spent-fuel nondestructive measurement systems. Measurements are reported showing that the active neutron method is sensitive to the replacement of a single fuel rod with a dummy rod in an unirradiated uranium fuel assembly.

  12. Cytotoxicity of eight cigarette smoke condensates in three test systems: comparisons between assays and condensates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia A; Li, Albert P; Polzin, Gregory; Roy, Shambhu K

    2010-12-01

    Cytotoxic properties of tobacco smoke are associated with chronic tobacco-related diseases. The cytotoxicity of tobacco smoke can be tested with short-term predictive assays. In this study, we compare eight mainstream cigarette smoke condensates (CSCs) from commercial and experimental cigarettes in three different cytotoxicity assays with unique and overlapping endpoints. The CSCs demonstrated cytotoxicity in all assays. In the multiple cytotoxicity endpoint (MCE) assay with TK-6 cells, the cigarette varieties that had the highest EC50s for reduced cell growth also showed a positive dose-response relationship for necrotic cells. In the IdMOC multiple cell-type co-culture (MCTCC) system, all CSCs reduced the viability of the cells. Low concentrations of some CSCs had a stimulatory effect in lung microvascular endothelial cells and small airway epithelial cells. In the neutral dye assay (NDA), except for a 100% flue-cured tobacco CSC, there was little consistency between CSCs producing morphological evidence of moderate or greater toxicity and the CSCs with the lowest EC50s in the MCE or MCTCC assays. Overall, cigarettes made with flue-cured tobacco were the most cytotoxic across the assays. When results were expressed on a per-mg of nicotine basis, lower tar cigarettes were the most cytotoxic in primary human respiratory cells. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Total Measurement Uncertainty for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Segmented Gamma Scan Assay System

    CERN Document Server

    Fazzari, D M

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of the Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) for the Canberra manufactured Segmented Gamma Scanner Assay System (SGSAS) as employed at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). In this document, TMU embodies the combined uncertainties due to all of the individual random and systematic sources of measurement uncertainty. It includes uncertainties arising from corrections and factors applied to the analysis of transuranic waste to compensate for inhomogeneities and interferences from the waste matrix and radioactive components. These include uncertainty components for any assumptions contained in the calibration of the system or computation of the data. Uncertainties are propagated at 1 sigma. The final total measurement uncertainty value is reported at the 95% confidence level. The SGSAS is a gamma assay system that is used to assay plutonium and uranium waste. The SGSAS system can be used in a stand-alone mode to perform the NDA characterization of a containe...

  14. Standard-D hydrogen monitoring system, system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.C.

    1996-01-01

    During most of the year, it is assumed that the vapor space in the 177 radioactive waste tanks on the Hanford Project site contain a uniform mixture of gases. Several of these waste tanks (currently twenty-five, 6 Double Shell Tanks and 19 Single Shell Tanks) were identified as having the potential for the buildup of gasses to a flammable level. An active ventilation system in the Double Shell Tanks and a passive ventilation system in the Single Shell Tanks provides a method of expelling gasses from the tanks. A gas release from a tank causes a temporary rise in the tank pressure, and a potential for increased concentration of hydrogen gas in the vapor space. The gas is released via the ventilation systems until a uniform gas mixture in the vapor space is once again achieved. The Standard Hydrogen Monitoring System (SHMS) is designed to monitor and quantify the percent hydrogen concentration during these potential gas releases. This document describes the design of the Standard-D Hydrogen Monitoring System, (SHMS-D) and its components as it differs from the original SHMS

  15. High accuracy/high precision determination of 235U in nondestructive assay standards by gamma-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, R.R.; Carpenter, B.S.

    1984-01-01

    High precision gamma spectrometry measurements have been made on five sets of five uranium isotope abundance reference materials for nondestructive assay (NDA). These sets are intended for international safeguards use as primary reference materials for the determination of the 235 U abundance in homogeneous uranium bulk material by gamma spectrometry. The measurements are to determine the counting rate uniformity of the 235 U 185.7 keV gamma as well as the 235 U isotope abundance for each sample. Since the samples are packaged such that the U 3 O 8 is infinitely thick for the 185.7 keV gamma, the measured counting rate is not dependent on the material density. In addition, the activity observed by the detector is colimated to simulate calibration conditions used to measure bulk material in the field. The results of this study indicate that accuracy of 235 U determination via gamma spectrometry, in the range of few hundredths of a percent (2sigma), is achievable. The main requirement for achieving this level of accuracy is a set of standards whose 235 U isotope abundance are known to within 0.01% (2sigma)

  16. 75 FR 65051 - Consensus Standards, Standard Practice for Inspection of Airplane Electrical Wiring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... Practice for Inspection of Airplane Electrical Wiring Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT...'s F2696-08 Standard Practice for Inspection of Airplane Electrical Wiring Systems (Standard Practice) as an acceptable means of compliance to 14 CFR part 23 sections concerning electrical wiring systems...

  17. First-year evaluation of a nondestructive assay system for the examination of ORNL TRU waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, F.J.; Haff, K.W.; Coffey, D.E.; Norris, L.B.; Caldwell, J.T.; Close, D.A.; Kuckertz, T.H.; Kunz, W.E.; Pratt, J.C.

    1984-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been selected as the demonstration site for a new transuranic neutron assay system (NAS) developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. In addition, in order to meet specific ORNL program objectives, an upgraded segmented gamma-ray drum scanner has been integrated into the nondestructive assay (NDA) system to serve as a radioisotope identifier and as a quantitative assay backup to the NAS. A verification study, wherein selected waste drums will be emptied into glove boxes and their contents sampled and subsequently gamma-ray assayed, will take place in FY 1984. Results will be compared to those obtained from the NDA techniques. The NAS uses pulsed-neutron interrogation (differential- dieaway technique) and passive neutron measurements to determine fissile component and an upper-limit estimate of the total TRU activity contained in each waste drum. Of the 171 waste drums assayed to date, nine drums were determined to contain less than 10 nCi/g TRU isotopes. An additional number of drums (approximately 20%) are expected to be categorized as non-TRU, which is presently defined as less than 100 nCi/g TRU concentration. This requires a detailed analysis of the data which includes waste matrix compensation, systematic qualitative and quantitative gamma-ray analyses, and interpretation of neutron multiplicity data. Reproducibility of the active assay measurements on a single waste drum indicate agreement to +-3% relative error. 14 references, 24 figures, 8 tables

  18. 'RADAR': Euratom's standard unattended data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwalbach, P.; Holzleitner, L.; Jung, S.; Chare, P.; Smejkal, A.; Swinhoe, M.; Kloeckner, W.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The physical verification of nuclear material is an essential part of Euratom's inspection activities. Industrial plants handling large amounts of bulk material typically require large numbers of measurements. Modem plants, particularly plutonium-handling facilities, are normally automated and make it difficult for the inspector to access the material. Adapting to the plant requirements with respect to safety and security as well as economics (throughput), safeguards instrumentation is today often integrated into the plant. In order to optimize scarce inspection resources, the required measurements as well as the data analysis have to be done automatically as far as feasible. For automatic measurements Euratom has developed a new unattended data acquisition system, called RADAR (Remote Acquisition of Data and Review), which has been deployed to more than a dozen installations, handling more than 100 sensors (neutron and gamma radiations detectors, balances, seals, identity readers, switches, etc.). RADAR is the standard choice for new systems but is also replacing older automatic data systems slowly as they become outdated. RADAR and most of the associated analysis tools are the result of an in-house development, with the support of external software contractors where appropriate. Experience with turn-key systems led, in 1997, to the conclusion that in-house development would be a more effective use of resources than to buy third party products. RADAR has several layers, which will be discussed in detail in the presentation. The inner core of the package consists of services running under Windows NT. This core has watchdog and logging functions, contains a scheduler and takes care of replicating files across a network. Message and file exchange is based on TCP/IP. The replicator service contains compression and encryption facilities, the encryption is based on POP. With the help of routers, e.g. from CISCO, network connections to remote locations can be

  19. Viral concentration determination through plaque assays: using traditional and novel overlay systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Alan; Kehn-Hall, Kylene

    2014-11-04

    Plaque assays remain one of the most accurate methods for the direct quantification of infectious virons and antiviral substances through the counting of discrete plaques (infectious units and cellular dead zones) in cell culture. Here we demonstrate how to perform a basic plaque assay, and how differing overlays and techniques can affect plaque formation and production. Typically solid or semisolid overlay substrates, such as agarose or carboxymethyl cellulose, have been used to restrict viral spread, preventing indiscriminate infection through the liquid growth medium. Immobilized overlays restrict cellular infection to the immediately surrounding monolayer, allowing the formation of discrete countable foci and subsequent plaque formation. To overcome the difficulties inherent in using traditional overlays, a novel liquid overlay utilizing microcrystalline cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose sodium has been increasingly used as a replacement in the standard plaque assay. Liquid overlay plaque assays can be readily performed in either standard 6 or 12 well plate formats as per traditional techniques and require no special equipment. Due to its liquid state and subsequent ease of application and removal, microculture plate formats may alternatively be utilized as a rapid, accurate and high throughput alternative to larger scale viral titrations. Use of a non heated viscous liquid polymer offers the opportunity to streamline work, conserves reagents, incubator space, and increases operational safety when used in traditional or high containment labs as no reagent heating or glassware are required. Liquid overlays may also prove more sensitive than traditional overlays for certain heat labile viruses.

  20. Analysis of the radioisotopes contained in nuclear waste drums by a tomography assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eifler, P.; Kroth, K.; Odoj, R.

    1995-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes into a repository requires a detailed specification of the radioisotopic inventory of the waste containers. This paper describes an advanced tomography assay system capable of identifying and localizing all detectable radioactive nuclides contained in Low-Level-Waste-drums (LLW) and quantitatively determining their activities. The assay system uses a combined transmission and emission tomography technique. Whereas transmission computerized tomography is applied to examine the contents of the drums in respect of inhomogeneous fillings (density distribution), emission computerized tomography is used to inspect the radionuclide inventory (activity distribution). The paper describes in detail the tomography assay system including its major components. Measurements on LLW-drums as well as reconstructed images of the density and activity distribution of the drums' contents are a special subject of the paper

  1. Evaluation of Multiplexed Foot-and-Mouth Disease Nonstructural Protein Antibody Assay Against Standardized Bovine Serum Panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, J; Parida, S; Clavijo, A

    2007-05-14

    Liquid array technology has previously been used to show proof-of-principle of a multiplexed non structural protein serological assay to differentiate foot-and-mouth infected and vaccinated animals. The current multiplexed assay consists of synthetically produced peptide signatures 3A, 3B and 3D and recombinant protein signature 3ABC in combination with four controls. To determine diagnostic specificity of each signature in the multiplex, the assay was evaluated against a naive population (n = 104) and a vaccinated population (n = 94). Subsequently, the multiplexed assay was assessed using a panel of bovine sera generated by the World Reference Laboratory for foot-and-mouth disease in Pirbright, UK. This sera panel has been used to assess the performance of other singleplex ELISA-based non-structural protein antibody assays. The 3ABC signature in the multiplexed assay showed comparative performance to a commercially available non-structural protein 3ABC ELISA (Cedi test{reg_sign}) and additional information pertaining to the relative diagnostic sensitivity of each signature in the multiplex is acquired in one experiment. The encouraging results of the evaluation of the multiplexed assay against a panel of diagnostically relevant samples promotes further assay development and optimization to generate an assay for routine use in foot-and-mouth disease surveillance.

  2. System 80+trademark Standard Design: CESSAR design certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report -- Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These volumes describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80 + trademark Standard Design. This volume 10 discusses the Steam and Power Conversion System and Radioactive Waste Management

  3. System 80+trademark Standard Design: CESSAR design certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report -- Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These volumes describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80 + trademark Standard Design. This volume 9 discusses Electric Power and Auxiliary Systems

  4. System 80+trademark standard design: CESSAR design certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report--Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These documents describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+trademark Standard Design. This report, Volume 13, documents increase and decrease of reactor cooling system inventory and radioactive material release from a subsystem or component

  5. [Brief history of pharmaceutical standard system in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianwu; Xiao, Shiying; Dong, Guofeng; Liu, Wei; Di, Feng; Yang, Xujie

    2010-03-01

    Pharmaceutical standard system which belongs to an important part of national drug policies is an inevitable result of the development of pharmacy. There was a long standing of pharmaceutical standard system in China whose germination could be traced back to Qin and Han dynasties, and it had laid a solid foundation for the establishment and improvement of modern pharmaceutical standard system by continual accumulation from the past dynasties. Since the founding of new China, distinguished achievements had been obtained on pharmaceutical standardization working,and currently it is in a new developing stage. There was a brief description in this paper on the development history of pharmaceutical standard system in China.

  6. 10 CFR 600.311 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standards for financial management systems. 600.311... Requirements § 600.311 Standards for financial management systems. (a) Recipients are encouraged to use existing financial management systems to the extent that the systems comply with Generally Accepted...

  7. 46 CFR 153.312 - Ventilation system standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation system standards. 153.312 Section 153.312... Handling Space Ventilation § 153.312 Ventilation system standards. A cargo handling space ventilation system must meet the following: (a) A ventilation system exhaust duct must discharge no less than 10 m...

  8. Assessment of Safety Standards for Automotive Electronic Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study that assessed and compared six industry and government safety standards relevant to the safety and reliability of automotive electronic control systems. These standards include ISO 26262 (Road Vehicles - ...

  9. System 80+trademark standard design: CESSAR design certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. The documents in this series describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+ TM Standard Design

  10. Standard Format for Chromatographic-polarimetric System small samples assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naranjo, S.; Fajer, V.; Fonfria, C.; Patinno, R.

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of samples containing optically active substances to be evaluated as part of quality control of raw material entering industrial process, and also during the modifications exerted on it to obtain the desired final composition is still and unsolved problem for many industries. That is the case of sugarcane industry. Sometimes the troubles implied are enlarged because samples to be evaluated are not bigger than one milliliter. Reduction of gel beds in G-10 and G-50 chromatographic columns having an inner diameter of 16 mm, instead of 25, and bed heights adjustable to requirements by means of sliding stoppers to increase analytical power were evaluated with glucose and sucrose standards in concentrations from 1 to 10 g/dL, using aliquots of 1 ml without undesirable dilutions that could affect either detection or chromatographic profile. Assays with seaweed extracts gave good results that are shown. It is established the advantage to know concentration of a separated substance by the height of its peak and the savings in time and reagents resulting . Sample expanded uncertainty in both systems is compared. It is also presented several programs for data acquisition, storing and processing. (Author)

  11. Cryptic fitness advantage: diploids invade haploid populations despite lacking any apparent advantage as measured by standard fitness assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleeza C Gerstein

    Full Text Available Ploidy varies tremendously within and between species, yet the factors that influence when or why ploidy variants are adaptive remains poorly understood. Our previous work found that diploid individuals repeatedly arose within ten replicate haploid populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and in each case we witnessed diploid takeover within ~1800 asexual generations of batch culture evolution in the lab. The character that allowed diploids to rise in frequency within haploid populations remains unknown. Here we present a number of experiments conducted with the goal to determine what this trait (or traits might have been. Experiments were conducted both by sampling a small number of colonies from the stocks frozen every two weeks (~ 93 generations during the original experiment, as well through sampling a larger number of colonies at the two time points where polymorphism for ploidy was most prevalent. Surprisingly, none of our fitness component measures (lag phase, growth rate, biomass production indicated an advantage to diploidy. Similarly, competition assays against a common competitor and direct competition between haploid and diploid colonies isolated from the same time point failed to indicate a diploid advantage. Furthermore, we uncovered a tremendous amount of trait variation among colonies of the same ploidy level. Only late-appearing diploids showed a competitive advantage over haploids, indicating that the fitness advantage that allowed eventual takeover was not diploidy per se but an attribute of a subset of diploid lineages. Nevertheless, the initial rise in diploids to intermediate frequency cannot be explained by any of the fitness measures used; we suggest that the resolution to this mystery is negative frequency-dependent selection, which is ignored in the standard fitness measures used.

  12. Recent advances in the characterization of HIV-1 neutralization assays for standardized evaluation of the antibody response to infection and vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonis, Victoria R; Brown, Bruce K; Rosa Borges, Andrew; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Dimitrov, Dimiter S; Zhang, Mei-Yun; Barnett, Susan W; Ruprecht, Ruth M; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Fenyö, Eva-Maria; Montefiori, David C; McCutchan, Francine E; Michael, Nelson L

    2008-06-05

    In AIDS vaccine development the pendulum has swung towards a renewed emphasis on the potential role for neutralizing antibodies in a successful global vaccine. It is recognized that vaccine-induced antibody performance, as assessed in the available neutralization assays, may well serve as a "gatekeeper" for HIV-1 subunit vaccine prioritization and advancement. As a result, development of a standardized platform for reproducible measurement of neutralizing antibodies has received considerable attention. Here we review current advancements in our knowledge of the performance of different types of antibodies in a traditional primary cell neutralization assay and the newer, more standardized TZM-bl reporter cell line assay. In light of recently revealed differences (see accompanying article) in the results obtained in these two neutralization formats, parallel evaluation with both platforms should be contemplated as an interim solution until a better understanding of immune correlates of protection is achieved.

  13. The complement system of the goat: Haemolytic assays and isolation of major proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno-Indias Isabel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to develop a haemolytic assay for the study of the complement system in dairy goats (Capra aegagrus hircus and to characterize the major goat complement system proteins. Results The commonly used sheep erythrocyte sensitized with rabbit antibodies were not sensitive to lysis by goat serum, but the combination of human red blood cells (RBC plus rabbit antibodies was the best option found for goat complement assay. A buffer based on HEPES instead of the classical veronal (barbitone was developed. Three proteins were isolated: factor H, C1q and C3 and these were compared with the corresponding human proteins. A novel affinity chromatography technique was developed for isolation of factor H. Conclusions Human RBC plus rabbit antibodies were a suitable option for haemolytic assays. The isolated proteins are similar to the human counterparts.

  14. 75 FR 65052 - Consensus Standards, Standard Practice for Maintenance of Airplane Electrical Wiring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... Practice for Maintenance of Airplane Electrical Wiring Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT...'s F2799-09 Standard Practice for Maintenance of Airplane Electrical Wiring Systems (Standard Practice) as an acceptable means of compliance to 14 CFR part 23 sections concerning electrical wiring...

  15. A scalable assessment of Plasmodium falciparum transmission in the standard membrane-feeding assay, using transgenic parasites expressing green fluorescent protein-luciferase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stone, W.J.R.; Churcher, T.S.; Graumans, W.; Gemert, G.J.A. van; Vos, M.W.; Lanke, K.H.W.; Vegte-Bolmer, M.G. van de; Siebelink-Stoter, R.; Dechering, K.J.; Vaughan, A.M.; Camargo, N.; Kappe, S.H.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Bousema, T.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The development of drugs and vaccines to reduce malaria transmission is an important part of eradication plans. The transmission-reducing activity (TRA) of these agents is currently determined in the standard membrane-feeding assay (SMFA), based on subjective microscopy-based readouts

  16. Standard-B Hydrogen Monitoring System, system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.C.

    1995-01-01

    During most of the year, it is assumed that the vapor in the 177 radioactive waste tanks on the Hanford Project site contain a uniform mixture of gases. Several of these waste tanks (currently twenty five, 6 Double Shell Tanks and 19 Single Shell Tanks) were identified as having the potential for the buildup of gases to a flammable level. An active ventilation system in the Double Shell Tanks and a passive ventilation system in the Single Shell Tanks provides a method of expelling gases from the tanks. A gas release from a tank causes a temporary rise in the tank pressure, and a potential for increased concentration of hydrogen gas in the vapor space. The gas is released via the ventilation systems until a uniform gas mixture in the vapor space is once again achieved. This document describes the design of the Standard-B Hydrogen Monitoring System, (SHMS) and its components as it differs from the original SHMS. The differences are derived from changes made to improve the system performance but not implemented in all the installed enclosures

  17. Development of standard design licensing system of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. K.; Yun, Y. K.; Kim, W. S.; Lee, J. H.; Baek, M.

    2001-01-01

    The design of the APR 1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400) is being developed based on the concept of a standard design so that the APR 1400 can be constructed repetitively without major design change. Therefore, in order to avoid repetitive licensing review for the portion of the standard design of the APR 1400, it is necessary to introduced a new licensing system for a standard design. Since the Korean government has acknowledged this necessity, it is now pursuing the legislation of a standard design licensing system. In this technical report, procedural requirements and the format and contents of licensing basis documents considered for the adaption of a standard design licensing system are introduced

  18. System Design for Navy Occupational Standards Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    need to increase access and visibility, reduce errors and approval times, institute administrative metrics, and standardize the occupational...considerable effort is devoted to ensuring that the grammatical style and form of tasks are consistent across tasks and among other rating OCCSTDs. Once the...reduced overhead and 12 complexity when writing queries for reports. This encapsulation of the data store also increases the portability and

  19. 14 CFR 1260.121 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standards for financial management systems... Requirements § 1260.121 Standards for financial management systems. (a) Recipients shall relate financial data...) Recipients' financial management systems shall provide for the following. (1) Accurate, current and complete...

  20. 7 CFR 3019.21 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standards for financial management systems. 3019.21... Requirements Financial and Program Management § 3019.21 Standards for financial management systems. (a) Federal... cost information whenever practical. (b) Recipients' financial management systems shall provide for the...

  1. 22 CFR 145.21 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standards for financial management systems. 145... Financial and Program Management § 145.21 Standards for financial management systems. (a) The Department... whenever practical. (b) Recipients' financial management systems shall provide for the following. (1...

  2. 32 CFR 32.21 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for financial management systems. 32... Program Management § 32.21 Standards for financial management systems. (a) DoD Components shall require... unit cost information. (b) Recipients' financial management systems shall provide for the following. (1...

  3. 49 CFR 19.21 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for financial management systems. 19.21... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements § 19.21 Standards for financial management systems. (a) Federal awarding... information whenever practical. (b) Recipients' financial management systems shall provide for the following...

  4. 2 CFR 215.21 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standards for financial management systems... Financial and Program Management § 215.21 Standards for financial management systems. (a) Federal awarding... information whenever practical. (b) Recipients' financial management systems shall provide for the following...

  5. 43 CFR 12.921 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for financial management systems... Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 12.921 Standards for financial management systems. (a) Federal awarding... information whenever practical. (b) Recipients' financial management systems shall provide for the following...

  6. 34 CFR 74.21 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for financial management systems. 74.21... Requirements Financial and Program Management § 74.21 Standards for financial management systems. (a... practical. (b) Recipients' financial management systems shall provide for the following: (1) Accurate...

  7. 29 CFR 95.21 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards for financial management systems. 95.21 Section 95... Requirements Financial and Program Management § 95.21 Standards for financial management systems. (a... practical. (b) Recipients' financial management systems shall provide for the following: (1) Accurate...

  8. Gold Standard Testing of Motion Based Tracking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-15

    AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2017-0032 GOLD STANDARD TESTING OF MOTION BASED TRACKING SYSTEMS Joshua Hagen Human Signatures Branch Human-Centered ISR Division...DD-MM-YY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 15 03 17 Interim Report June 2016 – March 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Gold Standard Testing of...systems against a ‘ Gold Standard ’ on-field measurement system for human physiological performance monitoring. Data shows that the accuracy of the

  9. Population-Based Study to Determine the Health System Costs of Using the 21-Gene Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittmann, Nicole; Earle, Craig C; Cheng, Stephanie Y; Julian, Jim A; Rahman, Farah; Seung, Soo Jin; Levine, Mark N

    2018-01-20

    Purpose The 21-gene assay Oncotype Dx (Genomic Health, Redwood City, CA) test is used to aid the decision about chemotherapy in patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer who received endocrine therapy. Economic studies to support test adoption used decision-analytic models with assumptions and data derived from disparate sources. The objective was to evaluate whether the 21-gene assay test resulted in an overall cost expense or saving to the health system. Patients and Methods One thousand participants enrolled in a field evaluation study, were linked to population-level health system administrative databases, and were observed for 20 months. The cost for the cohort, which included the cost of the test, subsequent treatments received, and health care encounters, was determined. The cost in the absence of the test was compared with the pretest recommendation about chemotherapy from the field study for a base case and under scenarios that reflected different adjuvant chemotherapy use. Overall health system costs and incremental costs were calculated. Results The 21-gene assay resulted in a net decrease in chemotherapy use of 23%. For the base case incremental analysis, the actual overall health system cost of this cohort, including the cost of 21-gene assay, was $29.2 million compared with $26.2 million in the absence of the test-an increase of $3.1 million. For three of the four scenario analyses, the actual overall cost to the health system exceeded the estimated cost in the absence of the test. Results showed that, when at least half of the population received adjuvant chemotherapy, the cost increased to $30.2 million. Conclusion The use of real-world administrative data showed that, despite lower rates of chemotherapy use, the 21-gene assay test results in an overall incremental cost to the health care system in the short-term under most assumptions.

  10. The System 80+ Standard Plant Information Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turk, R.S.; Bryan, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Historically, electric nuclear power plant owners, following the completion of construction and startup, have been left with a mountain of hard-copy documents and drawings. Hundreds of thousands of hours are spent searching for relevant documents and, in most cases, the documents found require many other documents and drawings to fully understand the design basis. All too often the information is incomplete, and eventually becomes obsolete. In the U.S., utilities spend millions of dollars to discover design basis information and update as-built data for each plant. This information must then be stored in an easily accessed usable form to assist satisfy regulatory requirements and to improve plant operating efficiency. ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Systems (ABB-CE) has an active program to develop a state-of-the-art Plant Information Management System (IMS) for its advanced light water reactor, the System 80+TM Standard Plant Design. This program is supported by ABB's Product Data Management (PDM) and Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) efforts world wide. This paper describes the System 80+ plant IMS and how it will be used during the entire life cycle of the plant. (author)

  11. The System 80+ Standard Plant Information Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turk, R.S.; Bryan, R.E. [ABB Combuions Engineering Nuclear Systems (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Historically, electric nuclear power plant owners, following the completion of construction and startup, have been left with a mountain of hard-copy documents and drawings. Hundreds of thousands of hours are spent searching for relevant documents and, in most cases, the documents found require many other documents and drawings to fully understand the design basis. All too often the information is incomplete, and eventually becomes obsolete. In the U.S., utilities spend millions of dollars to discover design basis information and update as-built data for each plant. This information must then be stored in an easily accessed usable form to assist satisfy regulatory requirements and to improve plant operating efficiency. ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Systems (ABB-CE) has an active program to develop a state-of-the-art Plant Information Management System (IMS) for its advanced light water reactor, the System 80+TM Standard Plant Design. This program is supported by ABB's Product Data Management (PDM) and Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) efforts world wide. This paper describes the System 80+ plant IMS and how it will be used during the entire life cycle of the plant. (author)

  12. System and method for detecting components of a mixture including a valving scheme for competition assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Chung-Yan; Piccini, Matthew E.; Singh, Anup K.

    2017-07-11

    Examples are described including measurement systems for conducting competition assays. A first chamber of an assay device may be loaded with a sample containing a target antigen. The target antigen in the sample may be allowed to bind to antibody-coated beads in the first chamber. A control layer separating the first chamber from a second chamber may then be opened to allow a labeling agent loaded in a first portion of the second chamber to bind to any unoccupied sites on the antibodies. A centrifugal force may then be applied to transport the beads through a density media to a detection region for measurement by a detection unit.

  13. System and method for detecting components of a mixture including a valving scheme for competition assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Chung-Yan; Piccini, Matthew E.; Singh, Anup K.

    2017-09-19

    Examples are described including measurement systems for conducting competition assays. A first chamber of an assay device may be loaded with a sample containing a target antigen. The target antigen in the sample may be allowed to bind to antibody-coated beads in the first chamber. A control layer separating the first chamber from a second chamber may then be opened to allow a labeling agent loaded in a first portion of the second chamber to bind to any unoccupied sites on the antibodies. A centrifugal force may then be applied to transport the beads through a density media to a detection region for measurement by a detection unit.

  14. An international collaboration to standardize HIV-2 viral load assays: results from the 2009 ACHI(E)V(2E) quality control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damond, F; Benard, A; Balotta, Claudia; Böni, Jürg; Cotten, Matthew; Duque, Vitor; Ferns, Bridget; Garson, Jeremy; Gomes, Perpetua; Gonçalves, Fátima; Gottlieb, Geoffrey; Kupfer, Bernd; Ruelle, Jean; Rodes, Berta; Soriano, Vicente; Wainberg, Mark; Taieb, Audrey; Matheron, Sophie; Chene, Genevieve; Brun-Vezinet, Francoise

    2011-10-01

    Accurate HIV-2 plasma viral load quantification is crucial for adequate HIV-2 patient management and for the proper conduct of clinical trials and international cohort collaborations. This study compared the homogeneity of HIV-2 RNA quantification when using HIV-2 assays from ACHI(E)V(2E) study sites and either in-house PCR calibration standards or common viral load standards supplied to all collaborators. Each of the 12 participating laboratories quantified blinded HIV-2 samples, using its own HIV-2 viral load assay and standard as well as centrally validated and distributed common HIV-2 group A and B standards (http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/content/sequence/HelpDocs/subtypes-more.html). Aliquots of HIV-2 group A and B strains, each at 2 theoretical concentrations (2.7 and 3.7 log(10) copies/ml), were tested. Intralaboratory, interlaboratory, and overall variances of quantification results obtained with both standards were compared using F tests. For HIV-2 group A quantifications, overall and interlaboratory and/or intralaboratory variances were significantly lower when using the common standard than when using in-house standards at the concentration levels of 2.7 log(10) copies/ml and 3.7 log(10) copies/ml, respectively. For HIV-2 group B, a high heterogeneity was observed and the variances did not differ according to the type of standard used. In this international collaboration, the use of a common standard improved the homogeneity of HIV-2 group A RNA quantification only. The diversity of HIV-2 group B, particularly in PCR primer-binding regions, may explain the heterogeneity in quantification of this strain. Development of a validated HIV-2 viral load assay that accurately quantifies distinct circulating strains is needed.

  15. 76 FR 16277 - System Restoration Reliability Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... Planning), EOP-005-2 (System Restoration from Blackstart Resources), and EOP-006-2 (System Restoration Coordination) as well as the definition of the term ``Blackstart Resource'' submitted to the Commission for..., generation operators, and certain transmission owners and distribution providers to ensure that plans...

  16. Standard monitoring system for domestic heat pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelen, C.P.J.M.; Oostendorp, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    In the years to come many domestic heat pump systems are to be installed in the Netherlands. The Dutch agency for energy and environment, NOVEM, and the association of energy utility companies, EnergieNed, give high priority to the monitoring of heat pump systems. The results of the projects,

  17. System 80+trademark Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. This document describes the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+trademark Standard Design. This volume contains Chapter 7 -- Instrumentation and Controls. Topics covered are: reactor protection system; engineered safety feature actuation systems; systems required for safe shutdown; safety-related display instrumentation; all other instrumentation for safety; and control systems not required for safety. Appendix 7A is included

  18. System 80+trademark Standard Design: CESSAR design certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report -- Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These volumes describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80 + trademark Standard Design. This volume 8 provides a description of instrumentation and controls

  19. System 80+trademark Standard Design: CESSAR design certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report -- Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These volumes describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+trademark Standard Design. This Volume 18 provides Appendix B, Probabilistic Risk Assessment

  20. System 80+trademark Standard Design: CESSAR design certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report -- Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These volumes describes the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+trademark Standard Design. This Volume 17 provides Appendix A of this report, closure of unresolved and Genetic Safety Issues

  1. System 80+trademark Standard Design: CESSAR design certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report - Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These volumes describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+trademark Standard Design. This Volume 16 details the application of Human Factors Engineering in the design process

  2. Differences in serum thyroglobulin measurements by 3 commercial immunoradiometric assay kits and laboratory standardization using Certified Reference Material 457 (CRM-457).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji In; Kim, Ji Young; Choi, Joon Young; Kim, Hee Kyung; Jang, Hye Won; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Kim, Kwang-Won; Chung, Jae Hoon; Kim, Sun Wook

    2010-09-01

    Serum thyroglobulin (Tg) is essential in the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). However, interchangeability and standardization between Tg assays have not yet been achieved, even with the development of an international Tg standard (Certified Reference Material 457 [CRM-457]). Serum Tg from 30 DTC patients and serially diluted CRM-457 were measured using 3 different immunoradiometric assays (IRMA-1, IRMA-2, IRMA-3). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) method was used to describe the concordance of each IRMA to CRM-457. The serum Tg measured by 3 different IRMAs correlated well (r > .85, p CRM-457, showed the best ICC (p(1) = .98) for the CRM-457. Hospitals caring for patients with DTC should either set their own cutoffs for IRMAs for Tg based on their patient pools, or adopt IRMAs standardized to CRM-457 and calibrate their laboratory using CRM-457.

