WorldWideScience

Sample records for standard assay procedures

  1. Radiation control standards and procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-12-14

    This manual contains the Radiation Control Standards'' and Radiation Control Procedures'' at Hanford Operations which have been established to provide the necessary control radiation exposures within Irradiation Processing Department. Provision is also made for including, in the form of Bulletins'', other radiological information of general interest to IPD personnel. The purpose of the standards is to establish firm radiological limits within which the Irradiation Processing Department will operate, and to outline our radiation control program in sufficient detail to insure uniform and consistent application throughout all IPD facilities. Radiation Control Procedures are intended to prescribe the best method of accomplishing an objective within the limitations of the Radiation Control Standards. A procedure may be changed at any time provided the suggested changes is generally agreeable to management involved, and is consistent with department policies and the Radiation Control Standards.

  2. Specific binding assay technique; standardization of reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huggins, K.G.; Roitt, I.M.

    1979-01-01

    The standardization of a labelled constituent, such as anti-IgE, for use in a specific binding assay method is disclosed. A labelled ligand, such as IgE, is standardized against a ligand reference substance, such as WHO standard IgE, to determine the weight of IgE protein represented by the labelled ligand. Anti-light chain antibodies are contacted with varying concentrations of the labelled ligand. The ligand is then contacted with the labelled constituent which is then quantitated in relation to the amount of ligand protein present. The preparation of 131 I-labelled IgE is described. Also disclosed is an improved specific binding assay test method for determining the potency of an allergen extract in serum from an allergic individual. The improvement involved using a parallel model system of a second complex which consisted of anti-light chain antibodies, labelled ligand and the standardized labelled constituent (anti-IgE). The amount of standardized labelled constituent bound to the ligand in the first complex was determined, as described above, and the weight of ligand inhibited by addition of soluble allergen was then used as a measure of the potency of the allergen extract. (author)

  3. Test procedure for boxed waste assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, J.

    1994-01-01

    This document, prepared by Los Alamos National Laboratory's NMT-4 group, details the test methodology and requirements for Acceptance/Qualification testing of a Boxed Waste Assay System (BWAS) designed and constructed by Pajarito Scientific Corporation. Testing of the BWAS at the Plutonium Facility (TA55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory will be performed to ascertain system adherence to procurement specification requirements. The test program shall include demonstration of conveyor handling capabilities, gamma ray energy analysis, and imaging passive/active neutron accuracy and sensitivity. Integral to these functions is the system's embedded operating and data reduction software

  4. Multicenter Evaluation of Cystatin C Measurement after Assay Standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargnoux, Anne-Sophie; Piéroni, Laurence; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Kuster, Nils; Delanaye, Pierre; Carlier, Marie-Christine; Fellahi, Soraya; Boutten, Anne; Lombard, Christine; González-Antuña, Ana; Delatour, Vincent; Cavalier, Etienne

    2017-04-01

    Since 2010, a certified reference material ERM-DA471/IFCC has been available for cystatin C (CysC). This study aimed to assess the sources of uncertainty in results for clinical samples measured using standardized assays. This evaluation was performed in 2015 and involved 7 clinical laboratories located in France and Belgium. CysC was measured in a panel of 4 serum pools using 8 automated assays and a candidate isotope dilution mass spectrometry reference measurement procedure. Sources of uncertainty (imprecision and bias) were evaluated to calculate the relative expanded combined uncertainty for each CysC assay. Uncertainty was judged against the performance specifications derived from the biological variation model. Only Siemens reagents on the Siemens systems and, to a lesser extent, DiaSys reagents on the Cobas system, provided results that met the minimum performance criterion calculated according to the intraindividual and interindividual biological variations. Although the imprecision was acceptable for almost all assays, an increase in the bias with concentration was observed for Gentian reagents, and unacceptably high biases were observed for Abbott and Roche reagents on their own systems. This comprehensive picture of the market situation since the release of ERM-DA471/IFCC shows that bias remains the major component of the combined uncertainty because of possible problems associated with the implementation of traceability. Although some manufacturers have clearly improved their calibration protocols relative to ERM-DA471, most of them failed to meet the criteria for acceptable CysC measurements. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  5. Standardized procedure for tsunami PRA by AESJ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirimoto, Yukihiro; Yamaguchi, Akira; Ebisawa, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    After Fukushima Accident (March 11, 2011), the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) started to develop the standard of Tsunami Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for nuclear power plants in May 2011. As Japan is one of the countries with frequent earthquakes, a great deal of efforts has been made in the field of seismic research since the early stage. To our regret, the PRA procedures guide for tsunami has not yet been developed although the importance is held in mind of the PRA community. Accordingly, AESJ established a standard to specify the standardized procedure for tsunami PRA considering the results of investigation into the concept, the requirements that should have and the concrete methods regarding tsunami PRA referring the opinions of experts in the associated fields in December 2011 (AESJ-SC-RK004:2011). (author)

  6. Standardization of portable assay instrumentation: the neutron-coincidence tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O.

    1983-01-01

    Standardization of portable neutron assay instrumentation has been achieved by using the neutron coincidence technique as a common basis for a wide range of instruments and applications. The electronics originally developed for the High-Level Neutron Coincidence Counter has been adapted to both passive- and active-assay instrumentation for field verification of bulk plutonium, inventory samples, pellets, powders, nitrates, high-enriched uranium, and materials-testing-reactor, light-water-reactor, and mixed-oxide fuel assemblies. The family of detectors developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their performance under in-field conditions are described. 16 figures, 3 tables

  7. 18 CFR 725.6 - Principles, standards and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Principles, standards... Responsibilities § 725.6 Principles, standards and procedures. The Principles, Standards and Procedures established... Orders. These Principles, Standards and Procedures are found in 18 CFR parts 710 through 717. ...

  8. Qualification of standard membrane-feeding assay with Plasmodium falciparum malaria and potential improvements for future assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutoyo Miura

    Full Text Available Vaccines that interrupt malaria transmission are of increasing interest and a robust functional assay to measure this activity would promote their development by providing a biologically relevant means of evaluating potential vaccine candidates. Therefore, we aimed to qualify the standard membrane-feeding assay (SMFA. The assay measures the transmission-blocking activity of antibodies by feeding cultured P. falciparum gametocytes to Anopheles mosquitoes in the presence of the test antibodies and measuring subsequent mosquito infection. The International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH Harmonised Tripartite Guideline Q2(R1 details characteristics considered in assay validation. Of these characteristics, we decided to qualify the SMFA for Precision, Linearity, Range and Specificity. The transmission-blocking 4B7 monoclonal antibody was tested over 6 feeding experiments at several concentrations to determine four suitable concentrations that were tested in triplicate in the qualification experiments (3 additional feeds to evaluate Precision, Linearity and Range. For Specificity, 4B7 was tested in the presence of normal mouse IgG. We determined intra- and inter-assay variability of % inhibition of mean oocyst intensity at each concentration of 4B7 (lower concentrations showed higher variability. We also showed that % inhibition was dependent on 4B7 concentration and the activity is specific to 4B7. Since obtaining empirical data is time-consuming, we generated a model using data from all 9 feeds and simulated the effects of different parameters on final readouts to improve the assay procedure and analytical methods for future studies. For example, we estimated the effect of number of mosquitoes dissected on variability of % inhibition, and simulated the relationship between % inhibition in oocyst intensity and % inhibition of prevalence of infected mosquitos at different mean oocysts in the control. SMFA is one of the few biological assays used in

  9. 21 CFR 120.6 - Sanitation standard operating procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitation standard operating procedures. 120.6... Provisions § 120.6 Sanitation standard operating procedures. (a) Sanitation controls. Each processor shall have and implement a sanitation standard operating procedure (SSOP) that addresses sanitation...

  10. Standard Procedure for Grid Interaction Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Bertil; Lindahl, Sture; Karlsson, Daniel; Joensson, Jonas; Heyman, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    Grid events, simultaneously affecting all safety related auxiliary systems in a nuclear power plant, are critical and must be carefully addressed in the design, upgrading and operational processes. Up to now, the connecting grid has often been treated as either fully available or totally unavailable, and too little attention has been paid to specify the grid performance criteria. This paper deals with standard procedures for grid interaction analysis, to derive tools and criteria to handle grid events challenging the safety systems of the plant. Critical external power system events are investigated and characterised, with respect to severity and rate of occurrence. These critical events are then grouped with respect to impact on the safety systems, when a disturbance propagates into the plant. It is then important to make sure that 1) the impact of the disturbance will never reach any critical system, 2) the impact of the disturbance will be eliminated before it will hurt any critical system, or 3) the critical systems will be proven to be designed in such a way that they can withstand the impact of the disturbance, and the associated control and protection systems can withstand voltage and frequency transients associated with the disturbances. A number of representative disturbance profiles, reflecting connecting grid conditions, are therefore derived, to be used for equipment testing. (authors)

  11. Standardization of Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup B Colorimetric Serum Bactericida Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Tamara; Lastre, Miriam; Cedré, Barbara; Campo, Judith del; Bracho, Gustavo; Zayas, Caridad; Taboada, Carlos; Díaz, Miriam; Sierra, Gustavo; Pérez, Oliver

    2002-01-01

    The correlate of protection for serogroup B meningococci is not currently known, but for serogroup C it is believed to be the serum bactericidal assay (SBA). The current SBAs are labor intensive and the variations in protocols among different laboratories make interpretation of results difficult. A colorimetric SBA (cSBA), based on the ability of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B to consume glucose, leading to acid production, was standardized by using group B strain Cu385-83 as the target. The cSBA results were compared to those obtained for a traditional colony-counting microassay (mSBA). Glucose and bromocresol purple pH indicator were added to the medium in order to estimate growth of cSBA target cell survivors through color change. Different variants of the assay parameters were optimized: growth of target cells (Mueller Hinton agar plates), target cell number (100 CFU/per well), and human complement source used at a final concentration of 25%. After the optimization, three other group B strains (H44/76, 490/91, and 511/91) were used as targets for the cSBA. The selection of the assay parameters and the standardization of cSBA were done with 13 sera from vaccinated volunteers. The titers were determined as the higher serum dilution that totally inhibited the bacterial growth marked by the color invariability of the pH indicator. This was detected visually as well as spectrophotometrically and was closely related to a significant difference in the growth of target cell survivors determined using Student’s t test. Intralaboratory reproducibility was ±1 dilution. The correlation between bactericidal median titers and specific immunoglobulin G serum concentration by enzyme immunoassay was high (r = 0.910, P < 0.01). The bactericidal titers generated by the cSBA and the mSBA were nearly identical, and there was a high correlation between the two assays (r = 0.974, P < 0.01). The standardized cSBA allows easy, fast, and efficient evaluation of samples. PMID

  12. Operability test procedure for TRUSAF assayer software upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cejka, C.C.

    1995-01-01

    This OTP is to be used to ensure the operability of the Transuranic Waste Assay System (TRUWAS). The system was upgraded and requires a retest to assure satisfactory operation. The upgrade consists of an AST 486 computer to replace the IBM-PC/XT, and a software upgrade (CNEUT). The software calculations are performed in the same manner as in the previous system (NEUT), however, the new software is written in C Assembly Language. CNEUT is easier to use and far more powerful than the previous program. The TRUWAS is used to verify the TRU content of waste packages sent for storage in the Transuranic Storage and Assay Facility (TRUSAF). The TRUSAF is part of Westinghouse Hanford's certification program for waste to be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. The Transuranic Waste Assayer uses a combination passive-active neutron interrogation system to determine the TRU content of 55-gallon waste drums. The system consists of a shielded assay chamber; Deuterium-Tritium neutron generator; Helium-3 proportional counters; drum handling system; electronics including preamplifier, amplifier, and discriminator for each of the counter packages; and an AST 486 computer/printer system for data acquisition and analysis. The system can detect down to TRU levels of 10 nCi/g in the waste matrix. The equipment to be tested is: Assay Chamber Door Drum Turntable and Automatic Loading Platform Interlocks Assayer Software; and IBM computer/printer software. The objective of the test is to verify that the system is operational with the AST 486 computer, the software used in the new computer system correctly calculates TRU levels, and the new computer system is capable of storing and retrieving data

  13. Standard-E hydrogen monitoring system shop acceptance test procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, T.C.

    1997-10-02

    The purpose of this report is to document that the Standard-E Hydrogen Monitoring Systems (SHMS-E), fabricated by Mid-Columbia Engineering (MCE) for installation on the Waste Tank Farms in the Hanford 200 Areas, are constructed as intended by the design. The ATP performance will verify proper system fabrication.

  14. Toward Clarity in Clinical Vitamin D Status Assessment: 25(OH)D Assay Standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkley, Neil; Carter, Graham D

    2017-12-01

    Widespread variation in 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) assays continues to compromise efforts to develop clinical and public health guidelines regarding vitamin D status. The Vitamin D Standardization Program helps alleviate this problem. Reference measurement procedures and standard reference materials have been developed to allow current, prospective, and retrospective standardization of 25(OH)D results. Despite advances in 25(OH)D measurement, substantial variability in clinical laboratory 25(OH)D measurement persists. Existing guidelines have not used standardized data and, as a result, it seems unlikely that consensus regarding definitions of vitamin D deficiency, inadequacy, sufficiency, and excess will soon be reached. Until evidence-based consensus is reached, a reasonable clinical approach is advocated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Standard Operating Procedure for Accelerated Corrosion Testing at ARL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    ARL-TN-0855 ● NOV 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Standard Operating Procedure for Accelerated Corrosion Testing at ARL by... Corrosion Testing at ARL by Thomas A Considine Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL Approved for public...November 2017 2. REPORT TYPE Technical Note 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Standard Operating Procedure for Accelerated

  16. Analytical Tools to Improve Optimization Procedures for Lateral Flow Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen V. Hsieh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Immunochromatographic or lateral flow assays (LFAs are inexpensive, easy to use, point-of-care medical diagnostic tests that are found in arenas ranging from a doctor’s office in Manhattan to a rural medical clinic in low resource settings. The simplicity in the LFA itself belies the complex task of optimization required to make the test sensitive, rapid and easy to use. Currently, the manufacturers develop LFAs by empirical optimization of material components (e.g., analytical membranes, conjugate pads and sample pads, biological reagents (e.g., antibodies, blocking reagents and buffers and the design of delivery geometry. In this paper, we will review conventional optimization and then focus on the latter and outline analytical tools, such as dynamic light scattering and optical biosensors, as well as methods, such as microfluidic flow design and mechanistic models. We are applying these tools to find non-obvious optima of lateral flow assays for improved sensitivity, specificity and manufacturing robustness.

  17. Using a standards committee to design practical procedure system improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grider, D.A.; Plung, D.

    1993-01-01

    In the post-Three Mile Island (TMI) environment, numerous reports have been issued on how to improve the quality of procedures used at government and commercial nuclear facilities. The studies tend to be long on what is wrong with existing procedures and short on practical directions on how to fix those faults. Few of these studies have been conducted by practitioners with full-time procedure-managing or procedure writing experience. None of these studies go into detail on how to improve the procedure system itself. Over the last 10 yr, various nuclear facilities within the US Department of Energy (DOE) have carried out individual programs to develop procedures that meet post-TMI standards. However, ∼2 yr ago, DOE formed a Procedures Standards Committee to advise DOE in developing a set of post-TMI guidelines that could be consistently applied throughout all DOE nuclear facilities. The committee has achieved not only its original mission by producing a series of integrated guidance documents but has also evolved a systems approach to procedures management that sets new standards for procedure quality and efficiency. As members of this committee, the authors want to describe what has made the group's approach so successful. The lessons learned may be translatable to a wide range of government and commercial industry procedure programs

  18. Use of calibration standards and the correction for sample self-attenuation in gamma-ray nondestructive assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.L.

    1984-08-01

    The efficient use of appropriate calibration standards and the correction for the attenuation of the gamma rays within an assay sample by the sample itself are two important and closely related subjects in gamma-ray nondestructive assay. Much research relating to those subjects has been done in the Nuclear Safeguards Research and Development program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory since 1970. This report brings together most of the significant results of that research. Also discussed are the nature of appropriate calibration standards and the necessary conditions on the composition, size, and shape of the samples to allow accurate assays. Procedures for determining the correction for the sample self-attenuation are described at length including both general principles and several specific useful cases. The most useful concept is that knowing the linear attenuation coefficient of the sample (which can usually be determined) and the size and shape of the sample and its position relative to the detector permits the computation of the correction factor for the self-attenuation. A major objective of the report is to explain how the procedures for determining the self-attenuation correction factor can be applied so that calibration standards can be entirely appropriate without being particularly similar, either physically or chemically, to the items to be assayed. This permits minimization of the number of standards required to assay items with a wide range of size, shape, and chemical composition. 17 references, 18 figures, 2 tables

  19. The use of calibration standards and the correction for sample self-attenuation in gamma-ray nondestructive assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.L.

    1986-11-01

    The efficient use of appropriate calibration standards and the correction for the attenuation of the gamma rays within an assay sample by the sample itself are two important and closely related subjects in gamma-ray nondestructive assay. Much research relating to those subjects has been done in the Nuclear Safeguards Research and Development program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory since 1970. This report brings together most of the significant results of that research. Also discussed are the nature of appropriate calibration standards and the necessary conditions on the composition, size, and shape of the samples to allow accurate assays. Procedures for determining the correction for the sample self-attenuation are described at length including both general principles and several specific useful cases. The most useful concept is that knowing the linear attenuation coefficient of the sample (which can usually be determined) and the size and shape of the sample and its position relative to the detector permits the computation of the correction factor for the self-attenuation. A major objective of the report is to explain how the procedures for determining the self-attenuation correction factor can be applied so that calibration standards can be entirely appropriate without being particularly similar, either physically or chemically, to the items to be assayed. This permits minimization of the number of standards required to assay items with a wide range of size, shape, and chemical composition

  20. Experience with local lymph node assay performance standards using standard radioactivity and nonradioactive cell count measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basketter, David; Kolle, Susanne N; Schrage, Arnhild; Honarvar, Naveed; Gamer, Armin O; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2012-08-01

    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is the preferred test for identification of skin-sensitizing substances by measuring radioactive thymidine incorporation into the lymph node. To facilitate acceptance of nonradioactive variants, validation authorities have published harmonized minimum performance standards (PS) that the alternative endpoint assay must meet. In the present work, these standards were applied to a variant of the LLNA based on lymph node cell counts (LNCC) run in parallel as a control with the standard LLNA with radioactivity measurements, with threshold concentrations (EC3) being determined for the sensitizers. Of the 22 PS chemicals tested in this study, 21 yielded the same results from standard radioactivity and cell count measurements; only 2-mercaptobenzothiazole was positive by LLNA but negative by LNCC. Of the 16 PS positives, 15 were positive by LLNA and 14 by LNCC; methylmethacrylate was not identified as sensitizer by either of the measurements. Two of the six PS negatives tested negative in our study by both LLNA and LNCC. Of the four PS negatives which were positive in our study, chlorobenzene and methyl salicylate were tested at higher concentrations than the published PS, whereas the corresponding concentrations resulted in consistent negative results. Methylmethacrylate and nickel chloride tested positive within the concentration range used for the published PS. The results indicate cell counts and radioactive measurements are in good accordance within the same LLNA using the 22 PS test substances. Comparisons with the published PS results may, however, require balanced analysis rather than a simple checklist approach. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Standard Ship Test and Inspection Plan, Procedures and Database

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    ... construction schedules and increased cost is the area of test and inspection. This project investigates existing rules and regulations for testing and inspection of commercial ships and identifies differences and similarities within the requirements. The results include comparison matrices, a standard test plan, a set of standard test procedures, and a sample test database developed for a typical commercial ship.

  2. 40 CFR 160.81 - Standard operating procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (10) Data handling, storage and retrieval. (11) Maintenance and calibration of equipment. (12... GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 160.81 Standard operating procedures... test, control, and reference substances. (4) Test system observations. (5) Laboratory or other tests...

  3. Comparative evaluation of two radioenzymatic procedures designed to determine noradrenaline in the plasma (COMT assay and PNMT assay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, A.

    1984-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of two radioenzymatic procedures to determine the concentration of noradrenaline in the plasma - with linearity, sensitivity, specifity and accuracy serving as test criteria - led to the following results: In view of a probability of error in the order of 2% both methods were judged to show a satisfactory sensitivity. The specific of the COMT assay, by contrast with that of the PNMT assay, was found to be wanting, as the noradrenaline measurements in the presence of other biogenic amines were biassed in such a way that the values determined were higher than the actual concentrations. During antihypertensive treatment even minimal changes in the noradrenaline concentration can be ascertained on a quantitative basis. If suitable hardware is available, the COMT assay permits up to 25 single determinations to be carried out per day, while the number of double determinations is restricted to 7 per day. One advantage, however, lies in the fact that several catecholamines in the plasma can be detected simultaneously, if required. In cases where the noradrenaline concentration alone is to be determined for clinical purposes, preference should be given to the PNMT assay, as both tests showed equal linearity and sensitivity. (TRV) [de

  4. Standard test method for nondestructive assay of radioactive material by tomographic gamma scanning

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the nondestructive assay (NDA) of gamma ray emitting radionuclides inside containers using tomographic gamma scanning (TGS). High resolution gamma ray spectroscopy is used to detect and quantify the radionuclides of interest. The attenuation of an external gamma ray transmission source is used to correct the measurement of the emission gamma rays from radionuclides to arrive at a quantitative determination of the radionuclides present in the item. 1.2 The TGS technique covered by the test method may be used to assay scrap or waste material in cans or drums in the 1 to 500 litre volume range. Other items may be assayed as well. 1.3 The test method will cover two implementations of the TGS procedure: (1) Isotope Specific Calibration that uses standards of known radionuclide masses (or activities) to determine system response in a mass (or activity) versus corrected count rate calibration, that applies to only those specific radionuclides for which it is calibrated, and (2) Respo...

  5. The European Stroke Organisation Guidelines: a standard operating procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ntaios, George; Bornstein, Natan M; Caso, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    pace with this progress and driven by the strong determination of the European Stroke Organisation to further promote stroke management, education, and research, the European Stroke Organisation decided to delineate a detailed standard operating procedure for its guidelines. There are two important...... cornerstones in this standard operating procedure: The first is the implementation of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology for the development of its Guideline Documents. The second one is the decision of the European Stroke Organisation to move from the classical...... and significant input from European Stroke Organisation members as well as methodologists and analysts, this document presents the official standard operating procedure for the development of the Guideline Documents of the European Stroke Organisation....

  6. Standard Review Plan Maintenance Program implementing procedures document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The implementing Procedures Document (IPD) was developed by the Inspection Program Projects Branch, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, with assistance from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, for the Standard Review Plan Maintenance Program (SRP-MP). The SRP-MP was established to maintain the Standard Review Plan (SRP) on an on-going basis. The IPD provides guidance, including an overall approach and procedures, for SRP-MP tasks. The objective of the IPD is to ensure that modifications to SRP need to reflect current NRC requirements and guidance are identified and that a consistent methodology is used to develop and revise SRP sections

  7. Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program. Implementing Procedures Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    This implementing procedures document (IPD) was prepared for use in implementing tasks under the standard review plan update and development program (SRP-UDP). The IPD provides comprehensive guidance and detailed procedures for SRP-UDP tasks. The IPD is mandatory for contractors performing work for the SRP-UDP. It is guidance for the staff. At the completion of the SRP-UDP, the IPD will be revised (to remove the UDP aspects) and will replace NRR Office Letter No. 800 as long-term maintenance procedures.

  8. Standardized methods for photography in procedural dermatology using simple equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexsel, Doris; Hexsel, Camile L; Dal'Forno, Taciana; Schilling de Souza, Juliana; Silva, Aline F; Siega, Carolina

    2017-04-01

    Photography is an important tool in dermatology. Reproducing the settings of before photos after interventions allows more accurate evaluation of treatment outcomes. In this article, we describe standardized methods and tips to obtain photographs, both for clinical practice and research procedural dermatology, using common equipment. Standards for the studio, cameras, photographer, patients, and framing are presented in this article. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  9. Standard guide for making quality nondestructive assay measurements

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This guide is a compendium of Quality Measurement Practices for performing measurements of radioactive material using nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments. The primary purpose of the guide is to assist users in arriving at quality NDA results, that is, results that satisfy the end user’s needs. This is accomplished by providing an acceptable and uniform basis for the collection, analysis, comparison, and application of data. The recommendations are not compulsory or prerequisites to achieving quality NDA measurements, but are considered contributory in most areas. 1.2 This guide applies to the use of NDA instrumentation for the measurement of nuclear materials by the observation of spontaneous or stimulated nuclear radiations, including photons, neutrons, or the flow of heat. Recommended calibration, operating, and assurance methods represent guiding principles based on current NDA technology. The diversity of industry-wide nuclear materials measurement applications and instrumentation precludes disc...

  10. Current issues on a standard for surrogate pregnancy procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Jung-Ok

    2012-01-01

    While Korea does not have any legal statement on surrogacy, treatments are carried out in practice. As a result, every Institutional Review Board (IRB) of each fertility clinic faces an ethical predicament in reviewing each case. There is a need to arrange the institutions' own standards of surrogate pregnancy procedures before the establishment of national or professional regulation. This article examines the legal, social, and medical issues of surrogacy to help IRBs to judge their cases.

  11. Current issues on a standard for surrogate pregnancy procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jung-Ok

    2012-12-01

    While Korea does not have any legal statement on surrogacy, treatments are carried out in practice. As a result, every Institutional Review Board (IRB) of each fertility clinic faces an ethical predicament in reviewing each case. There is a need to arrange the institutions' own standards of surrogate pregnancy procedures before the establishment of national or professional regulation. This article examines the legal, social, and medical issues of surrogacy to help IRBs to judge their cases.

  12. 75 FR 72942 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ...: Harry J. Hodges, Flight Procedure Standards Branch (AFS-420), Flight Technologies and Programs Divisions..., SD, Rapid City Rgnl, ILS OR LOC RWY 32, Amdt 19 Newport News, VA, Newport News/Williamsburg Intl, ILS OR LOC RWY 7, Amdt 33 Newport News, VA, Newport News/Williamsburg Intl, ILS OR LOC RWY 25, Amdt 1...

  13. 9 CFR 147.16 - Procedure for the evaluation of mycoplasma reactors by in vivo bio-assay (enrichment).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... mycoplasma reactors by in vivo bio-assay (enrichment). 147.16 Section 147.16 Animals and Animal Products... the evaluation of mycoplasma reactors by in vivo bio-assay (enrichment). This procedure has been shown... publications: (a) Bigland, C. H. and A. J. DaMassa, “A Bio-Assay for Mycoplasma Gallisepticum.” In: United...

  14. Standardization of SMP procedure and its impact on outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachita S Dhurat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cosmetic deformities can result from various types of alopecia or even post hair transplantation procedures. Patients with such deformities seek aesthetically appealing longer-lasting options. Scalp concealers are commonly used by men and women to camouflage these deformities. Scalp micropigmentation (SMP is one of the concealers recently gaining popularity. Objectives: SMP is a novel technique wherein microdot tattoos are placed in a stippling pattern to mimic hair follicles that are cut close to the scalp and various variables affecting its outcome were evaluated. Methods: Forty-five subjects were recruited for the study. The various factors affecting outcome of SMP—angle of needle against the scalp, depth of needle into the scalp, time of the needle contact in scalp, speed of the rotor, resistance of scalp, color of pigment, viscosity of dye, needle number, needle thickness, and pattern of dot placement—were systematically studied in 15 patients through clinical photographs and trichoscopy. Ideal depth of pigment deposition was assessed through histopathological examination. After using these optimum variables, standardized SMP was performed in 30 patients with hair loss (3 patients with cicatricial and 27 patients with diffuse non-cicatricial alopecia. SMP was also used to create an aesthetically denser hairline. The outcome of the procedure was evaluated using standardized global photographs. Results: The ideal parameters were established to achieve standard reproducible results. There were great patient satisfaction and acceptance of the procedure. All the patients showed moderate to great improvement after the procedure with satisfactory scalp coverage. Adverse events were transient which were seen in the form of edema and redness. Conclusion: SMP offers a non-medical, tattoo-based cosmetically appealing and effective “cover-up” that hides the unsightly conditions. The cosmetic tattoo placement creates an illusion of

  15. Standard working procedures in production of traditionally fermented Sremska sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesković-Moračanin Slavica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations conducted within project "Techonological and protective characteristics of autochthonous strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional fermented sausages and possibilities for their implementation in the meat industry" (Project Number: 20127, financed on behalf of the Ministry for Science and Technology of the Republic of Serbia, have provided an answer on the characteristics of the quality of the used raw materials for the production of Sremska sausage - one of the most well-known Serbian traditionally fermented sausages (choice of meat, fatty tissue, additives and spices, and data have been registered in connection with the procedures of their processing, microclimatic conditions have been established (temperature, relative humidity, and air circulation during the entire process of production and fermentation, as well as the presence and types of microorganisms, primarily lactic acid bacteria (BMK, the carrier of lactic fermentation. The most important characteristics of the filling have been established, the smoking regimen, the regimens of fermentation, maturing, drying, as well as the parameters for quality and safety of the finished product. At the same time, the standard working procedure has been determined for the preparation of the meat, fatty tissue, the forming and inserting of the filling into the wrappers, as well as the characteristics of the finished products. The given standard working procedure should serve as a guideline for the meat industry in the production process of this traditional fermented sausage.

  16. Environmental Sciences Division Toxicology Laboratory standard operating procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kszos, L.A.; Stewart, A.J.; Wicker, L.F.; Logsdon, G.M.

    1989-09-01

    This document was developed to provide the personnel working in the Environmental Sciences Division's Toxicology Laboratory with documented methods for conducting toxicity tests. The document consists of two parts. The first part includes the standard operating procedures (SOPs) that are used by the laboratory in conducting toxicity tests. The second part includes reference procedures from the US Environmental Protection Agency document entitled Short-Term Methods for Estimating the Chronic Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater Organisms, upon which the Toxicology Laboratory's SOPs are based. Five of the SOPs include procedures for preparing Ceriodaphnia survival and reproduction test. These SOPs include procedures for preparing Ceriodaphnia food (SOP-3), maintaining Ceriodaphnia cultures (SOP-4), conducting the toxicity test (SOP-13), analyzing the test data (SOP-13), and conducting a Ceriodaphnia reference test (SOP-15). Five additional SOPs relate specifically to the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larval survival and growth test: methods for preparing fathead minnow larvae food (SOP-5), maintaining fathead minnow cultures (SOP-6), conducting the toxicity test (SOP-9), analyzing the test data (SOP-12), and conducting a fathead minnow reference test (DOP-14). The six remaining SOPs describe methods that are used with either or both tests: preparation of control/dilution water (SOP-1), washing of glassware (SOP-2), collection and handling of samples (SOP-7), preparation of samples (SOP-8), performance of chemical analyses (SOP-11), and data logging and care of technical notebooks (SOP-16)

  17. Standardized Procedure Content And Data Structure Based On Human Factors Requirements For Computer-Based Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bly, Aaron; Oxstrand, Johanna; Le Blanc, Katya L

    2015-01-01

    Most activities that involve human interaction with systems in a nuclear power plant are guided by procedures. Traditionally, the use of procedures has been a paper-based process that supports safe operation of the nuclear power industry. However, the nuclear industry is constantly trying to find ways to decrease the human error rate, especially the human errors associated with procedure use. Advances in digital technology make computer-based procedures (CBPs) a valid option that provides further enhancement of safety by improving human performance related to procedure use. The transition from paper-based procedures (PBPs) to CBPs creates a need for a computer-based procedure system (CBPS). A CBPS needs to have the ability to perform logical operations in order to adjust to the inputs received from either users or real time data from plant status databases. Without the ability for logical operations the procedure is just an electronic copy of the paper-based procedure. In order to provide the CBPS with the information it needs to display the procedure steps to the user, special care is needed in the format used to deliver all data and instructions to create the steps. The procedure should be broken down into basic elements and formatted in a standard method for the CBPS. One way to build the underlying data architecture is to use an Extensible Markup Language (XML) schema, which utilizes basic elements to build each step in the smart procedure. The attributes of each step will determine the type of functionality that the system will generate for that step. The CBPS will provide the context for the step to deliver referential information, request a decision, or accept input from the user. The XML schema needs to provide all data necessary for the system to accurately perform each step without the need for the procedure writer to reprogram the CBPS. The research team at the Idaho National Laboratory has developed a prototype CBPS for field workers as well as the

  18. Standardized Procedure Content And Data Structure Based On Human Factors Requirements For Computer-Based Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bly, Aaron; Oxstrand, Johanna; Le Blanc, Katya L

    2015-02-01

    Most activities that involve human interaction with systems in a nuclear power plant are guided by procedures. Traditionally, the use of procedures has been a paper-based process that supports safe operation of the nuclear power industry. However, the nuclear industry is constantly trying to find ways to decrease the human error rate, especially the human errors associated with procedure use. Advances in digital technology make computer-based procedures (CBPs) a valid option that provides further enhancement of safety by improving human performance related to procedure use. The transition from paper-based procedures (PBPs) to CBPs creates a need for a computer-based procedure system (CBPS). A CBPS needs to have the ability to perform logical operations in order to adjust to the inputs received from either users or real time data from plant status databases. Without the ability for logical operations the procedure is just an electronic copy of the paper-based procedure. In order to provide the CBPS with the information it needs to display the procedure steps to the user, special care is needed in the format used to deliver all data and instructions to create the steps. The procedure should be broken down into basic elements and formatted in a standard method for the CBPS. One way to build the underlying data architecture is to use an Extensible Markup Language (XML) schema, which utilizes basic elements to build each step in the smart procedure. The attributes of each step will determine the type of functionality that the system will generate for that step. The CBPS will provide the context for the step to deliver referential information, request a decision, or accept input from the user. The XML schema needs to provide all data necessary for the system to accurately perform each step without the need for the procedure writer to reprogram the CBPS. The research team at the Idaho National Laboratory has developed a prototype CBPS for field workers as well as the

  19. The European Stroke Organisation Guidelines: a standard operating procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntaios, George; Bornstein, Natan M; Caso, Valeria; Christensen, Hanne; De Keyser, Jacques; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Diez-Tejedor, Exuperio; Ferro, Jose M; Ford, Gary A; Grau, Armin; Keller, Emanuella; Leys, Didier; Russell, David; Toni, Danilo; Turc, Guillaume; Van der Worp, Bart; Wahlgren, Nils; Steiner, Thorsten

    2015-10-01

    In 2008, the recently founded European Stroke Organisation published its guidelines for the management of ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack. This highly cited document was translated in several languages and was updated in 2009. Since then, the European Stroke Organisation has published guidelines for the management of intracranial aneurysms and subarachnoidal hemorrhage, for the establishment of stroke units and stroke centers, and recently for the management of intracerebral hemorrhage. In recent years, the methodology for the development of guidelines has evolved significantly. To keep pace with this progress and driven by the strong determination of the European Stroke Organisation to further promote stroke management, education, and research, the European Stroke Organisation decided to delineate a detailed standard operating procedure for its guidelines. There are two important cornerstones in this standard operating procedure: The first is the implementation of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology for the development of its Guideline Documents. The second one is the decision of the European Stroke Organisation to move from the classical model of a single Guideline Document about a major topic (e.g. management of ischemic stroke) to focused modules (i.e. subdivisions of a major topic). This will enable the European Stroke Organisation to react faster when new developments in a specific stroke field occur and update its recommendations on the related module rather swiftly; with the previous approach of a single large Guideline Document, its entire revision had to be completed before an updated publication, delaying the production of up-to-date guidelines. After discussion within the European Stroke Organisation Guidelines Committee and significant input from European Stroke Organisation members as well as methodologists and analysts, this document presents the official standard operating procedure for

  20. Standards for radiation protection instrumentation: design of safety standards and testing procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meissner, Frank

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes by means of examples the role of safety standards for radiation protection and the testing and qualification procedures. The development and qualification of radiation protection instrumentation is a significant part of the work of TUV NORD SysTec, an independent expert organisation in Germany. The German Nuclear Safety Standards Commission (KTA) establishes regulations in the field of nuclear safety. The examples presented may be of importance for governments and nuclear safety authorities, for nuclear operators and for manufacturers worldwide. They demonstrate the advantage of standards in the design of radiation protection instrumentation for new power plants, in the upgrade of existing instrumentation to nuclear safety standards or in the application of safety standards to newly developed equipment. Furthermore, they show how authorities may proceed when safety standards for radiation protection instrumentation are not yet established or require actualization. (author)

  1. "Heidelberg standard examination" and "Heidelberg standard procedures" - Development of faculty-wide standards for physical examination techniques and clinical procedures in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikendei, C; Ganschow, P; Groener, J B; Huwendiek, S; Köchel, A; Köhl-Hackert, N; Pjontek, R; Rodrian, J; Scheibe, F; Stadler, A-K; Steiner, T; Stiepak, J; Tabatabai, J; Utz, A; Kadmon, M

    2016-01-01

    The competent physical examination of patients and the safe and professional implementation of clinical procedures constitute essential components of medical practice in nearly all areas of medicine. The central objective of the projects "Heidelberg standard examination" and "Heidelberg standard procedures", which were initiated by students, was to establish uniform interdisciplinary standards for physical examination and clinical procedures, and to distribute them in coordination with all clinical disciplines at the Heidelberg University Hospital. The presented project report illuminates the background of the initiative and its methodological implementation. Moreover, it describes the multimedia documentation in the form of pocketbooks and a multimedia internet-based platform, as well as the integration into the curriculum. The project presentation aims to provide orientation and action guidelines to facilitate similar processes in other faculties.

  2. Standardizing electrophoresis conditions: how to eliminate a major source of error in the comet assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Brunborg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the alkaline comet assay, cells are embedded in agarose, lysed, and then subjected to further processing including electrophoresis at high pH (>13. We observed very large variations of mean comet tail lengths of cell samples from the same population when spread on a glass or plastic substrate and subjected to electrophoresis. These variations might be cancelled out if comets are scored randomly over a large surface, or if all the comets are scored. The mean tail length may then be representative of the population, although its standard error is large. However, the scoring process often involves selection of 50 – 100 comets in areas selected in an unsystematic way from a large gel on a glass slide. When using our 96-sample minigel format (1, neighbouring sample variations are easily detected. We have used this system to study the cause of the comet assay variations during electrophoresis and we have defined experimental conditions which reduce the variations to a minimum. We studied the importance of various physical parameters during electrophoresis: (i voltage; (ii duration of electrophoresis; (iii electric current; (iv temperature; and (v agarose concentration. We observed that the voltage (V/cm varied substantially during electrophoresis, even within a few millimetres of distance between gel samples. Not unexpectedly, both the potential ( V/cm and the time were linearly related to the mean comet tail, whereas the current was not. By measuring the local voltage with microelectrodes a few millimetres apart, we observed substantial local variations in V/cm, and they increased with time. This explains the large variations in neighbouring sample comet tails of 25% or more. By introducing simple technology (circulation of the solution during electrophoresis, and temperature control, these variations in mean comet tail were largely abolished, as were the V/cm variations. Circulation was shown to be particularly important and optimal conditions

  3. Standard Operating Procedures for Female Genital Sexual Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugl-Meyer, Kerstin S; Bohm-Starke, Nina; Damsted Petersen, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Introduction.  Female genital sexual pain (GSP) is a common, distressing complaint in women of all ages that is underrecognized and undertreated. Definitions and terminology for female GSP are currently being debated. While some authors have suggested that GSP is not per se a sexual dysfunction......, but rather a localized genial pain syndrome, others adhere to using clearly sexually related terms such as dyspareunia and vaginismus. Aim.  The aims of this brief review are to present definitions of the different types of female GSP. Their etiology, incidence, prevalence, and comorbidity with somatic......-Meyer KS, Bohm-Starke N, Damsted Petersen C, Fugl-Meyer A, Parish S, and Giraldi A. Standard operating procedures for female genital sexual pain. J Sex Med **;**:**-**....

  4. Quality assurance: Importance of systems and standard operating procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manghani, Kishu

    2011-01-01

    It is mandatory for sponsors of clinical trials and contract research organizations alike to establish, manage and monitor their quality control and quality assurance systems and their integral standard operating procedures and other quality documents to provide high-quality products and services to fully satisfy customer needs and expectations. Quality control and quality assurance systems together constitute the key quality systems. Quality control and quality assurance are parts of quality management. Quality control is focused on fulfilling quality requirements, whereas quality assurance is focused on providing confidence that quality requirements are fulfilled. The quality systems must be commensurate with the Company business objectives and business model. Top management commitment and its active involvement are critical in order to ensure at all times the adequacy, suitability, effectiveness and efficiency of the quality systems. Effective and efficient quality systems can promote timely registration of drugs by eliminating waste and the need for rework with overall financial and social benefits to the Company.

  5. Standard procedures for pooling health physics data for epidemiologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, D.J.; Beck, W.L.; Stansbury, P.S.; Tankersley, W.G.; Watson, J.E. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The objectives of the study are: (1) to determine the availability of dosimetry data and supporting documentation at multiple facilities; (2) to develop criteria and methods for optimally retrieving data; (3) to evaluate and document the quality and completeness of data and dosimetry programs; (4) to put dosimetry data (e.g., external, whole body counting, and bioassay data) from various facilities in a single format for epidemiologic analysis; and (5) to document all work for peer review. To achieve these objectives, a ''Dosimetry Records and Radiation Hazards Questionnaire'' was developed to send to the facilities under study. Responses to this questionnaire are used to develop data retrieval criteria and methods, and to retrieve data. Dose data are reformatted into Standard Intermediate Dosimetry Files for editing and characterization. Evaluations of dosimetry programs are performed concurrently. Results of these steps are brought together and analysis files created. Status of this work in the context of the Department of Energy 5-Rem Study is reported. The standard procedures are applicable to single- as well as multiple-facility studies

  6. Comparison of amino acid digestibility of feedstuffs determined with the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay and the standardized ileal amino acid digestibility assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E J; Utterback, P L; Applegate, T J; Parsons, C M

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare amino acid digestibility of several feedstuffs using 2 commonly accepted methods: the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR) and the standardized ileal amino acid assay (SIAAD). Six corn, 6 corn distillers dried grains with or without solubles (DDGS/DDG), one wet distillers grains, one condensed solubles, 2 meat and bone meal (MBM) and a poultry byproduct meal were evaluated. Due to insufficient amounts, the wet distillers grains and condensed solubles were only evaluated in roosters. Standardized amino acid digestibility varied among the feed ingredients and among samples of the same ingredient for both methods. For corn, there were generally no differences in amino acid digestibility between the 2 methods. When differences did occur, there was no consistent pattern among the individual amino acids and methods. Standardized amino acid digestibility was not different between the 2 methods for 4 of the DDG samples; however, the PFR yielded higher digestibility values for a high protein DDG and a conventionally processed DDGS. The PFR yielded higher amino acid digestibility values than the SIAAD for several amino acids in 1 MBM and the poultry byproduct meal, but it yielded lower digestibility values for the other MBM. Overall, there were no consistent differences between methods for amino acid digestibility values. In conclusion, the PFR and SIAAD methods are acceptable for determining amino acid digestibility. However, these procedures do not always yield similar results for all feedstuffs evaluated. Thus, further studies are needed to understand the underlying causes in this variability.

  7. Standard operating procedures for ESPEN guidelines and consensus papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Stephan C; Singer, Pierre; Koller, Michael; Barazzoni, Rocco; Cederholm, Tommy; van Gossum, André

    2015-12-01

    The ESPEN Guideline standard operating procedures (SOP) is based on the methodology provided by the Association of Scientific Medical Societies of Germany (AWMF), the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN), and the Centre for Evidence-based Medicine at the University of Oxford. The SOP is valid and obligatory for all future ESPEN-sponsored guideline projects aiming to generate high-quality guidelines on a regular basis. The SOP aims to facilitate the preparation of guideline projects, to streamline the consensus process, to ensure quality and transparency, and to facilitate the dissemination and publication of ESPEN guidelines. To achieve this goal, the ESPEN Guidelines Editorial board (GEB) has been established headed by two chairmen. The GEB will support and supervise the guideline processes and is responsible for the strategic planning of ESPEN guideline activities. Key elements of the SOP are the generation of well-built clinical questions according to the PICO system, a systemic literature search, a classification of the selected literature according to the SIGN evidence levels providing an evidence table, and a clear and straight-forward consensus procedure consisting of online voting's and a consensus conference. Only experts who meet the obligation to disclosure any potential conflict of interests and who are not employed by the Industry can participate in the guideline process. All recommendations will be graded according to the SIGN grading and novel outcome models besides biomedical endpoints. This approach will further extent the leadership of ESPEN in creating up-to-date and suitable for implementation guidelines and in sharing knowledge on malnutrition and clinical nutrition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  8. Standard operating procedures in the disorders of orgasm and ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Chris G; Jannini, Emmanuele; Waldinger, Marcel; Rowland, David

    2013-01-01

    Ejaculatory/orgasmic disorders are common male sexual dysfunctions and include premature ejaculation (PE), inhibited ejaculation, anejaculation, retrograde ejaculation, and anorgasmia. To provide recommendations and guidelines of the current state-of-the-art knowledge for management of ejaculation/orgasmic disorders in men as standard operating procedures (SOPs) for the treating health care professional. The International Society of Sexual Medicine Standards Committee assembled over 30 multidisciplinary experts to establish SOPs for various male and female sexual medicine topics. The SOP for the management of disorders of orgasm and ejaculation represents the opinion of four experts from four countries developed in a process over a 2-year period. Expert opinion was based on grading of evidence-based medical literature, limited expert opinion, widespread internal committee discussion, public presentation, and debate. PE management is largely dependent upon etiology. Lifelong PE is best managed with PE pharmacotherapy (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and/or topical anesthetics). The management of acquired PE is etiology specific and may include erectile dysfunction (ED) pharmacotherapy in men with comorbid ED. All men seeking treatment for PE should receive basic psychosexual education. Graded behavioral therapy is indicated when psychogenic or relationship factors are present and is often best combined with PE pharmacotherapy in an integrated treatment program. Delayed ejaculation, anejaculation, and/or anorgasmia may have a biogenic and/or psychogenic etiology. Men with age-related penile hypoanesthesia should be educated, reassured, and instructed in revised sexual techniques which maximize arousal. Retrograde ejaculation is managed by education, patient reassurance, and pharmacotherapy. Additional research is required to further the understanding of the disorders of ejaculation and orgasm. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  9. Standard formatted data units-control authority procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to establish a set of minimum and optional requirements for the implementation of Control Authority (CA) organizations within and among the Agencies participating in the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS). By satisfying these requirements, the resultant cooperating set of CA organizations will produce a global CA service supporting information transfer with digital data under the Standard Formatted Data Unit (SFDU) concept. This service is primarily accomplished through the registration, permanent archiving, and dissemination of metadata in the form of Metadata Objects (MDO) that assist in the interpretation of data objects received in SFDU form. This Recommendation addresses the responsibilities, services, and interface protocols for a hierarchy of CA organizations. The top level, consisting of the CCSDS Secretariat and its operational agent, is unique and primarily provides a global coordination function. The lower levels are Agency CA organizations that have primary responsibility for the registration, archiving, and dissemination of MDOs. As experience is gained and technology evolves, the CA Procedures will be extended to include enhanced services and their supporting protocols. In particular, it is anticipated that eventually CA organizations will be linked via networks on a global basis, and will provide requestors with online automated access to CA services. While this Recommendation does not preclude such operations, it also does not recommend the specific protocols to be used to ensure global compatibility of these services. These recommendations will be generated as experience is gained.

  10. Quality assurance: Importance of systems and standard operating procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishu Manghani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is mandatory for sponsors of clinical trials and contract research organizations alike to establish, manage and monitor their quality control and quality assurance systems and their integral standard operating procedures and other quality documents to provide high-quality products and services to fully satisfy customer needs and expectations. Quality control and quality assurance systems together constitute the key quality systems. Quality control and quality assurance are parts of quality management. Quality control is focused on fulfilling quality requirements, whereas quality assurance is focused on providing confidence that quality requirements are fulfilled. The quality systems must be commensurate with the Company business objectives and business model. Top management commitment and its active involvement are critical in order to ensure at all times the adequacy, suitability, effectiveness and efficiency of the quality systems. Effective and efficient quality systems can promote timely registration of drugs by eliminating waste and the need for rework with overall financial and social benefits to the Company.

  11. Manual of Standard Operating Procedures for Veterinary Drug Residue Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Laboratories are crucial to national veterinary drug residue monitoring programmes. However, one of the main challenges laboratories encounter is obtaining access to relevant methods of analysis. Thus, in addition to training, providing technical advice and transferring technology, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has resolved to develop clear and practical manuals to support Member State laboratories. The Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development of Radiometric and Allied Analytical Methods to Strengthen Residue Control Programs for Antibiotic and Anthelmintic Veterinary Drug Residues has developed a number of analytical methods as standard operating procedures (SOPs), which are now compiled here. This publication contains SOPs on chromatographic and spectrometric techniques, as well as radioimmunoassay and associated screening techniques, for various anthelmintic and antimicrobial veterinary drug residue analysis. Some analytical method validation protocols are also included. The publication is primarily aimed at food and environmental safety laboratories involved in testing veterinary drug residues, including under organized national residue monitoring programmes. It is expected to enhance laboratory capacity building and competence through the use of radiometric and complementary tools and techniques. The publication is also relevant for applied research on residues of veterinary drugs in food and environmental samples

  12. Detection of systemic hypersensitivity to drugs using standard guinea pig assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, James L; Staten, David; Swann, Joslyn; Armstrong, George; Bates, Melissa; Hastings, Kenneth L

    2003-12-01

    The most commonly used assays designed to detect either skin or systemic immune-based hypersensitivity reactions are those using guinea pigs (GP). We obtained data from various FDA records to evaluate the correlation between GP assay results and reported post-marketing systemic hypersensitivity reactions. We examined the new drug application (NDA) reviews of approved drugs for the results of GP assays. Post-marketing human data were extracted from the FDA adverse event reporting system (AERS). Drug usage data were obtained from a commercial database maintained by IMS Health Inc. We found 83 (21%) of 396 drugs approved between 1978 and 1998 had reported GP test results. Among these 83 drugs, 14 (17%) were found to have positive results in at least one GP assay. Simple reporting index (RI) values for systemic hypersensitivity reactions were calculated from AERS data and usage to produce the index of adverse event reports per million shipping units of drug. A variety of definitions of positive human response were examined. A statistically significant association was seen for rash between post-marketing and clinical trials adverse event reports. No statistically significant associations between human data and GP test results were observed. These data suggest that standard GP assays have limited ability to predict human systemic hypersensitivity potential for pharmaceuticals.

  13. Estimating the Standard Error of the Judging in a modified-Angoff Standards Setting Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. MacCann

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available For a modified Angoff standards setting procedure, two methods of calculating the standard error of the..judging were compared. The Central Limit Theorem (CLT method is easy to calculate and uses readily..available data. It estimates the variance of mean cut scores as a function of the variance of cut scores within..a judging group, based on the independent judgements at Stage 1 of the process. Its theoretical drawback is..that it is unable to take account of the effects of collaboration among the judges at Stages 2 and 3. The..second method, an application of equipercentile (EQP equating, relies on the selection of very large stable..candidatures and the standardisation of the raw score distributions to remove effects associated with test..difficulty. The standard error estimates were then empirically obtained from the mean cut score variation..observed over a five year period. For practical purposes, the two methods gave reasonable agreement, with..the CLT method working well for the top band, the band that attracts most public attention. For some..bands in English and Mathematics, the CLT standard error was smaller than the EQP estimate, suggesting..the CLT method be used with caution as an approximate guide only.

  14. Standardization of Cassia spectabilis with Respect to Authenticity, Assay and Chemical Constituent Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeline Torey

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Quality control standardizations of the various medicinal plants used in traditional medicine is becoming more important today in view of the commercialization of formulations based on these plants. An attempt at standardization of Cassia spectabilis leaf has been carried out with respect to authenticity, assay and chemical constituent analysis. The authentication involved many parameters, including gross morphology, microscopy of the leaves and functional group analysis by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. The assay part of standardization involved determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the extract which could help assess the chemical effects and establish curative values. The MIC of the C. spectabilis leaf extracts was investigated using the Broth Dilution Method. The extracts showed a MIC value of 6.25 mg/mL, independent of the extraction time. The chemical constituent aspect of standardization involves quantification of the main chemical components in C. spectabilis. The GCMS method used for quantification of 2,4-(1H,3H-pyrimidinedione in the extract was rapid, accurate, precise, linear (R2 = 0.8685, rugged and robust. Hence this method was suitable for quantification of this component in C. spectabilis. The standardization of C. spectabilis is needed to facilitate marketing of medicinal plants, with a view to promoting the export of valuable Malaysian Traditional Medicinal plants such as C. spectabilis.

  15. Standardization of Cassia spectabilis with respect to authenticity, assay and chemical constituent analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torey, Angeline; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Yeng, Chen; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga

    2010-05-10

    Quality control standardizations of the various medicinal plants used in traditional medicine is becoming more important today in view of the commercialization of formulations based on these plants. An attempt at standardization of Cassia spectabilis leaf has been carried out with respect to authenticity, assay and chemical constituent analysis. The authentication involved many parameters, including gross morphology, microscopy of the leaves and functional group analysis by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The assay part of standardization involved determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract which could help assess the chemical effects and establish curative values. The MIC of the C. spectabilis leaf extracts was investigated using the Broth Dilution Method. The extracts showed a MIC value of 6.25 mg/mL, independent of the extraction time. The chemical constituent aspect of standardization involves quantification of the main chemical components in C. spectabilis. The GCMS method used for quantification of 2,4-(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione in the extract was rapid, accurate, precise, linear (R(2) = 0.8685), rugged and robust. Hence this method was suitable for quantification of this component in C. spectabilis. The standardization of C. spectabilis is needed to facilitate marketing of medicinal plants, with a view to promoting the export of valuable Malaysian Traditional Medicinal plants such as C. spectabilis.

  16. Variability of assay methods for total and free PSA after WHO standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foj, L; Filella, X; Alcover, J; Augé, J M; Escudero, J M; Molina, R

    2014-03-01

    The variability of total PSA (tPSA) and free PSA (fPSA) results among commercial assays has been suggested to be decreased by calibration to World Health Organization (WHO) reference materials. To characterize the current situation, it is necessary to know its impact in the critical cutoffs used in clinical practice. In the present study, we tested 167 samples with tPSA concentrations of 0 to 20 μg/L using seven PSA and six fPSA commercial assays, including Access, ARCHITECT i2000, ADVIA Centaur XP, IMMULITE 2000, Elecsys, and Lumipulse G1200, in which we only measured tPSA. tPSA and fPSA were measured in Access using the Hybritech and WHO calibrators. Passing-Bablok analysis was performed for PSA, and percentage of fPSA with the Hybritech-calibrated access comparison assay. For tPSA, relative differences were more than 10 % at 0.2 μg/L for ARCHITECT i2000, and at a critical concentration of 3, 4, and 10 μg/L, the relative difference was exceeded by ADVIA Centaur XP and WHO-calibrated Access. For percent fPSA, at a critical concentration of 10 %, the 10 % relative difference limit was exceeded by IMMULITE 2000 assay. At a critical concentration of 20 and 25 %, ADVIA Centaur XP, ARCHITECT i2000, and IMMULITE 2000 assays exceeded the 10 % relative difference limit. We have shown significant discordances between assays included in this study despite advances in standardization conducted in the last years. Further harmonization efforts are required in order to obtain a complete clinical concordance.

  17. Measuring fuel moisture content in Alaska: standard methods and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney A. Norum; Melanie. Miller

    1984-01-01

    Methods and procedures are given for collecting and processing living and dead plant materials for the purpose of determining their water content. Wild-land fuels in Alaska are emphasized, but the methodology is applicable elsewhere. Guides are given for determining the number of samples needed to attain a chosen precision. Detailed procedures are presented for...

  18. 21 CFR 606.100 - Standard operating procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... units. (9) Procedures for investigating adverse donor and recipient reactions. (10) Storage temperatures... accurately relating the product(s) to the donor. (5) Blood collection procedure, including in-process precautions taken to measure accurately the quantity of blood removed from the donor. (6) Methods of component...

  19. Reliability and Validity of 10 Different Standard Setting Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, Glennelle; Halpin, Gerald

    Research indicating that different cut-off points result from the use of different standard-setting techniques leaves decision makers with a disturbing dilemma: Which standard-setting method is best? This investigation of the reliability and validity of 10 different standard-setting approaches was designed to provide information that might help…

  20. Occurrence of occult CSF leaks during standard FESS procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, S; Kugler, A; Probst, E; Epprecht, L; Stadler, R S; Holzmann, D; Soyka, M B

    2018-03-18

    To determine the incidence of occult cerebrospinal fluid leaks (CSF) after functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) and to evaluate the diagnostic performance of beta2-transferrin in blood-contaminated conditions. Prospective cohort study. An analysis of 57 intraoperative samples using hydrogel 6 beta2-transferrin assay after FESS was undertaken. In case of CSF positive samples and continuing rhinorrhea, reanalysis after more than 1 year was conducted. In-vivo analysis of a primary spontaneous CSF leak sample took place to verify difficulties in detecting beta2-transferrin in blood-contaminated settings. Own titrations were performed to evaluate detection limits of CSF by beta2-transferrin and beta-trace protein assays in these settings. An incidence of 13% for occult CSF leaks after FESS was found. In blood-contaminated conditions, routine beta2-transferrin assays showed low sensitivity. In over 1 year follow-up, all samples were negative for CSF and none of them developed clinical relevant CSF leaks or meningitis. Occult and clinically irrelevant CSF leaks do occur in a significant proportion of patients during and shortly after FESS. Intra- and postoperatively, routine beta2-transferrin assays show low sensitivity. They should not be used in these settings. The clinical course of patients with occult CSF leaks indicated possibility of an uneventful follow-up.

  1. Dataset and standard operating procedure for newborn screening of six lysosomal storage diseases: By tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Elliott

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this data article we provide a detailed standard operating procedure for performing a tandem mass spectrometry, multiplex assay of 6 lysosomal enzymes for newborn screening of the lysosomal storage diseases Mucopolysaccharidosis-I, Pompe, Fabry, Niemann-Pick-A/B, Gaucher, and Krabbe, (Elliott, et al., 2016 [1]. We also provide the mass spectrometry peak areas for the product and internal standard ions typically observed with a dried blood spot punch from a random newborn, and we provide the daily variation of the daily mean activities for all 6 enzymes.

  2. Guide to nondestructive assay standards: Preparation criteria, availability, and practical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsue, S.T.; Stewart, J.E.; Sampson, T.E.; Butler, G.W.; Rudy, C.R.; Rinard, P.M.

    1997-10-01

    For certification and measurement control, nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments and methods used for verification measurements of special nuclear materials (SNMs) require calibrations based on certified reference materials (CRMs), or working reference materials (WRMs), traceable to the national system of measurements, and adequately characteristic of the unknowns. The Department of Energy Office of Safeguards and Security is sponsoring production of a comprehensive guide to preparation of NDA standards. The scope of the report includes preparation criteria, current availability of CRMs and WRMs, practical considerations for preparation and characterization, and an extensive bibliography. In preparing the report, based primarily on experience at Los Alamos, they have found that standards preparation is highly dependent on the particular NDA method being applied. They therefore include sections that contain information specific to commonly used neutron and gamma-ray NDA techniques. They also present approaches that are alternatives to, or minimize requirements for physical standards

  3. Standard interface files and procedures for reactor physics codes. Version IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Dell, R.D.

    1977-09-01

    Standards, procedures, and recommendations of the Committee on Computer Code Coordination for promoting the exchange of reactor physics codes are updated to Version IV status. Standards and procedures covering general programming, program structure, standard interface files, and file management and handling subroutines are included

  4. Manual for the GAW Precipitation Chemistry Programme: Guidelines, Data Quality Objectives and Standard Operating Procedures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allan, Mary A

    2004-01-01

    This is a manual for the Global Atmosphere Watch Precipitation Chemistry (GAW-PC) Programme. Where possible, it describes standard operating procedures and otherwise provides guidance on methods and procedures...

  5. 40 CFR 761.79 - Decontamination standards and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (b) Decontamination standards. Chopping (including wire chopping), distilling, filtering, oil/water... burned and marketed in accordance with the requirements for used oil in § 761.20(e), disposed of in... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decontamination standards and...

  6. Standardization of the time for the execution of HANARO start-up and shutdown procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, H. Y.; Lim, I. C.; Hwang, S. R.; Kang, T. J.; Youn, D. B.

    2003-01-01

    For the standardization of the time to execute HANARO start-up and shutdown procedures, code names were assigned to the individual procedures and the work time were investigated. The data recorded by the operators during start-up and shutdown were statistically analyzed. The analysis results will be used for the standardization of start-up and shutdown procedures and it will be reflected in the procedure document

  7. Policy, Procedures and Standards for Enterprise Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    This policy establishes a standard approach for managing information produced by, funded by, or received per regulated reporting and/or federal-wide requirements and subsequently held or cataloged in information management systems by EPA.

  8. Guide to nondestructive assay standards: Preparation criteria, availability, and practical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.E.; Hsue, S.T.; Sampson, T.E.

    1997-01-01

    For certification and measurement control, nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments and methods used for verification measurement of special nuclear materials (SNMs) require calibrations based on certified reference materials (CRMs), or working reference materials (WRMs), traceable to the national system of measurements, and adequately characteristic of the unknowns. The Department of Energy Office of Safeguards and Security is sponsoring production of a comprehensive guide to preparation of NDA standards. The scope of the report includes preparation criteria, current availability of CRMs and WRMs, practical considerations for preparation and characterization, and an extensive bibliography. In preparing the report, based primarily on experience at Los Alamos, we have found that standards preparation is highly dependent on the particular NDA method being applied. We therefore include sections that contain information specific to commonly used neutron and gamma-ray NDA techniques. 16 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Standardization of automated 25-hydroxyvitamin D assays: How successful is it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsenberg, E H A M; Ten Boekel, E; Huijgen, H; Heijboer, A C

    2017-12-01

    Multiple 25(OH)D assays have recently been aligned to improve comparibility. In this study we investigated the performance of these assays using both native single-donor sera with target values certified by a reference method as well as single donor sera from a heterogeneous patient population. 25(OH)D levels were measured in twenty reference samples (Ref!25OHD; Labquality, Finland) using five automated methods (Lumipulse, Liaison, Cobas, iSYS and Access) and one aligned ID-XLC-MS/MS method (slope: 1,00; intercept: 0,00; R=0,996). Furthermore, 25(OH)D concentrations measured in 50 pregnant women and 52 random patients using the 5 automated assays were compared to the ID-XLC-MS/MS. In addition, Vitamin D binding protein (DBP) was measured. Most automated assays showed significant differences in 25(OH)D levels measured in reference samples. Slopes varied from 1,00 to 1,33, intercepts from -5.48 to -15,81nmol/L and the R from 0,971 to 0,997. This inaccuracy was even more prominent in a heterogeneous patient population. Slopes varied from 0,75 to 1,35, intercepts from -9.02 to 11,51nmol/L and the R from 0,840 to 0,949. For most assays the deviation in 25(OH)D concentration increased with elevating DBP concentrations suggesting that DBP might be one of the factors contributing to the inaccuracy in currently used automated 25(OH)D methods. Despite the use of standardized assays, we observed significant differences in 25(OH)D concentrations in some automated methods using reference material obtained from healthy single donor sera. In sera of a patient population this inaccuracy was even worse which is highly concerning as patient samples are being investigated in clinical laboratories. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A COMPARISON OF THREE ASSAY PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING CHLORINE INACTIVATION OF WATERBORNE PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    One criterion on which chlorine treatment of water may be based is the concentration (C) in mg/l multiplied by the time (t) in min of exposure or Ct values. We compared different Ct values on waterborne pathogenic bacteria by cultural assay for viability and 2 assays that mea...

  11. 21 CFR 58.81 - Standard operating procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Data handling, storage, and retrieval. (11) Maintenance and calibration of equipment. (12) Transfer... LABORATORY PRACTICE FOR NONCLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES Testing Facilities Operation § 58.81 Standard... forth nonclinical laboratory study methods that management is satisfied are adequate to insure the...

  12. 76 FR 54528 - Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) of the Aircraft Certification Service (AIR) Process for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ...) of the Aircraft Certification Service (AIR) Process for the Sequencing of Certification and... on the Aircraft Certification Service (AIR) standard operating procedure (SOP) describing the process... comments on the SOP : AIR-100-001; Standard Operating Procedure--Aircraft Certification Service Project...

  13. Procedures and Standards Handbook. Version 3.0. What Works Clearinghouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This "What Works Clearinghouse Procedures and Standards Handbook (Version 3.0)" provides a detailed description of the standards and procedures of the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC). The remaining chapters of this Handbook are organized to take the reader through the basic steps that the WWC uses to develop a review protocol, identify…

  14. Operational procedure standard for occurrences involving radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piekarz, Leonardo; Rezende, Talita C.; Pinheiro, Christiano J.G.

    2017-01-01

    This study has as objective to analyze more deeply the actions of response to emergencies involving radioactive materials, in the intent to establish a pattern to the actions performed by the military fire fighters of the Military Fire Brigade of Minas Gerais. To met these goals, it has been attempted to analyze the procedures utilized and recommended, nowadays, for the military fire fighters of CBMMG, and through directed studies, to suggest new actions possible to be executed in the local of the emergency in a way that will not expose the garrison to doses of ionizing radiation that may prejudice them. It is a study of bibliographic, exploratory, and also descriptive nature, realized through a qualitative approach. The techniques used for the research were the analysis of institutional documents, norms and other literature produced by renamed entities in the radiologic and biosafety areas. It was then concluded that CBMMG, through simple actions of response, can provide higher quality and safety in the operations involving radiologic accidents, standing out that the implemented actions nowadays are very beneath the capacity of the corporation, due to the lack of knowledge of the matter by the fire fighters. It was proposed, then, that new actions be implemented and instituted as operational procedures to be used on those emergencies, with the objective of provide a higher safety and professionalism in the attendance to emergencies involving radioactive materials. (author)

  15. Operational procedure standard for occurrences involving radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piekarz, Leonardo, E-mail: leonardopbm@yahoo.com.br [Academia de Bombeiros Militar de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Rezende, Talita C.; Pinheiro, Christiano J.G., E-mail: talitacolombi@yahoo.com, E-mail: christrieste@yahoo.it [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (CCA/UFES), Alegre, ES (Brazil). Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Química

    2017-07-01

    This study has as objective to analyze more deeply the actions of response to emergencies involving radioactive materials, in the intent to establish a pattern to the actions performed by the military fire fighters of the Military Fire Brigade of Minas Gerais. To met these goals, it has been attempted to analyze the procedures utilized and recommended, nowadays, for the military fire fighters of CBMMG, and through directed studies, to suggest new actions possible to be executed in the local of the emergency in a way that will not expose the garrison to doses of ionizing radiation that may prejudice them. It is a study of bibliographic, exploratory, and also descriptive nature, realized through a qualitative approach. The techniques used for the research were the analysis of institutional documents, norms and other literature produced by renamed entities in the radiologic and biosafety areas. It was then concluded that CBMMG, through simple actions of response, can provide higher quality and safety in the operations involving radiologic accidents, standing out that the implemented actions nowadays are very beneath the capacity of the corporation, due to the lack of knowledge of the matter by the fire fighters. It was proposed, then, that new actions be implemented and instituted as operational procedures to be used on those emergencies, with the objective of provide a higher safety and professionalism in the attendance to emergencies involving radioactive materials. (author)

  16. A Comparison of Standard-Setting Procedures for an OSCE in Undergraduate Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, David M.; Mann, Karen V.; Muijtjens, Arno M. M.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2000-01-01

    Compared four standard-setting procedures for an objective structure clinical examination (OSCE) in medical education. Applied Angoff, borderline, relative, and holistic procedures to the data used to establish a cutoff score for a pass/fail decision. The Angoff and borderline procedures gave similar results; however, the relative and holistic…

  17. Assessing the cleanliness of surfaces: Innovative molecular approaches vs. standard spore assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, M.; Duc, M.T. La; Probst, A.; Vaishampayan, P.; Stam, C.; Benardini, J.N.; Piceno, Y.M.; Andersen, G.L.; Venkateswaran, K.

    2011-04-01

    A bacterial spore assay and a molecular DNA microarray method were compared for their ability to assess relative cleanliness in the context of bacterial abundance and diversity on spacecraft surfaces. Colony counts derived from the NASA standard spore assay were extremely low for spacecraft surfaces. However, the PhyloChip generation 3 (G3) DNA microarray resolved the genetic signatures of a highly diverse suite of microorganisms in the very same sample set. Samples completely devoid of cultivable spores were shown to harbor the DNA of more than 100 distinct microbial phylotypes. Furthermore, samples with higher numbers of cultivable spores did not necessarily give rise to a greater microbial diversity upon analysis with the DNA microarray. The findings of this study clearly demonstrated that there is not a statistically significant correlation between the cultivable spore counts obtained from a sample and the degree of bacterial diversity present. Based on these results, it can be stated that validated state-of-the-art molecular techniques, such as DNA microarrays, can be utilized in parallel with classical culture-based methods to further describe the cleanliness of spacecraft surfaces.

  18. Further experience with the local lymph node assay using standard radioactive and nonradioactive cell count measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolle, Susanne N; Basketter, David; Schrage, Arnhild; Gamer, Armin O; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2012-08-01

    In a previous study, the predictive capacity of a modified local lymph node assay (LLNA) based on cell counts, the LNCC, was demonstrated to be closely similar to that of the original assay. In addition, a range of substances, including some technical/commercial materials and a range of agrochemical formulations (n = 180) have also been assessed in both methods in parallel. The results in the LNCC and LLNA were generally consistent, with 86% yielding an identical classification outcome. Discordant results were associated with borderline data and were evenly distributed between the two methods. Potency information derived from each method also demonstrated good consistency (n = 101), with 93% of predictions being close. Skin irritation was observed only infrequently and was most commonly associated with positive results; it was not associated with the discordant results. Where different vehicles were used with the same test material, the effect on sensitizing activity was modest, consistent with historical data. Analysis of positive control data indicated that the LNCC and LLNA displayed similar levels of biological variation. When taken in combination with the previously published results on LLNA Performance Standard chemicals, it is concluded that the LNCC provides a viable non-radioactive alternative to the LLNA for the assessment of substances, including potency predictions, as well as for the evaluation of preparations. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Muscle sparing lateral thoracotomy: the standard incision for thoracic procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Dumitrescu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lateral thoracotomy is a versatile approach with many variations and is currently the most widely used incision in thoracic surgery. In the current article we are presenting the muscle-sparing lateral thoracotomy in the lateral decubitus position which we consider to be the “standard” for lateral thoracotomies. Indications, surgical technique and pitfalls are described alongside our experience with thoracic drainage. Although there is no consensus regarding the name of this incision, some authors call it “axillary thoracotomy” while others call it a “modified lateral thoracotomy”, they all agree on one aspect – the importance of muscle sparing – which makes it the go-to thoracotomy for both small and large procedures involving the lung. Lateral muscle sparing thoracotomy allows for good exposure of the pulmonary hilum, fissures, apex and diaphragm. The approach is easy and quick to perform while at the same time ensuring faster postoperative recovery by sparing the latissimus dorsi muscle, better cosmetics and lower postoperative pain score when compared to the posterolateral or classical lateral thoracotomies.

  20. The calibration procedures in the Studsvik standardized personnel dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widell, C.O.

    1978-01-01

    Every large nuclear installation in Sweden reads its own personnel TLDs. In order to supervise this decentralized reading of dose meters, the TLD readers are connected by telephone lines to a central computer for dose registration. This computer is used both for registering the personnel doses and for checking the TLD readers. This checking is performed by the use of pre-irradiated calibration dose meters which are always used when a batch of personnel dose meters are read. The pre-irradiated dose meters are either irradiated using 137 Cs to various doses up to 100mSv(10000mrem) or using a 90 Sr source in a reference dose irradiator to a dose equal to 3mSv(300mrem) from a 137 Cs source. The results from the reading of the pre-irradiated dose meters are processed by the computer and a calibration factor is calculated. The calibration factor is automatically used to calculate the doses to the personnel TLD's. However, if the calibration factor deviates by more than 10% from the previously used factor, this fact is shown to the operator - who then has to decide what calibration factor is going to be used. This calibration and supervisory procedure together with the safety interlocks in the TLD readers has resulted in a very reliable and accurate dosimetry system. (author)

  1. 15 CFR 10.7 - Procedure when a recommended standard is not supported by a consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedure when a recommended standard is not supported by a consensus. 10.7 Section 10.7 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary... recommended standard is not supported by a consensus. If the Department determines that a recommended standard...

  2. 10 CFR 440.21 - Weatherization materials standards and energy audit procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weatherization materials standards and energy audit... FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.21 Weatherization materials standards and energy audit procedures. (a...) of this section describes the performance and quality standards for renewable energy systems...

  3. Standardization of figures and assessment procedures for DTM verticalaccuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Casella

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Digital Terrain Models (DTMs are widely used in many sectors. They play a key role in hydrological risk prevention, risk mitigation and numeric simulations. This paper deals with two questions: (i when it is stated that a DTM has a given vertical accuracy, is this assertion univocal? (ii when DTM vertical accuracy is assessed by means of checkpoints, does their location influence results? First, the paper illustrates that two vertical accuracy definitions are conceivable: Vertical Accuracy at the Nodes (VAN, the average vertical distance between the model and the terrain, evaluated at the DTM's nodes and Vertical Accuracy at the interpolated Points (VAP, in which the vertical distance is evaluated at the generic points. These two quantities are not coincident and, when they are calculated for the same DTM, different numeric values are reached. Unfortunately, the two quantities are often interchanged, but this is misleading. Second, the paper shows a simulated example of a DTM vertical accuracy assessment, highlighting that the checkpoints’ location plays a key role: when checkpoints coincide with the DTM nodes, VAN is estimated; when checkpoints are randomly located, VAP is estimated, instead. Third, an in-depth, theoretical characterization of the two considered quantities is performed, based on symbolic computation, and suitable standardization coefficients are proposed. Finally, our discussion has a well-defined frame: it doesn't deal with all the items of the DTM vertical accuracy budget, which would require a much longer essay, but only with one, usually called fundamental vertical accuracy.

  4. Trends and the determination of effective doses for standard X-ray procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, H.M.; Neduzak, C.; Gallet, J.; Sandeman, J.

    2001-01-01

    Trends in the entrance skin exposures (air kerma) for standard x-ray imaging procedures are reported for the Province of Manitoba, Canada. Average annual data per procedure using standard phantoms and standard ion chambers have been recorded since 1981. For example, chest air kerma (backscatter included) has decreased from 0.14 to 0.09 mGy. Confounding factors may negate the gains unless facility quality control programs are maintained. The data were obtained for a quality assurance and regulatory compliance program. Quoting such data for risk evaluation purposes lacks rigor hence a compartment model for organ apportioning, using organ absorbed doses and weighting factors, has been applied to determine effective dose per procedure. The effective doses for the standard procedures are presented, including the value of 0.027 mSv (1999) calculated for the effective dose in PA chest imaging. (author)

  5. Licensing procedure, nuclear codes and standards in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheiss, G.F.

    1980-01-01

    The present paper deals with legal background of licensing in nuclear technology and atomic energy use, licensing procedures for nuclear power plants and with codes, standards and guidelines in the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig./RW)

  6. Establishment and intra-/inter-laboratory validation of a standard protocol of reactive oxygen species assay for chemical photosafety evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoue, Satomi; Hosoi, Kazuhiro; Wakuri, Shinobu; Iwase, Yumiko; Yamamoto, Toshinobu; Matsuoka, Naoko; Nakamura, Kazuichi; Toda, Tsuguto; Takagi, Hironori; Osaki, Naoto; Matsumoto, Yasuhiro; Kawakami, Satoru; Seto, Yoshiki; Kato, Masashi; Yamada, Shizuo; Ohno, Yasuo; Kojima, Hajime

    2013-11-01

    A reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay was previously developed for photosafety evaluation of pharmaceuticals, and the present multi-center study aimed to establish and validate a standard protocol for ROS assay. In three participating laboratories, two standards and 42 coded chemicals, including 23 phototoxins and 19 nonphototoxic drugs/chemicals, were assessed by the ROS assay according to the standardized protocol. Most phototoxins tended to generate singlet oxygen and/or superoxide under UV-vis exposure, but nonphototoxic chemicals were less photoreactive. In the ROS assay on quinine (200 µm), a typical phototoxic drug, the intra- and inter-day precisions (coefficient of variation; CV) were found to be 1.5-7.4% and 1.7-9.3%, respectively. The inter-laboratory CV for quinine averaged 15.4% for singlet oxygen and 17.0% for superoxide. The ROS assay on 42 coded chemicals (200 µm) provided no false negative predictions upon previously defined criteria as compared with the in vitro/in vivo phototoxicity, although several false positives appeared. Outcomes from the validation study were indicative of satisfactory transferability, intra- and inter-laboratory variability, and predictive capacity of the ROS assay. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. 40 CFR 75.38 - Standard missing data procedures for Hg CEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hg CEMS. 75.38 Section 75.38 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Standard missing data procedures for Hg CEMS. (a) Once 720 quality assured monitor operating hours of Hg... substitute data for Hg concentration in accordance with the procedures in ( 75.33(b)(1) through (b)(4...

  8. 9 CFR 354.210 - Minimum standards for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum standards for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants. 354.210 Section 354.210 Animals and Animal Products... sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants. The provisions of §§ 354.210 to 354.247...

  9. Improving the safety and quality of nursing care through standardized operating procedures in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausserhofer, Dietmar; Rakic, Severin; Novo, Ahmed; Dropic, Emira; Fisekovic, Eldin; Sredic, Ana; Van Malderen, Greet

    2016-06-01

    We explored how selected 'positive deviant' healthcare facilities in Bosnia and Herzegovina approach the continuous development, adaptation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of nursing-related standard operating procedures. Standardized nursing care is internationally recognized as a critical element of safe, high-quality health care; yet very little research has examined one of its key instruments: nursing-related standard operating procedures. Despite variability in Bosnia and Herzegovina's healthcare and nursing care quality, we assumed that some healthcare facilities would have developed effective strategies to elevate nursing quality and safety through the use of standard operating procedures. Guided by the 'positive deviance' approach, we used a multiple-case study design to examine a criterion sample of four facilities (two primary healthcare centres and two hospitals), collecting data via focus groups and individual interviews. In each studied facility, certification/accreditation processes were crucial to the initiation of continuous development, adaptation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of nursing-related SOPs. In one hospital and one primary healthcare centre, nurses working in advanced roles (i.e. quality coordinators) were responsible for developing and implementing nursing-related standard operating procedures. Across the four studied institutions, we identified a consistent approach to standard operating procedures-related processes. The certification/accreditation process is enabling necessary changes in institutions' organizational cultures, empowering nurses to take on advanced roles in improving the safety and quality of nursing care. Standardizing nursing procedures is key to improve the safety and quality of nursing care. Nursing and Health Policy are needed in Bosnia and Herzegovina to establish a functioning institutional framework, including regulatory bodies, educational systems for developing nurses' capacities or the

  10. Characterization of uranium isotopic abundances in depleted uranium metal assay standard 115

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, K.J.; Singleton, G.L.; Essex, R.M.; Hasozbek, A.; Orlowicz, G.; Soriano, M.

    2013-01-01

    Certified reference material (CRM) 115, Uranium (Depleted) Metal (Uranium Assay Standard), was analyzed using a TRITON Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer to characterize the uranium isotope-amount ratios. The certified 235 U/ 238 U 'major' isotope-amount ratio of 0.0020337 (12) in CRM 115 was determined using the total evaporation (TE) and the modified total evaporation (MTE) analytical techniques. In the MTE method, the total evaporation process is interrupted on a regular basis to allow correction of background from peak tailing, internal calibration of the secondary electron multiplier detector versus the Faraday cups, peak-centering, and ion source re-focusing. For the 'minor' 234 U/ 238 U and 236 U/ 238 U isotope-amount ratio measurements using MTE, precision and accuracy comparable to conventional analyses are achieved, without compromising the quality of the 235 U/ 238 U isotope-amount ratios. Characterized values of the 234 U/ 238 U and 236 U/ 238 U isotope-amount ratios in CRM 115 are 0.000007545 (10) and 0.000032213 (84), respectively. The 233 U/ 238 U isotope-amount ratio in CRM 115 is estimated to be -9 . The homogeneity of the CRM 115 materials is established through the absence of any statistically significant unit-to-unit variation in the uranium isotope-amount ratios. The measurements leading to the certification of uranium isotope-amount ratios are discussed. (author)

  11. Standard testing procedures for optical fiber and unshielded twisted pair at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.L.

    1993-11-01

    This document will establish a working standard for testing optical fiber and unshielded twisted pair cables included in the Lab-wide telecommunications cabling system. The purpose of these standard testing procedures is to deliver to all Sandians a reliable, low-maintenance, state-of-the-art, ubiquitous telecommunications cabling infrastructure capable of satisfying all current and future telecommunication needs.

  12. Comet assay as a procedure for detecting possible genotoxicity induced by non-ionizing radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Nemeth

    2015-05-01

    In our laboratory we use comet assay for testing genotoxicity of non-ionizing radiation for more than ten years. In the experiments we use whole blood samples (human or dog, cell lines (e.g. H295R cell line or 3 dimensional in vitro skin tissue (epidermis models. In our protocol a slightly modified alkaline Comet assay method of Singh et al. (1988 is used. On our poster there will be presented a brief summary of our experiments with exposure to different types of radiation (ELF, RF, and intermediate frequency. In our protocols the non-ionizing radiation was often combined with ionizing radiation to see whether the non-ionizing radiation can influence the repair of the DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation. For the evaluation of the slides mainly Komet 4.0 image analysis system software (Kinetic Imaging, Liverpool, UK was used, but as we got familiarized with other methods for slide evaluation like grading the comets by visual scoring into 5 categories or the CaspLab software, the comparison of these three methods will be also presented.

  13. Standard Operating Procedure for Mutagenicity Testing Using the Drosophila melanogaster Sex-Linked Recessive Lethal Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    60025, 22 December 1978 10. ALDERSON, T. Chemically induced delayed germinal mutation in Drosophila. Nature 207:164-167, 1965 11. BLUM, A. and B.N...Superintendent Commander Academy of Health Sciences US Army Institute of Dental Research ATTN: AHS-COM Washington DC 20012 Fort Sam Houston TX 78234 Assistant

  14. Suitability of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based assay to assess the toxicity of pyrimethanil sprayed soils via surface runoff: comparison with standard aquatic and soil toxicity assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Fátima N; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Chelinho, Sónia; Pereira, Carla; Feliciano, Joana R; Leitão, Jorge H; Sousa, José P; Ribeiro, Rui; Viegas, Cristina A

    2015-02-01

    The present study is aimed at evaluating whether a gene expression assay with the microbial eukaryotic model Saccharomyces cerevisiae could be used as a suitable warning tool for the rapid preliminary screening of potential toxic effects on organisms due to scenarios of soil and water contamination with pyrimethanil. The assay consisted of measuring changes in the expression of the selected pyrimethanil-responsive genes ARG3 and ARG5,6 in a standardized yeast population. Evaluation was held by assessing the toxicity of surface runoff, a major route of pesticide exposure in aquatic systems due to non-point-source pollution, which was simulated with a pyrimethanil formulation at a semifield scale mimicking worst-case scenarios of soil contamination (e.g. accident or improper disposal). Yeast cells 2-h exposure to the runoff samples led to a significant 2-fold increase in the expression of both indicator genes. These results were compared with those from assays with organisms relevant for the aquatic and soil compartments, namely the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (reproduction), the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna (survival and reproduction), the benthic midge Chironomus riparius (growth), and the soil invertebrates Folsomia candida and Enchytraeus crypticus (survival and reproduction). Under the experimental conditions used to simulate accidental discharges into soil, runoff waters were highly toxic to the standard test organisms, except for C. elegans. Overall, results point out the usefulness of the yeast assay to provide a rapid preview of the toxicity level in preliminary screenings of environmental samples in situations of inadvertent high pesticide contamination. Advantages and limitations of this novel method are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. EVALUASI SANITATION STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES KERUPUKAMPLANG DI UD SARINA KECAMATAN KALIANGET KABUPATEN SUMENEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ach Triharjono

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Industri pangan untuk menghasilkan produk yang memenuhi standar keamanan pangan. Standar tersebut dapat dipenuhi dengan menerapkan 8 aspek kunci Sanitation Standard Operating Prosedures (SSOP. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk memperoleh hasil penerapan 8 aspek kunci Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOP dan mengevaluasi penerapan Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOP Di UD Sarina Kecamatan Kalianget Kabupaten Sumenep. Jenis penelitian ini bersifat deskriptif dengan lokasi penelitian di UD Sarina Kecamatan Kalianget Kabupaten Sumenep. Hasil penelitian diketahui bahwa penerapan 8 aspek kunci Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOP di UD Sarina sudah terlaksana tapi terdapat 3 tahapan kunci yang belum terlaksana dengan baik yaitu pencegahan kontaminasi silang, pengawasan kondisi kesehatan personil dan menghilangkan hama dari unit pengolahan. Hal yang perlu ditingkatkan terkait dengan penerapan SSOP di UD Sarina yaitu masih perlu adanya manual prosedur untuk berbagai pelaksanaan sanitasi yang dilakukan oleh UD Sarina ini

  16. Monitoring and assay procedures for krypton-85 used in circulatory tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Jr., J. M.; Williams, K. D.

    1963-11-15

    During the past five years, krypton-85 has been used extensively at the National Institutes of health and by the heart Catheterization laboratory in the identification of circulatory shunts. Several methods of assaying the incoming shipments of radioactive gas are given. These consist of ionization chamber measurements, gamma ray spectrometry, and gross photon counting of the cylinder surface with an end-window Geiger-Mueller tube. A device (consisting of a log-count-rate meter, recorder, and G.M. tube) is used to continuously monitor the laboratory. The method of calibrating this device is presented. A means for removing contaminated air from the vicinity of the operating table was devised. The results of air clearance studies of the room are included. (auth)

  17. Price adjustment for traditional Chinese medicine procedures: Based on a standardized value parity model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiyin; Jin, Chunlin; Jiang, Qingwu

    2017-11-20

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an important part of China's medical system. Due to the prolonged low price of TCM procedures and the lack of an effective mechanism for dynamic price adjustment, the development of TCM has markedly lagged behind Western medicine. The World Health Organization (WHO) has emphasized the need to enhance the development of alternative and traditional medicine when creating national health care systems. The establishment of scientific and appropriate mechanisms to adjust the price of medical procedures in TCM is crucial to promoting the development of TCM. This study has examined incorporating value indicators and data on basic manpower expended, time spent, technical difficulty, and the degree of risk in the latest standards for the price of medical procedures in China, and this study also offers a price adjustment model with the relative price ratio as a key index. This study examined 144 TCM procedures and found that prices of TCM procedures were mainly based on the value of medical care provided; on average, medical care provided accounted for 89% of the price. Current price levels were generally low and the current price accounted for 56% of the standardized value of a procedure, on average. Current price levels accounted for a markedly lower standardized value of acupuncture, moxibustion, special treatment with TCM, and comprehensive TCM procedures. This study selected a total of 79 procedures and adjusted them by priority. The relationship between the price of TCM procedures and the suggested price was significantly optimized (p based on a standardized value parity model is a scientific and suitable method of price adjustment that can serve as a reference for other provinces and municipalities in China and other countries and regions that mainly have fee-for-service (FFS) medical care.

  18. Are Fish and Standardized FETAX Assays Protective Enough for Amphibians? A Case Study on Xenopus laevis Larvae Assay with Biologically Active Substances Present in Livestock Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Martini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biologically active substances could reach the aquatic compartment when livestock wastes are considered for recycling. Recently, the standardized FETAX assay has been questioned, and some researchers have considered that the risk assessment performed on fish could not be protective enough to cover amphibians. In the present study a Xenopus laevis acute assay was developed in order to compare the sensitivity of larvae relative to fish or FETAX assays; veterinary medicines (ivermectin, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim and essential metals (zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium that may be found in livestock wastes were used for the larvae exposure. Lethal (LC50 and sublethal effects were estimated. Available data in both, fish and FETAX studies, were in general more protective than values found out in the current study, but not in all cases. Moreover, the presence of nonlethal effects, caused by ivermectin, zinc, and copper, suggested that several physiological mechanisms could be affected. Thus, this kind of effects should be deeply investigated. The results obtained in the present study could expand the information about micropollutants from livestock wastes on amphibians.

  19. Importance of 241 Am Determination in the Characterization of PuO2 Standards for Calorimetric Assay.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampson, Thomas E.

    2005-01-01

    Plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) standards are often used both as heat standards and isotopic standards for calorimetric assay. Calorimetric assay is the combination of the power in watts measured in a calorimeter with the effective specific power (P{sub eff}) in watts/g Pu, determined either by nondestructive gamma-ray assay or by destructive mass spectrometry, to yield the total elemental plutonium mass in the sample. To use a PuO{sub 2} sample as a heat standard for calorimetry, one must determine both the plutonium mass and P{sub eff} with very small uncertainties and then calculate the sample watts from the known plutonium mass, specific powers, and isotopic composition. Well-characterized PuO{sub 2} standards have plutonium mass values determined by analytical chemistry with a precision and accuracy on the order of 0.1%-0.2% relative to the total mass of the sample. Mass spectrometry, typically used to determine the isotopic fractions of plutonium standards, is very accurate and precise for the major isotopes but is somewhat less precise for low-abundance isotopes. The characterization of the {sup 241}Am/Pu ratio in the standard is also of great importance because {sup 241}Am can contribute significantly to P{sub eff} and to the heat output of the standard. The determination of the {sup 241}Am/Pu ratio in a plutonium-bearing sample is a process that is less standardized than mass spectrometry. There are no certified reference materials (CRMs) traceable to the national measurement system for {sup 241}Am in plutonium, and routine analytical {sup 241}Am/Pu ratio measurements often exhibit uncertainties of several percent relative to the total plutonium or greater.

  20. Improving the review of standard operating procedures: a novel electronic system for compounding pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brensel, Robert; Brensel, Scott; Ng, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Since the New England Compounding Center disaster in 2012, the importance of following correct procedures during every phase of customized pharmacy has been a focus of governmental interest and action as well as public scrutiny. Many pharmacies rely on the rote review of standard operating procedures to ensure that staff members understand and follow protocols that ensure the safety and potency of all compounds prepared, but that approach to continuing education can be cumbersome and needlessly time-consuming. In addition, documenting and retrieving evidence of employee competence can be difficult. In this article, we describe our use of online technology to improve our methods of educating staff about the full range of standard operating procedures that must be followed in our pharmacy. The system we devised and implemented has proven to be effective, easy to update and maintain, very inexpensive, and user friendly. Its use has reduced the time previously required for a read-over review of standard operating procedures from 30 or 40 minutes to 5 or 10 minutes in weekly staff meetings, and we can now easily document and access proof of employees' comprehension of that content. It is our hope that other small compounding pharmacies will also find this system of online standard operating procedure review helpful.

  1. Standard Guidelines of Care: Performing Procedures in Patients on or Recently Administered with Isotretinoin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysore, Venkataram; Mahadevappa, Omprakash H; Barua, Shyamanta; Majid, Imran; Viswanath, Vishalakshi; Bhat, Ramesh M; Talwar, Suresh; Thurakkal, Salim; Aurangabadkar, Sanjeev J; Chatterjee, Manas; Ganjoo, Anil

    2017-01-01

    Currently, the standard protocol regarding the performance of procedures on patients receiving or having recently received isotretinoin (13- cis -retinoic acid) states that the procedures should not be performed. The recommendations in standard books and drug insert require discontinuation of isotretinoin for 6 months before performing cosmetic procedures, including waxing, dermabrasion, chemical peels, laser procedures, or incisional and excisional cold-steel surgery. These recommendations have been followed for over two decades despite little evidence for the stated increased risk of scarring. The Association of Cutaneous Surgeons (I) constituted a task force to review the evidence and to recommend consensus guidelines regarding the safety of skin procedures, including resurfacing, energy-device treatments, and dermatosurgical procedures in patients with concurrent or recent isotretinoin administration. Data were extracted from the literature through a PubMed search using the keywords "isotretinoin," "safety," "scarring," "keloids," "hypertrophic scarring," and "pigmentation." The evidence was then labeled and circulated to all members of task force for review. The task force is of the opinion that there is insufficient evidence to support the current protocol of avoiding and delaying treatments in the patient group under consideration and recommends that the current practice should be discontinued. The task force concludes that performing procedures such as laser hair removal, fractional lasers for aging and acne scarring, lasers for pigmented skin lesions, fractional radio-frequency microneedling, superficial and medium-depth peels, microdermabrasion, dermaroller, biopsies, radio-frequency ablation, and superficial excisions is safe in patients with concurrent or recent isotretinoin administration.

  2. The primary exposure standard for Co-60 gamma radiation: characteristics and measurements procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laitano, R.F.; Toni, M.P.

    1983-01-01

    A description is given of a cavity ionization chamber used, as a primary exposure standard, at the Laboratorio di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti of the ENEA in Italy. The primary standard is designed to make absolute measurements of exposure due to the Co-60 gamma radiation. The procedures for the realizationof the exposure unit are also described. Finally results of some international comparisons are reported

  3. Standardization and performance evaluation of "modified" and "ultrasensitive" versions of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay, adapted to quantify minimal residual viremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, Alessandra; Bloisi, Maria; Marsella, Patrizia; Sabatini, Rosella; Bibbò, Angela; Angeletti, Claudio; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria

    2011-09-01

    Numerous studies investigating clinical significance of HIV-1 minimal residual viremia (MRV) suggest potential utility of assays more sensitive than those routinely used to monitor viral suppression. However currently available methods, based on different technologies, show great variation in detection limit and input plasma volume, and generally suffer from lack of standardization. In order to establish new tools suitable for routine quantification of minimal residual viremia in patients under virological suppression, some modifications were introduced into standard procedure of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay leading to a "modified" and an "ultrasensitive" protocols. The following modifications were introduced: calibration curve extended towards low HIV-1 RNA concentration; 4 fold increased sample volume by concentrating starting material; reduced volume of internal control; adoption of "open-mode" software for quantification. Analytical performances were evaluated using the HIV-1 RNA Working Reagent 1 for NAT assays (NIBSC). Both tests were applied to clinical samples from virologically suppressed patients. The "modified" and the "ultrasensitive" configurations of the assay reached a limit of detection of 18.8 (95% CI: 11.1-51.0 cp/mL) and 4.8 cp/mL (95% CI: 2.6-9.1 cp/mL), respectively, with high precision and accuracy. In clinical samples from virologically suppressed patients, "modified" and "ultrasensitive" protocols allowed to detect and quantify HIV RNA in 12.7% and 46.6%, respectively, of samples resulted "not-detectable", and in 70.0% and 69.5%, respectively, of samples "detected laboratories for measuring MRV. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 75 FR 60171 - Proposed Information Collection (Credit Underwriting Standards and Procedures for Processing VA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0521] Proposed Information Collection (Credit Underwriting Standards and Procedures for Processing VA Guaranteed Loans) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY... comment on the proposed collection of certain information by the agency. Under the Paperwork Reduction Act...

  5. 78 FR 60379 - Proposed Information Collection (Credit Underwriting Standards and Procedures for Processing VA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0521] Proposed Information Collection (Credit Underwriting Standards and Procedures for Processing VA Guaranteed Loans) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY... comment on the proposed collection of certain information by the agency. Under the Paperwork Reduction Act...

  6. 75 FR 76082 - Agency Information Collection (Credit Underwriting Standards and Procedures for Processing VA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0521] Agency Information Collection (Credit Underwriting Standards and Procedures for Processing VA Guaranteed Loans) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY... information abstracted below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and comment. The PRA...

  7. Evolution of standardized procedures for adjusting lumber properties for change in moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; James W. Evans

    2001-01-01

    This paper documents the development of procedures in American Society for Testing and Materials standards for adjusting the allowable properties of lumber for changes in moisture content. The paper discusses the historical context of efforts to establish allowable properties on a consensus basis, beginning in the 19th century. Where possible, the reasons for proposed...

  8. Standard operating procedures for female orgasmic disorder: consensus of the International Society for Sexual Medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, Ellen; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Barnes, Tricia

    2013-01-01

    As the field of sexual medicine evolves, it is important to continually improve patient care by developing contemporary "standard operating procedures" (SOPs), reflecting the consensus view of experts in sexual medicine. Few, if any, consensus SOPs have been developed for the diagnosis and treatment

  9. Teachers' Use of a Self-Assessment Procedure: The Role of Criteria, Standards, Feedback and Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diggelen, Migchiel; den Brok, Perry; Beijaard, Douwe

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the way teachers assess their own coaching competencies regarding the development of vocational education students' reflection skills. The participating teachers used a self-assessment procedure in which they had to judge themselves with the help of criteria and standards, received feedback from a colleague based on the…

  10. Teachers' use of a self-assessment procedure : the role of criteria, standards, feedback and reflection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diggelen, van M.R.; Brok, den P.J.; Beijaard, D.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the way teachers assess their own coaching competencies regarding the development of vocational education students’ reflection skills. The participating teachers used a self-assessment procedure in which they had to judge themselves with the help of criteria and standards,

  11. Experimental verification for standard analysis procedure of 241Am in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qingfen; Zhu Hongda; Liu Shutian; Pan Jingshun; Yang Dating

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The briefly experimental verification for 'determination of 241 Am in food' has been described. Methods: The overall recovery, the MDL of method and decontamination experiment has been done by standard analysis procedure. Results: The overall recovery is 76.26 ± 4.1%. The MDL is 3.4 x 10 -5 Bq/g ash, decontamination factor is higher than 10 3 for Po, 10 2 for U, Th, Pu and 60 for 237 Np. Conclusion: The results showed that the overall recovery is quite high and reliable, the MDL of method is able to meet examining 241 Am limited values in foods. the obtained decontamination factors of recommended procedure can meet analysis of 241 Am in food examination. Venifying results of the procedure are satisfied by using 243 Am spike and 241 Am standard reference material. (authors)

  12. Procedures and Standards for Residential Ventilation System Commissioning: An Annotated Bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, J. Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wray, Craig P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Beginning with the 2008 version of Title 24, new homes in California must comply with ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.2-2007 requirements for residential ventilation. Where installed, the limited data available indicate that mechanical ventilation systems do not always perform optimally or even as many codes and forecasts predict. Commissioning such systems when they are installed or during subsequent building retrofits is a step towards eliminating deficiencies and optimizing the tradeoff between energy use and acceptable IAQ. Work funded by the California Energy Commission about a decade ago at Berkeley Lab documented procedures for residential commissioning, but did not focus on ventilation systems. Since then, standards and approaches for commissioning ventilation systems have been an active area of work in Europe. This report describes our efforts to collect new literature on commissioning procedures and to identify information that can be used to support the future development of residential-ventilation-specific procedures and standards. We recommend that a standardized commissioning process and a commissioning guide for practitioners be developed, along with a combined energy and IAQ benefit assessment standard and tool, and a diagnostic guide for estimating continuous pollutant emission rates of concern in residences (including a database that lists emission test data for commercially-available labeled products).

  13. Standard operating procedures improve acute neurologic care in a sub-Saharan African setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiteh, Lamin E S; Helwig, Stefan A; Jagne, Abubacarr; Ragoschke-Schumm, Andreas; Sarr, Catherine; Walter, Silke; Lesmeister, Martin; Manitz, Matthias; Blaß, Sebastian; Weis, Sarah; Schlund, Verena; Bah, Neneh; Kauffmann, Jil; Fousse, Mathias; Kangankan, Sabina; Ramos Cabrera, Asmell; Kronfeld, Kai; Ruckes, Christian; Liu, Yang; Nyan, Ousman; Fassbender, Klaus

    2017-07-11

    Quality of neurologic emergency management in an under-resourced country may be improved by standard operating procedures (SOPs). Neurologic SOPs were implemented in a large urban (Banjul) and a small rural (Brikama) hospital in the Gambia. As quality indicators of neurologic emergency management, performance of key procedures was assessed at baseline and in the first and second implementation years. At Banjul, 100 patients of the first-year intervention group exhibited higher rates of general procedures of emergency management than 105 control patients, such as neurologic examination (99.0% vs 91.4%; p process quality of neurologic emergency management in under-resourced settings. This study provides Class IV evidence that, for patients with suspected neurologic emergencies in sub-Saharan Africa, neurologic SOPs increase the rate of performance of guideline-recommended procedures. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  14. Standard procedures for adults in accredited sleep medicine centres in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Jürgen; Dogas, Zoran; Bassetti, Claudio L

    2012-01-01

    The present paper describes standardized procedures within clinical sleep medicine. As such, it is a continuation of the previously published European guidelines for the accreditation of sleep medicine centres and European guidelines for the certification of professionals in sleep medicine, aimed...... at creating standards of practice in European sleep medicine. It is also part of a broader action plan of the European Sleep Research Society, including the process of accreditation of sleep medicine centres and certification of sleep medicine experts, as well as publishing the Catalogue of Knowledge...... and Skills for sleep medicine experts (physicians, non-medical health care providers, nurses and technologists), which will be a basis for the development of relevant educational curricula. In the current paper, the standard operational procedures sleep medicine centres regarding the diagnostic...

  15. Standard Guidelines of Care: Performing Procedures in Patients on or Recently Administered with Isotretinoin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysore, Venkataram; Mahadevappa, Omprakash H.; Barua, Shyamanta; Majid, Imran; Viswanath, Vishalakshi; Bhat, Ramesh M.; Talwar, Suresh; Thurakkal, Salim; Aurangabadkar, Sanjeev J.; Chatterjee, Manas; Ganjoo, Anil

    2017-01-01

    Background: Currently, the standard protocol regarding the performance of procedures on patients receiving or having recently received isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid) states that the procedures should not be performed. The recommendations in standard books and drug insert require discontinuation of isotretinoin for 6 months before performing cosmetic procedures, including waxing, dermabrasion, chemical peels, laser procedures, or incisional and excisional cold-steel surgery. These recommendations have been followed for over two decades despite little evidence for the stated increased risk of scarring. Objective: The Association of Cutaneous Surgeons (I) constituted a task force to review the evidence and to recommend consensus guidelines regarding the safety of skin procedures, including resurfacing, energy-device treatments, and dermatosurgical procedures in patients with concurrent or recent isotretinoin administration. Materials and Methods: Data were extracted from the literature through a PubMed search using the keywords “isotretinoin,” “safety,” “scarring,” “keloids,” “hypertrophic scarring,” and “pigmentation.” The evidence was then labeled and circulated to all members of task force for review. Results: The task force is of the opinion that there is insufficient evidence to support the current protocol of avoiding and delaying treatments in the patient group under consideration and recommends that the current practice should be discontinued. The task force concludes that performing procedures such as laser hair removal, fractional lasers for aging and acne scarring, lasers for pigmented skin lesions, fractional radio-frequency microneedling, superficial and medium-depth peels, microdermabrasion, dermaroller, biopsies, radio-frequency ablation, and superficial excisions is safe in patients with concurrent or recent isotretinoin administration. PMID:29491653

  16. Standard guidelines of care: Performing procedures in patients on or recently administered with isotretinoin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataram Mysore

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Currently, the standard protocol regarding the performance of procedures on patients receiving or having recently received isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid states that the procedures should not be performed. The recommendations in standard books and drug insert require discontinuation of isotretinoin for 6 months before performing cosmetic procedures, including waxing, dermabrasion, chemical peels, laser procedures, or incisional and excisional cold-steel surgery. These recommendations have been followed for over two decades despite little evidence for the stated increased risk of scarring. Objective: The Association of Cutaneous Surgeons (I constituted a task force to review the evidence and to recommend consensus guidelines regarding the safety of skin procedures, including resurfacing, energy-device treatments, and dermatosurgical procedures in patients with concurrent or recent isotretinoin administration. Materials and Methods: Data were extracted from the literature through a PubMed search using the keywords “isotretinoin,” “safety,” “scarring,” “keloids,” “hypertrophic scarring,” and “pigmentation.” The evidence was then labeled and circulated to all members of task force for review. Results: The task force is of the opinion that there is insufficient evidence to support the current protocol of avoiding and delaying treatments in the patient group under consideration and recommends that the current practice should be discontinued.The task force concludes that performing procedures such as laser hair removal, fractional lasers for aging and acne scarring, lasers for pigmented skin lesions, fractional radio-frequency microneedling, superficial and medium-depth peels, microdermabrasion, dermaroller, biopsies, radio-frequency ablation, and superficial excisions is safe in patients with concurrent or recent isotretinoin administration.

  17. Development of a standardized and safe airborne antibacterial assay, and its evaluation on antibacterial biomimetic model surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al-Ahmad

    Full Text Available Bacterial infection of biomaterials is a major concern in medicine, and different kinds of antimicrobial biomaterial have been developed to deal with this problem. To test the antimicrobial performance of these biomaterials, the airborne bacterial assay is used, which involves the formation of biohazardous bacterial aerosols. We here describe a new experimental set-up which allows safe handling of such pathogenic aerosols, and standardizes critical parameters of this otherwise intractable and strongly user-dependent assay. With this new method, reproducible, thorough antimicrobial data (number of colony forming units and live-dead-stain was obtained. Poly(oxonorbornene-based Synthetic Mimics of Antimicrobial Peptides (SMAMPs were used as antimicrobial test samples. The assay was able to differentiate even between subtle sample differences, such as different sample thicknesses. With this new set-up, the airborne bacterial assay was thus established as a useful, reliable, and realistic experimental method to simulate the contamination of biomaterials with bacteria, for example in an intraoperative setting.

  18. Reducing the standard deviation in multiple-assay experiments where the variation matters but the absolute value does not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echenique-Robba, Pablo; Nelo-Bazán, María Alejandra; Carrodeguas, José A

    2013-01-01

    When the value of a quantity x for a number of systems (cells, molecules, people, chunks of metal, DNA vectors, so on) is measured and the aim is to replicate the whole set again for different trials or assays, despite the efforts for a near-equal design, scientists might often obtain quite different measurements. As a consequence, some systems' averages present standard deviations that are too large to render statistically significant results. This work presents a novel correction method of a very low mathematical and numerical complexity that can reduce the standard deviation of such results and increase their statistical significance. Two conditions are to be met: the inter-system variations of x matter while its absolute value does not, and a similar tendency in the values of x must be present in the different assays (or in other words, the results corresponding to different assays must present a high linear correlation). We demonstrate the improvements this method offers with a cell biology experiment, but it can definitely be applied to any problem that conforms to the described structure and requirements and in any quantitative scientific field that deals with data subject to uncertainty.

  19. Standard guide for the selection, training and qualification of nondestructive assay (NDA) personnel

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 This guide contains good practices for the selection, training, qualification, and professional development of personnel performing analysis, calibration, physical measurements, or data review using nondestructive assay equipment, methods, results, or techniques. The guide also covers NDA personnel involved with NDA equipment setup, selection, diagnosis, troubleshooting, or repair. Selection, training, and qualification programs based on this guide are intended to provide assurance that NDA personnel are qualified to perform their jobs competently. This guide presents a series of options but does not recommend a specific course of action.

  20. The importance of production standard operating procedure in a family business company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongdiyanto, C.

    2017-12-01

    Plastic industry is a growing sector, therefore UD X which engage in this business has a great potential to grow as well. The problem faced by this family business company is that no standard operating procedure is used and it lead to problem in the quality and quantity produced. This research is aim to create a production standard operating procedure for UD X. Semistructure interview is used to gather information from respondent to help writer create the SOP. There are four SOP’s created, namely: classifying SOP, sorting SOP, milling SOP and packing SOP. Having SOP will improve the effectiveness of production because employees already know how to work in each stages of production process.

  1. Standard and procedures for measuring and evaluating of the field electromagnetic signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallas Cordero, Oscar

    2007-01-01

    Rules and procedures are developed for measuring the intensity of electromagnetic field signals produced by public commercial broadcasters. International and national standards applicable to existing broadcasting area were investigated. The Manual para la Comprobacion Tecnica de las Emisiones of the International Radio Consultative Committee of the International Telecommunications Union was used for reference in the procedures. It was worked in coordination with the Control Nacional de Radio and Radio U to obtain information and to study the teams to present a measurement system for laboratory that meets with the standards suggested and which can encompass a wide range of transmission services. Finally agreed with the analysis and research work done, a series of recommendations were made for improvement, which are considered to implement them in medium and long time. (author) [es

  2. Standard audit procedure for continuous emission monitors and ambient air monitoring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-06-15

    The instruments were published in an operational policy manual in 2009. This policy aims to introduce standard audit criteria that can be used to determine if continuous emission monitors and ambient air monitoring devices are operating within acceptable parameters. Before delivering upscale points of the instrument to be audited, each one of the audit equipment used in the field is required to be at normal operating conditions. Before the beginning of the audit, each one of the meteorological and flow measurement equipment is required to be conditioned to current conditions. If the audit fails, the instrument will have to be audited quarterly. The establishment of specific procedures based on instrument manufacturer or certifying body operational standards is required in the case of non-continuous monitoring instruments presenting operational principles outside of the audit procedures listed in the document.

  3. Bias in segmented gamma scans arising from size differences between calibration standards and assay samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampson, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    Recent advances in segmented gamma scanning have emphasized software corrections for gamma-ray self-adsorption in particulates or lumps of special nuclear material in the sample. another feature of this software is an attenuation correction factor formalism that explicitly accounts for differences in sample container size and composition between the calibration standards and the individual items being measured. Software without this container-size correction produces biases when the unknowns are not packaged in the same containers as the calibration standards. This new software allows the use of different size and composition containers for standards and unknowns, as enormous savings considering the expense of multiple calibration standard sets otherwise needed. This paper presents calculations of the bias resulting from not using this new formalism. These calculations may be used to estimate bias corrections for segmented gamma scanners that do not incorporate these advanced concepts

  4. How to develop a Standard Operating Procedure for sorting unfixed cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    Written Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) are an important tool to assure that recurring tasks in a laboratory are performed in a consistent manner. When the procedure covered in the SOP involves a high-risk activity such as sorting unfixed cells using a jet-in-air sorter, safety elements are critical components of the document. The details on sort sample handling, sorter set-up, validation, operation, troubleshooting, and maintenance, personal protective equipment (PPE), and operator training, outlined in the SOP are to be based on careful risk assessment of the procedure. This review provides background information on the hazards associated with sorting of unfixed cells and the process used to arrive at the appropriate combination of facility design, instrument placement, safety equipment, and practices to be followed. PMID:22381383

  5. How to develop a standard operating procedure for sorting unfixed cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Ingrid

    2012-07-01

    Written standard operating procedures (SOPs) are an important tool to assure that recurring tasks in a laboratory are performed in a consistent manner. When the procedure covered in the SOP involves a high-risk activity such as sorting unfixed cells using a jet-in-air sorter, safety elements are critical components of the document. The details on sort sample handling, sorter set-up, validation, operation, troubleshooting, and maintenance, personal protective equipment (PPE), and operator training, outlined in the SOP are to be based on careful risk assessment of the procedure. This review provides background information on the hazards associated with sorting of unfixed cells and the process used to arrive at the appropriate combination of facility design, instrument placement, safety equipment, and practices to be followed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cytogenetic status and oxidative DNA-damage induced by atorvastatin in human peripheral blood lymphocytes: Standard and Fpg-modified comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajski, Goran; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Orescanin, Visnja

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the genotoxic potential of atorvastatin on human lymphocytes in vitro standard comet assay was used in the evaluation of basal DNA damage and to investigate possible oxidative DNA damage produced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) Fpg-modified version of comet assay was also conducted. In addition to these techniques the new criteria for scoring micronucleus test were applied for more complete detection of baseline damage in binuclear lymphocytes exposed to atorvastatin 80 mg/day in different time periods by virtue of measuring the frequency of micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds. All parameters obtained with the standard comet assay and Fpg-modified comet assay were significantly higher in the treated than in control lymphocytes. The Fpg-modified comet assay showed a significantly greater tail length, tail intensity, and tail moment in all treated lymphocytes than did the standard comet assay, which suggests that oxidative stress is likely to be responsible for DNA damage. DNA damage detected by the standard comet assay indicates that some other mechanism is also involved. In addition to the comet assay, a total number of micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds were significantly higher in the exposed than in controlled lymphocytes. Regression analyses showed a positive correlation between the results obtained by the comet (Fpg-modified and standard) and micronucleus assay. Overall, the study demonstrated that atorvastatin in its highest dose is capable of producing damage on the level of DNA molecule and cell

  7. Cytogenetic status and oxidative DNA-damage induced by atorvastatin in human peripheral blood lymphocytes: Standard and Fpg-modified comet assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajski, Goran [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Mutagenesis Unit, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Mutagenesis Unit, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Orescanin, Visnja [Ruder Boskovic Institute, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2008-08-15

    To investigate the genotoxic potential of atorvastatin on human lymphocytes in vitro standard comet assay was used in the evaluation of basal DNA damage and to investigate possible oxidative DNA damage produced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) Fpg-modified version of comet assay was also conducted. In addition to these techniques the new criteria for scoring micronucleus test were applied for more complete detection of baseline damage in binuclear lymphocytes exposed to atorvastatin 80 mg/day in different time periods by virtue of measuring the frequency of micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds. All parameters obtained with the standard comet assay and Fpg-modified comet assay were significantly higher in the treated than in control lymphocytes. The Fpg-modified comet assay showed a significantly greater tail length, tail intensity, and tail moment in all treated lymphocytes than did the standard comet assay, which suggests that oxidative stress is likely to be responsible for DNA damage. DNA damage detected by the standard comet assay indicates that some other mechanism is also involved. In addition to the comet assay, a total number of micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds were significantly higher in the exposed than in controlled lymphocytes. Regression analyses showed a positive correlation between the results obtained by the comet (Fpg-modified and standard) and micronucleus assay. Overall, the study demonstrated that atorvastatin in its highest dose is capable of producing damage on the level of DNA molecule and cell.

  8. Poor compliance with standard precautions against infections during minor gynaecological procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, Dushyant; Lawton, Beverley; Garrett, Sue

    2012-06-01

    Splash injuries occurring during minor surgical procedures are associated with a significant infective risk to the operator. It is a common misconception that minor operations carry low risks. To determine the prevalence of the practice of Standard Precautions by medical staff in the obstetric and gynaecology (O & G) units of two hospitals in New Zealand, and to assess self-observed splash injury rates. A cross-sectional survey of all doctors working in the O & G units of two public hospitals servicing a population of 435 000. A self-administered questionnaire was provided to 43 doctors with questions related to the use of Standard Precautions, perceived likelihood of infection from a splash and splash injuries sustained during procedures. The response rate was 76.6% (n = 33/43). Of the respondents, only 30.3% (n = 10) used Standard Precautions during minor procedures. Sixty-four per cent (n = 21) routinely used goggles/visor for eye protection. Forty-five per cent (n = 15) thought they were likely to get an infection from a splash, and 55% (n = 18) of clinicians had experienced a splash injury. Of the minor procedures during which splash injuries had occurred, repair of episiotomy 45.8% (n = 11) was the commonest. This survey shows poor compliance with guidelines for Standard Precautions to protect from infection despite self-reported rates of splash injury being high at 55%. Effective interventions are needed to increase compliance and prevent infection. © 2012 The Authors ANZJOG © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  9. A standardized procedure for using human corpus cavernosum strips to evaluate drug activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirone, V; Sorrentino, R; di Villa Bianca, R; Imbimbo, C; Palmieri, A; Fusco, F; Tajana, G; Cirino, G

    2000-01-01

    The main problem of using human corpus cavernosum (HCC) tissue to perform bioassay is linked to its limited availability further complicated by the heterogeneous source of the tissues used. Here, we show that gender reassignment is a reliable source of human tissue without major ethical problems. Indeed, the entire corpus cavernosum is obtained from the surgery procedure, which allows creating a standardized procedure to prepare HCC strip. In addition, human tissue, if kept in the fridge in the condition described, does not loose its ability to contract to phenylephrine (PE; alpha agonist), angiotensin II (AG II) and KCl up to 4 days. Furthermore, once contracted with PE, HCC relaxes to acetylcholine (endothelium-dependent mechanism); sodium nitroprusside (endothelium-independent mechanism); cromakalim (CRK), a K(ATP) channel opener; or alprostadil, a synthetic PGE2 (ALPR). In conclusion, we have standardized a procedure that allows the use of HCC strips to evaluate drug activity and/or to study pathophysiological mechanisms with an intact functional human tissue up to 4 days from the surgery procedure.

  10. Procedure and reference standard to determine the structural resolution in coordinate metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illemann, Jens; Bartscher, Markus; Jusko, Otto; Härtig, Frank; Neuschaefer-Rube, Ulrich; Wendt, Klaus

    2014-06-01

    A new procedure and reference standards for specifying the structural resolution in coordinate metrology traceable to the SI unit the metre are proposed. With the definition of the structural resolution, a significant gap will be closed to complete ‘acceptance and verification tests’ of the coordinate measuring systems (CMSs) which are specified in the ISO 10360 series dealing with tactile sensors, optical sensors, and x-ray computed tomography measurement systems (CTs). The proposed new procedure uses reference standards with circular rounded edges. The idea is to measure the radius of curvature on a calibrated round edge structure. From the deviation between the measured and the calibrated radius, an analogue Gaussian broadening of the measurement system is determined. This value is a well-defined and easy-to-apply measure to define the structural resolution for dimensional measurements. It is applicable to CMSs which are based on different sensing principles, e.g. tactile, optical and CT systems. On the other hand, it has a physical meaning similar to the classical optical point-spread function. It makes it possible to predict which smallest details the CMS is capable of measuring reliably for an arbitrary object shape. The theoretical background of the new procedure is given, an appropriate reference standard is described and comparative, quantitative measurement data of CMSs featuring different sensors are shown.

  11. Inter-laboratory variation in DNA damage using a standard comet assay protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Lykke; Ersson, Clara; Loft, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    determined the baseline level of DNA strand breaks (SBs)/alkaline labile sites and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG)-sensitive sites in coded samples of mononuclear blood cells (MNBCs) from healthy volunteers. There were technical problems in seven laboratories in adopting the standard protocol...... analysed by the standard protocol. The SBs and FPG-sensitive sites were measured in the same experiment, indicating that the large spread in the latter lesions was the main reason for the reduced inter-laboratory variation. However, it remains worrying that half of the participating laboratories obtained...

  12. Standard test method for plutonium assay by plutonium (III) diode array spectrophotometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the determination of total plutonium as plutonium(III) in nitrate and chloride solutions. The technique is applicable to solutions of plutonium dioxide powders and pellets (Test Methods C 697), nuclear grade mixed oxides (Test Methods C 698), plutonium metal (Test Methods C 758), and plutonium nitrate solutions (Test Methods C 759). Solid samples are dissolved using the appropriate dissolution techniques described in Practice C 1168. The use of this technique for other plutonium-bearing materials has been reported (1-5), but final determination of applicability must be made by the user. The applicable concentration range for plutonium sample solutions is 10–200 g Pu/L. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropria...

  13. A new internal standard for HPLC assay of conjugated linoleic acid in animal tissues and milk

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Czauderna, M.; Kowalczyk, J.; Marounek, Milan; Michalski, J. P.; Rozbicka-Wieczorek, A. J.; Krajewska, K. A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2011), s. 23-29 ISSN 1212-1819 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : sorbic acid * internal standard * CLA isomers Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 1.079, year: 2011

  14. Validation of standard operating procedures in a multicenter retrospective study to identify -omics biomarkers for chronic low back pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta Dagostino

    Full Text Available Chronic low back pain (CLBP is one of the most common medical conditions, ranking as the greatest contributor to global disability and accounting for huge societal costs based on the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study. Large genetic and -omics studies provide a promising avenue for the screening, development and validation of biomarkers useful for personalized diagnosis and treatment (precision medicine. Multicentre studies are needed for such an effort, and a standardized and homogeneous approach is vital for recruitment of large numbers of participants among different centres (clinical and laboratories to obtain robust and reproducible results. To date, no validated standard operating procedures (SOPs for genetic/-omics studies in chronic pain have been developed. In this study, we validated an SOP model that will be used in the multicentre (5 centres retrospective "PainOmics" study, funded by the European Community in the 7th Framework Programme, which aims to develop new biomarkers for CLBP through three different -omics approaches: genomics, glycomics and activomics. The SOPs describe the specific procedures for (1 blood collection, (2 sample processing and storage, (3 shipping details and (4 cross-check testing and validation before assays that all the centres involved in the study have to follow. Multivariate analysis revealed the absolute specificity and homogeneity of the samples collected by the five centres for all genetics, glycomics and activomics analyses. The SOPs used in our multicenter study have been validated. Hence, they could represent an innovative tool for the correct management and collection of reliable samples in other large-omics-based multicenter studies.

  15. Chapter 8. Medical procedures. Recommendations and standard operating procedures for intensive care unit and hospital preparations for an influenza epidemic or mass disaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmerman, Janice L.; Sprung, Charles L.; Christian, Michael D.; Camargo, Ruben; Ceraso, Daniel; Azoulay, Elie; Duguet, Alexandre; Guery, Benoit; Reinhart, Konrad; Adini, Bruria; Barlavie, Yaron; Benin-Goren, Odeda; Cohen, Robert; Klein, Motti; Leoniv, Yuval; Margalit, Gila; Rubinovitch, Bina; Sonnenblick, Moshe; Steinberg, Avraham; Weissman, Charles; Wolff, Donna; Kesecioglu, Jozef; de Jong, Menno; Moreno, Rui; An, Youzhong; Du, Bin; Joynt, Gavin M.; Colvin, John; Loo, Shi; Richards, Guy; Artigas, Antonio; Pugin, Jerome; Amundson, Dennis; Devereaux, Asha; Beigel, John; Danis, Marion; Farmer, Chris; Hick, John L.; Maki, Dennis; Masur, Henry; Rubinson, Lewis; Sandrock, Christian; Talmor, Daniel; Truog, Robert; Zimmerman, Janice; Brett, Steve; Montgomery, Hugh; Rhodes, Andrew; Sanderson, Frances; Taylor, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    To provide recommendations and standard operating procedures for intensive care unit and hospital preparations for an influenza pandemic or mass disaster with a specific focus on ensuring that adequate resources are available and appropriate protocols are developed to safely perform procedures in

  16. 40 CFR 75.33 - Standard missing data procedures for SO2, NOX, Hg, and flow rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SO2, NOX, Hg, and flow rate. 75.33 Section 75.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Procedures § 75.33 Standard missing data procedures for SO2, NOX, Hg, and flow rate. (a) Following initial...—Missing Data Procedure for SO2 CEMS, CO2 CEMS, Moisture CEMS, Hg CEMS, and Diluent (CO2 or O2) Monitors...

  17. Standardization of specifications and inspection procedures for LEU plate-type research reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    With the transition to high density uranium LEU fuel, fabrication costs of research reactor fuel elements have a tendency to increase because of two reasons. First, the amount of the powder of the uranium compound required increases by more than a factor of five. Second, fabrication requirements are in many cases nearer the fabrication limits. Therefore, it is important that measures be undertaken to eliminate or reduce unnecessary requirements in the specification or inspection procedures of research reactor fuel elements utilizing LEU. An additional stimulus for standardizing specifications and inspection procedures at this time is provided by the fact that most LEU conversions will occur within a short time span, and that nearly all of them will require preparation of new specifications and inspection procedures. In this sense, the LEU conversions offer an opportunity for improving the rationality and efficiency of the fuel fabrication and inspection processes. This report focuses on the standardization of specifications and inspection processes of high uranium density LEU fuels for research reactors. However, in many cases the results can also be extended directly to other research reactor fuels. 15 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  18. [Procedure of seed quality testing and seed grading standard of Prunus humilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hao; Ren, Guang-Xi; Gao, Ya; Luo, Jun; Liu, Chun-Sheng; Li, Wei-Dong

    2014-11-01

    So far there exists no corresponding quality test procedures and grading standards for the seed of Prunus humilis, which is one of the important source of base of semen pruni. Therefor we set up test procedures that are adapt to characteristics of the P. humilis seed through the study of the test of sampling, seed purity, thousand-grain weight, seed moisture, seed viability and germination percentage. 50 cases of seed specimens of P. humilis tested. The related data were analyzed by cluster analysis. Through this research, the seed quality test procedure was developed, and the seed quality grading standard was formulated. The seed quality of each grade should meet the following requirements: for first grade seeds, germination percentage ≥ 68%, thousand-grain weight 383 g, purity ≥ 93%, seed moisture ≤ 5%; for second grade seeds, germination percentage ≥ 26%, thousand-grain weight ≥ 266 g, purity ≥ 73%, seed moisture ≤9%; for third grade seeds, germination percentage ≥ 10%, purity ≥ 50%, thousand-grain weight ≥ 08 g, seed moisture ≤ 13%.