  3. Application of expert system technology to nondestructive waste assay - initial prototype model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.K.; Determan, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Expert system technology has been identified as a technique useful for filling certain types of technology/capability gaps in existing waste nondestructive assay (NDA) applications. In particular, expert system techniques are being investigated with the intent of providing on-line evaluation of acquired data and/or directed acquisition of data in a manner that mimics the logic and decision making process a waste NDA expert would employ. The space from which information and data sources utilized in this process is much expanded with respect to the algorithmic approach typically utilized in waste NDA. Expert system technology provides a mechanism to manage and reason with this expanded information/data set. The material presented in this paper concerns initial studies and a resultant prototype expert system that incorporates pertinent information, and evaluation logic and decision processes, for the purpose of validating acquired waste NDA measurement assays. 6 refs., 6 figs

  4. Development of an internal amplification control system for a real-time PCR assay for detection of Neisseria meningitidis in CSF and EDTA blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, Christopher J; Bell, Sydney M; Er, Noel

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assemble and assess a non-competitive internal amplification control (IAC) system targeting the Escherichia coli alanine racemase (alr) gene to include in a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for Neisseria meningitidis. Primers and hybridisation probes specific for the IAC were designed and assessed for specificity. Amplification efficiency and limit of detection for the assembled assay was extrapolated using standard curves constructed with serial dilutions of N. meningitidis in saline, pooled cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and EDTA blood. The 95% confidence limits (CI) were calculated for IAC crossing-points recorded for assays for N. meningitidis ctrA in saline (negative blank), and N. meningitides-negative samples of CSF and EDTA blood. These limits served as a reference range against which the IAC crossing-points recorded for prospective assays are compared to detect sample inhibition. This system was used in testing consecutive EDTA blood samples from two cases of meningococcal disease. The IAC system is specific for Escherichia coli and Shigella species. The amplification efficiency of the assembled assay for N. meningitidis and ability to detect low target DNA levels was not compromised with the inclusion of the IAC system. The IAC crossing-points varied in clinical samples of CSF and EDTA blood. The elucidated reference range for EDTA blood was used to detect sample inhibition in one of the two clinical cases investigated.The IAC system monitors the performance of all processes in the assembled assay for N. meningitidis. Measuring IAC crossing-points serves as an indicator of sample stability and inhibitory properties when testing single or multiple samples from the same patient. Specificity for E. coli and Shigella species enables inclusion in assays of different targets within the same laboratory. Reporting PCR assay results in the context of the IAC crossing-points and reference ranges validates against sample

  5. Process Control System Cyber Security Standards - An Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert P. Evans; V Stanley Scown; Rolf Carlson; Shabbir Shamsuddin; George Shaw; Jeff Dagle; Paul W Oman; Jeannine Schmidt

    2005-10-01

    The use of cyber security standards can greatly assist in the protection of critical infrastructure by providing guidelines and requisite imperatives in the implementation of computer-controlled systems. These standards are most effective when the engineers and operators using the standards understand what each of the standards addresses and does not address. This paper provides a review and comparison of ten documents dealing with control system cyber security. It is not meant to be a complete treatment of all applicable standards; rather, this is an exemplary analysis showing the benefits of comparing and contrasting differing documents.

  6. Development of a central nervous system axonal myelination assay for high throughput screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lariosa-Willingham, Karen D; Rosler, Elen S; Tung, Jay S; Dugas, Jason C; Collins, Tassie L; Leonoudakis, Dmitri

    2016-04-22

    Regeneration of new myelin is impaired in persistent multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions, leaving neurons unable to function properly and subject to further degeneration. Current MS therapies attempt to ameliorate autoimmune-mediated demyelination, but none directly promote the regeneration of lost and damaged myelin of the central nervous system (CNS). Development of new drugs that stimulate remyelination has been hampered by the inability to evaluate axonal myelination in a rapid CNS culture system. We established a high throughput cell-based assay to identify compounds that promote myelination. Culture methods were developed for initiating myelination in vitro using primary embryonic rat cortical cells. We developed an immunofluorescent phenotypic image analysis method to quantify the morphological alignment of myelin characteristic of the initiation of myelination. Using γ-secretase inhibitors as promoters of myelination, the optimal growth, time course and compound treatment conditions were established in a 96 well plate format. We have characterized the cortical myelination assay by evaluating the cellular composition of the cultures and expression of markers of differentiation over the time course of the assay. We have validated the assay scalability and consistency by screening the NIH clinical collection library of 727 compounds and identified ten compounds that promote myelination. Half maximal effective concentration (EC50) values for these compounds were determined to rank them according to potency. We have designed the first high capacity in vitro assay that assesses myelination of live axons. This assay will be ideal for screening large compound libraries to identify new drugs that stimulate myelination. Identification of agents capable of promoting the myelination of axons will likely lead to the development of new therapeutics for MS patients.

  7. Biopharmaceutics classification system: validation and learnings of an in vitro permeability assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel-Demby, Victoria E; Humphreys, Joan E; St John Williams, Lisa A; Ellens, Harma M; Shah, Nipa; Ayrton, Andrew D; Polli, Joseph W

    2009-01-01

    The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) is the scientific basis for classifying drugs based on their aqueous solubility and intestinal permeability that supports in vivo bioavailability and bioequivalence waivers for immediate-release solid dosage form drugs. One requirement of the BCS is that the permeability method must be validated. In order to accommodate the variety of in vitro/in situ permeability models, the BCS Guidance gives a general framework for the validation requirements, necessitating implemented experimental details to be selected by the applicant laboratory. The objective of this work was to define the parameters for a cell based in vitro permeability method (e.g., cell type, pH, transport direction, time, and concentration) and validate the method to support formal BCS classification of drugs. Twenty reference drugs were selected and permeability values determined using the Madin-Darby canine kidney type II cell line heterologously expressing the human P-glycoprotein transporter (MDCKII-MDR1). A rank order relationship was established between the in vitro permeability value and human intestinal absorption values. This relationship was as predicted and validates the MDCKII-MDR1 permeability method as defined by the BCS Guidance. The final validated in vitro permeability method employs the MDCKII-MDR1 cell line incubated with the Pgp inhibitor GF120918. It is a unidirectional apical-to-basolateral transport assay performed at apical pH values of 5.5 and 7.4 and a basolateral pH of 7.4. Four reference standards (metoprolol, pindolol, labetalol and ranitidine) dosed and analyzed as a single cassette are included in each experiment. A strategy on selection of drug concentrations and on how to deal with problematic compounds (i.e., those suffering from poor mass balance) is discussed.

  8. Hearing Aid–Related Standards and Test Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravn, Gert; Preves, David

    2015-01-01

    Many documents describe standardized methods and standard equipment requirements in the field of audiology and hearing aids. These standards will ensure a uniform level and a high quality of both the methods and equipment used in audiological work. The standards create the basis for measuring performance in a reproducible manner and independent from how and when and by whom parameters have been measured. This article explains, and focuses on, relevant acoustic and electromagnetic compatibility parameters and describes several test systems available. PMID:27516709

  9. Progress in standardization for ITER Remote Handling control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, David Thomas, E-mail: david.hamilton@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon, 13115 St. Paul-lez-Durance (France); Tesini, Alessandro [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon, 13115 St. Paul-lez-Durance (France); Ranz, Roberto [Fusion for Energy, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Josep Pla 2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Kozaka, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Naka, Ibaraki-ken 311-0193 (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Standard parts specified for ITER Remote Handling (RH) control system. • Standard approach for VR modeling of structural deformations in real-time. • RH Core System produced as standard platform for RH controller applications. • Synthetic Viewing investigated and demonstrated. • Structured language defined for RH operation procedures and motion sequences. - Abstract: An integrated control system architecture has been defined for the ITER Remote Handling (RH) equipment systems, and work has been continuing to develop and validate standards for this architecture. Evaluations of standard parts and a standard control room work-cell have contributed to an update of the RH Control System Design Handbook, while R and D activities have been carried out to validate concepts for standard solutions to ITER RH problems: the use of a standard master arm with different slave arms, the achievement of high accuracy tracking of RH operations within virtual reality, and condition monitoring of RH equipment systems. The standardization efforts have been consolidated through the development of a freely distributable software platform to support the adoption of the ITER RH standards. The RH Core System installs on top of the CODAC Core System and provides the basic platform for the development of ITER RH equipment controller applications. The standardization work has continued in the areas of RH viewing, network communication protocols, and a structured language for programming ITER RH operations. Prototyping has been done on high-level control system applications, and R and D has been carried out in the area of synthetic viewing for ITER RH. These developments will be reflected in a new version of the RH Core System to be produced during 2013.

  10. A Standard System to Study Vertebrate Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneburg, Ingmar

    2009-01-01

    Staged embryonic series are important as reference for different kinds of biological studies. I summarise problems that occur when using ‘staging tables’ of ‘model organisms’. Investigations of developmental processes in a broad scope of taxa are becoming commonplace. Beginning in the 1990s, methods were developed to quantify and analyse developmental events in a phylogenetic framework. The algorithms associated with these methods are still under development, mainly due to difficulties of using non-independent characters. Nevertheless, the principle of comparing clearly defined newly occurring morphological features in development (events) in quantifying analyses was a key innovation for comparative embryonic research. Up to date no standard was set for how to define such events in a comparative approach. As a case study I compared the external development of 23 land vertebrate species with a focus on turtles, mainly based on reference staging tables. I excluded all the characters that are only identical for a particular species or general features that were only analysed in a few species. Based on these comparisons I defined 104 developmental characters that are common either for all vertebrates (61 characters), gnathostomes (26), tetrapods (3), amniotes (7), or only for sauropsids (7). Characters concern the neural tube, somite, ear, eye, limb, maxillary and mandibular process, pharyngeal arch, eyelid or carapace development. I present an illustrated guide listing all the defined events. This guide can be used for describing developmental series of any vertebrate species or for documenting specimen variability of a particular species. The guide incorporates drawings and photographs as well as consideration of species identifying developmental features such as colouration. The simple character-code of the guide is extendable to further characters pertaining to external and internal morphological, physiological, genetic or molecular development, and also

  11. A standard system to study vertebrate embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar Werneburg

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Staged embryonic series are important as reference for different kinds of biological studies. I summarise problems that occur when using 'staging tables' of 'model organisms'. Investigations of developmental processes in a broad scope of taxa are becoming commonplace. Beginning in the 1990s, methods were developed to quantify and analyse developmental events in a phylogenetic framework. The algorithms associated with these methods are still under development, mainly due to difficulties of using non-independent characters. Nevertheless, the principle of comparing clearly defined newly occurring morphological features in development (events in quantifying analyses was a key innovation for comparative embryonic research. Up to date no standard was set for how to define such events in a comparative approach. As a case study I compared the external development of 23 land vertebrate species with a focus on turtles, mainly based on reference staging tables. I excluded all the characters that are only identical for a particular species or general features that were only analysed in a few species. Based on these comparisons I defined 104 developmental characters that are common either for all vertebrates (61 characters, gnathostomes (26, tetrapods (3, amniotes (7, or only for sauropsids (7. Characters concern the neural tube, somite, ear, eye, limb, maxillary and mandibular process, pharyngeal arch, eyelid or carapace development. I present an illustrated guide listing all the defined events. This guide can be used for describing developmental series of any vertebrate species or for documenting specimen variability of a particular species. The guide incorporates drawings and photographs as well as consideration of species identifying developmental features such as colouration. The simple character-code of the guide is extendable to further characters pertaining to external and internal morphological, physiological, genetic or molecular development, and

  12. 45 CFR 2543.21 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for financial management systems. 2543... OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 2543.21 Standards for financial management systems. (a) Federal awarding agencies shall require recipients to relate...

  13. 32 CFR 34.11 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for financial management systems. 34... ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 34.11 Standards for financial management systems. (a) Recipients shall be allowed and encouraged to use existing financial management...

  14. 24 CFR 84.21 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standards for financial management... and Program Management § 84.21 Standards for financial management systems. (a) HUD shall require.... (b) Recipients' financial management systems shall provide for the following: (1) Accurate, current...

  15. 7 CFR 550.20 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standards for financial management systems. 550.20... Management of Agreements Financial Management § 550.20 Standards for financial management systems. (a) REE agencies shall require Cooperators to relate financial data to performance data. (b) Cooperators' financial...

  16. 36 CFR 1210.21 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Program Management § 1210.21 Standards for financial management systems. (a) The NHPRC shall require.... (b) Recipients' financial management systems shall provide for the following. (1) Accurate, current... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for financial...

  17. 38 CFR 49.21 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Program Management § 49.21 Standards for financial management systems. (a) Federal awarding agencies shall... practical. (b) Recipients' financial management systems shall provide for the following. (1) Accurate... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for financial...

  18. 22 CFR 518.21 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Standards for financial management systems. 518... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 518.21 Standards for financial management systems. (a) Federal awarding agencies shall require recipients to relate financial data to...

  19. 40 CFR 30.21 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for financial management... Program Management § 30.21 Standards for financial management systems. (a) EPA shall require recipients to...) Recipients' financial management systems shall provide for the following. (1) Accurate, current and complete...

  20. 29 CFR 1470.20 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for financial management systems. 1470.20 Section... Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1470.20 Standards for financial management systems... expending and accounting for its own funds. Fiscal control and accounting procedures of the State, as well...

  1. 20 CFR 437.20 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standards for financial management systems... Financial Administration § 437.20 Standards for financial management systems. (a) A State must expend and... own funds. Fiscal control and accounting procedures of the State, as well as its subgrantees and cost...

  2. 34 CFR 80.20 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for financial management systems. 80.20... Financial Administration § 80.20 Standards for financial management systems. (a) A State must expand and... own funds. Fiscal control and accounting procedures of the State, as well as its subgrantees and cost...

  3. 29 CFR 97.20 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards for financial management systems. 97.20 Section 97... Standards for financial management systems. (a) A State must expand and account for grant funds in accordance with State laws and procedures for expending and accounting for its own funds. Fiscal control and...

  4. 45 CFR 92.20 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for financial management systems. 92.20...-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 92.20 Standards for financial management systems. (a) A... and accounting for its own funds. Fiscal control and accounting procedures of the State, as well as...

  5. 45 CFR 1174.20 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for financial management systems. 1174... Financial Administration § 1174.20 Standards for financial management systems. (a) A State must expand and... own funds. Fiscal control and accounting procedures of the State, as well as its subgrantees and cost...

  6. 7 CFR 3016.20 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standards for financial management systems. 3016.20... Standards for financial management systems. (a) A State must expand and account for grant funds in accordance with State laws and procedures for expending and accounting for its own funds. Fiscal control and...

  7. 45 CFR 1157.20 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for financial management systems. 1157... Administration § 1157.20 Standards for financial management systems. (a) A State must expand and account for.... Fiscal control and accounting procedures of the State, as well as its subgrantees and cost-type...

  8. 45 CFR 1183.20 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for financial management systems. 1183... Financial Administration § 1183.20 Standards for financial management systems. (a) A State must expand and... own funds. Fiscal control and accounting procedures of the State, as well as its subgrantees and cost...

  9. 45 CFR 602.20 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for financial management systems. 602.20... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements § 602.20 Standards for financial management systems. (a) A State must... accounting for its own funds. Fiscal control and accounting procedures of the State, as well as its...

  10. 49 CFR 18.20 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for financial management systems. 18.20... Administration § 18.20 Standards for financial management systems. (a) A State must expand and account for grant.... Fiscal control and accounting procedures of the State, as well as its subgrantees and cost-type...

  11. 10 CFR 600.220 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standards for financial management systems. 600.220... Post-Award Requirements § 600.220 Standards for financial management systems. (a) A State must expend... for its own funds. Fiscal control and accounting procedures of the State, as well as its subgrantees...

  12. 21 CFR 1403.20 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standards for financial management systems. 1403... Financial Administration § 1403.20 Standards for financial management systems. (a) A State must expend and... own funds. Fiscal control and accounting procedures of the State, as well as its subgrantees and cost...

  13. 22 CFR 135.20 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standards for financial management systems. 135... Financial Administration § 135.20 Standards for financial management systems. (a) A State must expand and... own funds. Fiscal control and accounting procedures of the State, as well as its subgrantees and cost...

  14. 14 CFR 1273.20 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standards for financial management systems... Requirements Financial Administration § 1273.20 Standards for financial management systems. (a) A State must... accounting for its own funds. Fiscal control and accounting procedures of the State, as well as its...

  15. 46 CFR 154.1305 - Liquid level gauging system: Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... at least one liquid level gauging system that is operable: (1) At pressures up to, and including, the... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquid level gauging system: Standards. 154.1305 Section... CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and...

  16. 43 CFR 12.60 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for financial management systems... AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Uniform Administrative Requirements for... Standards for financial management systems. (a) A State must expand and account for grant funds in...

  17. Emerging standards with application to accelerator safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, K.L.; Robertson, H.P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses international standards which can be applied to the requirements for accelerator personnel safety systems. Particular emphasis is given to standards which specify requirements for safety interlock systems which employ programmable electronic subsystems. The work draws on methodologies currently under development for the medical, process control, and nuclear industries

  18. Multi-isotopic gamma-ray assay system for alpha-contaminated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, D.A.; Pratt, J.C.; Caldwell, J.T.; Kunz, W.E.; Schultz, F.J.; Haff, K.W.

    1983-01-01

    The capability of an existing segmented gamma-ray system is being expanded for the analysis of alpha-contaminated waste drums. A cursory assay of 114 transuranic waste drums of 208-l capacity has been made. Analysis of these data indicates a detection limit better than 100 nCi/g of waste for 237 Np/ 233 Pa, 239 Pu, 241 Am, 243 Am/ 239 Np, 60 Co, 125 Sb, 134 137 Cs, and 154 Eu. A pending Code of Federal Regulation (10CFR61) stipulates that the nuclear industry quantify not only its transuranic waste, but also certain beta- and gamma-ray-emitting fission products. An assay system based on gamma-ray spectroscopy is the only system that can meet this requirement for the fission products

  19. Evaluation of real-time PCR assays and standard curve optimisation for enhanced accuracy in quantification of Campylobacter environmental water isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin-Théberge, Maxime; Taboada, Eduardo; Guy, Rebecca A

    2016-10-01

    Campylobacter is a major public health and economic burden in developed and developing countries. This study evaluated published real-time PCR (qPCR) assays for detection of Campylobacter to enable selection of the best assays for quantification of C. spp. and C. jejuni in environmental water samples. A total of 9 assays were compared: three for thermotolerant C. spp. targeting the 16S rRNA and six for C. jejuni targeting different genes. These assays were tested in the wet-lab for specificity and sensitivity against a collection of 60, genetically diverse, Campylobacter isolates from environmental water. All three qPCR assays targeting C. spp. were positive when tested against the 60 isolates, whereas, assays targeting C. jejuni differed among each other in terms of specificity and sensitivity. Three C. jejuni-specific assays that demonstrated good specificity and sensitivity when tested in the wet-lab showed concordant results with in silico-predicted results obtained against a set of 211 C. jejuni and C. coli genome sequences. Two of the assays targeting C. spp. and C. jejuni were selected to compare DNA concentration estimation, using spectrophotometry and digital PCR (dPCR), in order to calibrate standard curves (SC) for greater accuracy of qPCR-based quantification. Average differences of 0.56±0.12 and 0.51±0.11 log fold copies were observed between the spectrophotometry-based SC preparation and the dPCR preparation for C. spp. and C. jejuni, respectively, demonstrating an over-estimation of Campylobacter concentration when spectrophotometry was used to calibrate the DNA SCs. Our work showed differences in quantification of aquatic environmental isolates of Campylobacter between qPCR assays and method-specific bias in SC preparation. This study provided an objective analysis of qPCR assays targeting Campylobacter in the literature and provides a framework for evaluating novel assays. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. NASA's Standards Process for Earth Science Data Systems (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, R.; Enloe, Y.

    2009-12-01

    NASA’s Standards Process Group (SPG) facilitates the recommendation of proposed standards that have proven implementation and operational benefit for use in NASA’s Earth science data systems and also reviews and endorses different types of best practices and implementation experiences as Technical Notes. After some initial experience in approving proposed standards, the SPG has tailored its Standards Process to remove redundant reviews to shorten the review process and to improve the Standards Process. The Standards Process can accelerate the evolution of practices through better communication from successful practice in a specific community to broader community adoption to community-recognized standards. We note the contrast to other international standards organizations that develop standards instead of adopting already developed practices. For each endorsed standard, the availability of high quality documentation for the standard, available reusable software, and information about successful operational experience with the use of the standard will help bridge the chasm from innovative use by visionary practitioners to more popular use by pragmatic users. We will discuss real examples of the different types of candidate standards, best practices and implementation experiences that have been documented, proposed and endorsed. We will also discuss future directions for the NASA Standards Process as it applies to NASA’s planned Decadal Survey missions.

  1. Validation of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing assay with 49 SNPs for forensic genetic testing in a laboratory accredited according to the ISO 17025 standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Rockenbauer, Eszter; Morling, Niels

    2009-01-01

    cases and 33 twin cases were typed at least twice for the 49 SNPs. All electropherograms were analysed independently by two expert analysts prior to approval. Based on these results, detailed guidelines for analysis of the SBE products were developed. With these guidelines, the peak height ratio...... of a heterozygous allele call or the signal to noise ratio of a homozygous allele call is compared with previously obtained ratios. A laboratory protocol for analysis of SBE products was developed where allele calls with unusual ratios were highlighted to facilitate the analysis of difficult allele calls......A multiplex assay with 49 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) developed for human identification was validated for forensic genetic casework and accredited according to the ISO 17025 standard. The multiplex assay was based on the SNPforID 52plex SNP assay [J.J. Sanchez, C. Phillips, C...

  2. Cloud Computing for Standard ERP Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Petra; Adisa, Femi

    Cloud Computing is a topic that has gained momentum in the last years. Current studies show that an increasing number of companies is evaluating the promised advantages and considering making use of cloud services. In this paper we investigate the phenomenon of cloud computing and its importance...... for the operation of ERP systems. We argue that the phenomenon of cloud computing could lead to a decisive change in the way business software is deployed in companies. Our reference framework contains three levels (IaaS, PaaS, SaaS) and clarifies the meaning of public, private and hybrid clouds. The three levels...... of cloud computing and their impact on ERP systems operation are discussed. From the literature we identify areas for future research and propose a research agenda....

  3. Test System for Standard ALICE DCS Components

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2160773

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the ALICE DCS project is supervising equipment installed in the ALICE experiment site at CERN. Hence, the aim of this project was to provide a test bench in the DCS lab, where a real equipment and software tools will be deployed. Using this test bench, test procedures which exercise the devices under the test in a configurable way and provide logging and trending of the acquired data were implemented. The setup was devised using the ALICE software framework and Siemens SCADA system WINCC OA, providing the same functionality as the systems installed in ALICE, and will be used for the commissioning of the new software and hardware, burn-in tests of new modules and log-term stability tests of ALICE hardware.

  4. Comparative Study of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Serological Assays Using Clinically and Serologically Defined Reference Standards and Latent Class Analysis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Maria Claudia; de Souza, Vanda Akico; Sumita, Laura Masami; Freire, Wilton; Munoz, Fernando; Kim, Joseph; Pannuti, Claudio S.; Mayaud, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Accurate determination of infection with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) has been hindered by the lack of a “gold standard” for comparison of serological assays used to estimate KSHV prevalence in serosurveys conducted in different settings. We have evaluated the performance of five in-house (developed at University College London [UCL], United Kingdom, and at the virology laboratory of the Instituto de Medicine Tropical [IMT] in Sao Paulo, Brazil) and two commercial (ABI and DIAVIR) serological assays to detect antibodies to latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) and to lytic KSHV antigens. We used a variety of serum samples assembled to represent populations likely to be at high, intermediate, and low risk of KSHV infection in Brazil. Composite reference standard panels were prepared based on clinical and serological parameters, against which assay performances were assessed using conventional Bayesian statistics and latent class analysis (LCA). Against the clinical reference standard, in-house immunofluorescence assays to detect anti-LANA antibodies (IFA-LANA) produced at UCL and IMT had similar performances, with sensitivities of 61% (95% confidence interval [CI], 48% to 74%) and 72% (95% CI, 58% to 83%) and specificities of 99% (95% CI, 94% to 100%) and 100% (95% CI, 96% to 100%), respectively, and only the IMT IFA-LANA was included in LCA, together with the IMT IFA-lytic and four enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The LCA indicated that the IMT whole-virus ELISA performed best (sensitivity, 87% [95% CI, 81% to 91%]; and specificity, 100% [95% CI, 98% to 100%]), confirming the results obtained with the conventional statistical approach. Commercially available ELISA-based tests yielded the lowest specificities using a spectrum of serum samples. The evaluation of KSHV serological assays is warranted before planning serosurveys in various settings. PMID:17182752

  5. Quantitative monitoring of HCMV DNAlactia in human milk by real time PCR assay: Implementation of internal control contributes to standardization and quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartleif, Steffen; Göhring, Katharina; Goelz, Rangmar; Jahn, Gerhard; Hamprecht, Klaus

    2016-11-01

    For cytomegalovirus screening of breastfeeding mothers of preterm infants under risk, we present a rapid, quantitative real-time PCR protocol using the hybridization format of the viral gB target region. For quantification, we used an external gB fragment cloned into a vector system. For standardization, we created an internal control-plasmid by site-directed mutagenesis with an exchange of 9 nucleotides. Spiked with internal control, patient wildtype amplicons could be discriminated from internal controls by hybridization probes using two-channel fluorescence detection. Potential bias of formerly reported false nucleotide sequence data of gB-hybridization probes was excluded. Using this approach, we could demonstrate excellent analytical performance and high reproducibility of HCMV detection during lactation. This assay shows very good correlation with a commercial quantitative HCMV DNA PCR and may help to identify rapidly HCMV shedding mothers of very low birth weight preterm infants to prevent HCMV transmission. On the other hand, negative DNA amplification results allow feeding of milk samples of seropositive mothers to their preterm infants under risk (<30 weeks of gestational age, <1000g birth weight) during the onset and late stage of HCMV shedding during lactation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Help for the Developers of Control System Cyber Security Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert P. Evans

    2008-05-01

    A Catalog of Control Systems Security: Recommendations for Standards Developers (Catalog), aimed at assisting organizations to facilitate the development and implementation of control system cyber security standards, has been developed. This catalog contains requirements that can help protect control systems from cyber attacks and can be applied to the Critical Infrastructures and Key Resources of the United States and other nations. The requirements contained in the catalog are a compilation of practices or various industry bodies used to increase the security of control systems from both physical and cyber attacks. They should be viewed as a collection of recommendations to be considered and judiciously employed, as appropriate, when reviewing and developing cyber security standards for control systems. The recommendations in the Catalog are intended to be broad enough to provide any industry using control systems the flexibility needed to develop sound cyber security standards specific to their individual security requirements.

  7. A study of the incubation of microbead agglutination assays in a microfluidic system

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, David

    2016-12-19

    This work reports on a quantitative study of the incubation of a microbead-based agglutination assay inside a microfluidic system. In this system, a droplet (1.25µL) consisting of a mixture of functionalized microbeads and analyte is flowed through a 0.51mm internal diameter silicone tube. Hydrodynamic forces alone produce a very efficient mixing of the beads within the droplet. We tested the agglutination at different speeds and show a robust response at the higher range of speeds (150 – 200µL/min), while also reaching a completion in the agglutination process. At these velocities, a length of 180cm is shown to be sufficient to confidently measure the agglutination assay, which takes between 2.5 – 3 minutes. This high throughput quantification method has the potential of accelerating the measurements of various types of biomarkers, which can greatly benefit the fields of biology and medicine.

  8. Comparison of mRNA splicing assay protocols across multiple laboratories: recommendations for best practice in standardized clinical testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Phillip J; de la Hoya, Miguel; Thomassen, Mads; Becker, Alexandra; Brandão, Rita; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Montagna, Marco; Menéndez, Mireia; Quiles, Francisco; Gutiérrez-Enríquez, Sara; De Leeneer, Kim; Tenés, Anna; Montalban, Gemma; Tserpelis, Demis; Yoshimatsu, Toshio; Tirapo, Carole; Raponi, Michela; Caldes, Trinidad; Blanco, Ana; Santamariña, Marta; Guidugli, Lucia; de Garibay, Gorka Ruiz; Wong, Ming; Tancredi, Mariella; Fachal, Laura; Ding, Yuan Chun; Kruse, Torben; Lattimore, Vanessa; Kwong, Ava; Chan, Tsun Leung; Colombo, Mara; De Vecchi, Giovanni; Caligo, Maria; Baralle, Diana; Lázaro, Conxi; Couch, Fergus; Radice, Paolo; Southey, Melissa C; Neuhausen, Susan; Houdayer, Claude; Fackenthal, Jim; Hansen, Thomas Van Overeem; Vega, Ana; Diez, Orland; Blok, Rien; Claes, Kathleen; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Walker, Logan; Spurdle, Amanda B; Brown, Melissa A

    2014-02-01

    Accurate evaluation of unclassified sequence variants in cancer predisposition genes is essential for clinical management and depends on a multifactorial analysis of clinical, genetic, pathologic, and bioinformatic variables and assays of transcript length and abundance. The integrity of assay data in turn relies on appropriate assay design, interpretation, and reporting. We conducted a multicenter investigation to compare mRNA splicing assay protocols used by members of the ENIGMA (Evidence-Based Network for the Interpretation of Germline Mutant Alleles) consortium. We compared similarities and differences in results derived from analysis of a panel of breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) and breast cancer 2, early onset (BRCA2) gene variants known to alter splicing (BRCA1: c.135-1G>T, c.591C>T, c.594-2A>C, c.671-2A>G, and c.5467+5G>C and BRCA2: c.426-12_8delGTTTT, c.7988A>T, c.8632+1G>A, and c.9501+3A>T). Differences in protocols were then assessed to determine which elements were critical in reliable assay design. PCR primer design strategies, PCR conditions, and product detection methods, combined with a prior knowledge of expected alternative transcripts, were the key factors for accurate splicing assay results. For example, because of the position of primers and PCR extension times, several isoforms associated with BRCA1, c.594-2A>C and c.671-2A>G, were not detected by many sites. Variation was most evident for the detection of low-abundance transcripts (e.g., BRCA2 c.8632+1G>A Δ19,20 and BRCA1 c.135-1G>T Δ5q and Δ3). Detection of low-abundance transcripts was sometimes addressed by using more analytically sensitive detection methods (e.g., BRCA2 c.426-12_8delGTTTT ins18bp). We provide recommendations for best practice and raise key issues to consider when designing mRNA assays for evaluation of unclassified sequence variants.

  9. 40 CFR 35.6270 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 35.6270 Standards for financial management systems. (a) Accounting system standards—(1) General. The... Agreement. (6) Accounting system control procedures. Except as provided for in paragraph (a)(3) of this section, accounting system control procedures must ensure that accounting information is: (i) Accurate...

  10. Estimation of systemic catecholamine levels, in the Edible frog, using a radioenzymatic assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeois, Philippe; Dupont, Willy; Vaillant, Rene

    1978-01-01

    We have developed a radio-enzymatic assay for systemic catecholamines in the Frog. Such are its specificity and sensibility that adrenaline and noradrenaline may be measured in 50 μl of plasma samples, the withdrawal of which strongly influenced the results. The smaller values were obtained in plasma withdrawn from canulated animals. In this case, adrenaline was the major catecholamine in the plasma: 190 +- 55 ng/100 ml versus 35 +- 18 ng/100 ml for noradreline [fr

  11. Reliability Standards of Complex Engineering Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galperin, E. M.; Zayko, V. A.; Gorshkalev, P. A.

    2017-11-01

    Production and manufacture play an important role in today’s modern society. Industrial production is nowadays characterized by increased and complex communications between its parts. The problem of preventing accidents in a large industrial enterprise becomes especially relevant. In these circumstances, the reliability of enterprise functioning is of particular importance. Potential damage caused by an accident at such enterprise may lead to substantial material losses and, in some cases, can even cause a loss of human lives. That is why industrial enterprise functioning reliability is immensely important. In terms of their reliability, industrial facilities (objects) are divided into simple and complex. Simple objects are characterized by only two conditions: operable and non-operable. A complex object exists in more than two conditions. The main characteristic here is the stability of its operation. This paper develops the reliability indicator combining the set theory methodology and a state space method. Both are widely used to analyze dynamically developing probability processes. The research also introduces a set of reliability indicators for complex technical systems.

  12. Management system - correlation study between new IAEA standards and the market standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Dirceu Paulo de [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Ipero, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: dirceupo@hotmail.com; Zouain, Desiree Moraes [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: dmzouain@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    In order to answer the growing concern of society with respect of the aspects that affect the quality of life, international and national regulatory bodies have developed standards that enable organizations to establish management systems for quality, environment and sustainable development, health, safety and social responsibility, among other functions. Within this context it is necessary to structure an integrated management system that promotes interests compatibility of several distinct and complementary functions involved. Considering this vision of the management system integration, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) decided to review the structure of safety standards on Quality Assurance - code and guides 50-C/SGQ1/ 14:1996, publishing, in 2006, IAEA GS-R-3 and IAEA GS-G-3.1 standards, enlarging the management approach of the previous standards, including the possibility of integrating the functions foremost mentioned. This paper presents the results about a correlation study between IAEA management system standards - IAEA GS-R-3: 2006, IAEA GS-G-3.1: 2006 and IAEA DS349 rev. 2007, this latter still a draft standard, with those market management system standards on quality - ISO 9001:2008, environmental - ISO 14001:2004, and occupational health and safety - BS OHSAS 18001:2007, identifying gaps, redundancies and complementarities among their requirements and guidances. The purpose of the study is to provide subsidies that could contribute to the structuring of a management system to nuclear facilities that satisfies, in an integrated manner, the common and complementary requirements and guidances of IAEA and market standards. (author)

  13. Management system - correlation study between new IAEA standards and the market standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Dirceu Paulo de; Zouain, Desiree Moraes

    2009-01-01

    In order to answer the growing concern of society with respect of the aspects that affect the quality of life, international and national regulatory bodies have developed standards that enable organizations to establish management systems for quality, environment and sustainable development, health, safety and social responsibility, among other functions. Within this context it is necessary to structure an integrated management system that promotes interests compatibility of several distinct and complementary functions involved. Considering this vision of the management system integration, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) decided to review the structure of safety standards on Quality Assurance - code and guides 50-C/SGQ1/ 14:1996, publishing, in 2006, IAEA GS-R-3 and IAEA GS-G-3.1 standards, enlarging the management approach of the previous standards, including the possibility of integrating the functions foremost mentioned. This paper presents the results about a correlation study between IAEA management system standards - IAEA GS-R-3: 2006, IAEA GS-G-3.1: 2006 and IAEA DS349 rev. 2007, this latter still a draft standard, with those market management system standards on quality - ISO 9001:2008, environmental - ISO 14001:2004, and occupational health and safety - BS OHSAS 18001:2007, identifying gaps, redundancies and complementarities among their requirements and guidances. The purpose of the study is to provide subsidies that could contribute to the structuring of a management system to nuclear facilities that satisfies, in an integrated manner, the common and complementary requirements and guidances of IAEA and market standards. (author)

  14. Development of a recombinant DNA assay system for the detection of genetic change in astronauts' cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atchley, S.V.; Chen, D.J.C.; Strniste, G.F.; Walters, R.A.; Moyzis, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    We are developing a new recombinant DNA system for the detection and measurement of genetic change in humans caused by exposure to low level ionizing radiation. A unique feature of the method is the use of cloned repetitive DNA probes to assay human DNA for structural changes during or after irradiation. Repetitive sequences exist in different families. Collectively they constitute over 25% of the DNA in a human cell. Repeat families have between 10 and 500,000 members. We have constructed repetitive DNA sequence libraries using recombinant DNA techniques. From these libraries we have isolated and characterized individual repeats comprising 75 to 90% of the mass of human repetitive DNA. Repeats used in our assay system exist in tandem arrays in the genome. Perturbation of these sequences in a cell, followed by detection with a repeat probe, produces a new, multimeric ''ladder'' pattern on an autoradiogram. The repeat probe used in our initial study is complementary to 1% of human DNA. Therefore, the sensitivity of this method is several orders of magnitude better than existing assays. Preliminary evidence from human skin cells exposed to acute, low-dose x-ray treatments indicates that DNA is affected at a dose as low as 5R. The radiation doses used in this system are well within the range of doses received by astronauts during spaceflight missions. Due to its small material requirements, this technique could easily be adapted for use in space. 16 refs., 1 fig

  15. Assessing cellulolysis in passive treatment systems for mine drainage: a modified enzyme assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Corina M; Gould, W Douglas; Lindsay, Matthew B J; Blowes, David W; Ptacek, Carol J; Condon, Peter D

    2013-01-01

    A modified cellulase enzyme assay was developed to monitor organic matter degradation in passive treatment systems for mine drainage. This fluorogenic substrate method facilitates assessment of exo-(1,4)-β-D-glucanase, endo-(1,4)-β-D-glucanase, and β-glucosidase, which compose an important cellulase enzyme system. The modified method was developed and refined using samples of organic carbon-amended mine tailings from field experiments where sulfate reduction was induced as a strategy for managing water quality. Sample masses (3 g) and the number of replicates ( ≥ 3) were optimized. Matrix interferences within these metal-rich samples were found to be insignificant. Application of this modified cellulase assay method provided insight into the availability and degradation of organic carbon within the amended tailings. Results of this study indicate that cellulase enzyme assays can be applied to passive treatment systems for mine drainage, which commonly contain elevated concentrations of metals. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  16. Evaluation of an automated connective tissue disease screening assay in Korean patients with systemic rheumatic diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seri Jeong

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic utilities of the automated connective tissues disease screening assay, CTD screen, in patients with systemic rheumatic diseases. A total of 1093 serum samples were assayed using CTD screen and indirect immunofluorescent (IIF methods. Among them, 162 were diagnosed with systemic rheumatic disease, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, and mixed connective tissue disease (MCT. The remaining 931 with non-systemic rheumatic disease were assigned to the control group. The median ratios of CTD screen tests were significantly higher in the systemic rheumatic disease group than in the control group. The positive likelihood ratios of the CTD screen were higher than those of IIF in patients with total rheumatic diseases (4.1 vs. 1.6, including SLE (24.3 vs. 10.7. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC-AUCs of the CTD screen for discriminating total rheumatic diseases, RA, SLE, and MCT from controls were 0.68, 0.56, 0.92 and 0.80, respectively. The ROC-AUCs of the combinations with IIF were significantly higher in patients with total rheumatic diseases (0.72 and MCT (0.85 than in those of the CTD screen alone. Multivariate analysis indicated that both the CTD screen and IIF were independent variables for predicting systemic rheumatic disease. CTD screen alone and in combination with IIF were a valuable diagnostic tool for predicting systemic rheumatic diseases, particularly for SLE.

  17. Specifications of Standards in Systems and Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Falk; Bader, Gary D; Golebiewski, Martin; Hucka, Michael; Kormeier, Benjamin; Le Novère, Nicolas; Myers, Chris; Nickerson, David; Sommer, Björn; Waltemath, Dagmar; Weise, Stephan

    2015-09-04

    Standards shape our everyday life. From nuts and bolts to electronic devices and technological processes, standardised products and processes are all around us. Standards have technological and economic benefits, such as making information exchange, production, and services more efficient. However, novel, innovative areas often either lack proper standards, or documents about standards in these areas are not available from a centralised platform or formal body (such as the International Standardisation Organisation). Systems and synthetic biology is a relatively novel area, and it is only in the last decade that the standardisation of data, information, and models related to systems and synthetic biology has become a community-wide effort. Several open standards have been established and are under continuous development as a community initiative. COMBINE, the ‘COmputational Modeling in BIology’ NEtwork has been established as an umbrella initiative to coordinate and promote the development of the various community standards and formats for computational models. There are yearly two meeting, HARMONY (Hackathons on Resources for Modeling in Biology), Hackathon-type meetings with a focus on development of the support for standards, and COMBINE forums, workshop-style events with oral presentations, discussion, poster, and breakout sessions for further developing the standards. For more information see http://co.mbine.org/. So far the different standards were published and made accessible through the standards’ web- pages or preprint services. The aim of this special issue is to provide a single, easily accessible and citable platform for the publication of standards in systems and synthetic biology. This special issue is intended to serve as a central access point to standards and related initiatives in systems and synthetic biology, it will be published annually to provide an opportunity for standard development groups to communicate updated specifications.

  18. Standard Evaluation Procedures (SEPs) and Data Entry Spreadsheet Templates (DESTs) for Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) Tier 1 Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides information and access to Standard Evaluation Procedures (SEPs) and Data Entry Spreadsheet Templates (DESTs) developed by EPA's Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention (OCSPP).

  19. Use of external metabolizing systems when testing for endocrine disruption in the T-screen assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Nellemann, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Although, it is well-established that information on the metabolism of a substance is important in the evaluation of its toxic potential, there is limited experience with incorporating metabolic aspects into in vitro tests for endocrine disrupters. The aim of the current study was a) to study different in vitro systems for biotransformation of ten known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDs): five azole fungicides, three parabens and 2 phthalates, b) to determine possible changes in the ability of the EDs to bind and activate the thyroid receptor (TR) in the in vitro T-screen assay after biotransformation and c) to investigate the endogenous metabolic capacity of the GH3 cells, the cell line used in the T-screen assay, which is a proliferation assay used for the in vitro detection of agonistic and antagonistic properties of compounds at the level of the TR. The two in vitro metabolizing systems tested the human liver S9 mix and the PCB-induced rat microsomes gave an almost complete metabolic transformation of the tested parabens and phthalates. No marked difference the effects in the T-screen assay was observed between the parent compounds and the effects of the tested metabolic extracts. The GH3 cells themselves significantly metabolized the two tested phthalates dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP). Overall the results and qualitative data from the current study show that an in vitro metabolizing system using liver S9 or microsomes could be a convenient method for the incorporation of metabolic and toxicokinetic aspects into in vitro testing for endocrine disrupting effects.

  20. Heterogeneous information network model for equipment-standard system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Liang; Shi, Li-Chen; Zhao, Jun-Yan; Du, Song-Yang; Xie, Wen-Bo; Yuan, Fei; Chen, Duan-Bing

    2018-01-01

    Entity information network is used to describe structural relationships between entities. Taking advantage of its extension and heterogeneity, entity information network is more and more widely applied to relationship modeling. Recent years, lots of researches about entity information network modeling have been proposed, while seldom of them concentrate on equipment-standard system with properties of multi-layer, multi-dimension and multi-scale. In order to efficiently deal with some complex issues in equipment-standard system such as standard revising, standard controlling, and production designing, a heterogeneous information network model for equipment-standard system is proposed in this paper. Three types of entities and six types of relationships are considered in the proposed model. Correspondingly, several different similarity-measuring methods are used in the modeling process. The experiments show that the heterogeneous information network model established in this paper can reflect relationships between entities accurately. Meanwhile, the modeling process has a good performance on time consumption.

  1. Size- and coating-dependent cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles evaluated using in vitro standard assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoqing; Li, Yan; Yan, Jian; Ingle, Taylor; Jones, Margie Yvonne; Mei, Nan; Boudreau, Mary D; Cunningham, Candice K; Abbas, Mazhar; Paredes, Angel M; Zhou, Tong; Moore, Martha M; Howard, Paul C; Chen, Tao

    2016-11-01

    The physicochemical characteristics of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) may greatly alter their toxicological potential. To explore the effects of size and coating on the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of AgNPs, six different types of AgNPs, having three different sizes and two different coatings, were investigated using the Ames test, mouse lymphoma assay (MLA) and in vitro micronucleus assay. The genotoxicities of silver acetate and silver nitrate were evaluated to compare the genotoxicity of nanosilver to that of ionic silver. The Ames test produced inconclusive results for all types of the silver materials due to the high toxicity of silver to the test bacteria and the lack of entry of the nanoparticles into the cells. Treatment of L5718Y cells with AgNPs and ionic silver resulted in concentration-dependent cytotoxicity, mutagenicity in the Tk gene and the induction of micronuclei from exposure to nearly every type of the silver materials. Treatment of TK6 cells with these silver materials also resulted in concentration-dependent cytotoxicity and significantly increased micronucleus frequency. With both the MLA and micronucleus assays, the smaller the AgNPs, the greater the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. The coatings had less effect on the relative genotoxicity of AgNPs than the particle size. Loss of heterozygosity analysis of the induced Tk mutants indicated that the types of mutations induced by AgNPs were different from those of ionic silver. These results suggest that AgNPs induce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in a size- and coating-dependent manner. Furthermore, while the MLA and in vitro micronucleus assay (in both types of cells) are useful to quantitatively measure the genotoxic potencies of AgNPs, the Ames test cannot.

  2. 15 CFR 14.21 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standards for financial management...-PROFIT, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 14.21 Standards for financial management systems. (a) The Grants Officer shall require recipients to relate...

  3. 28 CFR 70.21 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for financial management..., HOSPITALS AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 70.21 Standards for financial management systems. (a) Recipients must relate financial data to...

  4. System 80+trademark Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. This document describes the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+trademark Standard Design. This volume contains sections 12 thru 16 of Chapter 19 -- Probabilistic Risk Assessment. Topics covered are: containment response analysis; consequence analysis; containment response and consequence analysis sensitivity analysis; summary and conclusions; and references

  5. A reporter system for assaying influenza virus RNP functionality based on secreted Gaussia luciferase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xiaobing

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza A virus can infect a wide variety of animal species including humans, pigs, birds and other species. Viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP was involved in genome replication, transcription and host adaptation. Currently, firefly luciferase (Fluc reporter system was used in vRNP functional assay. However, its limitation for the testing by virus infection resulted in an increased need for rapid, sensitive, and biosafe techniques. Here, an influenza A virus UTR-driven gene reporter for vRNP assay based on secreted Gaussia luciferase (Gluc activity was evaluated. Results By measuring Gluc levels in supernatants, reporter gene activity could be detected and quantitated after either reconstitution of influenza A virus polymerase complex or viral infection of 293T and A549 cells, respectively. As compared with Fluc reporter, Gluc-based reporter was heat-tolerant (65°C for 30 min and produced 50-fold higher bioluminescent activity at 24 h posttransfection. Signals generated by Gluc reporter gene could be detected as early as 6 h post-infection and accumulated with time. Testing by viral infection, stronger signals were detected by Gluc reporter at a MOI of 0.001 than that of 1 and the effects of PB2-627K/E or amantadine on influenza vRNP activity were elucidated more effectively by the Gluc reporter system. Conclusions This approach provided a rapid, sensitive, and biosafe assay of influenza vRNP function, particularly for the highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

  6. Thyroid endocrine system disruption by pentachlorophenol: an in vitro and in vivo assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yongyong; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2013-10-15

    The present study aimed to evaluate the disruption caused to the thyroid endocrine system by pentachlorophenol (PCP) using in vitro and in vivo assays. In the in vitro assay, rat pituitary GH3 cells were exposed to 0, 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 μM PCP. PCP exposure significantly downregulated basal and triiodothyronine (T3)-induced Dio 1 transcription, indicating the antagonistic activity of PCP in vitro. In the in vivo assay, zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0, 1, 3, and 10 μg/L of PCP until 14 days post-fertilization. PCP exposure resulted in decreased thyroxine (T4) levels, but elevated contents of whole-body T3. PCP exposure significantly upregulated the mRNA expression of genes along hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, including those encoding thyroid-stimulating hormone, sodium/iodide symporter, thyroglobulin, Dio 1 and Dio 2, alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptor, and uridinediphosphate-glucuronosyl-transferase. PCP exposure did not influence the transcription of the transthyretin (TTR) gene. The results indicate that PCP potentially disrupts the thyroid endocrine system both in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Discussion paper on systems for non-destructive assay of low level waste at Winfrith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, T.H.

    1992-03-01

    This discussion paper has been produced in response to a request from Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution (HMIP) to assess non-destructive assay (NDA) techniques for use at Winfrith Technology Centre for characterisation of drums of low level radioactive waste (LLW). The waste includes that generated by both AEA Technology and Taymel on the Winfrith site, as well as that sent to Winfrith by other sites/organisations for supercompaction. The paper describes the waste arisings at Winfrith (including that sent by external organisations for supercompaction) and discusses the non-destructive assay requirements. Further discussions with HMIP will be necessary to establish their requirements, and this will affect the choice of assay systems. A brief summary of the operating principles and availability of a number of candidate NDA systems is given, including active and passive gamma, active and passive neutron, and X-radiography techniques. It was concluded that the following techniques might be considered further: Segmented Gamma Scanning -Passive/Active Neutron Counting (Differential Die-Away or Californian-252 shuffler) - X-Radiography (Real-Time or Film) (Author)

  8. Neutron Based Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) Measurement Systems for Safeguard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-21

    The objectives of this project are to introduce the assay methods for plutonium measurements using the HLNC; introduce the assay method for bulk uranium measurements using the AWCC; and introduce the assay method for fuel assembly measurements using the UNCL.

  9. Dual germanium detector system for the routine assay of low level transuranics in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowell, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    As an outgrowth of previous on soil radioassay, we have developed an automated assay system for determining the transuranic radionuclide content of soils, with particular interest in Pu. The system utilizes two commercial planar intrinsic germanium detectors in opposition. The large area of the detectors (2100 mm 2 ) and the thinness of the detector crystals (7 mm) permit sensitive analysis of the L x ray emission region of the transuranics (13 to 21 keV). With counting times of 5 hours, we obtain detection limits of 241 Am

  10. 10 CFR 600.121 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standards for financial management systems. 600.121... financial management systems. (a) Recipients shall relate financial data to performance data and develop....121(f) and 600.181, recipients' financial management systems shall provide for the following: (1...

  11. Open Architecture, Standards and Information Systems (OASIS) for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Open Architecture, Standards and Information Systems (OASIS) for Healthcare in Africa. This project will help African countries develop and maintain low-cost sustainable health information systems, and use the information systems to address health issues at both the facility and the public health level. It will do so by ...

  12. Patterns in Standards and Technologies for Economic Information Systems Interoperability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Irimia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presets results from a review of the current standards used for collaboration between economic information systems, including web services and service oriented architecture, EDI, ebXML framework, RosettaNet framework, cXML, xCBL UBL, BPMN, BPEL, WS-CDL, ASN.1, and others. Standards have a key role in promoting economic information system interoperability, and thus enable collaboration. Analyzing the current standards, technologies and applications used for economic information systems interoperability has revealed a common pattern that runs through all of them. From this pattern we construct a basic model of interoperability around which we relate and judge all standards, technologies and applications for economic information systems interoperability.

  13. Standard-Cell, Open-Architecture Power Conversion Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boroyevich, D; Wang, F; Lee, F. C; Odendaal, W. G; Edwards, S

    2005-01-01

    ...). This project was purposefully aimed to develop a standardized hierarchical design and analysis methodology for modular power electronics conversion systems using as basis the ISO/OSI seven-layer reference model...

  14. EMI/EMC standards for PFBR instrumentation and control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnakumar, B.; Sundararajan, M.K.; Ilango Sambasivan, S.; Sivaramakrishna, M.

    2005-01-01

    Electromagnetic Interference and Electromagnetic compatibility (EMI/EMC) is one of the major issues to be addressed in the design, development, installation commissioning and maintenance of electronic systems in the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). That calls for a proper EMI/EMC standard to be adhered to. This paper recommends a standard to be followed for PFBR instrumentation and control (I and C) systems. (author)

  15. Pre-analytical effects of pneumatic tube system transport on routine haematology and coagulation tests, global coagulation assays and platelet function assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quellec, Sandra; Paris, Mickaël; Nougier, Christophe; Sobas, Frédéric; Rugeri, Lucia; Girard, Sandrine; Bordet, Jean-Claude; Négrier, Claude; Dargaud, Yesim

    2017-05-01

    Pneumatic tube system (PTS) in hospitals is commonly used for the transport of blood samples to clinical laboratories, as it is rapid and cost-effective. The aim was to compare the effects on haematology samples of a newly acquired ~2km-long PTS that links 2 hospitals with usual transport (non-pneumatic tube system, NPTS). Complete blood cell count, routine coagulation assays, platelet function tests (PFT) with light-transmission aggregometry and global coagulation assays including ROTEM® and thrombin generation assay (TGA) were performed on blood samples from 30 healthy volunteers and 9 healthy volunteers who agreed to take aspirin prior to blood sampling. The turnaround time was reduced by 31% (p<0.001) with the use of PTS. No statistically significant difference was observed for most routine haematology assays including PFT, and ROTEM® analysis. A statistically significant, but not clinically relevant, shortening of the APTT after sample transport by PTS was found (mean±SD: 30s±1.8 vs. 29.5s±2.1 for NPTS). D-dimer levels were 7.4% higher after transport through PTS but were not discordant. A statistically significant increase of thrombin generation was found in both platelet poor- and platelet rich- plasma samples after PTS transport compared to NPTS transport. PTS is suitable for the transport of samples prior to routine haematology assays including PFT, but should not be used for samples intended for thrombin generation measurement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Standardization and validation of real time PCR assays for the diagnosis of histoplasmosis using three molecular targets in an animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa F López

    Full Text Available Histoplasmosis is considered one of the most important endemic and systemic mycoses worldwide. Until now few molecular techniques have been developed for its diagnosis. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate three real time PCR (qPCR protocols for different protein-coding genes (100-kDa, H and M antigens using an animal model. Fresh and formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE lung tissues from BALB/c mice inoculated i.n. with 2.5x106 Histoplasma capsulatum yeast or PBS were obtained at 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks post-infection. A collection of DNA from cultures representing different clades of H. capsulatum (30 strains and other medically relevant pathogens (36 strains of related fungi and Mycobacterium tuberculosis were used to analyze sensitivity and specificity. Analytical sensitivity and specificity were 100% when DNAs from the different strains were tested. The highest fungal burden occurred at first week post-infection and complete fungal clearance was observed after the third week; similar results were obtained when the presence of H. capsulatum yeast cells was demonstrated in histopathological analysis. In the first week post-infection, all fresh and FFPE lung tissues from H. capsulatum-infected animals were positive for the qPCR protocols tested except for the M antigen protocol, which gave variable results when fresh lung tissue samples were analyzed. In the second week, all qPCR protocols showed variable results for both fresh and FFPE tissues. Samples from the infected mice at the remaining times post-infection and uninfected mice (controls were negative for all protocols. Good agreement was observed between CFUs, histopathological analysis and qPCR results for the 100-kDa and H antigen protocols. We successfully standardized and validated three qPCR assays for detecting H. capsulatum DNA in fresh and FFPE tissues, and conclude that the 100-kDa and H antigen molecular assays are promising tests for diagnosing this

  17. Standardization and validation of real time PCR assays for the diagnosis of histoplasmosis using three molecular targets in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Luisa F; Muñoz, César O; Cáceres, Diego H; Tobón, Ángela M; Loparev, Vladimir; Clay, Oliver; Chiller, Tom; Litvintseva, Anastasia; Gade, Lalitha; González, Ángel; Gómez, Beatriz L

    2017-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is considered one of the most important endemic and systemic mycoses worldwide. Until now few molecular techniques have been developed for its diagnosis. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate three real time PCR (qPCR) protocols for different protein-coding genes (100-kDa, H and M antigens) using an animal model. Fresh and formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) lung tissues from BALB/c mice inoculated i.n. with 2.5x106 Histoplasma capsulatum yeast or PBS were obtained at 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks post-infection. A collection of DNA from cultures representing different clades of H. capsulatum (30 strains) and other medically relevant pathogens (36 strains of related fungi and Mycobacterium tuberculosis) were used to analyze sensitivity and specificity. Analytical sensitivity and specificity were 100% when DNAs from the different strains were tested. The highest fungal burden occurred at first week post-infection and complete fungal clearance was observed after the third week; similar results were obtained when the presence of H. capsulatum yeast cells was demonstrated in histopathological analysis. In the first week post-infection, all fresh and FFPE lung tissues from H. capsulatum-infected animals were positive for the qPCR protocols tested except for the M antigen protocol, which gave variable results when fresh lung tissue samples were analyzed. In the second week, all qPCR protocols showed variable results for both fresh and FFPE tissues. Samples from the infected mice at the remaining times post-infection and uninfected mice (controls) were negative for all protocols. Good agreement was observed between CFUs, histopathological analysis and qPCR results for the 100-kDa and H antigen protocols. We successfully standardized and validated three qPCR assays for detecting H. capsulatum DNA in fresh and FFPE tissues, and conclude that the 100-kDa and H antigen molecular assays are promising tests for diagnosing this mycosis.

  18. Quantamatrix Multiplexed Assay Platform system for direct detection of bacteria and antibiotic resistance determinants in positive blood culture bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H Y; Uh, Y; Kim, S; Lee, H

    2017-05-01

    Rapid and accurate identification of the causative pathogens of bloodstream infections (BSIs) is crucial for initiating appropriate antimicrobial therapy, which decreases the related morbidity and mortality rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a newly developed multiplexed, bead-based bioassay system, the Quantamatrix Multiplexed Assay Platform (QMAP) system, obtained directly from blood culture bottles, to simultaneously detect the presence of bacteria and identify the genes for antibiotic resistance. The QMAP system was used to evaluate 619 blood culture bottles from patients with BSIs and to compare the results of conventional culture methods. Using conventional bacterial cultures as the reference standard, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the QMAP system for detection of bacterial pathogens in positive blood culture (PBC) samples were 99.8% (n=592, 95% CI 0.9852-1.000, p antibiotic resistance were 99.4% (n=158, 95% CI 0.9617-0.9999, p <0.009) and 99.6% (95% CI 0.9763-0.9999, p <0.0001), respectively. Obtaining results using the QMAP system takes about 3 hr, while culture methods can take 48-72 hr. Therefore, analysis using the QMAP system is rapid and reliable for characterizing causative pathogens in BSIs. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A semi-automated luminescence based standard membrane feeding assay identifies novel small molecules that inhibit transmission of malaria parasites by mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Martijn W; Stone, Will J R; Koolen, Karin M; van Gemert, Geert-Jan; van Schaijk, Ben; Leroy, Didier; Sauerwein, Robert W; Bousema, Teun; Dechering, Koen J

    2015-12-21

    Current first-line treatments for uncomplicated falciparum malaria rapidly clear the asexual stages of the parasite, but do not fully prevent parasite transmission by mosquitoes. The standard membrane feeding assay (SMFA) is the biological gold standard assessment of transmission reducing activity (TRA), but its throughput is limited by the need to determine mosquito infection status by dissection and microscopy. Here we present a novel dissection-free luminescence based SMFA format using a transgenic Plasmodium falciparum reporter parasite without resistance to known antimalarials and therefore unrestricted in its utility in compound screening. Analyses of sixty-five compounds from the Medicines for Malaria Venture validation and malaria boxes identified 37 compounds with high levels of TRA (>80%); different assay modes allowed discrimination between gametocytocidal and downstream modes of action. Comparison of SMFA data to published assay formats for predicting parasite infectivity indicated that individual in vitro screens show substantial numbers of false negatives. These results highlight the importance of the SMFA in the screening pipeline for transmission reducing compounds and present a rapid and objective method. In addition we present sixteen diverse chemical scaffolds from the malaria box that may serve as a starting point for further discovery and development of malaria transmission blocking drugs.

  20. Radiometric measurements on the fabrication of non-destructive assay standards for WIPP-Performance Demonstration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, A.S.; Marshall, R.S.

    1997-04-01

    The Inorganic Elemental Analysis Group of LANL has prepared several different sets of working reference materials (WRMs). These WRMs are prepared by blending quantities of nuclear materials (plutonium, americium, and enriched uranium) with diatomaceous earth. The blends are encapsulated in stainless steel cylinders. These WRMs are being measured as blind controls in neutron and gamma based non-destructive assay (NDA) instruments. Radiometric measurements on the blending homogeneity and verification on a set of sixty three plutonium based WRMs are discussed in this paper

  1. Pet Food Palatability Evaluation: A Review of Standard Assay Techniques and Interpretation of Results with a Primary Focus on Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Gregory C; Koppel, Kadri

    2015-01-16

    The pet food industry continues to grow steadily as a result of new innovative products. Quality control and product development tests for pet foods are typically conducted through palatability testing with dogs and cats. Palatability is the measure of intake of a food that indicates acceptance or the measure of preference of one food over another. Pet food palatability is most commonly measured using a single-bowl or a two-bowl assay. While these tests answer some questions about the animals' perception of the food, there are many limitations as well. This review addresses some of these limitations and indicates opportunities for future research.

  2. Pet Food Palatability Evaluation: A Review of Standard Assay Techniques and Interpretation of Results with a Primary Focus on Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory C. Aldrich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The pet food industry continues to grow steadily as a result of new innovative products. Quality control and product development tests for pet foods are typically conducted through palatability testing with dogs and cats. Palatability is the measure of intake of a food that indicates acceptance or the measure of preference of one food over another. Pet food palatability is most commonly measured using a single-bowl or a two-bowl assay. While these tests answer some questions about the animals’ perception of the food, there are many limitations as well. This review addresses some of these limitations and indicates opportunities for future research.

  3. Communication Standards Suitable for MES Systems Designed for SMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej WINKLER

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A MES (Manufacturing Execution System is a system that large companies use to measure or control critical production activities. Individual parts of this system can be used as a model for development of tools suitable for small and medium enterprises (SMEs. It can demonstrate how manufacturing systems works and which communication standards are usable. The communication standards enable data acquisition, data processing, storing and their conversion for any production report. Furthermore, interfaces for web clients allow displaying the raw or transformed data as a text or a graphic chart. The development of tools for an access to the data retrieved from MES software is described in this paper.

  4. SWEPP PAN assay system uncertainty analysis: Passive mode measurements of graphite waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackwood, L.G.; Harker, Y.D.; Meachum, T.R.; Yoon, Woo Y.

    1997-07-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is being used as a temporary storage facility for transuranic waste generated by the U.S. Nuclear Weapons program at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Golden, Colorado. Currently, there is a large effort in progress to prepare to ship this waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. In order to meet the TRU Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan nondestructive assay compliance requirements and quality assurance objectives, it is necessary to determine the total uncertainty of the radioassay results produced by the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) Passive Active Neutron (PAN) radioassay system. To this end a modified statistical sampling and verification approach has been developed to determine the total uncertainty of a PAN measurement. In this approach the total performance of the PAN nondestructive assay system is simulated using computer models of the assay system and the resultant output is compared with the known input to assess the total uncertainty. This paper is one of a series of reports quantifying the results of the uncertainty analysis of the PAN system measurements for specific waste types and measurement modes. In particular this report covers passive mode measurements of weapons grade plutonium-contaminated graphite molds contained in 208 liter drums (waste code 300). The validity of the simulation approach is verified by comparing simulated output against results from measurements using known plutonium sources and a surrogate graphite waste form drum. For actual graphite waste form conditions, a set of 50 cases covering a statistical sampling of the conditions exhibited in graphite wastes was compiled using a Latin hypercube statistical sampling approach

  5. Comparison of isolated cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) proanthocyanidins to catechin and procyanidins A2 and B2 for use as standards in the 4-(dimethylamino)cinnamaldehyde assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciano, Rodrigo P; Shea, Michael P; Shanmuganayagam, Dhanansayan; Krueger, Christian G; Howell, Amy B; Reed, Jess D

    2012-05-09

    The 4-(dimethylamino)cinnamaldehyde (DMAC) assay is currently used to quantify proanthocyanidin (PAC) content in cranberry products. However, this method suffers from issues of accuracy and precision in the analysis and comparison of PAC levels across a broad range of cranberry products. Current use of procyanidin A2 as a standard leads to an underestimation of PACs content in certain cranberry products, especially those containing higher molecular weight PACs. To begin to address the issue of accuracy, a method for the production of a cranberry PAC standard, derived from an extraction of cranberry (c-PAC) press cake, was developed and evaluated. Use of the c-PAC standard to quantify PAC content in cranberry samples resulted in values that were 2.2 times higher than those determined by procyanidin A2. Increased accuracy is critical for estimating PAC content in relationship to research on authenticity, efficacy, and bioactivity, especially in designing clinical trials for determination of putative health benefits.

  6. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume covers parts 6 and 7 and appendix 7A for section 7 (Instrumentation and Control) of the ADM Design and Analysis. The topics covered by these are: other systems required for safety; control systems not required by safety; and CMF evaluation of limiting faults. Parts 1--3 of section 8 (Electric Power) of the ADM are also included in this volume. Topics covered by these parts are: introduction; offsite power system; and onsite power system

  7. Organizing Community-Based Data Standards: Lessons from Developing a Successful Open Standard in Systems Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucka, M.

    2015-09-01

    In common with many fields, including astronomy, a vast number of software tools for computational modeling and simulation are available today in systems biology. This wealth of resources is a boon to researchers, but it also presents interoperability problems. Despite working with different software tools, researchers want to disseminate their work widely as well as reuse and extend the models of other researchers. This situation led in the year 2000 to an effort to create a tool-independent, machine-readable file format for representing models: SBML, the Systems Biology Markup Language. SBML has since become the de facto standard for its purpose. Its success and general approach has inspired and influenced other community-oriented standardization efforts in systems biology. Open standards are essential for the progress of science in all fields, but it is often difficult for academic researchers to organize successful community-based standards. I draw on personal experiences from the development of SBML and summarize some of the lessons learned, in the hope that this may be useful to other groups seeking to develop open standards in a community-oriented fashion.

  8. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume contains part 16 References and Appendix 19 A Design Alternatives for section 19 (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) of the ADM Design and Analysis. Also covered is section 20 Unresolved Safety Issues of the ADM Design and Analysis. Finally sections 1--6 of the ADM Emergency Operations Guidelines are contained in this volume. Information covered in these sections include: standard post-trip actions; diagnostic actions; reactor trip recovery guideline; LOCA recovery; SG tube rupture recovery

  9. Survey of EEC solid waste arisings and performance of non-destructive assay systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremner, W.B.; Adaway, D.W.; Yates, A.

    1992-01-01

    This report covers the work carried out during an one-year contract which surveyed the radioactive solid waste arisings in EEC Member States and also tabulated information on the performance of the non-destructive assay (NDA) system used. The work was jointly carried out with CEA partners at Cadarache and Paris. The tabulated data give information on types, packaging, associated activity, and NDA capability of the utilities or research organisations. Some short comings in NDA capabilities are identified and possible solutions are given

  10. The development of an expert system for the characterization of waste assay data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridges, S.; Hodges, J.; Sparrow, C.

    1997-01-01

    Containers of transuranic and low-level alpha contaminated waste generated as a byproduct of Department of Energy defense-related programs must be characterized before their proper disposition can be determined. Nondestructive assay methods are the most desirable means for assessing the mass and activity of the entrained transuranic radionuclides. However, there are other sources of information that may be useful in the characterization of the entrained waste (e.g., container manifests, information about the generation process, and destructive assay techniques performed on representative samples). This paper describes initial work on an expert system being developed to analyze and characterize containerized radiological waste. This system is being developed by scientists at the Mississippi State University Diagnostic and Instrumentation Laboratory (DIAL) in collaboration with scientists at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The DIAL scientists are responsible for (1) the development of techniques to represent and reason with evidence from a variety of sources, and (2) the development of appropriate method(s) to represent and reason with confidence levels associated with that evidence. This paper describes exploratory versions of the expert system developed to evaluate four techniques for representing and reasoning with the confidence in the evidence: MYCIN-style certainty factors, Dempster-Shafer Theory, Bayesian networks, and fuzzy logic. 16 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Value System and Standard of Education in Nigerian Third ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    university education in third generation universities in South-South geopolitical zone. It sought to answer ... Value System and Standard of Education in Nigerian Third Generation Universities... Rogers defined value as the ..... female counterparts with positive value system is upheld as the probability was greater than alpha.

  12. 49 CFR 659.15 - System safety program standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false System safety program standard. 659.15 Section 659.15 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAIL FIXED GUIDEWAY SYSTEMS; STATE SAFETY OVERSIGHT Role of the...

  13. 40 CFR 65.113 - Standards: Sampling connection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... systems or facilities: (i) A waste management unit as defined in 40 CFR 63.111, if the waste management... industrial solid waste, if the process fluids are not hazardous waste as defined in 40 CFR part 261; and (5... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Sampling connection systems...

  14. 44 CFR 13.20 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... management systems. 13.20 Section 13.20 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT... Standards for financial management systems. (a) A State must expand and account for grant funds in accordance with State laws and procedures for expending and accounting for its own funds. Fiscal control and...

  15. 15 CFR 24.20 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Requirements Financial Administration § 24.20 Standards for financial management systems. (a) A State must... accounting for its own funds. Fiscal control and accounting procedures of the State, as well as its... prohibitions of applicable statutes. (b) The financial management systems of other grantees and subgrantees...

  16. 24 CFR 85.20 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Administration § 85.20 Standards for financial management systems. (a) A State must expand and account for grant.... Fiscal control and accounting procedures of the State, as well as its subgrantees and cost-type... statutes. (b) The financial management systems of other grantees and subgrantees must meet the following...