  19. Use of gold and silver standards based on phenol-formalde-hyde resin in assay-activation analysis of geological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, A.I.; Drynkin, V.I.; Lejpunskaya, D.I.; Nedostup, T.V.

    1976-01-01

    Using standards on phenol-formaldehyde resin base for assaying-activation analysis of geological specimens for gold and silver has bee the advantage of uniformly distributing Au and Ag in spesimens and possible preparing tablets of practically any form or size. The validity and accuracy of these standards have been studied for the cases of short irradiation. Conventional point standards were used as reference standards. The experiments carried out have shown that tablet resol standards are suitable for a mass assaying-activation analysis for gold and silver at practically any concentrations

  20. Analytical and diagnostic performance of a qPCR assay for Ichthyophonus spp. compared to the tissue culture 'gold standard'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Vanessa C; Hershberger, Paul K; Friedman, Carolyn S

    2018-06-04

    Parasites of the genus Ichthyophonus infect many fish species and have a non-uniform distribution within host tissues. Due in part to this uneven distribution, the comparative sensitivity and accuracy of using molecular-based detection methods versus culture to estimate parasite prevalence is under debate. We evaluated the analytical and diagnostic performance of an existing qPCR assay in comparison to the 'gold standard' culture method using Pacific herring Clupea pallasii with known exposure history. We determined that the assay is suitable for use in this host, and diagnostic specificity was consistently high (>98%) in both heart and liver tissues. Diagnostic sensitivity could not be fully assessed due to low infection rates, but our results suggest that qPCR is not as sensitive as culture under all circumstances. Diagnostic sensitivity of qPCR relative to culture is likely affected by the amount of sample processed. The prevalence values estimated by the 2 methods were not significantly different when sample amounts were equal (heart tissue), but when the assayed sample amounts were unequal (liver tissue), the culture method detected a significantly higher prevalence of the parasite than qPCR. Further, culture of liver also detected significantly more Ichthyophonus infections than culture of heart, suggesting that the density and distribution of parasites in tissues also plays a role in assay sensitivity. This sensitivity issue would be most problematic for fish with light infections. Although qPCR does not detect the presence of a live organism, DNA-based pathogen detection methods provide the opportunity for alternate testing strategies when culture is not possible.

  1. Standardization of the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies against Newcastle disease virus in chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della Porta, A.J.; Young, J.; Hansson, E.; Spencer, T.

    1994-01-01

    Newcastle disease is the major viral disease of poultry causing significant economic losses in most countries except Australia and New Zealand. Serological monitoring of poultry has traditionally been carried out using the haemagglutinin-inhibition (HI) test. More recently, ELISA has been used for the same purpose. This paper described the use of an indirect ELISA for assay of antibodies in chickens against Newcastle disease viruses and compares some of the parameters for this test. The sucrose density gradient purified, inactivated, antigen enabled performance of the test without the addition of any blocking agents other than the usual Tween 20. A range of plates was compared and the most suitable plate was found to be a polystyrene haemagglutination plate giving an excellent positive to negative ratio of 33.2, compared with some expensive ELISA plates which gave very low +ve/-ve ratios. Various incubation conditions for the steps in the ELISA were compared and incubation with shaking at room temperature (24 to 28 deg. C) gave adequate reactivity whilst simplifying incubation conditions and speeding up the test. The negative cut-off value was determined by testing 1632 HI negative specific pathogen free sera from birds of a wide age range. The reactivity of sera in the ELISA was standardized using a standard curve on every plate and converting the readings to ELISA units (EUs) in the range of 16 to 512 EUs. The EU values of these sera were not normally distributed and so the 95% cut-off was determined by ranking the values in descending order and retaining only the top 5% of the values as false positives. This resulted in a cut-off value of 33.6 EUs, with few of HI positive sera having values lower than this cut-off. The use of a standard curve on each plate is recommended in order to standardize the assay and to determine the ELISA units for the test sera. (author). 14 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  2. Influence of standard and novel LTB4 analogs on human neutrophil chemotaxis measured by the multiwell cap assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psychoyos, S; Uziel-Fusi, S; Bhagwat, S; Morrissey, M M

    1989-11-30

    Standard and novel LTB4 analogs were tested for neutrophil chemoattractant activity using the multiwell cap assay (Evans et al. (1986) Biosc. Rep. 6, 1041). The assay uses disposable equipment and measures chemotaxis by the number of cells able to migrate across the full thickness of cellulose nitrate filters. Under standard conditions (90 min incubation at 37 degrees C in buffer containing 2% bovine albumin), LTB4 and 6-cis-LTB1 had EC50 values of 3.5 and 15,000 nM, respectively. 20-hydroxy-LTB4 was equipotent with LTB4 and exhibited a similar biphasic chemotactic response, however, only one third of the number of cells migrated through the filter. 20-carboxy-LTB4 was inactive up to 1,000 nM. 5-desoxy-((6,7)-cis-cyclopropyl)-LTB2, (6,7)-benzo-LTB2 and 5-desoxy-(8,10)-LTB2 had EC50 values of 11,300, 50,000 and 84,000 nM, respectively. Checkerboard analysis indicated a chemokinetic component of 42% for LTB4 at a concentration causing peak chemotaxis. Reduction of albumin in the buffer to 0.5% increased the apparent potencies of LTB4 and 6-cis-LTB1 five-fold. Since LTB4 is a mediator of inflammation, various anti-inflammatory agents were tested at peak concentrations observed in vivo for in vitro inhibition of LTB4-stimulated chemotaxis in the presence of 0.5% albumin. Under the conditions of the assay, chloroquine diphosphate, dexamethasone, indomethacin, penicillamine, piroxicam and diclofenac sodium were inactive; gold sodium thiomalate was inhibitory (IC50 = 20 microM).

  3. Post-standardization of routine creatinine assays: are they suitable for clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassam, Nuthar; Weykamp, Cas; Thomas, Annette; Secchiero, Sandra; Sciacovelli, Laura; Plebani, Mario; Thelen, Marc; Cobbaert, Christa; Perich, Carmen; Ricós, Carmen; Paula, Faria A; Barth, Julian H

    2017-05-01

    Introduction Reliable serum creatinine measurements are of vital importance for the correct classification of chronic kidney disease and early identification of kidney injury. The National Kidney Disease Education Programme working group and other groups have defined clinically acceptable analytical limits for creatinine methods. The aim of this study was to re-evaluate the performance of routine creatinine methods in the light of these defined limits so as to assess their suitability for clinical practice. Method In collaboration with the Dutch External Quality Assurance scheme, six frozen commutable samples, with a creatinine concentration ranging from 80 to 239  μmol/L and traceable to isotope dilution mass spectrometry, were circulated to 91 laboratories in four European countries for creatinine measurement and estimated glomerular filtration rate calculation. Two out of the six samples were spiked with glucose to give high and low final concentrations of glucose. Results Results from 89 laboratories were analysed for bias, imprecision (%CV) for each creatinine assay and total error for estimated glomerular filtration rate. The participating laboratories used analytical instruments from four manufacturers; Abbott, Beckman, Roche and Siemens. All enzymatic methods in this study complied with the National Kidney Disease Education Programme working group recommended limits of bias of 5% above a creatinine concentration of 100  μmol/L. They also did not show any evidence of interference from glucose. In addition, they also showed compliance with the clinically recommended %CV of ≤4% across the analytical range. In contrast, the Jaffe methods showed variable performance with regard to the interference of glucose and unsatisfactory bias and precision. Conclusion Jaffe-based creatinine methods still exhibit considerable analytical variability in terms of bias, imprecision and lack of specificity, and this variability brings into question their clinical utility

  4. Compliance determination procedures for environmental radiation protection standards for uranium recovery facilities 40 CFR part 190

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    Uranium Milling operations are licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and by some States in agreement with the Commission. The radiation dose to any individual from the operation of facilities within the uranium fuel cycle is limited to levels set by the Environmental Protection Agency. These levels are contained in the EPA Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Nuclear Power Operations, in Part 190 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR Part 190). This report describes the procedures used within NRC's Uranium Recovery Licensing Branch for evaluating compliance with these regulations for uranium milling operations. The report contains descriptions of these procedures, dose factors for evaluating environmental measurement data, and guidance to the NRC staff reviewer

  5. Assessment of organ doses by standard X-ray procedures in the GDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tautz, M.; Brandt, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    A modern method has been described to assess the radiation burden by X-ray procedures with consideration of the standards of our Society for Medical Radiology in the GDR. The underlying methodology is a Monte Carlo computer technique, which simulates stochastically the energy deposition of X-ray photons in a mathematically described heterogeneous anthropomorphic phantom by Rosenstein (US Department of Health, Education and Welfare). To apply the procedure specific values for the following parameters must be determined for each dose estimation: projection and view, X-ray field size and location entrance exposure at skin surface, beam quality, source-to-image receptor distance. The base data are obtained in terms of tissue-air ratio. Organ doses were calculated for chest, urography, skull, cervical spine, thoracic spine, lumbar spine, pelvis and lymphography. Concluding possibilities have been discussed for reduction of radiation burden. 9 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs. (author)

  6. The primary exposure standard of ENEA for medium energy X-ray: characteristics and measurements procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laitano, R.F.; Toni, M.P.

    1983-01-01

    A description is given of a medium energy X-ray free-air chamber used, as primary exposure standard, at the Laboratorio di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti of the Enea in Italy. The main features of an X-ray facility for the production of radiation between 40 KeV and 400 KeV are also described. The measurements procedures are then analyzed with respect to the realization of the exposure unit in the relevant energy range. Finally the results of some international comparisons are reported

  7. New Serbian criminal procedure: New reasons for harmonization with European legal standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđić Vojislav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The new criminal procedure, set forth in 2011, represents a compilation of the inquisitive model of preliminary proceedings, on the one hand, and adversarial trial of the Anglo-American type of criminal procedure on the other. Introduction of the public prosecutor's investigation required a subtle legislative approach to the protection of human rights in criminal proceedings, in order to establish equilibrium between efficient and just procedure. Instead of the expected, the erroneous conception based on the ideas that the public prosecutor's investigation should be strictly formal as that of a court, that evidence taken by the non-judicial authorities should have the same bearing as those taken by the courts, and that the court should have no role in conducting investigation, resulted in an overly inferior position of the accuses compared to that of the public prosecutor. Beside the fact that such conception can not pass the ECJ test, the specific legal solutions referring the investigation open the question of harmonization with the European legal standards. The provisions on initiation of this phase of the proceedings, not being legally sanctioned, put in question the right of the accused to access justice, as well as his right to an effective legal remedy, and the introduced investigation against the unknown perpetrator, the right to be present at one's own trial is being jeopardized. Neither do all procedural rules pertaining to the trial support the fair procedure principle: the indirect extortion of evidence from the defense is discordant with the rule that the burden of proof lies on the prosecutor, as one of the main pillars of the assumption of innocence; as well as the broad opportunity to use non-judicial evidence at the hearing without any major legal obstacles, have demolished the principles of directness and contradictoriness. Even some of the minimal right of the defense as well as the guarantees of personal freedom in the course

  8. Development of quality standards of medicinal mistletoe – Helicanthes elastica (Desr. Danser employing Pharmacopoeial procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. Sunil Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Helicanthes elastica (Desr. Danser (Loranthaceae, commonly known as Indian mango mistletoe, is a parasitic shrub found widely growing on mango trees in southern India. Development of monographic quality standards is need of the hour for Pharmacopoeial/extra-Pharmacopoeial and folk medicinal plants. Systematic pharmacognostical evaluation of leaves of H. elastica has been carried out employing Pharmacopoeial procedures of testing herbal drugs. Macro–microscopic features of H. elastica leaf were recorded. Ethanolic extract was tested positive for alkaloids, steroids, carbohydrates, tannins, saponins and phenols. HPTLC fingerprint profile was developed for the identification of extracts using reference standard β-sitosterol glucoside. Results of the present investigation would serve as a source of pharmacognostical information and a document to control the quality of H. elastica (Desr. Danser. Keywords: HPTLC, Mango mistletoe, Medicinal plant monograph, Quality control

  9. The Cox-maze IV procedure in its second decade: still the gold standard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruaengsri, Chawannuch; Schill, Matthew R; Khiabani, Ali J; Schuessler, Richard B; Melby, Spencer J; Damiano, Ralph J

    2018-04-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia and the treatment options include medical treatment and catheter-based or surgical interventions. AF is a major cause of stroke, and its prevalence is increasing. The surgical treatment of AF has been revolutionized over the past 2 decades through surgical innovation and improvements in endoscopic imaging, ablation technology and surgical instrumentation. The Cox-maze (CM) procedure, which was developed by James Cox and introduced clinically in 1987, is a procedure in which multiple incisions are created in both the left and the right atria to eliminate AF while allowing the sinus impulse to reach the atrioventricular node. This procedure became the gold standard for the surgical treatment of AF. Its latest iteration is termed the CM IV and was introduced in 2002. The CM IV replaced the previous cut-and-sew method (CM III) by replacing most of the incisions with a combination of bipolar radiofrequency and cryoablation. The use of ablation technologies, made the CM IV technically easier, faster and more amenable to minimally invasive approaches. The aims of this article are to review the indications and preoperative planning for the CM IV, to describe the operative technique and to review the literature including comparisons of the CM IV with the previous cut-and-sew method. Finally, this review explores future directions for the surgical treatment of patients with AF.

  10. Performance standard-based validation study for local lymph node assay: 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine-flow cytometry method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ilyoung; Kim, Tae-Sung; Jung, Eun-Sun; Yi, Jung-Sun; Jang, Won-Hee; Jung, Kyoung-Mi; Park, Miyoung; Jung, Mi-Sook; Jeon, Eun-Young; Yeo, Kyeong-Uk; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Park, Jung-Eun; Kim, Chang-Yul; Park, Yeong-Chul; Seong, Won-Keun; Lee, Ai-Young; Chun, Young Jin; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeung, Eui Bae; Lim, Kyung-Min; Bae, SeungJin; Sohn, Soojung; Heo, Yong

    2016-10-01

    Local lymph node assay: 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine-flow cytometry method (LLNA: BrdU-FCM) is a modified non-radioisotopic technique with the additional advantages of accommodating multiple endpoints with the introduction of FCM, and refinement and reduction of animal use by using a sophisticated prescreening scheme. Reliability and accuracy of the LLNA: BrdU-FCM was determined according to OECD Test Guideline (TG) No. 429 (Skin Sensitization: Local Lymph Node Assay) performance standards (PS), with the participation of four laboratories. Transferability was demonstrated through successfully producing stimulation index (SI) values for 25% hexyl cinnamic aldehyde (HCA) consistently greater than 3, a predetermined threshold, by all participating laboratories. Within- and between-laboratory reproducibility was shown using HCA and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene, in which EC2.7 values (the estimated concentrations eliciting an SI of 2.7, the threshold for LLNA: BrdU-FCM) fell consistently within the acceptance ranges, 0.025-0.1% and 5-20%, respectively. Predictive capacity was tested using the final protocol version 1.3 for the 18 reference chemicals listed in OECD TG 429, of which results showed 84.6% sensitivity, 100% specificity, and 88.9% accuracy compared with the original LLNA. The data presented are considered to meet the performance criteria for the PS, and its predictive capacity was also sufficiently validated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Standardized uptake values of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose: the value of different normalization procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schomburg, A.; Bender, H.; Reichel, C.; Sommer, T.; Ruhlmann, J.; Kozak, B.; Biersack, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    While the evident advantages of absolute metabolic rate determinations cannot be equalled by static image analysis of fluorine-18 fluorodexyglucose positron emission tomographic (FDG PET) studies, various algorithms for the normalization of static FDG uptake values have been proposed. This study was performed to compare different normalization procedures in terms of dependency on individual patient characteristics. Standardized FDG uptake values (SUVs) were calculated for liver and lung tissue in 126 patients studied with whole-body FDG PET. Uptake values were normalized for total body weight, lean body mass and body surface area. Ranges, means, medians, standard deviations and variation coefficients of these SUV parameters were calculated and their interdependency with total body weight, lean body mass, body surface area, patient height and blood sugar levels was calculated by means of regression analysis. Standardized FDG uptake values normalized for body surface area were clearly superior to SUV parameters normalized for total body weight or lean body mass. Variation and correlation coefficients of body surface area-normalized uptake values were minimal when compared with SUV parameters derived from the other normalization procedures. Normalization for total body weight resulted in uptake values still dependent on body weight and blood sugar levels, while normalization for lean body mass did not eliminate the positive correlation with lean body mass and patient height. It is concluded that normalization of FDG uptake values for body surface area is less dependent on the individual patient characteristics than are FDG uptake values normalized for other parameters, and therefore appears to be preferable for FDG PET studies in oncology. (orig.)

  12. A biotin-drug extraction and acid dissociation (BEAD) procedure to eliminate matrix and drug interference in a protein complex anti-drug antibody (ADA) isotype specific assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hongmei; Klem, Thomas; Yang, Jinsong; Qiu, Yongchang; Pan, Luying

    2017-07-01

    Monitoring anti-drug antibody (ADA) responses in patients receiving protein therapeutics treatment is an important safety assessment for regulatory agencies, drug manufacturers, clinicians and patients. Recombinant human IGF-1/IGFBP-3 (rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3) is a 1:1 formulation of naturally occurring protein complex. The individual IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 proteins have multiple binding partners in serum matrix with high binding affinity to each other, which presents challenges in ADA assay development. We have developed a biotin-drug extraction with acid dissociation (BEAD) procedure followed by an electrochemiluminescence (ECL) direct assay to overcome matrix and drug interference. The method utilizes two step acid dissociation and excess biotin-drug to extract total ADA, which are further captured by soluble biotin-drug and detected in an ECL semi-homogeneous direct assay format. The pre-treatment method effectively eliminates interference by serum matrix and free drug, and enhances assay sensitivity. The assays passed acceptance criteria for all validation parameters, and have been used for clinical sample Ab testing. This method principle exemplifies a new approach for anti-isotype ADA assays, and could be an effective strategy for neutralizing antibody (NAb), pharmacokinetic (PK) and biomarker analysis in need of overcoming interference factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Primary calibration of TXRF in comparison with the standard droplet procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobler, M.; Reus, U.; Knoth, J.; Schwenke, H.

    2000-01-01

    For the determination of contamination on wafer surfaces with total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) normally external 1 ng Ni droplet standards were used for calibration. This method is based on several assumptions about the properties of the standard droplet which are strongly affected by the preparation of the samples. In this paper a study is resented which compares the external droplet method with a calibration procedure using the fundamental physical background of total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometry and the properties of Ni bulk material. The particular features of the two methods will be discussed and the obtained results compared to each other. It is demonstrated in this study that the calibration with Ni bulk material is a primary method which offers several advantages compared to the calibration based on droplet standards. These advantages are unique and enable a more reliable and reproducible quantification of contamination on wafer surfaces. This is caused by the fact that the method is standardless and only based on fundamental parameters and natural constants. It is also demonstrated that effects which could be caused by especial features of the measured samples (particle or film, e.g.) or by the degradation of the calibration sample could be excluded. (author)

  14. Development of a standard operating procedure for mammography equipment used in calibration of ionized chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Yklys Santos; Potiens, Maria da Penha Albuquerque

    2011-01-01

    Mammography is one widely used technique in the detection of breast cancer. In order to optimize the results achieving better images with lower dose rates, a quality assurance programme must be applied to the equipment. Some control tests use ionization chambers to measure air kerma and other quantities. These tests can only be reliable if the ionization chambers used on them are correctly calibrated. In the present work, it was developed a standard operating procedure (SOP) for quality control tests in a commercial mammography equipment installed in the Calibration Laboratory (LCI) at IPEN - Brazilian Institute for energy and nuclear research). Seven tests were performed in the equipment: Tube voltage and exposition time accuracy and reproducibility, linearity and reproducibility of Air kerma and Half Value Layer (HVL). Then, it was made a measurement of the air kerma in the mammography equipment, using a reference ionization chamber with traceability to a primary laboratory in Germany (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt - PTB), that was later compared with the air kerma measured in an industrial irradiator. This industrial X-ray generator was recently used in the implementation of X-radiation Standards beams, mammography level, following the Standard IEC 61267. The HVL values varied from 0.36 (25kV) to 0.41 mmA1 (35kV), and the measured air kerma rates were between 9.78 and 17.97 mGy/min. (author)

  15. Methodology for determination of plasma cortisol in fish using Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.; Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.

    2007-01-01

    Objective. To determine plasma cortisol procedure in fish using competitive enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Materials and methods. Two plasma samples of juveniles rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss were analized by using ELISA human kit for cortisol assay. For standard curve calibration...

  16. Evaluation of a standardized procedure for [corrected] microscopic cell counts [corrected] in body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Jane F; Emerson, Scott S

    2005-01-01

    A standardized urinalysis and manual microscopic cell counting system was evaluated for its potential to reduce intra- and interoperator variability in urine and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cell counts. Replicate aliquots of pooled specimens were submitted blindly to technologists who were instructed to use either the Kova system with the disposable Glasstic slide (Hycor Biomedical, Inc., Garden Grove, CA) or the standard operating procedure of the University of California-Irvine (UCI), which uses plain glass slides for urine sediments and hemacytometers for CSF. The Hycor system provides a mechanical means of obtaining a fixed volume of fluid in which to resuspend the sediment, and fixes the volume of specimen to be microscopically examined by using capillary filling of a chamber containing in-plane counting grids. Ninety aliquots of pooled specimens of each type of body fluid were used to assess the inter- and intraoperator reproducibility of the measurements. The variability of replicate Hycor measurements made on a single specimen by the same or different observers was compared with that predicted by a Poisson distribution. The Hycor methods generally resulted in test statistics that were slightly lower than those obtained with the laboratory standard methods, indicating a trend toward decreasing the effects of various sources of variability. For 15 paired aliquots of each body fluid, tests for systematically higher or lower measurements with the Hycor methods were performed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Also examined was the average difference between the Hycor and current laboratory standard measurements, along with a 95% confidence interval (CI) for the true average difference. Without increasing labor or the requirement for attention to detail, the Hycor method provides slightly better interrater comparisons than the current method used at UCI. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Performance testing of HEPA filters: Progress towards a European standard procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyment, J.

    1997-08-01

    Proposals for a future European testing procedure for {open_quotes}High Efficiency Particulate Air Filters (HEPA and ULPA){close_quotes} are being developed by CEN (Comite Europeen de Normalisation). The new standard will be given the status of national standard in participating countries, conflicting national standards being withdrawn. The standard will comprise 5 parts covering the grouping and classification of HEPA and ULPA filters according to their efficiency, fundamental principles of testing, marking etc (in part 1). Part 2 will cover aerosol production, measurement principles, counting equipment and statistics. Parts 3-5 will cover testing flat sheet media, leak testing of filter elements and the efficiency testing of filter elements respectively. The efficiency test methods allow the use of either homogeneous monodisperse or polydisperse aerosols for the determination of particulate filtration efficiencies as a function of particle size. The particle size at which maximum penetration occurs is first determined in flat sheet media tests; tests on filter elements (constructed using the same filter medium) may be carried out using either a homogeneous monodisperse aerosol of the size at which maximum penetration occurs (MPPS) or a polydisperse aerosol whose median size is close to the MPPS. Tests with monodisperse aerosols may be conducted using condensation nucleus counting equipment; tests using polydisperse test aerosols require the use of optical sizing particle counters. When determining the efficiency of filter elements the downstream aerosol concentrations may be determined from air samples obtained using either an overall method (single point sampling after mixing) or a scan method. The scan method also allows {open_quotes}local{close_quotes} efficiency values to be determined. 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Calibration of photon and beta ray sources used in brachytherapy. Guidelines on standardized procedures at Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    It has generally been recognized that international harmonization in radiotherapy dosimetry is essential. Consequently, the IAEA has given much effort to this, for example by publishing a number of reports in the Technical Reports Series (TRS) for external beam dosimetry, most notably TRS-277 and more recently TRS-398. Both of these reports describe in detail the steps to be taken for absorbed dose determination in water and they are often referred to as 'dosimetry protocols'. Similar to TRS-277, it is expected that TRS-398 will be adopted or used as a model by a large number of countries as their national protocol. In 1996, the IAEA established a calibration service for low dose rate (LDR) 137 Cs brachytherapy sources, which is the most widely used source for treatment of gynecological cancer. To further enhance harmonization in brachytherapy dosimetry, the IAEA published in 1999 IAEA-TECDOC-1079 entitled 'Calibration of Brachytherapy Sources. Guidelines on Standardized Procedures for the Calibration of Brachytherapy Sources at Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) and Hospitals'. The report was well received and was distributed in a large number of copies to the members of the IAEA/WHO network of SSDLs and to medical physicists working with brachytherapy. The present report is an update of the aforementioned TECDOC. Whereas TECDOC-1079 described methods for calibrating brachytherapy sources with photon energies at or above those of 192 Ir, the current report has a wider scope in that it deals with standardization of calibration of all the most commonly used brachytherapy sources, including both photon and beta emitting sources. The latter sources have been in use for a few decades already, but their calibration methods have been unclear. Methods are also described for calibrating sources used in the rapidly growing field of cardiovascular angioplasty. In this application, irradiation of the vessel wall is done in an attempt to prevent restenosis after

  19. Influence of new customs procedures and logistic security standards on companies competiveness – a Croatian company case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Erceg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In today’s global market, companies are constantly confronted with the competition on the local, national and international level. Companies therefore use a variety of strategies and tools to become and/or remain competitive. Potential areas for cost reduction in companies are supply chain management and logistic and customs procedures. Implementation of various logistic standards in supply chain management can provide significant cost savings for the company’s daily operations and thus reduce overall costs and improve the competitiveness. Using different customs procedures and logistic standards to reduce their costs and become more competitive in the market is necessary for Croatian companies. The method of using these tools is not a one-time process and requires constant efforts. Companies therefore have to be ready to improve daily to be and remain competitive. Using a variety of modern customs procedures can save their money and time, not only through these procedures, but also through better use of their employee’s time, their own vehicles and other equipment. The paper analyzes various customs procedures and logistic standards that can help companies save time and money and improve their competitiveness. In the example of Croatian company, which uses various available procedures and standards the benefits of their use are shown. Apart from bringing savings in operations, all these procedures and standards allow the company to be better, cheaper and more attractive to buyers.

  20. The CIPM list of recommended frequency standard values: guidelines and procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle, Fritz; Gill, Patrick; Arias, Felicitas; Robertsson, Lennart

    2018-04-01

    A list of standard reference frequency values (LoF) of quantum transitions from the microwave to the optical regime has been recommended by the International Committee for Weights and Measures (Comité international des poids et mesures, CIPM) for use in basic research, technology, and for the metrology of time, frequency and length. The CIPM LoF contains entries that are recommended as secondary representations of the second in the International System of Units, and entries that can be used to serve as realizations of the definition of the metre. The historical perspective that led to the CIPM LoF is outlined. Procedures have been developed for updating existing, and validating new, entries into the CIPM LoF. The CIPM LoF might serve as an entry for a future redefinition of the second by an optical transition.

  1. Constructing an exposure chart: step by step (based on standard procedures)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Jocelyn L; Cansino, Percedita T.; Taguibao, Angileo P.

    2000-01-01

    An exposure chart is very important in conducting radiographic inspection of materials. By using an accurate exposure chart, an inspector is able to avoid a trial and error way of determining correct time to expose a specimen, thereby producing a radiograph that has an acceptable density based on a standard. The chart gives the following information: x-ray machine model and brand, distance of the x-ray tube from the film, type and thickness of intensifying screens, film type, radiograph density, and film processing conditions. The methods of preparing an exposure chart are available in existing radiographic testing manuals. These described methods are presented in step by step procedures, covering the actual laboratory set-up, data gathering, computations, and transformation of derived data into Characteristic Curve and Exposure Chart

  2. Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Rapid and Efficient Production of Stevia Tissue Culture Seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norazlina Noordin; Peng, C.S.; Rusli Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a non-caloric natural sweetener which is 300 times sweeter than cane sugar. Extracts from stevia leaves has vast application in food and beverages based industries, can be added to tea and coffee, cooked or baked goods, processed foods and confectionary goods. Recently, stevia attained awareness owing to its natural, non-caloric sweetness by diet/ health conscious and diabetic persons (Arpita et al., 2011). This natural sweetener has high commercial value in global market, it was estimated that global market value for stevia is be around USD11 billion by year 2015. Although stevia is being largely popularized in Malaysia and other countries but large-scale propagation procedures for the continuous supply of planting materials in commercial plantation has yet to be established, optimized and standardized. Furthermore, propagation through stevia seeds is often very difficult due to self-incompatibility which results in sterile seeds (Sakaguchi et al., 1982). Tissue culture is the only rapid process for the mass propagation of stevia and there have been few reports of in vitro growth of stevia (Miyagaya et al., 1986) and in vitro micropropagation from shoot tip and leaf (Uddin et al., 2006). Hence, study was carried out to establish a suitable protocol for in vitro propagation of S. rebaudiana Bertoni that can be further up-scaled for mass propagation of stevia seedlings. The established Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) will ensure rapid and efficient production of stevia tissue culture seedlings for continuous supply of planting materials for commercial stevia plantations in Malaysia. Preparation of growth medium, multiplication of shoots, rooting of plant lets and hardening of ex-vitro rooted plant lets is discussed in this paper. (author)

  3. Development of a standardized training course for laparoscopic procedures using Delphi methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethlehem, Martijn S; Kramp, Kelvin H; van Det, Marc J; ten Cate Hoedemaker, Henk O; Veeger, Nicolaas J G M; Pierie, Jean Pierre E N

    2014-01-01

    Content, evaluation, and certification of laparoscopic skills and procedure training lack uniformity among different hospitals in The Netherlands. Within the process of developing a new regional laparoscopic training curriculum, a uniform and transferrable curriculum was constructed for a series of laparoscopic procedures. The aim of this study was to determine regional expert consensus regarding the key steps for laparoscopic appendectomy and cholecystectomy using Delphi methodology. Lists of suggested key steps for laparoscopic appendectomy and cholecystectomy were created using surgical textbooks, available guidelines, and local practice. A total of 22 experts, working for teaching hospitals throughout the region, were asked to rate the suggested key steps for both procedures on a Likert scale from 1-5. Consensus was reached with Crohnbach's α ≥ 0.90. Of the 22 experts, 21 completed and returned the survey (95%). Data analysis already showed consensus after the first round of Delphi on the key steps for laparoscopic appendectomy (Crohnbach's α = 0.92) and laparoscopic cholecystectomy (Crohnbach's α = 0.90). After the second round, 15 proposed key steps for laparoscopic appendectomy and 30 proposed key steps for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were rated as important (≥4 by at least 80% of the expert panel). These key steps were used for the further development of the training curriculum. By using the Delphi methodology, regional consensus was reached on the key steps for laparoscopic appendectomy and cholecystectomy. These key steps are going to be used for standardized training and evaluation purposes in a new regional laparoscopic curriculum. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Reproducibility of microbial mutagenicity assays. I. Tests with Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli using a standardized protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkel, V.C.; Zeiger, E.; Brusick, D.; McCoy, E.; McGregor, D.; Mortelmans, K.; Rosenkranz, H.S.; Simmon, V.F.

    1984-01-01

    The Salmonella/microsome test developed by Ames and his coworkers has been widely used in the evaluation of chemicals for genotoxic potential. Although the value of this assay is well recognized, there have been no comprehensive studies on the interlaboratory reproducibility of the method using a standardized protocol. A program was therefore initiated to compare the results obtained in four laboratories from testing a series of coded mutagens and nonmutagens using a standardized protocol. Additional objectives of this study were to compare male Fisher 344 rat, B6C3F1 mouse, and Syrian hamster liver S-9 preparations for the activation of chemicals; to compare Aroclor 1254-induced liver S-9 from all three species with the corresponding non-induced liver S-9's; and to compare the response of Escherichia coli WP-2 uvrA with the Salmonella typhimurium tester strains recommended by Ames. Since a primary use of in vitro microbial mutagenesis tests is the identification of potential carcinogens by their mutagenicity, the authors decided to compare the animal species and strains used by the National Cancer Institute/National Toxicology Program (NCI/NTP) for animal carcinogenicity studies

  5. A standard operating procedure for the surgical implantation of transmitters in juvenile salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, T.L.; Beeman, J.W.; Gee, L.P.

    2012-01-01

    Biotelemetry is a useful tool to monitor the movements of animals and is widely applied in fisheries research. Radio or acoustic technology can be used, depending on the study design and the environmental conditions in the study area. A broad definition of telemetry also includes the use of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags, either separately or with a radio or acoustic transmitter. To use telemetry, fish must be equipped with a transmitter. Although there are several attachment procedures available, surgical implantation of transmitters in the abdominal cavity is recognized as the best technique for long-term telemetry studies in general (Stasko and Pincock, 1977; Winter, 1996; Jepsen, 2003), and specifically for juvenile salmonids, Oncorhynchus spp. (Adams and others, 1998a, 1998b; Martinelli and others, 1998; Hall and others, 2009). Studies that use telemetry assume that the processes by which the animals are captured, handled, and tagged, as well as the act of carrying the transmitter, will have minimal effect on their behavior and performance. This assumption, commonly stated as a lack of transmitter effects, must be valid if telemetry studies are to describe accurately the movements and behavior of an entire population of interest, rather than the subset of that population that carries transmitters. This document describes a standard operating procedure (SOP) for surgical implantation of radio or acoustic transmitters in juvenile salmonids. The procedures were developed from a broad base of published information, laboratory experiments, and practical experience in tagging thousands of fish for numerous studies of juvenile salmon movements near Columbia River and Snake River hydroelectric dams. Staff from the Western Fisheries Research Center's Columbia River Research Laboratory (CRRL) frequently have used telemetry studies to evaluate new structures or operations at hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River Basin, and these evaluations typically

  6. CSNI international standard problem procedures - CSNI Report No. 17 - Revision 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micaelli, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    . Careful consideration and planning is therefore required. After a brief recall of the ISPs' objectives, this document provides guidelines to be followed during the different phases of an ISP. Two phases are considered. The first one consists in proposing and selecting an ISP, the second one consists in performing an ISP. This revised document was prepared under the Leadership of J.-C. Micaelli (IRSN). It was reviewed and endorsed in September 2003 by the Working Group on the Analysis and Management of Accidents (GAMA), GAMA performed in 2003 a survey on updating CSNI Report No. 17, 'CSNI Standard Problem Procedures', first published in 1977, last updated in 1989. The objective of this activity was to collect proposals regarding the improvement of ISP efficiency with respect to their objectives and the improvement of the quality of the procedures document. Eleven series of questions were asked in the survey, related to: - General structure of the procedures document; - ISP objectives; - Six phases: ISP proposal, ISP specification, ISP results reporting, Preparation of the preliminary data comparison and interpretation report, Post-ISP analysis, Preparation of the final comparison and interpretation report; - Updating of the procedures; - Support to be provided by the participants

  7. Acucise™ endopyelotomy in a porcine model: procedure standardization and analysis of safety and immediate efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreoni Cássio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The study here presented was done to test the technical reliability and immediate efficacy of the Acucise device using a standardized technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 56 Acucise procedures were performed in pigs by a single surgeon who used a standardized technique: insert 5F angiographic catheter bilaterally up to the midureter, perform retrograde pyelogram, Amplatz super-stiff guidewire is advanced up to the level of the renal pelvis, angiographic catheters are removed, Acucise catheter balloon is advanced to the ureteropelvic junction (UPJ level, the super-stiff guide-wire is removed and the contrast medium in the renal pelvis is aspirated and replaced with distilled water, activate Acucise at 75 watts of pure cutting current, keep the balloon fully inflated for 10 minutes, perform retrograde ureteropyelogram to document extravasation, remove Acucise catheter and pass an ureteral stent and remove guide-wire. RESULTS: In no case did the Acucise device present malfunction. The electrocautery activation time was 2.2 seconds (ranging from 2 to 4 seconds. The extravasation of contrast medium, visible by fluoroscopy, occurred in 53 of the 56 cases (94.6%. In no case there was any evidence of intraoperative hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that performing Acucise endopyelotomy routinely in a standardized manner could largely preclude intraoperative device malfunction and eliminate complications while achieving a successful incision in the UPJ. With the guidelines that were used in this study, we believe that Acucise endopyelotomy can be completed successfully and safely in the majority of selected patients with UPJ obstruction.

  8. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay and sample preparation procedure for sensitive detection of Xanthomonas fragariae in strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthomonas fragariae is a bacterium that causes angular leaf spot of strawberry. Asymptomatic infections are common and contribute to the difficulties in disease management. The aim of this study was to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay with a bacterial enrichment proced...

  9. Development and characterization of a pre-treatment procedure to eliminate human monoclonal antibody therapeutic drug and matrix interference in cell-based functional neutralizing antibody assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weifeng; Jiang, Hao; Titsch, Craig; Haulenbeek, Jonathan R; Pillutla, Renuka C; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; DeSilva, Binodh S; Arnold, Mark E; Zeng, Jianing; Dodge, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    Biological therapeutics can induce an undesirable immune response resulting in the formation of anti-drug antibodies (ADA), including neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). Functional (usually cell-based) NAb assays are preferred to determine NAb presence in patient serum, but are often subject to interferences from numerous serum factors, such as growth factors and disease-related cytokines. Many functional cell-based NAb assays are essentially drug concentration assays that imply the presence of NAbs by the detection of small changes in functional drug concentration. Any drug contained in the test sample will increase the total amount of drug in the assay, thus reducing the sensitivity of NAb detection. Biotin-drug Extraction with Acid Dissociation (BEAD) has been successfully applied to extract ADA, thereby removing drug and other interfering factors from human serum samples. However, to date there has been no report to estimate the residual drug level after BEAD treatment when the drug itself is a human monoclonal antibody; mainly due to the limitation of traditional ligand-binding assays. Here we describe a universal BEAD optimization procedure for human monoclonal antibody (mAb) drugs by using a LC-MS/MS method to simultaneously measure drug (a mutant human IgG4), NAb positive control (a mouse IgG), and endogenous human IgGs as an indicator of nonspecific carry-over in the BEAD eluate. This is the first report demonstrating that residual human mAb drug level in clinical sample can be measured after BEAD pre-treatment, which is critical for further BEAD procedure optimization and downstream immunogenicity testing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Standard operation procedures for conducting the on-the-road driving test, and measurement of the standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, Joris C; Roth, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This review discusses the methodology of the standardized on-the-road driving test and standard operation procedures to conduct the test and analyze the data. The on-the-road driving test has proven to be a sensitive and reliable method to examine driving ability after administration of central nervous system (CNS) drugs. The test is performed on a public highway in normal traffic. Subjects are instructed to drive with a steady lateral position and constant speed. Its primary parameter, the standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), ie, an index of 'weaving', is a stable measure of driving performance with high test-retest reliability. SDLP differences from placebo are dose-dependent, and do not depend on the subject's baseline driving skills (placebo SDLP). It is important that standard operation procedures are applied to conduct the test and analyze the data in order to allow comparisons between studies from different sites.

  11. Endovascular treatment outcomes using the Stroke Triage Education, Procedure Standardization, and Technology (STEPS-T) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ameer E; Sanchez, Christina; Johnson, Angela N

    2018-02-01

    Background "Door to treatment" time affects outcomes of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients undergoing endovascular treatment (EVT). However, the correlation between staff education and accessible technology with stroke outcomes has not been demonstrated. Objective The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the five-year impact of the Stroke Triage Education, Procedure Standardization, and Technology (STEPS-T) program on time-to-treat and clinical outcomes. Methods The study analyzed a prospectively maintained database of AIS patients who benefited from EVT through implementation of STEPS-T. Demographics, clinical characteristics, and modified Rankin Score at three months were analyzed. Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) scale was used to grade pre- and post-procedure angiographic recanalization. Using electronic hemodynamic recording, stepwise workflow times were collected for door time (T D ), entering angiography suite (T A ), groin puncture (T G ), first DSA (T DSA ), microcatheter placement (T M ), and final recanalization (T R ). Median intervention time (T A to T R ) and recanalization time (T G to T R ) were compared through Year 1 to Year 5. Results A total of 230 individuals (age 74 ± 12, between 30 to 95) were enrolled. Median intervention and recanalization times were significantly reduced, from 121 minutes to 52 minutes and from 83 minutes to 36 minutes respectively from Year 1 to Year 5, ( p < 0.001). Across the study period, annual recruitment went up from 12 to 66 patients, and modified Rankin Score between 0 and 2 increased from 36% to 59% ( p = 0.024). Conclusions STEPS-T improved time-to-treat in patients undergoing mechanical thrombectomy for AIS. During the observation period, clinical outcomes significantly improved.

  12. Standardization and validation of a cytometric bead assay to assess antibodies to multiple Plasmodium falciparum recombinant antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondigo Bartholomew N

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiplex cytometric bead assay (CBA have a number of advantages over ELISA for antibody testing, but little information is available on standardization and validation of antibody CBA to multiple Plasmodium falciparum antigens. The present study was set to determine optimal parameters for multiplex testing of antibodies to P. falciparum antigens, and to compare results of multiplex CBA to ELISA. Methods Antibodies to ten recombinant P. falciparum antigens were measured by CBA and ELISA in samples from 30 individuals from a malaria endemic area of Kenya and compared to known positive and negative control plasma samples. Optimal antigen amounts, monoplex vs multiplex testing, plasma dilution, optimal buffer, number of beads required were assessed for CBA testing, and results from CBA vs. ELISA testing were compared. Results Optimal amounts for CBA antibody testing differed according to antigen. Results for monoplex CBA testing correlated strongly with multiplex testing for all antigens (r = 0.88-0.99, P values from Conclusion With optimization, CBA may be the preferred method of testing for antibodies to P. falciparum antigens, as CBA can test for antibodies to multiple recombinant antigens from a single plasma sample and produces a greater range of values in positive samples and lower background readings for blank samples than ELISA.

  13. A Standard Addition Method to Assay the Concentration of Biologically Interesting Polyphenols in Grape Berries by Reversed-Phase HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkos A. Haroutounian

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A reversed-phase HPLC method which allows the simultaneous assay of (+- catechin, (–-epicatechin, trans-resveratrol, quercetin and quercetin glycosides in grape berries is described. Kromasil 100 served as stationary phase and a gradient of acetic acid, water and methanol was used. The analytical run requires 42 min for complete sample elution. Satisfactory peak resolution was achieved following a novel extraction process and direct injection of a 20 μL sample. The method was used for the analyses of eighteen samples. Linearities were in the range of 0.98 to 0.999 regression coefficient, for all phenolics, while detection limits ranged from 30 μg mL–1 for trans-resveratrol to 1.5 mg mL–1 for (+-catechin. Recoveries ranged from 95.1 to 98.7% while the method provided good precision, with standard deviations between 3.5 and 6.1%, n=5.

  14. Competition between bound and free peptides in an ELISA-based procedure that assays peptides derived from protein digests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pace Umberto

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe an ELISA-based method that can be used to identify and quantitate proteins in biological samples. In this method, peptides in solution, derived from proteolytic digests of the sample, compete with substrate-attached synthetic peptides for antibodies, also in solution, generated against the chosen peptides. The peptides used for the ELISA are chosen on the basis of their being (i products of the proteolytic (e.g. tryptic digestion of the protein to be identified and (ii unique to the target protein, as far as one can know from the published sequences. Results In this paper we describe the competition assay and we define the optimal conditions for the most effective assay. We have performed an analysis of the kinetics of interaction between the four components of the assay: the plastic substratum to which the peptide is bound, the bound peptide itself, the competing added peptide, and the antibody that is specific for the peptide and we compare the results of theoretical simulations to the actual data in some model systems. Conclusion The data suggest that the peptides bind to the plastic substratum in more than one conformation and that, once bound, the peptide displays different affinities for the antibody, depending on how it has bound to the plate

  15. Effects of adding Braun jejunojejunostomy to standard Whipple procedure on reduction of afferent loop syndrome - a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakaei, Farzad; Beheshtirouy, Samad; Nejatollahi, Seyed Moahammad Reza; Rashidi, Iqbal; Asvadi, Touraj; Habibzadeh, Afshin; Oliaei-Motlagh, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    Whipple surgery (pancreaticodeudenectomy) has a high complication rate. We aimed to evaluate whether adding Braun jejunojejunostomy (side-to-side anastomosis of afferent and efferent loops distal to the gastrojejunostomy site) to a standard Whipple procedure would reduce postoperative complications. We conducted a randomized clinical trial comparing patients who underwent standard Whipple surgery (standard group) and patients who underwent standard Whipple surgery with Braun jejunojejunostomy (Braun group). Patients were followed for 1 month after the procedure and postoperative complications were recorded. Our study included 30 patients: 15 in the Braun and 15 in the standard group. In the Braun group, 4 (26.7%) patients experienced 6 complications, whereas in the standard group, 7 (46.7%) patients experienced 11 complications (p = 0.14). Complications in the Braun group were gastrointestinal bleeding and wound infection (n = 1 each) and delayed gastric emptying and pulmonary infection (n = 2 each). Complications in the standard group were death, pancreatic anastomosis leak and biliary anastomosis leak (n = 1 each); gastrointestinal bleeding (n = 2); and afferent loop syndrome and delayed gastric emptying (n = 3 each). There was no significant difference between groups in the subtypes of complications. Our results showed that adding Braun jejunojejunostomy to standard Whipple procedure was associated with lower rates of afferent loop syndrome and delayed gastric emptying. However, more studies are needed to define the role of Braun jejunojejunostomy in this regard. IRCT2014020316473N1 (www.irct.ir).

  16. Qualitative research within trials: developing a standard operating procedure for a clinical trials unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Qualitative research methods are increasingly used within clinical trials to address broader research questions than can be addressed by quantitative methods alone. These methods enable health professionals, service users, and other stakeholders to contribute their views and experiences to evaluation of healthcare treatments, interventions, or policies, and influence the design of trials. Qualitative data often contribute information that is better able to reform policy or influence design. Methods Health services researchers, including trialists, clinicians, and qualitative researchers, worked collaboratively to develop a comprehensive portfolio of standard operating procedures (SOPs) for the West Wales Organisation for Rigorous Trials in Health (WWORTH), a clinical trials unit (CTU) at Swansea University, which has recently achieved registration with the UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC). Although the UKCRC requires a total of 25 SOPs from registered CTUs, WWORTH chose to add an additional qualitative-methods SOP (QM-SOP). Results The qualitative methods SOP (QM-SOP) defines good practice in designing and implementing qualitative components of trials, while allowing flexibility of approach and method. Its basic principles are that: qualitative researchers should be contributors from the start of trials with qualitative potential; the qualitative component should have clear aims; and the main study publication should report on the qualitative component. Conclusions We recommend that CTUs consider developing a QM-SOP to enhance the conduct of quantitative trials by adding qualitative data and analysis. We judge that this improves the value of quantitative trials, and contributes to the future development of multi-method trials. PMID:23433341

  17. Manual of Standard Operating Procedures for Veterinary Drug Residue Analysis (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Laboratories are crucial to national veterinary drug residue monitoring programmes. However, one of the main challenges laboratories encounter is obtaining access to relevant methods of analysis. Thus, in addition to training, providing technical advice and transferring technology, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has resolved to develop clear and practical manuals to support Member State laboratories. The Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development of Radiometric and Allied Analytical Methods to Strengthen Residue Control Programs for Antibiotic and Anthelmintic Veterinary Drug Residues has developed a number of analytical methods as standard operating procedures (SOPs), which are now compiled here. This publication contains SOPs on chromatographic and spectrometric techniques, as well as radioimmunoassay and associated screening techniques, for various anthelmintic and antimicrobial veterinary drug residue analysis. Some analytical method validation protocols are also included. The publication is primarily aimed at food and environmental safety laboratories involved in testing veterinary drug residues, including under organized national residue monitoring programmes. It is expected to enhance laboratory capacity building and competence through the use of radiometric and complementary tools and techniques. The publication is also relevant for applied research on residues of veterinary drugs in food and environmental samples

  18. Standard measurement procedures for the characterization of fs-laser optical components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, Kai; Ristau, Detlev; Welling, Herbert

    2003-05-01

    Ultra-short pulse laser systems are considered as promising tools in the fields of precise micro-machining and medicine applications. In the course of the development of reliable table top laser systems, a rapid growth of ultra-short pulse applications could be observed during the recent years. The key for improving the performance of high power laser systems is the quality of the optical components concerning spectral characteristics, optical losses and the power handling capability. In the field of ultra-short pulses, standard measurement procedures in quality management have to be validated in respect to effects induced by the extremely high peak power densities. The present work, which is embedded in the EUREKA-project CHOCLAB II, is predominantly concentrated on measuring the multiple-pulse LIDT (ISO 11254-2) in the fs-regime. A measurement facility based on a Ti:Sapphire-CPA system was developed to investigate the damage behavior of optical components. The set-up was supplied with an improved pulse energy detector discriminating the influence of pulse-to-pulse energy fluctuations on the incidence of damage. Aditionally, a laser-calorimetric measurement facility determining the absorption (ISO 11551) utilizing a fs-Ti:Sapphire laser was accomplished. The investigation for different pulse durations between 130 fs and 1 ps revealed a drastic increase of absorption in titania coatings for ultra-short pulses.

  19. Standard operating procedures for quality audits of 60Co external beam radiotherapy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larrinaga Cortina, E.F.; Dominguez Hung, L.; Campa Menendez, R.

    2001-01-01

    The use of radiotherapy implies the necessity of rigorous quality standards in its different components, aimed to provide the best possible treatment and avoid potential patients' risks, that could even cause him death. Projects of technical cooperation developed in Cuba and supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency address the implementation of Programs of Quality Assurance (PGC) in radiotherapy services. The establishment of the National Quality Audit Program (PNAC) is a superior stage. The National Control Center for Medical Devices, as the national regulator entity for the control and supervision of medical devices in the National Health System, is responsible for the making and execution of the PNAC. The audit modality selected was the inspection visit in situ due to its intrinsic advantages, our geographical extension and the number of radiotherapy services. This paper presents the methodology for the execution of the PNAC, in form of a Normalized Procedure of Operation (PNO) that defines the objectives, scope, terms and definitions, responsibilities, composition and selection of the auditor team, security's conditions, materials and equipment, steps of the audit execution, results calculation and interpretation, records, etc. (author)

  20. Manual of Standard Operating Procedures for Veterinary Drug Residue Analysis (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Laboratories are crucial to national veterinary drug residue monitoring programmes. However, one of the main challenges laboratories encounter is obtaining access to relevant methods of analysis. Thus, in addition to training, providing technical advice and transferring technology, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has resolved to develop clear and practical manuals to support Member State laboratories. The Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development of Radiometric and Allied Analytical Methods to Strengthen Residue Control Programs for Antibiotic and Anthelmintic Veterinary Drug Residues has developed a number of analytical methods as standard operating procedures (SOPs), which are now compiled here. This publication contains SOPs on chromatographic and spectrometric techniques, as well as radioimmunoassay and associated screening techniques, for various anthelmintic and antimicrobial veterinary drug residue analysis. Some analytical method validation protocols are also included. The publication is primarily aimed at food and environmental safety laboratories involved in testing veterinary drug residues, including under organized national residue monitoring programmes. It is expected to enhance laboratory capacity building and competence through the use of radiometric and complementary tools and techniques. The publication is also relevant for applied research on residues of veterinary drugs in food and environmental samples

  1. Evaluation of Multiplexed Foot-and-Mouth Disease Nonstructural Protein Antibody Assay Against Standardized Bovine Serum Panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, J; Parida, S; Clavijo, A

    2007-05-14

    Liquid array technology has previously been used to show proof-of-principle of a multiplexed non structural protein serological assay to differentiate foot-and-mouth infected and vaccinated animals. The current multiplexed assay consists of synthetically produced peptide signatures 3A, 3B and 3D and recombinant protein signature 3ABC in combination with four controls. To determine diagnostic specificity of each signature in the multiplex, the assay was evaluated against a naive population (n = 104) and a vaccinated population (n = 94). Subsequently, the multiplexed assay was assessed using a panel of bovine sera generated by the World Reference Laboratory for foot-and-mouth disease in Pirbright, UK. This sera panel has been used to assess the performance of other singleplex ELISA-based non-structural protein antibody assays. The 3ABC signature in the multiplexed assay showed comparative performance to a commercially available non-structural protein 3ABC ELISA (Cedi test{reg_sign}) and additional information pertaining to the relative diagnostic sensitivity of each signature in the multiplex is acquired in one experiment. The encouraging results of the evaluation of the multiplexed assay against a panel of diagnostically relevant samples promotes further assay development and optimization to generate an assay for routine use in foot-and-mouth disease surveillance.

  2. Instrumentation and procedures for moisture corrections to passive neutron coincidence counting assays of bulk PuO2 and MOX powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.E.; Menlove, H.O.; Ferran, R.R.; Aparo, M.; Zeppa, P.; Troiani, F.

    1993-05-01

    For passive neutron-coincidence-counting verification measurements of PuO 2 and MOX powder, assay biases have been observed that result from moisture entrained in the sample. This report describes a unique set of experiments in which MOX samples, with a range of moisture concentrations, were produced and used to calibrate and evaluate two prototype moisture monitors. A new procedure for moisture corrections to PuO 2 and MOX verification measurements yields MOX assays accurate to 1.5% (1σ) for 0.6- and 1.1-kg samples. Monte Carlo simulations were used to extend the measured moisture calibration data to higher sample masses. A conceptual design for a high-efficiency neutron coincidence counter with improved sensitivity to moisture is also presented

  3. Improvement of Safety Features in Standard Operation Procedure of Tc-99m Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manisah Saedon; Mohd Khairul Hakimi; Shyen, A.K.S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the improvements proposed to the original production procedures for Tc-99m generators. Improvements are intended to add safety and health features for workers into the existing procedures. The difference between the new safe work procedures from the original work procedures; is the concern about the safety and health of employees other than the product safety. One of the suggested safety characteristics is by using the visual aid so that the workers can easily see and read the procedures when they perform their duties, whereas the previous procedures are kept in the manual and difficult to access. The purpose of this paper is to share information about the importance of safety and health features for the workers in the procedures established in addition to provide awareness to all parties involved. (author)

  4. A filter paper dry blood spot procedure for acute intermittent porphyria population screening by use of whole blood uroporphyrinogen-I-synthase assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, L; Thunell, S; Wetterberg, L

    1984-03-13

    A filter paper dry blood spot procedure for the determination of whole blood uroporphyrinogen-I-synthase (UIS) activity is presented. The method is based on the concept of enzyme specific activity, the enzyme activity being related to the haemoglobin concentration of the assay sample. The diagnostic capacity with regard to the acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) gene carrier state is shown to be equivalent to that of a washed red cell reference method. On grounds of easy capillary blood sampling, uncomplicated and safe mail specimen transport and simple laboratory reception routines, the method is stated to be well adapted for use in AIP preadolescent population screening.

  5. Recent advances in the characterization of HIV-1 neutralization assays for standardized evaluation of the antibody response to infection and vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonis, Victoria R; Brown, Bruce K; Rosa Borges, Andrew; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Dimitrov, Dimiter S; Zhang, Mei-Yun; Barnett, Susan W; Ruprecht, Ruth M; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Fenyö, Eva-Maria; Montefiori, David C; McCutchan, Francine E; Michael, Nelson L

    2008-06-05

    In AIDS vaccine development the pendulum has swung towards a renewed emphasis on the potential role for neutralizing antibodies in a successful global vaccine. It is recognized that vaccine-induced antibody performance, as assessed in the available neutralization assays, may well serve as a "gatekeeper" for HIV-1 subunit vaccine prioritization and advancement. As a result, development of a standardized platform for reproducible measurement of neutralizing antibodies has received considerable attention. Here we review current advancements in our knowledge of the performance of different types of antibodies in a traditional primary cell neutralization assay and the newer, more standardized TZM-bl reporter cell line assay. In light of recently revealed differences (see accompanying article) in the results obtained in these two neutralization formats, parallel evaluation with both platforms should be contemplated as an interim solution until a better understanding of immune correlates of protection is achieved.

  6. A three-parameter langmuir-type model for fitting standard curves of sandwich enzyme immunoassays with special attention to the α-fetoprotein assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortlandt, W.; Endeman, H.J.; Hoeke, J.O.O.

    In a simplified approach to the reaction kinetics of enzyme-linked immunoassays, a Langmuir-type equation y = [ax/(b + x)] + c was derived. This model proved to be superior to logit-log and semilog models in the curve-fitting of standard curves. An assay for α-fetoprotein developed in our laboratory

  7. In search for a gold-standard procedure to count motor neurons in the spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrucci, Michela; Lazzeri, Gloria; Flaibani, Marina; Biagioni, Francesca; Cantini, Federica; Madonna, Michele; Bucci, Domenico; Limanaqi, Fiona; Soldani, Paola; Fornai, Francesco

    2018-03-14

    Counting motor neurons within the spinal cord and brainstem represents a seminal step to comprehend the anatomy and physiology of the final common pathway sourcing from the CNS. Motor neuron loss allows to assess the severity of motor neuron disorders while providing a tool to assess disease modifying effects. Counting motor neurons at first implies gold standard identification methods. In fact, motor neurons may occur within mixed nuclei housing a considerable amount of neurons other than motor neurons. In the present review, we analyse various approaches to count motor neurons emphasizing both the benefits and bias of each protocol. A special emphasis is placed on discussing automated stereology. When automated stereology does not take into account site-specificity and does not distinguish between heterogeneous neuronal populations, it may confound data making such a procedure a sort of "guide for the perplex". Thus, if on the one hand automated stereology improves our ability to quantify neuronal populations, it may also hide false positives/negatives in neuronal counts. For instance, classic staining for antigens such as SMI-32, SMN and ChAT, which are routinely considered to be specific for motor neurons, may also occur in other neuronal types of the spinal cord. Even site specificity within Lamina IX may be misleading due to neuronal populations having a size and shape typical of motor neurons. This is the case of spinal border cells, which often surpass the border of Lamina VII and intermingle with motor neurons of Lamina IX. The present article discusses the need to join automated stereology with a dedicated knowledge of each specific neuroanatomical setting.

  8. Standardization of a cytometric p24-capture bead-assay for the detection of main HIV-1 subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merbah, Mélanie; Onkar, Sayali; Grivel, Jean-Charles; Vanpouille, Christophe; Biancotto, Angélique; Bonar, Lydia; Sanders-Buell, Eric; Kijak, Gustavo; Michael, Nelson; Robb, Merlin; Kim, Jerome H; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Chenine, Agnès-Laurence

    2016-04-01

    The prevailing method to assess HIV-1 replication and infectivity is to measure the production of p24 Gag protein by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Since fluorescent bead-based technologies offer a broader dynamic range and higher sensitivity, this study describes a p24 capture Luminex assay capable of detecting HIV-1 subtypes A-D, circulating recombinant forms (CRF) CRF01_AE and CRF02_AG, which together are responsible for over 90% of HIV-1 infections worldwide. The success of the assay lies in the identification and selection of a cross-reactive capture antibody (clone 183-H12-5C). Fifty-six isolates that belonged to six HIV-1 subtypes and CRFs were successfully detected with p-values below 0.021; limits of detection ranging from 3.7 to 3 × 104 pg/ml. The intra- and inter-assay variation gave coefficient of variations below 6 and 14%, respectively. The 183-bead Luminex assay also displayed higher sensitivity of 91% and 98% compared to commercial p24 ELISA and a previously described Luminex assay. The p24 concentrations measured by the 183-bead Luminex assay showed a significant correlation (R=0.92, passay leverages the advantages of the Luminex platform, which include smaller sample volume and simultaneous detection of up to 500 analytes in a single sample, and delivers a valuable tool for the field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Preoperative Decision Making for Nephron-Sparing Procedure in the Renal Mass: Time for Using Standard Tools?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zondervan, Patricia J.; van Lienden, Krijn P.; van Delden, Otto M.; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; Laguna, M. Pilar

    2016-01-01

    To determine if the application of using standard tools on tumor complexity and comorbidity indexes may replace the traditional choice of nephron-sparing procedure (NSP) based on clinical maximal tumor diameter (cMTD), age, and comorbidity. Anatomic complexity scores (PADUA and RENAL) and Charlson

  10. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Screening & Grinding Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Gerald A.; Montgomery, James A.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the screening and grinding process of wastewater treatment facilities. The objective of this process is the removal of coarse materials from the raw waste stream for the protection of subsequent equipment and processes. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for safety inspection,…

  11. Differences in serum thyroglobulin measurements by 3 commercial immunoradiometric assay kits and laboratory standardization using Certified Reference Material 457 (CRM-457).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji In; Kim, Ji Young; Choi, Joon Young; Kim, Hee Kyung; Jang, Hye Won; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Kim, Kwang-Won; Chung, Jae Hoon; Kim, Sun Wook

    2010-09-01

    Serum thyroglobulin (Tg) is essential in the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). However, interchangeability and standardization between Tg assays have not yet been achieved, even with the development of an international Tg standard (Certified Reference Material 457 [CRM-457]). Serum Tg from 30 DTC patients and serially diluted CRM-457 were measured using 3 different immunoradiometric assays (IRMA-1, IRMA-2, IRMA-3). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) method was used to describe the concordance of each IRMA to CRM-457. The serum Tg measured by 3 different IRMAs correlated well (r > .85, p CRM-457, showed the best ICC (p(1) = .98) for the CRM-457. Hospitals caring for patients with DTC should either set their own cutoffs for IRMAs for Tg based on their patient pools, or adopt IRMAs standardized to CRM-457 and calibrate their laboratory using CRM-457.