  17. 13 CFR 143.20 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Requirements Financial Administration § 143.20 Standards for financial management systems. (a) A State must... accounting for its own funds. Fiscal control and accounting procedures of the State, as well as its... prohibitions of applicable statutes. (b) The financial management systems of other grantees and subgrantees...

  18. 28 CFR 66.20 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Requirements Financial Administration § 66.20 Standards for financial management systems. (a) A State must... accounting for its own funds. Fiscal control and accounting procedures of the State, as well as its... prohibitions of applicable statutes. (b) The financial management systems of other grantees and subgrantees...

  19. 45 CFR 2541.200 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for financial management systems. 2541... for expending and accounting for its own funds. Fiscal control and accounting procedures of the State... violation of the restrictions and prohibitions of applicable statutes. (b) The financial management systems...

  20. 32 CFR 33.20 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for financial management systems. 33... financial management systems. (a) A State must expand and account for grant funds in accordance with State laws and procedures for expending and accounting for its own funds. Fiscal control and accounting...

  1. Standard interfaces for program-modular multiprocessor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernykh, E.V.

    1982-01-01

    The peculiarities of the structures of existing and developed standard interfaces used in automation systems for nuclear physical experiments are considered. general structural characteristics of multiprocessor system interfaces are revealed. The comparison of the existing system CAMAC crate and designed standards of COMPEX, E3S and FASTBUS interfaces by capacity and relative cost is carried out. The analysis of the given data shows that operation of any interface is more advantageous at the rates close to capacity values, the relative cost being minimum. In this case the advantage is on the side of interfaces with greater capacity values for which at a moderated decrease of the exchange or requests processing rate the relative costs grow slower. A higher capacity of one-cycle exchange is provided with functional data way specialization in the interface. The conclusion is drawn that most perspective trend in the development of automation systems for high energy physics experiments is using FASTBUS standard

  2. Standard review plan for dry cask storage systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The Standard Review Plan (SRP) For Dry Cask Storage Systems provides guidance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff in the Spent Fuel Project Office for performing safety reviews of dry cask storage systems. The SRP is intended to ensure the quality and uniformity of the staff reviews, present a basis for the review scope, and clarification of the regulatory requirements. Part 72, Subpart B generally specifies the information needed in a license application for the independent storage of spent nuclear fuel and high level radioactive waste. Regulatory Guide 3.61 {open_quotes}Standard Format and Content for a Topical Safety Analysis Report for a Spent Fuel Dry Storage Cask{close_quotes} contains an outline of the specific information required by the staff. The SRP is divided into 14 sections which reflect the standard application format. Regulatory requirements, staff positions, industry codes and standards, acceptance criteria, and other information are discussed.

  3. Standard review plan for dry cask storage systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Standard Review Plan (SRP) For Dry Cask Storage Systems provides guidance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff in the Spent Fuel Project Office for performing safety reviews of dry cask storage systems. The SRP is intended to ensure the quality and uniformity of the staff reviews, present a basis for the review scope, and clarification of the regulatory requirements. Part 72, Subpart B generally specifies the information needed in a license application for the independent storage of spent nuclear fuel and high level radioactive waste. Regulatory Guide 3.61 open-quotes Standard Format and Content for a Topical Safety Analysis Report for a Spent Fuel Dry Storage Caskclose quotes contains an outline of the specific information required by the staff. The SRP is divided into 14 sections which reflect the standard application format. Regulatory requirements, staff positions, industry codes and standards, acceptance criteria, and other information are discussed

  4. Understanding information retrieval systems management, types, and standards

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, Marcia J

    2011-01-01

    In order to be effective for their users, information retrieval (IR) systems should be adapted to the specific needs of particular environments. The huge and growing array of types of information retrieval systems in use today is on display in Understanding Information Retrieval Systems: Management, Types, and Standards, which addresses over 20 types of IR systems. These various system types, in turn, present both technical and management challenges, which are also addressed in this volume. In order to be interoperable in a networked environment, IR systems must be able to use various types of

  5. Developing and enforcing internal information systems standards: InduMaker’s Standards Management Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Loebbecke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely agreed that standards provide numerous benefits when available and enforced. Company-internal Information Systems (IS management procedures and solutions, in the following coined IS ‘standards’, allow for harmonizing operations between company units, locations and even different service providers. However, many companies lack an organized process for defining and managing internal IS standards, which causes uncertainties and delays in decision making, planning, and design processes. In this case study of the globally operating InduMaker (anonymized company name, an established manufacturing supplier, we look into the company-internal management of IS standards. Theoretically grounded in the organizational and IS-focused literature on business process modelling and business process commoditization, we describe and investigate InduMaker’s newly developed Standard Management Process (SMP for defining and managing company-internal business and IS standards, with which the multinational pursues offering clear answers to business and IT departments about existing IS standards, their degree of obligation, applicability, and scope at any time.

  6. Instrumentation Standard Architectures for Future High Availability Control Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    Architectures for next-generation modular instrumentation standards should aim to meet a requirement of High Availability, or robustness against system failure. This is particularly important for experiments both large and small mounted on production accelerators and light sources. New standards should be based on architectures that (1) are modular in both hardware and software for ease in repair and upgrade; (2) include inherent redundancy at internal module, module assembly and system levels; (3) include modern high speed serial inter-module communications with robust noise-immune protocols; and (4) include highly intelligent diagnostics and board-management subsystems that can predict impending failure and invoke evasive strategies. The simple design principles lead to fail-soft systems that can be applied to any type of electronics system, from modular instruments to large power supplies to pulsed power modulators to entire accelerator systems. The existing standards in use are briefly reviewed and compared against a new commercial standard which suggests a powerful model for future laboratory standard developments. The past successes of undertaking such projects through inter-laboratory engineering-physics collaborations will be briefly summarized

  7. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume contains 2 technical specifications bases as part of Appendix 16 A Tech Spec Bases. They are TS B3.8 Electrical Power Technical Systems Bases and TS B3.9 Refueling Operations Bases. All 3 parts of section 17 (QA) and all 10 parts of section 18 (Human Factors) of the ADM Design and Analysis are contained in this volume. Topics covered in section 17 are: design phase QA; operations phase QA; and design phase reliability assurance. Topics covered by section 18 are: design team organization; design goals; design process; functional task analysis; control room configuration; information presentation; control and monitoring; verification and validation; and review documents

  8. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume contains parts 1--10 of section 19 (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) of the ADM Design and Analysis. Topics covered are: methodology; initiating event evaluation; accident sequence determination; data analysis; systems analysis; external events analysis; shutdown risk assessment; accident sequence quantification; and sensitivity analysis. Also included in this volume are Appendix 19.8A Shutdown Risk Assessment and Appendix A to Appendix 19.8A Request for Information

  9. Genotoxicity of nano/microparticles in in vitro micronuclei, in vivo comet and mutation assay systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukumori Nobutaka

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, manufactured nano/microparticles such as fullerenes (C60, carbon black (CB and ceramic fiber are being widely used because of their desirable properties in industrial, medical and cosmetic fields. However, there are few data on these particles in mammalian mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. To examine genotoxic effects by C60, CB and kaolin, an in vitro micronuclei (MN test was conducted with human lung cancer cell line, A549 cells. In addition, DNA damage and mutations were analyzed by in vivo assay systems using male C57BL/6J or gpt delta transgenic mice which were intratracheally instilled with single or multiple doses of 0.2 mg per animal of particles. Results In in vitro genotoxic analysis, increased MN frequencies were observed in A549 cells treated with C60, CB and kaolin in a dose-dependent manner. These three nano/microparticles also induced DNA damage in the lungs of C57BL/6J mice measured by comet assay. Moreover, single or multiple instillations of C60 and kaolin, increased either or both of gpt and Spi- mutant frequencies in the lungs of gpt delta transgenic mice. Mutation spectra analysis showed transversions were predominant, and more than 60% of the base substitutions occurred at G:C base pairs in the gpt genes. The G:C to C:G transversion was commonly increased by these particle instillations. Conclusion Manufactured nano/microparticles, CB, C60 and kaolin, were shown to be genotoxic in in vitro and in vivo assay systems.

  10. Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sherman, Max H.

    2011-01-01

    Existing ventilation standards, including American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 62.2, specify continuous operation of a defined mechanical ventilation system to provide minimum ventilation, with time-based intermittent operation as an option. This requirement ignores several factors and concerns including: other equipment such as household exhaust fans that might incidentally provide ventilation, negative impacts of ventilation when outd...

  11. International Metadata Standards and Enterprise Data Quality Metadata Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermann, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Well-documented data quality is critical in situations where scientists and decision-makers need to combine multiple datasets from different disciplines and collection systems to address scientific questions or difficult decisions. Standardized data quality metadata could be very helpful in these situations. Many efforts at developing data quality standards falter because of the diversity of approaches to measuring and reporting data quality. The one size fits all paradigm does not generally work well in this situation. I will describe these and other capabilities of ISO 19157 with examples of how they are being used to describe data quality across the NASA EOS Enterprise and also compare these approaches with other standards.

  12. Quality assurance: Importance of systems and standard operating procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Kishu Manghani

    2011-01-01

    It is mandatory for sponsors of clinical trials and contract research organizations alike to establish, manage and monitor their quality control and quality assurance systems and their integral standard operating procedures and other quality documents to provide high-quality products and services to fully satisfy customer needs and expectations. Quality control and quality assurance systems together constitute the key quality systems. Quality control and quality assurance are parts of quality...

  13. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume contains all five parts of section 12 (Radiation Protection) of the ADM Design and Analysis. Topics covered are: ALARA exposures; radiation sources; radiation protection; dose assessment; and health physics program. All six parts and appendices A and B for section 13 (Conduct of Operations) of the ADM Design and Analysis are also contained in this volume. Topics covered are: organizational structure; training program; emergency planning; review and audit; plant procedures; industrial security; sabotage protection (App 13A); and vital equipment list (App 13B)

  14. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume contains sections 7--11 of the ADM Emergency Operations Guidelines. Topics covered are: excess steam demand recovery; loss of all feedwater; loss of offsite power; station blackout recovery; and functional recovery guideline. Appendix A Severe Accident Management Guidelines and Appendix B Lower Mode Operational Guidelines are also included

  15. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume contains all 3 parts of section 14 (Initial Test Program) of the ADM Design and Analysis. Topics covered are: PSAR information; FSAR information; certified design material. Also part 1 of section 15 (Accident Analysis) of the ADM Design and Analysis is included in this volume. The topic of part 1 is increase in heat removal

  16. Portable calorimeter system for nondestructive assay of mixed-oxide fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, C.T.; Perry, R.B.; Lewis, R.N.; Jung, E.A.; Haumann, J.R.

    1978-04-01

    Calorimetric assay provides a precise, nondestructive method to determine sample Pu content based on the heat emitted by decaying radionuclides. This measurement, in combination with a gamma-spectrometer analysis of sample isotopic content, yields the total sample Pu mass. The technique is applicable to sealed containers and is essentially independent of sample matrix configuration and elemental composition. Conventional calorimeter designs employ large water-bath heat sinks and lack the portability needed by inspection personnel. The ANL air-chamber isothermal calorimeters are low-thermal-capacitance devices which eliminate the need for large constant-temperature heat sinks. These instruments are designed to use a feedback system that applies power to maintain the sample chamber at a constant electrical resistance and, therefore, at a constant temperature. The applied-power difference between a Pu-containing sample and a blank determines the radioactive-decay power. The operating characteristics of a calorimeter designed for assaying mixed-oxide powders, fuel pellets, and Pu-containing solutions are discussed. This device consists of the calorimeter, sample preheatr, and a microprocessor-controlled data-acquisition system. The small-sample device weighs 18 kg and has a measurement cycle of 20 min, with a precision of 0.1% at 10 mW. A 100-min gamma-ray measurement gives the specific power with a precision of better than 1% for samples containing 1 to 2 g of plutonium

  17. A comparison of titers of anti-Brucella antibodies of naturally infected and healthy vaccinated cattle by standard tube agglutination test, microtiter plate agglutination test, indirect hemagglutination assay, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Mohan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We determined the antibody response in cattle naturally infected with brucellosis and normal healthy adult cattle vaccinated during calf hood with strain 19. Materials and Methods: The antibody titers were measured by standard tube agglutination test (STAT, microtiter plate agglutination test (MAT, indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA as per standard protocols. Results: The mean STAT titers were 1.963±0.345 in infected cattle and 1.200±0.155 in healthy vaccinated cattle. The difference was extremely significant (p<0.0001. The mean MAT titers were 2.244±0.727 in infected cattle and 1.200±0.155 in healthy vaccinated cattle. The difference was very significant (p<0.005. The mean IHA titers in infected cattle were 2.284±0.574, and those in healthy vaccinated cattle were 1.200±0.155. The difference was extremely significant (p=0.0002. However, the difference in mean iELISA titers of infected cattle (1.3678±0.014 and healthy vaccinated cattle (1.367±0.014 was non-significant. The infected animals showed very high titers of agglutinating antibodies compared to the vaccinated animals. However, it cannot be ascertained whether these antibodies are due to vaccine or response to infection. Since the infected animals had been vaccinated earlier, the current infection may suggest that vaccination was unable to induce protective levels of antibody. The heightened antibody response after infection may also indicate a secondary immune response to the antigens common to the vaccine strain and wild Brucella organisms. Conclusion: The brucellosis infected animals showed very high titers of agglutinating antibodies compared to the vaccinated animals.

  18. Space and Missile Systems Center Standard: Space Flight Pressurized Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-28

    25 5.8 Pneumatic System Configuration...temperatures, and thermal gradients. [4.2.5-4] Both membrane stress and bending stress resulting from internal pressure and external loads shall be...welding, bonding, forming, joining, machining , drilling, grinding, repair, etc., processes as applied to joining system 14 components and

  19. A scalable assessment of Plasmodium falciparum transmission in the standard membrane-feeding assay, using transgenic parasites expressing green fluorescent protein-luciferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Will J R; Churcher, Thomas S; Graumans, Wouter; van Gemert, Geert-Jan; Vos, Martijn W; Lanke, Kjerstin H W; van de Vegte-Bolmer, Marga G; Siebelink-Stoter, Rianne; Dechering, Koen J; Vaughan, Ashley M; Camargo, Nelly; Kappe, Stefan H I; Sauerwein, Robert W; Bousema, Teun

    2014-11-01

    The development of drugs and vaccines to reduce malaria transmission is an important part of eradication plans. The transmission-reducing activity (TRA) of these agents is currently determined in the standard membrane-feeding assay (SMFA), based on subjective microscopy-based readouts and with limitations in upscaling and throughput. Using a Plasmodium falciparum strain expressing the firefly luciferase protein, we present a luminescence-based approach to SMFA evaluation that eliminates the requirement for mosquito dissections in favor of a simple approach in which whole mosquitoes are homogenized and examined directly for luciferase activity. Analysis of 6860 Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes across 68 experimental feeds shows that the luminescence assay was as sensitive as microscopy for infection detection. The mean luminescence intensity of individual and pooled mosquitoes accurately quantifies mean oocyst intensity and generates comparable TRA estimates. The luminescence assay presented here could increase SMFA throughput so that 10-30 experimental feeds could be evaluated in a single 96-well plate. This new method of assessing Plasmodium infection and transmission intensity could expedite the screening of novel drug compounds, vaccine candidates, and sera from malaria-exposed individuals for TRA. Luminescence-based estimates of oocyst intensity in individual mosquitoes should be interpreted with caution. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Development and Evaluation of a Duplex Real-Time PCR Assay With a Novel Internal Standard for Precise Quantification of Plasma DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dan; Pan, Shiyang; Xie, Erfu; Gao, Li; Xu, Huaguo; Xia, Wenying; Xu, Ting; Huang, Peijun

    2017-01-01

    Circulating levels of cell-free DNA increase in many pathologic conditions. However, notable discrepancies in the quantitative analysis of cell-free DNA from a large number of laboratories have become a considerable pitfall, hampering its clinical application. We designed a novel recombinant DNA fragment that could be applied as an internal standard in a newly developed and validated duplex real-time PCR assay for the quantitative analysis of total cell-free plasma DNA, which was tested in 5,442 healthy adults and 200 trauma patients. Compared with two traditional methods, this novel assay showed a lower detection limit of 0.1 ng/mL, lower intra- and inter-assay CVs, and higher accuracy in the recovery test. The median plasma DNA concentration of healthy males (20.3 ng/mL, n=3,092) was significantly higher than that of healthy females (16.1 ng/mL, n=2,350) (Mann-Whitney two-sample rank sum test, PDNA concentration were 0-45.8 ng/mL and 0-52.5 ng/mL for healthy females and males, respectively. The plasma DNA concentrations of the majority of trauma patients (96%) were higher than the upper normal cutoff values and were closely related to the corresponding injury severity scores (R²=0.916, PDNA, showing promising application in clinical diagnosis.

  1. The Small Explorer Data System - A data system based on standard interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brian S.; Hengemihle, Jerome

    1990-01-01

    The Small Explorer Data System was developed by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center using a 'standard interfaces' approach. Standard interfaces make it adaptable to a wide variety of missions. The paper describes the Small Explorer Data System with particular emphasis on the standard interfaces incorporated in both the hardware and software.

  2. A Fluid Membrane-Based Soluble Ligand Display System for Live CellAssays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Jwa-Min; Nair, Pradeep N.; Neve, Richard M.; Gray, Joe W.; Groves, Jay T.

    2005-10-14

    Cell communication modulates numerous biological processes including proliferation, apoptosis, motility, invasion and differentiation. Correspondingly, there has been significant interest in the development of surface display strategies for the presentation of signaling molecules to living cells. This effort has primarily focused on naturally surface-bound ligands, such as extracellular matrix components and cell membranes. Soluble ligands (e.g. growth factors and cytokines) play an important role in intercellular communications, and their display in a surface-bound format would be of great utility in the design of array-based live cell assays. Recently, several cell microarray systems that display cDNA, RNAi, or small molecules in a surface array format were proven to be useful in accelerating high-throughput functional genetic studies and screening therapeutic agents. These surface display methods provide a flexible platform for the systematic, combinatorial investigation of genes and small molecules affecting cellular processes and phenotypes of interest. In an analogous sense, it would be an important advance if one could display soluble signaling ligands in a surface assay format that allows for systematic, patterned presentation of soluble ligands to live cells. Such a technique would make it possible to examine cellular phenotypes of interest in a parallel format with soluble signaling ligands as one of the display parameters. Herein we report a ligand-modified fluid supported lipid bilayer (SLB) assay system that can be used to functionally display soluble ligands to cells in situ (Figure 1A). By displaying soluble ligands on a SLB surface, both solution behavior (the ability to become locally enriched by reaction-diffusion processes) and solid behavior (the ability to control the spatial location of the ligands in an open system) could be combined. The method reported herein benefits from the naturally fluid state of the supported membrane, which allows

  3. Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2011-04-01

    Existing ventilation standards, including American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 62.2, specify continuous operation of a defined mechanical ventilation system to provide minimum ventilation, with time-based intermittent operation as an option. This requirement ignores several factors and concerns including: other equipment such as household exhaust fans that might incidentally provide ventilation, negative impacts of ventilation when outdoor pollutant levels are high, the importance of minimizing energy use particularly during times of peak electricity demand, and how the energy used to condition air as part of ventilation system operation changes with outdoor conditions. Dynamic control of ventilation systems can provide ventilation equivalent to or better than what is required by standards while minimizing energy costs and can also add value by shifting load during peak times and reducing intake of outdoor air contaminants. This article describes the logic that enables dynamic control of whole-house ventilation systems to meet the intent of ventilation standards and demonstrates the dynamic ventilation system control concept through simulations and field tests of the Residential Integrated Ventilation-Energy Controller (RIVEC).

  4. Electroluminescent TCC, C3dg and fB/Bb epitope assays for profiling complement cascade activation in vitro using an activated complement serum calibration standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vuuren, B Jansen; Bergseth, G; Mollnes, T E; Shaw, A M

    2014-01-15

    Electroluminescent assays for epitopes on the complement components C3dg, terminal complement complex (TCC) and factor B/Bb (fB/Bb) have been developed with capture and detection antibodies to produce detection limits C3dg=91±9ng/mL, TCC=3±0.1ng/mL and fB=55.7±0.1ng/mL. The assay performance was assessed against a series of zymosan and heat aggregated IgG (HAIgG) in vitro activations of complement using a calibrated activated complement serum (ACS) as calibration standard. The ACS standard was stable within 20% accuracy over a 6-month period with freeze-thaw cycles as required. Differential activation of the complement cascade was observed for TCC showing a pseudo-first order formation half-life of 3.5h after activation with zymosan. The C3dg activation fragment indicates a 10% total activation for both activation agents. The kinetic-epitope analysis for fB indicates that the capture epitope is on the fB/Bb protein fragment which can then become covered by the formation of C3bBb or C3bBbP complexes during the time course of the cascade. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mutagenicity of Tween 80-solvated mild gasification products in the Ames salmonella microsomal assay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-13

    The results of the Tween 80-solvated Ames testing of six mild gasification samples indicate significant mutagenic activity only in the composite materials (MG-119 and MG-120), previously suspected from the DMSO-solvated assays, which had shown some variable but ultimately insignificant mutagenic responses. The activity of these samples from the Tween 80-solvated assays was quite low when compared to either the positive controls or the SRC-II HD coal-liquefaction reference material. The class of mutagenic activity expressed by these samples solvated in Tween 80 was that of an indirect-acting, frameshift mutagen(s) since significant activity was found only on tester strain TA98 in the presence of the metabolic activation fraction (S9). Because DMSO and other solvents have been shown to affect the mutagenic activity of certain pure chemicals, the possibility of solvent/mutagen interactions in complex mixtures such as coal-derived liquids exists. Thus, the testing of the genotoxic activity of undefined, chemically complex compounds may require the use of at least two solvent systems to reduce the possibility of artifactual findings. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  6. The induction of somatic mutations by high-LET radiation observed using the Drosophila assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Isao; Takatsuji, Toshihiro; Nagano, Masaaki; Hoshi, Masaharu; Takada, Jun; Endo, Satoru

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the mutagenic potential of high-LET radiation, an analysis was made on the production of somatic mutations by 252 Cf fission neutron s and heavy particle ions accelerated by a synchrotron. A Drosophila strain that allows simultaneous detection of two types of mutations in an identical fly was constructed. One was a wing-hair mutation and the other was an eye-color mosaic spot mutation. Measurements were made using a combined assay system of both mutation assays. Larvae were exposed to radiation at the age of post-ovipositional day-3. The efficiency of 252 Cf neutrons for inducing wing-hair mosaic spots was very high, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) = 8.5, but the efficiency for eye-color mosaic spot was nearly equal (RBE = 1.2) to that of 137 Cs γ-rays. The RBE of carbon ions for inducing wing-hair mosaic spots increased as an increase in LET values. The RBE for the induction of eye-color mutants did not change with LET. These relationships suggest that more complex types of DNA damages such as non-rejoinable strand break or clustered double strand break, which increase with LET may be responsible for the induction of wing-hair mutation, while simpler forms of molecular damage may induce a reversion in the white-ivory allele. (M.N.)

  7. 40 CFR 265.1055 - Standards: Sampling connection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... capture and transport all the purged process fluid to a waste management unit that complies with the... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Sampling connection systems. 265.1055 Section 265.1055 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID...

  8. 40 CFR 61.242-5 - Standards: Sampling connecting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) A waste management unit as defined in 40 CFR 63.111 if the waste management unit is subject to and... municipal or industrial solid waste, if the process fluids are not hazardous waste as defined in 40 CFR part... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Sampling connecting systems...

  9. 40 CFR 264.1055 - Standards: Sampling connection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operated to capture and transport all the purged process fluid to a waste management unit that complies... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Sampling connection systems. 264.1055 Section 264.1055 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID...

  10. Open Architecture Standards and Information Systems (OASIS II ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Open Architecture Standards and Information Systems (OASIS II) - Developing Capacity, Sharing Knowledge and Good Principles Across eHealth in Africa. Health care across much of the African continent is hampered by meager resources and a growing burden of disease, with HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB) and malaria ...

  11. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay characterization of basal variation and heritability of systemic microfibrillar-associated protein 4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Gjørup Sækmose

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microfibrillar-associated protein 4 (MFAP4 is a systemic biomarker that is significantly elevated in samples from patients suffering from hepatic cirrhosis. The protein is generally localized to elastic fibers and other connective tissue fibers in the extracellular matrix (ECM, and variation in systemic MFAP4 (sMFAP4 has the potential to reflect diverse diseases with increased ECM turnover. Here, we aimed to validate an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for the measurement of sMFAP4 with an emphasis on the robustness of the assay. Moreover, we aimed to determine confounders influencing the basal sMFAP4 variability and the genetic contribution to the basal variation. METHODS: The sandwich ELISA was based on two monoclonal anti-MFAP4 antibodies and was optimized and calibrated with a standard of recombinant MFAP4. The importance of pre-analytical sample handling was evaluated regarding sample tube type, time, and temperature conditions. The mean value structure and variance structure was determined in a twin cohort including 1,417 Danish twins (age 18-67 years by mixed-effect linear regression modeling. RESULTS: The practical working range of the sandwich ELISA was estimated to be 4-75 U/ml. The maximum intra- and inter-assay variation was estimated to be 8.7% and 6.6%, respectively. Sample handling and processing appeared to influence MFAP4 measurements only marginally. The average concentration of sMFAP4 in the serum was 18.9 ± 8.4 (SD U/ml in the twin cohort (95% CI: 18.5-19.4, median sMFAP4 17.3 U/ml. The mean structure model was demonstrated to include waist-hip ratio, age, and cigarette smoking status in interactions with gender. A relatively low heritability of h(2 = 0.24 was found after applying a model including additive genetic factors and shared and non-shared environmental factors. CONCLUSIONS: The described ELISA provides robust measures of the liver fibrosis marker sMFAP4. The low heritability and the relatively

  12. Implementation of Medical Information Exchange System Based on EHR Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Soon Hwa; Lee, Min Ho; Kim, Sang Guk; Jeong, Jun Yong; Lee, Bi Na; Choi, Myeong Seon; Kim, Il Kon; Park, Woo Sung; Ha, Kyooseob; Cho, Eunyoung; Kim, Yoon; Bae, Jae Bong

    2010-12-01

    To develop effective ways of sharing patients' medical information, we developed a new medical information exchange system (MIES) based on a registry server, which enabled us to exchange different types of data generated by various systems. To assure that patient's medical information can be effectively exchanged under different system environments, we adopted the standardized data transfer methods and terminologies suggested by the Center for Interoperable Electronic Healthcare Record (CIEHR) of Korea in order to guarantee interoperability. Regarding information security, MIES followed the security guidelines suggested by the CIEHR of Korea. This study aimed to develop essential security systems for the implementation of online services, such as encryption of communication, server security, database security, protection against hacking, contents, and network security. The registry server managed information exchange as well as the registration information of the clinical document architecture (CDA) documents, and the CDA Transfer Server was used to locate and transmit the proper CDA document from the relevant repository. The CDA viewer showed the CDA documents via connection with the information systems of related hospitals. This research chooses transfer items and defines document standards that follow CDA standards, such that exchange of CDA documents between different systems became possible through ebXML. The proposed MIES was designed as an independent central registry server model in order to guarantee the essential security of patients' medical information.

  13. PROMETHEE: An Alpha Low Level Waste Assay System Using Passive and Active Neutron Measurement Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passard, Christian; Mariani, Alain; Jallu, Fanny; Romeyer-Dherbey, Jacques; Recroix, Herve; Rodriguez, Michel; Loridon, Joel; Denis, Caroline; Toubon, Herve

    2002-01-01

    The development of a passive-active neutron assay system for alpha low level waste characterization at the French Atomic Energy Commission is discussed. Less than 50 Bq[α] (about 50 μg Pu) per gram of crude waste must be measured in 118-l 'European' drums in order to reach the requirements for incinerating wastes. Detection limits of about 0.12 mg of effective 239 Pu in total active neutron counting, and 0.08 mg of effective 239 Pu coincident active neutron counting, may currently be detected (empty cavity, measurement time of 15 min, neutron generator emission of 1.6 x 10 8 s -1 [4π]). The most limiting parameters in terms of performances are the matrix of the drum - its composition (H, Cl...), its density, and its heterogeneity degree - and the localization and self-shielding properties of the contaminant

  14. System 80+{trademark} standard design incorporates radiation protection lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crom, T.D.; Naugle, C.L. [Duke Engineering & Services, Inc., Charlotte, NC (United States); Turk, R.S. [ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Power, Windsor, CT (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Many lessons have been learned from the current generation of nuclear plants in the area of radiation protection. The following paper will outline how the lessons learned have been incorporated into the design and operational philosophy of the System 80+{trademark} Standard Design currently under development by ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) with support from Duke Engineering and Services, Inc. and Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation in the Balance-of-Plant design. The System 80+{trademark} Standard Design is a complete nuclear power plant for national and international markets, designed in direct response to utility needs for the 1990`s, and scheduled for Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Design Certification under the new standardization rule (10 CFR Part 52). System 80+{trademark} is a natural extension of System 80{sup R} technology, an evolutionary change based on proven Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) in operation at Palo Verde in Arizona and under construction at Yonggwang in the Republic of Korea. The System 80+{trademark} Containment and much of the Balance of Plant design is based upon Duke Power Company`s Cherokee Plant, which was partially constructed in the late 1970`s, but, was later canceled (due to rapid declined in electrical load growth). The System 80+{trademark} Standard Design meets the requirements given in the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) Requirements Document. One of these requirements is to limit the occupational exposure to 100 person-rem/yr. This paper illustrates how this goal can be achieved through the incorporation of lessons learned, innovative design, and the implementation of a common sense approach to operation and maintenances practices.

  15. A microtiter plate-based system for the semiautomated growth and assay of bacterial cells for beta-galactosidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, R

    1989-08-15

    The introduction of automated pipetting devices, microtiter readers, and microcomputers makes it possible to significantly increase the number of enzyme assays which can be performed as part of the analysis of a biological process. A number of difficulties must be overcome in any such integrated approach based on the microtiter plate. Among these are cell lysis, temperature control, the conversion of microtiter reader optical density values to standard 1-cm path length values, and data management. The utility of such a scheme can be extended to gene regulation and bacterial genetics studies, if bacterial cell culture techniques can be incorporated into the scheme. This paper addresses these issues in the application of a semiautomated system to the study of the induction of the gyrA promoter by treatment (of a gyrA-lac operon fusion-containing strain) with a gyrase inhibitor. This system is specific to the requirements of our studies into the modulation of gene expression by DNA relaxation. The general approach, however, can be readily adapted to other studies.

  16. Standard Guide for Specifying Thermal Performance of Geothermal Power Systems

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers power plant performance terms and criteria for use in evaluation and comparison of geothermal energy conversion and power generation systems. The special nature of these geothermal systems makes performance criteria commonly used to evaluate conventional fossil fuel-fired systems of limited value. This guide identifies the limitations of the less useful criteria and defines an equitable basis for measuring the quality of differing thermal cycles and plant equipment for geothermal resources. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  17. Quality assurance: Importance of systems and standard operating procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manghani, Kishu

    2011-01-01

    It is mandatory for sponsors of clinical trials and contract research organizations alike to establish, manage and monitor their quality control and quality assurance systems and their integral standard operating procedures and other quality documents to provide high-quality products and services to fully satisfy customer needs and expectations. Quality control and quality assurance systems together constitute the key quality systems. Quality control and quality assurance are parts of quality management. Quality control is focused on fulfilling quality requirements, whereas quality assurance is focused on providing confidence that quality requirements are fulfilled. The quality systems must be commensurate with the Company business objectives and business model. Top management commitment and its active involvement are critical in order to ensure at all times the adequacy, suitability, effectiveness and efficiency of the quality systems. Effective and efficient quality systems can promote timely registration of drugs by eliminating waste and the need for rework with overall financial and social benefits to the Company.

  18. Standard Practice for Quality Management Systems for Nondestructive Testing Agencies

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers general requirements for the establishment and maintenance of a quality management system for agencies engaged in nondestructive testing (NDT). 1.2 This practice utilizes criteria contained in Practice E 543. 1.3 This practice utilizes criteria contained in American National Standard ANSI/ISO/ASQ Q9001–2000, Quality management systems—Requirements. 1.4 This practice recognizes the importance of establishing minimum safety criteria. 1.5 The use of SI or inch-pound units, or combinations thereof, will be the responsibility of the technical committee whose standards are referred to in this standard. 1.6 This practice does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this practice to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  19. Recommendations for a proposed standard for performing systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaChance, J.; Whitehead, D.; Drouin, M.

    1998-01-01

    In August 1995, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued a policy statement proposing improved regulatory decisionmaking by increasing the use of PRA [probabilistic risk assessment] in all regulatory matters to the extent supported by the state-of-the-art in PRA methods and data. A key aspect in using PRA in risk-informed regulatory activities is establishing the appropriate scope and attributes of the PRA. In this regard, ASME decided to develop a consensus PRA Standard. The objective is to develop a PRA Standard such that the technical quality of nuclear plant PRAs will be sufficient to support risk-informed regulatory applications. This paper presents examples recommendations for the systems analysis element of a PRA for incorporation into the ASME PRA Standard

  20. STANDARDIZATION AND APPLICATION OF PLASTIC CARDS IN THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polina V. Baranova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of plastic cards has been widely increasing in various fields of life, business and education. They have already become up-to-date and convenient attribute of our daily life. There are emerging more and more areas where they can be used in a convenient and practical way. Contactless smart cards can be used in access control in the educational systems. This article gives an overview of existing standards dealing with contactless identification smart-cards. All standards covered in this article are developed by the Federal State Unitary Enterprise VNIINMASH jointly with TC 22 «Information Technology» based on their own authentic Russian translation of international standards

  1. The development of standard samples with a defined number of antigen-specific T cells to harmonize T cell assays: a proof-of-principle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satwinder Kaur; Tummers, Bart; Schumacher, Ton N; Gomez, Raquel; Franken, Kees L M C; Verdegaal, Els M; Laske, Karoline; Gouttefangeas, Cécile; Ottensmeier, Christian; Welters, Marij J P; Britten, Cedrik M; van der Burg, Sjoerd H

    2013-03-01

    The validation of assays that quantify antigen-specific T cell responses is critically dependent on cell samples that contain clearly defined measurable numbers of antigen-specific T cells. An important requirement is that such cell samples are handled and analyzed in a comparable fashion to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). We performed a proof-of-principle study to show that retrovirally TCR-transduced T cells spiked at defined numbers in autologous PBMC can be used as standard samples for HLA/peptide multimer staining. NY-ESO-1157-165-specific, TCR-transduced CD8+ T cell batches were successfully generated from PBMC of several HLA-A*0201 healthy donors, purified by magnetic cell sorting on the basis of HLA tetramer (TM) staining and expanded with specific antigen in vitro. When subsequently spiked into autologous PBMC, the detection of these CD3+CD8+TM+ T cells was highly accurate with a mean accuracy of 91.6 %. The standard cells can be preserved for a substantial period of time in liquid nitrogen. Furthermore, TM staining of fresh and cryopreserved standard samples diluted at decreasing concentrations into autologous cryopreserved unspiked PBMC revealed that the spiked CD3+CD8+TM+ T cells could be accurately detected at all dilutions in a linear fashion with a goodness-of-fit of over 0.99 at a frequency of at least 0.02 % among the CD3+CD8+ T cell population. Notably, the CD3+CD8+TM+ cells of the standard samples were located exactly within the gates used to analyze patient samples and displayed a similar scatter pattern. The performance of the cryopreserved standard samples in the hands of 5 external investigators was good with an inter-laboratory variation of 32.9 % and the doubtless identification of one outlier.

  2. Standard test method for nondestructive assay of special nuclear material holdup using Gamma-Ray spectroscopic methods

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes gamma-ray methods used to nondestructively measure the quantity of 235U, or 239Pu remaining as holdup in nuclear facilities. Holdup occurs in all facilities where nuclear material is processed, in process equipment, in exhaust ventilation systems and in building walls and floors. 1.2 This test method includes information useful for management, planning, selection of equipment, consideration of interferences, measurement program definition, and the utilization of resources (1, 2, 3, 4). 1.3 The measurement of nuclear material hold up in process equipment requires a scientific knowledge of radiation sources and detectors, transmission of radiation, calibration, facility operations and error analysis. It is subject to the constraints of the facility, management, budget, and schedule; plus health and safety requirements; as well as the laws of physics. The measurement process includes defining measurement uncertainties and is sensitive to the form and distribution of the material...

  3. Influence of oxygen on asexual blood cycle and susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine: requirement of a standardized in vitro assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minodier Philippe

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The main objective of this study was to assess the influence of gas mixtures on in vitro Plasmodium falciparum growth and 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 for chloroquine. Methods The study was performed between February 2004 and December 2005. 136 Plasmodium falciparum isolates were used to evaluate gas mixtures effect on IC50 for chloroquine by isotopic microtest. The oxygen effect on asexual blood cycle of 3D7 and W2 clones was determined by thin blood smears examination and tritiated hypoxanthine uptake. Results From 5% O2 to 21% O2 conditions, no parasiticide effect of O2 concentration was observed in vitro on the clones 3D7 and W2. A parasitostatic effect was observed during the exposure of mature trophozoïtes and schizonts at 21% O2 with an increase in the length of schizogony. The chloroquine IC50 at 10% O2 were significantly higher than those at 21% O2, means of 173.5 nM and 121.5 nM respectively (p in vitro resistant to chloroquine (IC50 > 100 nM at 10% O2, 17 were sensitive to chloroquine (IC50 2. Conclusion Based on these results, laboratories should use the same gas mixture to realize isotopic microtest. Further studies on comparison of isotopic and non-isotopic assays are needed to establish a standardized in vitro assay protocol to survey malaria drug resistance.

  4. A high throughput screening assay system for the identification of small molecule inhibitors of gsp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Nisan; Hu, Xin; Chen, Catherine Z; Mathews Griner, Lesley A; Zheng, Wei; Inglese, James; Austin, Christopher P; Marugan, Juan J; Southall, Noel; Neumann, Susanne; Northup, John K; Ferrer, Marc; Collins, Michael T

    2014-01-01

    Mis-sense mutations in the α-subunit of the G-protein, Gsα, cause fibrous dysplasia of bone/McCune-Albright syndrome. The biochemical outcome of these mutations is constitutively active Gsα and increased levels of cAMP. The aim of this study was to develop an assay system that would allow the identification of small molecule inhibitors specific for the mutant Gsα protein, the so-called gsp oncogene. Commercially available Chinese hamster ovary cells were stably transfected with either wild-type (WT) or mutant Gsα proteins (R201C and R201H). Stable cell lines with equivalent transfected Gsα protein expression that had relatively lower (WT) or higher (R201C and R201H) cAMP levels were generated. These cell lines were used to develop a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based cAMP assay in 1536-well microplate format for high throughput screening of small molecule libraries. A small molecule library of 343,768 compounds was screened to identify modulators of gsp activity. A total of 1,356 compounds with inhibitory activity were initially identified and reconfirmed when tested in concentration dose responses. Six hundred eighty-six molecules were selected for further analysis after removing cytotoxic compounds and those that were active in forskolin-induced WT cells. These molecules were grouped by potency, efficacy, and structural similarities to yield 22 clusters with more than 5 of structurally similar members and 144 singleton molecules. Seven chemotypes of the major clusters were identified for further testing and analyses.

  5. Performance Measurement of Management System Standards Using the Balanced Scorecard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kopia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Management system standards (MSS, such as ISO standards, TQM, etc. are widely-used standards adopted by millions of organizations worldwide. It is still an unclear question whether these standards are beneficial for an organization, besides the fact that they might be required or expected by law or customers. The question, whether MSS increase the efficiency, the output, or the performance of an organization is still discussed in scientific research. One reason might be that performance measurement itself is not fully understood or in constant development ranging from pure financial evaluations over intellectual capital rating to calculating of levels of environmental, social or economic expectations known as the Trible Bottom Line. The Balanced Scorecard is one possible solution for performance measurement on a strategic and operational level and therefore useful for the measurement of the influence of MSS within organizations. This study summarized current research in the field of performance measurement in the context of MSS and IMS and the use of BSC and quantitatively and qualitatively tests the usefulness of BSC in measuring the effect of MSSs using the Execution Premium. It was found that BSC is often used, that an average number of companies integrate their measurement initiatives of their MSSs into the BSC-process, and that a high integration of MSS into the BSC improves the organizational performance. This research is useful for researchers and practitioners in order to understand the benefits of the usage of the BSC in the context of MSS or Integrated Management Systems.

  6. Use of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay in the antemortem diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and neosporosis in the central nervous system of cats and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatzberg, Scott J; Haley, Nicholas J; Barr, Stephen C; deLahunta, Alexander; Olby, Natasha; Munana, Karen; Sharp, Nicholas J H

    2003-12-01

    To develop a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum DNA in canine and feline biological samples. SAMPLE POPULATION; Biological samples from 7 cats with systemic (n = 4) or CNS (3) toxoplasmosis, 6 dogs with neospora- or toxoplasma-associated encephalitis, and 11 animals with nonprotozoal disease. Primers for T gondii, N caninum, and the canine ferritin gene (dogs) or feline histone 3.3 gene (cats) were combined in a single PCR assay. The DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded brain tissue, CSF, or skeletal muscle. The PCR products with positive results were cloned, and sequence identity was confirmed. Of 7 cats and 4 dogs with immunohistochemical or serologic evidence of toxoplasmosis, PCR results were positive for all cats and 3 dogs for T gondii, and positive for T gondii and N caninum for 1 dog. Another dog had negative PCR results for both parasites. Of 2 dogs with immunohistochemical or serologic evidence of neosporosis, PCR results were positive for 1 for N caninum and positive for the other for T gondii. All negative-control samples yielded negative results for T gondii and N caninum on the PCR assay. Standard tests for toxoplasmosis or neosporosis associated with the CNS rely on serologic, histologic, or immunohistochemical analysis and can be difficult to interpret. The multiplex PCR assay with built-in control reactions could be a complementary clinical tool for the antemortem diagnosis of toxoplasmosis or neosporosis associated with the CNS.

  7. Sensor Open System Architecture (SOSA) evolution for collaborative standards development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Charles Patrick; Lipkin, Ilya; Davidson, Steven A.; Baldwin, Rusty; Orlovsky, Michael C.; Ibrahim, Tim

    2017-04-01

    The Sensor Open System Architecture (SOSA) is a C4ISR-focused technical and economic collaborative effort between the Air Force, Navy, Army, the Department of Defense (DoD), Industry, and other Governmental agencies to develop (and incorporate) a technical Open Systems Architecture standard in order to maximize C4ISR sub-system, system, and platform affordability, re-configurability, and hardware/software/firmware re-use. The SOSA effort will effectively create an operational and technical framework for the integration of disparate payloads into C4ISR systems; with a focus on the development of a modular decomposition (defining functions and behaviors) and associated key interfaces (physical and logical) for common multi-purpose architecture for radar, EO/IR, SIGINT, EW, and Communications. SOSA addresses hardware, software, and mechanical/electrical interfaces. The modular decomposition will produce a set of re-useable components, interfaces, and sub-systems that engender reusable capabilities. This, in effect, creates a realistic and affordable ecosystem enabling mission effectiveness through systematic re-use of all available re-composed hardware, software, and electrical/mechanical base components and interfaces. To this end, SOSA will leverage existing standards as much as possible and evolve the SOSA architecture through modification, reuse, and enhancements to achieve C4ISR goals. This paper will present accomplishments over the first year of SOSA initiative.

  8. Development of industry standards for composite repair systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, Chris [Stress Engineering Services, Inc. (United States)], email: chris.alexander@stress.com; Worth, Franz [Air Logistics, Inc. (United States)], email: fworth@airlog.com

    2010-07-01

    Lots of work has transpired over the past several years in generating consensus-based standards that include ASME PCC-2 and ISO 24817 for developing composite repair systems. The intent has been to provide the industry with guidelines for designing composite repair systems to ensure that damaged pipelines and piping systems are safely and properly reinforced. With the numerous composite repair systems currently available to pipeline operators, the importance of evaluating the capabilities of each system cannot be overstated. The fundamental design variables available to manufacturers are stiffness, strength and thickness of the composite. A properly-designed repair system ensures that strains in the reinforced steel and reinforcing composite material do not reach unacceptable levels. This paper provides a basic overview of the design philosophy embedded into the current design codes, as well as presenting results associated with several specific studies that were conducted to evaluate composite repair performance. The pipeline industry is being well-served through the development of these standards.

  9. A constructive critique of the three standard systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilczek, F.

    2004-01-01

    It has become conventional to say that our knowledge of fundamental physical law is summarized in a Standard Model. But this convention lumps together two quite different conceptual structures, and leaves out another. I think it is more accurate and informative to say that our current, working description of fundamental physics is based on three standard conceptual systems. These systems are very different; so different that it is not inappropriate to call them the Good, the Bad, and the Ugly. They concern, respectively, the coupling of vector gauge particles, gravitons, and Higgs particles. It is quite a remarkable fact, in itself, that every nonlinear interaction we need to summarize our present knowledge of the basic (i.e., irreducible) laws of physics involves one or another of these particles. (author)

  10. A New System of Faint Near-Infrared Standard Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, S. E.; Murphy, D. C.; Krzeminski, W.; Roth, M.; Rieke, M. J.

    1998-11-01

    A new grid of 65 faint near-infrared standard stars is presented. They are spread around the sky, lie between 10th and 12th magnitude at K, and are measured in most cases to precisions better than 0.001 mag in the J, H, K, and K_s bands; the latter is a medium-band modified K. A secondary list of red stars suitable for determining color transformations between photometric systems is also presented.

  11. Examination of the Benefits of Standardized Interfaces on Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Jeff Bezos with Blue Origin. All of these entrepreneurs have invested billions of privately funded dollars into their respective companies to...focused on developing systems that best captures the requirements of the end users at an indeterminate cost. With this mindset within the USG, each...Multiple factors ensue before standardization can take place, such key issues include changing the current mindset with the current design approach of

  12. Towards a Standard for Highly Secure SCADA Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, R.

    1998-09-25

    The critical energy inkstructures include gas, OL and electric power. These Mrastructures are complex and interdependent nmvorks that are vital to the national secwiy and social well being of our nation. Many electric power systems depend upon gas and oil, while fossil energy delive~ systems depend upon elecnic power. The control mechanisms for these Mrastructures are often referred to as SCADA (Supmivry CkmdandDaU Ac@itz&z) systems. SCADA systems provide remote monitoring and centralized control for a distributed tmnsportation infmsmucture in order to facilitate delivery of a commodi~. AIthough many of the SCADA concepts developed in this paper can be applied to automotive mmsponation systems, we will use transportation to refer to the movement of electrici~, gas, and oil. \\ Recently, there have been seveml reports suggesting that the widespread and increasing use of SCADA for control of energy systems provides an increasing opportuni~ for an advers~ to cause serious darnage to the energy inbstmcturei~. This damage could arise through cyber infiltration of the SCADA networks, by physically tampering with the control networks, or through a combination of both means. SCADA system threats decompose into cyber and physical threats. One solution to the SCADA security problem is to design a standard for a highly secure KA.DA system that is both cyber, and physdly secure. Not all-physical threats are possible to guard again% but of those threats that are, high security SCADA provides confidence that the system will continue to operate in their presence. One of the most important problems in SCADA securi~ is the relationship between the cyber and physical vulnerabilities. Cyber intrusion increases physical Vulnerabilities, while in the dual problem physical tampering increases cyber vulnerabilit.ies. There is potential for feedback and the precise dynamics need to be understood. As a first step towards a stan~ the goal of this paper is to facilitate a discussion of the

  13. Gamma ray scanner systems for nondestructive assay of heterogeneous waste barrels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martz, H.E.; Decman, B.J.; Roberson, G.P.; Levai, F.

    1997-01-01

    Traditional gamma safeguards measurements have usually been performed using a segmented gamma scanning (SGS) system. The accuracy of this technique relies on the assumption that the sample matrix and the activity are both uniform for a segment. Waste barrels are often highly heterogeneous, span a wide range of composition and matrix type. The primary sources of error are all directly or indirectly related to a non-uniform measurement response associated with unknown radioactive source spatial distribution and heterogeneity of the matrix. These errors can be significantly reduced by some imaging techniques that measure exact spatial locations of sources and attenuation maps. In this paper we describe a joint R ampersand D effort between the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the Institute of Nuclear Techniques (INT) of the Technical University, Budapest, to compare results obtained by two different gamma-ray nondestructive assay (NDA) systems used for imaging waste barrels. The basic principles are the same, but the approaches are different. Key factors to judge the adequacy of a method are the detection limit and the accuracy. Test drums representing waste to be measured are used to determine basic parameters of these techniques

  14. Standard hydrogen monitoring system-B operation and maintenance manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information for the operation and maintenance of the Standards Hydrogen Monitoring System-B (SHMS-B) used in the 200E and 200W area tank farms on the Hanford site. This provides information specific to the mechanical operation of the system and is not intended to take the place of a Plant Operating Procedure. The primary function of the SHMS-B is to monitor specifically for hydrogen in the waste tank vapor space which may also contain unknown quantities of other gaseous constituents

  15. Computer system validation: an overview of official requirements and standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, A; Kähny-Simonius, J; Plattner, M; Schmidli-Vckovski, V; Kronseder, C

    1998-02-01

    A brief overview of the relevant documents for companies in the pharmaceutical industry, which are to be taken into consideration to fulfil computer system validation requirements, is presented. We concentrate on official requirements and valid standards in the USA, European Community and Switzerland. There are basically three GMP-guidelines. their interpretations by the associations of interests like APV and PDA as well as the GAMP Suppliers Guide. However, the three GMP-guidelines imply the same philosophy about computer system validation. They describe more a what-to-do approach for validation, whereas the GAMP Suppliers Guide describes a how-to-do validation. Nevertheless, they do not contain major discrepancies.

  16. Interoperability through standardization: Electronic mail, and X Window systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Ashok T.

    1993-01-01

    Since the introduction of computing machines, there has been continual advances in computer and communication technologies and approaching limits. The user interface has evolved from a row of switches, character based interface using teletype terminals and then video terminals, to present day graphical user interface. It is expected that next significant advances will come in the availability of services, such as electronic mail and directory services, as the standards for applications are developed and in the 'easy to use' interfaces, such as Graphical User Interface for example Window and X Window, which are being standardized. Various proprietary electronic mail (email) systems are in use within organizations at each center of NASA. Each system provides email services to users within an organization, however the support for email services across organizations and across centers exists at centers to a varying degree and is often easy to use. A recent NASA email initiative is intended 'to provide a simple way to send email across organizational boundaries without disruption of installed base.' The initiative calls for integration of existing organizational email systems through gateways connected by a message switch, supporting X.400 and SMTP protocols, to create a NASA wide email system and for implementation of NASA wide email directory services based on OSI standard X.500. A brief overview of MSFC efforts as a part of this initiative are described. Window based graphical user interfaces make computers easy to use. X window protocol has been developed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1984/1985 to provide uniform window based interface in a distributed computing environment with heterogenous computers. It has since become a standard supported by a number of major manufacturers. Z Windows systems, terminals and workstations, and X Window applications are becoming available. However impact of its use in the Local Area Network environment on the network

  17. Standard hydrogen monitoring system - E operation and maintenance manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.C.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information for the operation and maintenance of the Standard Hydrogen Monitoring System- E (SHMS-E) used in the 200E and 20OW area tank farms on the Hanford Site. This provides information specific to the mechanical operation of the system and is not intended to take the place of a Plant Operating Procedure. However, it does provide more information on the system than a Plant Operating Procedure. The intent here is that the system is started up by a technician or engineer who has completed tank farms training course for SHMS, and then the only actions performed by Operations will be routine log taking. If any problems not addressed by the operating procedure are encountered with the unit, engineering should be contacted

  18. Standard Hydrogen Monitoring System-D operation and maintenance manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.C.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information for the operation and maintenance of the Standard Hydrogen Monitoring System-D (SHMS-D) used in the 200E and 200W area tank farms on the Hanford Site. This provides information specific to the mechanical operation of the system and is not intended to take the place of a Plant Operating Procedure. However, it does provide more information on the system than a Plant Operating Procedure. The intent here is that the system is started up by a technician or engineer who has completed tank farms training course No. 351405, and then the only actions performed by Operations will be routine log taking. If any problems not addressed by the operating procedure are encountered with the unit, engineering should be contacted

  19. Open Source, Open Standards, and Health Care Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Recognition of the improvements in patient safety, quality of patient care, and efficiency that health care information systems have the potential to bring has led to significant investment. Globally the sale of health care information systems now represents a multibillion dollar industry. As policy makers, health care professionals, and patients, we have a responsibility to maximize the return on this investment. To this end we analyze alternative licensing and software development models, as well as the role of standards. We describe how licensing affects development. We argue for the superiority of open source licensing to promote safer, more effective health care information systems. We claim that open source licensing in health care information systems is essential to rational procurement strategy. PMID:21447469

  20. Development and assembly of equipment for non destructive assay system control using nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Jose Altino Tupinamba

    2006-01-01

    Nondestructive Assay (NDA) is applied to machines and components quality tests. These elements would not have a good performance if they were conceived without concern about the mechanical project quality, used materials, manufacture processes and inspection and maintenance methodology. There are constant developments in high level of technology with the objective of guaranteeing the components quality and the good functioning of these machines, in the mechanics, naval, aeronautical, petrochemical and steel industry, energy and nuclear generation as well. The globalization in the industry lines is a fact, leading to an increase in the multinational projects and products. The following questions arise: how to assure the high quality of components and processes? How to optimize the test methods to assure that the materials do not have defects affecting the performance of the components? The answers to the questions above are found in the application of NDA. The complex materials analysis (inhomogeneous) using NDA requires a detailed study of the sensors response signal. In this work, a measure and control system of non destructive processes was developed, using a radioactive source with a defined energy in function of the material to be analyzed. This system involves: (a) Interface of input/output (I/O) (the Hardware) and (b) graphical Interface (Software). In the non destructive analysis, it is made the comparison of the signal proceeding from the sensor with a signal preset (Set Point) or analogical signal of reference (Base Line), which is adjusted in the I/O Interface. Analyzed the signal, the system will make the decision: (a) to reject or (b) to accept the analyzed material. The I/O Interface is implemented by electronic equipment with a MCS51. The purpose of this interface is to supply conditions to exchange information, using serial RS232, between the sensor and the microcomputer. The graphical Interface (software) is written in visual C++ language (author)

  1. RNA biology in a test tube--an overview of in vitro systems/assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, Xavier; Karginov, Fedor V

    2012-01-01

    In vitro systems have provided a wealth of information in the field of RNA biology, as they constitute a superior and sometimes the unique approach to address many important questions. Such cell-free methods can be sorted by the degree of complexity of the preparation of enzymatic and/or regulatory activity. Progress in the study of pre-mRNA processing has largely relied on traditional in vitro methods, as these reactions have been recapitulated in cell-free systems. The pre-mRNA capping, editing, and cleavage/polyadenylation reactions have even been reconstituted using purified components, and the enzymes responsible for catalysis have been characterized by such techniques. In vitro splicing using nuclear or cytoplasmic extracts has yielded clues on spliceosome assembly, kinetics, and mechanisms of splicing and has been essential to elucidate the function of splicing factors. Coupled systems have been important to functionally connect distinct processes, like transcription and splicing. Extract preparation has also been adapted to cells from a variety of tissues and species, revealing general versus species-specific mechanisms. Cell-free assays have also been applied to newly discovered pathways such as those involving small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). The first two pathways have been well characterized largely by in vitro methods, which need to be developed for piRNAs. Finally, new techniques, such as single-molecule studies, are continuously being established, providing new and important insights into the field. Thus, in vitro approaches have been, are, and will continue being at the forefront of RNA research. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. A Standardized Evaluation System for Decadal Climate Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadow, C.; Cubasch, U.

    2012-12-01

    The evaluation of decadal prediction systems is a scientific challenge as well as a technical challenge in the climate research. The major project MiKlip (www.fona-miklip.de) for medium-term climate prediction funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research in Germany (BMBF) has the aim to create a model system that can provide reliable decadal forecasts on climate and weather. The model system to be developed will be novel in several aspects, with great challenges for the methodology development. This concerns especially the determination of the initial conditions, the inclusion into the model of processes relevant to decadal predictions, the increase of the spatial resolution through regionalisation, the improvement or adjustment of statistical post-processing, and finally the synthesis and validation of the entire model system. Therefore, a standardized evaluation system will be part of the MiKlip system to validate it - developed by the project 'Integrated data and evaluation system for decadal scale prediction' (INTEGRATION). The presentation gives an overview of the different linkages of such a project, shows the different development stages and gives an outlook for users and possible end users in climate service. The technical interface combines all projects inside of MiKlip and invites them to participate in a common evaluation system. The system design and the validation strategy from a standalone tool in the beginning to a user friendly web based system using GRID technologies to an integrated part of the operational MiKlip system for industry and society will give the opportunity to enhance the MiKlip strategy. First results of different possibilities of such a system will be shown to present the scientific background through Taylor diagrams, ensemble skill scores and e.g. climatological means to show the usability and possibilities of MiKlip and the INTEGRATION project.

  3. How Modeling Standards, Software, and Initiatives Support Reproducibility in Systems Biology and Systems Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltemath, Dagmar; Wolkenhauer, Olaf

    2016-10-01

    Only reproducible results are of significance to science. The lack of suitable standards and appropriate support of standards in software tools has led to numerous publications with irreproducible results. Our objectives are to identify the key challenges of reproducible research and to highlight existing solutions. In this paper, we summarize problems concerning reproducibility in systems biology and systems medicine. We focus on initiatives, standards, and software tools that aim to improve the reproducibility of simulation studies. The long-term success of systems biology and systems medicine depends on trustworthy models and simulations. This requires openness to ensure reusability and transparency to enable reproducibility of results in these fields.

  4. Standards, Data Exchange and Intellectual Property Rights in Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Zimmeren, Esther; Rutz, Berthold; Minssen, Timo

    2016-01-01

    and qualitative data on biological processes and activities in much greater volumes, velocity, variety and veracity. The skilful integration of multiple heterogeneous data sets allows scientists to model and predict biological processes. SysBio’s interdisciplinary nature requires data, models and other research...... we provided a number of recommendations for a variety of stakeholders. The current article offers some deeper reflections about the interface between IPRs, standards and data exchange in Systems Biology resulting from an Expert Meeting funded by another ERA-Net, ERASysAPP. The meeting brought...... assets to be formatted and described in standard ways to enable exchange and reuse of high quality data. This allows a more effective utilisation of the enormous potential that rests in “big data” analysis. Finally, SysBio is often closely linked to or provides the foundation for Synthetic Biology (Syn...

  5. Assays with Daphnia magna and Danio rerio as alert systems in aquatic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, J; Oliva Teles, L; Vasconcelos, V

    2007-04-01

    For the evaluation and monitoring of the water quality, a series of methodologies, which have as basis an ample variety of bioindicators, may be applied. The aim of this research was to evaluate the use of ecotoxicity assays with Daphnia magna and Danio rerio as alert systems in water contaminated with toxic substances. Using two toxicity databases, the sensibility of those aquatic organisms to a wide variety of chemical products and elements and to some chemical categories was investigated. The relation between the reference dose for human oral chronic exposure (RfD) of all chemical products and the acute toxicity values for both bioindicators was also studied. Acute toxicity tests with D. magna respond to a larger variety of chemicals with a higher sensitivity than those with D. rerio. Although mammals, crustaceans and fish have different routes of exposure, target organs and toxic mechanisms, acute toxicity essays with fish and Daphnia may be used as an initial screening before mammal models are used.

  6. Standard-C hydrogen monitoring system acceptance test procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, T.C.

    1994-09-02

    The primary function of the standard-C hydrogen monitoring system (SHMS) is to monitor specifically for hydrogen in the waste tank atmosphere which may also contain (but not be limited to) unknown quantities of air, nitrous oxide, ammonia, water vapor, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and other gaseous constituents. The SHMS will consist of hydrogen specific monitors, a grab sampler to collect samples for laboratory analysis, a gas chromatograph, and the gas sample collection system necessary to support the operation of the instrumentation. This system will be located in a cabinet placed at the tank of interest. The purpose of this document is to demonstrate that the SHMS is constructed as intended by design.

  7. Analytical method for the identification and assay of 12 phthalates in cosmetic products: application of the ISO 12787 international standard "Cosmetics-Analytical methods-Validation criteria for analytical results using chromatographic techniques".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Pascal; Maggio, Annie-Françoise; Bousquet, Claudine; Quoirez, Audrey; Civade, Corinne; Bonnet, Pierre-Antoine

    2012-08-31

    Esters of phthalic acid, more commonly named phthalates, may be present in cosmetic products as ingredients or contaminants. Their presence as contaminant can be due to the manufacturing process, to raw materials used or to the migration of phthalates from packaging when plastic (polyvinyl chloride--PVC) is used. 8 phthalates (DBP, DEHP, BBP, DMEP, DnPP, DiPP, DPP, and DiBP), classified H360 or H361, are forbidden in cosmetics according to the European regulation on cosmetics 1223/2009. A GC/MS method was developed for the assay of 12 phthalates in cosmetics, including the 8 phthalates regulated. Analyses are carried out on a GC/MS system with electron impact ionization mode (EI). The separation of phthalates is obtained on a cross-linked 5%-phenyl/95%-dimethylpolysiloxane capillary column 30 m × 0.25 mm (i.d.) × 0.25 mm film thickness using a temperature gradient. Phthalate quantification is performed by external calibration using an internal standard. Validation elements obtained on standard solutions, highlight a satisfactory system conformity (resolution>1.5), a common quantification limit at 0.25 ng injected, an acceptable linearity between 0.5 μg mL⁻¹ and 5.0 μg mL⁻¹ as well as a precision and an accuracy in agreement with in-house specifications. Cosmetic samples ready for analytical injection are analyzed after a dilution in ethanol whereas more complex cosmetic matrices, like milks and creams, are assayed after a liquid/liquid extraction using ter-butyl methyl ether (TBME). Depending on the type of cosmetics analyzed, the common limits of quantification for the 12 phthalates were set at 0.5 or 2.5 μg g⁻¹. All samples were assayed using the analytical approach described in the ISO 12787 international standard "Cosmetics-Analytical methods-Validation criteria for analytical results using chromatographic techniques". This analytical protocol is particularly adapted when it is not possible to make reconstituted sample matrices. Copyright © 2012

  8. 78 FR 6732 - Changes to Standard Numbering System, Vessel Identification System, and Boating Accident Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 173, 174, 181, and 187 RIN 1625-AB45 Changes to Standard Numbering System, Vessel Identification System, and Boating Accident Report Database AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Rule... Numbering System, Vessel Identification System, and Boating Accident Report Database rule became effective...

  9. Comparison of Hemoglobin A1c assay performance on two different commercial systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozo Ćorić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c is formed by non-enzymatic binding of glucose to the free amino group of the N-terminal end of the ß-chain of hemoglobin A. HbA1c is representative of the mean blood glucose level over three months. The aim of the study was to evaluate the Hemoglobin A1c immunoturbidimetric assay performance on two different commercial systems.Methods: We evaluated the precision and trueness for determination of HbA1c in whole blood. Concentrations of total hemoglobin and HbA1c were evaluated on Dimension Xpand (Siemens and Cobas 501 (Roche analyzers. HbA1c was measured in a latex agglutination inhibition test. Commercial controls Liquichek Diabetes Control Level 1 and Liquichek Diabetes Control Level 2 (Bio Rad at two levels were used for quality control. Analytical validation of HbA1c included: within-run imprecision, between-day imprecision, inaccuracy and comparison determination on the human samples on 2 systems: Dimension Xpand and Cobas 501 analyzers. Results: Within-run imprecision on the commercially controls for Level 1 is 4.5% and Level 2 is 3.2% between-day imprecision on commercially controls is 6.1% Level 1 and 5.1% Level 2 for respectively inac- curacy on commercially controls for Level 1 is 1.8% and Level 2 is 4.8%. Method comparison on human samples shows the correlation coefficient of 0.99.Conclusion: The presented results of the analytical evaluation methods for the determination of HbA1c showed an acceptable accuracy and precision.

  10. Japanese Cost Accounting Systems - analysis of the cost accounting systems of the Japanese cost accounting standard

    OpenAIRE

    Peter, Winter

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims at providing an insight into Japanese cost accounting. Firstly, the development of cost accounting in Japan is delineated. Subsequently, the cost accounting systems codified in the Japanese cost accounting standard are analysed based on the classification according to Hoitsch/Schmitz. Lastly, a critical appraisal of the cost accounting systems of the Japanese cost accounting standard as well as a comparison to German and American cost accounting systems are conducted.

  11. Electronic circuits, systems and standards the best of EDN

    CERN Document Server

    Hickman, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Electronic Circuits, Systems and Standards: The Best of EDN is a collection of 66 EDN articles. The topics covered in this collection are diverse but all are relevant to controlled circulation electronics. The coverage of the text includes topics about software and algorithms, such as simple random number algorithm; simple log algorithm; and efficient algorithm for repeated FFTs. The book also tackles measurement related topics, including test for identifying a Gaussian noise source; enhancing product reliability; and amplitude-locked loop speeds filter test. The text will be useful to student

  12. Electronic health record standards, coding systems, frameworks, and infrastructures

    CERN Document Server

    Sinha, Pradeep K; Bendale, Prashant; Mantri, Manisha; Dande, Atreya

    2013-01-01

    Discover How Electronic Health Records Are Built to Drive the Next Generation of Healthcare Delivery The increased role of IT in the healthcare sector has led to the coining of a new phrase ""health informatics,"" which deals with the use of IT for better healthcare services. Health informatics applications often involve maintaining the health records of individuals, in digital form, which is referred to as an Electronic Health Record (EHR). Building and implementing an EHR infrastructure requires an understanding of healthcare standards, coding systems, and frameworks. This book provides an

  13. Quality assurance: Importance of systems and standard operating procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishu Manghani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is mandatory for sponsors of clinical trials and contract research organizations alike to establish, manage and monitor their quality control and quality assurance systems and their integral standard operating procedures and other quality documents to provide high-quality products and services to fully satisfy customer needs and expectations. Quality control and quality assurance systems together constitute the key quality systems. Quality control and quality assurance are parts of quality management. Quality control is focused on fulfilling quality requirements, whereas quality assurance is focused on providing confidence that quality requirements are fulfilled. The quality systems must be commensurate with the Company business objectives and business model. Top management commitment and its active involvement are critical in order to ensure at all times the adequacy, suitability, effectiveness and efficiency of the quality systems. Effective and efficient quality systems can promote timely registration of drugs by eliminating waste and the need for rework with overall financial and social benefits to the Company.

  14. Trueness investigation of routine creatinine assays on nine homogeneous systems in Beijing demonstrates an encouraging outcome that meets clinical requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Xu, Guo-bin

    2010-09-01

    Serum creatinine (Scr) measurement plays a key role in glomerular filtration rate estimation (eGFR), chronic kidney disease (CKD) diagnosis as well as CKD treatment. However, the test results of Scr from different laboratories vary significantly. In order to get comparable results, the European in vitro diagnostic (IVD) directive requires traceability to reference methods and materials. The purpose of this study was to verify the effect of traceability implementation by investigating the trueness of creatinine measurement on nine homogenous systems in Beijing. Commutable frozen human serum reference material, National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material (SRM) 967, was used to verify the trueness of Scr measurement results from nine homogeneous analytical systems of seven companies which are the most widely used systems in Beijing's third-grade hospitals. The methods referred to the Jaffe's and Enzymatic methods. from nine routine measurement systems were assessed using two criteria: biological variability and Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments' 88 (CLIA' 88). We simulated a series of broken lines representing the limits of SD and bias that would produce a relative increase (or decrease) of 10% and 20% in the measurement error when estimating GFR (MEeGFR) using the isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS)-traceable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation. of the College of American Pathologists (CAP) 2008-B LN24 Survey were compared with our investigation results. Compared with the total error criteria of biological variability, Ortho (traceable to IDMS) met the minimum acceptable criteria; Roche (Jaffe), Roche (Enzymatic), Shino and Daiichi met the desirable criteria at level I. At level II, Ortho (traceable to gas chromatography/isotope dilution mass spectrometry, GC/IDMS), Dade Behring and Beckman (traceable to rate Jaffe) met the minimum acceptable criteria; Roche (Enzymatic) met the optimum

  15. Relating Standardized Visual Perception Measures to Simulator Visual System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Sweet, Barbara T.