  12. Standard Operating Procedures for PET/CT: A Practical Approach for Use in Adult Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    of operating procedures for FDG-PET/CT imaging in adult oncology patients. The text is based on consensus and agreement among the authors, following a systematic approach of relying on personal experience and the available scientific evidence on all the subjects included. Due to the evolving nature of PET/CT imaging, which is a rapidly growing technology, this publication will undoubtedly need to be updated on a regular basis. It may well be that each PET/CT centre will have to modify the recommendations provided here to suit its own particular circumstances, according to, inter alia, the type of scanner, patient population, use of intravenous contrast, availability of FDG, professional staff experience, local regulations and preferences of referring physicians. The information provided here is felt to be important in the light of the growing need to standardize and optimize the way PET/CT scans are performed, not only to enable trials using FDG-PET/CT in different institutions to be compared and correlated, but also to allow for more accurate comparisons of scans performed on the same patient at different points in time at a single institution. This is important when assessing the response to cancer therapy, and especially so when this evaluation is performed early and after using novel targeted treatments that very often only produce changes in metabolic activity and not in lesion/tumour size. This is the reason why strictly following a correct imaging protocol is crucial. The reliability of the PET/CT imaging information in cancer patients depends on trustworthy and consistently applied protocols. This issue has current relevance in drug discovery and development, where PET/CT imaging with FDG and other radiotracers is viewed by the pharmaceutical industry as potentially useful for shortening the process of clinical validation of new drugs

  13. SURF: Taking Sustainable Remediation from Concept to Standard Operating Procedure (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. M.; Wice, R. B.; Torrens, J.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decade, many sectors of industrialized society have been rethinking behavior and re-engineering practices to reduce consumption of energy and natural resources. During this time, green and sustainable remediation (GSR) has evolved from conceptual discussions to standard operating procedure for many environmental remediation practitioners. Government agencies and private sector entities have incorporated GSR metrics into their performance criteria and contracting documents. One of the early think tanks for the development of GSR was the Sustainable Remediation Forum (SURF). SURF brings together representatives of government, industry, consultancy, and academia to parse the means and ends of incorporating societal and economic considerations into environmental cleanup projects. Faced with decades-old treatment programs with high energy outputs and no endpoints in sight, a small group of individuals published the institutional knowledge gathered in two years of ad hoc meetings into a 2009 White Paper on sustainable remediation drivers, practices, objectives, and case studies. Since then, SURF has expanded on those introductory topics, publishing its Framework for Integrating Sustainability into Remediation Projects, Guidance for Performing Footprint Analyses and Life-Cycle Assessments for the Remediation Industry, a compendium of metrics, and a call to improve the integration of land remediation and reuse. SURF's research and members have also been instrumental in the development of additional guidance through ASTM International and the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council. SURF's current efforts focus on water reuse, the international perspective on GSR (continuing the conversations that were the basis of SURF's December 2012 meeting at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC), and ways to capture and evaluate the societal benefits of site remediation. SURF also promotes and supports student chapters at universities across the US

  14. Effect of mobile unidirectional air flow unit on microbial contamination of air in standard urologic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Stefania; Pasquarella, Cesira; Fornia, Samanta; Saccani, Elisa; Signorelli, Carlo; Vitali, Pietro; Sansebastiano, Giuliano Ezio

    2009-12-01

    Infection is one of the most feared complications of surgery. New instrumentation is being developed to reduce deposition of bacteria. We investigated 45 major surgical procedures (21 radical nephrectomies [RN] and 24 radical retropubic prostatectomies [RRP]) in our urology department during 2007. In about one-half of the interventions, an ultraclean air flow mobile (UAF) unit was used. Bacterial sedimentation was evaluated by nitrocellulose membranes placed on the instrument tray and by settle plates positioned at four points in the operating room. In 27 operations, an additional membrane was located near the incision. Bacterial counts on the nitrocellulose membranes during RN were 230 colony-forming units (cfu)/m(2)/h with the UAF unit and 2,254 cfu/m(2)/h without the unit (p = 0.001). During RRP, the values were 288 cfu/m(2)/h and 3,126 cfu/m(2)/h respectively (p = 0.001). The membrane placed near the incision during RN showed a microbial count of 1,235 cfu/m(2)/h with the UAF unit and 5,093 cfu/m(2)/h without the unit (p = 0.002); during RRP, the values were 1,845 cfu/m(2)/h and 3,790 cfu/m(2)/h, respectively (difference not significant). Bacterial contamination detected by settle plates during RN showed a mean value of 2,273 cfu/m(2)/h when the UAF unit was used and 2,054 cfu/m(2)/h without the unit; during RRP, the values were 2,332 cfu/m(2)/h and 2,629 cfu/m(2)/h with and without the UAF unit, respectively (NS). No statistically significant differences were detected in the clinical data registered in patients operated on under standard conditions and while the UAF unit was functioning. The UAF appears able to reduce microbial contamination at the operating table, reaching a bacterial number obtained in ultraclean operating theatres.

  15. Standardization and validation of a cytometric bead assay to assess antibodies to multiple Plasmodium falciparum recombinant antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondigo, Bartholomew N; Park, Gregory S; Gose, Severin O; Ho, Benjamin M; Ochola, Lyticia A; Ayodo, George O; Ofulla, Ayub V; John, Chandy C

    2012-12-21

    Multiplex cytometric bead assay (CBA) have a number of advantages over ELISA for antibody testing, but little information is available on standardization and validation of antibody CBA to multiple Plasmodium falciparum antigens. The present study was set to determine optimal parameters for multiplex testing of antibodies to P. falciparum antigens, and to compare results of multiplex CBA to ELISA. Antibodies to ten recombinant P. falciparum antigens were measured by CBA and ELISA in samples from 30 individuals from a malaria endemic area of Kenya and compared to known positive and negative control plasma samples. Optimal antigen amounts, monoplex vs multiplex testing, plasma dilution, optimal buffer, number of beads required were assessed for CBA testing, and results from CBA vs. ELISA testing were compared. Optimal amounts for CBA antibody testing differed according to antigen. Results for monoplex CBA testing correlated strongly with multiplex testing for all antigens (r = 0.88-0.99, P values from <0.0001 - 0.004), and antibodies to variants of the same antigen were accurately distinguished within a multiplex reaction. Plasma dilutions of 1:100 or 1:200 were optimal for all antigens for CBA testing. Plasma diluted in a buffer containing 0.05% sodium azide, 0.5% polyvinylalcohol, and 0.8% polyvinylpyrrolidone had the lowest background activity. CBA median fluorescence intensity (MFI) values with 1,000 antigen-conjugated beads/well did not differ significantly from MFI with 5,000 beads/well. CBA and ELISA results correlated well for all antigens except apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1). CBA testing produced a greater range of values in samples from malaria endemic areas and less background reactivity for blank samples than ELISA. With optimization, CBA may be the preferred method of testing for antibodies to P. falciparum antigens, as CBA can test for antibodies to multiple recombinant antigens from a single plasma sample and produces a greater range of values in

  16. Interim radiological safety standards and evaluation procedures for subseabed high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klett, R.D.

    1997-06-01

    The Seabed Disposal Project (SDP) was evaluating the technical feasibility of high-level nuclear waste disposal in deep ocean sediments. Working standards were needed for risk assessments, evaluation of alternative designs, sensitivity studies, and conceptual design guidelines. This report completes a three part program to develop radiological standards for the feasibility phase of the SDP. The characteristics of subseabed disposal and how they affect the selection of standards are discussed. General radiological protection standards are reviewed, along with some new methods, and a systematic approach to developing standards is presented. The selected interim radiological standards for the SDP and the reasons for their selection are given. These standards have no legal or regulatory status and will be replaced or modified by regulatory agencies if subseabed disposal is implemented. 56 refs., 29 figs., 15 tabs

  17. Evaluation of the ISO standard 11063 DNA extraction procedure for assessing soil microbial abundance and community structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Plassart

    Full Text Available Soil DNA extraction has become a critical step in describing microbial biodiversity. Historically, ascertaining overarching microbial ecological theories has been hindered as independent studies have used numerous custom and commercial DNA extraction procedures. For that reason, a standardized soil DNA extraction method (ISO-11063 was previously published. However, although this ISO method is suited for molecular tools such as quantitative PCR and community fingerprinting techniques, it has only been optimized for examining soil bacteria. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess an appropriate soil DNA extraction procedure for examining bacterial, archaeal and fungal diversity in soils of contrasting land-use and physico-chemical properties. Three different procedures were tested: the ISO-11063 standard; a custom procedure (GnS-GII; and a modified ISO procedure (ISOm which includes a different mechanical lysis step (a FastPrep ®-24 lysis step instead of the recommended bead-beating. The efficacy of each method was first assessed by estimating microbial biomass through total DNA quantification. Then, the abundances and community structure of bacteria, archaea and fungi were determined using real-time PCR and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism approaches. Results showed that DNA yield was improved with the GnS-GII and ISOm procedures, and fungal community patterns were found to be strongly dependent on the extraction method. The main methodological factor responsible for differences between extraction procedure efficiencies was found to be the soil homogenization step. For integrative studies which aim to examine bacteria, archaea and fungi simultaneously, the ISOm procedure results in higher DNA recovery and better represents microbial communities.

  18. Standard Operating Procedures for Preparing and Handling Sterile Male Tsetse flies for Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argiles-Herrero, Rafa; Leak, Stephen G.A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this SOP is to describe the procedures involved in preparing tsetse flies reared in a breeding facility for release in the field for the sterile insect technique (SIT) as a component of Area-Wide Insect pest Management (AW-IPM). Following the procedures which are outlined will help to ensure that the released sterile male tsetse flies are of optimal quality.

  19. Standard operating procedure for combustion of 14C - samples with OX-500 biological material oxidizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat.

    1995-01-01

    This procedure is for the purpose of safe operation of OX-500 biological material oxidizer. For ease of operation, the operation flow chart (including testing the system and sample combustion) and end of day maintenance flow chart were simplified. The front view, diagrams and switches are duly copied from operating manual. Steps on sample preparation are also included for biotic and a biotic samples. This operating procedure is subjected to future reviews

  20. Validation of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing assay with 49 SNPs for forensic genetic testing in a laboratory accredited according to the ISO 17025 standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Rockenbauer, Eszter; Morling, Niels

    2009-01-01

    cases and 33 twin cases were typed at least twice for the 49 SNPs. All electropherograms were analysed independently by two expert analysts prior to approval. Based on these results, detailed guidelines for analysis of the SBE products were developed. With these guidelines, the peak height ratio...... of a heterozygous allele call or the signal to noise ratio of a homozygous allele call is compared with previously obtained ratios. A laboratory protocol for analysis of SBE products was developed where allele calls with unusual ratios were highlighted to facilitate the analysis of difficult allele calls......A multiplex assay with 49 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) developed for human identification was validated for forensic genetic casework and accredited according to the ISO 17025 standard. The multiplex assay was based on the SNPforID 52plex SNP assay [J.J. Sanchez, C. Phillips, C...

  1. PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS COMPLIANCE WITH QUALITY STANDARDS OFFER OF THE BUFFET RESTAURANT CASONA MELIA SANTIAGO DE CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Parada-Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The company hotel Cuban faces the challenge of the competitiveness and the client’s satisfaction in an environment that demands of actions that they assure the quality. This article has as objective to show the application of a procedure for the evaluation of the standards of quality of the offer in the restaurant buffet La Casona of the Hotel Meliá Santiago de Cuba. The results achieved by the application of the procedure allow to perfect the process of taking of decisions and it contributes to the efficiency of the hotel and the elevation of the quality of the service. 

  2. 24 CFR 200.942 - Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building product standards and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Standards, Washington, DC 20234. The standards are also available for inspection at the National Archives... 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr... manufacturer, i.e., brought in the market place from distributors or stores, not from the factory. The...

  3. Comparison of mRNA splicing assay protocols across multiple laboratories: recommendations for best practice in standardized clinical testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Phillip J; de la Hoya, Miguel; Thomassen, Mads; Becker, Alexandra; Brandão, Rita; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Montagna, Marco; Menéndez, Mireia; Quiles, Francisco; Gutiérrez-Enríquez, Sara; De Leeneer, Kim; Tenés, Anna; Montalban, Gemma; Tserpelis, Demis; Yoshimatsu, Toshio; Tirapo, Carole; Raponi, Michela; Caldes, Trinidad; Blanco, Ana; Santamariña, Marta; Guidugli, Lucia; de Garibay, Gorka Ruiz; Wong, Ming; Tancredi, Mariella; Fachal, Laura; Ding, Yuan Chun; Kruse, Torben; Lattimore, Vanessa; Kwong, Ava; Chan, Tsun Leung; Colombo, Mara; De Vecchi, Giovanni; Caligo, Maria; Baralle, Diana; Lázaro, Conxi; Couch, Fergus; Radice, Paolo; Southey, Melissa C; Neuhausen, Susan; Houdayer, Claude; Fackenthal, Jim; Hansen, Thomas Van Overeem; Vega, Ana; Diez, Orland; Blok, Rien; Claes, Kathleen; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Walker, Logan; Spurdle, Amanda B; Brown, Melissa A

    2014-02-01

    Accurate evaluation of unclassified sequence variants in cancer predisposition genes is essential for clinical management and depends on a multifactorial analysis of clinical, genetic, pathologic, and bioinformatic variables and assays of transcript length and abundance. The integrity of assay data in turn relies on appropriate assay design, interpretation, and reporting. We conducted a multicenter investigation to compare mRNA splicing assay protocols used by members of the ENIGMA (Evidence-Based Network for the Interpretation of Germline Mutant Alleles) consortium. We compared similarities and differences in results derived from analysis of a panel of breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) and breast cancer 2, early onset (BRCA2) gene variants known to alter splicing (BRCA1: c.135-1G>T, c.591C>T, c.594-2A>C, c.671-2A>G, and c.5467+5G>C and BRCA2: c.426-12_8delGTTTT, c.7988A>T, c.8632+1G>A, and c.9501+3A>T). Differences in protocols were then assessed to determine which elements were critical in reliable assay design. PCR primer design strategies, PCR conditions, and product detection methods, combined with a prior knowledge of expected alternative transcripts, were the key factors for accurate splicing assay results. For example, because of the position of primers and PCR extension times, several isoforms associated with BRCA1, c.594-2A>C and c.671-2A>G, were not detected by many sites. Variation was most evident for the detection of low-abundance transcripts (e.g., BRCA2 c.8632+1G>A Δ19,20 and BRCA1 c.135-1G>T Δ5q and Δ3). Detection of low-abundance transcripts was sometimes addressed by using more analytically sensitive detection methods (e.g., BRCA2 c.426-12_8delGTTTT ins18bp). We provide recommendations for best practice and raise key issues to consider when designing mRNA assays for evaluation of unclassified sequence variants.

  4. A review on test procedure, energy efficiency standards and energy labels for room air conditioners and refrigerator-freezers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahlia, T.M.I.; Saidur, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2010-09-15

    Air conditioners and refrigerator-freezers are major energy users in a household environment and hence efficiency improvement of these appliances can be considered as an important step to reduce their energy consumption along with environmental pollution prevention. Energy efficiency standards and labels are commonly used tools to reduce the energy uses for household appliances for many countries around the world. The first step towards adopting energy efficiency standards is to establish a test procedure for rating and testing of an appliance. It may be mentioned that an energy test procedure is the technical foundation for energy efficiency standards, energy labels, and other related programs. This paper reviews requirements and specifications of various international test standards for testing and rating of room air conditioners and refrigerators. A review on the development of the energy efficiency standards has been provided as well. Finally, energy labels that provide some useful information for identifying energy efficient products have been reviewed for these appliances. It may be stated that the review will be useful for the developing countries who wish to develop these energy savings strategies. It is also expected to be useful to revise the existing strategies for a few selected countries who already implemented these strategies earlier. (author)

  5. Extended device profiles and testing procedures for the approval process of integrated medical devices using the IEEE 11073 communication standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janß, Armin; Thorn, Johannes; Schmitz, Malte; Mildner, Alexander; Dell'Anna-Pudlik, Jasmin; Leucker, Martin; Radermacher, Klaus

    2018-02-23

    Nowadays, only closed and proprietary integrated operating room systems (IORS) from big manufacturers are available on the market. Hence, the interconnection of components from third-party vendors is only possible with increased time and costs. In the context of the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF)-funded project OR.NET (2012-2016), the open integration of medical devices from different manufacturers was addressed. An integrated operating theater based on the open communication standard IEEE 11073 shall give clinical operators the opportunity to choose medical devices independently of the manufacturer. This approach would be advantageous especially for hospital operators and small- and medium-sized enterprises (SME) of medical devices. Actual standards and concepts regarding technical feasibility and the approval process do not cope with the requirements for a modular integration of medical devices in the operating room (OR), based on an open communication standard. Therefore, innovative approval strategies and corresponding certification and test procedures, which cover actual legal and normative standards, have to be developed in order to support the future risk management and the usability engineering process of open integrated medical devices in the OR. The use of standardized device and service profiles and a three-step testing procedure, including conformity, interoperability and integration tests are described in this paper and shall support the manufacturers to integrate their medical devices without disclosing the medical devices' risk analysis and related confidential expertise or proprietary information.

  6. Harmonization of radiobiological assays: why and how?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasanna, Pataje G.

    2014-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency has made available a technical manual for cytogenetic biodosimetry assays (dicentric chromosome aberration (DCA) and cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assays) used for radiation dose assessment in radiation accidents. The International Standardization Organization, which develops standards and guidelines, also provides an avenue for laboratory accreditation, has developed guidelines and recommendations for performing cytogenetic biodosimetry assays. Harmonization of DCA and CBMN assays, has improved their accuracy. Double-blinded inter-laboratory comparison studies involving several networks have further validated DCA and CBMN assays and improved the confidence in their potential use for radiation dose assessment in mass casualties. This kind of international harmonization is lacking for pre-clinical radiobiology assays. The widely used pre-clinical assays that are relatively important to set stage for clinical trials include clonogenic assays, flow-cytometry assays, apoptotic assays, and tumor regression and growth delay assays. However, significant inter-laboratory variations occur with respect to data among laboratories. This raises concerns on the reliability and reproducibility of preclinical data that drives further development and translation. Lack of reproducibility may stem from a variety of factors such as poor scientist training, less than optimal experimental design, inadequate description of methodology, and impulse to publish only the positive data etc. Availability of technical manuals, standard operating procedures, accreditation avenues for laboratories performing such assays, inter-laboratory comparisons, and use of standardized protocols are necessary to enhance reliability and reproducibility. Thus, it is important that radiobiological assays are harmonized for laboratory protocols to ensure successful translation of pre-clinical research on radiation effect modulators to help design clinic trials with

  7. 47 CFR 22.150 - Standard pre-filing technical coordination procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... this procedure for specific channels and types of stations are contained in the subparts governing the..., emission type and polarization. (4) Transmitting antenna pattern and maximum gain. (5) Transmitting antenna..., even if no channel usage conflicts are anticipated. If any notified party fails to respond within 30...

  8. 46 CFR 164.019-7 - Non-standard components; acceptance criteria and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... must include a description of the quality control procedures that will be in effect during production... oversight of the manufacturer's program of production quality control, including a description of the... the case of textiles. (5) The request must include a list of all materials used in the construction of...

  9. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR CONDUCTING INTERNAL FIELD AUDITS AND QUALITY CONTROL (SOP-2.25)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP describes the method for conducting internal field audits and quality control procedures. Internal field audits will be conducted to ensure the collection of high quality data. Internal field audits will be conducted by Field Auditors (the Field QA Officer and the Field...

  10. 46 CFR 160.055-9 - Procedure for approval-standard and nonstandard life preservers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... design shall follow the procedures of subpart 159.005 of this chapter, as explained in § 160.001-3 of... manufacturer by the Coast Guard for a nonstandard life preserver approved after tests. (d) Private brand labels. Private brand labels are those bearing the name and address of a distributor in lieu of the manufacturer...

  11. 12 CFR 616.6300 - Leasing policies, procedures, and underwriting standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... property and associated risks; (e) Property tax and sales tax reporting; (f) Title and ownership of leased... engaged in lease underwriting must adopt a written policy (or policies). Management, at the direction of the board, must develop procedures that reflect lease practices that control risk and comply with all...

  12. Effects of Computer-Based Training on Procedural Modifications to Standard Functional Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Lauren K.; Sidener, Tina M.; DeBar, Ruth M.; Vladescu, Jason C.; Kahng, SungWoo

    2018-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated methods for training decision-making when functional analysis data are undifferentiated. The current study evaluated computer-based training to teach 20 graduate students to arrange functional analysis conditions, analyze functional analysis data, and implement procedural modifications. Participants were exposed to…

  13. 75 FR 34064 - Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards, Test Procedures for Roof Trusses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... failure. Failure is rupture, fracture, or excessive yielding. (v) Final recovery phase. Remove 2.0 times... members of the public. Commenters should follow the instructions provided on that site to submit comments... nondestructive testing procedure for roof trusses that permits a lower overall factor of safety to be used in...

  14. Development and testing of standardized procedures and reference data for LWR surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, W.N.

    1979-02-01

    The resources and talents of many national and international organizations and laboratories, both governmental and industrial, are being used to establish analysis methods for predicting the embrittlement condition of light water reactor (LWR) primary systems. The exact interrelationships and responsibilities between those developing, understanding, combining, and applying state-of-the-art technology in dosimetry, metallurgy, and fracture mechanics for reactor systems analysis are being carefully reviewed and studied. This has resulted in a more comprehensive definition of the scope of new and updated ASTM standards required for the analysis and interpretation of LWR pressure vessel surveillance results. Fifteen new and updated ASTM standards have now been identified, together with a restructuring of the main interfaces between the individual standard practices, guides, and methods. The paper briefly discusses these standards and the initial results of multi-laboratory research work involved in their validation and calibration

  15. Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems recommendation for space data system standards: Telecommand. Part 2.1: Command operation procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This recommendation contains the detailed specification of the logic required to carry out the Command Operations Procedures of the Transfer Layer. The Recommendation for Telecommand--Part 2, Data Routing Service contains the standard data structures and data communication procedures used by the intermediate telecommand system layers (the Transfer and Segmentation Layers). In particular, it contains a brief description of the Command Operations Procedures (COP) within the Transfer Layer. This recommendation contains the detailed definition of the COP's in the form of state tables, along with definitions of the terms used. It is assumed that the reader of this document is familiar with the data structures and terminology of part 2. In case of conflict between the description of the COP's in part 2 and in this recommendation, the definition in this recommendation will take precedence. In particular, this document supersedes section 4.3.3.1 through 4.3.3.4 of part 2.

  16. Influence of new customs procedures and logistic security standards on companies competiveness – a Croatian company case study

    OpenAIRE

    Erceg, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    In today’s global market, companies are constantly confronted with the competition on the local, national and international level. Companies therefore use a variety of strategies and tools to become and/or remain competitive. Potential areas for cost reduction in companies are supply chain management and logistic and customs procedures. Implementation of various logistic standards in supply chain management can provide significant cost savings for the company’s daily operations an...

  17. Sexual Desire and Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder in Women. Introduction and Overview. Standard Operating Procedure (SOP Part 1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bitzer, Johannes; Giraldi, Annamaria; Pfaus, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Introduction.  Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is defined in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition as persistent or recurrent deficiency (or absence) of sexual fantasies/thoughts, and/or desire for or receptivity to sexual activity, which causes personal...... must be based on a biopsychosocial, multidimensional, and integrative perspective. Bitzer J, Giraldi A, and Pfaus J. Sexual desire and hypoactive sexual desire disorder in women. Introduction and overview. Standard operating procedure (SOP part 1). J Sex Med **;**:**-**....

  18. 77 FR 65823 - Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 87 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2010-0687; FRL-9678-1] RIN 2060-AO70 Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures Correction In rule document 2012-13828 appearing on pages 36341-36386 in the issue of Monday, June 18, 2012, make the following corrections: Sec. 87.2...

  19. Size- and coating-dependent cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles evaluated using in vitro standard assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoqing; Li, Yan; Yan, Jian; Ingle, Taylor; Jones, Margie Yvonne; Mei, Nan; Boudreau, Mary D; Cunningham, Candice K; Abbas, Mazhar; Paredes, Angel M; Zhou, Tong; Moore, Martha M; Howard, Paul C; Chen, Tao

    2016-11-01

    The physicochemical characteristics of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) may greatly alter their toxicological potential. To explore the effects of size and coating on the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of AgNPs, six different types of AgNPs, having three different sizes and two different coatings, were investigated using the Ames test, mouse lymphoma assay (MLA) and in vitro micronucleus assay. The genotoxicities of silver acetate and silver nitrate were evaluated to compare the genotoxicity of nanosilver to that of ionic silver. The Ames test produced inconclusive results for all types of the silver materials due to the high toxicity of silver to the test bacteria and the lack of entry of the nanoparticles into the cells. Treatment of L5718Y cells with AgNPs and ionic silver resulted in concentration-dependent cytotoxicity, mutagenicity in the Tk gene and the induction of micronuclei from exposure to nearly every type of the silver materials. Treatment of TK6 cells with these silver materials also resulted in concentration-dependent cytotoxicity and significantly increased micronucleus frequency. With both the MLA and micronucleus assays, the smaller the AgNPs, the greater the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. The coatings had less effect on the relative genotoxicity of AgNPs than the particle size. Loss of heterozygosity analysis of the induced Tk mutants indicated that the types of mutations induced by AgNPs were different from those of ionic silver. These results suggest that AgNPs induce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in a size- and coating-dependent manner. Furthermore, while the MLA and in vitro micronucleus assay (in both types of cells) are useful to quantitatively measure the genotoxic potencies of AgNPs, the Ames test cannot.

  20. Proposal evaluation tool of standards and procedures for breast cancer in the province of Cienfuegos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraga Suarez, Omayda; Sabates Llerandi, Teresita; Arnot Silvera, Rogelio; Torres Aja, Lidia

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most frequent malignancies Although Cuba and be a program with rules and procedures established a high number of women will die from cause. Objectives, design an instrument to assess compliance with the rules and procedures of breast cancer in Cienfuegos Province. Methodological design, a study was conducted descriptive, during the time period from January 2007 to January 2008, whose study group consisted of 55 women diagnosed with breast cancer at the 'Hospital Universitario Dr. Gustavo Lima Aldereguia' of Cienfuegos, the research was divided into three stages: general characterization, design of an assessment tool, criterion validation by external evaluators. Methods were used theoretical, empirical and mathematical statistics. Results, the stadiums most representative were II and III, there are delays in the performance definitive surgery, radical surgical treatments prevail, delays in the initiation of chemotherapy. Findings, there difficulties in adherence and compliance and therapeutic procedures established in the province of Cienfuegos, by which an instrument was designed for evaluation. (Author)

  1. Standardization of the CFU-GM assay: Advantages of plating a fixed number of CD34+ cells in collagen gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobo, Irène; Pineau, Danielle; Robillard, Nelly; Geneviève, Frank; Piard, Nicole; Zandecki, Marc; Hermouet, Sylvie

    2003-10-01

    We investigated whether plating a stable amount of CD34(+) cells improves the CFU-GM assay. Data of CFU-GM assays performed with leukaphereses products in two transplant centers using a commercial collagen-based medium and unified CFU-GM scoring criteria were pooled and analyzed according to the numbers of CD34(+) cells plated. A first series of 113 CFU-GM assays was performed with a fixed number of mononuclear cells (i.e., a variable number of CD34(+) cells). In these cultures the CFU-GM/CD34 ratio varied according to the number of CD34(+) cells plated: median CFUGM/CD34 ratios were 1/6.2 to 1/6.6 for grafts containing or =2% CD34(+) cells. The median CFU-GM/CD34 ratio also varied depending on pathology: 1/9.3 for multiple myeloma (MM), 1/6.8 for Hodgkin's disease (HD), 1/6.5 for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and 1/4.5 for solid tumors (ST). A second series of 95 CFU-GM assays was performed with a fixed number of CD34(+) cells (220/ml). The range of median CFU-GM/CD34 ratios was narrowed to 1/7.0 to 1/5.2, and coefficients of variation for CFU-GM counts decreased by half to 38.1% (NHL), 36.1% (MM), 49.9% (HD), and 22.4% (ST). In addition, CFU-GM scoring was facilitated as the percentages of cultures with >50 CFU/GM/ml decreased from 6.7% to 43.8% when a variable number of CD34(+) cells was plated, to 4.5% to 16.7% when 220 CD34(+) cells/ml were plated. Hence, plating a fixed number of CD34(+) cells in collagen gels improves the CFU-GM assay by eliminating cell number-related variability and reducing pathology-related variability in colony growth.

  2. The advantages of using standardized review procedures in certifying type B radioactive material packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easton, E.P.; Faille, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the advantages of adopting well-documented standardized review practices for reviewing Type B package designs. The US experience using standardized review plans and guidance has shown them to be a valuable tool in achieving more consistent and efficient package reviews, in training and qualifying technical reviewers, and in enhancing public and industry understanding of the package certification process. In addition, the standardized review practices, as living documents, have proven to be an effective method of incorporating new technical advances into the review process, and have provided a vehicle to make that knowledge widely available to fellow reviewers, the public and industry. Canada implemented a new internal review process in early 2003 to standardize the review of applications for certification of Type B Packages. Based on the similarity of these approaches, the United States and Canada have started discussions on a A North American System for the unilateral approval of Type B (U) packages. This initiative is looking into how each country is currently reviewing transportation package applications to see if agreement can be reached on accepting Type B certifications on a reciprocal basis, i.e., without additional review. Based on the experience in Canada and the United States, the authors believe that the use of standardized review processes, coupled with the knowledge and experience resident in IAEA's Transportation Advisory Material (TS-G-1.1) and series of TECDOCS, could also be used to develop a standard internationally accepted review process that could enhance the acceptance of unilateral approvals for Type B packages

  3. The advantages of using standardized review procedures in certifying type B radioactive material packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easton, E.P. [United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Faille, S. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the advantages of adopting well-documented standardized review practices for reviewing Type B package designs. The US experience using standardized review plans and guidance has shown them to be a valuable tool in achieving more consistent and efficient package reviews, in training and qualifying technical reviewers, and in enhancing public and industry understanding of the package certification process. In addition, the standardized review practices, as living documents, have proven to be an effective method of incorporating new technical advances into the review process, and have provided a vehicle to make that knowledge widely available to fellow reviewers, the public and industry. Canada implemented a new internal review process in early 2003 to standardize the review of applications for certification of Type B Packages. Based on the similarity of these approaches, the United States and Canada have started discussions on a A North American System for the unilateral approval of Type B (U) packages. This initiative is looking into how each country is currently reviewing transportation package applications to see if agreement can be reached on accepting Type B certifications on a reciprocal basis, i.e., without additional review. Based on the experience in Canada and the United States, the authors believe that the use of standardized review processes, coupled with the knowledge and experience resident in IAEA's Transportation Advisory Material (TS-G-1.1) and series of TECDOCS, could also be used to develop a standard internationally accepted review process that could enhance the acceptance of unilateral approvals for Type B packages.

  4. A standardized procedure for eddy-current testing of stainless steel, thin-walled nuclear fuel element cladding tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barat, P.; Raj, B.; Bhattacharya, D.K.

    1982-01-01

    Thin-walled nuclear fuel cladding tubes made of AISI 316 stainless steel have been examined by eddy-current testing. Standardization of the procedures has required investigations on optimizing the test frequency, finding a method to locate a defect with respect to the probe reference end, and the use of standard defects and sequential metallography of natural defects detected by eddy-current testing, to understand the influence of the nature of defects on the impedance output signals. Test frequency and method of locating the defect were optimized by the use of standard defects made by machining in reference cladding tubes. Subsequent metallography of natural defects detected by eddy-current testing revealed mainly clusters of inclusions but also other types of defects. The effect of the distribution of inclusions along the length of the tube on the impedance output is discussed. (author)

  5. Standardized procedure for eddy-current testing of stainless steel, thin-walled nuclear fuel element cladding tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barat, P; Raj, B; Bhattacharya, D K [Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam (India)

    1982-10-01

    Thin-walled nuclear fuel cladding tubes made of AISI 316 stainless steel have been examined by eddy-current testing. Standardization of the procedures has required investigations on optimizing the test frequency, finding a method to locate a defect with respect to the probe reference end, and the use of standard defects and sequential metallography of natural defects detected by eddy-current testing, to understand the influence of the nature of defects on the impedance output signals. Test frequency and method of locating the defect were optimized by the use of standard defects made by machining in reference cladding tubes. Subsequent metallography of natural defects detected by eddy-current testing revealed mainly clusters of inclusions but also other types of defects. The effect of the distribution of inclusions along the length of the tube on the impedance output is discussed.

  6. 78 FR 26103 - Proposed Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) of the Aircraft Certification Service (AIR) Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... data, views, or arguments to the above listed address. Please identify ``SOP: AIR-100-001 Standard... Certification Offices (ACOs). The certification programs include: Type certificate (TC), Amended Type Certificate (ATC), Supplemental Type Certificated ATC), Amended Supplemental Type Certificate (ASTC), and...

  7. Study on Design and Implementation of JAVA Programming Procedural Assessment Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingting, Xu; Hua, Ma; Xiujuan, Wang; Jing, Wang

    2015-01-01

    The traditional JAVA course examination is just a list of questions from which we cannot know students' skills of programming. According to the eight abilities in curriculum objectives, we designed an assessment standard of JAVA programming course that is based on employment orientation and apply it to practical teaching to check the teaching…

  8. Procedure for the standardized measure of the detective quantum efficiency in digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Martin, G.; Garcia Castano, P.; Bermudez Luna, R.; Fernandez Bedoya, V.; Espana Lopez, M. L.; Miquelez Alonso, S.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a simple guide for determining the DQE, according to the CEI, in those having mammography flat panel detectors, and highlight the main difficulties that may be in the process of the standardized measurement.

  9. Documentation for assessment of modal pushover-based scaling procedure for nonlinear response history analysis of "ordinary standard" bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Erol; Kwong, Neal S.

    2010-01-01

    The earthquake engineering profession is increasingly utilizing nonlinear response history analyses (RHA) to evaluate seismic performance of existing structures and proposed designs of new structures. One of the main ingredients of nonlinear RHA is a set of ground-motion records representing the expected hazard environment for the structure. When recorded motions do not exist (as is the case for the central United States), or when high-intensity records are needed (as is the case for San Francisco and Los Angeles), ground motions from other tectonically similar regions need to be selected and scaled. The modal-pushover-based scaling (MPS) procedure recently was developed to determine scale factors for a small number of records, such that the scaled records provide accurate and efficient estimates of 'true' median structural responses. The adjective 'accurate' refers to the discrepancy between the benchmark responses and those computed from the MPS procedure. The adjective 'efficient' refers to the record-to-record variability of responses. Herein, the accuracy and efficiency of the MPS procedure are evaluated by applying it to four types of existing 'ordinary standard' bridges typical of reinforced-concrete bridge construction in California. These bridges are the single-bent overpass, multi span bridge, curved-bridge, and skew-bridge. As compared to benchmark analyses of unscaled records using a larger catalog of ground motions, it is demonstrated that the MPS procedure provided an accurate estimate of the engineering demand parameters (EDPs) accompanied by significantly reduced record-to-record variability of the responses. Thus, the MPS procedure is a useful tool for scaling ground motions as input to nonlinear RHAs of 'ordinary standard' bridges.

  10. Detection and characterization of recombinant DNA expressing vip3A-type insecticidal gene in GMOs--standard single, multiplex and construct-specific PCR assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chandra K; Ojha, Abhishek; Bhatanagar, Raj K; Kachru, Devendra N

    2008-01-01

    Vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip), a unique class of insecticidal protein, is now part of transgenic plants for conferring resistance against lepidopteron pests. In order to address the imminent regulatory need for detection and labeling of vip3A carrying genetically modified (GM) products, we have developed a standard single PCR and a multiplex PCR assay. As far as we are aware, this is the first report on PCR-based detection of a vip3A-type gene (vip-s) in transgenic cotton and tobacco. Our assay involves amplification of a 284-bp region of the vip-s gene. This assay can possibly detect as many as 20 natural wild-type isolates bearing a vip3A-like gene and two synthetic genes of vip3A in transgenic plants. The limit of detection as established by our assay for GM trait (vip-s) is 0.1%. Spiking with nontarget DNA originating from diverse plant sources had no inhibitory effect on vip-s detection. Since autoclaving of vip-s bearing GM leaf samples showed no deterioration/interference in detection efficacy, the assay seems to be suitable for processed food products as well. The vip-s amplicon identity was reconfirmed by restriction endonuclease assay. The primer set for vip-s was equally effective in a multiplex PCR assay format (duplex, triplex and quadruplex), used in conjunction with the primer sets for the npt-II selectable marker gene, Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and nopaline synthetase terminator, enabling concurrent detection of the transgene, regulatory sequences and marker gene. Further, the entire transgene construct was amplified using the forward primer of the promoter and the reverse primer of the terminator. The resultant amplicon served as a template for nested PCR to confirm the construct integrity. The method is suitable for screening any vip3A-carrying GM plant and food. The availability of a reliable PCR assay method prior to commercial release of vip3A-based transgenic crops and food would facilitate rapid and efficient regulatory

  11. NASA Safety Standard: Guidelines and Assessment Procedures for Limiting Orbital Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Collision with orbital debris is a hazard of growing concern as historically accepted practices and procedures have allowed man-made objects to accumulate in orbit. To limit future debris generation, NASA Management Instruction (NMI) 1700.8, 'Policy to Limit Orbital Debris Generation,' was issued in April of 1993. The NMI requires each program to conduct a formal assessment of the potential to generate orbital debris. This document serves as a companion to NMI 1700.08 and provides each NASA program with specific guidelines and assessment methods to assure compliance with the NMI. Each main debris assessment issue (e.g., Post Mission Disposal) is developed in a separate chapter.

  12. Standardization of solvent extraction procedure for determination of uranium in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukanta Maity; Sahu, S.K.; Pandit, G.G.

    2015-01-01

    Solvent extraction procedure using ammonium pyrolidine dithiocarbamate complexing agent in methyl isobutyl ketone organic phase and acid exchange back-extraction is described for the simultaneous quantitative pre-concentration of uranium in seawater followed by its determination by differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry. Solvent extraction time is optimized for extraction of uranium from seawater. Solvent extraction efficiency for uranium in seawater at different pH was carried out. The method gives a recovery of 98 ± 2 % for 400 mL sample at pH 3.0 ± 0.02, facilitating the rapid and interference free analysis of seawater samples. (author)

  13. Radiometric measurements on the fabrication of non-destructive assay standards for WIPP-Performance Demonstration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, A.S.; Marshall, R.S.

    1997-04-01

    The Inorganic Elemental Analysis Group of LANL has prepared several different sets of working reference materials (WRMs). These WRMs are prepared by blending quantities of nuclear materials (plutonium, americium, and enriched uranium) with diatomaceous earth. The blends are encapsulated in stainless steel cylinders. These WRMs are being measured as blind controls in neutron and gamma based non-destructive assay (NDA) instruments. Radiometric measurements on the blending homogeneity and verification on a set of sixty three plutonium based WRMs are discussed in this paper

  14. Developing standard performance testing procedures for MC and A components at a site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, Carolynn

    2010-01-01

    The condition of a nuclear material control and accountability system (MC and A) and its individual components, as with any system combining technical elements, documentation and the human factor, may be characterized through an aggregate of values for the various parameters that determine the system's ability to perform. The MC and A system's status may be functioning effectively, marginally or not functioning based on a summary of the values of the individual parameters. This work included a review of the following elements and subsystems or components for a material control and accountability system: (1) MC and A Elements: Information subsystem, Measurement subsystem, NM access subsystem, including a tamper-indicating device (TID) program, and Automated information-gathering subsystem; and (2) Detecting NM Loses Elements: Inventory differences, Shipper/receiver differences, Confirmatory measurements and differences with accounting data, and TID or seal violations. In order to detect the absence or loss of nuclear material there must be appropriate interactions among the elements and their respective subsystems (from the list above). Additionally this work includes a review of the status of regulatory requirements for the MC and A system components and potential criteria that support the evaluation of the performance of the listed components. The listed components had performance testing algorithms and procedures developed that took into consideration the regulatory criteria. The developed MC and A performance-testing procedures were the basis for a pilot Guide for MC and A Performance Testing at the MBAs of SSC RF IPPE.

  15. Standardization of solvent extraction procedure for determination of uranium in sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maity, Sukanta; Dusane, C.B.; Sahu, S.K.; Pandit, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    Marine ecosystem is becoming polluted by heavy metals and naturally occurring radionuclides due to rapid industrialization and human activities. Many contaminants such as heavy metals and naturally occurring radionuclides though occur at extremely low concentration in sea water, are accumulated by marine organisms and concentrations in their body tissue can be hundreds of times greater than sea water. As human being consume different marine organisms like biota, can lead potential health problem to human being. Uranium is a naturally occurring radioactive element which is important for nuclear technology. However, mineral resources for uranium are limited. Seawater is a major source of uranium. The total estimated quantity of uranium in seawater is around four and a half billion tones. Thus, the oceans have the potential to become the most eco-friendly and long sustainable resource for uranium. A number of countries in the world are in search of techniques to recover uranium from seawater economically. For this purpose and also for the environmental monitoring, the determination of uranium in seawater is very much important. Seawater contains very high concentrations of salts and its uranium content is very low. Accordingly, the separation and preconcentration of uranium is usually involved in the analytical procedures used for the determination of uranium in seawater. In the present study solvent extraction procedure was adopted for the determination of uranium in sea water collected from different locations across Thane Creek area, Mumbai, India

  16. A Standardized Procedure for a Pre-evaluation of the IED Instance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panepinto, Deborah; Ruffino, Barbara; Zanetti, Mariachiara; Genon, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    This study presents a procedure, called EICS (Enterprise IPPC Compatibility Study) aimed at evaluating, by means of the calculation of three indexes, the compliance of the processes performed in an industrial plant with the guidelines provided by BREFs (BAT References) Documents. In fact, according to European Directive 2010/75/EU (concerning the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control and repealing European Directive 2008/01/EC), industrial plants must require authorizations to the competent authority stating the conformity of their activity, in order to obtain this conformity they are advised to Best Available Technologies (BAT). The aim of the BATs is to avoid or minimize the impact of an industrial activity on the environment through the prevention of the atmospheric emissions, wastewater discharge and energetic consumption, and the correct waste management thus improving the efficiency of the plant. The procedure shown in the present paper has been tested on several types of industrial plant (cement plants, secondary smelt foundries, paper-mill, and automotive industries as regards their paint lines). In this paper, the application of EICS method to a cement plant is presented: the obtained results highlight a good correlation between the index values and the real situation of the plant.

  17. “Heidelberg standard examination” and “Heidelberg standard procedures” – Development of faculty-wide standards for physical examination techniques and clinical procedures in undergraduate medical education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikendei, C.; Ganschow, P.; Groener, J. B.; Huwendiek, S.; Köchel, A.; Köhl-Hackert, N.; Pjontek, R.; Rodrian, J.; Scheibe, F.; Stadler, A.-K.; Steiner, T.; Stiepak, J.; Tabatabai, J.; Utz, A.; Kadmon, M.

    2016-01-01

    The competent physical examination of patients and the safe and professional implementation of clinical procedures constitute essential components of medical practice in nearly all areas of medicine. The central objective of the projects “Heidelberg standard examination” and “Heidelberg standard procedures”, which were initiated by students, was to establish uniform interdisciplinary standards for physical examination and clinical procedures, and to distribute them in coordination with all clinical disciplines at the Heidelberg University Hospital. The presented project report illuminates the background of the initiative and its methodological implementation. Moreover, it describes the multimedia documentation in the form of pocketbooks and a multimedia internet-based platform, as well as the integration into the curriculum. The project presentation aims to provide orientation and action guidelines to facilitate similar processes in other faculties. PMID:27579354

  18. Radioisotopic studies concerning the efficacy of standard washing procedures for the cleansing of hair before zinc analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, R.A.; Dreosti, I.E.

    1984-01-01

    Various standard procedures were investigated in relation to the removal of exogenously applied 65Zn from human hair and endogenously incorporated 65Zn from rat hair. Human hair was found to adsorb zinc and a variety of other metal ions from aqueous solutions in a manner which suggested some ion-exchange capacity. Uptake of zinc varied considerably between human hair samples, but in most cases accumulation of zinc occurred rapidly and often resulted in hair zinc levels several-fold higher than found in control samples. Extraction of zinc and other metal ions was greatest after treatment with disodium EDTA and sodium lauryl sulfate than after washing with water or aqueous Triton X-100. However, no procedure effectively removed all exogenous zinc, while all treatments extracted varying proportions of the endogenous zinc component. Because of the inability of standard washing procedures to remove exogenous zinc without reducing endogenous or indicator zinc levels, use of hair zinc analyses to indicate nutritional zinc status are inadvisable if hair zinc contamination is likely to have occurred

  19. The protection of juveniles under Cameroon criminal law and procedures through the lens of international standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ojong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available While the legislative framework on the adminitration of juvenile justice in Cameroon may currently be adequate and in compliance with the international conventions ratified by the State, the implementation of the national law should be the primary mechanism through which human rights are realized. Cameroon is usually said to be a State with good laws but poor implementation. With recourse to the normative and empirical methods, this article explores the provisions on the protection of juveniles in Cameroon criminal law and procedures through the lens of internationally recognized principles. It looks at the provisions as they are interpreted and applied by the Courts. The prospect being to invite the Government and all the stakeholders to embark on establishing the structures provided for and ensure effectiveness in the enforcement of juvenile justice in the country so as to overcome the current weaknesses that the system is experiencing.

  20. Control protocol: the proposed new CERN standard access procedure to accelerator equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baribaud, G.; Barnett, I.; Benincasa, G.

    1992-01-01

    Control protocol provides a normalized access procedure for equipment of the same kind from a control system. Modelisation and the subsequent identification of functionalities with their parameters, variables and attributes have now been carried out at CERN for representative families of devices. ISO specifications, such as the ASN.1 metalanguage for data structure representation and MMS definitions and services have, to some extent, been introduced in the design for generality and compatibility with external world. The final product of this design is totally independent of the control systems and permits object oriented implementations in any controls frame. The present paper describes the different phases of the project with a short overview of the various implementations under development at CERN. (author)

  1. Developing standard performance testing procedures for material control and accounting components at a site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, Carolynn P.; Bushlya, Anatoly V.; Efimenko, Vladimir F.; Ilyanstev, Anatoly; Regoushevsky, Victor I.

    2010-01-01

    The condition of a nuclear material control and accountability system (MC and A) and its individual components, as with any system combining technical elements and documentation, may be characterized through an aggregate of values for the various parameters that determine the system's ability to perform. The MC and A system's status may be functioning effectively, marginally or not functioning based on a summary of the values of the individual parameters. This work included a review of the following subsystems, MC and A and Detecting Material Losses, and their respective elements for the material control and accountability system: (a) Elements of the MC and A Subsystem - Information subsystem (Accountancy/Inventory), Measurement subsystem, Nuclear Material Access subsystem, including tamper-indicating device (TID) program, and Automated Information-gathering subsystem; (b) Elements for Detecting Nuclear Material Loses Subsystem - Inventory Differences, Shipper/receiver Differences, Confirmatory Measurements and differences with accounting data, and TID or Seal Violations. In order to detect the absence or loss of nuclear material there must be appropriate interactions among the elements and their respective subsystems from the list above. Additionally this work includes a review of regulatory requirements for the MC and A system component characteristics and criteria that support the evaluation of the performance of the listed components. The listed components had performance testing algorithms and procedures developed that took into consideration the regulatory criteria. The developed MC and A performance-testing procedures were the basis for a Guide for MC and A Performance Testing at the material balance areas (MBAs) of State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation - Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (SSC RF-IPPE).

  2. In vitro digestibility of individual amino acids in rumen-undegraded protein: the modified three-step procedure and the immobilized digestive enzyme assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, S E; Calsamiglia, S; Parsons, C M; Stern, M D; Moreno, M Ruiz; Vázquez-Añón, M; Schwab, C G

    2009-08-01

    Three soybean meal, 3 SoyPlus (West Central Cooperative, Ralston, IA), 5 distillers dried grains with solubles, and 5 fish meal samples were used to evaluate the modified 3-step in vitro procedure (TSP) and the in vitro immobilized digestive enzyme assay (IDEA; Novus International Inc., St. Louis, MO) for estimating digestibility of AA in rumen-undegraded protein (RUP-AA). In a previous experiment, each sample was ruminally incubated in situ for 16 h, and in vivo digestibility of AA in the intact samples and in the rumen-undegraded residues (RUR) was obtained for all samples using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay. For the modified TSP, 5 g of RUR was weighed into polyester bags, which were then heat-sealed and placed into Daisy(II) incubator bottles. Samples were incubated in a pepsin/HCl solution followed by incubation in a pancreatin solution. After this incubation, residues remaining in the bags were analyzed for AA, and digestibility of RUP-AA was calculated based on disappearance from the bags. In vitro RUP-AA digestibility estimates obtained with this procedure were highly correlated to in vivo estimates. Corresponding intact feeds were also analyzed via the pepsin/pancreatin steps of the modified TSP. In vitro estimates of AA digestibility of the feeds were highly correlated to in vivo RUP-AA digestibility, which suggests that the feeds may not need to be ruminally incubated before determining RUP-AA digestibility in vitro. The RUR were also analyzed via the IDEA kits. The IDEA values of the RUR were good predictors of RUP-AA digestibility in soybean meal, SoyPlus, and distillers dried grains with solubles, but the IDEA values were not as good predictors of RUP-AA digestibility in fish meal. However, the IDEA values of intact feed samples were also determined and were highly correlated to in vivo RUP-AA digestibility for all feed types, suggesting that the IDEA value of intact feeds may be a better predictor of RUP-AA digestibility than the IDEA

  3. The use of faces as stimuli in neuroimaging and psychological experiments: a procedure to standardize stimulus features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronenschild, Ed H B M; Smeets, Floortje; Vuurman, Eric F P M; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Jolles, Jelle

    2009-11-01

    In psychological experiments involving facial stimuli, it is of great importance that the basic perceptual or psychological characteristics that are investigated are not confounded by factors such as brightness and contrast, head size, hair cut and color, skin color, and the presence of glasses and earrings. Standardization of facial stimulus materials reduces the effect of these confounding factors. We therefore employed a set of basic image processing techniques to deal with this issue. The processed images depict the faces in grayscale, all at the same size, brightness, and contrast, and confined to an oval mask revealing only the basic features such as the eyes, nose, and mouth. The standardization was successfully applied to four different face databases, consisting of male and female faces and including neutral as well as happy facial expressions. An important advantage of the proposed standardization is that featural as well as configurational information is retained. We also consider the procedure to be a major contribution to the development of a de facto standard for the use of facial stimuli in psychological experiments. Such methodological standardization would allow a better comparison of the results of these studies.

  4. Establishment of an authenticated physical standard for gamma spectrometric determination of the U-235 content of MTR fuel and evaluation of measurement procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleck, C.M.

    1979-12-01

    Measurements of U-235 content in a standard MTR fuel element were carried out, using scintillation and semi-conductor spectrometers. Three different types of measurement were carried out: a) Comparison of different primary standards among one another and with single fuel plates. b) Calibration of the MTR fuel element as an authenticated physical standard. c) Evaluation of over all errors in assay measurements on MTR fuel elements. The error of the whole assay measurement will be approximately 0.9%. The Uranium distribution in the single fuel plates is the original source of error. In the case of equal Uranium contents in all fuel plates of one fuel assembly, the error of assay measurements would be about 0.3% relative to the primary standards

  5. Elaboration and implementation of standard operational procedure for quality assurance of cone beam CT image in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonatto, Larisse N.; Estacio, Daniela R.; Lopes, Juliane S.; Sansson, Angela; Duarte, Lucas O.; Sbaraini, Patricia; Silva, Ana M. Marques da; Streck, Elaine E.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present the implementation of the quality Control of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) image, generated by the On-Board Imager, integrated with the linear accelerator Trilogy. Standard operating procedures (POPs) have been developed based on the literature and manuals of the simulator object Catphan 504 and the On-Board Imager. The following POPs were developed: acquisition of the CBCT image; linearity of CT number; uniformity; spatial resolution; low contrast resolution; spatial linearity; thickness of the cut. The validation of the elaborated procedures was done from an experimental acquisition of the simulator object. The results obtained in the validation of the POPs are in compliance with the parameters established by the manufacturer of the simulator object, as well as those obtained in the acceptance of the On-Board Imager device.

  6. Colloidal Fouling of Nanofiltration Membranes: Development of a Standard Operating Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Abdullaha Al Mamun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fouling of nanofiltration (NF membranes is the most significant obstacle to the development of a sustainable and energy-efficient NF process. Colloidal fouling and performance decline in NF processes is complex due to the combination of cake formation and salt concentration polarization effects, which are influenced by the properties of the colloids and the membrane, the operating conditions of the test, and the solution chemistry. Although numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the influence of these parameters on the performance of the NF process, the importance of membrane preconditioning (e.g., compaction and equilibrating with salt water, as well as the determination of key parameters (e.g., critical flux and trans-membrane osmotic pressure before the fouling experiment have not been reported in detail. The aim of this paper is to present a standard experimental and data analysis protocol for NF colloidal fouling experiments. The developed methodology covers preparation and characterization of water samples and colloidal particles, pre-test membrane compaction and critical flux determination, measurement of experimental data during the fouling test, and the analysis of that data to determine the relative importance of various fouling mechanisms. The standard protocol is illustrated with data from a series of flat sheet, bench-scale experiments.

  7. Assessment of modal-pushover-based scaling procedure for nonlinear response history analysis of ordinary standard bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, E.; Kwong, N.

    2012-01-01

    The earthquake engineering profession is increasingly utilizing nonlinear response history analyses (RHA) to evaluate seismic performance of existing structures and proposed designs of new structures. One of the main ingredients of nonlinear RHA is a set of ground motion records representing the expected hazard environment for the structure. When recorded motions do not exist (as is the case in the central United States) or when high-intensity records are needed (as is the case in San Francisco and Los Angeles), ground motions from other tectonically similar regions need to be selected and scaled. The modal-pushover-based scaling (MPS) procedure was recently developed to determine scale factors for a small number of records such that the scaled records provide accurate and efficient estimates of “true” median structural responses. The adjective “accurate” refers to the discrepancy between the benchmark responses and those computed from the MPS procedure. The adjective “efficient” refers to the record-to-record variability of responses. In this paper, the accuracy and efficiency of the MPS procedure are evaluated by applying it to four types of existing Ordinary Standard bridges typical of reinforced concrete bridge construction in California. These bridges are the single-bent overpass, multi-span bridge, curved bridge, and skew bridge. As compared with benchmark analyses of unscaled records using a larger catalog of ground motions, it is demonstrated that the MPS procedure provided an accurate estimate of the engineering demand parameters (EDPs) accompanied by significantly reduced record-to-record variability of the EDPs. Thus, it is a useful tool for scaling ground motions as input to nonlinear RHAs of Ordinary Standard bridges.

  8. A comparison of titers of anti-Brucella antibodies of naturally infected and healthy vaccinated cattle by standard tube agglutination test, microtiter plate agglutination test, indirect hemagglutination assay, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Mohan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We determined the antibody response in cattle naturally infected with brucellosis and normal healthy adult cattle vaccinated during calf hood with strain 19. Materials and Methods: The antibody titers were measured by standard tube agglutination test (STAT, microtiter plate agglutination test (MAT, indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA as per standard protocols. Results: The mean STAT titers were 1.963±0.345 in infected cattle and 1.200±0.155 in healthy vaccinated cattle. The difference was extremely significant (p<0.0001. The mean MAT titers were 2.244±0.727 in infected cattle and 1.200±0.155 in healthy vaccinated cattle. The difference was very significant (p<0.005. The mean IHA titers in infected cattle were 2.284±0.574, and those in healthy vaccinated cattle were 1.200±0.155. The difference was extremely significant (p=0.0002. However, the difference in mean iELISA titers of infected cattle (1.3678±0.014 and healthy vaccinated cattle (1.367±0.014 was non-significant. The infected animals showed very high titers of agglutinating antibodies compared to the vaccinated animals. However, it cannot be ascertained whether these antibodies are due to vaccine or response to infection. Since the infected animals had been vaccinated earlier, the current infection may suggest that vaccination was unable to induce protective levels of antibody. The heightened antibody response after infection may also indicate a secondary immune response to the antigens common to the vaccine strain and wild Brucella organisms. Conclusion: The brucellosis infected animals showed very high titers of agglutinating antibodies compared to the vaccinated animals.

  9. Development and Evaluation of a Duplex Real-Time PCR Assay With a Novel Internal Standard for Precise Quantification of Plasma DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dan; Pan, Shiyang; Xie, Erfu; Gao, Li; Xu, Huaguo; Xia, Wenying; Xu, Ting; Huang, Peijun

    2017-01-01

    Circulating levels of cell-free DNA increase in many pathologic conditions. However, notable discrepancies in the quantitative analysis of cell-free DNA from a large number of laboratories have become a considerable pitfall, hampering its clinical application. We designed a novel recombinant DNA fragment that could be applied as an internal standard in a newly developed and validated duplex real-time PCR assay for the quantitative analysis of total cell-free plasma DNA, which was tested in 5,442 healthy adults and 200 trauma patients. Compared with two traditional methods, this novel assay showed a lower detection limit of 0.1 ng/mL, lower intra- and inter-assay CVs, and higher accuracy in the recovery test. The median plasma DNA concentration of healthy males (20.3 ng/mL, n=3,092) was significantly higher than that of healthy females (16.1 ng/mL, n=2,350) (Mann-Whitney two-sample rank sum test, PDNA concentration were 0-45.8 ng/mL and 0-52.5 ng/mL for healthy females and males, respectively. The plasma DNA concentrations of the majority of trauma patients (96%) were higher than the upper normal cutoff values and were closely related to the corresponding injury severity scores (R²=0.916, PDNA, showing promising application in clinical diagnosis.

  10. STANDARDIZATION OF PROCEDURES OF Plasmodium falciparum ANTIGEN PREPARATION FOR SEROLOGIC TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra L.M. AVILA

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to standardize the technical variables for preparation and storage of Plasmodium falciparum and of antigen components extracted with the amphoteric detergent Zwittergent. P. falciparum obtained from in vitro culture was stored at different temperatures and for different periods of time. For each variable, antigen components of the parasite were extracted in the presence or absence of protease inhibitors and submitted or not to later dialysis. Products were stored for 15, 30 and 60 days at different temperatures and immunological activity of each extract was determined by SDS-PAGE and ELISA using positive or negative standard sera for the presence of IgG directed to blood stage antigens of P. falciparum. Antigen extracts obtained from parasites stored at -20oC up to 10 days or at -70oC for 2 months presented the best results, showing well-defined bands on SDS-PAGE and Western blots and presenting absorbance values in ELISA that permitted safe differentiation between positive and negative sera.O objetivo deste estudo foi padronizar variáveis técnicas para o armazenamento de Plasmodium falciparum e de seus componentes antigênicos. Sedimentos de parasitas foram obtidos do cultivo in vitro de P.falciparum e estocados em diferentes temperaturas por diferentes períodos de tempo. De cada variável, foram extraídos os componentes antigênicos com detergente anfótero Zwittergent na presença e na ausência de inibidores de proteases e submetidos ou não a posterior diálise. Os produtos foram estocados por 15, 30 e 60 dias em diferentes temperaturas e caracterizados por SDS-PAGE. A atividade antigênica de cada extrato foi determinada por ELISA e Western blotting usando soros positivos e negativos para anticorpos IgG anti-formas eritrocitárias de P.falciparum. Os extratos antigênicos obtidos de parasitas estocados até 10 dias a _20ºC ou por 2 meses a _70ºC e tratados com inibidores de proteases, sob as

  11. Two-loop renormalization in the standard model, part II. Renormalization procedures and computational techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Actis, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Passarino, G. [Torino Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica Teorica; INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    In part I general aspects of the renormalization of a spontaneously broken gauge theory have been introduced. Here, in part II, two-loop renormalization is introduced and discussed within the context of the minimal Standard Model. Therefore, this paper deals with the transition between bare parameters and fields to renormalized ones. The full list of one- and two-loop counterterms is shown and it is proven that, by a suitable extension of the formalism already introduced at the one-loop level, two-point functions suffice in renormalizing the model. The problem of overlapping ultraviolet divergencies is analyzed and it is shown that all counterterms are local and of polynomial nature. The original program of 't Hooft and Veltman is at work. Finite parts are written in a way that allows for a fast and reliable numerical integration with all collinear logarithms extracted analytically. Finite renormalization, the transition between renormalized parameters and physical (pseudo-)observables, are discussed in part III where numerical results, e.g. for the complex poles of the unstable gauge bosons, are shown. An attempt is made to define the running of the electromagnetic coupling constant at the two-loop level. (orig.)

  12. OIE philosophy, policy and procedures for the development of food safety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droppers, W F G L

    2006-08-01

    Food safety was identified as a high priority area in the 2001-2005 World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Strategic Plan. Member Countries of the OIE considered that the organisation should be more active in issues of public health and consumer protection and that this should include more involvement in the area of diseases or pathogens transmissible through food, whether or not animals are affected by such diseases or pathogens. A permanent Working Group on Animal Production Food Safety was established in 2002 to coordinate the OIE's activities in food safety. The Working Group was requested to focus on food safety measures applicable at farm level and to monitor the ongoing cooperation between the OIE and Codex Alimentarius. More emphasis is now placed on the public health aspects of a disease when OIE standards are developed or revised. For example, the revised chapter on bovine tuberculosis in the Terrestrial Animal Health Code includes food safety recommendations for meat and meat products and for milk and milk products. The revised chapter was approved by the OIE International Committee of Member Countries at their 73rd General Session in May 2005. More chapters will follow, beginning with a chapter addressing bovine brucellosis.