    2013-01-01

    Human vision is quantified through the use of standardized clinical vision measurements. These measurements typically include visual acuity (near and far), contrast sensitivity, color vision, stereopsis (a.k.a. stereo acuity), and visual field periphery. Simulator visual system performance is specified in terms such as brightness, contrast, color depth, color gamut, gamma, resolution, and field-of-view. How do these simulator performance characteristics relate to the perceptual experience of the pilot in the simulator? In this paper, visual acuity and contrast sensitivity will be related to simulator visual system resolution, contrast, and dynamic range; similarly, color vision will be related to color depth/color gamut. Finally, we will consider how some characteristics of human vision not typically included in current clinical assessments could be used to better inform simulator requirements (e.g., relating dynamic characteristics of human vision to update rate and other temporal display characteristics).

  16. Analysis and databasing software for integrated tomographic gamma scanner (TGS) and passive-active neutron (PAN) assay systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estep, R.J.; Melton, S.G.; Buenafe, C.

    2000-01-01

    The CTEN-FIT program, written for Windows 9x/NT in C++,performs databasing and analysis of combined thermal/epithermal neutron (CTEN) passive and active neutron assay data and integrates that with isotopics results and gamma-ray data from methods such as tomographic gamma scanning (TGS). The binary database is reflected in a companion Excel database that allows extensive customization via Visual Basic for Applications macros. Automated analysis options make the analysis of the data transparent to the assay system operator. Various record browsers and information displays simplify record keeping tasks

  17. The induction of somatic mutations by high-LET radiations using the drosophila assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Isao; Takatsuji, Toshihiro

    2004-01-01

    Two types of somatic mutation in Drosophila melanogaster were examined to evaluate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 252 Cf neutrons and heavy ions (carbon ions and neon ions) accelerated with a synchrotron for inducing mutations as a function of linear energy transfer (LET). One is the loss of heterozygosity for wing-hair mutations and the other the reversion of the mutant white-ivory. The measurements were made using a combined mutation assay system; so that induced mutant wing-hair clones as well as revertant eye-color clones could be detected simultaneously in the same fly. Larvae were irradiated at the age of 3 days post-oviposition. The efficiency of 252 Cf neutrons for inducing wing-hair mosaic spots is very high, RBE=8.5, but that for eye-color mosaic spot is almost equal (RBE=1.2) to that of 137 Cs γ-rays. RBE-LET relationships were obtained for the induction of wing-hair and eye-color mosaic spots. The RBE of carbon and neon ions for producing wing-hair mosaic spots increased with increasing LET values. The RBE for the induction of eye-color mutants did not change with LET. These relationships suggest that more complex types of DNA damage such as non-rejoinable strand breaks or clustered double strand breaks that increase with LET may be responsible for inducing the wing-hair mutation, while simpler forms of molecular damage may induce reversion in the white-ivory allele. (author)

  18. Integration of virtualized worker nodes in standard batch systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buege, Volker; Kunze, Marcel; Oberst, Oliver; Quast, Guenter; Scheurer, Armin; Hessling, Hermann; Kemp, Yves; Synge, Owen

    2010-01-01

    Current experiments in HEP only use a limited number of operating system flavours. Their software might only be validated on one single OS platform. Resource providers might have other operating systems of choice for the installation of the batch infrastructure. This is especially the case if a cluster is shared with other communities, or communities that have stricter security requirements. One solution would be to statically divide the cluster into separated sub-clusters. In such a scenario, no opportunistic distribution of the load can be achieved, resulting in a poor overall utilization efficiency. Another approach is to make the batch system aware of virtualization, and to provide each community with its favoured operating system in a virtual machine. Here, the scheduler has full flexibility, resulting in a better overall efficiency of the resources. In our contribution, we present a lightweight concept for the integration of virtual worker nodes into standard batch systems. The virtual machines are started on the worker nodes just before jobs are executed there. No meta-scheduling is introduced. We demonstrate two prototype implementations, one based on the Sun Grid Engine (SGE), the other using Maui/Torque as a batch system. Both solutions support local job as well as Grid job submission. The hypervisors currently used are Xen and KVM, a port to another system is easily envisageable. To better handle different virtual machines on the physical host, the management solution VmImageManager is developed. We will present first experience from running the two prototype implementations. In a last part, we will show the potential future use of this lightweight concept when integrated into high-level (i.e. Grid) work-flows.

  19. Development of a miRNA surface-enhanced Raman scattering assay using benchtop and handheld Raman systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechinger, Monika; Marks, Haley; Locke, Andrea; Choudhury, Mahua; Cote, Gerard

    2018-01-01

    DNA-functionalized nanoparticles, when paired with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), can rapidly detect microRNA. However, widespread use of this approach is hindered by drawbacks associated with large and expensive benchtop Raman microscopes. MicroRNA-17 (miRNA-17) has emerged as a potential epigenetic indicator of preeclampsia, a condition that occurs during pregnancy. Biomarker detection using an SERS point-of-care device could enable prompt diagnosis and prevention as early as the first trimester. Recently, strides have been made in developing portable Raman systems for field applications. An SERS assay for miRNA-17 was assessed and translated from traditional benchtop Raman microscopes to a handheld system. Three different photoactive molecules were compared as potential Raman reporter molecules: a chromophore, malachite green isothiocyanate (MGITC), a fluorophore, tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate, and a polarizable small molecule 5,5-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB). For the benchtop Raman microscope, the DTNB-labeled assay yielded the greatest sensitivity under 532-nm laser excitation, but the MGITC-labeled assay prevailed at 785 nm. Conversely, DTNB was preferable for the miniaturized 785-nm Raman system. This comparison showed significant SERS enhancement variation in response to 1-nM miRNA-17, implying that the sensitivity of the assay may be more heavily dependent on the excitation wavelength, instrumentation, and Raman reporter chosen than on the plasmonic coupling from DNA/miRNA-mediated nanoparticle assemblies.

  20. 75 FR 49869 - Changes to Standard Numbering System, Vessel Identification System, and Boating Accident Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 173, 174, 181, and 187 RIN 1625-AB45 Changes to Standard Numbering System, Vessel Identification System, and Boating Accident Report Database AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION..., Vessel Identification System, and Boating Accident Report Database. DATES: Comments and related material...

  1. 49 CFR 571.122 - Standard No. 122; Motorcycle brake systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 122; Motorcycle brake systems. 571... Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.122 Standard No. 122; Motorcycle brake systems. S1. Scope. This standard specifies performance requirements for motorcycle brake systems. S2. Purpose. The purpose...

  2. Development of a novel cell-based assay system EPISSAY for screening epigenetic drugs and liposome formulated decitabine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Sue Ping; Callen, David F; Kumar, Raman; Akkamsetty, Yamini; Wang, Wen; Ho, Kristen; Neilsen, Paul M; Walther, Diego J; Suetani, Rachel J; Prestidge, Clive

    2013-01-01

    Despite the potential of improving the delivery of epigenetic drugs, the subsequent assessment of changes in their epigenetic activity is largely dependent on the availability of a suitable and rapid screening bioassay. Here, we describe a cell-based assay system for screening gene reactivation. A cell-based assay system (EPISSAY) was designed based on a silenced triple-mutated bacterial nitroreductase TMnfsB fused with Red-Fluorescent Protein (RFP) expressed in the non-malignant human breast cell line MCF10A. EPISSAY was validated using the target gene TXNIP, which has previously been shown to respond to epigenetic drugs. The potency of a epigenetic drug model, decitabine, formulated with PEGylated liposomes was also validated using this assay system. Following treatment with DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors such as decitabine and vorinostat, increases in RFP expression were observed, indicating expression of RFP-TMnfsB. The EPISSAY system was then used to test the potency of decitabine, before and after PEGylated liposomal encapsulation. We observed a 50% higher potency of decitabine when encapsulated in PEGylated liposomes, which is likely to be due to its protection from rapid degradation. The EPISSAY bioassay system provides a novel and rapid system to compare the efficiencies of existing and newly formulated drugs that reactivate gene expression

  3. TAMRA/TAMRA Fluorescence Quenching Systems for the Activity Assay of Alkaline Phosphatase

    OpenAIRE

    Shiba, Akio; Kinoshita-Kikuta, Emiko; Kinoshita, Eiji; Koike, Tohru

    2017-01-01

    We introduce two types of fluorescence-quenching assay for alkaline phosphatases (APs) by using a carboxytetramethyl-rhodamine (TAMRA)-labeled phosphate-binding tag molecule (TAMRA-Phos-tag). In the first assay, TAMRA-labeled O-phosphorylethanolamine (TAMRA-PEA) was used as an artificial AP-substrate. TAMRA-Phos-tag specifically captured TAMRA-PEA to form a 1:1 complex at pH 7.4; the intensity of the fluorescence peak of the complex at 580 nm (?ex = 523 nm) was significantly reduced to 32% of...

  4. National System of Standard Reference Data in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.-G.

    2012-01-01

    National Center for Standard Reference Data (NCSRD) was established in 2006 by law, based on the Fundamental Act for National Standard. The motivation of establishment was caused by the demand from the industry for data with a guaranteed quality. As is well known, Korean industry has grown very fast during the last 50 years. They begin to realize that data with a high quality is very essential in good design and manufacturing of high quality products. At the same time, the standard of living has increased in parallel with the development of industry. People begin to be concerned about health diagnosis, food products, and environment. This concern about quality of life naturally leads to an interest on the reference data related with health and the environment. To satisfy these demands from the industry as well as from the people, the Korean government decided to establish a national system for the evaluation of data quality produced by the R and D institutes and universities. NCSRD coordinates all the national activities regarding evaluation and dissemination of scientific data by law. The primary goal of the NCSRD is to develop and disseminate standard reference data which are critically evaluated for their reliability by experts for use in technical problem-solving, research and development. NCSRD consist of a steering committee (SC), spectral technical committees (TCs) and data centres. Right now there are 22 data centres designated by the Minister of Knowledge and Economics (MKE) and 24 technical committees for data evaluation. The Steering Committee acts as the top decision-making body of the SRD program. The members of the SC consist of 11 experts from universities, research institutes and industries. Technical committees in each area serve as an expert group to deal with data-related matters such as evaluation of the reliability of the collected or measured data, development of detailed data evaluation guidelines in each area, etc. The detailed data

  5. Hydrogenic systems for calculable frequency standards. Status and options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, J.; Klein, H.; Knight, D.

    2001-01-01

    The study of hydrogen and hydrogenic (one-electron) ions is an area of rapid progress and one of great potential for future frequency standards. In 1997, the two-photon 1S-2S transition in the hydrogen atom was included in the list of approved radiations for the practical realisation of the metre, and since then revolutions in optical frequency metrology have reduced the uncertainty in its frequency by more than an order of magnitude, to 1.8 parts in 10 14 . Hydrogenic systems are simple enough that the frequencies of their transitions can be calculated in terms of the Rydberg constant with an accuracy that can approach or exceed the measurement uncertainty. Transitions in such systems can be thought of as forming a natural frequency scale, and offer the prospect of a set of quantum frequency standards which are directly related to the fundamental constants. The Rydberg constant is currently best determined from optical frequency measurements in hydrogen. However, to take full advantage of the recent high accuracy 1S-2S frequency measurement requires: Improved measurements of other transition frequencies in the hydrogen atom; Reduced uncertainty in the quantum electrodynamic (QED) contributions to the energy levels, in particular the two-loop binding corrections; An improved value for the proton charge radius. In He + and one-electron systems of higher atomic number Z, the two-loop binding corrections are a fractionally larger part of the Lamb shift due to their rapid scaling with Z. Measurements of the Lamb shift in medium-Z hydrogenic ions can therefore provide tests of these corrections, and feed in to the theoretical understanding of hydrogen itself Although both theory and experiment are less accurate at higher Z, there is the potential for a new range of X-ray standards, providing that the QED corrections are well understood and new absolute measurement techniques can be developed. A number of areas are suggested for future investigation: Improving the

  6. Network management and signalling standards for CCSDS advanced orbiting system communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietras, John

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is an international organization chartered to develop and adopt communications protocols and data processing standards suitable for use in space-related communication and data processing systems. This paper briefly describes the CCSDS network management environment and reviews the current status of CCSDS recommendations for network management functional capability, use of internal standard for network management, and composition of signaling systems in support of the advanced orbiting systems services typified by the international Space Station Freedom Program. A timetable for future work in this area is presented.

  7. Development of a fluorescent microsphere-based multiplexed high-throughput assay system for profiling of transcription factor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoi, Takuro; Jiang, Xin; Li, Xianqiang

    2006-06-01

    Transcription factors (TFs), which play crucial roles in the regulation of gene expression in the human genome, are highly regulated by a variety of mechanisms. A single extracellular stimulus can trigger multiple signaling pathways, and these in turn can activate multiple TFs to mediate the inducible expression of target genes. Alterations in the activities of TFs are often associated with human diseases, such as altered activating factor 1, estrogen receptor, and p53 function in cancer, nuclear factor kappaB in inflammatory diseases, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in obesity. A systematic assay for profiling the activation of TFs will aid in elucidating the mechanisms of TF activation, reveal altered TFs associated with human diseases, and aid in developing assays for drug discovery. Here, we developed a 24-plex fluorescent microsphere-based TF activation assay system with a 96-well plate format. The assay system enabled high-throughput profiling of the DNA binding activity of TFs in multiple samples with high sensitivity.

  8. A model system for pathogen detection using a two-component bacteriophage/bioluminescent signal amplification assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Nathan G.; Carroll, Richard J.; Applegate, Bruce M.

    2004-03-01

    Microbial contamination has become a mounting concern the last decade due to an increased emphasis of minimally processed food products specifically produce, and the recognition of foodborne pathogens such as Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes. This research investigates a detection approach utilizing bacteriophage pathogen specificity coupled with a bacterial bioluminescent bioreporter utilizing the quorum sensing molecule from Vibrio fischeri, N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL). The 3-oxo-C6-HSL molecules diffuse out of the target cell after infection and induce bioluminescence from a population of 3-oxo-C6-HSL bioreporters (ROLux). E. coli phage M13, a well-characterized bacteriophage, offers a model system testing the use of bacteriophage for pathogen detection through cell-to-cell communication via a LuxR/3-oxo-C6-HSL system. Simulated temperate phage assays tested functionality of the ROLux reporter and production of 3-oxo-C6-HSL by various test strains. These assays showed detection limits of 102cfu after 24 hours in a varietry of detection formats. Assays incorporating the bacteriophage M13-luxI with the ROLux reporter and a known population of target cells were subsequently developed and have shown consistent detection limits of 105cfu target organisms. Measurable light response from high concentrations of target cells was almost immediate, suggesting an enrichment step to further improve detection limits and reduce assay time.

  9. Automated system for calculating the uncertainty of standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvel, C.D.

    1990-01-01

    Working Calibration and Test Material (WCTM) solutions are essential as standards in the surveillance of analytical methods, the calibration of equipment and methods, and the training and testing of laboratory personnel. Before the WCTM can be used it must be characterized. That is, the WCTM concentration and its associated uncertainty must be estimated. The characterization of a WCTM is a tedious process. The chemistry and subsequent statistical analysis require a significant amount of care. For a nonstatistician, the statistical analysis of a WCTM characterization can be quite difficult. In addition, the WCTM traceability and characterization must be thoroughly documented as required by DOE Order 5633.3 [1]. An automated system can easily do the statistical analysis and provide the necessary documentation. 3 refs., 2 figs

  10. GENOTOXICITY OF TEN CIGARETTE SMOKE CONDENSATES IN FOUR TEST SYSTEMS: COMPARISONS BETWEEN ASSAYS AND CONDENSATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    What is the study? This the first assessment of a set of cigarette smoke condensates from a range of cigarette types in a variety (4) of short-term genotoxicity assays. Why was it done? No such comparative study of cigarette smoke condensates has been reported. H...

  11. Development of a partition-controlled dosing system for cell assays.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, N.I.; Busser, F.J.M.; Oosterwijk, M.T.; Schirmer, K.; Escher, B.I.; Hermens, J.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrophobic and volatile chemicals have proven to be difficult to dose in cell assays. Cosolvents are often needed to dissolve these chemicals in cell culture medium. Moreover, the free concentration of these chemicals in culture medium may diminish over time due to metabolism, evaporation, and

  12. A trial fabrication of activity standard surface sources and positional standard surface sources for an imaging plate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yasushi; Hino, Yoshio; Yamada, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Mikio

    2003-01-01

    An imaging plate system can detect low level activity, but quantitative analysis is difficult because there are no adequate standard surface sources. A new fabrication method was developed for standard surface sources by printing on a sheet of paper using an ink-jet printer with inks in which a radioactive material was mixed. The fabricated standard surface sources had high uniformity, high positional resolution arbitrary shapes and a broad intensity range. The standard sources were used for measurement of surface activity as an application. (H. Yokoo)

  13. Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Based Developmental Toxicity Assays for Chemical Safety Screening and Systems Biology Data Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Vaibhav; Klima, Stefanie; Sureshkumar, Perumal Srinivasan; Meganathan, Kesavan; Jagtap, Smita; Rempel, Eugen; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Hengstler, Jan Georg; Waldmann, Tanja; Hescheler, Jürgen; Leist, Marcel; Sachinidis, Agapios

    2015-06-17

    Efficient protocols to differentiate human pluripotent stem cells to various tissues in combination with -omics technologies opened up new horizons for in vitro toxicity testing of potential drugs. To provide a solid scientific basis for such assays, it will be important to gain quantitative information on the time course of development and on the underlying regulatory mechanisms by systems biology approaches. Two assays have therefore been tuned here for these requirements. In the UKK test system, human embryonic stem cells (hESC) (or other pluripotent cells) are left to spontaneously differentiate for 14 days in embryoid bodies, to allow generation of cells of all three germ layers. This system recapitulates key steps of early human embryonic development, and it can predict human-specific early embryonic toxicity/teratogenicity, if cells are exposed to chemicals during differentiation. The UKN1 test system is based on hESC differentiating to a population of neuroectodermal progenitor (NEP) cells for 6 days. This system recapitulates early neural development and predicts early developmental neurotoxicity and epigenetic changes triggered by chemicals. Both systems, in combination with transcriptome microarray studies, are suitable for identifying toxicity biomarkers. Moreover, they may be used in combination to generate input data for systems biology analysis. These test systems have advantages over the traditional toxicological studies requiring large amounts of animals. The test systems may contribute to a reduction of the costs for drug development and chemical safety evaluation. Their combination sheds light especially on compounds that may influence neurodevelopment specifically.

  14. Development of microLIPS (Luciferase Immunoprecipitation Systems): a novel microfluidic assay for rapid serum antibody detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrangsu, Matt; Burbelo, Peter D.; Iadarola, Michael J.; Smith, Paul D.; Morgan, Nicole Y.

    2012-06-01

    There is considerable interest in the development of rapid, point-of-care antibody detection for the diagnosis of infectious and auto-immune diseases. In this paper, we present work on the development of a self-contained microfluidic format for the Luciferase Immunoprecipitation Systems (LIPS) assay. Whereas the majority of immunoassays for antigen-specific antibodies employ either bacteria- or yeast-expressed proteins and require the use of secondary antibodies, the LIPS technique uses a fusion protein comprised of a Renilla luciferase reporter and the antigen of interest produced via mammalian cell culture, ensuring the addition of mammalian post-translational modifications. Patient serum is mixed with the fusion protein and passed over immobilized Protein A/G; after washing, the only remaining luciferase-tagged antigens are those retained by specific antibodies. These can be quantitatively measured using chemiluminescence upon the introduction of coelenterazine. The assay has been successfully employed for a wide variety of diseases in a microwell format. We report on a recent demonstration of rapid HSV-2 diagnosis with the LIPS assay in a microfluidic format, using one microliter of serum and obtaining results in under ten minutes. We will also discuss recent progress on two fronts, both aimed at the deployment of this technology in the field: first, simplifying assay operation through the automation of flow control using power-free means; and second, efforts to increase signal levels, primarily through strategies to increase antibody binding capacity, in order to move towards portable battery powered electronics.

  15. Ca II H and K filter photometry on the uvby system. I - The standard system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony-twarog, B.J.; Twarog, B.A.; Laird, J.B.; Payne, D. (Kansas, University, Lawrence (USA) Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, La Serena (Chile) Bowling Green State University, OH (USA))

    1991-05-01

    A fifth filter (fwhm = 90 A) centered on Ca II H and K has been developed for use with the standard uvby system. The filter, called Ca, is designed primarily for applications to metal-poor dwarfs and red giants, regions where the uvby metallicity index, m(l), loses some sensitivity. An index, hk, is defined by replacing v in m(l) by Ca. The effects of interstellar extinction on the index are modeled and demonstrated to be modest and relatively insensitive to spectral type. Observations of V, (b-y), and hk for 163 primary standards are detailed and transformed to the standard V and (b-y) system. A qualitative analysis using only the primary standards indicates that hk is more sensitive than m(l) over the regions of interest by about a factor of 3. 58 refs.

  16. TAMRA/TAMRA Fluorescence Quenching Systems for the Activity Assay of Alkaline Phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Akio; Kinoshita-Kikuta, Emiko; Kinoshita, Eiji; Koike, Tohru

    2017-08-15

    We introduce two types of fluorescence-quenching assay for alkaline phosphatases (APs) by using a carboxytetramethyl-rhodamine (TAMRA)-labeled phosphate-binding tag molecule (TAMRA-Phos-tag). In the first assay, TAMRA-labeled O -phosphorylethanolamine (TAMRA-PEA) was used as an artificial AP-substrate. TAMRA-Phos-tag specifically captured TAMRA-PEA to form a 1:1 complex at pH 7.4; the intensity of the fluorescence peak of the complex at 580 nm (λ ex = 523 nm) was significantly reduced to 32% of the average value for the two individual components as a result of the mutual approach of the TAMRA moieties. As TAMRA-PEA was dephosphorylated by AP, the resulting TAMRA-labeled ethanolamine dissociated and the fluorescence increased in a manner dependent on the AP dose and the time. In the second assay, pyrophosphate (PP), a natural AP-substrate, was used as a bridging ligand to form a dimeric TAMRA-Phos-tag complex. The dimerization reduced the fluorescence intensity to 49% of that in the absence of PP. As pyrophosphate was hydrolyzed to two orthophosphate moieties by AP, the 580-nm fluorescence recovered in a time-dependent manner. By examining the initial slope of this time-dependent fluorescence recovery, we succeeded in evaluating the 50% inhibitory concentrations of orthovanadate toward two AP isozymes under near-physiological conditions.

  17. From Paper to Practice; Indexing Systems and Ethical Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astaneh, Behrooz; Masoumi, Sarah

    2017-04-11

    Currently one of the main goals of editors is to attain a higher visibility for their journals. On the other hand, authors strive to publish their research in journals indexed in eminent databases such as Scopus, Thompson Reuters' Web of Science (ISI), Medline, etc. Therefore, clarifying the standards of indexing is of great importance. One of the most important issues in publication is the ethical considerations, which are mainly described by organizations, such as the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the Committee on Publication Ethics. In this study, we examined the ethical requirements of high impact databases for indexing journals to investigate whether they mention or mandate journals to adhere to publication ethics. We found that only Scopus mandated journals to state clear ethical policies on their website as a criterion for being indexed while Medline and Directory of Open Access Journals advised journals to adhere to ethics, not mandated, and Web of Science (ISI) and PubMed Central made no mention of ethics as a required criterion for indexing. Based on this short review, there seems to be a gap between the requirements of indexing systems and international guidelines for publication ethics. Currently, most indexing systems have only partially recommended journals to consider ethical issues. In such an atmosphere, we cannot expect journals or as a result, authors to professionally, completely, and whole heartedly implement ethical guidelines as a mandatory rule in their journals and research, when the indexing systems that most editors want to be indexed in and most authors want to be cited in do not mandate such guidelines.

  18. Radioreceptor opioid assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.J.; Chang, K.-J.

    1981-01-01

    A radioreceptor assay is described for assaying opioid drugs in biological fluids. The method enables the assay of total opioid activity, being specific for opioids as a class but lacking specificity within the class. A radio-iodinated opioid and the liquid test sample are incubated with an opiate receptor material. The percentage inhibition of the binding of the radio-iodinated compound to the opiate receptor is calculated and the opioid activity of the test liquid determined from a standard curve. Examples of preparing radio-iodinated opioids and assaying opioid activity are given. A test kit for the assay is described. Compared to other methods, this assay is cheap, easy and rapid. (U.K.)

  19. Detection and identification of platelet antibodies using a sensitive multiplex assay system-platelet antibody bead array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzner, Krista; Bauer, Julie; Ponzi, Heather; Ujcich, Allison; Curtis, Brian R

    2017-07-01

    Tests for platelet-specific antibodies are important in the diagnosis of immune platelet disorders. Monoclonal antibody glycoprotein capture assays have been the gold standards in platelet antibody detection for almost 30 years. However, such assays are complex and cumbersome to perform, which limits their routine use. We report the performance of a newly developed, easy to perform platelet antibody bead array (PABA) for the detection of platelet-specific antibodies. PABA is the equivalent of the monoclonal antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (MACE) on a bead and instead with fluorescent detection of immunoglobulin (Ig)G platelet antibodies by Luminex. Antibodies against platelet glycoproteins (GP) GPIIb/IIIa, GPIb/IX, GPIa/IIa, GPIV, and class I human leukocyte antigen (HLA) could be detected in a patient's serum simultaneously in a single well of a microplate. Results from 80 patient samples and 20 normal donor samples were compared using PABA, MACE, and a commercial ELISA kit. PABA detected all antibodies, with specificity for human platelet antigens (HPAs) HPA-1a, HPA-1b, HPA-2a, HPA-2b, HPA-3a, HPA-3b, HPA-4a, HPA-4b, HPA-5a, HPA-5b, HPA-15b, and HLA. Overall, compared with MACE, the sensitivity and specificity of PABA were 99% and 97%, respectively, and both were significantly better than those of the commercial ELISA. PABA had greater analytic sensitivity than MACE for HPA-1a, HPA-3a, and HPA-5b antibodies. In addition, PABA detected HPA-5b and HPA-3b antibodies that were missed by MACE. The overall false-positive rate of PABA compared with MACE was 2.7%. The PABA is a rapid, highly sensitive and specific, multiplex bead-based assay for detecting human platelet antibodies. Such a simple yet high-throughput platform will facilitate practical, routine testing for the identification of platelet-specific antibodies. © 2017 AABB.

  20. Issues and possible solutions of nuclear power standard system in china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoyan; Pu Jilong

    2008-01-01

    The construction of nuclear power standard system shall follow the development state of the nuclear power in China, and shall be taken as one of the important support for the self-reliance in the development of nuclear industry. However, there is no national nuclear power standard systems that is matched to the industrial system and technology base in China. It is widely recognized in nuclear industry that the nuclear power standard system must be established. This paper discusses various problems of the current national nuclear power standard system and suggests the possible solutions. Electricity industry standard system can be referenced to set up nuclear power standard system in China. Considering the need to construct a lot of PWR nuclear power stations in China, the design and construction standard system for PWR NPP shall be established. The nuclear safety guides in China shall be incorporated into the nuclear power standards. (authors)

  1. Standard test method for nondestructive assay of special nuclear material in low density scrap and waste by segmented passive gamma-Ray scanning

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the transmission-corrected nondestructive assay (NDA) of gamma-ray emitting special nuclear materials (SNMs), most commonly 235U, 239Pu, and 241Am, in low-density scrap or waste, packaged in cylindrical containers. The method can also be applied to NDA of other gamma-emitting nuclides including fission products. High-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy is used to detect and measure the nuclides of interest and to measure and correct for gamma-ray attenuation in a series of horizontal segments (collimated gamma detector views) of the container. Corrections are also made for counting losses occasioned by signal processing limitations (1-3). 1.2 There are currently several systems in use or under development for determining the attenuation corrections for NDA of radioisotopic materials (4-8). A related technique, tomographic gamma-ray scanning (TGS), is not included in this test method (9, 10, 11). 1.2.1 This test method will cover two implementations of the Segmented Gamma Scanning ...

  2. Thrombin generation assays for global evaluation of the hemostatic system: perspectives and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Carolina Figueiredo Duarte

    Full Text Available Abstract The existing techniques to evaluate hemostasis in clinical laboratories are not sensitive enough to detect hypercoagulable and mild hypocoagulable states. Under different experimental conditions, the thrombin generation test may meet these requirements. This technique evaluates the overall balance between procoagulant and anticoagulant forces and has provided new insights in our understanding of the coagulation cascade, as well as of the diagnosis of hypocoagulability and hypercoagulability conditions. Thrombin generated in the thrombin generation test can be quantified as platelet-rich or platelet-poor plasma using the calibrated automated thrombogram method, which monitors the cleavage of a fluorogenic substrate that is simultaneously compared to the known thrombin activity in a non-clotting plasma sample. The calibrated automated thrombogram method is an open system, in which different antibodies, proteins, enzymes and peptides can be introduced to answer specific questions regarding hemostatic processes. The thrombin generation test has great clinical potential, such as in monitoring patients taking anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs, screening for genetic or acquired thrombotic disorders, and evaluating bleeding risk control in patients with hemophilia using bypass agents or replacement therapy. Different to conventional coagulation tests, the thrombin generation test can be used for an overall evaluation of hemostasis, the results of which can then be used to evaluate specific characteristics of hemostasis, such as prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and levels of fibrinogen and other coagulation factors. The introduction of this method will contribute to a better understanding and evaluation of overall hemostatic processes; however, this method still requires standardization and clinical validation.

  3. Open Geospatial Consortium standards supporting Lake Maggiore Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannata, Massimiliano; Antonovic, Milan; Molinari, Monia; Pozzoni, Maurizio

    2013-04-01

    The Locarno area (Canton Ticino, Switzerland) is an area exposed to lake Maggiore flooding risk. In order to reduce the effects of such a kind of events, the Canton Ticino [1] and the Locarno and Vallemaggia Civil Protection [2] provide mandates to the Institute of Earth sciences of Southern Switzerland University of Applied Sciences (IST-SUPSI) [3] to supply a system for supporting the management, alerting and intervention in the area. The system, that was originally created about 15 year ago, includes: 1. the management of the regional hydro-meteorological monitoring network, 2. the Lake Maggiore basins hydrological modelling, 3. the management of geoinformation that includes exposed and contextual elements and, 4. the provision of a Web platform for access and interact with the information. In the last years, the IST-SUPSI has undertaken a process of renewal of the entire system following the concept of interoperability as identified in recently conducted European projects like SANY [4] or TRIDEC [5]. This mainstream leads us to adopt different open standards and to develop ad-hoc software. At the present time, the renewal process is almost finished: the Web interface is the only component currently under upgrade. As a result today the IST-SUPSI offers: - a Sensor Observation Service (SOS) for the monitoring data and has developed his own SOS implementation (istSOS [6]) capable to satisfy all the requirements identified in over 20 year of hydro-meteorological data management; - Web Processing Services (WPS) for the elaboration of raw monitoring data (from the SOS) and meteorological forecasts to feed the hydrological model with costumized and real-time inputs; - Web Mapping Service (WMS) and Web Feature Service (WFS) for the visualization of exposed elements and base maps; - a RESTFul Web Services for the provision of all the civil protection information management and elaboration of specific requests; - a security system for authentication and authorization

  4. Risk in Management Systems according to ISO standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Królas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to present selected management standards in context of risk management. It presents main ISOmanagement standards (ISO 9001, ISO 14001, OHSAS 18001, ISO 27001, BS 25999, ISO 31000 that apply to polish enterprises. In thefirst part of this article there are analyzed management standards regarding quality, environment, occupational health and safety,information security, as well as business continuity management and risk management. The second part of the article discusses the processof dealing with risk based on chosen management standard.

  5. Business transactions and standards. Towards a system of concepts and a method for early problem identification in standard implementation projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rukanova, B.D.

    2005-01-01

    To summarize, with respect to research question one we constructed a system of concepts, while in answer to research question two we proposed a method of how to apply this system of concepts in practice in order to identify potential problems in early stages of standard implementation projects.

  6. 75 FR 15620 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA 2009-0175] RIN 2127-AK62 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems... Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems by requiring substantial improvements in... Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 121, Air Brake Systems, to require improved stopping...

  7. Calorimetric systems designed for in-field nondestructive assay of plutonium-bearing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, C.T.; Perry, R.B.; Lewis, R.N.; Jung, E.A.; Haumann, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    Conventional calorimetric design measures the temperature rise of a plutonium-containing sample chamber in contact with a large water-bath heat sink. This design lacks the mobility needed by inspection personnel. The Argonne National Laboratory air-chamber isothermal calorimeters are low-thermal capacitance devices which eliminate the need for large, constant-temperature heat sinks. A bulk calorimeter designed to measure sealed containers holding up to 3 kg Pu, and a small-sample calorimeter designed to measure mixed-oxide fuel pellets and powders are discussed. The operational characteristics of these instruments are described, and the results of sample assays are presented

  8. Microbead agglutination based assays

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2013-01-21

    We report a simple and rapid room temperature assay for point-of-care (POC) testing that is based on specific agglutination. Agglutination tests are based on aggregation of microbeads in the presence of a specific analyte thus enabling the macroscopic observation. Such tests are most often used to explore antibody-antigen reactions. Agglutination has been used for protein assays using a biotin/streptavidin system as well as a hybridization based assay. The agglutination systems are prone to selftermination of the linking analyte, prone to active site saturation and loss of agglomeration at high analyte concentrations. We investigated the molecular target/ligand interaction, explaining the common agglutination problems related to analyte self-termination, linkage of the analyte to the same bead instead of different microbeads. We classified the agglutination process into three kinds of assays: a two- component assay, a three-component assay and a stepped three- component assay. Although we compared these three kinds of assays for recognizing DNA and protein molecules, the assay can be used for virtually any molecule, including ions and metabolites. In total, the optimized assay permits detecting analytes with high sensitivity in a short time, 5 min, at room temperature. Such a system is appropriate for POC testing.