  13. Electroluminescent TCC, C3dg and fB/Bb epitope assays for profiling complement cascade activation in vitro using an activated complement serum calibration standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vuuren, B Jansen; Bergseth, G; Mollnes, T E; Shaw, A M

    2014-01-15

    Electroluminescent assays for epitopes on the complement components C3dg, terminal complement complex (TCC) and factor B/Bb (fB/Bb) have been developed with capture and detection antibodies to produce detection limits C3dg=91±9ng/mL, TCC=3±0.1ng/mL and fB=55.7±0.1ng/mL. The assay performance was assessed against a series of zymosan and heat aggregated IgG (HAIgG) in vitro activations of complement using a calibrated activated complement serum (ACS) as calibration standard. The ACS standard was stable within 20% accuracy over a 6-month period with freeze-thaw cycles as required. Differential activation of the complement cascade was observed for TCC showing a pseudo-first order formation half-life of 3.5h after activation with zymosan. The C3dg activation fragment indicates a 10% total activation for both activation agents. The kinetic-epitope analysis for fB indicates that the capture epitope is on the fB/Bb protein fragment which can then become covered by the formation of C3bBb or C3bBbP complexes during the time course of the cascade. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Introducing a true internal standard for the Comet assay to minimize intra- and inter-experiment variability in measures of DNA damage and repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainol, Murizal; Stoute, Julia; Almeida, Gabriela M.; Rapp, Alexander; Bowman, Karen J.; Jones, George D. D.

    2009-01-01

    The Comet assay (CA) is a sensitive/simple measure of genotoxicity. However, many features of CA contribute variability. To minimize these, we have introduced internal standard materials consisting of ‘reference’ cells which have their DNA substituted with BrdU. Using a fluorescent anti-BrdU antibody, plus an additional barrier filter, comets derived from these cells could be readily distinguished from the ‘test’-cell comets, present in the same gel. In experiments to evaluate the reference cell comets as external and internal standards, the reference and test cells were present in separate gels on the same slide or mixed together in the same gel, respectively, before their co-exposure to X-irradiation. Using the reference cell comets as internal standards led to substantial reductions in the coefficient of variation (CoV) for intra- and inter-experimental measures of comet formation and DNA damage repair; only minor reductions in CoV were noted when the reference and test cell comets were in separate gels. These studies indicate that differences between individual gels appreciably contribute to CA variation. Further studies using the reference cells as internal standards allowed greater significance to be obtained between groups of replicate samples. Ultimately, we anticipate that development will deliver robust quality assurance materials for CA. PMID:19828597

  15. Random assay in radioimmunoassay: Feasibility and application compared with batch assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Min; Lee, Hwan Hee; Park, Sohyun; Kim, Tae Sung; Kim, Seok Ki [Dept. of Nuclear MedicineNational Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The batch assay has been conventionally used for radioimmunoassay (RIA) because of its technical robustness and practical convenience. However, it has limitations in terms of the relative lag of report time due to the necessity of multiple assays in a small number of samples compared with the random assay technique. In this study, we aimed to verify whether the random assay technique can be applied in RIA and is feasible in daily practice. The coefficients of variation (CVs) of eight standard curves within a single kit were calculated in a CA-125 immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for the reference of the practically ideal CV of the CA-125 kit. Ten standard curves of 10 kits from 2 prospectively collected lots (pLot) and 85 standard curves of 85 kits from 3 retrospectively collected lots (Lot) were obtained. Additionally, the raw measurement data of both 170 control references and 1123 patients' sera were collected retrospectively between December 2015 and January 2016. A standard curve of the first kit of each lot was used as a master standard curve for a random assay. The CVs of inter-kits were analyzed in each lot, respectively. All raw measurements were normalized by decay and radioactivity. The CA-125 values from control samples and patients' sera were compared using the original batch assay and random assay. In standard curve analysis, the CVs of inter-kits in pLots and Lots were comparable to those within a single kit. The CVs from the random assay with normalization were similar to those from the batch assay in the control samples (CVs % of low/high concentration; Lot1 2.71/1.91, Lot2 2.35/1.83, Lot3 2.83/2.08 vs. Lot1 2.05/1.21, Lot2 1.66/1.48, Lot3 2.41/2.14). The ICCs between the batch assay and random assay using patients' sera were satisfactory (Lot1 1.00, Lot2 0.999, Lot3 1.00). The random assay technique could be successfully applied to the conventional CA-125 IRMA kits. The random assay showed strong agreement with the batch assay. The

  16. Comparison between the triglycerides standardization of routine methods used in Japan and the chromotropic acid reference measurement procedure used by the CDC Lipid Standardization Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Masakazu; Iso, Hiroyasu; Kitamura, Akihiko; Imano, Hironori; Noda, Hiroyuki; Kiyama, Masahiko; Sato, Shinichi; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Nakai, Michikazu; Vesper, Hubert W; Teramoto, Tamio; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro

    2016-11-01

    Background The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ensured adequate performance of the routine triglycerides methods used in Japan by a chromotropic acid reference measurement procedure used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention lipid standardization programme as a reference point. We examined standardized data to clarify the performance of routine triglycerides methods. Methods The two routine triglycerides methods were the fluorometric method of Kessler and Lederer and the enzymatic method. The methods were standardized using 495 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference pools with 98 different concentrations ranging between 0.37 and 5.15 mmol/L in 141 survey runs. The triglycerides criteria for laboratories which perform triglycerides analyses are used: accuracy, as bias ≤5% from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference value and precision, as measured by CV, ≤5%. Results The correlation of the bias of both methods to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference method was: y (%bias) = 0.516 × (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference value) -1.292 ( n = 495, R 2  = 0.018). Triglycerides bias at medical decision points of 1.13, 1.69 and 2.26 mmol/L was -0.71%, -0.42% and -0.13%, respectively. For the combined precision, the equation y (CV) = -0.398 × (triglycerides value) + 1.797 ( n = 495, R 2  = 0.081) was used. Precision was 1.35%, 1.12% and 0.90%, respectively. It was shown that triglycerides measurements at Osaka were stable for 36 years. Conclusions The epidemiologic laboratory in Japan met acceptable accuracy goals for 88.7% of all samples, and met acceptable precision goals for 97.8% of all samples measured through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention lipid standardization programme and demonstrated stable results for an extended period of time.

  17. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Tertiary Chemical Treatment - Lime Precipitation Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrasek, Al, Jr.

    This guide describes the standard operating job procedures for the tertiary chemical treatment - lime precipitation process of wastewater treatment plants. Step-by-step instructions are given for pre-start up, start-up, continuous operation, and shut-down procedures. In addition, some theoretical material is presented along with some relevant…

  18. Standard Operating Procedure for the Grinding and Extraction of Lead in Paint using Nitric Acid and a Rotor/Stator System Powered by a High Speed Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) describes a new, rapid, and relatively inexpensive one step procedure which grinds the paint samples removed from the substrate and simultaneously quantitatively extracts the Pb from the paint in only one step in preparation for quantitativ...

  19. Removal of foot-and-mouth disease virus infectivity in salted natural casings by minor adaptation of standardized industrial procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnker, J J; Haas, B; Berends, B R

    2007-04-10

    Intestines are used for the production of natural casings as edible sausage containers. Derived from animals (pigs and sheep) experimentally infected with FMDV (initial dosage 10(7.3) PFU/ml, strain O(1Kaufbeuren)), these natural casings were treated with sodium chloride or a phosphate salts/sodium chloride mixture and the residual FMDV titres measured. After storage at about 20 degrees C, no remaining infectivity was found after either treatment, whereas casings stored at 4 degrees C still contained infectivity. Storage of salted casings at about 20 degrees C for 30 days is already part of the Standard Operating Procedures (included in HACCP) of the international casing industry and can therefore be considered as a protective measure for the international trade in natural casings.

  20. Standardization of digestion procedure for the determination of heavy metals in biological materials by atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, N.; Chaudhri, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    Proper decomposition of the sample is one of the basic requirements of the atomic absorption spectroscopic analysis. In the present studies, heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) were determined in biological samples by designating them in a mixture of nitric acid and perchloric acid. The quantification was made with atomic absorption spectrometry using an air-acetylene flame. The reliability of the procedure used was checked by analysing standard reference materials from NBS and IAEA, such as Rice flour (NBS-SRM-1568), Horse Kidney (IAEA H-8), Mixed Human diet(IAEA H-9), Copepod (IAEA MA-A-1) and fish flesh (IAEA MA-A-2) under identical conditions. A good agreement was observed between determined and the certified values reported by NBS and IAEA. (author)

  1. Design of standard operating procedure production proceses (case study on the home industry Bedugul Baturiti Tabanan Bali)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasiani; Suhantono, Djoko; Mirah Kencanawati, AAA

    2018-01-01

    Candikuning is part of the district of Baturiti, tourism village, better known by the name of Bedugul. No less interesting is the variety of chips produced by two partner groups as a souvenir after the tour, such as Chips: Spinach; beans; Tempeh. The purpose of this research were to design a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP): Production Processes on the Home Industry Bedugul Baturiti Tabanan Bali. The data technic collected use: observation; Documentation; and then interview to collect information. The data analysis technic done by using the Miles & Huberman. Result this research that the draft SOP: Production Processes Chips (Menu). The conclusion in this research SOP Production Processes use with flowchart and description on the Home Industry Bedugul Baturiti Tabanan Bali.

  2. Standard operating procedures for pre-analytical handling of blood and urine for metabolomic studies and biobanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernini, Patrizia; Bertini, Ivano; Luchinat, Claudio; Nincheri, Paola; Staderini, Samuele; Turano, Paola

    2011-04-01

    (1)H NMR metabolic profiling of urine, serum and plasma has been used to monitor the impact of the pre-analytical steps on the sample quality and stability in order to propose standard operating procedures (SOPs) for deposition in biobanks. We analyzed the quality of serum and plasma samples as a function of the elapsed time (t = 0-4 h) between blood collection and processing and of the time from processing to freezing (up to 24 h). The stability of the urine metabolic profile over time (up to 24 h) at various storage temperatures was monitored as a function of the different pre-analytical treatments like pre-storage centrifugation, filtration, and addition of the bacteriostatic preservative sodium azide. Appreciable changes in the profiles, reflecting changes in the concentration of a number of metabolites, were detected and discussed in terms of chemical and enzymatic reactions for both blood and urine samples. Appropriate procedures for blood derivatives collection and urine preservation/storage that allow maintaining as much as possible the original metabolic profile of the fresh samples emerge, and are proposed as SOPs for biobanking.

  3. Standard operating procedures for pre-analytical handling of blood and urine for metabolomic studies and biobanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernini, Patrizia; Bertini, Ivano; Luchinat, Claudio; Nincheri, Paola; Staderini, Samuele; Turano, Paola

    2011-01-01

    1 H NMR metabolic profiling of urine, serum and plasma has been used to monitor the impact of the pre-analytical steps on the sample quality and stability in order to propose standard operating procedures (SOPs) for deposition in biobanks. We analyzed the quality of serum and plasma samples as a function of the elapsed time (t = 0−4 h) between blood collection and processing and of the time from processing to freezing (up to 24 h). The stability of the urine metabolic profile over time (up to 24 h) at various storage temperatures was monitored as a function of the different pre-analytical treatments like pre-storage centrifugation, filtration, and addition of the bacteriostatic preservative sodium azide. Appreciable changes in the profiles, reflecting changes in the concentration of a number of metabolites, were detected and discussed in terms of chemical and enzymatic reactions for both blood and urine samples. Appropriate procedures for blood derivatives collection and urine preservation/storage that allow maintaining as much as possible the original metabolic profile of the fresh samples emerge, and are proposed as SOPs for biobanking.

  4. Standard operating procedures for pre-analytical handling of blood and urine for metabolomic studies and biobanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernini, Patrizia; Bertini, Ivano, E-mail: bertini@cerm.unifi.it; Luchinat, Claudio [University of Florence, Magnetic Resonance Center (CERM) (Italy); Nincheri, Paola; Staderini, Samuele [FiorGen Foundation (Italy); Turano, Paola [University of Florence, Magnetic Resonance Center (CERM) (Italy)

    2011-04-15

    {sup 1}H NMR metabolic profiling of urine, serum and plasma has been used to monitor the impact of the pre-analytical steps on the sample quality and stability in order to propose standard operating procedures (SOPs) for deposition in biobanks. We analyzed the quality of serum and plasma samples as a function of the elapsed time (t = 0-4 h) between blood collection and processing and of the time from processing to freezing (up to 24 h). The stability of the urine metabolic profile over time (up to 24 h) at various storage temperatures was monitored as a function of the different pre-analytical treatments like pre-storage centrifugation, filtration, and addition of the bacteriostatic preservative sodium azide. Appreciable changes in the profiles, reflecting changes in the concentration of a number of metabolites, were detected and discussed in terms of chemical and enzymatic reactions for both blood and urine samples. Appropriate procedures for blood derivatives collection and urine preservation/storage that allow maintaining as much as possible the original metabolic profile of the fresh samples emerge, and are proposed as SOPs for biobanking.

  5. Standard Operating Procedure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    ...) plastic collection bag system. Red blood cell concentrates stored at 4 C in the 800 ml primary plastic collection bag can be biochemically modified to increase the red cell 2,3 DPG and ATP levels...

  6. Standardization of a rearing procedure of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): plant age and harvest time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustos, Alexander; Cantor, Fernando; Cure, Jose R; Rodriguez, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    A rearing technique was standardized to produce Tetranychus urticae Koch on Phaseolus vulgaris (ICA Cerinza variety) as a prey of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. Two assays were conducted to assess the following variables: the most suitable plant age for mite infestation, and the best time to harvest the mites and re infest the plants. In the first experiment, four, five, six, and seven-week-old plants of P. vulgaris were infested with six T. urticae per foliole. The lower plant stratum exhibited the largest number of mites regardless of plant age. However, four-week old plants had the larger average number of individuals. In the second experiment four-week-old plants were infested with 0.5 female mite/cm 2 of leaf. The number of individuals per instar of T. urticae was recorded weekly. The highest mite production occurred between four and five weeks after infestation, indicating this to be the most suitable for mite harvesting and for plant reinfestation. (author)

  7. Glycidyl methacrylate-co-N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone coated polypropylene strips: Synthesis, characterization and standardization for dot-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, Charu; Tomar, Lomas [Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi 110016 (India); Singh, Harpal [Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi 110016 (India)], E-mail: tyagicharu11@rediffmail.com

    2009-01-26

    Glycidyl methacrylate and N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (GMA-co-NVP) copolymers with various GMA:NVP ratios were synthesized by solution polymerization technique in toluene using 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as free radical initiator and dip coated onto polypropylene strips. The copolymer composition in polymeric coatings was confirmed by proton NMR spectroscopy. Various techniques like FTIR, SEM and contact angle were used for surface characterization of the polymer coatings. These polymer coated strips were evaluated and standardized for their application in dot-ELISA in two steps. In first step, specificity, sensitivity and reproducibility of the assay on developed polymer coated strips was evaluated through a model system using rabbit anti-goat IgG, goat anti-rabbit IgG and goat anti-rabbit IgG HRP (horseradish peroxidase)-conjugate. Polymer coating with GMA-NVP mol% ratio of 78:22 was able to detect rabbit anti-goat IgG antibody at a concentration as low as 2 ng mL{sup -1} with 1% BSA as blocking agent using antispecies IgG peroxidase conjugate diluted 1500 times. In the second step, the sensitivity and specificity of the developed system was established with human blood and finally used to identify the source of mosquito blood meal which is an important parameter in epidemiological studies, particularly in determining the role of mosquito in malaria transmission. The time duration of standardized assay with developed polymer coated strips was cut down to one hour compared to the 3-4 h required in usual dot-ELISA.

  8. Standardization of micro-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot for detection of Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies using extracts from Mexican strains as antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, B; Monteón, V; Reyes, P A; Espinoza, B

    2001-01-01

    This report describes two assays for the detection of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies using Mexican strains of the parasite and the concordance with two assays previously evaluated at the Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez in Mexico City. Micro-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot were used for the detection of T. cruzi antibodies with a total extract of epimastigote from Ninoa and Queretaro, which are Mexican strains of T. cruzi. To standardize these methods, a total of 246 serum samples was used. In addition, sera from six confirmed Mexican chronic individuals in the asymptomatic phase were also used for comparison with the Argentinean antigen. ELISA was 100% specific in that no false positive results were found with sera of both healthy individuals and non-Chagasic cardiopaths. Sera from individuals infected with Leishmania sp. showed approximately 16% of cross-reaction with ELISA. The test showed a positive predictive value of 90% and a negative predictive value of 100%. Western blot was also a highly sensitive test for detecting chronic Chagasic symptomatic patients from Mexico because no false negative results were obtained. Furthermore, it was possible to use Western blot to detect seven immunodominant antigens of approximately 30, 32, 40, 42, 65, 70, and 83 kDa. Concordance with two previous standardized tests at the Instituto Nacional de Cardiología showed a Kappa index of 0.96, indicating high concordance between the results obtained at these two laboratories. Finally, ELISA using Ninoa antigen extract was more sensitive than ELISA with an Argentinean extract, which failed to detect individuals in the chronic asymptomatic phase (undetermined phase) of infection. This study indicates that ELISA and Western blot using Ninoa and/or Queretaro extracts of T. cruzi as antigens are useful tools in the detection of individuals who have been exposed to T. cruzi both in the undetermined/asymptomatic and symptomatic phases

  9. Neutron interrogator assay system for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant waste canisters and spent fuel: preliminary description and operating procedures manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O.; Eccleston, G.; Close, D.A.; Speir, L.G.

    1978-05-01

    A neutron interrogation assay system is being designed for the measurement of waste canisters and spent fuel packages at the new Idaho Chemical Processing Plant to be operated by Allied Chemical Corp. The assay samples consist of both waste canisters from the fluorinel dissolution process and spent fuel assemblies. The assay system is a 252 Cf ''Shuffler'' that employs a cyclic sequence of fast-neutron interrogation with a 252 Cf source followed by delayed-neutron counting to determine the 235 U content

  10. Review of cause-based decision tree approach for the development of domestic standard human reliability analysis procedure in low power/shutdown operation probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, D. I.; Jung, W. D.

    2003-01-01

    We review the Cause-Based Decision Tree (CBDT) approach to decide whether we incorporate it or not for the development of domestic standard Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) procedure in low power/shutdown operation Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). In this paper, we introduce the cause based decision tree approach, quantify human errors using it, and identify merits and demerits of it in comparision with previously used THERP. The review results show that it is difficult to incorporate the CBDT method for the development of domestic standard HRA procedure in low power/shutdown PSA because the CBDT method need for the subjective judgment of HRA analyst like as THERP. However, it is expected that the incorporation of the CBDT method into the development of domestic standard HRA procedure only for the comparision of quantitative HRA results will relieve the burden of development of detailed HRA procedure and will help maintain consistent quantitative HRA results

  11. Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards & Labeling Programs for Copy Machines, External Power Supplies, LED Displays, Residential Gas Cooktops and Televisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This report presents a technical review of international minimum energy performance standards (MEPS), voluntary and mandatory energy efficiency labels and test procedures for five products being considered for new or revised MEPS in China: copy machines, external power supply, LED displays, residential gas cooktops and flat-screen televisions. For each product, an overview of the scope of existing international standards and labeling programs, energy values and energy performance metrics and description and detailed summary table of criteria and procedures in major test standards are presented.

  12. Microwave-assisted versus conventional decomposition procedures applied to a ceramic potsherd standard reference material by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopoulou, D.N.; Zachariadis, G.A.; Anthemidis, A.N.; Tsirliganis, N.C.; Stratis, J.A

    2004-03-03

    Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) is a powerful, sensitive analytical technique with numerous applications in chemical characterization including that of ancient pottery, mainly due to its multi-element character, and the relatively short time required for the analysis. A critical step in characterization studies of ancient pottery is the selection of a suitable decomposition procedure for the ceramic matrix. The current work presents the results of a comparative study of six decomposition procedures applied on a standard ceramic potsherd reference material, SARM 69. The investigated decomposition procedures included three microwave-assisted decomposition procedures, one wet decomposition (WD) procedure by conventional heating, one combined microwave-assisted and conventional heating WD procedure, and one fusion procedure. Chemical analysis was carried out by ICP-AES. Five major (Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Mg), three minor (Mn, Ba, Ti) and two trace (Cu, Co) elements were determined and compared with their certified values. Quantitation was performed at two different spectral lines for each element and multi-element matrix-matched calibration standards were used. The recovery values for the six decomposition procedures ranged between 75 and 110% with a few notable exceptions. Data were processed statistically in order to evaluate the investigated decomposition procedures in terms of recovery, accuracy and precision, and eventually select the most appropriate one for ancient pottery analysis.

  13. Use of a pressure sensing sheath: comparison with standard means of blood pressure monitoring in catheterization procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Phillip D; South, Charles; Klucznik, Richard P; Liu, Kenneth C; Novakovic, Robin L; Puri, Ajit S; Pride, G Lee; Aagaard-Kienitz, Beverly; Ray, Abishek; Elliott, Alan C

    2017-08-01

    Monitoring of blood pressure (BP) during procedures is variable, depending on multiple factors. Common methods include sphygmomanometer (BP cuff), separate radial artery catheterization, and side port monitoring of an indwelling sheath. Each means of monitoring has disadvantages, including time consumption, added risk, and signal dampening due to multiple factors. We sought an alternative approach to monitoring during procedures in the catheterization laboratory. A new technology involving a 330 µm fiberoptic sensor embedded in the wall of a sheath structure was tested against both radial artery catheter and sphygmomanometer readings obtained simultaneous with readings recorded from the pressure sensing system (PSS). Correlations and Bland-Altman analysis were used to determine whether use of the PSS could substitute for these standard techniques. The results indicated highly significant correlations in systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures (MAP) when compared against radial artery catheterization (p<0.0001), and MAP means differed by <4%. Bland-Altman analysis of the data suggested that the sheath measurements can replace a separate radial artery catheter. While less striking, significant correlations were seen when PSS readings were compared against BP cuff readings. The PSS has competitive functionality to that seen with a dedicated radial artery catheter for BP monitoring and is available immediately on sheath insertion without the added risk of radial catheterization. The sensor is structurally separated from the primary sheath lumen and readings are unaffected by device introduction through the primary lumen. Time delays and potential complications from radial artery catheterization are avoided. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Calibration of photon and beta ray sources used in brachytherapy. Guidelines on standardized procedures at Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) and hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-03-01

    It has generally been recognized that international harmonization in radiotherapy dosimetry is essential. Consequently, the IAEA has given much effort to this, for example by publishing a number of reports in the Technical Reports Series (TRS) for external beam dosimetry, most notably TRS-277 and more recently TRS-398. Both of these reports describe in detail the steps to be taken for absorbed dose determination in water and they are often referred to as 'dosimetry protocols'. Similar to TRS-277, it is expected that TRS-398 will be adopted or used as a model by a large number of countries as their national protocol. In 1996, the IAEA established a calibration service for low dose rate (LDR) 137 Cs brachytherapy sources, which is the most widely used source for treatment of gynecological cancer. To further enhance harmonization in brachytherapy dosimetry, the IAEA published in 1999 IAEA-TECDOC-1079 entitled 'Calibration of Brachytherapy Sources. Guidelines on Standardized Procedures for the Calibration of Brachytherapy Sources at Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) and Hospitals'. The report was well received and was distributed in a large number of copies to the members of the IAEA/WHO network of SSDLs and to medical physicists working with brachytherapy. The present report is an update of the aforementioned TECDOC. Whereas TECDOC-1079 described methods for calibrating brachytherapy sources with photon energies at or above those of 192 Ir, the current report has a wider scope in that it deals with standardization of calibration of all the most commonly used brachytherapy sources, including both photon and beta emitting sources. The latter sources have been in use for a few decades already, but their calibration methods have been unclear. Methods are also described for calibrating sources used in the rapidly growing field of cardiovascular angioplasty. In this application, irradiation of the vessel wall is done in an attempt to prevent restenosis after

  15. A comparative study on assessment procedures and metric properties of two scoring systems of the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised items: standard and modified scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattin, Davide; Lovaglio, Piergiorgio; Brenna, Greta; Covelli, Venusia; Rossi Sebastiano, Davide; Duran, Dunja; Minati, Ludovico; Giovannetti, Ambra Mara; Rosazza, Cristina; Bersano, Anna; Nigri, Anna; Ferraro, Stefania; Leonardi, Matilde

    2017-09-01

    The study compared the metric characteristics (discriminant capacity and factorial structure) of two different methods for scoring the items of the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised and it analysed scale scores collected using the standard assessment procedure and a new proposed method. Cross sectional design/methodological study. Inpatient, neurological unit. A total of 153 patients with disorders of consciousness were consecutively enrolled between 2011 and 2013. All patients were assessed with the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised using standard (rater 1) and inverted (rater 2) procedures. Coma Recovery Scale-Revised score, number of cognitive and reflex behaviours and diagnosis. Regarding patient assessment, rater 1 using standard and rater 2 using inverted procedures obtained the same best scores for each subscale of the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised for all patients, so no clinical (and statistical) difference was found between the two procedures. In 11 patients (7.7%), rater 2 noted that some Coma Recovery Scale-Revised codified behavioural responses were not found during assessment, although higher response categories were present. A total of 51 (36%) patients presented the same Coma Recovery Scale-Revised scores of 7 or 8 using a standard score, whereas no overlap was found using the modified score. Unidimensionality was confirmed for both score systems. The Coma Recovery Scale Modified Score showed a higher discriminant capacity than the standard score and a monofactorial structure was also supported. The inverted assessment procedure could be a useful evaluation method for the assessment of patients with disorder of consciousness diagnosis.

  16. Linearization of the bradford protein assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Orna; Zor, Tsaffrir

    2010-04-12

    Determination of microgram quantities of protein in the Bradford Coomassie brilliant blue assay is accomplished by measurement of absorbance at 590 nm. This most common assay enables rapid and simple protein quantification in cell lysates, cellular fractions, or recombinant protein samples, for the purpose of normalization of biochemical measurements. However, an intrinsic nonlinearity compromises the sensitivity and accuracy of this method. It is shown that under standard assay conditions, the ratio of the absorbance measurements at 590 nm and 450 nm is strictly linear with protein concentration. This simple procedure increases the accuracy and improves the sensitivity of the assay about 10-fold, permitting quantification down to 50 ng of bovine serum albumin. Furthermore, the interference commonly introduced by detergents that are used to create the cell lysates is greatly reduced by the new protocol. A linear equation developed on the basis of mass action and Beer's law perfectly fits the experimental data.

  17. Evaluasi Penerapan Standard Operating Procedure-Good Agriculture Practice (SOP-GAP pada Usahatani Padi Organik di Kabupaten Bantul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriyadi Sriyadi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Food security has meaning not only the availability of adequate food, but also providing security for producers and consumers and ensuring environmental sustainability for sustainable production. Organic farming systems are expected to solve the problem for realizing food security and enhancement of people's welfare. The results of research indicated that, (1 The implementation level of Standard Operating Procedure-Good Agriculture Practice (SOP-GAP of Organic Rice Farming in Bantul district was quite high, (2 The implementation level of SOP-GAP of Organic Rice Farming related to the availability of capital, the selling price and the purchase price of inputs (seeds and fertilizers, (3 The level of the farmer's decision related to the implementation level of SOP-GAP of organic rice farming, and (4 development of organic rice farming required availability of sufficient capital. In this regard the government, particularly the agriculture authority and food security agency need to disburse or facilitate capital for farmers in revolving as well as low interest loans.

  18. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution from Aircraft and Aircraft Engines: Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is amending the existing emission standards for oxides of nitrogen (NOx) for new commercial aircraft engines. These standards are equivalent to the NOx emission standards of the United Nations International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).

  19. Direct Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    This rule will adopt the current voluntary NOx and CO emissions standards of the United Nations International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), bringing the United States aircraft standards into alignment with the international standards.

  20. Test Standard Revision Update: JESD57, "Procedures for the Measurement of Single-Event Effects in Semiconductor Devices from Heavy-Ion Irradiation"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The JEDEC JESD57 test standard, Procedures for the Measurement of Single-Event Effects in Semiconductor Devices from Heavy-Ion Irradiation, is undergoing its first revision since 1996. In this talk, we place this test standard into context with other relevant radiation test standards to show its importance for single-event effect radiation testing for space applications. We show the range of industry, government, and end-user party involvement in the revision. Finally, we highlight some of the key changes being made and discuss the trade-space in which setting standards must be made to be both useful and broadly adopted.

  1. Revision of the SNPforID 34-plex forensic ancestry test: Assay enhancements, standard reference sample genotypes and extended population studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondevila, M; Phillips, C; Santos, C; Freire Aradas, A; Vallone, P M; Butler, J M; Lareu, M V; Carracedo, A

    2013-01-01

    A revision of an established 34 SNP forensic ancestry test has been made by swapping the under-performing rs727811 component SNP with the highly informative rs3827760 that shows a near-fixed East Asian specific allele. We collated SNP variability data for the revised SNP set in 66 reference populations from 1000 Genomes and HGDP-CEPH panels and used this as reference data to analyse four U.S. populations showing a range of admixture patterns. The U.S. Hispanics sample in particular displayed heterogeneous values of co-ancestry between European, Native American and African contributors, likely to reflect in part, the way this disparate group is defined using cultural as well as population genetic parameters. The genotyping of over 700 U.S. population samples also provided the opportunity to thoroughly gauge peak mobility variation and peak height ratios observed from routine use of the single base extension chemistry of the 34-plex test. Finally, the genotyping of the widely used DNA profiling Standard Reference Material samples plus other control DNAs completes the audit of the 34-plex assay to allow forensic practitioners to apply this test more readily in their own laboratories. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantitative monitoring of HCMV DNAlactia in human milk by real time PCR assay: Implementation of internal control contributes to standardization and quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartleif, Steffen; Göhring, Katharina; Goelz, Rangmar; Jahn, Gerhard; Hamprecht, Klaus

    2016-11-01

    For cytomegalovirus screening of breastfeeding mothers of preterm infants under risk, we present a rapid, quantitative real-time PCR protocol using the hybridization format of the viral gB target region. For quantification, we used an external gB fragment cloned into a vector system. For standardization, we created an internal control-plasmid by site-directed mutagenesis with an exchange of 9 nucleotides. Spiked with internal control, patient wildtype amplicons could be discriminated from internal controls by hybridization probes using two-channel fluorescence detection. Potential bias of formerly reported false nucleotide sequence data of gB-hybridization probes was excluded. Using this approach, we could demonstrate excellent analytical performance and high reproducibility of HCMV detection during lactation. This assay shows very good correlation with a commercial quantitative HCMV DNA PCR and may help to identify rapidly HCMV shedding mothers of very low birth weight preterm infants to prevent HCMV transmission. On the other hand, negative DNA amplification results allow feeding of milk samples of seropositive mothers to their preterm infants under risk (<30 weeks of gestational age, <1000g birth weight) during the onset and late stage of HCMV shedding during lactation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Development and operation of a quality assurance system for deviations from standard operating procedures in a clinical cell therapy laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, D; Kadidlo, D; Sumstad, D; McCullough, J

    2003-01-01

    Errors and accidents, or deviations from standard operating procedures, other policy, or regulations must be documented and reviewed, with corrective actions taken to assure quality performance in a cellular therapy laboratory. Though expectations and guidance for deviation management exist, a description of the framework for the development of such a program is lacking in the literature. Here we describe our deviation management program, which uses a Microsoft Access database and Microsoft Excel to analyze deviations and notable events, facilitating quality assurance (QA) functions and ongoing process improvement. Data is stored in a Microsoft Access database with an assignment to one of six deviation type categories. Deviation events are evaluated for potential impact on patient and product, and impact scores for each are determined using a 0- 4 grading scale. An immediate investigation occurs, and corrective actions are taken to prevent future similar events from taking place. Additionally, deviation data is collectively analyzed on a quarterly basis using Microsoft Excel, to identify recurring events or developing trends. Between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2001 over 2500 products were processed at our laboratory. During this time period, 335 deviations and notable events occurred, affecting 385 products and/or patients. Deviations within the 'technical error' category were most common (37%). Thirteen percent of deviations had a patient and/or a product impact score > or = 2, a score indicating, at a minimum, potentially affected patient outcome or moderate effect upon product quality. Real-time analysis and quarterly review of deviations using our deviation management program allows for identification and correction of deviations. Monitoring of deviation trends allows for process improvement and overall successful functioning of the QA program in the cell therapy laboratory. Our deviation management program could serve as a model for other laboratories in

  4. The effect of standard heat and filtration processing procedures on antimicrobial activity and hydrogen peroxide levels in honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cuilan; Campbell, Leona T; Blair, Shona E; Carter, Dee A

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the antimicrobial properties of honey. In most honey types, antimicrobial activity is due to the generation of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), but this can vary greatly among samples. Honey is a complex product and other components may modulate activity, which can be further affected by commercial processing procedures. In this study we examined honey derived from three native Australian floral sources that had previously been associated with H(2)O(2)-dependent activity. Antibacterial activity was seen in four red stringybark samples only, and ranged from 12 to 21.1% phenol equivalence against Staphylococcus aureus. Antifungal activity ranged from MIC values of 19-38.3% (w/v) against Candida albicans, and all samples were significantly more active than an osmotically equivalent sugar solution. All honey samples were provided unprocessed and following commercial processing. Processing was usually detrimental to antimicrobial activity, but occasionally the reverse was seen and activity increased. H(2)O(2) levels varied from 0 to 1017 μM, and although samples with no H(2)O(2) had little or no antimicrobial activity, some samples had relatively high H(2)O(2) levels yet no antimicrobial activity. In samples where H(2)O(2) was detected, the correlation with antibacterial activity was greater in the processed than in the unprocessed samples, suggesting other factors present in the honey influence this activity and are sensitive to heat treatment. Antifungal activity did not correlate with the level of H(2)O(2) in honey samples, and overall it appeared that H(2)O(2) alone was not sufficient to inhibit C. albicans. We conclude that floral source and H(2)O(2) levels are not reliable predictors of the antimicrobial activity of honey, which currently can only be assessed by standardized antimicrobial testing. Heat processing should be reduced where possible, and honey destined for medicinal use should be retested post-processing to ensure that

  5. Damage measurement of structural material by electron backscatter diffraction. Quantification of measurement quality toward standardization of measurement procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaya, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    process, almost identical local misorientations distributions were obtained under different measurement conditions. Finally, for standardization of the measurement procedure of the local misorientation, present knowledge and points to note about measurements were summarized. (author)

  6. PFGE standard operating procedures for Listeria monocytogenes: harmonizing the typing of food and clinical strains in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelon, Damien; Félix, Benjamin; Vingadassalon, Noemie; Mariet, Jean-François; Larsson, Jonas T; Møller-Nielsen, Eva; Roussel, Sophie

    2015-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen responsible for a severe disease known as listeriosis. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) coordinates a network of national public health laboratories (NPHLs) in charge of typing clinical strains. In food, it is the European Union Reference Laboratory for L. monocytogenes (EURL Lm), which manages a network of National Reference Laboratories (NRLs). A pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) standard operating procedure (EURL SOP) has been used routinely at the EURL Lm since 2007. The EURL Lm has recommended that NRLs use the EURL SOP, whereas the Statens Serum Institut (SSI), under contract for ECDC, requested that NPHLs use Halpins' SOP (HSOP) published in 2010 for the PulseNet USA network. An update of Halpins' SOP (uHSOP) was published in 2013. To facilitate the exchange of profiles among human and food European reference laboratories, it is crucial to ensure that the PFGE profiles obtained with these different SOPs are comparable. The aim here was to compare the EURL SOP with HSOP and uHSOP. The panel comprised 114 well-characterized SSI/EURL strains. All were characterized at the EURL using both the EURL SOP and uHSOP. Seventy of the 114 strains were also characterized at the SSI using HSOP. The EURL SOP and uHSOP produced indistinguishable combined (ApaI/AscI) profiles for the 114 strains tested. The EURL SOP and HSOP produced indistinguishable combined profiles for 69 of the 70 strains tested. One strain displayed for the AscI profile an additional low-intensity band at 184 kbp with HSOP. For this strain, SSI and EUR Lm had already observed the same profile from NPHLs and NRLs. However, this deviation is minor as it accounted for about 1% of all the 114 combined profiles. This study should facilitate the exchange of reproducible PFGE profiles among human and food reference laboratories.

  7. [Falling Short of Minimum Volume Standards, Exemptions and Their Consequences from 2018 Onwards. Complex Procedures on Oesophagus and Pancreas in German Hospitals from 2006 to 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cruppé, Werner; Geraedts, Max

    2018-03-16

    The minimum volume standards for hospitals in Germany, in force since 2004, provide four exemptions for non-complying hospitals. This study investigates the extent and importance of these exemptions for complex procedures on the oesophagus and pancreas for all non-complying hospitals and for the revised minimum volume regulations in force since the beginning of 2018. Longitudinal, descriptive analyses of data on minimum volume standards and their exemptions for complex procedures on the oesophagus and pancreas, as presented by the hospital quality report cards of the reporting years from 2006 to 2014. For each year and both procedures, about 120 hospitals with some 500 cases report non-compliance with the minimum volume standards. Of these a third report no exemptions (with 180 procedures), a third state emergencies (110), and another third report exemptions due to internal hospital restructuring (210). Ensuring geographical access to care as an exemption is of no importance. After the three year exemption period for installation of a new service line, 20% of the hospitals with procedures on the oesophagus and 30% on the pancreas complied with the minimum volume standards. After the two-year period for staff realignment, the figures were 40 and 50%, respectively. Exemptions do not entirely explain all procedures performed by hospitals not complying with the minimum volume standards. The revised minimum volume regulations' restructuring of exemptions to "emergencies" and "new or renewed service lines" with a two year exemption period, are concordant with the empirical findings of this study. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. The tsunami probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Example of accident sequence analysis of tsunami PRA according to the standard for procedure of tsunami PRA for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Norihiro; Hasegawa, Keiko; Kuroiwa, Katsuya

    2013-01-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, standard for procedure of tsunami PRA for NPP had been established by the Standardization Committee of AESJ. Industry group had been conducting analysis of Tsunami PRA for PWR based on the standard under the cooperation with electric utilities. This article introduced overview of the standard and examples of accident sequence analysis of Tsunami PRA studied by the industry group according to the standard. The standard consisted of (1) investigation of NPP's composition, characteristics and site information, (2) selection of relevant components for Tsunami PRA and initiating events and identification of accident sequence, (3) evaluation of Tsunami hazards, (4) fragility evaluation of building and components and (5) evaluation of accident sequence. Based on the evaluation, countermeasures for further improvement of safety against Tsunami could be identified by the sensitivity analysis. (T. Tanaka)

  9. U.S. Geological Survey Noble Gas Laboratory’s standard operating procedures for the measurement of dissolved gas in water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Andrew G.

    2015-08-12

    This report addresses the standard operating procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey’s Noble Gas Laboratory in Denver, Colorado, U.S.A., for the measurement of dissolved gases (methane, nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide) and noble gas isotopes (helium-3, helium-4, neon-20, neon-21, neon-22, argon-36, argon-38, argon-40, kryton-84, krypton-86, xenon-103, and xenon-132) dissolved in water. A synopsis of the instrumentation used, procedures followed, calibration practices, standards used, and a quality assurance and quality control program is presented. The report outlines the day-to-day operation of the Residual Gas Analyzer Model 200, Mass Analyzer Products Model 215–50, and ultralow vacuum extraction line along with the sample handling procedures, noble gas extraction and purification, instrument measurement procedures, instrumental data acquisition, and calculations for the conversion of raw data from the mass spectrometer into noble gas concentrations per unit mass of water analyzed. Techniques for the preparation of artificial dissolved gas standards are detailed and coupled to a quality assurance and quality control program to present the accuracy of the procedures used in the laboratory.

  10. Chapter 9. Educational process. Recommendations and standard operating procedures for intensive care unit and hospital preparations for an influenza epidemic or mass disaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, Guy A.; Sprung, Charles L.; Christian, Michael D.; Camargo, Ruben; Ceraso, Daniel; Azoulay, Elie; Duguet, Alexandre; Guery, Benoit; Reinhart, Konrad; Adini, Bruria; Barlavie, Yaron; Benin-Goren, Odeda; Cohen, Robert; Klein, Motti; Leoniv, Yuval; Margalit, Gila; Rubinovitch, Bina; Sonnenblick, Moshe; Steinberg, Avraham; Weissman, Charles; Wolff, Donna; Kesecioglu, Jozef; de Jong, Menno; Moreno, Rui; An, Youzhong; Du, Bin; Joynt, Gavin M.; Colvin, John; Loo, Shi; Richards, Guy; Artigas, Antonio; Pugin, Jerome; Amundson, Dennis; Devereaux, Asha; Beigel, John; Danis, Marion; Farmer, Chris; Hick, John L.; Maki, Dennis; Masur, Henry; Rubinson, Lewis; Sandrock, Christian; Talmor, Daniel; Truog, Robert; Zimmerman, Janice; Brett, Steve; Montgomery, Hugh; Rhodes, Andrew; Sanderson, Frances; Taylor, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    To provide recommendations and standard operating procedures (SOPs) for intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital preparations for an influenza pandemic or mass disaster with focus on education of all stakeholders, specifically the emergency executive control groups, ICU staff and staff co-opted to

  11. Chapter 5. Essential equipment, pharmaceuticals and supplies. Recommendations and standard operating procedures for intensive care unit and hospital preparations for an influenza epidemic or mass disaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprung, Charles L.; Kesecioglu, Jozef; Christian, Michael D.; Camargo, Ruben; Ceraso, Daniel; Azoulay, Elie; Duguet, Alexandre; Guery, Benoit; Reinhart, Konrad; Adini, Bruria; Barlavie, Yaron; Benin-Goren, Odeda; Cohen, Robert; Klein, Motti; Leoniv, Yuval; Margalit, Gila; Rubinovitch, Bina; Sonnenblick, Moshe; Steinberg, Avraham; Weissman, Charles; Wolff, Donna; de Jong, Menno; Moreno, Rui; An, Youzhong; Du, Bin; Joynt, Gavin M.; Colvin, John; Loo, Shi; Richards, Guy; Artigas, Antonio; Pugin, Jerome; Amundson, Dennis; Devereaux, Asha; Beigel, John; Danis, Marion; Farmer, Chris; Hick, John L.; Maki, Dennis; Masur, Henry; Rubinson, Lewis; Sandrock, Christian; Talmor, Daniel; Truog, Robert; Zimmerman, Janice; Brett, Steve; Montgomery, Hugh; Rhodes, Andrew; Sanderson, Frances; Taylor, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    To provide recommendations and standard operating procedures for intensive care unit and hospital preparations for an influenza pandemic or mass disaster with a specific focus on essential equipment, pharmaceuticals and supplies. Based on a literature review and expert opinion, a Delphi process was

  12. Chapter 4. Manpower. Recommendations and standard operating procedures for intensive care unit and hospital preparations for an influenza epidemic or mass disaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandrock, Christian; Christian, Michael D.; Camargo, Ruben; Ceraso, Daniel; Azoulay, Elie; Duguet, Alexandre; Guery, Benoit; Reinhart, Konrad; Adini, Bruria; Barlavie, Yaron; Benin-Goren, Odeda; Cohen, Robert; Klein, Motti; Leoniv, Yuval; Margalit, Gila; Rubinovitch, Bina; Sonnenblick, Moshe; Sprung, Charles L.; Steinberg, Avraham; Weissman, Charles; Wolff, Donna; Kesecioglu, Jozef; de Jong, Menno; Moreno, Rui; An, Youzhong; Du, Bin; Joynt, Gavin M.; Colvin, John; Loo, Shi; Richards, Guy; Artigas, Antonio; Pugin, Jerome; Amundson, Dennis; Devereaux, Asha; Beigel, John; Danis, Marion; Farmer, Chris; Hick, John L.; Maki, Dennis; Masur, Henry; Rubinson, Lewis; Talmor, Daniel; Truog, Robert; Zimmerman, Janice; Brett, Steve; Montgomery, Hugh; Rhodes, Andrew; Sanderson, Frances; Taylor, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    To provide recommendations and standard operating procedures (SOPs) for intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital preparations for an influenza pandemic or mass disaster with a specific focus on manpower. Based on a literature review and expert opinion, a Delphi process was used to define the essential

  13. Chapter 1. Introduction. Recommendations and standard operating procedures for intensive care unit and hospital preparations for an influenza epidemic or mass disaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprung, Charles L.; Cohen, Robert; Adini, Bruria; Christian, Michael D.; Camargo, Ruben; Ceraso, Daniel; Azoulay, Elie; Duguet, Alexandre; Guery, Benoit; Reinhart, Konrad; Barlavie, Yaron; Benin-Goren, Odeda; Klein, Motti; Leoniv, Yuval; Margalit, Gila; Rubinovitch, Bina; Sonnenblick, Moshe; Steinberg, Avraham; Weissman, Charles; Wolff, Donna; Kesecioglu, Jozef; de Jong, Menno; Moreno, Rui; An, Youzhong; Du, Bin; Joynt, Gavin M.; Colvin, John; Loo, Shi; Richards, Guy; Artigas, Antonio; Pugin, Jerome; Amundson, Dennis; Devereaux, Asha; Beigel, John; Danis, Marion; Farmer, Chris; Hick, John L.; Maki, Dennis; Masur, Henry; Rubinson, Lewis; Sandrock, Christian; Talmor, Daniel; Truong, Robert; Zimmerman, Janice; Brett, Steve; Montgomery, Hugh; Rhodes, Andrew; Sanderson, Frances; Taylor, Bruce; Monrgomery, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    In December 2007, the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine established a Task Force to develop standard operating procedures (SOPs) for operating intensive care units (ICU) during an influenza epidemic or mass disaster. To provide direction for health care professionals in the preparation and

  14. Chapter 3. Coordination and collaboration with interface units. Recommendations and standard operating procedures for intensive care unit and hospital preparations for an influenza epidemic or mass disaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joynt, Gavin M.; Loo, Shi; Taylor, Bruce L.; Margalit, Gila; Christian, Michael D.; Sandrock, Christian; Danis, Marion; Leoniv, Yuval; Sprung, Charles L.; Camargo, Ruben; Ceraso, Daniel; Azoulay, Elie; Duguet, Alexandre; Guery, Benoit; Reinhart, Konrad; Adini, Bruria; Barlavie, Yaron; Benin-Goren, Odeda; Cohen, Robert; Klein, Motti; Rubinovitch, Bina; Sonnenblick, Moshe; Steinberg, Avraham; Weissman, Charles; Wolff, Donna; Kesecioglu, Jozef; de Jong, Menno; Moreno, Rui; An, Youzhong; Du, Bin; Joyng, Gavin M.; Colvin, John; Richards, Guy; Artigas, Antonio; Pugin, Jerome; Amundson, Dennis; Devereaux, Asha; Beigel, John; Farmer, Chris; Hick, John L.; Maki, Dennis; Masur, Henry; Rubinson, Lewis; Talmor, Daniel; Truog, Robert; Zimmerman, Janice; Brett, Steve; Montgomery, Hugh; Rhodes, Andrew; Sanderson, Frances

    2010-01-01

    To provide recommendations and standard operating procedures (SOPs) for intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital preparations for an influenza pandemic or mass disaster with a specific focus on enhancing coordination and collaboration between the ICU and other key stakeholders. Based on a literature

  15. Chapter 7. Critical care triage. Recommendations and standard operating procedures for intensive care unit and hospital preparations for an influenza epidemic or mass disaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christian, Michael D.; Joynt, Gavin M.; Hick, John L.; Colvin, John; Danis, Marion; Sprung, Charles L.; Christian, Micahel D.; Camargo, Ruben; Ceraso, Daniel; Azoulay, Elie; Duguet, Alexandre; Guery, Benoit; Reinhart, Konrad; Adini, Bruria; Barlavie, Yaron; Benin-Goren, Odeda; Cohen, Robert; Klein, Motti; Leoniv, Yuval; Margalit, Gila; Rubinovitch, Bina; Sonnenblick, Moshe; Steinberg, Avraham; Weissman, Charles; Wolff, Donna; Kesecioglu, Jozef; de Jong, Menno; Moreno, Rui; An, Youzhong; Du, Bin; Loo, Shi; Richards, Guy; Artigas, Antonio; Pugin, Jerome; Amundson, Dennis; Devereaux, Asha; Beigel, John; Farmer, Chris; Maki, Dennis; Masur, Henry; Rubinson, Lewis; Sandrock, Christian; Talmor, Daniel; Truog, Robert; Zimmerman, Janice; Brett, Steve; Montgomery, Hugh; Rhodes, Andrew; Sanderson, Frances; Taylor, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    To provide recommendations and standard operating procedures for intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital preparations for an influenza pandemic or mass disaster with a specific focus on critical care triage. Based on a literature review and expert opinion, a Delphi process was used to define the

  16. The safety of donor skin preserved with glycerol - Evaluating the Euro Skin Bank preservation procedures of human donor skin against the prEN 12442 standard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertsma RE; Wassenaar C; LGM

    2000-01-01

    The procedures for preservation of human donor skin with glycerol, as applied by the Euro Skin Bank (ESB), were evaluated against the prEN 12442 standard: animal tissues and their derivatives used in the manufacture of medical devices. The focus chosen for this review is on risks related to the

  17. Diagnosis and dosimetry of exposure to sulfur mustard: Development of a standard operating procedure for hemoglobin adducts: Exploratory research on albumin and keratin adducts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Fidder, A.; Jong, L.P.A. de; Schans, G.P. van der; Benschop, H.P.

    2000-01-01

    A standard operating procedure (SOP) for determination of the sulfur mustard adduct to the N-terminal valine in hemoglobin was developed. By using this SOP, it was found that the Nterminal valine adduct in globin of hairless guinea pigs and marmosets which had been exposed to sulfur mustard (0.5

  18. Random access procedures and radio access network (RAN) overload control in standard and advanced long-term evolution (LTE and LTE-A) networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich Pratas, Nuno; Thomsen, Henning; Popovski, Petar

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe and discuss the current LTE random access procedure and the Radio Access Network Load Control solution within LTE/LTE-A. We provide an overview of the several considered load control solutions and give a detailed description of the standardized Extended Access Class B...

  19. Toward an international standard for PCR-based detection of Escherichia coli O157 - Part 1. Assay development and multi-center validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdulmawjood, A.; Bulte, M.; Cook, N.

    2003-01-01

    As part of a major European research project, a diagnostic PCR assay, including an internal amplification control, was developed and validated in a collaborative trial for the detection of Escherichia coli O157. The assay is based on amplification of sequences of the rJbE O157 gene. The collabora...

  20. Radioreceptor opioid assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.J.; Chang, K.-J.

    1981-01-01

    A radioreceptor assay is described for assaying opioid drugs in biological fluids. The method enables the assay of total opioid activity, being specific for opioids as a class but lacking specificity within the class. A radio-iodinated opioid and the liquid test sample are incubated with an opiate receptor material. The percentage inhibition of the binding of the radio-iodinated compound to the opiate receptor is calculated and the opioid activity of the test liquid determined from a standard curve. Examples of preparing radio-iodinated opioids and assaying opioid activity are given. A test kit for the assay is described. Compared to other methods, this assay is cheap, easy and rapid. (U.K.)

  1. Development of a simple gel permeation clean-up procedure coupled to a rapid disequilibrium enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of Sudan I dye in spices and sauces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oplatowska, Michalina; Stevenson, Paul J; Schulz, Claudia; Hartig, Lutz; Elliott, Christopher T

    2011-09-01

    Sudan dyes have been found to be added to chilli and chilli products for illegal colour enhancement purposes. Due to the possible carcinogenic effect, they are not authorized to be used in food in the European Union or the USA. However, over the last few years, many products imported from Asian and African countries have been reported via the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed in the European Union to be contaminated with these dyes. In order to provide fast screening method for the detection of Sudan I (SI), which is the most widely abused member of Sudan dyes family, a unique (20 min without sample preparation) direct disequilibrium enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed. The assay was based on polyclonal antibodies highly specific to SI. A novel, simple gel permeation chromatography clean-up method was developed to purify extracts from matrices containing high amounts of fat and natural pigments, without the need for a large dilution of the sample. The assay was validated according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC criteria. The detection capability was determined to be 15 ng g(-1) in sauces and 50 ng g(-1) in spices. The recoveries found ranged from 81% to 116% and inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variation from 6% to 20%. The assay was used to screen a range of products (85 samples) collected from different retail sources within and outside the European Union. Three samples were found to contain high amounts (1,649, 722 and 1,461 ng g(-1)) of SI by ELISA. These results were confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The innovative procedure allows for the fast, sensitive and high throughput screening of different foodstuffs for the presence of the illegal colorant SI.

  2. Controlling variation in the comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Richard Collins

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Variability of the comet assay is a serious issue, whether it occurs from experiment to experiment in the same laboratory, or between different laboratories analysing identical samples. Do we have to live with high variability, just because the comet assay is a biological assay rather than analytical chemistry? Numerous attempts have been made to limit variability by standardising the assay protocol, and the critical steps in the assay have been identified; agarose concentration, duration of alkaline incubation, and electrophoresis conditions (time, temperature and voltage gradient are particularly important. Even when these are controlled, variation seems to be inevitable. It is helpful to include in experiments reference standards, i.e. cells with a known amount of specific damage to the DNA. They can be aliquots frozen from a single large batch of cells, either untreated (negative controls or treated with, for example, H2O2 or X-rays to induce strand breaks (positive control for the basic assay, or photosensitiser plus light to oxidise guanine (positive control for Fpg- or OGG1-sensitive sites. Reference standards are especially valuable when performing a series of experiments over a long period - for example, analysing samples of white blood cells from a large human biomonitoring trial - to check that the assay is performing consistently, and to identify anomalous results necessitating a repeat experiment. The reference values of tail intensity can also be used to iron out small variations occurring from day to day. We present examples of the use of reference standards in human trials, both within one laboratory and between different laboratories, and describe procedures that can be used to control variation.

  3. Use of a standardized JaCVAM in vivo rat comet assay protocol to assess the genotoxicity of three coded test compounds; ampicillin trihydrate, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride, and N-nitrosodimethylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, J P; Bellier, P V

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), our laboratory examined ampicillin trihydrate (AMP), 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH), and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDA) using a standard comet assay validation protocol (v14.2) developed by the JaCVAM validation management team (VMT). Coded samples were received by our laboratory along with basic MSDS information. Solubility analysis and range-finding experiments of the coded test compounds were conducted for dose selection. Animal dosing schedules, the comet assay processing and analysis, and statistical analysis were conducted in accordance with the standard protocol. Based upon our blinded evaluation, AMP was not found to exhibit evidence of genotoxicity in either the rat liver or stomach. However, both NDA and DMH were observed to cause a significant increase in % tail DNA in the rat liver at all dose levels tested. While acute hepatoxicity was observed for these compounds in the high dose group, in the investigators opinion there were a sufficient number of consistently damaged/measurable cells at the medium and low dose groups to judge these compounds as genotoxic. There was no evidence of genotoxicity from either NDA or DMH in the rat stomach. In conclusion, our laboratory observed increased DNA damage from two blinded test compounds in rat liver (later identified as genotoxic carcinogens), while no evidence of genotoxicity was observed for the third blinded test compound (later identified as a non-genotoxic, non-carcinogen). This data supports the use of a standardized protocol of the in vivo comet assay as a cost-effective alternative genotoxicity assay for regulatory testing purposes. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessing the reliability of the borderline regression method as a standard setting procedure for objective structured clinical examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mortaz Hejri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the methods used for standard setting is the borderline regression method (BRM. This study aims to assess the reliability of BRM when the pass-fail standard in an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE was calculated by averaging the BRM standards obtained for each station separately. Materials and Methods: In nine stations of the OSCE with direct observation the examiners gave each student a checklist score and a global score. Using a linear regression model for each station, we calculated the checklist score cut-off on the regression equation for the global scale cut-off set at 2. The OSCE pass-fail standard was defined as the average of all station′s standard. To determine the reliability, the root mean square error (RMSE was calculated. The R2 coefficient and the inter-grade discrimination were calculated to assess the quality of OSCE. Results: The mean total test score was 60.78. The OSCE pass-fail standard and its RMSE were 47.37 and 0.55, respectively. The R2 coefficients ranged from 0.44 to 0.79. The inter-grade discrimination score varied greatly among stations. Conclusion: The RMSE of the standard was very small indicating that BRM is a reliable method of setting standard for OSCE, which has the advantage of providing data for quality assurance.

  5. Standardization of 2-phenoxyethanol as anesthetic for juvenile Brycon cephalus (Gunther, 1869: the use in field procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoue Luis Antônio Kioshi Aoki

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyper motility is a negative factor in fish handling procedures due to the risks of damages to the animals. Chemicals are widely used to anesthetize fish during biometry and many other handling procedures. 2-Phenoxyethanol is largely employed, but many studies are necessary about tropical fish responses. The present research evaluated the anesthesia induction time for juvenile matrinxã submitted to eight different levels of 2-phenoxyethanol. The range of 2-phenoxyethanol concentration was 250-600mg liter-1. Induction time of anesthesia decreased as a function of 2-phenoxyethanol concentrations. Fish were safely anesthetized approximately after one minute of exposure to 2-phenoxyethanol batches in concentrations above 400mg/liter, and the recover period was about one minute for all anesthetic concentrations. 2-Phenoxyethanol is a safe anesthetic for juvenile matrinxã even in exposures up to 600mg liter-1 being recommended for many field procedures of fish handling.

  6. Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards and Labeling Programs for Clothes Washers, Water Dispensers, Vending Machines and CFLs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan

    2010-06-01

    Since the late 1970s, energy labeling programs and mandatory energy performance standards have been used in many different countries to improve the efficiency levels of major residential and commercial equipment. As more countries and regions launch programs covering a greater range of products that are traded worldwide, greater attention has been given to harmonizing the specific efficiency criteria in these programs and the test methods for measurements. For example, an international compact fluorescent light (CFL) harmonization initiative was launched in 2006 to focus on collaboration between Australia, China, Europe and North America. Given the long history of standards and labeling programs, most major energy-consuming residential appliances and commercial equipment are already covered under minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) and/or energy labels. For these products, such as clothes washers and CFLs, harmonization may still be possible when national MEPS or labeling thresholds are revised. Greater opportunity for harmonization exists in newer energy-consuming products that are not commonly regulated but are under consideration for new standards and labeling programs. This may include commercial products such as water dispensers and vending machines, which are only covered by MEPS or energy labels in a few countries or regions. As China continues to expand its appliance standards and labeling programs and revise existing standards and labels, it is important to learn from recent international experiences with efficiency criteria and test procedures for the same products. Specifically, various types of standards and labeling programs already exist in North America, Europe and throughout Asia for products in China's 2010 standards and labeling programs, namely clothes washers, water dispensers, vending machines and CFLs. This report thus examines similarities and critical differences in energy efficiency values, test procedure specifications and

  7. STANDARDIZATION OF A FLUORESCENT-BASED QUANTITATIVE ADHESION ASSAY TO STUDY ATTACHMENT OF Taenia solium ONCOSPHERE TO EPITHELIAL CELLS In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chile, Nancy; Evangelista, Julio; Gilman, Robert H.; Arana, Yanina; Palma, Sandra; Sterling, Charles R; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando; Verastegui, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    To fully understand the preliminary stages of Taenia solium oncosphere attachment in the gut, adequate tools and assays are necessary to observe and quantify this event that leads to infection. A fluorescent-based quantitative adhesion assay, using biotinylated activated-oncospheres and monolayers of Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1) or human intestinal monolayer cells (INT-407, HCT-8 or HT-29), was developed to study initial events during the infection of target cells and to rapidly quantify the in vitro adhesion of T. solium oncospheres. Fluorescein streptavidin was used to identify biotinylated activated-oncospheres adhered to cells. This adherence was quantified using an automated fluorescence plate reader, and the results were expressed as fluorescence intensity values. A series of three assays were performed. The first was to identify the optimum number of biotinylated activated-oncospheres to be used in the adhesion assay. The goal of the second assay was to validate this novel method with the established oncosphere-binding system using the immunofluorescent-antibody assay (IFA) method to quantify oncosphere adhesion. A total of 10,000 biotinylated activated-oncospheres were utilized to assess the role of sera and laminin (LM) in oncosphere adherence to a CHO-K1 cell monolayer. The findings that sera and LM increase the adhesion of oncospheres to monolayer cells were similar to results that were previously obtained using the IFA method. The third assay compared the adherence of biotinylated activated-oncospheres to different types of human intestinal monolayer cells. In this case, the fluorescence intensity was greatest when using the INT-407 cell monolayer. We believe this new method of quantification offers the potential for rapid, large-scale screening to study and elucidate specific molecules and mechanisms involved in oncosphere-host cell attachment. PMID:22178422

  8. Assay of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, C.; Berry, J.

    1987-01-01

    Assays of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (rubisco) can be used to illustrate many properties of photosynthetic systems. Many different leaves have been assayed with this standard procedure. The tissue is ground with a mortar and pestle in extraction buffer. The supernatant after centrifugation is used as the source of enzyme. Buffer, RuBP, [ 14 C]-NaHCO 3 , and enzyme are combined in a scintillation vial; the reaction is run for 1 min at 30 0 . The acid-stable products are counted. Reproducibility in student experiments has been excellent. The assay data can be combined with analyses of leaf properties such as fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll and protein content, etc. Students have done projects such as the response of enzyme to temperature and to various inhibitors. They also report on the use of a transition state analog, carboxyarabinitol bisphosphate, to titrate the molar concentration of rubisco molecules (active sites) in an enzyme sample. Thus, using crude extracts the catalytic activity of a sample can be compared to the absolute quantity of enzyme or to the turnover number

  9. Development and evaluation of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for quality control tests and radiological protection activities in a Nuclear Medicine Service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krempser, Alexandre R., E-mail: krempser@peb.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PEB/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Biomedica; Soares, Alexandre B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Corbo, Rossana [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (FM/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia

    2011-07-01

    The quality management in Nuclear Medicine Services is a requirement of national and international standards. The Brazilian regulatory agency in health surveillance, the Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria (ANVISA), in its Resolucao de Diretoria Colegiada (Collegiate Directory Resolution) no. 38, requires the elaboration of documents describing the technical and clinical routine activities. This study aimed to elaborate, implement and evaluate Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for quality control tests and radiological protection activities in the Nuclear Medicine Service of a university hospital. Eighteen SOPs were developed, involving tasks related to dose calibrator, gamma camera, Geiger-Muller detectors and radiological protection activities. The performance of its application was evaluated for a period of six months. It was observed a reduction in 75% of reported operational errors and 42% of the number of reported incidents with contamination by radioactive material. The SOPs were adequate and successful in its application. New procedures involving clinical activities will also be developed and evaluated. (author)

  10. Consent for routine neonatal procedures: A study of practices in Irish neonatal units. How do we compare with the gold standard BAPM guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, M A; Ryan, C A; Dempsey, E; O'Connell, R

    2017-06-09

    The Irish National Consent Policy (NCP) proposes that the legal requirement for consent extends to all forms of interventions, investigations and treatment, carried out on or behalf of the Health Service Executive (HSE). This study employs a quantitative descriptive approach to investigate the practices for obtaining consent for an identified group of routine neonatal procedures in neonatal facilities throughout Ireland. The BAPM (British Association of Perinatal Medicine) guidelines were identified as 'gold standard' for the purposes of this study. The results indicated a lack of consistency between participating units pertaining to the modes of consent utilised and notable variances from 'gold standard' guidelines. Unanimity was evident for 3 procedures only (administering BCG, 6-in-1, and donor breast milk to infant). Significant findings related to EEG with video recordings, MRI/CT and gastro intestinal imaging, screening of an infant with suspected substance abuse or retinopathy of prematurity screening (ROP), administration of Vitamin K, and the carrying out of a lumbar puncture.

  11. Enhancing Title Ix Due Process Standards in Campus Sexual Assault Adjudication: Considering the Roles of Distributive, Procedural, and Restorative Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Shannon; Maskaly, Jon; Kirkner, Anne; Lorenz, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Title IX prohibits sex discrimination--including sexual assault--in higher education. The Department of Education Office for Civil Rights' 2011 "Dear Colleague Letter" outlines recommendations for campus sexual assault adjudication allowing a variety of procedures that fail to protect accused students' due process rights and victims'…

  12. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA adopted emission standards and related provisions for aircraft gas turbine engines with rated thrusts greater than 26.7 kilonewtons. These engines are used primarily on commercial passenger and freight aircraft.

  13. Pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy versus standard Whipple procedure: a prospective, randomized, multicenter analysis of 170 patients with pancreatic and periampullary tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.T. Tran; H.G. Smeenk; C.H.J. van Eijck (Casper); G. Kazemier (Geert); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); J.W. Greve (Jan Willem); O.T. Terpstra (Onno); J.A. Zijlstra (Jan); P. Klinkert; J. Jeekel (Hans)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: A prospective randomized multicenter study was performed to assess whether the results of pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD) equal those of the standard Whipple (SW) operation, especially with respect to duration of surgery, blood loss,

  14. Postoperative weight gain after standard Whipple's procedure versus pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy: the influence of tumour status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berge Henegouwen, M. I.; Moojen, T. M.; van Gulik, T. M.; Rauws, E. A.; Obertop, H.; Gouma, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent reports suggest a better postoperative weight gain after pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (PPPD) compared with standard pancreatoduodenectomy (PD). Factors that could also influence postoperative weight gain, such as tumour-positive resection margins and tumour recurrence,

  15. Patient controlled sedation using a standard protocol for dressing changes in burns: patients' preference, procedural details and a preliminary safety evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Andreas; Steinvall, Ingrid; Bak, Zoltan; Sjöberg, Folke

    2008-11-01

    Patient controlled sedation (PCS) enables patients to titrate doses of drugs by themselves during different procedures involving pain or discomfort. We studied it in a prospective crossover design using a fixed protocol without lockout time to examine it as an alternative method of sedation for changing dressings in burned patients. Eleven patients with >10% total burn surface area (TBSA) had their dressings changed, starting with sedation by an anaesthetist (ACS). The second dressing change was done with PCS (propofol/alfentanil) and the third time the patients had to choose ACS or PCS. During the procedures, data on cardiopulmonary variables, sedation (bispectral index), pain intensity (VAS), procedural details, doses of drugs, and patients' preferences were collected to compare the two sedation techniques. The study data indicated that wound care in burned patients is feasible with a standardized PCS protocol. The patients preferred PCS to ACS on the basis of self-control, and because they had less discomfort during the recovery period. Wound care was also considered adequate by the staff during PCS. No respiratory (respiratory rate/transcutaneous PCO(2)) or cardiovascular (heart rate/blood pressure) adverse events were recorded at any time during any of the PCS procedures. The doses of propofol and alfentanil and BIS index decrease were less during PCS than ACS. Procedural pain was higher during PCS but lower after the procedure. We suggest that PCS using a standard protocol is an interesting alternative to anaesthetist-provided sedation during dressing changes. It seems effective, saves resources, is safe, and at same time is preferred by the patients. The strength of these conclusions is, however, hampered by the small size of this investigation and therefore further studies are warranted.

  16. [Requirement of standardizing anti-HBs assay methods in Japan for HBV infection-preventing strategy--discrepancy of anti-HBs measurements among three different kits widely used in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Norio

    2006-09-01

    The strategy to eliminate hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection by administrating an HB vaccine is changing worldwide; however, this is not the case in Japan. An important concern about the HBV infection-preventing strategy in Japan may be that the assay methods for the antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) are not standardized. The minimum protective anti-HBs titer against HBV infection has been established as 10 mIU/ml by World Health Organization (WHO) -standardized assay methods worldwide, but that is still determined as a "positive" test result by the passive hemagglutination (PHA) method in Japan. We compared anti-HBs measurements in given samples among PHA(Mycell II, Institute of Immunology), chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) (Lumipulse, Fujirebio), and chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) (Architect, Abbott), all of which are currently in wide use in Japan. First, anti-HBs measurements in serum from individuals who received a yeast-derived recombinant HB vaccine composed of the major surface protein of either subtype adr or subtype ayw were compared. The results clearly showed that in subtype adr-vaccinees CLIA underestimated the anti-HBs amount compared with CLEIA and PHA, but in ayw-vaccinees, the discordance in the measurements among the three kits was not prominent. Second, anti-HBs measurements in standard or calibration solutions of each assay kit were compared. Surprisingly, CLEIA showed higher measurements in all three kit-associated standard or calibration solutions than CLIA. Thus, the anti-HBs titer of 10 mIU/ml is difficult to introduce in Japan as the minimum protective level against HBV infection. Efforts to standardize anti-HBs assay methods are expected to share international evidence about the HBV infection-preventing strategy.

  17. Patient Recall of Informed Consent at 4 Weeks After Total Hip Replacement With Standardized Versus Procedure-Specific Consent Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Eoghan; Shaarani, Shahril; Kenyon, Robert; Cashman, James

    2017-08-25

    Informed consent plays a pivotal role in the operative process, and surgeons have an ethical and legal obligation to provide patients with information to allow for shared decision-making. Unfortunately, patient recall after the consent process is frequently poor. This study aims to evaluate the effect of procedure-specific consent forms on patient's recall four weeks after total hip replacement (THR). This is a prospective study using a posttest-only control group design. Sixty adult patients undergoing total hip replacement were allocated to be consented using either the generic or the surgery-specific consent form. Four weeks after surgery, a phone interview was conducted to assess patient's recall of risk of surgical complications. Patient demographic characteristics and educational attainment were similar in both groups. There was a statistically significant increase in the mean number of risks recalled in the study group at 1.43 compared with 0.67 in the control group (P = 0.0131). Consent is a complex process, and obtaining informed consent is far from straightforward. A statistically significant improvement in patient's recall with the use of procedure-specific consent forms was identified, and based on this, we would advocate their use. However, overall patient recall in both groups was poor. We believe that improving the quality of informed consent may require the sum of small gains, and the use of procedure-specific consent forms may aid in this regard.

  18. Application of the standard options of the FITNET procedure to the structural integrity assessment of welded specimens containing cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzioba, Ihor; Neimitz, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the structural integrity of welded specimens is assessed. The specimens were welded using a conventional technique, MAG, and an unconventional one, laser technology. Welded specimens were of the central crack under tension (CCT) type. The elements were loaded, the maximum load was recorded, and the second and the third options of the FITNET procedure were utilized to estimate the critical loading. Estimated and recorded loads were compared to verify the conservatism of the estimated results. For comparison, the results obtained using Option 1 of the FITNET procedure (not recommended in the case analysed) are also presented. Results of the mechanical properties, hardness, fracture toughness for the base and the weld material and residual stress distributions are reported for both MAG and laser welding techniques. The results obtained confirm that the FITNET procedures were properly deigned. The higher the level of analysis, the smaller the conservatism of predictions observed. The overconservative conclusions, following from the lower level of analysis, suggest that the structural element is endangered, do not have to exclude it from exploitation. The higher level of analysis can, in some cases, confirm that the structural element containing a crack can still be exploited

  19. Discharge communication from inpatient care: an audit of written medical discharge summary procedure against the new National Health Service Standard for clinical handover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Daniel Brooks; Parsons, Shaun R; Gill, Stephen D; Hughes, Andrew J

    2015-04-01

    To audit written medical discharge summary procedure and practice against Standard Six (clinical handover) of the Australian National Safety and Quality Health Service Standards at a major regional Victorian health service. Department heads were invited to complete a questionnaire about departmental discharge summary practices. Twenty-seven (82%) department heads completed the questionnaire. Seven (26%) departments had a documented discharge summary procedure. Fourteen (52%) departments monitored discharge summary completion and 13 (48%) departments monitored the timeliness of completion. Seven (26%) departments informed the patient of the content of the discharge summary and six (22%) departments provided the patient with a copy. Seven (26%) departments provided training for staff members on how to complete discharge summaries. Completing discharge summaries was usually delegated to the medical intern. The introduction of the National Service Standards prompted an organisation-wide audit of discharge summary practices against the external criterion. There was substantial variation in the organisation's practices. The Standards and the current audit results highlight an opportunity for the organisation to enhance and standardise discharge summary practices and improve communication with general practice.

  20. Test of mutagenicity of an irradiated standard diet for laboratory animals in the host-mediated assay with salmonella typhimurium TA 1530

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenzner, R.; Renner, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    Feed irradiated at a dose of 3 Mrad was tested for mutagenic activity in the host-mediated assay with the mouse as host and Salmonella typhimurium TA 1530 as indicator organism. In the in vivo and in the in vitro comparative test the irradiated feed showed no mutagenic effect. (orig.) [de

  1. Standard Procedure for Dose Assessment using the film holder NRPB/AERE and the film AGFA Monitoring 2/10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillen, J.A.

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes the calculation method to assess dose and energy using the film holder from NRPB/AERE and the film Agfa Monitoring 2/10. Also includes all the steps since preparing the standard curve, fitting of calibration curve, dose assesment, description of filtration of the film holder and the form of the calibration curve

  2. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Compare e-Feedback Versus "Standard" Face-to-Face Verbal Feedback to Improve the Acquisition of Procedural Skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jundi, Wissam; Elsharif, Mohamed; Anderson, Melanie; Chan, Phillip; Beard, Jonathan; Nawaz, Shah

    Constructive feedback plays an important role in learning during surgical training. Standard feedback is usually given verbally following direct observation of the procedure by a trained assessor. However, such feedback requires the physical presence of expert faculty members who are usually busy and time-constrained by clinical commitments. We aim to evaluate electronic feedback (e-feedback) after video observation of surgical suturing in comparison with standard face-to-face verbal feedback. A prospective, blinded, randomized controlled trial comparing e-feedback with standard verbal feedback was carried out in February 2015 using a validated pro formas for assessment. The study participants were 38 undergraduate medical students from the University of Sheffield, UK. They were recorded on video performing the procedural skill, completed a self-evaluation form, and received e-feedback on the same day (group 1); observed directly by an assessor, invited to provide verbal self-reflection, and then received standard verbal feedback (group 2). In both groups, the feedback was provided after performing the procedure. The participants returned 2 days later and performed the same skill again. Poststudy questionnaire was used to assess the acceptability of each feedback among the participants. Overall, 19 students in group 1 and 18 students in group 2 completed the study. Although there was a significant improvement in the overall mean score on the second performance of the task for all participants (first performance mean 11.59, second performance mean 15.95; p ≤ 0.0001), there was no difference in the overall mean improvement score between group 1 and group 2 (4.74 and 3.94, respectively; p = 0.49). The mean overall scores for the e-feedback group at baseline recorded by 2 independent investigators showed good agreement (mean overall scores of 12.84 and 11.89; Cronbach α = 0.86). Poststudy questionnaire demonstrated that both e-feedback and standard verbal feedback

  3. Conscious sedation for endoscopic and non-endoscopic interventional gastrointestinal procedures: meeting patients' expectations, missing the standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, P.; Laasch, H.-U.; Wilbraham, L.; Marriott, A.; England, R.E.; Martin, D.F. E-mail: derrick.martin@smtr.nhs.uk

    2004-02-01

    AIM: To assess the level of sedation, patient satisfaction and frequency of unplanned events with conscious sedation for interventional procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and seventeen patients were assessed prospectively before, during and after procedures. Blood pressure, pulse, oxygen saturation and sedation level were monitored and patients followed up after 24 h. Sedation was scored after drugs were given in accordance with an established protocol. Doses were recorded, as were patients' weight, age and ASA grade and any unplanned events and their management. RESULTS: Seventy-six of the 117 patients (65%) had no unplanned event, 20 (17.1%) became agitated, 15 (12.8%) hypotensive, three (2.6%) hypoxic and three (2.6%) had more than one response. Twelve patients required active management. Fifty-two (44.4%) had a sedation level of {<=}3 (responsive to verbal commands), but 39 (33.3%) reached level 6. Median doses were midazolam 6 mg (1-20 mg) and pethidine 50 mg (12.5-100 mg). Ninety-three percent were satisfied with their sedation. No adverse effects were observed after 24 h. CONCLUSION: Despite using a sedation protocol, unplanned events occurred in 35% (95% CI=27-44%) of patients, although not all required active management. The sedation levels reached in some exceeded guidelines. Unplanned events were commoner with increased sedation level. Patient satisfaction was high and no permanent damage was observed.

  4. Conscious sedation for endoscopic and non-endoscopic interventional gastrointestinal procedures: meeting patients' expectations, missing the standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marriott, P.; Laasch, H.-U.; Wilbraham, L.; Marriott, A.; England, R.E.; Martin, D.F.

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To assess the level of sedation, patient satisfaction and frequency of unplanned events with conscious sedation for interventional procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and seventeen patients were assessed prospectively before, during and after procedures. Blood pressure, pulse, oxygen saturation and sedation level were monitored and patients followed up after 24 h. Sedation was scored after drugs were given in accordance with an established protocol. Doses were recorded, as were patients' weight, age and ASA grade and any unplanned events and their management. RESULTS: Seventy-six of the 117 patients (65%) had no unplanned event, 20 (17.1%) became agitated, 15 (12.8%) hypotensive, three (2.6%) hypoxic and three (2.6%) had more than one response. Twelve patients required active management. Fifty-two (44.4%) had a sedation level of ≤3 (responsive to verbal commands), but 39 (33.3%) reached level 6. Median doses were midazolam 6 mg (1-20 mg) and pethidine 50 mg (12.5-100 mg). Ninety-three percent were satisfied with their sedation. No adverse effects were observed after 24 h. CONCLUSION: Despite using a sedation protocol, unplanned events occurred in 35% (95% CI=27-44%) of patients, although not all required active management. The sedation levels reached in some exceeded guidelines. Unplanned events were commoner with increased sedation level. Patient satisfaction was high and no permanent damage was observed

  5. Selection of optimal treatment procedures for non-standard radioactive waste arising from decommissioning of NPP after accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strážovec, Roman, E-mail: strazovec.roman@javys.sk [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia); JAVYS, a.s., Tomášikova 22, 821 02 Bratislava (Slovakia); Hrnčíř, Tomáš [DECOM, a.s., Sibírska 1, 917 01 Trnava (Slovakia); Lištjak, Martin [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia); VUJE, a.s., Okružná 5, 918 64 Trnava (Slovakia); Nečas, Vladimír [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2016-05-15

    The decommissioning of nuclear power plants is becoming a standard industrial activity where the optimization processes of partial activities are inevitable mainly for technical and economic reasons. In Slovakia, the decommissioning of A1 NPP is very specific case because A1 NPP is rare type of NPP (prototype) and furthermore its operation was affected by the accident. A large number of specific non-standard radioactive waste, such as long-time storage cases (hereinafter LSC), that is not usually present within the decommissioning projects of NPP with a regular termination of operation, represent one of the significant consequences of the accident and issues arisen from follow-up activities. The presented article describes the proposal of processing and conditioning of non-standard radioactive waste (such as LSC), together with description of methodology applied in the proposal for update of waste acceptance criteria for the processing and conditioning of radioactive waste (hereinafter RAW) within Bohunice Radioactive waste Treatment and Conditioning Centre (hereinafter RWTC). The results of performed detailed analysis are summarized into new waste acceptance criteria for technological lines keeping in mind safety principles and requirements for protection of operating personnel, the public and the environment.

  6. Standard test method for non-destructive assay of nuclear material in waste by passive and active neutron counting using a differential Die-away system

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a system that performs nondestructive assay (NDA) of uranium or plutonium, or both, using the active, differential die-away technique (DDT), and passive neutron coincidence counting. Results from the active and passive measurements are combined to determine the total amount of fissile and spontaneously-fissioning material in drums of scrap or waste. Corrections are made to the measurements for the effects of neutron moderation and absorption, assuming that the effects are averaged over the volume of the drum and that no significant lumps of nuclear material are present. These systems are most widely used to assay low-level and transuranic waste, but may also be used for the measurement of scrap materials. The examples given within this test method are specific to the second-generation Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) passive-active neutron assay system. 1.1.1 In the active mode, the system measures fissile isotopes such as 235U and 239Pu. The neutrons from a pulsed, 14-MeV ne...

  7. PLAN-TA9-2443(U), Rev. B Remediated Nitrate Salt (RNS) Surrogate Formulation and Testing Standard Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Geoffrey Wayne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-16

    This document identifies scope and some general procedural steps for performing Remediated Nitrate Salt (RNS) Surrogate Formulation and Testing. This Test Plan describes the requirements, responsibilities, and process for preparing and testing a range of chemical surrogates intended to mimic the energetic response of waste created during processing of legacy nitrate salts. The surrogates developed are expected to bound1 the thermal and mechanical sensitivity of such waste, allowing for the development of process parameters required to minimize the risk to worker and public when processing this waste. Such parameters will be based on the worst-case kinetic parameters as derived from APTAC measurements as well as the development of controls to mitigate sensitivities that may exist due to friction, impact, and spark. This Test Plan will define the scope and technical approach for activities that implement Quality Assurance requirements relevant to formulation and testing.

  8. MATLAB-implemented estimation procedure for model-based assessment of hepatic insulin degradation from standard intravenous glucose tolerance test data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nardo, Francesco; Mengoni, Michele; Morettini, Micaela

    2013-05-01

    Present study provides a novel MATLAB-based parameter estimation procedure for individual assessment of hepatic insulin degradation (HID) process from standard frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGTT) data. Direct access to the source code, offered by MATLAB, enabled us to design an optimization procedure based on the alternating use of Gauss-Newton's and Levenberg-Marquardt's algorithms, which assures the full convergence of the process and the containment of computational time. Reliability was tested by direct comparison with the application, in eighteen non-diabetic subjects, of well-known kinetic analysis software package SAAM II, and by application on different data. Agreement between MATLAB and SAAM II was warranted by intraclass correlation coefficients ≥0.73; no significant differences between corresponding mean parameter estimates and prediction of HID rate; and consistent residual analysis. Moreover, MATLAB optimization procedure resulted in a significant 51% reduction of CV% for the worst-estimated parameter by SAAM II and in maintaining all model-parameter CV% MATLAB-based procedure was suggested as a suitable tool for the individual assessment of HID process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hyaluronic Acid Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itenov, Theis S; Kirkby, Nikolai S; Bestle, Morten H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUD: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is proposed as a marker of functional liver capacity. The aim of the present study was to compare a new turbidimetric assay for measuring HA with the current standard method. METHODS: HA was measured by a particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (PETIA) and enzyme...

  10. FLUIDICS DEVICE FOR ASSAY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device for use in performing assays on standard laboratory solid supports whereon chemical entities are attached. The invention furthermore relates to the use of such a device and a kit comprising such a device. The device according to the present invention is a...

  11. Standardization of a Protocol for Obtaining Platelet Rich Plasma from blood Donors; a Tool for Tissue Regeneration Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Lina Andrea; Escobar, Magally; Peñuela, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    To develop a protocol for obtaining autologous platelet rich plasma in healthy individuals and to determine the concentration of five major growth factors before platelet activation. This protocol could be integrated into the guidelines of good clinical practice and research in regenerative medicine. Platelet rich plasma was isolated by centrifugation from 38 healthy men and 42 women ranging from 18 to 59 years old. The platelet count and quantification of growth factors were analyzed in eighty samples, stratified for age and gender of the donor. Analyses were performed using parametric the t-test or Pearson's analysis for non-parametric distribution. P platelet counts from 1.6 to 4.9 times (mean = 2.8). There was no correlation between platelet concentration and the level of the following growth factors: VEGF-D (r = 0.009, p = 0.4105), VEGF-A (r = 0.0068, p = 0.953), PDGF subunit AA (p = 0.3618; r = 0.1047), PDGF-BB (p = 0.5936; r = 0.6095). In the same way, there was no correlation between donor gender and growth factor concentrations. Only TGF-β concentration was correlated to platelet concentration (r = 0.3163, p = 0.0175). The procedure used allowed us to make preparations rich in platelets, low in leukocytes and red blood cells, and sterile. Our results showed biological variations in content of growth factors in PRP. The factors influencing these results should be further studied.

  12. Evaluation and assessment methodology, standards, and procedures manual of the United States Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerns, K.C.; Burson, Z.G.; Smith, J.M.; Blanchard, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    In the event of a major radiological emergency, the U.S. Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan authorises the creation of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC). The FRMAC is established to co-ordinate the Federal off-site monitoring and assessment activities, and is comprised of representatives from several Federal agencies and Department of Energy contractors who provide assistance to the state(s) and Lead Federal Agency. The Evaluation and Assessment (E and A) Division of the FRMAC is responsible for receiving, storing, and interpreting environmental surveillance data to estimate the potential health consequences to the population in the vicinity of the accident site. The E and A Division has commissioned the preparation of a methodology and procedures manual which will result in a consistent approach by Division members in carrying out their duties. The first edition of this manual is nearing completion. In this paper, a brief review of the structure of the FRMAC is presented, with emphasis on the E and A Division. The contents of the E and A manual are briefly described, as are future plans for its expansion. (author)

  13. International Cooperation to Establish Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Quarantine Management of Irradiated Foods in International Trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. W.; Byun, M. W.; Kim, J. H.; Choi, J. I.; Song, B. S.; Yoon, Y. H.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, W. G.; Kim, K. P.

    2010-02-15

    {center_dot} Development of SOPs through various research activities such as building international cooperation, and analysing current status of food irradiation in domestic and international markets, export and import, international market size, and of R and D - Analysis of examples for quarantine management in agricultural product exporting countries and use of irradiation technology for agricultural product quarantine, and changes in international quarantine management - Analysis of SOPs for food irradiation quarantine in international organization (CODEX, IPPC, WHO). U.S, EU, China, India, and Australia. - Collaborative researches of India/Korea and China/Korea entered into an agreement for market trials {center_dot} Publishment of irradiation quarantine management SOPs agreed to CODEX standards - Collaborative researches for quarantine management, avoiding Technical Barrier to Trade (TBT), and Sanitary Phytosanitary Measures were conducted, and advanced SOPs agreed with WTO/FTA system were published

  14. International Cooperation to Establish Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Quarantine Management of Irradiated Foods in International Trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. W.; Byun, M. W.; Kim, J. H.; Choi, J. I.; Song, B. S.; Yoon, Y. H.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, W. G.; Kim, K. P.

    2010-02-01

    · Development of SOPs through various research activities such as building international cooperation, and analysing current status of food irradiation in domestic and international markets, export and import, international market size, and of R and D - Analysis of examples for quarantine management in agricultural product exporting countries and use of irradiation technology for agricultural product quarantine, and changes in international quarantine management - Analysis of SOPs for food irradiation quarantine in international organization (CODEX, IPPC, WHO). U.S, EU, China, India, and Australia. - Collaborative researches of India/Korea and China/Korea entered into an agreement for market trials · Publishment of irradiation quarantine management SOPs agreed to CODEX standards - Collaborative researches for quarantine management, avoiding Technical Barrier to Trade (TBT), and Sanitary Phytosanitary Measures were conducted, and advanced SOPs agreed with WTO/FTA system were published

  15. Radioimmunoassay procedure using a stabilized complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultanian, I.V.; Irani, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    An improved radioimmunoassay procedure involves the use of a stabilized complex of labelled antigen and antibody which has an extended shelf life as compared to the same complex absent the stabilizers. Since the time needed to incubate the mixture of labelled antigen and antibody is eliminated, the time for completing the assay is considerably shortened and simplified. The components for carrying out the procedure are packaged in a kit basically including standard antigen for generation of a standard curve, a stabilized labelled antigen-antibody complex and reference serum, if used. A plurality of stabilizers are used in the complex to provide a shelf life of six weeks or more. 10 claims

  16. Powered bone marrow biopsy procedures produce larger core specimens, with less pain, in less time than with standard manual devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry J. Miller

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow sampling remains essential in the evaluation of hematopoietic and many non-hematopoietic disorders. One common limitation to these procedures is the discomfort experienced by patients. To address whether a Powered biopsy system could reduce discomfort while providing equivalent or better results, we performed a randomized trial in adult volunteers. Twenty-six subjects underwent bilateral biopsies with each device. Core samples were obtained in 66.7% of Manual insertions; 100% of Powered insertions (P=0.002. Initial mean biopsy core lengths were 11.1±4.5 mm for the Manual device; 17.0±6.8 mm for the Powered device (P<0.005. Pathology assessment for the Manual device showed a mean length of 6.1±5.6 mm, width of 1.0±0.7 mm, and volume of 11.0±10.8 mm3. Powered device measurements were mean length of 15.3±6.1 mm, width of 2.0±0.3 mm, and volume of 49.1±21.5 mm3 (P<0.001. The mean time to core ejection was 86 seconds for Manual device; 47 seconds for the Powered device (P<0.001. The mean second look overall pain score was 33.3 for the Manual device; 20.9 for the Powered (P=0.039. We conclude that the Powered biopsy device produces superior sized specimens, with less overall pain, in less time.

  17. Mutagenic treatments towards increasing the frequency of day-neutral mutations and standardization of procedures for tissue culture, in potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhya, M.D.; Chandra, R.; Abraham, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    Various chemical mutagens and gamma radiation have been used on single dormant eyes and true seeds with a view to finding effective mutagenic treatment for the induction of day-length neutral mutants in potato using an effective screening technique for the isolation of day-length neutral mutants. Sodium meta bisulphite (SMS) was found to be an efficient mutagen in inducing mutations for this trait in true seeds although the same concentrations, when used for treating the single tuber eyes proved lethal. Pre-soaking the seeds for 24 hrs prior to treatment with 0.0025M SMS gave highest frequency of the mutants followed by 48 hrs presoaking, indicating a sensitive stage during the cell cycle in true seeds. Other mutagen treatments gave different frequencies of mutations. The highest frequency of day-length neutral mutants was observed when seeds irradiated with 40 Kr of gamma radiation were treated with 0.05M hydrazinium dichloride solution. Screening procedures have also been standardised with the development of synethetic media for the isolation of biochemical mutants at the true seed level. Initial efforts have yielded mutants resistant to LD 100 doses of ethionine. Another aspect of the study was to develop a proper potato callus culture technique. A medium has been developed to produce and maintain callus from potato leaf strips. Efforts on the regeneration of shoot and roots from callus, have so far lead to differentiation of callus to form roots. The ultimate aim of these studies is to develop plantlets from single cell which would form the units of mutation induction and isolation. (author)

  18. Development of a nematode offspring counting assay for rapid and simple soil toxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin Woong; Moon, Jongmin; Jeong, Seung-Woo; An, Youn-Joo

    2018-05-01

    Since the introduction of standardized nematode toxicity assays by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO), many studies have reported their use. Given that the currently used standardized nematode toxicity assays have certain limitations, in this study, we examined the use of a novel nematode offspring counting assay for evaluating soil ecotoxicity based on a previous soil-agar isolation method used to recover live adult nematodes. In this new assay, adult Caenorhabditis elegans were exposed to soil using a standardized toxicity assay procedure, and the resulting offspring in test soils attracted by a microbial food source in agar plates were counted. This method differs from previously used assays in terms of its endpoint, namely, the number of nematode offspring. The applicability of the bioassay was demonstrated using metal-spiked soils, which revealed metal concentration-dependent responses, and with 36 field soil samples characterized by different physicochemical properties and containing various metals. Principal component analysis revealed that texture fraction (clay, sand, and silt) and electrical conductivity values were the main factors influencing the nematode offspring counting assay, and these findings warrant further investigation. The nematode offspring counting assay is a rapid and simple process that can provide multi-directional toxicity assessment when used in conjunction with other standard methods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. DOE assay methods used for characterization of contact-handled transuranic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, F.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Caldwell, J.T. (Pajarito Scientific Corp., Los Alamos, NM (United States))

    1991-08-01

    US Department of Energy methods used for characterization of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste prior to shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are described and listed by contractor site. The methods described are part of the certification process. All CH-TRU waste must be assayed for determination of fissile material content and decay heat values prior to shipment and prior to storage on-site. Both nondestructive assay (NDA) and destructive assay methods are discussed, and new NDA developments such as passive-action neutron (PAN) crate counter improvements and neutron imaging are detailed. Specifically addressed are assay method physics; applicability to CH-TRU wastes; calibration standards and implementation; operator training requirements and practices; assay procedures; assay precision, bias, and limit of detection; and assay limitation. While PAN is a new technique and does not yet have established American Society for Testing and Materials. American National Standards Institute, or Nuclear Regulatory Commission guidelines or methods describing proper calibration procedures, equipment setup, etc., comparisons of PAN data with the more established assay methods (e.g., segmented gamma scanning) have demonstrated its reliability and accuracy. Assay methods employed by DOE have been shown to reliable and accurate in determining fissile, radionuclide, alpha-curie content, and decay heat values of CH-TRU wastes. These parameters are therefore used to characterize packaged waste for use in certification programs such as that used in shipment of CH-TRU waste to the WIPP. 36 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. DOE assay methods used for characterization of contact-handled transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, F.J.; Caldwell, J.T.

    1991-08-01

    US Department of Energy methods used for characterization of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste prior to shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are described and listed by contractor site. The methods described are part of the certification process. All CH-TRU waste must be assayed for determination of fissile material content and decay heat values prior to shipment and prior to storage on-site. Both nondestructive assay (NDA) and destructive assay methods are discussed, and new NDA developments such as passive-action neutron (PAN) crate counter improvements and neutron imaging are detailed. Specifically addressed are assay method physics; applicability to CH-TRU wastes; calibration standards and implementation; operator training requirements and practices; assay procedures; assay precision, bias, and limit of detection; and assay limitation. While PAN is a new technique and does not yet have established American Society for Testing and Materials. American National Standards Institute, or Nuclear Regulatory Commission guidelines or methods describing proper calibration procedures, equipment setup, etc., comparisons of PAN data with the more established assay methods (e.g., segmented gamma scanning) have demonstrated its reliability and accuracy. Assay methods employed by DOE have been shown to reliable and accurate in determining fissile, radionuclide, alpha-curie content, and decay heat values of CH-TRU wastes. These parameters are therefore used to characterize packaged waste for use in certification programs such as that used in shipment of CH-TRU waste to the WIPP. 36 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs

  1. Hormone assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisentraut, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    An improved radioimmunoassay is described for measuring total triiodothyronine or total thyroxine levels in a sample of serum containing free endogenous thyroid hormone and endogenous thyroid hormone bound to thyroid hormone binding protein. The thyroid hormone is released from the protein by adding hydrochloric acid to the serum. The pH of the separated thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone binding protein is raised in the absence of a blocking agent without interference from the endogenous protein. 125 I-labelled thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone antibodies are added to the mixture, allowing the labelled and unlabelled thyroid hormone and the thyroid hormone antibody to bind competitively. This results in free thyroid hormone being separated from antibody bound thyroid hormone and thus the unknown quantity of thyroid hormone may be determined. A thyroid hormone test assay kit is described for this radioimmunoassay. It provides a 'single tube' assay which does not require blocking agents for endogenous protein interference nor an external solid phase sorption step for the separation of bound and free hormone after the competitive binding step; it also requires a minimum number of manipulative steps. Examples of the assay are given to illustrate the reproducibility, linearity and specificity of the assay. (UK)

  2. Assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patzke, J.B.; Rosenberg, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy of assays for monitoring concentrations of basic drugs in biological fluids containing a 1 -acid glycoproteins, such as blood (serum or plasma), is improved by the addition of certain organic phosphate compounds to minimize the ''protein effect.'' Kits containing the elements of the invention are also disclosed

  3. Standard test method for nondestructive assay of nuclear material in scrap and waste by passive-Active neutron counting using 252Cf shuffler

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the nondestructive assay of scrap and waste items for U, Pu, or both, using a 252Cf shuffler. Shuffler measurements have been applied to a variety of matrix materials in containers of up to several 100 L. Corrections are made for the effects of matrix material. Applications of this test method include measurements for safeguards, accountability, TRU, and U waste segregation, disposal, and process control purposes (1, 2, 3). 1.1.1 This test method uses passive neutron coincidence counting (4) to measure the 240Pu-effective mass. It has been used to assay items with total Pu contents between 0.03 g and 1000 g. It could be used to measure other spontaneously fissioning isotopes such as Cm and Cf. It specifically describes the approach used with shift register electronics; however, it can be adapted to other electronics. 1.1.2 This test method uses neutron irradiation with a moveable Cf source and counting of the delayed neutrons from the induced fissions to measure the 235U equiva...

  4. Philosophy, policy and procedures of the World Organisation for Animal Health for the development of standards in animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, A; Wilson, D

    2005-08-01

    Animal welfare was identified as a priority for the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in the 2001-2005 OIE Strategic Plan. Member Countries recognised that, as animal protection is a complex, multi-faceted public policy issue which includes important scientific, ethical, economic and political dimensions, the OIE needed to develop a detailed vision and strategy incorporating and balancing these dimensions. A permanent working group on animal welfare was established in order to provide guidance to the OIE in its work on the development of science-based standards and guidelines. The Working Group decided to give priority to the welfare of animals used in agriculture and aquaculture, and that, within those groups, the topics of transportation, slaughter for human consumption and killing for disease control purposes would be addressed first. Some guiding principles were approved by the International Committee of OIE Member Countries during the 72nd General Session in May 2004, and these have been followed by four specific guidelines on the priority topics listed above.

  5. Preparation procedure and certification of uranous-uranic oxide and nitric acid solution of neptunium as standard specimens of plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulyanitsa, L.S.; Lipovskij, A.A.; Ryzhinskij, M.V.; Preobrazhensskaya, L.D.; Aleksandruk, V.M.; Alekseeva, N.A.; Gromova, E.A.; Solntseva, L.F.; Shereshevskaya, I.I.

    1981-01-01

    Two techniques of certification of standard specimens of plant (SSP) are considered. The first technique-comparison with initial SS-metallic uranium NBS-960 - is used for certification of uranium. protoxide-oxide. The mass part of the sum of analyzed impurities in prepared initial SS is (8.4+-0.8)x10 -3 %. For certification according to mass uranium part the method of gravimetric potentiometric titration with semiautomatic titrator is used; the mean quadratic deviation of the method is s=0.0002-0.0003, certified value of uranium mass part in SSP (taking account of the error of initial SS) is (84.80+-0.02)%. The second technigue - a simplified circular experiment - is used for certification of SSP-nitric acid solution of neptunium as to Np mass part. Coulometry at controlled potential and coulometry at controlled current and two variants of potentiometric titration are used as certification methods of analysis. Relative mean quadratic deviations of the methods are ssub(r)=0.0014-0.0023. When calculating total error of certified value of neptunium mass part constituents of both accidental and unremoved systematic errors of the methods were included. The final certification result of SSP is (5.707+-0.018)% [ru

  6. Recanalization strategy for chronic total occlusions with tapered and stiff-tip guidewire. The results of CTO new techniQUE for STandard procedure (CONQUEST) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsudo, Kazuaki; Yamashita, Takehiro; Asakura, Yasushi; Muramatsu, Toshiya; Doi, Osamu; Shibata, Yoshisato; Morino, Yoshihiro

    2008-11-01

    The success rate of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic total coronary occlusion (CTO) lesions varies depending on the guidewire manipulation skills of the operator. The standardization of guidewire technique is very important. A new technique with a new tapered wire (Conquest, Confianza Pro) was tested to verify effectiveness for higher initial success rates and standardization of PCI for CTO. A prospective, multicenter registry was conducted at 6 investigational sites. In the CONQUEST trial, The CTO lesions were treated by using an intermediate guidewire to cross the lesion. If it did not cross, the guidewire was changed to the Conquest guidewire. If it did not cross, "seesaw-wiring" or the "parallel-wire technique" was performed. The primary endpoint was the initial procedural success rate. A total of 110 patients representing 116 CTO lesions were treated from July 2003 through March 2004. The procedural success rate was 86.2% on the first try, and 88.8% on the second try, respectively. The guidewire success rate on the second try was 90.5% during the hospital stay; no deaths, or acute myocardial infarctions were confirmed. Two patients deteriorated into tamponade, and surgical or percutaneous drainage was performed in each patient without any sequelae. A guidewire technique in PCI for CTOs that starts with the intermediate guidewire and moves to the Confianza Pro tapered guidewire, either alone or by performing a see-saw or parallel-wire technique, can achieve a high initial success rate with an acceptably low major complication rate.

  7. [Advantages and disadvantages of different methods for the implementation and the support of standard operating procedures: From PDF files to an app- and webbased SOP management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, M; Riech, S; Brandes, I; Waeschle, R M

    2015-11-01

    The quality assurance of care and patient safety, with increasing cost pressure and performance levels is of major importance in the high-risk and high cost area of the operating room (OR). Standard operating procedures (SOP) are an established tool for structuring and standardization of the clinical treatment pathways and show multiple benefits for quality assurance and process optimization. An internal project was initiated in the department of anesthesiology and a continuous improvement process was carried out to build up a comprehensive SOP library. In the first step the spectrum of procedures in anesthesiology was transferred to PDF-based SOPs. The further development to an app-based SOP library (Aesculapp) was due to the high resource expenditure for the administration and maintenance of the large PDF-based SOP collection and to deficits in the mobile availability. The next developmental stage, the SOP healthcare information assistant (SOPHIA) included a simplified and advanced update feature, an archive feature previously missing and notably the possibility to share the SOP library with other departments including the option to adapt each SOP to the individual situation. A survey of the personnel showed that the app-based allocation of SOPs (Aesculapp, SOPHIA) had a higher acceptance than the PDF-based developmental stage SOP form. The SOP management system SOPHIA combines the benefits of the forerunner version Aesculapp with improved options for intradepartmental maintenance and administration of the SOPs and the possibility of an export and editing function for interinstitutional exchange of SOPs.

  8. [Evaluation of selected parameters of blood coagulation and fibrinolysis system in patients undergoing total hip replacement surgery with normovolemic hemodilution procedure and standard enoxaparine prophylaxis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piecuch, Wiesław; Sokołowska, Bozena; Dmoszyńska, Anna; Furmanik, Franciszek

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate selected blood coagulation and fibrinolysis parameters in patients undergoing total hip replacement surgery with normovolemic hemodilution and standard enoksaparine profilaxis. The study included 66 patients undergoing hip replacement surgery. The group consisted of 51 women and 15 men, within the age range of 47-78, the mean age was 64. In 32 (subgroup II) patients the surgery was performed with the use of normovolemic hemodilution, in 34 (subgroup I) the hemodilution procedure was not applied. The enoksaparine as prophylaxis started 12 hours prior to surgery and continued during hospitalisation. The examination of the coagulation system was performed: on the day of the operation in the morning, on the day of the operation in the evening and on the first day after operation. We determined the concentrations of TAT and PAP complexes, prothrombin fragments 1 + 2 (F1 + 2) and d-dimers (DD). 1) during total hip replacement surgery and particularly in the period of the first 12 hours after the procedure marked activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis occurRed; 2) the application of the hemodilution procedure does not influence significantly the degree of coagulation and fibrinolysis disorders in the perioperative period, but could reduced incidence of thromboembolic complications in the postoperative period.

  9. Scintillation proximity assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, H.

    1980-01-01

    In a method of immunological assay two different classes of particles which interact at short distances to produce characteristic detectable signals are employed in a modification of the usual latex fixation test. In one embodiment an aqueous suspension of antigen coated tritiated latex particles (LH) and antigen coated polystyrene scintillant particles (L*) is employed to assay antibody in the aqueous medium. The amount of (LH) (L*) dimer formation and higher order aggregation induced and therefore the concentration of antibody (or antigen) present which caused the aggregation can be determined by using standard liquid scintillation counting equipment. (author)

  10. Direct assay for urine cortisol with cortisol kit TFB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manaka, Yukiko; Watanabe, Michiko; Hosoya, Takaaki [Yamagata Univ. (Japan). Hospital

    2002-05-01

    We examined Cortisol Kit TFB for direct assay of urine cortisol. And the multiplication by dilution factor of urine cortisol values in this kit was examined. The coefficient of correlation of cortisol levels (46 urine samples) between Cortisol Kit TFB and Chemilumi ACS-Cortisol II, which is another kit for direct assay of urine cortisol, was r=0.858, y=1.86x+38.2 (p<0.001). There were differences between the both cortisol levels of each urine sample in spite of the good coefficient of correlation. The urine cortisol values obtained from the standard curve in addition of 50 {mu}l of zero standard were 50-80% of the values obtained from the standard curve in the package insert. These results suggest that the specificity of the antibodies of both direct assay kits for urine cortisol may be different each other, and the multiplication by 1.09, the dilution factor due to the addition of zero standard to only urine sample, is unnecessary although it is indispensable for urine samples to add zero standard. Cortisol Kit TFB was very convenient for its easy assay procedure and short incubation. (author)

  11. Direct assay for urine cortisol with cortisol kit TFB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manaka, Yukiko; Watanabe, Michiko; Hosoya, Takaaki

    2002-01-01

    We examined Cortisol Kit TFB for direct assay of urine cortisol. And the multiplication by dilution factor of urine cortisol values in this kit was examined. The coefficient of correlation of cortisol levels (46 urine samples) between Cortisol Kit TFB and Chemilumi ACS-Cortisol II, which is another kit for direct assay of urine cortisol, was r=0.858, y=1.86x+38.2 (p<0.001). There were differences between the both cortisol levels of each urine sample in spite of the good coefficient of correlation. The urine cortisol values obtained from the standard curve in addition of 50 μl of zero standard were 50-80% of the values obtained from the standard curve in the package insert. These results suggest that the specificity of the antibodies of both direct assay kits for urine cortisol may be different each other, and the multiplication by 1.09, the dilution factor due to the addition of zero standard to only urine sample, is unnecessary although it is indispensable for urine samples to add zero standard. Cortisol Kit TFB was very convenient for its easy assay procedure and short incubation. (author)

  12. Randomized trial of one-hour sodium bicarbonate vs standard periprocedural saline hydration in chronic kidney disease patients undergoing cardiovascular contrast procedures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Kooiman

    Full Text Available Guidelines advise periprocedural saline hydration for prevention of contrast induced-acute kidney injury (CI-AKI. We analysed whether 1-hour sodium bicarbonate hydration administered solely prior to intra-arterial contrast exposure is non-inferior to standard periprocedural saline hydration in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients undergoing elective cardiovascular diagnostic or interventional contrast procedures.We performed an open-label multicentre non-inferiority trial between 2011-2014. Patients were randomized to 1 hour pre-procedure sodium bicarbonate hydration (250 ml 1.4%, N = 168 or 4-12 hours saline hydration (1000 ml 0.9%, N = 165 prior to and following contrast administration (2000 ml of saline total. Primary outcome was the relative serum creatinine increase (% 48-96 hours post contrast exposure. Secondary outcomes were: incidence of CI-AKI (serum creatinine increase>25% or >44μmol/L, recovery of renal function, the need for dialysis, and hospital costs within two months follow-up.Mean relative creatinine increase was 3.1% (95%CI 0.9 to 5.2% in the bicarbonate and 1.1% (95%CI -1.2 to 3.5% in the saline arm, mean difference 1.9% (95%CI -1.2 to 5.1%, p-non-inferiority <0.001. CI-AKI occurred in 11 (6.7% patients randomized to sodium bicarbonate and 12 (7.5% to saline (p = 0.79. Renal function did not fully recover in 40.0% and 44.4% of CI-AKI patients, respectively (p = 0.84. No patient required dialysis. Mean costs for preventive hydration and clinical preparation for the contrast procedure were $1158 for sodium bicarbonate vs. $1561 for saline (p < 0.001.Short hydration with sodium bicarbonate prior to elective cardiovascular diagnostic or therapeutic contrast procedures is non-inferior to standard periprocedural saline hydration in CKD patients with respect to renal safety and results in considerable healthcare savings.Netherlands Trial Register (http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/index.asp, Nr NTR2699.

  13. Randomized trial of one-hour sodium bicarbonate vs standard periprocedural saline hydration in chronic kidney disease patients undergoing cardiovascular contrast procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooiman, Judith; de Vries, Jean-Paul P M; Van der Heyden, Jan; Sijpkens, Yvo W J; van Dijkman, Paul R M; Wever, Jan J; van Overhagen, Hans; Vahl, Antonie C; Aarts, Nico; Verberk-Jonkers, Iris J A M; Brulez, Harald F H; Hamming, Jaap F; van der Molen, Aart J; Cannegieter, Suzanne C; Putter, Hein; van den Hout, Wilbert B; Kilicsoy, Inci; Rabelink, Ton J; Huisman, Menno V

    2018-01-01

    Guidelines advise periprocedural saline hydration for prevention of contrast induced-acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). We analysed whether 1-hour sodium bicarbonate hydration administered solely prior to intra-arterial contrast exposure is non-inferior to standard periprocedural saline hydration in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients undergoing elective cardiovascular diagnostic or interventional contrast procedures. We performed an open-label multicentre non-inferiority trial between 2011-2014. Patients were randomized to 1 hour pre-procedure sodium bicarbonate hydration (250 ml 1.4%, N = 168) or 4-12 hours saline hydration (1000 ml 0.9%, N = 165) prior to and following contrast administration (2000 ml of saline total). Primary outcome was the relative serum creatinine increase (%) 48-96 hours post contrast exposure. Secondary outcomes were: incidence of CI-AKI (serum creatinine increase>25% or >44μmol/L), recovery of renal function, the need for dialysis, and hospital costs within two months follow-up. Mean relative creatinine increase was 3.1% (95%CI 0.9 to 5.2%) in the bicarbonate and 1.1% (95%CI -1.2 to 3.5%) in the saline arm, mean difference 1.9% (95%CI -1.2 to 5.1%, p-non-inferiority <0.001). CI-AKI occurred in 11 (6.7%) patients randomized to sodium bicarbonate and 12 (7.5%) to saline (p = 0.79). Renal function did not fully recover in 40.0% and 44.4% of CI-AKI patients, respectively (p = 0.84). No patient required dialysis. Mean costs for preventive hydration and clinical preparation for the contrast procedure were $1158 for sodium bicarbonate vs. $1561 for saline (p < 0.001). Short hydration with sodium bicarbonate prior to elective cardiovascular diagnostic or therapeutic contrast procedures is non-inferior to standard periprocedural saline hydration in CKD patients with respect to renal safety and results in considerable healthcare savings. Netherlands Trial Register (http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/index.asp), Nr NTR2699.

  14. Rover waste assay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched {sup 235}U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for {sup 137}Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Rover waste assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched 235 U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for 137 Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Standard test method for nondestructive assay of special nuclear material in low density scrap and waste by segmented passive gamma-Ray scanning

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the transmission-corrected nondestructive assay (NDA) of gamma-ray emitting special nuclear materials (SNMs), most commonly 235U, 239Pu, and 241Am, in low-density scrap or waste, packaged in cylindrical containers. The method can also be applied to NDA of other gamma-emitting nuclides including fission products. High-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy is used to detect and measure the nuclides of interest and to measure and correct for gamma-ray attenuation in a series of horizontal segments (collimated gamma detector views) of the container. Corrections are also made for counting losses occasioned by signal processing limitations (1-3). 1.2 There are currently several systems in use or under development for determining the attenuation corrections for NDA of radioisotopic materials (4-8). A related technique, tomographic gamma-ray scanning (TGS), is not included in this test method (9, 10, 11). 1.2.1 This test method will cover two implementations of the Segmented Gamma Scanning ...

  17. Evaluation and standardization of different purification procedures for fish bile and liver metallothionein quantification by spectrophotometry and SDS-PAGE analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenório-Daussat, Carolina Lyrio; Resende, Marcia Carolina Martinho; Ziolli, Roberta L; Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann; Schaumloffel, Dirk; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D

    2014-03-01

    Fish bile metallothioneins (MT) have been recently reported as biomarkers for environmental metal contamination; however, no studies regarding standardizations for their purification are available. Therefore, different procedures (varying centrifugation times and heat-treatment temperatures) and reducing agents (DTT, β-mercaptoethanol and TCEP) were applied to purify MT isolated from fish (Oreochromis niloticus) bile and liver. Liver was also analyzed, since these two organs are intrinsically connected and show the same trend regarding MT expression. Spectrophotometrical analyses were used to quantify the resulting MT samples, and SDS-PAGE gels were used to qualitatively assess the different procedure results. Each procedure was then statistically evaluated and a multivariate statistical analysis was then applied. A response surface methodology was also applied for bile samples, in order to further evaluate the responses for this matrix. Heat treatment effectively removes most undesired proteins from the samples, however results indicate that temperatures above 70 °C are not efficient since they also remove MTs from both bile and liver samples. Our results also indicate that the centrifugation times described in the literature can be decreased in order to analyze more samples in the same timeframe, of importance in environmental monitoring contexts where samples are usually numerous. In an environmental context, biliary MT was lower than liver MT, as expected, since liver accumulates MT with slower detoxification rates than bile, which is released from the gallbladder during feeding, and then diluted by water. Therefore, bile MT seems to be more adequate in environmental monitoring scopes regarding recent exposure to xenobiotics that may affect the proteomic and metalloproteomic expression of this biological matrix. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Clonogenic assay: adherent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafehi, Haloom; Orlowski, Christian; Georgiadis, George T; Ververis, Katherine; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2011-03-13

    The clonogenic (or colony forming) assay has been established for more than 50 years; the original paper describing the technique was published in 1956. Apart from documenting the method, the initial landmark study generated the first radiation-dose response curve for X-ray irradiated mammalian (HeLa) cells in culture. Basically, the clonogenic assay enables an assessment of the differences in reproductive viability (capacity of cells to produce progeny; i.e. a single cell to form a colony of 50 or more cells) between control untreated cells and cells that have undergone various treatments such as exposure to ionising radiation, various chemical compounds (e.g. cytotoxic agents) or in other cases genetic manipulation. The assay has become the most widely accepted technique in radiation biology and has been widely used for evaluating the radiation sensitivity of different cell lines. Further, the clonogenic assay is commonly used for monitoring the efficacy of radiation modifying compounds and for determining the effects of cytotoxic agents and other anti-cancer therapeutics on colony forming ability, in different cell lines. A typical clonogenic survival experiment using adherent cells lines involves three distinct components, 1) treatment of the cell monolayer in tissue culture flasks, 2) preparation of single cell suspensions and plating an appropriate number of cells in petri dishes and 3) fixing and staining colonies following a relevant incubation period, which could range from 1-3 weeks, depending on the cell line. Here we demonstrate the general procedure for performing the clonogenic assay with adherent cell lines with the use of an immortalized human keratinocyte cell line (FEP-1811). Also, our aims are to describe common features of clonogenic assays including calculation of the plating efficiency and survival fractions after exposure of cells to radiation, and to exemplify modification of radiation-response with the use of a natural antioxidant

  19. An investigation of pre-activity cardiovascular screening procedures in health/fitness facilities--part II: rationale for low adherence with national standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Judy B; Eickhoff-Shemek, JoAnn M; Zuberbuehler, Ernest J

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the rationale provided by program directors and general managers of health/fitness facilities for low adherence to nationally accepted standards related to pre-activity cardiovascular screening procedures (PACSPs) for members and clients of personal trainers. Qualitative interviews were conducted with the directors/managers in a Midwest region representing 76 facilities who indicated they did not conduct PACSPs for members and clients of personal trainers. Analysis of the rationale provided revealed 6 major clusters: (1) Purpose or need for screening; (2) time and staffing; (3) barrier to participation; (4) personal responsibility for health and actions; (5) legal issues; and (6) company or franchise policy that categorized the reasons for low adherence to PACSPs. These findings highlight the need to increase awareness of the relevance of PACSPs among health/fitness managers, staff members, and current exercise science students as well as engage those in risk management for informed dialogue for consistent application of the standard of care. Copyright 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Update of X ray and gamma ray decay data standards for detector calibration and other applications. V. 2: Data selection, assessment and evaluation procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-05-01

    Various factors such as source preparation and source detector geometry may affect the quality of measurements made with intrinsic germanium and other γ ray spectrometers. However, the accuracy of such measurements invariably depends on the accuracy of the efficiency versus energy calibration curve and hence on the accuracy of the decay data for the radionuclides from which calibration standard sources are prepared. Both half-lives and X and γ ray emission probabilities need to be known to good accuracy. The recommendations and report of this work are published in two volumes: Volume 1 - Recommended Decay Data, High Energy Gamma Ray Standards and Angular Correlation Coefficients; Volume 2 - Data Selection, Assessment and Evaluation Procedures. Volume 1 is a self-contained assembly of the recommended decay data covering half-lives and the X ray and γ ray emission probabilities of the selected radionuclides, and listings of various high energy γ ray standards and a set of angular correlation coefficients; these data are presented in a concise manner for rapid and easy access. More detailed technical features of the CRP are described in Volume 2, including the evaluation procedures adopted and extensive traceable explanations of the origins of the nuclear data used to produce the recommended values listed in Volume 1. This detail was judged to be essential in order to record and demonstrate the quality of the resulting data files and allow the reader to trace the origins of the nuclear data used to determine the recommended values. All evaluations were based on the available experimental data, supplemented with the judicious use of well established theory. Three types of data (half-lives, energies and emission probabilities) were compiled and evaluated (Annex II). Consideration was also given to the adoption of a number of prompt high energy γ rays from specific nuclear reactions (Annex III), as well as to using the γ-γ coincidence technique for efficiency

  1. Procedimientos Comunes de Operacion Para Juntas Responsabilidades y Derechos del Presidente, Vice Presidente, Secretaria, y Miembros (Standard Procedures of Operation for Meetings, Rights, and Responsibilities of the President, Vice President, Secretary, and Members).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Ramon

    Of use to Parent Advisory Committees, this Spanish-English handout briefly describes the standard procedures used to conduct meetings and outlines the duties of committee officers and members. The pamphlet describes the standard order of business at a meeting, including calling a meeting to order, roll call, minutes, reports, unfinished and new…

  2. Standardization of Procedures for the Preparation of (177)Lu- and (90)Y-labeled DOTA-Rituximab Based on the Freeze-dried Kit Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojdowska, Wioletta; Karczmarczyk, Urszula; Maurin, Michal; Garnuszek, Piotr; Mikołajczak, Renata

    2015-01-01

    Rituximab when radiolabelled with (177)Lu or (90)Y has been investigated for the treatment of patients with Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma. In this study, we optimized the preparation of antibody conjugates with chelating agent in the freeze-dried kit. It shortens procedures needed for the successful radiolabeling with lutetium-177 and yttrium-90 and assures reproducible labelling yields. Various molar ratios of Rituximab:DOTA (from 1:5 to 1:100) were used at the conjugation step and different purification method to remove unbound DOTA were investigated (size-exclusion chromatography, dialysis, ultrafiltration). The final monoclonal antibody concentration was quantified by Bradford method, and the number of DOTA molecules was determined by radiolabeling assay using (64)Cu. The specific activity of (177)Lu-DOTA-Rituximab and (90)Y-DOTA-Rituximab were optimized using various amounts of radiometal. Quality control (SE-HPLC, ITLC) and stability study were performed. An average of 4.2 ± 0.8 p-SCN-Bz-DOTA molecules could be randomly conjugated to a single molecule of Rituximab. The ultrafiltration system was the most efficient for purification and resulted in the highest recovery efficiency (77.2%). At optimized conditions the (177)Lu-DOTARituximab and (90)Y-DOTA-Rituximab were obtained with radiochemical purity >99% and specific activity ca. 600 MBq/mg. The radioimmunoconjugates were stable in human serum and 0.9% NaCl. After 72 h of incubation the radiochemical purity of (177)Lu-DOTA-Rituximab decreased to 94% but it was still more than 88% for (90)Y-DOTA-Rituximab. The radioimmunoconjugate showed stability after six months storage at 2 - 8(0)C, as a lyophilized formulation. Our study shows that Rituximab-DOTA can be efficiently radiolabeled with (177)Lu and (90)Y via p-SCN-Bn-DOTA using a freezedried kit.

  3. Analytical method for the identification and assay of 12 phthalates in cosmetic products: application of the ISO 12787 international standard "Cosmetics-Analytical methods-Validation criteria for analytical results using chromatographic techniques".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Pascal; Maggio, Annie-Françoise; Bousquet, Claudine; Quoirez, Audrey; Civade, Corinne; Bonnet, Pierre-Antoine

    2012-08-31

    Esters of phthalic acid, more commonly named phthalates, may be present in cosmetic products as ingredients or contaminants. Their presence as contaminant can be due to the manufacturing process, to raw materials used or to the migration of phthalates from packaging when plastic (polyvinyl chloride--PVC) is used. 8 phthalates (DBP, DEHP, BBP, DMEP, DnPP, DiPP, DPP, and DiBP), classified H360 or H361, are forbidden in cosmetics according to the European regulation on cosmetics 1223/2009. A GC/MS method was developed for the assay of 12 phthalates in cosmetics, including the 8 phthalates regulated. Analyses are carried out on a GC/MS system with electron impact ionization mode (EI). The separation of phthalates is obtained on a cross-linked 5%-phenyl/95%-dimethylpolysiloxane capillary column 30 m × 0.25 mm (i.d.) × 0.25 mm film thickness using a temperature gradient. Phthalate quantification is performed by external calibration using an internal standard. Validation elements obtained on standard solutions, highlight a satisfactory system conformity (resolution>1.5), a common quantification limit at 0.25 ng injected, an acceptable linearity between 0.5 μg mL⁻¹ and 5.0 μg mL⁻¹ as well as a precision and an accuracy in agreement with in-house specifications. Cosmetic samples ready for analytical injection are analyzed after a dilution in ethanol whereas more complex cosmetic matrices, like milks and creams, are assayed after a liquid/liquid extraction using ter-butyl methyl ether (TBME). Depending on the type of cosmetics analyzed, the common limits of quantification for the 12 phthalates were set at 0.5 or 2.5 μg g⁻¹. All samples were assayed using the analytical approach described in the ISO 12787 international standard "Cosmetics-Analytical methods-Validation criteria for analytical results using chromatographic techniques". This analytical protocol is particularly adapted when it is not possible to make reconstituted sample matrices. Copyright © 2012

  4. Radioimmunoassay and related procedures in medicine 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Of the 77 papers submitted, 69 were included in INIS. The papers included in the proceedings cover the following sessions: reagents and separation procedures; assay for free hormones; assay for biological substances; assay for drugs; data processing; intralaboratory quality control; external surveillance of assay performance; assay service in developing countries; public health applications; clinical applications; alternatives to radioassay

  5. Multicenter study on costs associated with two surgical procedures: GreenLight XPS 180 W versus the gold standard transurethral resection of the prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benejam-Gual, J M; Sanz-Granda, A; Budía, A; Extramiana, J; Capitán, C

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the costs associated with two surgical procedures for lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia: GreenLight XPS 180¦W versus the gold standard transurethral resection of the prostate. A multicenter, retrospective cost study was carried out from the National Health Service perspective, over a 3-month time period. Costs were broken down into pre-surgical, surgical and post-surgical phases. Data were extracted from records of patients operated sequentially, with IPSS=15, Qmax=15 mL/seg and a prostate volume of 40-80mL, adding only direct healthcare costs (€, 2013) associated with the procedure and management of complications. A total of 79 patients sequentially underwent GL XPS (n: 39) or TURP (n: 40) between July and October, 2013. Clinical outcomes were similar (94.9% and 92.5%, GL XPS and TURP, respectively) without significant differences (P=.67). The average direct cost per patient was reduced by €114 in GL XPS versus TURP patients; the cost was higher in the surgical phase with GL XPS (difference: €1,209; P<.001) but was lower in the post-surgical phase (difference: €-1,351; P<.001). The GreenLight XPS 180-W laser system is associated with a reduction in costs with respect to transurethral resection of prostate in the surgical treatment of LUTS secondary to PBH. This reduction is due to a shorter inpatient length of stay that offsets the cost of the new technology. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. New approaches for the standardization and validation of a real-time qPCR assay using TaqMan probes for quantification of yellow fever virus on clinical samples with high quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes-Monteiro, Alice G; Trindade, Gisela F; Yamamura, Anna M Y; Moreira, Otacilio C; de Paula, Vanessa S; Duarte, Ana Cláudia M; Britto, Constança; Lima, Sheila Maria B

    2015-01-01

    The development and production of viral vaccines, in general, involve several steps that need the monitoring of viral load throughout the entire process. Applying a 2-step quantitative reverse transcription real time PCR assay (RT-qPCR), viral load can be measured and monitored in a few hours. In this context, the development, standardization and validation of a RT-qPCR test to quickly and efficiently quantify yellow fever virus (YFV) in all stages of vaccine production are extremely important. To serve this purpose we used a plasmid construction containing the NS5 region from 17DD YFV to generate the standard curve and to evaluate parameters such as linearity, precision and specificity against other flavivirus. Furthermore, we defined the limits of detection as 25 copies/reaction, and quantification as 100 copies/reaction for the test. To ensure the quality of the method, reference controls were established in order to avoid false negative results. The qRT-PCR technique based on the use of TaqMan probes herein standardized proved to be effective for determining yellow fever viral load both in vivo and in vitro, thus becoming a very important tool to assure the quality control for vaccine production and evaluation of viremia after vaccination or YF disease.