  9. A study of the 51Cr release assay system in micro-method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiya, Katsuzo; Harada, Kiyoshi; Uozumi, Tohru; Toge, Tetsuya; Hattori, Takao.

    1981-01-01

    Conditions of 51 Cr release assay in microculture were investigated to measure the natural cytotoxic (NC) activity of mouse spleen cells. Malignant glioma (MG) cells of C57BL/6 mouse, induced by 20-methylcholanthrene, were labeled with Na 2 51 CrO 4 . Spleen cells collected from the same mouse strain were suspended in Eagle's MEM. Labeled MG cells and spleen cells were incubated for several hours in a CO 2 incubator. Then the activity of the supernatant was measured by an automatic gamma counter. The optimum conditions of 51 Cr release assay in micro-culture were, (1) number of the target cells: 5 x 10 3 / well (2) FCS concentration: 10% (3) E/T ratio: less than 100 : 1, 50 : 1 was possible (4) incubation time: 15 hours. The number of the target cells at labeling incubation was set to 2 x 10 6 /ml. Though the natural release of 51 Cr was not effected by the viability of the target cells, it was suggested that the NC activity was dependent on the viability of both cells, target and effector cells. (Tsunoda, M.)

  10. Study of the /sup 51/Cr release assay system in micro-method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiya, K.; Harada, K.; Uozumi, T. (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Toge, T.; Hattori, T.

    1981-05-01

    Conditions of /sup 51/Cr release assay in microculture were investigated to measure the natural cytotoxic (NC) activity of mouse spleen cells. Malignant glioma (MG) cells of C57BL/6 mouse, induced by 20-methylcholanthrene, were labeled with Na/sub 2//sup 51/CrO/sub 4/. Spleen cells collected from the same mouse strain were suspended in Eagle's MEM. Labeled MG cells and spleen cells were incubated for several hours in a CO/sub 2/ incubator. Then the activity of the supernatant was measured by an automatic gamma counter. The optimum conditions of /sup 51/Cr release assay in micro-culture were, (1) number of the target cells: 5 x 10/sup 3// well (2) FCS concentration: 10% (3) E/T ratio: less than 100 : 1, 50 : 1 was possible (4) incubation time: 15 hours. The number of the target cells at labeling incubation was set to 2 x 10/sup 6//ml. Though the natural release of /sup 51/Cr was not effected by the viability of the target cells, it was suggested that the NC activity was dependent on the viability of both cells, target and effector cells.

  11. Discrepancies between measured changes of radiobiological hypoxic fraction and oxygen tension monitoring using two assay systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasai, K.; Brown, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the ability of computerized pO 2 histography to measure changes in tumor oxygenation produced by low oxygen breathing. Female syngeneic C3H/Km mice bearing SCC VII/St carcinomas were used in these experiments. Changes in tumor oxygenation produced by the mice breathing 10% oxygen were assessed with computerized pO2 histography, 3 H-misonidazole binding, and the paired survival curve assay of radiosensitivity. The hypoxic cell fraction of the tumors in mice breathing 10% oxygen was 3.1 times higher than that of tumors in mice breathing normal air determined by an in vivo-in vitro clonogenic assay. Binding of radiolabeled misonidazole to the tumors in mice breathing 10% oxygen was also significantly higher than that to tumors in mice breathing normal air (p 2 value for the tumor. The number of pO 2 readings lower than 5 mmHg in the tumor was not affected by the 10% oxygen breathing. These findings indicate that increases in radiobiological hypoxic fraction produced by lower blood oxygen levels may not correlate well with the results of polarographic measurements of tumor pO 2 levels. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  12. A plasmacytoid dendritic cell (CD123+/CD11c-) based assay system to predict contact allergenicity of chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayehunie, Seyoum; Snell, Maureen; Child, Matthew; Klausner, Mitchell

    2009-01-01

    A predictive allergenicity test system for assessing the contact allergenicity of chemicals is needed by the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry to monitor product safety in the marketplace. Development of such non-animal alternative assay systems for skin sensitization and hazard identification has been pursued by policy makers and regulatory agencies. We investigated whether phenotypic and functional changes to a subset of dendritic cells (DC), plasmacytoid DC (pDC), could be used to identify contact allergens. To achieve this goal, normal human DC were generated from CD34+ progenitor cells and cryopreserved. Frozen DC were thawed and the pDC fraction (CD123+/CD11c-) was harvested using FACS sorting. The pDC were cultured, expanded, and exposed to chemical allergens (N = 26) or non-allergens (N = 22). Concentrations of each chemical that resulted in >50% viability was determined using FACS analysis of propidium iodide stained cells using pDC from 2 to 5 donors. Expression of the surface marker, CD86, which has been implicated in dendritic cell maturation, was used as a marker of allergenicity. CD86 expression increased (≥1.5-fold) for 25 of 26 allergens (sensitivity = 96%) but did not increase for 19 of 22 non-allergens (specificity = 86%). In a direct comparison to historical data for the regulatory approved, mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA) for 23 allergens and 22 non-allergens, the pDC method had sensitivity and specificity of 96% and 86%, respectively, while the sensitivity and specificity of the LLNA assay was 83% and 82%, respectively. In conclusion, CD86 expression in pDC appears to be a sensitive and specific indicator to identify contact allergenicity. Such an assay method utilizing normal human cells will be useful for high throughput screening of chemicals for allergenicity.

  13. A plasmacytoid dendritic cell (CD123+/CD11c-) based assay system to predict contact allergenicity of chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayehunie, Seyoum; Snell, Maureen; Child, Matthew; Klausner, Mitchell

    2009-01-01

    A predictive allergenicity test system for assessing the contact allergenicity of chemicals is needed by the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry to monitor product safety in the marketplace. Development of such non-animal alternative assay systems for skin sensitization and hazard identification has been pursued by policy makers and regulatory agencies. We investigated whether phenotypic and functional changes to a subset of dendritic cells (DC), plasmacytoid DC (pDC), could be used to identify contact allergens. To achieve this goal, normal human DC were generated from CD34+ progenitor cells and cryopreserved. Frozen DC were thawed and the pDC fraction (CD123+/CD11c-) was harvested using FACS sorting. The pDC were cultured, expanded, and exposed to chemical allergens (N=26) or non-allergens (N=22). Concentrations of each chemical that resulted in >50% viability was determined using FACS analysis of propidium iodide stained cells using pDC from 2-5 donors. Expression of the surface marker, CD86, which has been implicated in dendritic cell maturation, was used as a marker of allergenicity. CD86 expression increased (≥ 1.5 fold) for 25 of 26 allergens (sensitivity = 96%) but did not increase for 19 of 22 non-allergens (specificity = 86%). In a direct comparison to historical data for the regulatory approved, mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA) for 23 allergens and 22 non-allergens, the pDC method had sensitivity and specificity of 96% and 86%, respectively, while the sensitivity and specificity of the LLNA assay was 83% and 82%, respectively. In conclusion, CD86 expression in pDC appears to be a sensitive and specific indicator to identify contact allergenicity. Such an assay method utilizing normal human cells will be useful for high throughput screening of chemicals for allergenicity. PMID:19665512

  14. 20 CFR 627.425 - Standards for financial management and participant data systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Administrative Standards § 627.425 Standards for financial management and participant data systems. (a)(1) General. The financial management system and the participant data system of each recipient and... the financial management system and participant data system of any recipient/subrecipient as part of a...

  15. [Expert investigation on food safety standard system framework construction in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiang; Yan, Weixing; Fan, Yongxiang; Zeng, Biao; Peng, Zhen; Sun, Zhenqiu

    2013-09-01

    Through investigating food safety standard framework among food safety experts, to summarize the basic elements and principles of food safety standard system, and provide policy advices for food safety standards framework. A survey was carried out among 415 experts from government, professional institutions and the food industry/enterprises using the National Food Safety Standard System Construction Consultation Questionnaire designed in the name of the Secretariat of National Food Safety Standard Committee. Experts have different advices in each group about the principles of food product standards, food additive product standards, food related product standards, hygienic practice, test methods. According to the results, the best solution not only may reflect experts awareness of the work of food safety standards situation, but also provide advices for setting and revision of food safety standards for the next. Through experts investigation, the framework and guiding principles of food safety standard had been built.

  16. Gamma ray NDA assay system for total plutonium and isotopics in plutonium product solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowder, L.R.; Hsue, S.T.; Johnson, S.S.; Parker, J.L.; Russo, P.A.; Sprinkle, J.K.; Asakura, Y.; Fukuda, T.; Kondo, I.

    1979-01-01

    A LASL-designed gamma-ray NDA instrument for assay of total plutonium and isotopics of product solutions at Tokai-Mura is currently installed and operating. The instrument is, optimally, a densitometer that uses radioisotopic sources for total plutonium measurements at the K absorption edge. The measured transmissions of additional gamma-ray lines from the same radioisotopic sources are used to correct for self-attenuation of passive gamma rays from plutonium. The corrected passive data give the plutonium isotopic content of freshly separated to moderately aged solutions. This off-line instrument is fully automated under computer control, with the exception of sample positioning, and operates routinely in a mode designed for measurement control. A one-half percent precision in total plutonium concentration is achieved with a 15-minute measurement

  17. CEN standards for solar thermal systems - State of the art and expectted impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ree, B.G.C. van der; Pauschinger, Th.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1994, the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee TC 312 has been active in producing European Standards for thermal solar energy systems and components. In this paper, an overview of the present State of the Art of the draft standards is presented. These standards

  18. Development of a set of multiplex standard polymerase chain reaction assays for the identification of infectious agents from aborted bovine clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramuta, Clara; Lacerenza, Daniela; Zoppi, Simona; Goria, Mariella; Dondo, Alessandro; Ferroglio, Ezio; Nebbia, Patrizia; Rosati, Sergio

    2011-07-01

    The current study describes the development of a set of 5 multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assays for the simultaneous detection of abortive infection agents in bovine fetal tissues, including Brucella spp., Leptospira spp., and Campylobacter fetus (mPCR1); Hammondia heydorni, Neospora caninum, and Toxoplasma gondii (mPCR2); Coxiella burnetii and Chlamydophila psittaci (mPCR3); Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, and Ureaplasma diversum (mPCR4); and Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1; mPCR5). The protocol was tested on different tissue samples collected from 50 aborted bovine fetuses, and it showed that out of the 50 fetuses, 7 (14%, mPCR2) were PCR-positive for N. caninum, 4 (8%, mPCR5) were PCR-positive for BVDV, and 2 (4%, mPCR4) were PCR-positive for U. diversum. The results obtained by using each multiplex PCR were 100% concordant with those obtained by using the respective PCR assays targeting single genes on the same specimens. Moreover, all multiplex PCR assays on clinical samples were compared with reference methods, obtaining a perfect accordance in all samples and confirming the validity of the set of multiplex PCR assays. The proposed set of multiplex PCR assays is, therefore, suitable for the simultaneous detection of the main infectious agents responsible for bovine abortion.

  19. Federal Aviation Administration's Standard Terminal Automation Replacement System (STARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-17

    On October 30, 1997, at a hearing of the Subcommittee on Transportation and Related Agencies, Committee on Appropriations, U.S. House of Representatives, OIG provided their observations on the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Standard Terminal...

  20. Enhanced Gene Detection Assays for Fumarate-Adding Enzymes Allow Uncovering of Anaerobic Hydrocarbon Degraders in Terrestrial and Marine Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Netzer, Frederick; Pilloni, Giovanni; Kleindienst, Sara; Krüger, Martin; Knittel, Katrin; Gründger, Friederike

    2013-01-01

    The detection of anaerobic hydrocarbon degrader populations via catabolic gene markers is important for the understanding of processes at contaminated sites. Fumarate-adding enzymes (FAEs; i.e., benzylsuccinate and alkylsuccinate synthases) have already been established as specific functional marker genes for anaerobic hydrocarbon degraders. Several recent studies based on pure cultures and laboratory enrichments have shown the existence of new and deeply branching FAE gene lineages, such as clostridial benzylsuccinate synthases and homologues, as well as naphthylmethylsuccinate synthases. However, established FAE gene detection assays were not designed to target these novel lineages, and consequently, their detectability in different environments remains obscure. Here, we present a new suite of parallel primer sets for detecting the comprehensive range of FAE markers known to date, including clostridial benzylsuccinate, naphthylmethylsuccinate, and alkylsuccinate synthases. It was not possible to develop one single assay spanning the complete diversity of FAE genes alone. The enhanced assays were tested with a range of hydrocarbon-degrading pure cultures, enrichments, and environmental samples of marine and terrestrial origin. They revealed the presence of several, partially unexpected FAE gene lineages not detected in these environments before: distinct deltaproteobacterial and also clostridial bssA homologues as well as environmental nmsA homologues. These findings were backed up by dual-digest terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism diagnostics to identify FAE gene populations independently of sequencing. This allows rapid insights into intrinsic degrader populations and degradation potentials established in aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon-impacted environmental systems. PMID:23124238

  1. [Requirement of standardizing anti-HBs assay methods in Japan for HBV infection-preventing strategy--discrepancy of anti-HBs measurements among three different kits widely used in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Norio

    2006-09-01

    The strategy to eliminate hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection by administrating an HB vaccine is changing worldwide; however, this is not the case in Japan. An important concern about the HBV infection-preventing strategy in Japan may be that the assay methods for the antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) are not standardized. The minimum protective anti-HBs titer against HBV infection has been established as 10 mIU/ml by World Health Organization (WHO) -standardized assay methods worldwide, but that is still determined as a "positive" test result by the passive hemagglutination (PHA) method in Japan. We compared anti-HBs measurements in given samples among PHA(Mycell II, Institute of Immunology), chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) (Lumipulse, Fujirebio), and chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) (Architect, Abbott), all of which are currently in wide use in Japan. First, anti-HBs measurements in serum from individuals who received a yeast-derived recombinant HB vaccine composed of the major surface protein of either subtype adr or subtype ayw were compared. The results clearly showed that in subtype adr-vaccinees CLIA underestimated the anti-HBs amount compared with CLEIA and PHA, but in ayw-vaccinees, the discordance in the measurements among the three kits was not prominent. Second, anti-HBs measurements in standard or calibration solutions of each assay kit were compared. Surprisingly, CLEIA showed higher measurements in all three kit-associated standard or calibration solutions than CLIA. Thus, the anti-HBs titer of 10 mIU/ml is difficult to introduce in Japan as the minimum protective level against HBV infection. Efforts to standardize anti-HBs assay methods are expected to share international evidence about the HBV infection-preventing strategy.

  2. 49 CFR 571.121 - Standard No. 121; Air brake systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.121 Standard No. 121; Air brake systems. S1. Scope. This standard establishes performance and equipment requirements for braking systems on vehicles equipped with air brake... compressed air or vacuum only to assist the driver in applying muscular force to hydraulic or mechanical...

  3. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 2: Amendment I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-21

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report - Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These documents describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+{sup TM} Standard Design. This report, Volume 2, in conjunction with Volume 3, provides the design of structures, components, equipment and systems.

  4. Are Standards-Based Quality Systems a Threat to the Internationalization of Teaching and Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Whiteside, Scott

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the current shift in Australia's higher education system moving to a more explicit, standards-based quality system and its potential impact on international partnerships in teaching and learning, particularly in Asia. The new Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency and the underlying Higher Education Standards Framework…

  5. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 9: Amendment I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-21

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report -- Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These volumes describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80{sup +}{trademark} Standard Design. This volume 9 discusses Electric Power and Auxiliary Systems.

  6. 75 FR 78269 - Vehicular Digital Multimedia Evidence Recording System (VDMERS) Standard for Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... of Justice Programs Vehicular Digital Multimedia Evidence Recording System (VDMERS) Standard for Law... the general public the draft ``Vehicular Digital Multimedia Evidence Recording System Standard for Law Enforcement.'' The opportunity to provide comments on this voluntary standard is open to industry technical...

  7. 24 CFR 200.950 - Building product standards and certification program for solar water heating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... certification program for solar water heating system. 200.950 Section 200.950 Housing and Urban Development... solar water heating system. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All solar water heating systems shall be...) Document OG-300-93, Operating Guidelines and Minimum Standards for Certifying Solar Water Heating Systems...

  8. Test of mutagenicity of an irradiated standard diet for laboratory animals in the host-mediated assay with salmonella typhimurium TA 1530

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenzner, R.; Renner, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    Feed irradiated at a dose of 3 Mrad was tested for mutagenic activity in the host-mediated assay with the mouse as host and Salmonella typhimurium TA 1530 as indicator organism. In the in vivo and in the in vitro comparative test the irradiated feed showed no mutagenic effect. (orig.) [de

  9. System 80+{trademark} standard design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 5: Amendment I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-21

    This report has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. The documents in this series describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+{sup TM} Standard Design.

  10. Performance evaluation of cobas HBV real-time PCR assay on Roche cobas 4800 System in comparison with COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HBV Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hanah; Hur, Mina; Bae, Eunsin; Lee, Kyung-A; Lee, Woo-In

    2018-02-19

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) is important for the diagnosis and management of HBV infection. We evaluated the analytical performance of the cobas HBV NAAT (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) on the cobas 4800 System in comparison with COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HBV Test (CAP/CTM HBV). Precision was evaluated using three levels of cobas HBV/HCV/HIV-1 Control Kit, and linearity was evaluated across the anticipated measuring range (10.0-1.0×109 IU/mL) at seven levels using clinical samples. Detection capability, including limit of blank (LOB), limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ), was verified using the 4th WHO International Standard for HBV DNA for NAT (NIBSC code: 10/266). Correlation between the two systems was compared using 205 clinical samples (102 sera and 103 EDTA plasma). Repeatability and total imprecision (coefficient of variation) ranged from 0.5% to 3.8% and from 0.5% to 3.5%, respectively. Linearity (coefficient of determination, R2) was 0.999. LOB, LOD and LOQ were all acceptable within the observed proportion rate (85%). Correlation was very high between the two systems in both serum and plasma samples (correlation coefficient [r]=0.995). The new cobas HBV real-time PCR assay on the cobas 4800 System showed reliable analytical performances.

  11. 49 CFR 571.207 - Standard No. 207; Seating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... standard establishes requirements for seats, their attachment assemblies, and their installation to....2. General performance requirements. When tested in accordance with S5, each occupant seat shall... than a school bus; a passenger seat on a school bus with a GVWR greater than 4,536 kilograms (10,000...

  12. 75 FR 35689 - System Personnel Training Reliability Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... nomograms for real-time operations; (4) use a Systematic Approach to Training methodology for developing new...) incorporate a Systematic Approach to Training methodology in the development of training programs; and (5... proposed changes to the training standard on many issues, including: (1) The Systematic Approach to...

  13. Evaluation of Resistance to Phytophthora sojae in Soybean Mini Core Collections Using an Improved Assay System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chang-Jie; Sugano, Shoji; Kaga, Akito; Lee, Sung Shin; Sugimoto, Takuma; Takahashi, Mami; Ishimoto, Masao

    2017-02-01

    Stem and root rot disease caused by Phytophthora sojae is devastating to soybean crops worldwide. Developing host resistance to P. sojae, considered the most effective and stable means to control this disease, is partly hampered by limited germplasm resources. In this study, we first modified conventional methods for a P. sojae resistance assay to a simpler and more cost-effective version, in which the P. sojae inoculum was mixed into the soil and the resistance was evaluated by survival rate (%) of soybean seedlings. This rating had significant correlations (P resistance in soybean mini core collections comprising either 79 accessions originating from Japan (JMC) or 80 accessions collected around the world (WMC) revealed a wide variation in resistance among the individual varieties. In total, 38 accessions from the JMC and 41 from the WMC exhibited resistance or moderate resistance to P. sojae isolate N1 (with virulence to Rps1b, 3c, 4, 5, and 6), with ≥50% survival. Of these, 26 from the JMC and 29 from the WMC showed at least moderate resistance to P. sojae isolate HR1 (vir Rps1a-c, 1k, 2, 3a-c, 4-6, and 8). Additionally, 24 WCS accessions, in contrast to only 6 from the JMC, exhibited 100% survival after being challenged with both the N1 and HR1 isolates, suggesting a biogeographical difference between the two collections. We further verified two JMC varieties, Daizu and Amagi zairai 90D, for their resistance to an additional four P. sojae isolates (60 to 100% survival), which may provide new and valuable genetic sources for P. sojae resistance breeding in soybean.

  14. An investigation of the neutron die-away time in passive neutron waste assay systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeten, P.; Bruggeman, M.; Carchon, R.

    1997-02-01

    Neutron coincidence counting applied to the assay of Pu-bearing waste is commonly based on the assumption that the time intervals between detected fission neutrons are distributed according to a mono-exponential function, often called Rossi-alpha distribution. The time constant of this characteristic exponential function is generally referred to as the die-away time of the detector assembly. In fact, the distribution of time intervals is derived from the more fundamental arrival time distribution, which is also assumed to obey a mono-exponential law. In view of the design studies for a neutron counter, the validity of this basic assumption was investigated. Different parameters such as neutron moderation and absorption in the sample and the presence of cadmium-lining were investigated by means of Monte Carlo simulations using the NCNP-code. The simulation results lead to the conclusion that the description of the arrival time function with a mono-exponential function with a sample-independent die-away time is only a first approximations. The mono-exponential decay is perturbed by a second time component related to the detection of neutrons already thermalized in the sample. This thermal component cannot be described by a mono-exponential function, but has a characteristic shape with a fast build-up reaching a maximum followed by a slow decay as a function of the arrival time. The relative contribution of this component strongly depends on the absorption and moderation of the sample matrix. This component cannot be described by a simple analytical expression involving sample related parameters. Hence, no direct useful information can be withdrawn from the arrival time probability function to characterize the waste matrix. The thermal component can be strongly suppressed by the use of cadmium-lining in front of the detector blocks simplifying the mathematical description of the arrival time probability function. Indications of the bias introduced by an inaccurate

  15. Future Standardization of Space Telecommunications Radio System with Core Flight System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones, Janette C.; Hickey, Joseph P.; Roche, Rigoberto; Handler, Louis M.; Hall, Charles S.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is integrating the NASA Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Standard with the Core Flight System (cFS), an avionics software operating environment. The STRS standard provides a common, consistent framework to develop, qualify, operate and maintain complex, reconfigurable and reprogrammable radio systems. The cFS is a flexible, open architecture that features a plugand- play software executive called the Core Flight Executive (cFE), a reusable library of software components for flight and space missions and an integrated tool suite. Together, STRS and cFS create a development environment that allows for STRS compliant applications to reference the STRS application programmer interfaces (APIs) that use the cFS infrastructure. These APIs are used to standardize the communication protocols on NASAs space SDRs. The cFS-STRS Operating Environment (OE) is a portable cFS library, which adds the ability to run STRS applications on existing cFS platforms. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the cFS-STRS OE prototype, preliminary experimental results performed using the Advanced Space Radio Platform (ASRP), the GRC S- band Ground Station and the SCaN (Space Communication and Navigation) Testbed currently flying onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Additionally, this paper presents a demonstration of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Spacecraft Onboard Interface Services (SOIS) using electronic data sheets (EDS) inside cFE. This configuration allows for the data sheets to specify binary formats for data exchange between STRS applications. The integration of STRS with cFS leverages mission-proven platform functions and mitigates barriers to integration with future missions. This reduces flight software development time and the costs of software-defined radio (SDR) platforms. Furthermore, the combined benefits of STRS standardization with the flexibility of cFS provide an effective, reliable and

  16. Fault detection for nonlinear systems - A standard problem approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes a general method for designing (nonlinear) fault detection and isolation (FDI) systems for nonlinear processes. For a rich class of nonlinear systems, a nonlinear FDI system can be designed using convex optimization procedures. The proposed method is a natural extension of met...

  17. Millimeter-Wave Holographic Imaging System for Radiating Array Assay and Adjustment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pearson, L

    2000-01-01

    .... The following paragraphs provide a summary of the items purchased and a brief description of the custom antenna scanning facility assembled from the specific item of a Cascade Probe Station. Items Purchased: Receiver System...

  18. Neutron interrogator assay system for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant waste canisters and spent fuel: preliminary description and operating procedures manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O.; Eccleston, G.; Close, D.A.; Speir, L.G.

    1978-05-01

    A neutron interrogation assay system is being designed for the measurement of waste canisters and spent fuel packages at the new Idaho Chemical Processing Plant to be operated by Allied Chemical Corp. The assay samples consist of both waste canisters from the fluorinel dissolution process and spent fuel assemblies. The assay system is a 252 Cf ''Shuffler'' that employs a cyclic sequence of fast-neutron interrogation with a 252 Cf source followed by delayed-neutron counting to determine the 235 U content

  19. STANDARDS IN CONTROL AND PROTECTION TEHNOLOGY FOR ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel COSTIANU; Nicoleta ARGHIRA; Ioana FĂGĂRĂŞAN; Sergiu St. ILIESCU

    2008-01-01

    The features of the standard IEC 16850 with respect to intelligent applications in substations are summarized. It is shown how modeling of functions independently from its allocation to devices allows optimizing existing applications and opening up for future intelligent applications. The data model provides all information in a substation needed not only for control and protection functions but also about the IEDs and the switchgear configuration.

  20. Analysis of China's radiation environment monitoring standard system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Weiwei; Yue Huiguo; Yuan Zhilun; Yu Zhengwei; Huang Donghui; Wu Yongle

    2014-01-01

    In order to establish and improve the radiation environment monitoring standard system, to provide technical support for the radiation environment monitoring system, this work first retrieve the radiation environment monitoring standards, and clear the domestic status of the radiation environment monitoring standards. According to the Environmental Protection issued by the Ministry of the radiation environment monitoring technology specification '(HJ/T 61-2001), the radiation environment monitoring program (Provisional)' (Central Office (2003) No.56), and the radiation environment monitoring capacity assessment program (Environmental Protection management Division of the Department of nuclear safety, January 2011), environmental Protection Department of the relevant documents and other relevant information, the radiation environment monitoring standards and methods have been accessed, to find the missing items and issues proposed revision of the system requirements. Summarizing radiation environment monitoring national standards, standards of environmental protection industry, the nuclear industry standard, there are 28 standard missing items need to the health industry standards, inspection and quarantine industry standards, a total of 145 of these standards of environmental radiation monitoring, radiation monitoring of pollution sources, emergency response and early warning and monitoring from a management and technology meet the basic needs of the radiation environment monitoring. Research found that the standards in the revised 57 and in the formulation of 47, develop. After the revision of China's standards system will be further improved. The radiation environment monitoring work will be further strengthened. (authors)

  1. Standardized and modular microfluidic platform for fast lab on chip system development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Stefan; van den Berg, Albert; Odijk, Mathieu; Lee, Abraham; DeVoe, Don

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports a modular microfluidic system with standardized parts, enabling rapid prototyping of lab on chip systems. Herewith contributing to the technology transfer from academy to industry. The use of standardized parts also makes it possible to design a microfluidic systems in a top down

  2. 78 FR 73112 - Monitoring System Conditions-Transmission Operations Reliability Standards; Interconnection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... complement the TOP Standards, have the goal of ensuring that the bulk electric system is planned and operated... pertain to the coordinated efforts to operate the bulk electric system in a reliable manner during real... System Operating Limits (SOLs).\\5\\ The provisions in the proposed TOP Reliability Standards that require...

  3. 36 CFR 64.12 - Standards for grantee financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... financial management systems. 64.12 Section 64.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... RIGHTS-OF-WAY § 64.12 Standards for grantee financial management systems. The grantees' Financial Management Systems shall meet the minimum standards set forth in OMB Circular A-102, Attachment G. ...

  4. Assay of splenectomy on reticuloendothelial system function with trace method of 99mTc-phytate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sang Shibiao; Dong Shenan; Jiang Yimin; Cheng Jun

    1996-01-01

    The effect of splenectomy on reticuloendothelial system (RES) function was investigated by measurement of 99m Tc-phytate in the presence or absence of sepsis in rats, and plasma fibronectin (PFn) and hyaluronic acid (HA) concentrations were measured. The results were as follows: following splenectomy, particularly in the presence of sepsis, the intravascular clearance (T 1/2 ) delayed and HA increased, phagocytic index (K) and hepatic uptake and PFn decreased. These results suggest that splenectomy may not only have deleterious effects in terms of the host defence system, but may also cause RES depression due to the post splenectomy infection

  5. Standard practice for classification of computed radiology systems

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes the evaluation and classification of a computed radiography (CR) system, a particular phosphor imaging plate (IP), system scanner and software, in combination with specified metal screens for industrial radiography. It is intended to ensure that the evaluation of image quality, as far as this is influenced by the scanner/IP system, meets the needs of users. 1.2 The practice defines system tests to be used to classify the systems of different suppliers and make them comparable for users. 1.3 The CR system performance is described by signal and noise parameters. For film systems, the signal is represented by gradient and the noise by granularity. The signal-to-noise ratio is normalized by the basic spatial resolution of the system and is part of classification. The normalization is given by the scanning aperture of 100 µm diameter for the micro-photometer, which is defined in Test Method E1815 for film system classification. This practice describes how the parameters shall be meas...

  6. A Tissue Systems Pathology Assay for High-Risk Barrett's Esophagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Critchley-Thorne, Rebecca J.; Duits, Lucas C.; Prichard, Jeffrey W.; Davison, Jon M.; Jobe, Blair A.; Campbell, Bruce B.; Zhang, Yi; Repa, Kathleen A.; Reese, Lia M.; Li, Jinhong; Diehl, David L.; Jhala, Nirag C.; Ginsberg, Gregory; DeMarshall, Maureen; Foxwell, Tyler; Zaidi, Ali H.; Lansing Taylor, D.; Rustgi, Anil K.; Bergman, Jacques J. G. H. M.; Falk, Gary W.

    2016-01-01

    Better methods are needed to predict risk of progression for Barrett's esophagus. We aimed to determine whether a tissue systems pathology approach could predict progression in patients with nondysplastic Barrett's esophagus, indefinite for dysplasia, or low-grade dysplasia. We performed a nested

  7. User's manual for the ARMLID (Argonne metallic lithium/isotopic dilution) tritium assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porges, K.G.; Bretscher, M.M.; Bennett, E.F.; DiIorio, G.; Mattas, R.F.; Lewandowski, E.F.

    1992-08-01

    The Argonne Metallic Lithium - Isotopic Dilution (ARMLID) system described in this report, originally developed at ANL for other purposes, was recently redeployed to measure the tritium production rate (TPR) in a series of US/Japanese collaborative fusion blanket integral experiments, involving large assemblies of fusion breeder blanket materials that were irradiated with a fusion neutron source at FNS/JAERI, Japan. Whereas previous uses of the ARMUD scheme involved just a few samples, its application infusion blanket TPR mapping called for large sample numbers per experiment, implying a commensurate scale of sample fabrication and encapsulation, on one hand, and tritium extraction and counting on the other hand. To shorten the time required for these various tasks, yet still yield reliable and accurate results, both the sample fabrication - encapsulation facility and the tritium extraction system had to be extensively revised from original versions that were designed for accuracy, but not necessarily for speed. The present report describes overall revisions in sufficient detail to serve as a User's Manual for this facility, and/or suggest how a new system might be put together. Either possibility may develop in the near future, in support of ITER design studies. Preliminary and partial descriptions of various aspects and features of the system were presented orally, in the course of annual ANL/JAERI/UCLA ''workshops'', over the last 34 years, as well as elsewhere

  8. Use of external metabolizing systems when testing for endocrine disruption in the T-screen assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Nellemann, Christine Lydia

    2011-01-01

    . The GH3 cells themselves significantly metabolized the two tested phthalates dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP). Overall the results and qualitative data from the current study show that an in vitro metabolizing system using liver S9 or microsomes could be a convenient method...

  9. Technical Standards for Command and Control Information Systems (CCISs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    network. There is a perceived requirement for an ultimate delivery capability, whereby important communications are sustained , even at very low data...Transfer Layer in RTTS developed in France for use in LANs (see Section 15.4.4) [Ref. GAM 1987]. XTP is designed to support 100 Mbps sustained transfer...10746-2U_____ Fmeo for OOP standards WD 10748-3 ___ User %*IQ W 10746-4 Architectura semantics. formalismns W 04- Key: E3 v 015I EM o/CD U ISO G-4

  10. Assessment of Offshore Wind System Design, Safety, and Operation Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirnivas, Senu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Musial, Walt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bailey, Bruce [AWS Trupower LLC, Albany, NY (United States); Filippelli, Matthew [AWS Trupower LLC, Albany, NY (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This report is a deliverable for a project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) entitled National Offshore Wind Energy Resource and Design Data Campaign -- Analysis and Collaboration (contract number DE-EE0005372; prime contractor -- AWS Truepower). The project objective is to supplement, facilitate, and enhance ongoing multiagency efforts to develop an integrated national offshore wind energy data network. The results of this initiative are intended to 1) produce a comprehensive definition of relevant met-ocean resource assets and needs and design standards, and 2) provide a basis for recommendations for meeting offshore wind energy industry data and design certification requirements.

  11. 38 CFR 43.20 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... management systems. 43.20 Section 43.20 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... management systems. (a) A State must expand and account for grant funds in accordance with State laws and procedures for expending and accounting for its own funds. Fiscal control and accounting procedures of the...

  12. 40 CFR 31.20 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... management systems. (a) A State must expand and account for grant funds in accordance with State laws and procedures for expending and accounting for its own funds. Fiscal control and accounting procedures of the... violation of the restrictions and prohibitions of applicable statutes. (b) The financial management systems...

  13. 36 CFR 1207.20 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... management systems. 1207.20 Section 1207.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... financial management systems. (a) A State must expand and account for grant funds in accordance with State laws and procedures for expending and accounting for its own funds. Fiscal control and accounting...

  14. 40 CFR 63.445 - Standards for the bleaching system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Bleaching systems bleaching pulp from kraft, sulfite, or soda pulping processes that use any chlorinated compounds; or (3) Bleaching systems bleaching pulp from mechanical pulping processes using wood or from any process using secondary or non-wood fibers, that use chlorine dioxide. (b) The equipment at each bleaching...

  15. Open Architecture, Standards and Information Systems (OASIS) for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will help African countries develop and maintain low-cost sustainable health information systems, and use the information systems to address health ... of experts in medical informatics and computing; and a methodology for leveraging open source software and techniques for improved health data management.

  16. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae assay system to investigate ligand/AdipoR1 interactions that lead to cellular signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Aouida

    Full Text Available Adiponectin is a mammalian hormone that exerts anti-diabetic, anti-cancer and cardioprotective effects through interaction with its major ubiquitously expressed plasma membrane localized receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Here, we report a Saccharomyces cerevisiae based method for investigating agonist-AdipoR interactions that is amenable for high-throughput scale-up and can be used to study both AdipoRs separately. Agonist-AdipoR1 interactions are detected using a split firefly luciferase assay based on reconstitution of firefly luciferase (Luc activity due to juxtaposition of its N- and C-terminal fragments, NLuc and CLuc, by ligand induced interaction of the chimeric proteins CLuc-AdipoR1 and APPL1-NLuc (adaptor protein containing pleckstrin homology domain, phosphotyrosine binding domain and leucine zipper motif 1-NLuc in a S. cerevisiae strain lacking the yeast homolog of AdipoRs (Izh2p. The assay monitors the earliest known step in the adiponectin-AdipoR anti-diabetic signaling cascade. We demonstrate that reconstituted Luc activity can be detected in colonies or cells using a CCD camera and quantified in cell suspensions using a microplate reader. AdipoR1-APPL1 interaction occurs in absence of ligand but can be stimulated specifically by agonists such as adiponectin and the tobacco protein osmotin that was shown to have AdipoR-dependent adiponectin-like biological activity in mammalian cells. To further validate this assay, we have modeled the three dimensional structures of receptor-ligand complexes of membrane-embedded AdipoR1 with cyclic peptides derived from osmotin or osmotin-like plant proteins. We demonstrate that the calculated AdipoR1-peptide binding energies correlate with the peptides' ability to behave as AdipoR1 agonists in the split luciferase assay. Further, we demonstrate agonist-AdipoR dependent activation of protein kinase A (PKA signaling and AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation in S. cerevisiae, which are

  17. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae Assay System to Investigate Ligand/AdipoR1 Interactions That Lead to Cellular Signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Aouida, Mustapha

    2013-06-07

    Adiponectin is a mammalian hormone that exerts anti-diabetic, anti-cancer and cardioprotective effects through interaction with its major ubiquitously expressed plasma membrane localized receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Here, we report a Saccharomyces cerevisiae based method for investigating agonist-AdipoR interactions that is amenable for high-throughput scale-up and can be used to study both AdipoRs separately. Agonist-AdipoR1 interactions are detected using a split firefly luciferase assay based on reconstitution of firefly luciferase (Luc) activity due to juxtaposition of its N- and C-terminal fragments, NLuc and CLuc, by ligand induced interaction of the chimeric proteins CLuc-AdipoR1 and APPL1-NLuc (adaptor protein containing pleckstrin homology domain, phosphotyrosine binding domain and leucine zipper motif 1-NLuc) in a S. cerevisiae strain lacking the yeast homolog of AdipoRs (Izh2p). The assay monitors the earliest known step in the adiponectin-AdipoR anti-diabetic signaling cascade. We demonstrate that reconstituted Luc activity can be detected in colonies or cells using a CCD camera and quantified in cell suspensions using a microplate reader. AdipoR1-APPL1 interaction occurs in absence of ligand but can be stimulated specifically by agonists such as adiponectin and the tobacco protein osmotin that was shown to have AdipoR-dependent adiponectin-like biological activity in mammalian cells. To further validate this assay, we have modeled the three dimensional structures of receptor-ligand complexes of membrane-embedded AdipoR1 with cyclic peptides derived from osmotin or osmotin-like plant proteins. We demonstrate that the calculated AdipoR1-peptide binding energies correlate with the peptides\\' ability to behave as AdipoR1 agonists in the split luciferase assay. Further, we demonstrate agonist-AdipoR dependent activation of protein kinase A (PKA) signaling and AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in S. cerevisiae, which are homologous to

  18. Trust Management in P2P systems using Standard TuLiP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czenko, M.R.; Doumen, J.M.; Etalle, Sandro

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we introduce Standard TuLiP - a new logic based Trust Management system. In Standard TuLiP, security decisions are based on security credentials, which can be issued by different entities and stored at different locations. Standard TuLiP directly supports the distributed credential

  19. Standardization of education as essential to the development of regional educational systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchuk Andrey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problematic aspects of the current educational standards in Ukraine as important legal instruments of regional educational systems were viewed. The regulated areas of education standards in Ukraine and the traditional approach based on the identified areas of their innovative changes where described. The main directions of innovation education standards depending on their subject focus where systemised.

  20. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 16: Amendment I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-21

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report - Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These volumes describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design. This Volume 16 details the application of Human Factors Engineering in the design process.

  1. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 8: Amendment I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-21

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report -- Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These volumes describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80{sup +}{trademark} Standard Design. This volume 8 provides a description of instrumentation and controls.

  2. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 11: Amendment I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-21

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report -- Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These volumes describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80{sup +}{trademark} Standard Design. This volume 11 discusses Radiation Protection, Conduct of Operations, and the Initial Test Program.

  3. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 4: Amendment I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-21

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report - Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These documents describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+{sup TM} Standard Design. This report, Volume 4, provides a description of the reactor, reactor internals, fuel assemblies, and associated design requirements.

  4. Trust Management in P2P Systems Using Standard TuLiP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czenko, M.R.; Doumen, J.M.; Etalle, Sandro

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we introduce Standard TuLiP - a new logic based Trust Management system. In Standard TuLiP, security decisions are based on security credentials, which can be issued by different entities and stored at different locations. Standard TuLiP directly supports the distributed credential

  5. Supplementary shutdown system of 220 MWe standard PHWR in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muktibodh, U.C.

    1997-01-01

    The design objective of the shutdown system is to make the reactor subcritical and hold it in that state for an extended period of time. This objective must be realised under all anticipated operational occurrences and postulated abnormal conditions even during most reactive state of the core. PHWR design criteria for shutdown stipulates requirement of two independent diverse and fast acting shutdown systems, either of which acting alone should meet the above objectives. This requirement would normally call for a large number of reactivity mechanism penetrations into the calandria. From the point of view of space availability at the reactivity mechanism area on top of calandria, for the relatively small core of 220 MWe PHWRs, and ease of maintenance realisation of the total worth by either of the shutdown systems acting alone was difficult. To overcome this engineering constraint and at the same time to satisfy the design criteria, a unique approach to meet the reactivity demands for shutdown was adopted. The reactivity requirements of the shutdown consists of fast and slow reactivity changes. For the shutdown system of 220 MWe PHWRs, the approach of realizing fast reactivity changes with dual redundant, diverse, fast acting shutdown systems aided by a slow acting shutdown system to counter delayed reactivity changes was conceived. The supplementary slow acting shutdown system is called upon to act after actuation of either of the two redundant fast acting systems and is referred to as Liquid Poison Injection System (LPIS). The system adds bulk amount of neutron poison (boric acid), equivalent to 45 mk, directly into the moderator through two nozzles in calandria using pneumatic pressure. This paper describes the design of LPIS as envisaged for the standardised 220 MWe PHWRs. (author)

  6. Nantenna for Standard 1550 nm Optical Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Tariq Sethi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoscale transmission and reception technologies will play a vital role and be part of the next generation communication networks. This applies for all application fields including imaging, health, biosensing, civilian, and military communications. The detection of light frequency using nanooptical antennas may possibly become a good competitor to the semiconductor based photodetector because of the simplicity of integration, cost, and inherent capability to detect the phase and amplitude instead of power only. In this paper, authors propose simulated design of a hexagonal dielectric loaded nantenna (HDLN and explore its potential benefits at the standard optical C-band (1550 nm. The proposed nantenna consists of “Ag-SiO2-Ag” structure, consisting of “Si” hexagonal dielectric with equal lengths fed by “Ag” nanostrip transmission line. The simulated nantenna achieves an impedance bandwidth of 3.7% (190.9 THz–198.1 THz and a directivity of 8.6 dBi, at a center frequency of 193.5 THz, covering most of the ITU-T standard optical transmission window (C-band. The hexagonal dielectric nantenna produces HE20δ modes and the wave propagation is found to be end-fire. The efficiency of the nantenna is proven via numerical expressions, thus making the proposed design viable for nanonetwork communications.

  7. A Low-Cost, High-Performance System for Fluorescence Lateral Flow Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda G. Lee

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a fluorescence lateral flow system that has excellent sensitivity and wide dynamic range. The illumination system utilizes an LED, plastic lenses and plastic and colored glass filters for the excitation and emission light. Images are collected on an iPhone 4. Several fluorescent dyes with long Stokes shifts were evaluated for their signal and nonspecific binding in lateral flow. A wide range of values for the ratio of signal to nonspecific binding was found, from 50 for R-phycoerythrin (R-PE to 0.15 for Brilliant Violet 605. The long Stokes shift of R-PE allowed the use of inexpensive plastic filters rather than costly interference filters to block the LED light. Fluorescence detection with R-PE and absorbance detection with colloidal gold were directly compared in lateral flow using biotinylated bovine serum albumen (BSA as the analyte. Fluorescence provided linear data over a range of 0.4–4,000 ng/mL with a 1,000-fold signal change while colloidal gold provided non-linear data over a range of 16–4,000 ng/mL with a 10-fold signal change. A comparison using human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG as the analyte showed a similar advantage in the fluorescent system. We believe our inexpensive yet high-performance platform will be useful for providing quantitative and sensitive detection in a point-of-care setting.

  8. A Low-Cost, High-Performance System for Fluorescence Lateral Flow Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Linda G.; Nordman, Eric S.; Johnson, Martin D.; Oldham, Mark F.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a fluorescence lateral flow system that has excellent sensitivity and wide dynamic range. The illumination system utilizes an LED, plastic lenses and plastic and colored glass filters for the excitation and emission light. Images are collected on an iPhone 4. Several fluorescent dyes with long Stokes shifts were evaluated for their signal and nonspecific binding in lateral flow. A wide range of values for the ratio of signal to nonspecific binding was found, from 50 for R-phycoerythrin (R-PE) to 0.15 for Brilliant Violet 605. The long Stokes shift of R-PE allowed the use of inexpensive plastic filters rather than costly interference filters to block the LED light. Fluorescence detection with R-PE and absorbance detection with colloidal gold were directly compared in lateral flow using biotinylated bovine serum albumen (BSA) as the analyte. Fluorescence provided linear data over a range of 0.4–4,000 ng/mL with a 1,000-fold signal change while colloidal gold provided non-linear data over a range of 16–4,000 ng/mL with a 10-fold signal change. A comparison using human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) as the analyte showed a similar advantage in the fluorescent system. We believe our inexpensive yet high-performance platform will be useful for providing quantitative and sensitive detection in a point-of-care setting. PMID:25586412

  9. Safety Standard for Oxygen and Oxygen Systems: Guidelines for Oxygen System Design, Materials Selection, Operations, Storage, and Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    NASA's standard for oxygen system design, materials selection, operation, and transportation is presented. Minimum guidelines applicable to NASA Headquarters and all NASA Field Installations are contained.

  10. Optimization of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) assay for the transition from benchtop to handheld Raman systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechinger, Monika; Marks, Haley; Locke, Andrea; Choudhury, Mahua; Coté, Gerard

    2017-02-01

    Human biomarkers are indicative of the body's relative state prior to the onset of disease, and sometimes before symptoms present. While blood biomarker detection has achieved considerable success in laboratory settings, its clinical application is lagging and commercial point-of-care devices are rare. A physician's ability to detect biomarkers such as microRNA-17, a potential epigenetic indicator of preeclampsia in pregnant woman, could enable early diagnosis and preventive intervention as early as the 1st trimester. One detection approach employing DNA-functionalized nanoparticles to detect microRNA-17, in conjunction with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), has shown promise but is hindered, in part, by the use of large and expensive benchtop Raman microscopes. However, recent strides have been made in developing portable Raman systems for field applications. Characteristics of the SERS assay responsible for strengthening the assay's plasmonic response were explored, whilst comparing the results from both benchtop and portable Raman systems. The Raman spectra and intensity of three different types of photoactive molecules were compared as potential Raman reporter molecules: chromophores, fluorophores, and highly polarizable small molecules. Furthermore, the plasmonic characteristics governing the formation of SERS colloidal nanoparticle assemblies in response to DNA/miRNA hybridization were investigated. There were significant variations in the SERS enhancement in response to microRNA-17 using our assay depending on the excitation lasers at wavelengths of 532 nm and 785 nm, depending on which of the three different Raman systems were used (benchtop, portable, and handheld), and depending on which of the three different Raman reporters (chromophore, fluorophore, or Raman active molecule) were used. Analysis of data obtained did indicate that signal enhancement was better for the chromophore (MGITC) and Raman active molecule (DTNB) than it was for the

  11. NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Standards Endorsement Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ullman, Richard E; Enloe, Yonsook

    2005-01-01

    Starting in January 2004, NASA instituted a set of internal working groups to develop ongoing recommendations for the continuing broad evolution of Earth Science Data Systems development and management within NASA...

  12. Specifications of Standards in Systems and Synthetic Biology: Status and Developments in 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Falk; Bader, Gary D; Gleeson, Padraig; Golebiewski, Martin; Hucka, Michael; Keating, Sarah M; Novère, Nicolas Le; Myers, Chris; Nickerson, David; Sommer, Björn; Waltemath, Dagmar

    2018-03-29

    Standards are essential to the advancement of Systems and Synthetic Biology. COMBINE provides a formal body and a centralised platform to help develop and disseminate relevant standards and related resources. The regular special issue of the Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics aims to support the exchange, distribution and archiving of these standards by providing unified, easily citable access. This paper provides an overview of existing COMBINE standards and presents developments of the last year.

  13. Hyaluronic Acid Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itenov, Theis Skovsgaard; Kirkby, Nikolai S; Bestle, Morten H

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUD: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is proposed as a marker of functional liver capacity. The aim of the present study was to compare a new turbidimetric assay for measuring HA with the current standard method. METHODS: HA was measured by a particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (PETIA) and enzyme...

  14. FLUIDICS DEVICE FOR ASSAY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device for use in performing assays on standard laboratory solid supports whereon chemical entities are attached. The invention furthermore relates to the use of such a device and a kit comprising such a device. The device according to the present invention is a...

  15. The Weighted Airman Promotion System: Standardizing Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    u th o ri ze d Top 3/E6 ratio, inventory 1401206040 100 70 130 5R 2F 2G 3N 2M 2A 4J 4C 4P 4T 4B 1W 2T 3P 1T 4A 2S 5J 1A 1S1C 6F 4N 7S 4R 4E 1N 3A 3V...Costs If the Air Force decided to standardize test scores, there would be three basic types of costs: implementation costs, marketing costs, and...analytical costs for this more deliberate approach could be three to four person-years. It would be appropriate for the Air Force to market any

  16. THE IAS/IFRS STANDARDS SYSTEM BETWEEN HARMONIZATION AND DEFORMITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mates Dorel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of competition, the globalization and the growth and integration of the capital markets require comparable accounting information based on superior- quality standards, an accounting information to consolidate and not to obstruct the global efficiency of the market .The obligatory adoption of the current IAS/IFRS norms for the creation of the financial statements of the European companies- and especially of the listed ones- are a necessary step for the full integration of the financial markets of EU member state. The 4th and 7th CE directives contributed to the harmonization of the base accounting information of the stock companies, determining a general improvement of the European accounting norms quality, and this due to the greater comparability of the companies account, which eased the activity of the trans-border companies.

  17. Groundwater flow system in the valley of Toluca, Mexico: an assay of natural radionuclide specific activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia, N.; Tamez, E.; Pena, P.; Acosta, E.; Iturbe, J.L. [ININ, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Carrillo, J. [UACPyP-CCH, UNAM, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Armienta, M.A. [IGFUNAM, C. Universitaria, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-03-01

    Natural radionuclides and physicochemical parameters have been evaluated in groundwater samples from boreholes belonging to the drinking water supply system of the Toluca City, Mexico. The results obtained for radon and radium, together with the physicochemical parameters of the studied samples, indicate a fast and efficient recharge pattern. The presence of a local and a regional groundwater flows was also observed. The local flow belongs to shallower water, recognized by its low radon content and dissolved ions, as compared with the regional, deeper groundwater flow with a longer residence time.

  18. A simple system for in-droplet incubation and quantification of agglutination assays

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, David

    2013-10-28

    This work reports on a simple system for quantitative sensing of a target analyte based on agglutination in micro-channels. Functionalized microbeads and analyte with no prior incubation are flowed in droplets (~2μL) through a thin silicone tube filled with mineral oil at a flow rate of 150 μL/min. Hydrodynamic forces alone produce a highly efficient mixing of the beads within the droplet, without the need of complex mixing structures or magnetic actuation. The setup allows rapid observation of agglutination (<2 min), which is quantified using image analysis, and has potential application to high-throughput analysis.

  19. Bioassessment of bioremediation products in aquatic systems using cytotoxic and in vitro immune function assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, C.D.; Roszell, L.E.

    1995-01-01

    Estuarine sediments and overlying water were collected from Back Bay Mississippi and placed in five 7.5 x 61 cm. glass-column mesocosms with a peristaltic recirculating system. Four columns received a sample of artificially weathered Louisiana Crude Oil spiked with either N + P, a PAH-metabolizing bacterial consortium collected in situ, or both. A fifth column excluded oil, bacteria, and nutrients. Aliphatic and aromatic fractions were extracted from each system and diluted in iso-octane. Poecoliopsis Hepatoma Cells (PLHC-1) and Rat Hepatoma Cells (H4IIE) were treated with 1/100--1/800 dilutions of each extract and protein synthesis, RNA synthesis, DNA synthesis, Cytochrome P4501A induction, and viability were determined. ∝-CD3 and ∝-IgM-stimulated proliferation of mouse lymphocytes, PWM-stimulated proliferation and PMA-stimulated oxidative burst activity of catfish lymphocytes and phagocytes, respective, were also determined. All extracts were overtly toxic to cell cultures compared to controls at a 1/100 dilution but only aliphatic fractions affected viability at higher dilutions. Aromatic fractions increased protein and RNA synthesis as well as induced P4501A at 1/400 and 1/800 dilutions. Fertilization with P + N increased toxic responses. Lymphocyte proliferation and fish phagocyte responses were more sensitive to aliphatic extracts. This approach may be useful for investigating the toxicity and biological impact of effluents

  20. Rapid prototyping of arrayed microfluidic systems in polystyrene for cell-based assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Edmond W.K.; Berthier, Erwin; Guckenberger, David J.; Sackmann, Eric; Lamers, Casey; Meyvantsson, Ivar; Huttenlocher, Anna; Beebe, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Microfluidic cell-based systems have enabled the study of cellular phenomena with improved spatiotemporal control of the microenvironment and at increased throughput. While PDMS has emerged as the most popular material in microfluidics research, it has specific limitations that prevent microfluidic platforms from achieving their full potential. We present here a complete process, ranging from mold design to embossing and bonding, that describes the fabrication of polystyrene (PS) microfluidic devices with similar cost and time expenditures as PDMS-based devices. Emphasis was placed on creating methods that can compete with PDMS fabrication methods in terms of robustness, complexity and time requirements. To achieve this goal several improvements were made to remove critical bottlenecks in existing PS embossing methods. First, traditional lithography techniques were adapted to fabricate bulk epoxy molds capable of resisting high temperatures and pressures. Second, a method was developed to emboss through-holes in a PS layer, enabling creation of large arrays of independent microfluidic systems on a single device without need to manually create access ports. Third, thermal bonding of PS layers was optimized in order to achieve quality bonding over large arrays of microsystems. The choice of materials and methods were validated for biological function using two different cell-based applications to demonstrate the versatility of our streamlined fabrication process. PMID:21261280

  1. Standard test method for nondestructive assay of nuclear material in scrap and waste by passive-Active neutron counting using 252Cf shuffler

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the nondestructive assay of scrap and waste items for U, Pu, or both, using a 252Cf shuffler. Shuffler measurements have been applied to a variety of matrix materials in containers of up to several 100 L. Corrections are made for the effects of matrix material. Applications of this test method include measurements for safeguards, accountability, TRU, and U waste segregation, disposal, and process control purposes (1, 2, 3). 1.1.1 This test method uses passive neutron coincidence counting (4) to measure the 240Pu-effective mass. It has been used to assay items with total Pu contents between 0.03 g and 1000 g. It could be used to measure other spontaneously fissioning isotopes such as Cm and Cf. It specifically describes the approach used with shift register electronics; however, it can be adapted to other electronics. 1.1.2 This test method uses neutron irradiation with a moveable Cf source and counting of the delayed neutrons from the induced fissions to measure the 235U equiva...

  2. A modular cloning system for standardized assembly of multigene constructs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst Weber

    Full Text Available The field of synthetic biology promises to revolutionize biotechnology through the design of organisms with novel phenotypes useful for medicine, agriculture and industry. However, a limiting factor is the ability of current methods to assemble complex DNA molecules encoding multiple genetic elements in various predefined arrangements. We present here a hierarchical modular cloning system that allows the creation at will and with high efficiency of any eukaryotic multigene construct, starting from libraries of defined and validated basic modules containing regulatory and coding sequences. This system is based on the ability of type IIS restriction enzymes to assemble multiple DNA fragments in a defined linear order. We constructed a 33 kb DNA molecule containing 11 transcription units made from 44 individual basic modules in only three successive cloning steps. This modular cloning (MoClo system can be readily automated and will be extremely useful for applications such as gene stacking and metabolic engineering.

  3. High Efficiency Three Phase Resonant Conversion for Standardized Architecture Power System Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A low-cost, standardized-architecture power system is proposed for NASA electric propulsion (EP) applications. Three approaches are combined to develop a system that...

  4. High Efficiency Three Phase Resonant Conversion for Standardized Architecture Power System Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A low-cost, standardized-architecture power system is proposed for NASA electric propulsion (EP) applications. Three approaches are combined to develop a system that...

  5. Standardization of computer systems for logging operative cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, M D; Lowry, L D; Wisnicki, H J

    1988-10-01

    With the advent of extremely rapid, powerful, compact, and inexpensive microcomputers, a revolution in data manipulation is ongoing. We have customized and used for over two years prepackaged software to track residents' operative experiences in the Department of Otolaryngology at Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia. An attempt is presently being made to develop a similar system that might be utilized by all otolaryngology teaching programs and thus enable the collection and review of residents' operative experiences nationally. A basic, relational database system is proposed for entering resident caseload data and generating reports for periodic review.

  6. Evaluation of the Integrated Holdup Measurement System with the M3CA for Assay of Uranium and Plutonium Holdup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, P. A.; Sprinkle, J. K. Jr.; Bjork, C. W.; McKown, T. O.; Sheppard, G. A.; Smith, S. E.; Harris, J. F.

    1999-01-01

    Uranium and plutonium holdup that has been simulated by insertion of a variety of sealed, reference samples into pipes, ducts, and other hardware has been measured over a period of six years with an integrated holdup measurement system. The result is a systematic evaluation of the generalized-geometry holdup (GGH) formalism applied to portable gamma-ray holdup measurements with low-resolution detectors. The extended exercise was carried out both with and without automation of the measurements, data reduction/analysis, and holdup evaluation. Automation was accomplished by the software Version 2 for the Holdup Measurement System (HMS2). The purpose of the exercise was to establish reliable benchmarks for GGH measurements and to document the advantages of the automation with actual measurement results. The results presented below demonstrate a factor of 2 improvement in the quantitative reliability of the holdup assay automated by HMS2. The automated results are otherwise identical to the manual measurements. These and similar exercises also show that automation can decrease by a factor of 20 or more the time required to execute a holdup measurement campaign and obtain the holdup quantities for the facility using an integrated holdup measurement system, and that only one person, rather than two, is required to perform the measurements. Enhanced implementation of the integrated holdup measurement system with new software, corrections for systematic effects, and improved room-temperature gamma-ray detectors is planned

  7. Integrated microfluidic system for rapid detection of influenza H1N1 virus using a sandwich-based aptamer assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yi-Ting; Wang, Chih-Hung; Chang, Chih-Peng; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2016-08-15

    The rapid spread of influenza-associated H1N1 viruses has caused serious concern in recent years. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of automatic, point-of-care devices for rapid diagnosis of the influenza virus. Conventional approaches suffer from several critical issues; notably, they are time-consuming, labor-intensive, and are characterized by relatively low sensitivity. In this work, we present a new approach for fluorescence-based detection of the influenza A H1N1 virus using a sandwich-based aptamer assay that is automatically performed on an integrated microfluidic system. The entire detection process was shortened to 30min using this chip-based system which is much faster than the conventional viral culture method. The limit of detection was significantly improved to 0.032 hemagglutination unit due to the high affinity and high specificity of the H1N1-specific aptamers. The results showed that the two-aptamer microfluidic system had about 10(3) times higher sensitivity than the conventional serological diagnosis. It was demonstrated that the developed microfluidic system may play as a powerful tool in the detection of the H1N1 virus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Uncertainty analysis of the SWEPP PAN assay system for glass waste (content codes 440, 441 and 442)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackwood, L.G.; Harker, Y.D.; Meachum, T.R.; Yoon, W.Y.

    1996-10-01

    INEL is being used as a temporary storage facility for transuranic waste generated by the Nuclear Weapons program at the Rocky Flats Plant. Currently, there is a large effort in progress to prepare to ship this waste to WIPP. In order to meet the TRU Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan nondestructive assay compliance requirements and quality assurance objectives, it is necessary to determine the total uncertainty of the radioassay results produced by the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) Passive Action Neutron (PAN) radioassay system. This paper discusses a modified statistical sampling and verification approach used to determine the total uncertainty of SWEPP PAN measurements for glass waste (content codes 440, 441, and 442) contained in 208 liter drums. In the modified statistical sampling and verification approach, the total performance of the SWEPP PAN nondestructive assay system for specifically selected waste conditions is simulated using computer models. A set of 100 cases covering the known conditions exhibited in glass waste was compiled using a combined statistical sampling and factorial experimental design approach. Parameter values assigned in each simulation were derived from reviews of approximately 100 real-time radiography video tapes of RFP glass waste drums, results from previous SWEPP PAN measurements on glass waste drums, and shipping data from RFP where the glass waste was generated. The data in the 100 selected cases form the multi-parameter input to the simulation model. The reported plutonium masses from the simulation model are compared with corresponding input masses. From these comparisons, the bias and total uncertainty associated with SWEPP PAN measurements on glass waste drums are estimated. The validity of the simulation approach is verified by comparing simulated output against results from calibration measurements using known plutonium sources and two glass waste calibration drums

  9. Uncertainty analysis of the SWEPP PAN assay system for glass waste (content codes 440, 441 and 442)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackwood, L.G.; Harker, Y.D.; Meachum, T.R.; Yoon, W.Y.

    1996-10-01

    INEL is being used as a temporary storage facility for transuranic waste generated by the Nuclear Weapons program at the Rocky Flats Plant. Currently, there is a large effort in progress to prepare to ship this waste to WIPP. In order to meet the TRU Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan nondestructive assay compliance requirements and quality assurance objectives, it is necessary to determine the total uncertainty of the radioassay results produced by the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) Passive Action Neutron (PAN) radioassay system. This paper discusses a modified statistical sampling and verification approach used to determine the total uncertainty of SWEPP PAN measurements for glass waste (content codes 440, 441, and 442) contained in 208 liter drums. In the modified statistical sampling and verification approach, the total performance of the SWEPP PAN nondestructive assay system for specifically selected waste conditions is simulated using computer models. A set of 100 cases covering the known conditions exhibited in glass waste was compiled using a combined statistical sampling and factorial experimental design approach. Parameter values assigned in each simulation were derived from reviews of approximately 100 real-time radiography video tapes of RFP glass waste drums, results from previous SWEPP PAN measurements on glass waste drums, and shipping data from RFP where the glass waste was generated. The data in the 100 selected cases form the multi-parameter input to the simulation model. The reported plutonium masses from the simulation model are compared with corresponding input masses. From these comparisons, the bias and total uncertainty associated with SWEPP PAN measurements on glass waste drums are estimated. The validity of the simulation approach is verified by comparing simulated output against results from calibration measurements using known plutonium sources and two glass waste calibration drums.

  10. Executive overview and introduction to the SMAP information system life-cycle and documentation standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the five volume set of Information System Life-Cycle and Documentation Standards is provided with information on its use. The overview covers description, objectives, key definitions, structure and application of the standards, and document structure decisions. These standards were created to provide consistent NASA-wide structures for coordinating, controlling, and documenting the engineering of an information system (hardware, software, and operational procedures components) phase by phase.

  11. 41 CFR 105-72.301 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for financial... Management § 105-72.301 Standards for financial management systems. (a) Federal awarding agencies shall... practical. (b) Recipients' financial management systems shall provide for the following. (1) Accurate...

  12. 77 FR 30765 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems for Heavy Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems for Heavy Vehicles; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 100 / Wednesday... Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems for Heavy Vehicles AGENCY: National Highway...

  13. 76 FR 22919 - National Institute of Justice Offender Tracking System Standard Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... of Justice Programs National Institute of Justice Offender Tracking System Standard Workshop AGENCY... Workshop. SUMMARY: The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is hosting an Officer Tracking System Standard Workshop specifically to introduce manufacturers, certification bodies and test laboratories to the new...

  14. 76 FR 44829 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2009-0175] RIN 2127-AK84 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems... final rule that amended the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems by requiring... July 27, 2009, NHTSA published a final rule in the Federal Register amending Federal Motor Vehicle...

  15. 40 CFR 60.482-5 - Standards: Sampling connection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... process fluid to any of the following systems or facilities: (A) A waste management unit as defined in § 63.111, if the waste management unit is subject to and operated in compliance with the provisions of..., licensed, or registered by a state to manage municipal or industrial solid waste, if the process fluids are...

  16. Implementation of IEC Standard Models for Power System Stability Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margaris, Ioannis; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Bech, John

    2012-01-01

    , namely a model for a variable speed wind turbine with full scale power converter WTG including a 2- mass mechanical model. The generic models for fixed and variable speed WTGs models are suitable for fundamental frequency positive sequence response simulations during short events in the power system...

  17. An Architecture for Nested Transaction Support on Standard Database Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boertjes, E.M.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Vonk, J.; Apers, Peter M.G.

    Many applications dealing with complex processes require database support for nested transactions. Current commercial database systems lack this kind of support, offering flat, non-nested transactions only. This paper presents a three-layer architecture for implementing nested transaction support on

  18. Hormone assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisentraut, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    An improved radioimmunoassay is described for measuring total triiodothyronine or total thyroxine levels in a sample of serum containing free endogenous thyroid hormone and endogenous thyroid hormone bound to thyroid hormone binding protein. The thyroid hormone is released from the protein by adding hydrochloric acid to the serum. The pH of the separated thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone binding protein is raised in the absence of a blocking agent without interference from the endogenous protein. 125 I-labelled thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone antibodies are added to the mixture, allowing the labelled and unlabelled thyroid hormone and the thyroid hormone antibody to bind competitively. This results in free thyroid hormone being separated from antibody bound thyroid hormone and thus the unknown quantity of thyroid hormone may be determined. A thyroid hormone test assay kit is described for this radioimmunoassay. It provides a 'single tube' assay which does not require blocking agents for endogenous protein interference nor an external solid phase sorption step for the separation of bound and free hormone after the competitive binding step; it also requires a minimum number of manipulative steps. Examples of the assay are given to illustrate the reproducibility, linearity and specificity of the assay. (UK)

  19. Mucus-stimulating substances in human body fluids assayed in an invertebrate mucous cell system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, B G; Bang, F B

    1979-12-01

    An in vitro cell system has been shown to respond differentially to body fluids from normal subjects and from those with disorders of mucus secretion. The urn cell complex of the marine invertebrate Sipunculus nudus responds to mucus-stimulating substances (MSS) in normal human lacrimal fluids and stool filtrates by producing mucus. The process of mucus secretion can be directly observed, and the amount produced can be measured, in a calibrated light microscope. MSS are decreased in lacrimal fluids of patients with dry-eye conditions, while they are periodically increased in filtered stools of patients with acute Shigella dysentery and acute cholera. MSS are remarkably increased isotonic dilutions of sera of rabbits with acute mucoid enteritis, but are absent from sera of normal rabbits. MSS are present in isotonic dilutions of normal human sera which are heated to 85 degrees C for 4 minutes, but are absent from similarly processed sera of immunosuppressed patients. Mean MSS values of heated sera of children with cystic fibrosis are higher than those of controls. The active factor in tears and serum is a large molecule and is heat-stable.

  20. Bioelectrochemical Systems Workshop:Standardized Analyses, Design Benchmarks, and Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    State University; Ms. Caroline Dale, Veolia Water Systems in USA; Dr. Pat Evans, CDM; Dr. Ashley Franks, University of Massachusetts / Latrobe University...generation using membrane and salt bridge microbial fuel cells. Water Research, 2005. 39(9): p. 1675-1686. 3. Logan, B.E., Scaling Up Microbial Fuel... Water Research, 2012. 46: p. 2425-2434. 17. Zhang, G.D., et al., Biocathode microbial fuel cell for efficient electricity recovery from dairy manure