  7. Evaluation of a Commercial Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for the Quantification of Beta-Casomorphin 7 in Yogurt Using Solid-Phase Extraction Coupled to Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry as the "Gold Standard" Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duc Doan; Busetti, Francesco; Johnson, Stuart Keith; Solah, Vicky Ann

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated beta-casomorphin 7 (BCM7) in yogurt by means of LC-tandem MS (MS/MS) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and use LC-MS/MS as the "gold standard" method to evaluate the applicability of a commercial ELISA. The level of BCM7 in milk obtained from ELISA analysis was much lower than that obtained by LC-MS/MS analysis and trended to increase during fermentation and storage of yogurt. Meanwhile, the results obtained from LC-MS/MS showed that BCM7 degraded during stages of yogurt processing, and its degradation may have been caused by X-prolyl dipeptidyl aminopeptidase activity. As a result, the commercial sandwich ELISA kit was not suitable for the quantification of BCM7 in fermented dairy milk.

  8. Radioimmunoassay and related procedures in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Full text: Radioassay procedures for the measurement of substances such as hormones, vitamins and drugs in the body fluids and tissues, above all in the blood, are now in the front rank of medical applications of radioactive materials. These procedures, which are carried out on specimens in the medical laboratory and do not involve the administration of any radioactive material to the patient, are now widely employed in the routine diagnosis and investigation of disease, whilst their use in research has led to important advances in many branches of medicine. Typical of radioassay methods is radioimmunoassay, which depends on the antigen-antibody reaction between the substance to be measured and the antibodies in an antiserum against that substance produced in a guinea-pig, rabbit, sheep or other animal. The importance of radioimmunoassay was recently underlined by the award of the Nobel Prize in medicine for 1977 to Dr. Rosalyn Yalow of the United States of America for her pioneer work on the method over the past two decades, particularly in relation to the measurement of protein hormones. This symposium was the third on the subject to have been sponsored by the IAEA. The first took place in Vienna in 1969 and the second in Istanbul in 1973. During the four years from 1973 to 1977, the growing commercial availability of reagents and kits for radioassays brought them into routine use. This in turn led to an increasing awareness of the need for assay standardization and quality control and to an increasing attention to techniques of assay data analysis. The burgeoning demands made on assay services stimulated interest in the possibilities for automation of assay procedures. Promising new methods were developed, notably solid-phase radioassay and radioreceptor assay. At the same time there was a resurgence of interest in alternative assay methods not based on the use of radioactive materials, which made a critical re-examination of the entire subject desirable. The

  9. Radioimmunoassay and related procedures in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-02-15

    Full text: Radioassay procedures for the measurement of substances such as hormones, vitamins and drugs in the body fluids and tissues, above all in the blood, are now in the front rank of medical applications of radioactive materials. These procedures, which are carried out on specimens in the medical laboratory and do not involve the administration of any radioactive material to the patient, are now widely employed in the routine diagnosis and investigation of disease, whilst their use in research has led to important advances in many branches of medicine. Typical of radioassay methods is radioimmunoassay, which depends on the antigen-antibody reaction between the substance to be measured and the antibodies in an antiserum against that substance produced in a guinea-pig, rabbit, sheep or other animal. The importance of radioimmunoassay was recently underlined by the award of the Nobel Prize in medicine for 1977 to Dr. Rosalyn Yalow of the United States of America for her pioneer work on the method over the past two decades, particularly in relation to the measurement of protein hormones. This symposium was the third on the subject to have been sponsored by the IAEA. The first took place in Vienna in 1969 and the second in Istanbul in 1973. During the four years from 1973 to 1977, the growing commercial availability of reagents and kits for radioassays brought them into routine use. This in turn led to an increasing awareness of the need for assay standardization and quality control and to an increasing attention to techniques of assay data analysis. The burgeoning demands made on assay services stimulated interest in the possibilities for automation of assay procedures. Promising new methods were developed, notably solid-phase radioassay and radioreceptor assay. At the same time there was a resurgence of interest in alternative assay methods not based on the use of radioactive materials, which made a critical re-examination of the entire subject desirable. The

  10. Rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Aspergillus fumigatus antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, M D; Stubbins, J M; Warnock, D W

    1982-01-01

    A rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) where component incubation periods were shortened to one hour, was compared with agar gel double diffusion (AGDD) and a standard ELISA procedure for detecting antibodies to Aspergillus fumigatus in 28 asthmatic patients with suspected allergic aspergillosis. Using two A fumigatus antigens the rapid ELISA compared well with AGDD and the standard ELISA method. Eleven sera that reacted with both antigens in AGDD were all positive against antigen ...

  11. Optimization of a colorimetric assay for glycosylated human serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohney, J.P.; Feldhoff, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assay has been used for several years to quantitate the amount of glucose which has been non-enzymatically linked to hemoglobin and other proteins. The ketoamine-protein adduct is converted to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) by mild hydrolysis with oxalic acid. Reaction of HMF with TBA yields a colored product which has an absorbance maximum at 443 nm. Several modifications of the original procedure has been published, but none permit the unambiguous quantitation of glycosylated human serum albumin (glc-HSA). Problems relate to reagent preparation and stability, the time and temperature of hydrolysis, the choice of standards, and background color corrections. The authors have found that maximum color yield occurs after hydrolysis in an autoclave for 2 h. This increases the sensitivity 3-fold and cuts the assay time in half relative to hydrolysis for 4.5 h at 100 0 C. A NaBH 4 reduction of a parallel protein sample must be performed to correct for variable background color associated with different sample sources and amounts. HMF can be used as a standard, however, corrections must be made for HMF degradation. Fructose is a better standard, but HMF formation from fructose is faster than formation from glc-HSA. This may result in an underestimate of percent glycosylation. The best standard appears to be glc-HSA prepared with [ 3 H]glucose. It appears that with proper controls and standards the TBA assay can be used to determine actual rather than relative percent glycosylation

  12. The Japanese Society of Pathology Guidelines on the handling of pathological tissue samples for genomic research: Standard operating procedures based on empirical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Yae; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Miyagi, Yohei; Tsuruyama, Tatsuhiro; Taguchi, Kenichi; Katoh, Hiroto; Takeuchi, Tomoyo; Gotoh, Masahiro; Kuramoto, Junko; Arai, Eri; Ojima, Hidenori; Shibuya, Ayako; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Akahane, Toshiaki; Kasajima, Rika; Morita, Kei-Ichi; Inazawa, Johji; Sasaki, Takeshi; Fukayama, Masashi; Oda, Yoshinao

    2018-02-01

    Genome research using appropriately collected pathological tissue samples is expected to yield breakthroughs in the development of biomarkers and identification of therapeutic targets for diseases such as cancers. In this connection, the Japanese Society of Pathology (JSP) has developed "The JSP Guidelines on the Handling of Pathological Tissue Samples for Genomic Research" based on an abundance of data from empirical analyses of tissue samples collected and stored under various conditions. Tissue samples should be collected from appropriate sites within surgically resected specimens, without disturbing the features on which pathological diagnosis is based, while avoiding bleeding or necrotic foci. They should be collected as soon as possible after resection: at the latest within about 3 h of storage at 4°C. Preferably, snap-frozen samples should be stored in liquid nitrogen (about -180°C) until use. When intending to use genomic DNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue, 10% neutral buffered formalin should be used. Insufficient fixation and overfixation must both be avoided. We hope that pathologists, clinicians, clinical laboratory technicians and biobank operators will come to master the handling of pathological tissue samples based on the standard operating procedures in these Guidelines to yield results that will assist in the realization of genomic medicine. © 2018 The Authors. Pathology International published by Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Standard procedure of operation for the accomplishment of audit of quality in facilities of teletherapy with isotopic units of 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larrinaga Cortina, Eduardo F.; Dominguez Hung, Lourdes; Campa Menendez, Raudel

    2001-01-01

    The use of the radiotherapy implies the necessity of rigorous quality standards in its different components, aiming to provide the best possible treatment and avoid potential patient's risks, that could even cause his/her death. Projects of technical cooperation have been developed in Cuba support by the International Atomic Energy Agency addresses to the implementation of Programs of Quality Assurance in radiotherapy services. The establishment of the National Quality Audit Program (PNAC) is a superior stage. The National Control Center for Medical Devices as the national regulator entity for the control and supervision of medical devices in the National Health System is the responsible for the making and execution of the PNAC. The audit modality selected was the inspection visit in situ due to its intrinsic advantages, our geographical extension and the number of radiotherapy services. This paper presents the methodology for the execution of the PNAC, in form of a Normalized Procedure of Operation that defines the objectives, scope, terms and definitions, responsibilities, composition and selection of the auditor team, security's conditions, materials and equipment, steps of the audit execution, results calculation and interpretation, records, etc. (author)

  14. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the diagnosis of fasciolosis in sheep and its application under field conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Mart?nez-Valladares, Mar?a; Rojo-V?zquez, Francisco Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a very specific, efficient, and rapid gene amplification procedure in which the reaction can run at a constant temperature. In the current study we have developed a LAMP assay to improve the diagnosis of Fasciola spp. in the faeces of sheep. Findings After the optimisation of the LAMP assay we have shown similar results between this technique and the standard PCR using the outer primers of the LAMP reaction. In both cases the limit o...

  15. Competitive protein binding assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Toshio; Oka, Hiroshi

    1975-01-01

    The measurement of cyclic GMP (cGMP) by competitive protein binding assay was described and discussed. The principle of binding assay was represented briefly. Procedures of our method by binding protein consisted of preparation of cGMP binding protein, selection of 3 H-cyclic GMP on market, and measurement procedures. In our method, binding protein was isolated from the chrysalis of silk worm. This method was discussed from the points of incubation medium, specificity of binding protein, the separation of bound cGMP from free cGMP, and treatment of tissue from which cGMP was extracted. cGMP existing in the tissue was only one tenth or one scores of cGMP, and in addition, cGMP competed with cGMP in binding with binding protein. Therefore, Murad's technique was applied to the isolation of cGMP. This method provided the measurement with sufficient accuracy; the contamination by cAMP was within several per cent. (Kanao, N.)

  16. Postoperative pain medication requirements in patients undergoing computer-assisted (“Robotic”) and standard laparoscopic procedures for newly diagnosed endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitao, Mario M; Malhotra, Vivek; Briscoe, Gabriel; Suidan, Rudy; Dholakiya, Priyal; Santos, Kevin; Jewell, Elizabeth L; Brown, Carol L; Sonoda, Yukio; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R; Barakat, Richard R; Gardner, Ginger J

    2013-10-01

    patients who had undergone an RBT hysterectomy compared to a standard total LSC hysterectomy for benign indications.13 A recent cost analysis suggested that patients experienced less pain and required less pain medication use after RBT procedures compared to LSC for endometrial cancer.14 Based on these reports, we sought to analyze postoperative pain and the use of pain medication in patients undergoing RBT compared to standard transperitoneal LSC procedures for newly diagnosed endometrial cancer during a concurrent time period. Of note, current RBT surgery is not truly robotic in that it is not autonomous. A more appropriate term is “computer-assisted surgery,” but to satisfy current convention, we refer to it as “robotic surgery” in this manuscript.

  17. Standard operating procedures for collection of soil and sediment samples for the Sediment-bound Contaminant Resiliency and Response (SCoRR) strategy pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Shawn C.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Jones, Daniel K.; Benzel, William M.; Griffin, Dale W.; Loftin, Keith A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Cohl, Jonathan A.

    2015-12-17

    An understanding of the effects on human and ecological health brought by major coastal storms or flooding events is typically limited because of a lack of regionally consistent baseline and trends data in locations proximal to potential contaminant sources and mitigation activities, sensitive ecosystems, and recreational facilities where exposures are probable. In an attempt to close this gap, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has implemented the Sediment-bound Contaminant Resiliency and Response (SCoRR) strategy pilot study to collect regional sediment-quality data prior to and in response to future coastal storms. The standard operating procedure (SOP) detailed in this document serves as the sample-collection protocol for the SCoRR strategy by providing step-by-step instructions for site preparation, sample collection and processing, and shipping of soil and surficial sediment (for example, bed sediment, marsh sediment, or beach material). The objectives of the SCoRR strategy pilot study are (1) to create a baseline of soil-, sand-, marsh sediment-, and bed-sediment-quality data from sites located in the coastal counties from Maine to Virginia based on their potential risk of being contaminated in the event of a major coastal storm or flooding (defined as Resiliency mode); and (2) respond to major coastal storms and flooding by reoccupying select baseline sites and sampling within days of the event (defined as Response mode). For both modes, samples are collected in a consistent manner to minimize bias and maximize quality control by ensuring that all sampling personnel across the region collect, document, and process soil and sediment samples following the procedures outlined in this SOP. Samples are analyzed using four USGS-developed screening methods—inorganic geochemistry, organic geochemistry, pathogens, and biological assays—which are also outlined in this SOP. Because the SCoRR strategy employs a multi-metric approach for sample analyses, this

  18. Comparison of a standardized procedure with current laboratory practices for the detection of lupus anticoagulant in France. Working Group on Hemostasis of the Société Française de Biologie Clinique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-15

    A multicenter study involving 13 laboratories was designed to compare a common procedure for screening lupus anticoagulants (LA) to the different practices currently in use in these laboratories. The common procedure combined 3 phospholipid-dependent assays, including mixing studies and a phospholipid neutralizing test. Due to the heterogeneity of LA expression, an abnormal result in at least one of the tests was sufficient to classify a sample as positive for LA. Consecutive samples referred for LA diagnosis were evaluated in parallel by each participant and the data found using the common procedure were analyzed independently according to mutually agreed cut-offs and criteria for sample classification. Within a period of 3 months, 535 samples were included, of which 147 were judged LA positive, 29 undetermined and 359 negative by the respective laboratories using their current practice. When using the common procedure, 149 plasmas were said to be positive, 38 undetermined and 348 negative. Absolute concordance occurred for 81% of the specimen population and absolute discordance (positive versus negative) for 7%. The level of agreement between the common procedure and the current practices, assessed by kappa indexes, indicated noticeable variations in the rates of detection from laboratory to laboratory. Among the different tests used in the common procedure, regular APTT was the least sensitive (about 50% detection) but none of the other tests alone recognized more than 73% of specimens from the LA positive population. This yield increased to about 90% with any combination of 2 sensitive tests.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Emergency procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail

    2004-01-01

    The following subjects are discussed - Emergency Procedures: emergency equipment, emergency procedures; emergency procedure involving X-Ray equipment; emergency procedure involving radioactive sources

  20. Toward a standardized investigation protocol in sudden unexpected deaths in infancy in South Africa: a multicenter study of medico-legal investigation procedures and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit-Prinsloo, Lorraine; Dempers, Johan; Verster, Janette; Hattingh, Christa; Nel, Hestelle; Brandt, V D; Jordaan, Joyce; Saayman, Gert

    2013-09-01

    South Africa manifests a socio-economic dichotomy that shows features of both a developed and developing country. As a result of this, areas exist where a lack of resources and expertise prevents the implementation of a highly standardized protocol for the investigation of sudden and unexpected deaths in infants (SUDI). Although the medico-legal mortuaries attached to academic centers have the capacity to implement standardized protocols, a previous study conducted at two large medico-legal mortuaries indicated otherwise. This study also revealed that the exact number and incidence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) cases was unknown. These findings prompted a multicenter study of the medico-legal investigation procedures and outcomes in five academic centers in South Africa. A retrospective case audit was conducted for a 5-year period (2005-2009) at medico-legal laboratories attached to universities in Bloemfontein, Cape Town-Tygerberg, Durban, Johannesburg, and Pretoria. The total case load as well as the total number of infants younger than 1 year of age admitted to these mortuaries was documented. The case files on all infants younger than 1 year of age who were admitted as sudden and unexpected or unexplained deaths were included in the study population. Data collected on the target population included demographic details, the nature and scope of the post-mortem examinations, as well as the final outcome (cause of death). A total case load of 80,399 cases were admitted to the mortuaries over the 5 year period with a total of 3,295 (6.5 %) infants. In the infant group, 591 (0.7 %) died from non-natural causes and 2,704 (3.3 %) cases of sudden, unexpected and/or unexplained deaths in infants were admitted and included in the detailed case analysis study. One hundred and ninety-nine babies were between 0 and 7 days of age and 210 babies between 8 and 30 days. The remaining 2,295 infants were between 1 month and 12 months of age. Death scene investigation was

  1. Chapter 2. Surge capacity and infrastructure considerations for mass critical care. Recommendations and standard operating procedures for intensive care unit and hospital preparations for an influenza epidemic or mass disaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hick, John L.; Christian, Michael D.; Sprung, Charles L.; Camargo, Ruben; Ceraso, Daniel; Azoulay, Elie; Duguet, Alexandre; Guery, Benoit; Reinhart, Konrad; Adini, Bruria; Barlavie, Yaron; Benin-Goren, Odeda; Cohen, Robert; Klein, Motti; Leoniv, Yuval; Margalit, Gila; Rubinovitch, Bina; Sonnenblick, Moshe; Steinberg, Avraham; Weissman, Charles; Wolff, Donna; Kesecioglu, Jozef; de Jong, Menno; Moreno, Rui; An, Youzhong; Du, Bin; Joynt, Gavin M.; Colvin, John; Loo, Shi; Richards, Guy; Artigas, Antonio; Pugin, Jerome; Amundson, Dennis; Devereaux, Asha; Beigel, John; Danis, Marion; Farmer, Chris; Maki, Dennis; Masur, Henry; Rubinson, Lewis; Sandrock, Christian; Talmor, Daniel; Truog, Robert; Zimmerman, Janice; Brett, Steve; Montgomery, Hugh; Rhodes, Andrew; Sanderson, Frances; Taylor, Bruce; Monrgomery, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    To provide recommendations and standard operating procedures for intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital preparations for a mass disaster or influenza epidemic with a specific focus on surge capacity and infrastructure considerations. Based on a literature review and expert opinion, a Delphi process

  2. Chapter 6. Protection of patients and staff during a pandemic. Recommendations and standard operating procedures for intensive care unit and hospital preparations for an influenza epidemic or mass disaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, Bruce L.; Montgomery, Hugh E.; Rhodes, Andrew; Sprung, Charles L.; Christian, Michael D.; Camargo, Ruben; Ceraso, Daniel; Azoulay, Elie; Duguet, Alexandre; Guery, Benoit; Reinhart, Konrad; Adini, Bruria; Barlavie, Yaron; Benin-Goren, Odeda; Cohen, Robert; Klein, Motti; Leoniv, Yuval; Margalit, Gila; Rubinovitch, Bina; Sonnenblick, Moshe; Steinberg, Avraham; Weissman, Charles; Wolff, Donna; Kesecioglu, Jozef; de Jong, Menno; Moreno, Rui; An, Youzhong; Du, Bin; Joynt, Gavin M.; Colvin, John; Loo, Shi; Richards, Guy; Artigas, Antonio; Pugin, Jerome; Amundson, Dennis; Devereaux, Asha; Beigel, John; Danis, Marion; Farmer, Chris; Hick, John L.; Maki, Dennis; Masur, Henry; Rubinson, Lewis; Sandrock, Christian; Talmor, Daniel; Truog, Robert; Zimmerman, Janice; Brett, Steve; Montgomery, Hugh; Sanderson, Frances

    2010-01-01

    To provide recommendations and standard operating procedures (SOPs) for intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital preparations for an influenza pandemic or mass disaster with a specific focus on protection of patients and staff. Based on a literature review and expert opinion, a Delphi process was used

  3. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION, STORAGE AND SHIPMENT OF URINE SAMPLES FOR SELECTED METALS AND PESTICIDES (UA-F-20.1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this SOP is to guide the collection, storage, and shipment of urine samples collected for the NHEXAS Arizona project. This SOP provides a brief description of sample, collection, preservation, storage, shipping, and custody procedures. This procedure was followed ...

  4. Novel method for the high-throughput processing of slides for the comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbaschi, Mahsa; Cooke, Marcus S

    2014-11-26

    Single cell gel electrophoresis (the comet assay), continues to gain popularity as a means of assessing DNA damage. However, the assay's low sample throughput and laborious sample workup procedure are limiting factors to its application. "Scoring", or individually determining DNA damage levels in 50 cells per treatment, is time-consuming, but with the advent of high-throughput scoring, the limitation is now the ability to process significant numbers of comet slides. We have developed a novel method by which multiple slides may be manipulated, and undergo electrophoresis, in batches of 25 rather than individually and, importantly, retains the use of standard microscope comet slides, which are the assay convention. This decreases assay time by 60%, and benefits from an electrophoresis tank with a substantially smaller footprint, and more uniform orientation of gels during electrophoresis. Our high-throughput variant of the comet assay greatly increases the number of samples analysed, decreases assay time, number of individual slide manipulations, reagent requirements and risk of damage to slides. The compact nature of the electrophoresis tank is of particular benefit to laboratories where bench space is at a premium. This novel approach is a significant advance on the current comet assay procedure.

  5. Development of a solid-phase assay for measurement of proteolytic enzyme activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varani, J.; Johnson, K.; Kaplan, J.

    1980-01-01

    A solid-phase, plate assay was developed for the measurement of proteolytic enzyme activity. In this assay procedure, radiolabeled substrates were dried onto the surface of microtiter wells. Following drying, the wells were washed two times with saline to remove the nonadherent substrate. When proteolytic enzymes were added to the wells, protein hydrolysis occurred, releasing radioactivity into the supernatant fluid. The amount of protein hydrolysis that occurred was reflected by the amount of radioactivity in the supernatant fluid. When 125 I-hemoglobin was used as the substrate, it was as susceptible to hydrolysis by trypsin in the solid-phase assay as it was in solution in a standard assay procedure. Protease activity from a variety of sources (including from viable cells as well as from extracellular sources) were also able to hydrolyze the hemoglobin on the plate. 125 I-Labeled serum albumen, fibrinogen, and rat pulmonary basement membrane were also susceptible to hydrolysis by trypsin in the solid phase. When [ 14 C]elastin was dried onto the plate, it behaved in a similar manner to elastin in solution. It was resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific proteases such as trypsin and chymotrypsin but was highly susceptible to hydrolysis by elastase. The solid-phase plate assay has several features which recommended it for routine use. It is as sensitive as standard tube assays (and much more sensitive than routinely used colormetric assays). It is quick and convenient; there are no precipitation, centrifugation, or filtration steps. In addition, very small volumes of radioactive wastes are generated. Another advantage of the solid-phase plate assay is the resistance of the dried substrates to spontaneous breakdown and to microbial contamination. Finally, this assay is suitable for use with viable cells as well as for extracellular proteases

  6. Do English NHS Microbiology laboratories offer adequate services for the diagnosis of UTI in children? Healthcare Quality Improvement Partnership (HQIP) Audit of Standard Operational Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Cliodna A M; Verlander, Neville Q; Moore, Philippa C L; Larcombe, James; Dudley, Jan; Banerjee, Jaydip; Jadresic, Lyda

    2015-09-01

    The National Institute of Care Excellence (NICE) 2007 guidance CG54, on urinary tract infection (UTI) in children, states that clinicians should use urgent microscopy and culture as the preferred method for diagnosing UTI in the hospital setting for severe illness in children under 3 years old and from the GP setting in children under 3 years old with intermediate risk of severe illness. NICE also recommends that all 'infants and children with atypical UTI (including non-Escherichia coli infections) should have renal imaging after a first infection'. We surveyed all microbiology laboratories in England with Clinical Pathology Accreditation to determine standard operating procedures (SOPs) for urgent microscopy, culture and reporting of children's urine and to ascertain whether the SOPs facilitate compliance with NICE guidance. We undertook a computer search in six microbiology laboratories in south-west England to determine urine submissions and urine reports in children under 3 years. Seventy-three per cent of laboratories (110/150) participated. Enterobacteriaceae that were not E. coli were reported only as coliforms (rather than non-E. coli coliforms) by 61% (67/110) of laboratories. Eighty-eight per cent of laboratories (97/110) provided urgent microscopy for hospital and 54% for general practice (GP) paediatric urines; 61% of laboratories (confidence interval 52-70%) cultured 1 μl volume of urine, which equates to one colony if the bacterial load is 106 c.f.u. l(-1). Only 22% (24/110) of laboratories reported non-E. coli coliforms and provided urgent microscopy for both hospital and GP childhood urines; only three laboratories also cultured a 5 μl volume of urine. Only one of six laboratories in our submission audit had a significant increase in urine submissions and urines reported from children less than 3 years old between the predicted pre-2007 level in the absence of guidance and the 2008 level following publication of the NICE guidance. Less than a

  7. Assay of oestrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    A particular problem with the direct radioimmunoassay of unconjugated oestriol in pregnancy is caused by the increased amount of steroid-binding proteins present in pregnancy serum and plasma. The steroid-binding proteins react with oestriol and 125 I-labelled oestriol during the assay procedure and the steroid-protein bound 125 I-labelled oestriol is precipitated along with the antibody-bound 125 I-labelled oestriol by the ammonium sulphate solution separation system. A novel method is described whereby progesterone (1-20 μg/ml) is used to block the action of steroid-binding proteins in pregnancy serum and plasma samples, thus minimizing interference in a direct radioimmunoassay for unconjugated oestriol using a specific anti-oestriol serum. (U.K.)

  8. Comparison of IEEE383-2003 and IEC60505-2004 standards for harmonization of environmental qualification procedure of electric cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Seog; Jeong, Sun Chul; Park, Kyung Heum; Jang, Kyung Nam

    2010-01-01

    Needs for harmonization of international equipment qualification(EQ) standards have been raised several years due to purchasing problem of nuclear equipment supplied from abroad country. To meet the regulatory requirement of domestic nuclear power plant, manufacturers have to qualify their equipment in accordance with each standard such as IEEE, IEC and RCC-E. Double qualification increase the equipment cost, which result in high construction cost. Even the unification of each standard have been discussed several years, we have got the long way to go yet. Comparison and harmonization of each international standard will give help to purchase the equipment qualified by not endorsed standard. Environmental qualification, seismic qualification and EMI/EMC qualification are major targets for harmonization. Since concern about cable qualification of 60 years life has been raised recently, harmonization of cable qualification standard also needs to be discussed. KEPRI launched a project for harmonization of EQ relative standards such as IEEE, IEC and RCC-E. A study for harmonization of IEEE323 and IEC60780 is known in progress by IEEE committee. In this paper, harmonization of international standards for cable qualification will be discussed. IEEE383 standard is qualification standard for electric cable broadly used in Asian pacific area while IEC60505 is mostly used in European area. Since these two standards have different requirements for environmental qualification of cable, problem can be happened in the plant site when they purchase cable qualified by not endorsed standard. IEEE383-2003 and IEC60505-2004 is the latest version of each standard. Comparison results and recommendations for harmonization of these two standards are introduced herein

  9. Solid-phase immunoradiometric assay for C-reactive protein using magnetisable cellulose particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, F.C. de; Pepys, M.B.

    1982-01-01

    An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for C-reactive protein (CRP) was developed using magnetisable cellulose particles as the solid-phase support for anti-CRP antibodies. 125 I-labelled immunopurified anti-CRP antibody was used to quantitate the amount of CRP taken up by the solid phase. Unbound label was easily and rapidly removed by decantation after sedimenting the particles on a magnet. The assay could detect 1 μg CRP/l and had a range of up to 10 mg/l with the portion of the standard curve between 10 μg/l and 2-3 mg/l being linear. Fifty samples per hour could be processed manually from serum to CRP result with an intra-assay CV of 5.2% and an inter-assay CV of 10.0%, based on 5 replicates of 5 samples with CRP levels between 2 mg/l and 180 mg/l run in 5 separate assays. Fifty clinical samples were assayed in parallel with a standard electroimmunoassay and yielded a linear correlation coefficient (r) of 0.975 and a slope of 0.98. With its single, brief incubation step including all reagents and its simple phase separation procedure the present method may be the assay of choice when precise measurement of CRP concentrations is required rapidly. (Auth.)

  10. Multiplex High-Throughput Targeted Proteomic Assay To Identify Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud, Anna; Wessely, Frank; Mazzacuva, Francesca; McCormick, James; Camuzeaux, Stephane; Heywood, Wendy E; Little, Daniel; Vowles, Jane; Tuefferd, Marianne; Mosaku, Olukunbi; Lako, Majlinda; Armstrong, Lyle; Webber, Caleb; Cader, M Zameel; Peeters, Pieter; Gissen, Paul; Cowley, Sally A; Mills, Kevin

    2017-02-21

    Induced pluripotent stem cells have great potential as a human model system in regenerative medicine, disease modeling, and drug screening. However, their use in medical research is hampered by laborious reprogramming procedures that yield low numbers of induced pluripotent stem cells. For further applications in research, only the best, competent clones should be used. The standard assays for pluripotency are based on genomic approaches, which take up to 1 week to perform and incur significant cost. Therefore, there is a need for a rapid and cost-effective assay able to distinguish between pluripotent and nonpluripotent cells. Here, we describe a novel multiplexed, high-throughput, and sensitive peptide-based multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry assay, allowing for the identification and absolute quantitation of multiple core transcription factors and pluripotency markers. This assay provides simpler and high-throughput classification into either pluripotent or nonpluripotent cells in 7 min analysis while being more cost-effective than conventional genomic tests.

  11. Standards for holdup measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Holdup measurement, needed for material balance, depend intensively on standards and on interpretation of the calibration procedure. More than other measurements, the calibration procedure using the standard becomes part of the standard. Standards practical for field use and calibration techniques have been developed. While accuracy in holdup measurements is comparatively poor, avoidance of bias is a necessary goal

  12. Radiosotopic assay and binder therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caston, J.D.; Kamen, B.A.

    1976-01-01

    A rapid and less costly radioisotopic assay for measuring the concentration of folate in blood serum is described. This procedure utilizes 3 H-pteroylmonoglutamate, unlabeled 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid, and a partially purified folate binder, such as for example a folate binder extracted from hog kidney. The procedure involves radioisotopically relating the bound amounts of a labeled folate and a known folate at various concentrations of the known folate in a system containing a predetermined amount of the labeled folate, a predetermined amount of the binder factor for the folates, and a predetermined amount of defolated test serum. 16 claims, 8 drawing figures

  13. Investigation into the dissolution and direct assay of high-fired plutonium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    A fusion-melt and dissolution assay method has been developed and tested for the quantitative analysis of high-fired plutonium dioxide. The method employs fusion of the plutonium dioxide at temperatures greater than the melting point of an eutectic mixture of potassium pyrosulfate plus sodium peroxide. The resultant melt is then titrated directly by either controlled potential coulometry or a gravimetric titration, using standardized ceric sulfate as the titrant. It has been concluded from these investigations that by using the techniques described, high-fired plutonium dioxide (stochiometric) can be quantitatively dissolved and assayed to a degree heretofore beyond the state-of-the-art, while showing direct traceability to the Federal standards. After fusion, the dissolution and direct assay is applicable to existing routine analytical procedures. The method was designed so as to minimize physical handling, simplify the chemical operations, and maximize the personal safety of the analyst at an appreciable cost savings per analysis

  14. Appraisal of within- and between-laboratory reproducibility of non-radioisotopic local lymph node assay using flow cytometry, LLNA:BrdU-FCM: comparison of OECD TG429 performance standard and statistical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyeri; Na, Jihye; Jang, Won-Hee; Jung, Mi-Sook; Jeon, Jun-Young; Heo, Yong; Yeo, Kyung-Wook; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Lim, Kyung-Min; Bae, SeungJin

    2015-05-05

    Mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA, OECD TG429) is an alternative test replacing conventional guinea pig tests (OECD TG406) for the skin sensitization test but the use of a radioisotopic agent, (3)H-thymidine, deters its active dissemination. New non-radioisotopic LLNA, LLNA:BrdU-FCM employs a non-radioisotopic analog, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and flow cytometry. For an analogous method, OECD TG429 performance standard (PS) advises that two reference compounds be tested repeatedly and ECt(threshold) values obtained must fall within acceptable ranges to prove within- and between-laboratory reproducibility. However, this criteria is somewhat arbitrary and sample size of ECt is less than 5, raising concerns about insufficient reliability. Here, we explored various statistical methods to evaluate the reproducibility of LLNA:BrdU-FCM with stimulation index (SI), the raw data for ECt calculation, produced from 3 laboratories. Descriptive statistics along with graphical representation of SI was presented. For inferential statistics, parametric and non-parametric methods were applied to test the reproducibility of SI of a concurrent positive control and the robustness of results were investigated. Descriptive statistics and graphical representation of SI alone could illustrate the within- and between-laboratory reproducibility. Inferential statistics employing parametric and nonparametric methods drew similar conclusion. While all labs passed within- and between-laboratory reproducibility criteria given by OECD TG429 PS based on ECt values, statistical evaluation based on SI values showed that only two labs succeeded in achieving within-laboratory reproducibility. For those two labs that satisfied the within-lab reproducibility, between-laboratory reproducibility could be also attained based on inferential as well as descriptive statistics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Linearization of the Bradford Protein Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst, Orna; Zor, Tsaffrir

    2010-01-01

    Determination of microgram quantities of protein in the Bradford Coomassie brilliant blue assay is accomplished by measurement of absorbance at 590 nm. This most common assay enables rapid and simple protein quantification in cell lysates, cellular fractions, or recombinant protein samples, for the purpose of normalization of biochemical measurements. However, an intrinsic nonlinearity compromises the sensitivity and accuracy of this method. It is shown that under standard assay conditions, t...

  16. NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION, STORAGE, AND SHIPMENT OF URINE SAMPLES FOR METAL, PESTICIDE, AND CREATININE ANALYSIS (F10)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this SOP is to describe the procedures for collection, storage, and shipment of urine samples for metal, pesticides, and creatinine analysis. Samples were collected on Days 2 and 8 of each Cycle. The Day 2 sample was analyzed for metals and creatinine. The Day 8...

  17. Standardization of biodosimetry operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dainiak, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Methods and procedures for generating, interpreting and scoring the frequency of dicentric chromosomes vary among cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratories (CBLs). This variation adds to the already considerable lack of precision inherent in the dicentric chromosome assay (DCA). Although variability in sample collection, cell preparation, equipment and dicentric frequency scoring can never be eliminated with certainty, it can be substantially minimized, resulting in reduced scatter and improved precision. Use of standard operating procedures and technician exchange may help to mitigate variation. Although the development and adoption of international standards (ISO 21243 and ISO 19238) has helped to reduce variation in standard operating procedures (SOPs), all CBLs must maintain process improvement, and those with challenges may require additional assistance. Sources of variation that may not be readily apparent in the SOPs for sample collection and processing include variability in ambient laboratory conditions, media, serum lot and quantity and the use of particular combinations of cytokines. Variability in maintenance and calibration of metafer equipment, and in scoring criteria, reader proficiency and personal factors may need to be addressed. The calibration curve itself is a source of variation that requires control, using the same known-dose samples among CBLs, measurement of central tendency, and generation of common curves with periodic reassessment to detect drifts in dicentric yield. Finally, the dose estimate should be based on common scoring criteria, using of the z-statistic. Although theoretically possible, it is practically impossible to propagate uncertainty over the entire calibration curve due to the many factors contributing to variance. Periodic re-evaluation of the curve is needed by comparison with newly published curves (using statistical analysis of differences) and determining their potential causes. (author)

  18. Study of verification and validation of standard welding procedure specifications guidelines for API 5L X-70 grade line pipe welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qazi H. A. A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Verification and validation of welding procedure specifications for X-70 grade line pipe welding was performed as per clause 8.2, Annexure B and D of API 5L, 45th Edition to check weld integrity in its future application conditions. Hot rolled coils were imported from China, de-coiling, strip edge milling, three roller bending to from pipe, inside and outside submerged arc welding of pipe, online ultrasonic testing of weld, HAZ and pipe body, cutting at fixed random length of pipe, visual inspection of pipe, Fluoroscopic inspection of pipe, welding procedure qualification test pieces marking at weld portion of the pipe, tensile testing, guided bend testing, CVN Impact testing were performed. Detailed study was conducted to explore possible explanations and variation in mechanical properties, WPS is examined and qualified as per API 5L 45th Edition.

  19. Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory Procedures | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory Procedures Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory Procedures NREL develops laboratory analytical procedures (LAPs) for standard biomass analysis. These procedures help scientists and analysts understand more about the chemical composition of raw biomass

  20. Standardised multicentre procedure for plasma gonadotrophin radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, K M; Hayes, M; Jeffcoate, S L [Chelsea Hospital for Women, London (UK)

    1982-09-01

    A radioimmunoassay method for the assay of luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in serum/plasma has been designed for use in laboratories of varying expertise in the United Kingdom. The major sources of experimental error leading to poor within-laboratory performance and between-laboratory comparability were identified: quality of tracer, use of calibration standards, and separation procedure. A simple rugged kit was designed which was extensively tested first in our laboratory and then in a small multi-centre field trial before being made available. It is now used routinely by 26 health service and research laboratories. The working range of the assays is 1-50 IU/l (LH) and 0.3-16 IU/l (FSH). The between-batch reproducibility was 5-11% (CV) over the dose range 4.8-18 IU/l (LH) and 1.6-15 IU/l (FSH).

  1. Correlates of immune protection: Standardized and automated assays to interrogate correlates of immunity--Phacilitate Vaccine Forum Washington 2011. The Grand Hyatt, Washington, DC January 24–26, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Wade

    2011-06-01

    The utility of functional cell mediated immune assays in the assessment of immune response or immunogenicity is increasing significantly as we search for surrogates to determine vaccine efficacy or therapeutic response. No definitive reports to date have demonstrated that CMI assays in human clinical trials correlate with clinical outcome, although animal and non human primate studies have reported surrogacy in varying degrees. This report discusses the approaches identified, their advantages and disadvantages, and their justification for inclusion in the clinical trial setting.

  2. Optimization of a colorimetric assay for glycosylated human serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohney, J.P.; Feldhoff, R.C.

    1986-05-01

    The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assay has been used for several years to quantitate the amount of glucose which has been non-enzymatically linked to hemoglobin and other proteins. The ketoamine-protein adduct is converted to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) by mild hydrolysis with oxalic acid. Reaction of HMF with TBA yields a colored product which has an absorbance maximum at 443 nm. Several modifications of the original procedure has been published, but none permit the unambiguous quantitation of glycosylated human serum albumin (glc-HSA). Problems relate to reagent preparation and stability, the time and temperature of hydrolysis, the choice of standards, and background color corrections. The authors have found that maximum color yield occurs after hydrolysis in an autoclave for 2 h. This increases the sensitivity 3-fold and cuts the assay time in half relative to hydrolysis for 4.5 h at 100/sup 0/C. A NaBH/sub 4/ reduction of a parallel protein sample must be performed to correct for variable background color associated with different sample sources and amounts. HMF can be used as a standard, however, corrections must be made for HMF degradation. Fructose is a better standard, but HMF formation from fructose is faster than formation from glc-HSA. This may result in an underestimate of percent glycosylation. The best standard appears to be glc-HSA prepared with (/sup 3/H)glucose. It appears that with proper controls and standards the TBA assay can be used to determine actual rather than relative percent glycosylation.

  3. Ecogenotoxicity testing of aquatic environment by comet assay in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Mukherjee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the goals of environmental monitoring is the detection of potentially hazardous compounds in water. We have set up a standard method to apply the Comet assay in aquatic plants that could be of great interest to evaluate cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress on the same species regarded as most sensitive to environmental pollutants. The aim of the present study was to set up of standardized procedure to evaluate genotoxicity in aquatic plants- Ceratophyllum demersum one that is submerged free floating and the other is Lemna minor - a fresh water floating plant by Comet assay. Electrophoresis and unwinding times were adapted to obtain minimum DNA migration evaluated as tail intensity % or tail moment in the control group and, at the same time maximum sensitivity for DNA damage with known genotoxicants. We further investigated the cytotoxicity and oxidative stress induced in the same species. Based on the repeatability of results obtained we suggest that Ceratophyllum, Lemna can serve as model species and Comet assay could be adopted to monitor the eco-genotoxicity of water pollutants.

  4. The procedure of evaluating the practical adhesion strength of new biocompatible nano- and micro-thin films in accordance with international standards

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kutílek, P.; Mikšovský, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2011), s. 87-94 ISSN 1509-409X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : practical adhesion * strength * nano-layer * micro-layer * international standards * scratch test Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.449, year: 2011 http://382.indexcopernicus.com/abstracted.php?level=5&ICID=962671

  5. Procedure for the standardized measure of the detective quantum efficiency in digital mammography; Procedimiento para la medida estandarizada de la Eficiencia Cuantica de Deteccion en un mamografo digital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Martin, G.; Garcia Castano, P.; Bermudez Luna, R.; Fernandez Bedoya, V.; Espana Lopez, M. L.; Miquelez Alonso, S.

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a simple guide for determining the DQE, according to the CEI, in those having mammography flat panel detectors, and highlight the main difficulties that may be in the process of the standardized measurement.

  6. Recent Radiochemical Procedures for Bio-Assay Studies at Trombay; Methodes Radiochimiques d'Analyse Biologique Employees a Trombay; Nedavno razrabotannye v trombee radiokhimicheskie metody dlya biologicheskikh issledovanij; Regientes Metodos Radioquimicos Aplicados al Analisis Biologico en Trombay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, P. R.; Bhat, I. S.; Rudran, Kamala; Iyengar, M. A.R.; Koshy, Elizabeth; Waingankar, Urmila S.; Khanolkar, Vasanti S. [Health Physics Division, Atomic Energy Establishment Trombay, Bombay (India)

    1964-10-15

    The bio-assay laboratory at Trombay carries out nearly 2000 analyses of urine samples annually for different radionuclides. The most abundant isotopes of interest are Th{sup 232}, Th{sup 228}, Ra{sup 226}, Ra{sup 224} and Ra{sup 228}, U natural, fission products and Pu{sup 239}. The others are Co{sup 60}, I{sup 131}, P{sup 32}, Cs{sup 137}, H{sup 3}, Sr{sup 90}, etc. Analyses of a large number of samples containing low levels of activity with speed calls for development of special techniques when high specificity with good yields are desired. Urine presents a very complex matrix with a large amount of complexing organic material as well as variable salt content. Wet ashing procedures are time-consuming and cumbersome where samples of about 1 to 1.5 l are required to be destroyed. The paper presents some very recent methods developed in the laboratory and details of tracer studies involved in the development of these methods. Ra{sup 228}: Measurement of mesothorium in urine is made after separation of Ac{sup 228} grown in equilibrium with it. Radium present in urine is co-precipitated with BaSO{sub 4} and Ac{sup 228} allowed to grow. The precipitate is dissolved in perchloric acid after the addition of Pb, Bi and La carriers. The insoluble sulphates are precipitated with diluted H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Ac{sup 2}'2{sup 8} in the supernate is carried on LaF{sub 3} and counted for beta activity and checked for decay. Ra{sup 228} is calculated from observed Ac{sup 228} activity after correcting for decay and chemical recovery. Thorium: The method describes techniques developed for the co-precipitation of thorium with calcium oxalate without wet ashing urine. A study of exact experimental conditions for quantitative precipitation of thorium is reported. The paper also gives tracer experiments carried out for study of interference from phosphates and calcium in the final extraction of thorium with TTA. Thorium-232 is estimated spectrophotometrically and thorium-228 in the

  7. Comparison of Batch Assay and Random Assay Using Automatic Dispenser in Radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Seung Hwan; Jang, Su Jin; Kang, Ji Yeon; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho Young; Shin, Sun Young; Min, Gyeong Sun; Lee, Hyun Joo [Seoul National University college of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    Radioimmunoassay (RIA) was usually performed by the batch assay. To improve the efficiency of RIA without increase of the cost and time, random assay could be a choice. We investigated the possibility of the random assay using automatic dispenser by assessing the agreement between batch assay and random assay. The experiments were performed with four items; Triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (fT4), Prostate specific antigen (PSA), Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). In each item, the sera of twenty patients, the standard, and the control samples were used. The measurements were done 4 times with 3 hour time intervals by random assay and batch assay. The coefficient of variation (CV) of the standard samples and patients' data in T3, fT4, PSA, and CEA were assessed. ICC (Intraclass correlation coefficient) and coefficient of correlation were measured to assessing the agreement between two methods. The CVs (%) of T3, fT4, PSA, and CEA measured by batch assay were 3.2+-1.7%, 3.9+-2.1%, 7.1+-6.2%, 11.2+-7.2%. The CVs by random assay were 2.1+-1.7%, 4.8+-3.1%, 3.6+-4.8%, and 7.4+-6.2%. The ICC between the batch assay and random assay were 0.9968 (T3), 0.9973 (fT4), 0.9996 (PSA), and 0.9901 (CEA). The coefficient of correlation between the batch assay and random assay were 0.9924(T3), 0.9974 (fT4), 0.9994 (PSA), and 0.9989 (CEA) (p<0.05). The results of random assay showed strong agreement with the batch assay in a day. These results suggest that random assay using automatic dispenser could be used in radioimmunoassay

  8. Comparison of Batch Assay and Random Assay Using Automatic Dispenser in Radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Seung Hwan; Jang, Su Jin; Kang, Ji Yeon; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Lee, Ho Young; Shin, Sun Young; Min, Gyeong Sun; Lee, Hyun Joo

    2009-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay (RIA) was usually performed by the batch assay. To improve the efficiency of RIA without increase of the cost and time, random assay could be a choice. We investigated the possibility of the random assay using automatic dispenser by assessing the agreement between batch assay and random assay. The experiments were performed with four items; Triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (fT4), Prostate specific antigen (PSA), Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). In each item, the sera of twenty patients, the standard, and the control samples were used. The measurements were done 4 times with 3 hour time intervals by random assay and batch assay. The coefficient of variation (CV) of the standard samples and patients' data in T3, fT4, PSA, and CEA were assessed. ICC (Intraclass correlation coefficient) and coefficient of correlation were measured to assessing the agreement between two methods. The CVs (%) of T3, fT4, PSA, and CEA measured by batch assay were 3.2±1.7%, 3.9±2.1%, 7.1±6.2%, 11.2±7.2%. The CVs by random assay were 2.1±1.7%, 4.8±3.1%, 3.6±4.8%, and 7.4±6.2%. The ICC between the batch assay and random assay were 0.9968 (T3), 0.9973 (fT4), 0.9996 (PSA), and 0.9901 (CEA). The coefficient of correlation between the batch assay and random assay were 0.9924(T3), 0.9974 (fT4), 0.9994 (PSA), and 0.9989 (CEA) (p<0.05). The results of random assay showed strong agreement with the batch assay in a day. These results suggest that random assay using automatic dispenser could be used in radioimmunoassay

  9. An improved method for staining cell colonies in clonogenic assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guda, Kishore; Natale, Leanna; Markowitz, Sanford D

    2007-06-01

    Clonogenic assay is a widely used experimental approach to test for the effects of drugs/genes on the growth and proliferative characteristics of cells in vitro. Accurate quantitation of treatment effects in clonogeneic assays depends on the ability to visualize and count cell colonies precisely. We report a novel method (referred as ETeB) for staining cell colonies grown on plastic and specially coated substrates like collagen. Using colon cancer cell lines grown on plastic and collagen, we compared the colony staining efficiencies of the widely used methylene blue, and Ethidium bromide (ETeB) stains. Results show that the ETeB protocol works well on plastic and is extremely effective for staining colonies on collagen when compared to methylene blue. The key features and advantages of ETeB technique are; (a) reduction in background for colonies grown on collagen and possibly other substrates, (b) the whole procedure takes less than a minute, (c) no post-stain washing step is required which eliminates colony losses for cell lines that are loosely adherent, (d) colony visualization and counting can be done immediately following the staining procedure using a standard UV illuminator and software, and (e) the method works across a wide variety of cell lines. The simplicity and robustness of this procedure should warrant its usage in both small and large-scale clonogenic experiments.

  10. Figures of merit of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for compliant analysis of waters and wastes using USEPA standard operating procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, I.B.; Spence, B.; Walder, A.

    2004-01-01

    The scope of this study is to critically review the performance of the ICP-MS instrumentation and aspects of the analytical methodology for compliant determination of Al, Sb, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni, Se, Ag, Tl, V, and Zn in surface and subsurface water, soil, sludge, sediments and various solid wastes. The evaluation was performed using conventional and practical figures of analytical merit detailed in using USEPA SW (Solid Waste) 846 procedures and ISO/EC 17025

  11. Relevant Standards

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    .86: Ethernet over LAPS. Standard in China and India. G.7041: Generic Framing Procedure (GFP). Supports Ethernet as well as other data formats (e.g., Fibre Channel); Protocol of ... IEEE 802.3x for flow control of incoming Ethernet data ...

  12. Consent for routine neonatal procedures: A study of practices in Irish neonatal units. How do we compare with the gold standard BAPM guidelines?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, M A

    2017-06-01

    The Irish National Consent Policy (NCP)¹ proposes that the legal requirement for consent extends to all forms of interventions, investigations and treatment, carried out on or behalf of the Health Service Executive (HSE). This study employs a quantitative descriptive approach to investigate the practices for obtaining consent for an identified group of routine neonatal procedures in neonatal facilities throughout Ireland. The BAPM (British Association of Perinatal Medicine)² guidelines were identified as ‘gold standard’ for the purposes of this study. The results indicated a lack of consistency between participating units pertaining to the modes of consent utilised and notable variances from ‘gold standard’ guidelines. Unanimity was evident for 3 procedures only (administering BCG, 6-in-1, and donor breast milk to infant). Significant findings related to EEG with video recordings, MRI\\/CT and gastro intestinal imaging, screening of an infant with suspected substance abuse or retinopathy of prematurity screening (ROP), administration of Vitamin K, and the carrying out of a lumbar puncture.

  13. Elaboration and implementation of standard operational procedure for quality assurance of cone beam CT image in radiotherapy; Elaboracao e implementacao de procedimentos operacionais padrao para controle de qualidade da imagem CBCT em radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonatto, Larisse N.; Estacio, Daniela R.; Lopes, Juliane S.; Sansson, Angela; Duarte, Lucas O.; Sbaraini, Patricia, E-mail: larisse.neumann@pucrs.br [Hospital Sao Lucas (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia; Silva, Ana M. Marques da; Streck, Elaine E. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sukl (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Fisica

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the implementation of image quality control of the computed tomography cone beam (CBCT), generated by the On-Board Imager device, and integrated into the linear accelerator Trilogy. To this end, standard operating procedures (SOP) based on the literature and Catphan 504 phantom and On-Board Imager manuals were drafted. The following SOPs were prepared: acquisition of CBCT image; CT number linearity; uniformity; spatial resolution; low contrast resolution; spatial linearity; slice thickness. The validation of the procedures from an experimental acquisition of the phantom was performed. The results, obtained in the SOP validation, are in accordance with the parameters established by the phantom manufacturer, as well as those obtained in the On-Board Imager device acceptance. (author)

  14. Elaboration and implementation of standard operational procedure for quality assurance of cone beam CT image in radiotherapy; Elaboracao e implementacao de procedimentos operacionais padrao para controle de qualidade da imagem CBCT em radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonatto, Larisse N.; Estacio, Daniela R.; Lopes, Juliane S.; Sansson, Angela; Duarte, Lucas O.; Sbaraini, Patricia; Silva, Ana M. Marques da; Streck, Elaine E., E-mail: larisse.neumann@pucrs.br [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this article is to present the implementation of the quality Control of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) image, generated by the On-Board Imager, integrated with the linear accelerator Trilogy. Standard operating procedures (POPs) have been developed based on the literature and manuals of the simulator object Catphan 504 and the On-Board Imager. The following POPs were developed: acquisition of the CBCT image; linearity of CT number; uniformity; spatial resolution; low contrast resolution; spatial linearity; thickness of the cut. The validation of the elaborated procedures was done from an experimental acquisition of the simulator object. The results obtained in the validation of the POPs are in compliance with the parameters established by the manufacturer of the simulator object, as well as those obtained in the acceptance of the On-Board Imager device.

  15. THE PRECAUTIONARY PROCEDURES IN THE CASE OF NON-COMPLIANCE WITH THE BALLAST WATER MANAGEMENT CON-VENTION’S STANDARDS – POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS FOR POLISH PORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Klopott

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available On September 8, 2017 the International Convention for the Control and Manage-ment of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments (BWMC adopted in 2004 will enter into force. It imposes a lot of requirements on shipowners and port states. The aim of this article is to elaborate on the possible solutions that may be adopted in Polish ports as precau-tionary measures in the case of non-compliance with the provisions of BWMC. The article starts with a brief overview of BWMC and ballast water quality stand-ards. Further, it discusses the possible implications of not meeting the ballast water quality standards under BWMC. The elaboration of potential solutions and mitigation measures in the event of non-compliance with the BWMC constitutes the main part of the article. These are crucial to developing a port contingency plan and include, for example, shore-based reception facility for ballast water, mobile ballast water treatment systems, and using potable water. The article ends with a brief analysis of a possible fee systems for reception of ballast water. The research was based on a comprehensive analysis of the Convention and related legal documents, interviews with ports’ representatives as well as e-mail interviews with maritime authorities in the Baltic Sea countries.

  16. Microbead agglutination based assays

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2013-01-21

    We report a simple and rapid room temperature assay for point-of-care (POC) testing that is based on specific agglutination. Agglutination tests are based on aggregation of microbeads in the presence of a specific analyte thus enabling the macroscopic observation. Such tests are most often used to explore antibody-antigen reactions. Agglutination has been used for protein assays using a biotin/streptavidin system as well as a hybridization based assay. The agglutination systems are prone to selftermination of the linking analyte, prone to active site saturation and loss of agglomeration at high analyte concentrations. We investigated the molecular target/ligand interaction, explaining the common agglutination problems related to analyte self-termination, linkage of the analyte to the same bead instead of different microbeads. We classified the agglutination process into three kinds of assays: a two- component assay, a three-component assay and a stepped three- component assay. Although we compared these three kinds of assays for recognizing DNA and protein molecules, the assay can be used for virtually any molecule, including ions and metabolites. In total, the optimized assay permits detecting analytes with high sensitivity in a short time, 5 min, at room temperature. Such a system is appropriate for POC testing.

  17. Novel double-isotope technique for enzymatic assay of catecholamines, permitting high precision, sensitivity and plasma sample capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.J.; Jenner, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    A novel use of a double-isotope method is described which allows radioenzymatic assays to combine precision and sensitivity. In the catechol O-methyltransferase assay separate portions of each plasma sample are incubated with either S-[ 3 H]- or S-[ 14 C]-adenosyl-L-methionine. Standards of noradrenaline and adrenaline are added to the latter portions and are thus converted into standards of [ 14 C]metadrenalines. These are added to the 3 H-labelled portions after the incubation, where they function as tracers. The final recovery of 14 C radioactivity corrects for (a) the efficiency of methylation in the plasma sample concerned and (b) the recovery of metadrenalines during the extraction procedures. The 3 H/ 14 C ratio is constant in each assay for a given catecholamine concentration and is determined for samples to which standards of noradrenaline and adrenaline are added to the 3 H- (as well as the 14 C-) labelled portions before the initial incubation. The sensitivity of the assay is increased by using high specific radioactivity S-[ 3 H]adenosyl-L-methionine, and low backgrounds are maintained by catecholamine depletion in vivo in the rats used for enzyme preparation. Both catecholamines (1.5 pg/ml; 10 pmol/l) may be detected; the coefficients of variation are 3.0 and 3.2% for noradrenaline and adrenaline respectively (intra-assay) and 4.6 and 5.0% (inter-assay). (author)

  18. Radiometric assays for glycerol, glucose, and glycogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.C.; Kaslow, H.R.

    1989-01-01

    We have developed radiometric assays for small quantities of glycerol, glucose and glycogen, based on a technique described by Thorner and Paulus for the measurement of glycerokinase activity. In the glycerol assay, glycerol is phosphorylated with [32P]ATP and glycerokinase, residual [32P]ATP is hydrolyzed by heating in acid, and free [32P]phosphate is removed by precipitation with ammonium molybdate and triethylamine. Standard dose-response curves were linear from 50 to 3000 pmol glycerol with less than 3% SD in triplicate measurements. Of the substances tested for interference, only dihydroxyacetone gave a slight false positive signal at high concentration. When used to measure glycerol concentrations in serum and in media from incubated adipose tissue, the radiometric glycerol assay correlated well with a commonly used spectrophotometric assay. The radiometric glucose assay is similar to the glycerol assay, except that glucokinase is used instead of glycerokinase. Dose response was linear from 5 to 3000 pmol glucose with less than 3% SD in triplicate measurements. Glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine gave false positive signals when equimolar to glucose. When glucose concentrations in serum were measured, the radiometric glucose assay agreed well with hexokinase/glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H/GDH)-based and glucose oxidase/H2O2-based glucose assays. The radiometric method for glycogen measurement incorporates previously described isolation and digestion techniques, followed by the radiometric assay of free glucose. When used to measure glycogen in mouse epididymal fat pads, the radiometric glycogen assay correlated well with the H/GDH-based glycogen assay. All three radiometric assays offer several practical advantages over spectral assays

  19. Assessing environmental vulnerability in EIA-The content and context of the vulnerability concept in an alternative approach to standard EIA procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvaerner, Jens; Swensen, Grete; Erikstad, Lars

    2006-01-01

    In the traditional EIA procedure environmental vulnerability is only considered to a minor extent in the early stages when project alternatives are worked out. In Norway, an alternative approach to EIA, an integrated vulnerability model (IVM), emphasising environmental vulnerability and alternatives development in the early stages of EIA, has been tried out in a few pilot cases. This paper examines the content and use of the vulnerability concept in the IVM approach, and discusses the concept in an EIA context. The vulnerability concept is best suited to overview analyses and large scale spatial considerations. The concept is particularly useful in the early stages of EIA when alternatives are designed and screened. By introducing analyses of environmental vulnerability at the start of the EIA process, the environment can be a more decisive issue for the creation of project alternatives as well as improving the basis for scoping. Vulnerability and value aspects should be considered as separate dimensions. There is a need to operate with a specification between general and specific vulnerability. The concept of environmental vulnerability has proven useful in a wide range of disciplines. Different disciplines have different lengths of experience regarding vulnerability. In disciplines such as landscape planning and hydrogeology we find elements suitable as cornerstones in the further development of an interdisciplinary methodology. Further development of vulnerability criteria in different disciplines and increased public involvement in the early stages of EIA are recommended

  20. Balancing energy conservation and occupant needs in ventilation rate standards for Big Box stores and other commercial buildings in California. Issues related to the ASHRAE 62.1 Indoor Air Quality Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, Mark J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Apte, Mike G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-10-31

    This report considers the question of whether the California Energy Commission should incorporate the ASHRAE 62.1 ventilation standard into the Title 24 ventilation rate (VR) standards, thus allowing buildings to follow the Indoor Air Quality Procedure. This, in contrast to the current prescriptive standard, allows the option of using ventilation rate as one of several strategies, which might include source reduction and air cleaning, to meet specified targets of indoor air concentrations and occupant acceptability. The research findings reviewed in this report suggest that a revised approach to a ventilation standard for commercial buildings is necessary, because the current prescriptive ASHRAE 62.1 Ventilation Rate Procedure (VRP) apparently does not provide occupants with either sufficiently acceptable or sufficiently healthprotective air quality. One possible solution would be a dramatic increase in the minimum ventilation rates (VRs) prescribed by a VRP. This solution, however, is not feasible for at least three reasons: the current need to reduce energy use rather than increase it further, the problem of polluted outdoor air in many cities, and the apparent limited ability of increasing VRs to reduce all indoor airborne contaminants of concern (per Hodgson (2003)). Any feasible solution is thus likely to include methods of pollutant reduction other than increased outdoor air ventilation; e.g., source reduction or air cleaning. The alternative 62.1 Indoor Air Quality Procedure (IAQP) offers multiple possible benefits in this direction over the VRP, but seems too limited by insufficient specifications and inadequate available data to provide adequate protection for occupants. Ventilation system designers rarely choose to use it, finding it too arbitrary and requiring use of much non-engineering judgment and information that is not readily available. This report suggests strategies to revise the current ASHRAE IAQP to reduce its current limitations. These

  1. Evaluation of a molybdenum assay canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizumi, T.T.; Keener, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    The performance characteristics of a commercial molybdenum assay canister were evaluated. The geometrical variation of the technetium-99m (/sup 99m/Tc) activity reading was studied as a function of the elution volume for the standard vials. It was found that the /sup 99m/Tc canister activity reading was ∼ 5% lower than that of the standard method. This is due to attenuation by the canister wall. However, the effect of the geometric variation on the clinical dose preparation was found to be insignificant. The molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo) contamination level was compared by two methods: (1) the commercial canister and (2) the standard assay kit. The 99 Mo contamination measurements with the canister indicated consistently lower readings than those with the standard 99 Mo assay kit. The authors conclude that the canister may be used in the clinical settings. However, the user must be aware of the problems and the limitations associated with this canister

  2. Automation of the dicentric chromosome assay and related assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balajee, Adayabalam S.; Dainiak, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Dicentric Chromosome Assay (DCA) is considered to be the 'gold standard' for personalized dose assessment in humans after accidental or incidental radiation exposure. Although this technique is superior to other cytogenetic assays in terms of specificity and sensitivity, its potential application to radiation mass casualty scenarios is highly restricted because DCA is time consuming and labor intensive when performed manually. Therefore, it is imperative to develop high throughput automation techniques to make DCA suitable for radiological triage scenarios. At the Cytogenetic Biodosimetry Laboratory in Oak Ridge, efforts are underway to develop high throughput automation of DCA. Current status on development of various automated cytogenetic techniques in meeting the biodosimetry needs of radiological/nuclear incident(s) will be discussed

  3. Standardization of clinical enzyme analysis using frozen human serum pools with values assigned by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine reference measurement procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Qing; Chen, Baorong; Zhang, Rui; Zuo, Chang

    Variation in clinical enzyme analysis, particularly across different measuring systems and laboratories, represents a critical but long-lasting problem in diagnosis. Calibrators with traceability and commutability are imminently needed to harmonize analysis in laboratory medicine. Fresh frozen human serum pools were assigned values for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) by six laboratories with established International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine reference measurement procedures. These serum pools were then used across 76 laboratories as a calibrator in the analysis of five enzymes. Bias and imprecision in the measurement of the five enzymes tested were significantly reduced by using the value-assigned serum in analytical systems with open and single-point calibration. The median (interquartile range) of the relative biases of ALT, AST, GGT, CK and LDH were 2.0% (0.6-3.4%), 0.8% (-0.8-2.3%), 1.0% (-0.5-2.0%), 0.2% (-0.3-1.0%) and 0.2% (-0.9-1.1%), respectively. Before calibration, the interlaboratory coefficients of variation (CVs) in the analysis of patient serum samples were 8.0-8.2%, 7.3-8.5%, 8.1-8.7%, 5.1-5.9% and 5.8-6.4% for ALT, AST, GGT, CK and LDH, respectively; after calibration, the CVs decreased to 2.7-3.3%, 3.0-3.6%, 1.6-2.1%, 1.8-1.9% and 3.3-3.5%, respectively. The results suggest that the use of fresh frozen serum pools significantly improved the comparability of test results in analytical systems with open and single-point calibration.

  4. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  5. Radiometric--microbiologic assay of vitamin B-6: application to food analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilarte, T.R.; Shane, B.; McIntyre, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    A radiometric microbiologic assay for vitamin B-6 was applied to food analysis. The method was shown to be specific, reproducible and simpler than the standard turbidimetric microbiologic technique. The analysis of seven commercially available breakfast cereals was compared to a high performance liquid chromatography method. Three out of the seven cereals agreed when assayed with both methods (P greater than 0.1). Four cereals, however, differed in value considerably (P less than 0.05). Further studies are required to determine whether these differences were due to different extraction procedures used. The study showed that the new radiometric-microbiologic method can be used to measure total vitamin B-6 or, combined with a column separation procedure, to analyze for specific forms of the vitamin

  6. BTS statistical standards manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), like other federal statistical agencies, establishes professional standards to guide the methods and procedures for the collection, processing, storage, and presentation of statistical data. Standards an...

  7. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the diagnosis of fasciolosis in sheep and its application under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Valladares, María; Rojo-Vázquez, Francisco Antonio

    2016-02-05

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a very specific, efficient, and rapid gene amplification procedure in which the reaction can run at a constant temperature. In the current study we have developed a LAMP assay to improve the diagnosis of Fasciola spp. in the faeces of sheep. After the optimisation of the LAMP assay we have shown similar results between this technique and the standard PCR using the outer primers of the LAMP reaction. In both cases the limit of detection was 10 pg; also, the diagnosis of fasciolosis was confirmed during the first week post-infection in experimental infected sheep by both techniques. In eight naturally infected sheep, the infection with F. hepatica was confirmed in all animals before a treatment with triclabendazole and on day 30 post treatment in two sheep using the LAMP assay; however, when we carried out the standard PCR with the outer primers, the results before treatment were the same but on day 30 post-treatment the infection was only confirmed in one out of the two sheep. On the other hand, the standard PCR took around 3 h to obtain a result, comparing with 1 h and 10 min for the LAMP assay. The LAMP assay described here could be a good alternative to conventional diagnostic methods to detect F. hepatica in faeces since it solves the drawbacks of the standard PCR.

  8. Optimized in vitro procedure for assessing the cytocompatibility of magnesium-based biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ole; Smeets, Ralf; Porchetta, Dario; Kopp, Alexander; Ptock, Christoph; Müller, Ute; Heiland, Max; Schwade, Max; Behr, Björn; Kröger, Nadja; Kluwe, Lan; Hanken, Henning; Hartjen, Philip

    2015-09-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is a promising biomaterial for degradable implant applications that has been extensively studied in vitro and in vivo in recent years. In this study, we developed a procedure that allows an optimized and uniform in vitro assessment of the cytocompatibility of Mg-based materials while respecting the standard protocol DIN EN ISO 10993-5:2009. The mouse fibroblast line L-929 was chosen as the preferred assay cell line and MEM supplemented with 10% FCS, penicillin/streptomycin and 4mM l-glutamine as the favored assay medium. The procedure consists of (1) an indirect assessment of effects of soluble Mg corrosion products in material extracts and (2) a direct assessment of the surface compatibility in terms of cell attachment and cytotoxicity originating from active corrosion processes. The indirect assessment allows the quantification of cell-proliferation (BrdU-assay), viability (XTT-assay) as well as cytotoxicity (LDH-assay) of the mouse fibroblasts incubated with material extracts. Direct assessment visualizes cells attached to the test materials by means of live-dead staining. The colorimetric assays and the visual evaluation complement each other and the combination of both provides an optimized and simple procedure for assessing the cytocompatibility of Mg-based biomaterials in vitro. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Application of radioimmunoassay procedures to the control of therapy and to the detection of pre-clinical stages in diabetes mellitus. Part of a coordinated programme on in vitro assay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yorukoglu, S.N.; Cambazoglu, A.M.

    1975-12-01

    Radioimmunoassay was used in early detection of pre- and latent diabetes mellitus in cases of parental diabetes, and for diabetes screening of pregnant women with a history of large babies, habitual abortus, and parental diabetes. A total of 106 cases (28 men and 78 women, of whom 26 were pregnant, belonging to various age groups) were investigated. They were grouped as follows: normal, obese with no familial history of diabetes, pre-diabetes suspected in obese and normal weight cases, and latent diabetic obese and normal weight cases. The standard OGTT was applied throughout, and serum IRI values at fasting were determined after 30, 60, 120 and 180 minutes, using a double antibody technique (Hales and Nandle). The serum IRI values on fasting and during OGTT were considerably higher in obese cases, whether diabetic or not, than in normal and non-diabetic groups. Similar results were observed for the pregnant group

  10. A generic template for automated bioanalytical ligand-binding assays using modular robotic scripts in support of discovery biotherapeutic programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duo, Jia; Dong, Huijin; DeSilva, Binodh; Zhang, Yan J

    2013-07-01

    Sample dilution and reagent pipetting are time-consuming steps in ligand-binding assays (LBAs). Traditional automation-assisted LBAs use assay-specific scripts that require labor-intensive script writing and user training. Five major script modules were developed on Tecan Freedom EVO liquid handling software to facilitate the automated sample preparation and LBA procedure: sample dilution, sample minimum required dilution, standard/QC minimum required dilution, standard/QC/sample addition, and reagent addition. The modular design of automation scripts allowed the users to assemble an automated assay with minimal script modification. The application of the template was demonstrated in three LBAs to support discovery biotherapeutic programs. The results demonstrated that the modular scripts provided the flexibility in adapting to various LBA formats and the significant time saving in script writing and scientist training. Data generated by the automated process were comparable to those by manual process while the bioanalytical productivity was significantly improved using the modular robotic scripts.

  11. Standard and applied material testing methods of austenitic CrNi stainless steels in different nitric acid media - procedures and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leistikow, S.; Kraft, R.; Schanz, G.

    1989-07-01

    Extended ASTM Standard Huey Testing has been performed in at 120 0 C boiling 14.4 molar (65%) nitric acid during 15 periods (15x48 = 720 h duration) for quality control of numerous commercial nitric acid resistant austenitic CrNi steels. It was shown how sensitively the chosen testing conditions could differentiate between CrNi steels of the same nominal composition as specified for DIN W.Nr. 1.4306 (AISI Type 304 L), but with varying residual element contents. Within an attempt to differentiate within this group of steels by application of electrochemical methods, potentiostatic tests at 1250 mV in nitric acid of equal concentration and temperature were able to detect remarkable differences in corrosion behaviour already after one hour. Another approach, more typical for the electrochemical potentials during materials application in reprocessing plants of nuclear fuel, gave preference to long-term immersion tests, which were performed in nitric acid of lower concentration and temperature. Reference tests in pure 7 molar, 90 0 C nitric acid could only reveal by surface attack small differences in steel quality by exposures of 720 h duration. To shorten the test time by an increase of the redox potential chromium (VI) ions were added to the nitric acid. In a solution of 0,5 g Gr (VI)/l at 90 0 C remarkable differences in corrosion behavior of the steels - similar to the Huey test results - became measurable by means of gravimetry and metallography already during a short-term exposure of 24-71 h. (orig./MM) [de

  12. Investigating the influence of standard staining procedures on the copper distribution and concentration in Wilson's disease liver samples by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachmöller, Oliver; Aichler, Michaela; Schwamborn, Kristina; Lutz, Lisa; Werner, Martin; Sperling, Michael; Walch, Axel; Karst, Uwe

    2017-12-01

    The influence of rhodanine and haematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining on the copper distribution and concentration in liver needle biopsy samples originating from patients with Wilson's disease (WD), a rare autosomal recessive inherited disorder of the copper metabolism, is investigated. In contemporary diagnostic of WD, rhodanine staining is used for histopathology, since rhodanine and copper are forming a red to orange-red complex, which can be recognized in the liver tissue using a microscope. In this paper, a laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) method is applied for the analysis of eight different WD liver samples. Apart from a spatially resolved elemental detection as qualitative information, this LA-ICP-MS method offers also quantitative information by external calibration with matrix-matched gelatine standards. The sample set of this work included an unstained and a rhodanine stained section of each WD liver sample. While unstained sections of WD liver samples showed very distinct structures of the copper distribution with high copper concentrations, rhodanine stained sections revealed a blurred copper distribution with significant decreased concentrations in a range from 20 to more than 90%. This implies a copper removal from the liver tissue by complexation during the rhodanine staining. In contrast to this, a further HE stained sample of one WD liver sample did not show a significant decrease in the copper concentration and influence on the copper distribution in comparison to the unstained section. Therefore, HE staining can be combined with the analysis by means of LA-ICP-MS in two successive steps from one thin section of a biopsy specimen. This allows further information to be gained on the elemental distribution by LA-ICP-MS additional to results obtained by histological staining. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Endogenous Locus Reporter Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaping; Hermes, Jeffrey; Li, Jing; Tudor, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Reporter gene assays are widely used in high-throughput screening (HTS) to identify compounds that modulate gene expression. Traditionally a reporter gene assay is built by cloning an endogenous promoter sequence or synthetic response elements in the regulatory region of a reporter gene to monitor transcriptional activity of a specific biological process (exogenous reporter assay). In contrast, an endogenous locus reporter has a reporter gene inserted in the endogenous gene locus that allows the reporter gene to be expressed under the control of the same regulatory elements as the endogenous gene, thus more accurately reflecting the changes seen in the regulation of the actual gene. In this chapter, we introduce some of the considerations behind building a reporter gene assay for high-throughput compound screening and describe the methods we have utilized to establish 1536-well format endogenous locus reporter and exogenous reporter assays for the screening of compounds that modulate Myc pathway activity.

  14. Quantization Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera, J. A.; Martin, R.

    1976-01-01

    We present in this work a review of the conventional quantization procedure, the proposed by I.E. Segal and a new quantization procedure similar to this one for use in non linear problems. We apply this quantization procedures to different potentials and we obtain the appropriate equations of motion. It is shown that for the linear case the three procedures exposed are equivalent but for the non linear cases we obtain different equations of motion and different energy spectra. (Author) 16 refs

  15. Immunochromatographic assay of cadmium levels in oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Kosuke; Kim, In-Hae; Itai, Takaaki; Sugahara, Takuya; Takeyama, Haruko; Ohkawa, Hideo

    2012-08-15

    Oysters are one of foodstuffs containing a relatively high amount of cadmium. Here we report on establishment of an immunochromatographic assay (ICA) method of cadmium levels in oysters. Cadmium was extracted with 0.l mol L(-1) HCl from oysters and cleaned up from other metals by the use of an anion-exchange column. The behavior of five metals Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Cd was monitored at each step of extraction and clean-up procedure for the ICA method in an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. The results revealed that a simple extraction method with the HCl solution was efficient enough to extract almost all of cadmium from oysters. Clean-up with an anion-exchange column presented almost no loss of cadmium adsorbed on the column and an efficient removal of metals other than cadmium. When a spiked recovery test was performed in the ICA method, the recovery ranged from 98% to 112% with relative standard deviations between 5.9% and 9.2%. The measured values of cadmium in various oyster samples in the ICA method were favorably correlated with those in ICP-MS analysis (r(2)=0.97). Overall results indicate that the ICA method established in the present study is an adequate and reliable detection method for cadmium levels in oysters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Trace metal assay of uranium silicide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, M.J.; Argekar, A.A.; Thulasidas, S.K.; Dhawale, B.A.; Rajeswari, B.; Adya, V.C.; Purohit, P.J.; Neelam, G.; Bangia, T.R.; Page, A.G.; Sastry, M.D.; Iyer, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive trace metal assay of uranium silicide, a fuel for nuclear research reactors that employs low-enrichment uranium, is carried out by atomic spectrometry. Of the list of specification elements, 21 metallic elements are determined by a direct current (dc) arc carrier distillation technique; the rare earths yttrium and zirconium are chemically separated from the major matrix followed by a dc arc/inductively coupled argon plasma (ICP) excitation technique in atomic emission spectrometry (AES); silver is determined by electrothermal atomization-atomic absorption spectrometry (ETA-AAS) without prior chemical separation of the major matrix. Gamma radioactive tracers are used to check the recovery of rare earths during the chemical separation procedure. The detection limits for trace metallics vary in the 0.1- to 40-ppm range. The precision of the determinations as evaluated from the analysis of the synthetic sample with intermediate range analyte concentration is better than 25% relative standard deviation (RSD) for most of the elements employing dc arc-AES, while that for silver determination by ETS-AAS is 10% RSD. The precision of the determinations for four crucially important rare earths by ICP-AES is better than 3% RSD

  17. Rapid quantitative assay for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, J.R.; Morency, C.A.; Russian, K.O.

    1987-01-01

    Measuring the expression of exogenous genetic material in mammalian cells is commonly done by fusing the DNA of interest to a gene encoding an easily-detected enzyme. Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase(CAT) is a convenient marker because it is not normally found in eukaryotes. CAT activity has usually been detected using a thin-layer chromatographic separation followed by autoradiography. An organic solvent extraction-based method for CAT detection has also been described, as well as a procedure utilizing HPLC analysis. Building on the extraction technique, they developed a rapid sensitive kinetic method for measuring CAT activity in cell homogenates. The method exploits the differential organic solubility of the substrate ([ 3 H] or [ 14 C]acetyl CoA) and the product (labeled acetylchloramphenicol). The assay is a simple one-vial, two-phase procedure and requires no tedious manipulations after the initial setup. Briefly, a 0.25 ml reaction with 100mM Tris-HCL, 1mM chloramphenicol, 0.1mM [ 14 C]acetyl CoA and variable amounts of cell homogenate is pipetted into a miniscintillation vial, overlaid with 5 ml of a water-immiscible fluor, and incubated at 37 0 C. At suitable intervals the vial is counted and the CAT level is quantitatively determined as the rate of increase in counts/min of the labeled product as it diffuses into the fluor phase, compared to a standard curve. When used to measure CAT in transfected Balb 3T3 cells the method correlated well with the other techniques

  18. Fluorescence lifetime assays: current advances and applications in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritz, Stephan; Doering, Klaus; Woelcke, Julian; Hassiepen, Ulrich

    2011-06-01

    Fluorescence lifetime assays complement the portfolio of established assay formats available in drug discovery, particularly with the recent advances in microplate readers and the commercial availability of novel fluorescent labels. Fluorescence lifetime assists in lowering complexity of compound screening assays, affording a modular, toolbox-like approach to assay development and yielding robust homogeneous assays. To date, materials and procedures have been reported for biochemical assays on proteases, as well as on protein kinases and phosphatases. This article gives an overview of two assay families, distinguished by the origin of the fluorescence signal modulation. The pharmaceutical industry demands techniques with a robust, integrated compound profiling process and short turnaround times. Fluorescence lifetime assays have already helped the drug discovery field, in this sense, by enhancing productivity during the hit-to-lead and lead optimization phases. Future work will focus on covering other biochemical molecular modifications by investigating the detailed photo-physical mechanisms underlying the fluorescence signal.

  19. Solid phase assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, M.G.; Johnson, L.R.; Ransom, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    In a solid phase assay for quantitative determination of biological and other analytes, a sample such as serum is contacted with a receptor for the analyte being assayed, the receptor being supported on a solid support. No tracer for the analyte is added to the sample before contacting with the receptor; instead the tracer is contacted with the receptor after unbound analyte has been removed from the receptor. The assay can be otherwise performed in a conventional manner but can give greater sensitivity. (author)

  20. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of use of therapeutic monitoring of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors [LISA-TRACKER® enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits, TNF-α-Blocker ELISA kits and Promonitor® ELISA kits] versus standard care in patients with Crohn's disease: systematic reviews and economic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Karoline; Connock, Martin; Auguste, Peter; Taylor-Phillips, Sian; Mistry, Hema; Shyangdan, Deepson; Court, Rachel; Arasaradnam, Ramesh; Sutcliffe, Paul; Clarke, Aileen

    2016-11-01

    Systematic reviews and economic modelling of clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of therapeutic monitoring of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors [using LISA-TRACKER ® enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits (Theradiag, Marne La Vallee, France, or Alpha Laboratories, Heriot, UK), TNF-α-Blocker ELISA kits (Immundiagnostik AG, Bensheim, Germany) and Promonitor ® ELISA kits (Proteomika, Progenika Biopharma, Bizkaia, Spain)] versus standard care for Crohn's disease (CD). Multiple electronic databases were searched from inception to December 2014 in order to identify primary studies and meta-analyses. Patients with moderate to severe active CD treated with infliximab (IFX) (Remicade ® , Merck Sharp & Dohme Ltd, Kenilworth, NJ, USA) or adalimumab (ADA) (Humira ® , AbbVie Inc., North Chicago, IL, USA). Monitoring of serum anti-TNF-α (IFX or ADA) and/or of anti-drug antibody levels using test assays with a test-treatment algorithm. Standard care. Any patient-related outcome, test agreement and cost-effectiveness estimates. The quality assessments used recognised checklists (Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2, Cochrane, Philips and Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards). Evidence was synthesised using narrative review and meta-analysis. A Markov model was built in TreeAge Pro 2013 (TreeAge Software, Inc., Williamstown, MA, USA). The model had a 4-week cycle and a 10-year time horizon, adopted a NHS and Personal Social Services perspective and used a linked evidence approach. Costs were adjusted to 2013/14 prices and discounted at 3.5%. We included 68 out of 2434 and 4 out of 2466 studies for the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness reviews, respectively. Twenty-three studies comparing test methods were identified. Evidence on test concordance was sparse and contradictory, offering scant data for a linked evidence approach. Three studies [two randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and one

  1. Seminar on standards, standardization, quality control and interlaboratory test programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Bievre, P. [Central Bureau for Nuclear Measurements, Geel (Belgium)

    1978-12-15

    The author gives a resume on the proper use of standards and standardization of measurement procedures. Results of measurements obtained on the same instrument and on the same series of standards of different isotopic compositions are displayed.

  2. Effective implementation of novel MET pharmacodynamic assays in translational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Apurva K; Navas, Tony; Herrick, William G; Hollingshead, Melinda G; Bottaro, Donald P; Doroshow, James H; Parchment, Ralph E

    2017-01-01

    MET tyrosine kinase (TK) dysregulation is significantly implicated in many types of cancer. Despite over 20 years of drug development to target MET in cancers, a pure anti-MET therapeutic has not yet received market approval. The failure of two recently concluded phase III trials point to a major weakness in biomarker strategies to identify patients who will benefit most from MET therapies. The capability to interrogate oncogenic mutations in MET via circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) provides an important advancement in identification and stratification of patients for MET therapy. However, a wide range in type and frequency of these mutations suggest there is a need to carefully link these mutations to MET dysregulation, at least in proof-of-concept studies. In this review, we elaborate how we can utilize recently developed and validated pharmacodynamic biomarkers of MET not only to show target engagement, but more importantly to quantitatively measure MET dysregulation in tumor tissues. The MET assay endpoints provide evidence of both canonical and non-canonical MET signaling, can be used as "effect markers" to define biologically effective doses (BEDs) for molecularly targeted drugs, confirm mechanism-of-action in testing combination of drugs, and establish whether a diagnostic test is reporting MET dysregulation. We have established standard operating procedures for tumor biopsy collections to control pre-analytical variables that have produced valid results in proof-of-concept studies. The reagents and procedures are made available to the research community for potential implementation on multiple platforms such as ELISA, quantitative immunofluorescence assay (qIFA), and immuno-MRM assays.

  3. Factor IX assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003679.htm Factor IX assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  4. Factor VIII assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003678.htm Factor VIII assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  5. Factor II assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003674.htm Factor II assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  6. Factor VII assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003676.htm Factor VII assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  7. Microbead agglutination based assays

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas; Castro, David; Foulds, Ian G.; Parameswaran, Ash M.; Sumanpreet, K. Chhina

    2013-01-01

    We report a simple and rapid room temperature assay for point-of-care (POC) testing that is based on specific agglutination. Agglutination tests are based on aggregation of microbeads in the presence of a specific analyte thus enabling

  8. [Standardizing the manipulation procedure of acupuncture-moxibustion, reinforcing the training of' clinical skill: learning experience of Acupuncture-moxibustion Clinical Skills Training: Chapter of Commonly Used Needling and Moxibustion Techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hongfang; Yang, Chao; Tang, Jie; Qin, Qiuguo; Zhao, Mingwen; Zhao, Jiping

    2015-07-01

    The book Acupuncture-moxibustion Clinical Skills Training is one of "Twelfth Five-Year Plan" in novative teaching materials, which is published by People's Medical Publishing House. Through learning the first half of the book commonly used needling and moxibustion techniques, it is realized that the selection of book content is reasonable and much attention is paid to needling and moxibustion techniques; the chapter arrangement is well-organized, and the form is novel, which is concise and intuitive; for every technique, great attention is paid to standardize the manipulation procedure and clarify the technique key, simultaneously the safety of acupuncture and moxibustion is also emphasized. The characteristics of the book, including innovativeness, practicability, are highlighted, and it greatly helps to improve students' clinical skills and examination ability.

  9. Standardized Methods for Detection of Poliovirus Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, William C; Oberste, M Steven; Pallansch, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Testing for neutralizing antibodies against polioviruses has been an established gold standard for assessing individual protection from disease, population immunity, vaccine efficacy studies, and other vaccine clinical trials. Detecting poliovirus specific IgM and IgA in sera and mucosal specimens has been proposed for evaluating the status of population mucosal immunity. More recently, there has been a renewed interest in using dried blood spot cards as a medium for sample collection to enhance surveillance of poliovirus immunity. Here, we describe the modified poliovirus microneutralization assay, poliovirus capture IgM and IgA ELISA assays, and dried blood spot polio serology procedures for the detection of antibodies against poliovirus serotypes 1, 2, and 3.

  10. Chapter 2. Surge capacity and infrastructure considerations for mass critical care. Recommendations and standard operating procedures for intensive care unit and hospital preparations for an influenza epidemic or mass disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hick, John L; Christian, Michael D; Sprung, Charles L

    2010-04-01

    To provide recommendations and standard operating procedures for intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital preparations for a mass disaster or influenza epidemic with a specific focus on surge capacity and infrastructure considerations. Based on a literature review and expert opinion, a Delphi process was used to define the essential topics including surge capacity and infrastructure considerations. Key recommendations include: (1) hospitals should increase their ICU beds to the maximal extent by expanding ICU capacity and expanding ICUs into other areas; (2) hospitals should have appropriate beds and monitors for these expansion areas; hospitals should develop contingency plans at the facility and government (local, state, provincial, national) levels to provide additional ventilators; (3) hospitals should develop a phased staffing plan (nursing and physician) for ICUs that provides sufficient patient care supervision during contingency and crisis situations; (4) hospitals should provide expert input to the emergency management personnel at the hospital both during planning for surge capacity as well as during response; (5) hospitals should assure that adequate infrastructure support is present to support critical care activities; (6) hospitals should prioritize locations for expansion by expanding existing ICUs, using postanesthesia care units and emergency departments to capacity, then step-down units, large procedure suites, telemetry units and finally hospital wards. Judicious planning and adoption of protocols for surge capacity and infrastructure considerations are necessary to optimize outcomes during a pandemic.

  11. Radiochemical plasma salicylamide assay using ring-labeled tritiated salicylamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stella, V J; Varia, S A; Riedy, M

    1979-05-01

    A rat plasma salicylamide assay was developed using ring-labeled tritiated salicylamide, synthesized by reacting salicylamide with tritium oxide in the presence of heptafluorobutyric acid. The reaction yielded /sup 3/H-salicylamide of specific activity up to 8.41 mCi/mmole, 60% yield. Plasma containing /sup 3/H-salicylamide and its metabolites was extracted with a toluene-based scintillation fluid, which was subsequently counted. Specificity for free salicylamide was demonstrated by radiochemical and standard fluorescence plasma salicylamide level-time curves. Specificity resulted from nonextraction of the salicylamide sulfate and glucuronide metabolites. Sulfatase and beta-glucuronidase treatment allowed the analysis of plasma sulfate and glucuronide conjugates as free salicylamide. This procedure should be effective for the analysis of salicylamide and its metabolites in the presence of similar phenolic compounds.

  12. Adaptive Standard Operating Procedures for Complex Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Firefighters stuck in Ga . awaiting orders,” Greg Bluestein, Associated Press, September 7, 2005. 77 Sobel and Leeson, “Government’s Response to Hurricane...partial meltdowns in Reactors 2 and 3 as well as gas explosions that devastated several of the containment buildings, leaking radioactive material into... Behaviour in Built Environments,” Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference 1, (2012): 532. 60 autonomous agents, which are capable of interacting with

  13. Standard operating procedure for computing pangenome trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snipen, L.; Ussery, David

    2010-01-01

    We present the pan-genome tree as a tool for visualizing similarities and differences between closely related microbial genomes within a species or genus. Distance between genomes is computed as a weighted relative Manhattan distance based on gene family presence/absence. The weights can be chose...

  14. Emergency Support Function 15 Standard Operating Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    External Affairs Officer for Planning and Products (AEPP) Reports to the ESF #15 EAO and oversees all activities involving research and writing ...PAD, their desire and capability to support media embeds. 2.7.4 Freelance media will be authorized access if they are selected by a news...coordination with other Federal, State, tribal, territorial and local and private-sector counterparts as appropriate. 3.2 Research and writing This is

  15. Setting technical standards for visual assessment procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth H. Craik; Nickolaus R. Feimer

    1979-01-01

    Under the impetus of recent legislative and administrative mandates concerning analysis and management of the landscape, governmental agencies are being called upon to adopt or develop visual resource and impact assessment (VRIA) systems. A variety of techniques that combine methods of psychological assessment and landscape analysis to serve these purposes is being...

  16. Standardization of a rearing procedure of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): plant age and harvest time; Padronizacao da criacao de Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) em feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris): idade da planta e tempo de colheita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustos, Alexander; Cantor, Fernando; Cure, Jose R; Rodriguez, Daniel [Universidade Militar Nueva Granada, Bogota (Colombia). Facutad de Ciencias. Programa de Biologia Aplicada], e-mail: fernando.cantor@unimilitar.edu.co

    2009-09-15

    A rearing technique was standardized to produce Tetranychus urticae Koch on Phaseolus vulgaris (ICA Cerinza variety) as a prey of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. Two assays were conducted to assess the following variables: the most suitable plant age for mite infestation, and the best time to harvest the mites and re infest the plants. In the first experiment, four, five, six, and seven-week-old plants of P. vulgaris were infested with six T. urticae per foliole. The lower plant stratum exhibited the largest number of mites regardless of plant age. However, four-week old plants had the larger average number of individuals. In the second experiment four-week-old plants were infested with 0.5 female mite/cm{sup 2} of leaf. The number of individuals per instar of T. urticae was recorded weekly. The highest mite production occurred between four and five weeks after infestation, indicating this to be the most suitable for mite harvesting and for plant reinfestation. (author)

  17. Interdisciplinary evaluation of consecutive patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate at age 6, 15, and 25 years: a concurrent standardized procedure and documentation by plastic surgeon; speech and language pathologist; ear, nose, and throat specialist; and orthodontist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindlund, Rolf S; Holmefjord, Anders; Eriksson, Jens-Christian Haug; Johnson, Gunnar E; Vindenes, Hallvard

    2009-09-01

    To evaluate surgical results, speech, hearing, and craniofacial morphology after primary cleft repair performed from 1973 to 1979. During the years 1972 to 1985, all primary cleft surgeries were performed by 1 plastic surgeon, using Tennison lip closure combined with a periosteoplasty on the clefted alveolus at age 3 months. By mobilizing mucoperiosteal flaps, bony bridges were induced in the alveolar process in approximately 60% of the cases. All patients had the soft palate closed at age 24 months by a pushback technique. All children with complete unilateral clefts without soft tissue bands (unilateral cleft lip and palate) primary operated on 1973 to 1979 were included in the material, except 3 patients with a syndrome and 2 patients of foreign ethnicity. The material involved 30 consecutive patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (20 boys and 10 girls; 16 left-sided and 14 right-sided clefts) who were operated on. Standardized records including photos, radiographs, lateral cephalograms, plaster model, and recording of speech and hearing were collected according to the treatment protocol at age 6, 15, and approximately 25 years. Evaluation included craniofacial descriptive cephalometric analysis, dentoalveolar morphology, dentofacial aesthetics, speech concerning articulation and nasality, and hearing status. Number of surgical interventions after primary surgery was recorded. Secondary revisions and candidates for orthognathic surgery are reported. Ten consecutive patients (case nos. 11-20) are demonstrated as clinical reports. : This longitudinal study shows how a multidisciplinary evaluation adequate for intercenter comparison can be performed when standardized procedures, registrations, and documentations are available.

  18. New fluorimetric assay of horseradish peroxidase using sesamol as substrate and its application to EIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi Arakawa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Horseradish peroxidase (HRP is generally used as a label enzyme in enzyme immunoassay (EIA. The procedure used for HRP detection in EIA is critical for sensitivity and precision. This paper describes a novel fluorimetric assay for horseradish peroxidase (HRP using sesamol as substrate. The principle of the assay is as follow: sesamol (3,4-methylenedioxy phenol is reacted enzymatically in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to produce dimeric sesamol. The dimer is fluorescent and can be detected sensitively at ex. 347 nm, em. 427 nm.The measurable range of HRP was 1.0×10−18 to 1.0×10−15 mol/assay, with a detection limit of 1.0×10−18 mol/assay. The coefficient of variation (CV, n=8 was examined at each point on the standard curve, with a mean CV percentage of 3.8%. This assay system was applied to thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH EIA using HRP as the label enzyme. Keywords: Sesamol, Fluorescence, Enzyme immunoassay (EIA, Horseradish peroxidase (HRP, Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH

  19. New fluorimetric assay of horseradish peroxidase using sesamol as substrate and its application to EIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Hidetoshi; Nakabayashi, Shigeo; Ohno, Ken-Ichi; Maeda, Masako

    2012-04-01

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is generally used as a label enzyme in enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The procedure used for HRP detection in EIA is critical for sensitivity and precision. This paper describes a novel fluorimetric assay for horseradish peroxidase (HRP) using sesamol as substrate. The principle of the assay is as follow: sesamol (3,4-methylenedioxy phenol) is reacted enzymatically in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to produce dimeric sesamol. The dimer is fluorescent and can be detected sensitively at ex. 347 nm, em. 427 nm. The measurable range of HRP was 1.0×10 -18 to 1.0×10 -15  mol/assay, with a detection limit of 1.0×10 -18  mol/assay. The coefficient of variation (CV, n =8) was examined at each point on the standard curve, with a mean CV percentage of 3.8%. This assay system was applied to thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) EIA using HRP as the label enzyme.

  20. A multiwell format assay for heparanase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Farhad; Brenchley, Paul E C

    2003-09-15

    This assay employs a biotinylated heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan (HSGAG) substrate that is covalently linked to the surface of 96-well immunoassay plates. The ratio of biotin:HSGAG and the coating concentration of substrate bound to the wells have been optimized and allow removal of biotin HSGAG within 60 min of incubation at 37 degrees C in assay buffer with a standard dilution of bacterial heparitinase or platelet heparanase. Loss of biotin signal from the well surface is detected on incubation with peroxidase-streptavidin followed by color development using 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine as the peroxidase substrate. The new assay allows specific detection of heparanase activity in multiple samples in a total time of 3 h including a 1-h substrate digestion step and is a significant improvement with regard to sensitivity, specificity, and ease of handling of multiple samples compared to other described assays. Heparanase specifically degrades the biotinylated HSGAG substrate, when used with an optimized assay buffer. A range of enzymes including collagenase, trypsin, plasmin, pepsin, chondroitinases, hyaluronidase, and neuraminidase show no effect on the substrate under optimized assay conditions. The covalent linkage of the substrate to the well prevents leaching of substrate and allows preparation and long-term storage of substrate-coated plates. The assay can be used to detect heparanase levels in clinical samples and cell culture supernatants and is ideal as a screening method for antagonists of enzyme activity.

  1. Cryopreservation of human blood for alkaline and Fpg-modified comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Xinzhu; Wang, Zemin; Klaunig, James E

    2016-01-01

    The Comet assay is a reproducible and sensitive assay for the detection of DNA damage in eukaryotic cells and tissues. Incorporation of lesion specific, oxidative DNA damage repair enzymes (for example, Fpg, OGG1 and EndoIII) in the standard alkaline Comet assay procedure allows for the detection and measurement of oxidative DNA damage. The Comet assay using white blood cells (WBC) has proven useful in monitoring DNA damage from environmental agents in humans. However, it is often impractical to performance Comet assay immediately after blood sampling. Thus, storage of blood sample is required. In this study, we developed and tested a simple storage method for very small amount of whole blood for standard and Fpg-modified modified Comet assay. Whole blood was stored in RPMI 1640 media containing 10% FBS, 10% DMSO and 1 mM deferoxamine at a sample to media ratio of 1:50. Samples were stored at -20 °C and -80 °C for 1, 7, 14 and 28 days. Isolated lymphocytes from the same subjects were also stored under the same conditions for comparison. Direct DNA strand breakage and oxidative DNA damage in WBC and lymphocytes were analyzed using standard and Fpg-modified alkaline Comet assay and compared with freshly analyzed samples. No significant changes in either direct DNA strand breakage or oxidative DNA damage was seen in WBC and lymphocytes stored at -20 °C for 1 and 7 days compared to fresh samples. However, significant increases in both direct and oxidative DNA damage were seen in samples stored at -20 °C for 14 and 28 days. No changes in direct and oxidative DNA damage were observed in WBC and lymphocytes stored at -80 °C for up to 28 days. These results identified the proper storage conditions for storing whole blood or isolated lymphocytes to evaluate direct and oxidative DNA damage using standard and Fpg-modified alkaline Comet assay.

  2. Complete validation of a unique digestion assay to detect Trichinella larvae in horse meat demonstrates the reliability of this assay for meeting food safety and trade requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, L B; Hill, D E; Parker, S; Tessaro, S V; Gamble, H R; Gajadhar, A A

    2008-03-01

    A tissue digestion assay using a double separatory funnel procedure for the detection of Trichinella larvae in horse meat was validated for application in food safety programs and trade. The assay consisted of a pepsin-HCl digestion step to release larvae from muscle tissue and two sequential sedimentation steps in separatory funnels to recover and concentrate larvae for detection with a stereomicroscope. With defined critical control points, the assay was conducted within a quality assurance system compliant with International Organization for Standardization-International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC) 17025 guidelines. Samples used in the validation were obtained from horses experimentally infected with Trichinella spiralis to obtain a range of muscle larvae densities. One-, 5-, and 10-g samples of infected tissue were combined with 99, 95, and 90 g, respectively, of known negative horse tissue to create a 100-g sample for testing. Samples of 5 and 10 g were more likely to be positive than were 1-g samples when larval densities were less than three larvae per gram (lpg). This difference is important because ingested meat with 1 lpg is considered the threshold for clinical disease in humans. Using a 5-g sample size, all samples containing 1.3 to 2 lpg were detected, and 60 to 100% of samples with infected horse meat containing 0.1 to 0.7 lpg were detected. In this study, the double separatory funnel digestion assay was efficient and reliable for its intended use in food safety and trade. This procedure is the only digestion assay for Trichinella in horse meat that has been validated as consistent and effective at critical levels of sensitivity.

  3. Development of standards, criteria, specifications. Vol. 2 - Longlife.. Sustainable, energy efficient and resource saving, residential buildings in consideration of unified procedures and new and adapted technologies. Project in the Baltic Sea region programme 2007-2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rueckert, Klaus (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    Energy and Cost Efficiency as the key characteristics of the sustainability have been the main consideration of different parts of research represented in the Longlife 2 Report. Longlife 2 Report is in fact the final result of work package 4 ''Developments of Standards and Criteria for Sustainable Building and Construction''. Work package 4 was created based on the work package 3 ''Analysis and comparison of state of technology, administration and legal procedures, financial situation, demographic needs, similarities and differences in the participant countries: Denmark, Germany, Lithuania, Poland and Russia''. Three competence teams from each participant country studied, analyzed and examined these concepts from different point of view and introduced a framework to define the fundamental concepts of sustainability. This crucial phase of project based on the objectives and activities of each team could be described as follow: Team 1'' Engineering and Building Technology standards'' and related expertise emphasized on the most architectural solutions and characteristics of sustainability in very wide spectrum. That is realized through adaptable methods of design, typology, standards, assessment systems, proper and available materials with the best physical features, the most efficient and advanced structures and technologies in order to have the most possible energy and resource saving beside the less life cycle cost of the residential building. Team 2 '' Method of planning permit and tendering Procedure'' and its expertise from another point of view worked on the legal and administrative aspects of sustainability and examining possibility and capacity of each involved country to realize sustainable construction. Team 3 ''Economical and Financial basis, Industry and quality'' and its related expertise explained and examined the adequate and necessary tools for

  4. Comparison of in-house biotin-avidin tetanus IgG enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with gold standard in vivo mouse neutralization test for the detection of low level antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonmez, Cemile; Coplu, Nilay; Gozalan, Aysegul; Akin, Lutfu; Esen, Berrin

    2017-06-01

    Detection of anti-tetanus antibody levels is necessary for both determination of the immune status of individuals and also for planning preventive measures. ELISA is the preferred test among in vitro tests however it can be affected by the cross reacting antibodies. A previously developed in-house ELISA test was found not reliable for the antibody levels ≤1.0IU/ml. A new method was developed to detect low antibody levels correctly. The aim of the present study was to compare the results of the newly developed in-house biotin-avidin tetanus IgG ELISA test with the in vivo mouse neutralization test, for the antibody levels ≤1.0IU/ml. A total of 54 serum samples with the antibody levels of three different levels, =0.01IU/ml, 0.01-0.1IU/ml, 0.1-1IU/ml, which were detected by in vivo mouse neutralization test were studied by the newly developed in-house biotin-avidin tetanus IgG ELISA test. Test was validated by using five different concentrations (0.01IU/ml, 0.06IU/ml, 0.2IU/ml, 0.5IU/ml, 1.0IU/ml). A statistically significant correlation (r 2 =0.9967 p=0,001) between in vivo mouse neutralization test and in-house biotin-avidin tetanus IgG ELISA test, was observed. For the tested concentrations intra-assay, inter-assay, accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and coefficients of variations were determined as ≤15%. In-house biotin-avidin tetanus IgG ELISA test can be an alternative method to in vivo mouse neutralization method for the detection of levels ≤1.0IU/ml. By using in-house biotin-avidin tetanus IgG ELISA test, individuals with non protective levels, will be reliably detected. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Assay method and compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Methods are described for measuring catecholamine levels in human and animal body fluids and tissues using the catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) radioassay. The assay involves incubating the biological sample with COMT and the tritiated methyl donor, S-adenosyl-L-methionine( 3 H)-methyl. The O-methylated ( 3 H) epinephrine and/or norepinephrine are extracted and oxidised to vanillin- 3 H which in turn is extracted and its radioactivity counted. When analysing dopamine levels the assay is extended by vanillin- 3 H and raising the pH of the aqueous periodate phase from which O-methylated ( 3 H) dopamine is extracted and counted. The assay may be modified depending on whether measurements of undifferentiated total endogenous catecholamine levels or differential analyses of the catecholamine levels are being performed. The sensitivity of the assay can be as low as 5 picograms for norepinephrine and epinephrine and 12 picograms for dopamine. The assemblance of the essential components of the assay into a kit for use in laboratories is also described. (U.K.)

  6. Use of Molecular Assays in Diagnosis and Monitoring of Cytomegalovirus Disease following Renal Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Aitken, Celia; Barrett-Muir, Winsome; Millar, Colin; Templeton, Kate; Thomas, Janice; Sheridan, Fran; Jeffries, Donald; Yaqoob, Magdi; Breuer, Judith

    1999-01-01

    We compared two commercial molecular assays (the Murex Hybrid Capture CMV DNA assay [HCA], version 2, and the Roche Amplicor plasma PCR assay) with a standard shell vial assay in detecting and predicting cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease in a group of renal transplant patients and assessed the role of viral load measurements (using the HCA) in their management. The sensitivity of the HCA and Amplicor assay in terms of disease detection was 100%, compared to 71% for the shell vial assay. Both the ...

  7. Anthelmintic activity procedure The anthelmintic assay was carried ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The earthworms of 4 -6 cm in length and 0.3-0.4 cm in width were used for all experimental protocol due to its anatomical and physiological resemblance with intestinal roundworms parasite of human beings. The cleaned and uniform size worms were kept in 6% dextrose solution for acclimat i zation. The worms with normal ...

  8. Evaluation of the Diagnostic Accuracy of a Typhoid IgM Flow Assay for the Diagnosis of Typhoid Fever in Cambodian Children Using a Bayesian Latent Class Model Assuming an Imperfect Gold Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Catrin E.; Pan-Ngum, Wirichada; Wijedoru, Lalith P. M.; Sona, Soeng; Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Duy, Pham Thanh; Vinh, Phat Voong; Chheng, Kheng; Kumar, Varun; Emary, Kate; Carter, Michael; White, Lisa; Baker, Stephen; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Parry, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid diagnostic tests are needed for typhoid fever (TF) diagnosis in febrile children in endemic areas. Five hundred children admitted to the hospital in Cambodia between 2009 and 2010 with documented fever (≥ 38°C) were investigated using blood cultures (BCs), Salmonella Typhi/Paratyphi A real-time polymerase chain reactions (PCRs), and a Typhoid immunoglobulin M flow assay (IgMFA). Test performance was determined by conventional methods and Bayesian latent class modeling. There were 32 cases of TF (10 BC- and PCR-positive cases, 14 BC-positive and PCR-negative cases, and 8 BC-negative and PCR-positive cases). IgMFA sensitivity was 59.4% (95% confidence interval = 41–76), and specificity was 97.8% (95% confidence interval = 96–99). The model estimate sensitivity for BC was 81.0% (95% credible interval = 54–99). The model estimate sensitivity for PCR was 37.8% (95% credible interval = 26–55), with a specificity of 98.2% (95% credible interval = 97–99). The model estimate sensitivity for IgMFA (≥ 2+) was 77.9% (95% credible interval = 58–90), with a specificity of 97.5% (95% credible interval = 95–100). The model estimates of IgMFA sensitivity and specificity were comparable with BCs and better than estimates using conventional analysis. PMID:24218407

  9. Time-resolved immunofluorometric assay of serum ferritin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Yao [China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)

    2007-06-15

    This assay is a solid phase, two-site fluoroimmunometric assay based on the direct sandwish technique. Standards or samples containing ferritin are first reacted with immobilized anti-ferritin antibodies. Then the europium-lablled antibodies are reacted with the bound antigen. The range of this assay is 2-1000 ng/mL. The analytical sentivity is better than 0.05 ng/mL. The intra-assay variation and inter-assay variation are both below 5%; This kit was compared with Wallac DELFIA kit. The correlation is r=0.96. (authors)

  10. Radioreceptor assay for insulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kazuo [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1975-04-01

    Radioreceptor assay of insulin was discussed from the aspects of the measuring method, its merits and problems to be solved, and its clinical application. Rat liver 10 x g pellet was used as receptor site, and enzymatic degradation of insulin by the system contained in this fraction was inhibited by adding 1 mM p-CMB. /sup 125/I-labelled porcine insulin was made by lactoperoxidase method under overnight incubation at 4/sup 0/C and later purification by Sephadex G-25 column and Whatman CF-11 cellulose powder. Dog pancreatic vein serum insulin during and after the glucose load was determined by radioreceptor assay and radioimmunoassay resulting that both measurements accorded considerably. Radioreceptor assay would clarify the pathology of disorders of glucose metabolism including diabetes.

  11. Assays for calcitonin receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teitelbaum, A.P.; Nissenson, R.A.; Arnaud, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    The assays for calcitonin receptors described focus on their use in the study of the well-established target organs for calcitonin, bone and kidney. The radioligand used in virtually all calcitonin binding studies is 125 I-labelled salmon calcitonin. The lack of methionine residues in this peptide permits the use of chloramine-T for the iodination reaction. Binding assays are described for intact bone, skeletal plasma membranes, renal plasma membranes, and primary kidney cell cultures of rats. Studies on calcitonin metabolism in laboratory animals and regulation of calcitonin receptors are reviewed

  12. The comet assay: ready for 30 more years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Peter

    2018-02-24

    During the last 30 years, the comet assay has become widely used for the measurement of DNA damage and repair in cells and tissues. A landmark achievement was reached in 2016 when the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development adopted a comet assay guideline for in vivo testing of DNA strand breaks in animals. However, the comet assay has much more to offer than being an assay for testing DNA strand breaks in animal organs. The use of repair enzymes increases the range of DNA lesions that can be detected with the assay. It can also be modified to measure DNA repair activity. Still, despite the long-term use of the assay, there is a need for studies that assess the impact of variation in specific steps of the procedure. This is particularly important for the on-going efforts to decrease the variation between experiments and laboratories. The articles in this Special Issue of Mutagenesis cover important technical issues of the comet assay procedure, nanogenotoxicity and ionising radiation sensitivity on plant cells. The included biomonitoring studies have assessed seasonal variation and certain predictors for the basal level of DNA damage in white blood cells. Lastly, the comet assay has been used in studies on genotoxicity of environmental and occupational exposures in human biomonitoring studies and animal models. Overall, the articles in this Special Issue demonstrate the versatility of the comet assay and they hold promise that the assay is ready for the next 30 years.

  13. Fire-assay determination of small amounts of gold in mineral raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuligin, V.M.; Zdorova, Eh.P.; Popova, N.N.; Rakovskij, Eh.V.

    1976-01-01

    Gold is concentrated in 0.1-1.0 g of a lead alloy obtained in fire assay and cupellation and can be used for the analysis of a number of geological samples. The procedure makes it possible to determine gold with a limit of detection of 0.02 g/ton from a representative sample of 50-100 g. The use of lead acetate ensures the limit of detection of 0.002 g/ton, the relative standard deviation being greater than 0.01

  14. New Insights into Butyrylcholinesterase Activity Assay: Serum Dilution Factor as a Crucial Parameter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Jońca

    Full Text Available Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE activity assay and inhibitor phenotyping can help to identify patients at risk of prolonged paralysis following the administration of neuromuscular blocking agents. The assay plays an important role in clinical chemistry as a good diagnostic marker for intoxication with pesticides and nerve agents. Furthermore, the assay is also commonly used for in vitro characterization of cholinesterases, their toxins and drugs. There is still lack of standardized procedure for measurement of BChE activity and many laboratories use different substrates at various concentrations. The purpose of this study was to validate the BChE activity assay to determine the best dilution of human serum and the most optimal concentration of substrates and inhibitors. Serum BChE activity was measured using modified Ellman's method applicable for a microplate reader. We present our experience and new insights into the protocol for high-throughput routine assays of human plasma cholinesterase activities adapted to a microplate reader. During our routine assays used for the determination of BChE activity, we have observed that serum dilution factor influences the results obtained. We show that a 400-fold dilution of serum and 5mM S-butyrylthiocholine iodide can be successfully used for the accurate measurement of BChE activity in human serum. We also discuss usage of various concentrations of dibucaine and fluoride in BChE phenotyping. This study indicates that some factors of such a multicomponent clinical material like serum can influence kinetic parameters of the BChE. The observed inhibitory effect is dependent on serum dilution factor used in the assay.

  15. Detection and Characterization of Viral Species/Subspecies Using Isothermal Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glais, Laurent; Jacquot, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Numerous molecular-based detection protocols include an amplification step of the targeted nucleic acids. This step is important to reach the expected sensitive detection of pathogens in diagnostic procedures. Amplifications of nucleic acid sequences are generally performed, in the presence of appropriate primers, using thermocyclers. However, the time requested to amplify molecular targets and the cost of the thermocycler machines could impair the use of these methods in routine diagnostics. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) technique allows rapid (short-term incubation of sample and primers in an enzymatic mixture) and simple (isothermal) amplification of molecular targets. RPA protocol requires only basic molecular steps such as extraction procedures and agarose gel electrophoresis. Thus, RPA can be considered as an interesting alternative to standard molecular-based diagnostic tools. In this paper, the complete procedures to set up an RPA assay, applied to detection of RNA (Potato virus Y, Potyvirus) and DNA (Wheat dwarf virus, Mastrevirus) viruses, are described. The proposed procedure allows developing species- or subspecies-specific detection assay.

  16. Variation in assessment of oxidatively damaged DNA in mononuclear blood cells by the comet assay with visual scoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Lykke; Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Folkmann, Janne Kjaersgaard

    2008-01-01

    The comet assay is popular for assessments of genotoxicity, but the comparison of results between studies is challenging because of differences in experimental procedures and reports of DNA damage in different units. We investigated the variation of DNA damage in mononuclear blood cells (MNBCs......) measured by the comet assay with focus on the variation related to alkaline unwinding and electrophoresis time, number of cells scored, as well as the putative benefits of transforming the primary end points to common units by the use of reference standards and calibration curves. Eight experienced......, our results indicate that inter-investigator difference in scoring is a strong determinant of DNA damage levels measured by the comet assay....

  17. Lateral flow assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A.; Amerongen, van A.

    2012-01-01

    A simple version of immunochemical-based methods is the Lateral Flow Assay (LFA). It is a dry chemistry technique (reagents are included); the fluid from the sample runs through a porous membrane (often nitrocellulose) by capillary force. Typically the membrane is cut as a strip of 0.5*5 cm. In most

  18. Microchemiluminescent assay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiel, J.L.

    1986-04-09

    The patent concerns a microchemiluminescent assay system, which can be used to detect ionizing radiation, heat or specific substances. The method involves the use of a complex formed from serum albumin and a luminescer which, in the presence of ionizing radiation (heat, or a specific analyte), will emit light in an amount proportional to the amount of radiation, etc. (U.K.).

  19. (MTT) dye reduction assay.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to inhibit proliferation of HeLa cells was determined using the 3443- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye reduction assay. Extracts from roots of Agathisanthemum bojeri, Synaptolepis kirkii and Zanha africana and the leaf extract of Physalis peruviana at a concentration of 10 pg/ml inhibited cell ...

  20. European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Pathobiology Group standard operating procedure for the preparation of human tumour tissue extracts suited for the quantitative analysis of tissue-associated biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Manfred; Mengele, Karin; Schueren, Elisabeth; Sweep, Fred C G J; Foekens, John A; Brünner, Nils; Laabs, Juliane; Malik, Abha; Harbeck, Nadia

    2007-03-01

    With the new concept of 'individualized treatment and targeted therapies', tumour tissue-associated biomarkers have been given a new role in selection of cancer patients for treatment and in cancer patient management. Tumour biomarkers can give support to cancer patient stratification and risk assessment, treatment response identification, or to identifying those patients who are expected to respond to certain anticancer drugs. As the field of tumour-associated biomarkers has expanded rapidly over the last years, it has become increasingly apparent that a strong need exists to establish guidelines on how to easily disintegrate the tumour tissue for assessment of the presence of tumour tissue-associated biomarkers. Several mechanical tissue (cell) disruption techniques exist, ranging from bead mill homogenisation and freeze-fracturing through to blade or pestle-type homogenisation, to grinding and ultrasonics. Still, only a few directives have been given on how fresh-frozen tumour tissues should be processed for the extraction and determination of tumour biomarkers. The PathoBiology Group of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer therefore has devised a standard operating procedure for the standardised preparation of human tumour tissue extracts which is designed for the quantitative analysis of tumour tissue-associated biomarkers. The easy to follow technical steps involved require 50-300 mg of deep-frozen cancer tissue placed into small size (1.2 ml) cryogenic tubes. These are placed into the shaking flask of a Mikro-Dismembrator S machine (bead mill) to pulverise the tumour tissue in the capped tubes in the deep-frozen state by use of a stainless steel ball, all within 30 s of exposure. RNA is isolated from the pulverised tissue following standard procedures. Proteins are extracted from the still frozen pulverised tissue by addition of Tris-buffered saline to obtain the cytosol fraction of the tumour or by the Tris buffer supplemented with

  1. Comet assay on tetraploid yeast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Jette; Syberg, Kristian; Jensen, Klara

    2009-01-01

    Tetraploid yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were used in the comet assay with the intention of developing a new, fast and easy assay for detecting environmental genotoxic agents without using higher organisms. Two DNA-damaging chemicals, H2O2 and acrylamide, together with wastewater from...... three municipal treatment plants were tested for their effect on the yeast-cell DNA. The main problem with using yeast in the comet assay is the necessity to degrade the cell wall. This was achieved by using Zymolase 100 T twice during the procedure, since Zymolase 20 T did not open the cell wall....... Analytical problems that arose due to the small amount of DNA in the yeast nuclei in haploid and diploid cells, which contain 13 Mbp and 26 Mbp DNA per cell, respectively, were solved by using tetraploid yeast cells (52 Mbp) instead. DNA damage was shown after exposure to H2O2 and acrylamide. The lowest dose...

  2. Modified arthroscopic Brostrom procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-09-01

    The open modified Brostrom anatomic repair technique is widely accepted as the reference standard for lateral ankle stabilization. However, there is high incidence of intra-articular pathologies associated with chronic lateral ankle instability which may not be addressed by an isolated open Brostrom procedure. Arthroscopic Brostrom procedure with suture anchor has been described for anatomic repair of chronic lateral ankle instability and management of intra-articular lesions. However, the complication rates seemed to be higher than open Brostrom procedure. Modification of the arthroscopic Brostrom procedure with the use of bone tunnel may reduce the risk of certain complications. Copyright © 2015 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Radioligand purification prior to routine receptor assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Goff, J.-M.; Berthois, Y.; Martin, P.-M.

    1988-01-01

    The need to repurify the commercially available radioligands [ 3 H]estradiol and [ 3 H]testosterone before use in routine assays was investigated. Storage of these products for 2 months after delivery led to appreciable degradation of [ 3 H]estradiol compared to [ 3 H]testosterone. Unexpectedly, TLC and even HPLC procedures were ineffective in completely restoring the purity of [ 3 H]-estradiol and the unremoved polar products induced important variations in our estrogen receptor assays. An increase in non-specific binding and a concomitant decrease in total binding were observed resulting in an underestimation of specific binding sites and of the affinity constant. In some cases Scatchard analysis was not possible. The authors therefore strongly recommend the repurification of low-stability radioligands and propose an economic time-saving procedure for the purification of [ 3 H]estradiol by solvent differential partition which requires no high-cost investment in apparatus. (author)

  4. Trueness verification of actual creatinine assays in the European market demonstrates a disappointing variability that needs substantial improvement. An international study in the framework of the EC4 creatinine standardization working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanghe, Joris R; Cobbaert, Christa; Galteau, Marie-Madeleine; Harmoinen, Aimo; Jansen, Rob; Kruse, Rolf; Laitinen, Päivi; Thienpont, Linda M; Wuyts, Birgitte; Weykamp, Cas; Panteghini, Mauro

    2008-01-01

    The European In Vitro Diagnostics (IVD) directive requires traceability to reference methods and materials of analytes. It is a task of the profession to verify the trueness of results and IVD compatibility. The results of a trueness verification study by the European Communities Confederation of Clinical Chemistry (EC4) working group on creatinine standardization are described, in which 189 European laboratories analyzed serum creatinine in a commutable serum-based material, using analytical systems from seven companies. Values were targeted using isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results were tested on their compliance to a set of three criteria: trueness, i.e., no significant bias relative to the target value, between-laboratory variation and within-laboratory variation relative to the maximum allowable error. For the lower and intermediate level, values differed significantly from the target value in the Jaffe and the dry chemistry methods. At the high level, dry chemistry yielded higher results. Between-laboratory coefficients of variation ranged from 4.37% to 8.74%. Total error budget was mainly consumed by the bias. Non-compensated Jaffe methods largely exceeded the total error budget. Best results were obtained for the enzymatic method. The dry chemistry method consumed a large part of its error budget due to calibration bias. Despite the European IVD directive and the growing needs for creatinine standardization, an unacceptable inter-laboratory variation was observed, which was mainly due to calibration differences. The calibration variation has major clinical consequences, in particular in pediatrics, where reference ranges for serum and plasma creatinine are low, and in the estimation of glomerular filtration rate.

  5. The electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA)

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    The electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), also known as “gel shift assay”, is used to examine the binding parameters and relative affinities of protein and DNA interactions. We produced recombinant CCA1 protein and tested its binding affinity for the promoter fragments that contain CBS (AAAAATCT) or evening element (EE, AAAATATCT) (1) using a modified procedure adopted from published protocols (2,3).

  6. Application of the KeratinoSens™ assay for assessing the skin sensitization potential of agrochemical active ingredients and formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settivari, Raja S; Gehen, Sean C; Amado, Ricardo Acosta; Visconti, Nicolo R; Boverhof, Darrell R; Carney, Edward W

    2015-07-01

    Assessment of skin sensitization potential is an important component of the safety evaluation process for agrochemical products. Recently, non-animal approaches including the KeratinoSens™ assay have been developed for predicting skin sensitization potential. Assessing the utility of the KeratinoSens™ assay for use with multi-component mixtures such as agrochemical formulations has not been previously evaluated and is a significant need. This study was undertaken to evaluate the KeratinoSens™ assay prediction potential for agrochemical formulations. The assay was conducted for 8 agrochemical active ingredients (AIs) including 3 sensitizers (acetochlor, meptyldinocap, triclopyr), 5 non-sensitizers (aminopyralid, clopyralid, florasulam, methoxyfenozide, oxyfluorfen) and 10 formulations for which in vivo sensitization data were available. The KeratinoSens™ correctly predicted the sensitization potential of all the AIs. For agrochemical formulations it was necessary to modify the standard assay procedure whereby the formulation was assumed to have a common molecular weight. The resultant approach correctly predicted the sensitization potential for 3 of 4 sensitizing formulations and all 6 non-sensitizing formulations when compared to in vivo data. Only the meptyldinocap-containing formulation was misclassified, as a result of high cytotoxicity. These results demonstrate the promising utility of the KeratinoSens™ assay for evaluating the skin sensitization potential of agrochemical AIs and formulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. High performance liquid chromatographic assay for the quantitation of total glutathione in plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abukhalaf, Imad K.; Silvestrov, Natalia A.; Menter, Julian M.; von Deutsch, Daniel A.; Bayorh, Mohamed A.; Socci, Robin R.; Ganafa, Agaba A.

    2002-01-01

    A simple and widely used homocysteine HPLC procedure was applied for the HPLC identification and quantitation of glutathione in plasma. The method, which utilizes SBDF as a derivatizing agent utilizes only 50 microl of sample volume. Linear quantitative response curve was generated for glutathione over a concentration range of 0.3125-62.50 micromol/l. Linear regression analysis of the standard curve exhibited correlation coefficient of 0.999. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) values were 5.0 and 15 pmol, respectively. Glutathione recovery using this method was nearly complete (above 96%). Intra-assay and inter-assay precision studies reflected a high level of reliability and reproducibility of the method. The applicability of the method for the quantitation of glutathione was demonstrated successfully using human and rat plasma samples.

  8. Bacteriophage amplification assay for detection of Listeria spp. using virucidal laser treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.C. Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A protocol for the bacteriophage amplification technique was developed for quantitative detection of viable Listeria monocytogenes cells using the A511 listeriophage with plaque formation as the end-point assay. Laser and toluidine blue O (TBO were employed as selective virucidal treatment for destruction of exogenous bacteriophage. Laser and TBO can bring a total reduction in titer phage (ca. 10(8 pfu/mL without affecting the viability of L. monocytogenes cells. Artificially inoculated skimmed milk revealed mean populations of the bacteria as low as between 13 cfu/mL (1.11 log cfu/mL, after a 10-h assay duration. Virucidal laser treatment demonstrated better protection of Listeria cells than the other agents previously tested. The protocol was faster and easier to perform than standard procedures. This protocol constitutes an alternative for rapid, sensitive and quantitative detection of L. monocytogenes.

  9. A murine monoclonal antibody based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for almond (Prunus dulcis L.) detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Mengna; Venkatachalam, Mahesh; Liu, Changqi; Zhang, Ying; Roux, Kenneth H; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2013-11-13

    A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using anti-almond soluble protein rabbit polyclonal antibodies as capture antibodies and murine monoclonal antibody 4C10 as the detection antibodies was developed. The assay is specific and sensitive (3-200 ng almond protein/mL) for almond detection. The standardized assay is accurate (assay variability assay did not register any cross-reactivity with the tested food matrices, suggesting the assay to be almond amandin specific. The assay could detect the presence of declared almond in the tested matched commercial samples. Further, the assay reliably detected the presence of almonds in the laboratory prepared food samples spiked with almond flour.

  10. Radioreceptor assay for oxyphenonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensing, K.; Zeeuw, R.A. de

    1984-01-01

    The development of a radioreceptor assay for the quaternary anticholinergic drug, oxyphenonium, in plasma is reported. It is based on competition between this drug and 3 H-dexetimide for binding to muscarinic receptors. After ion pair extraction and reextraction, the drug can be determined in plasma at concentrations down to a value of 100 pg/ml. This permits pharmacokinetic studies to be made after inhalation of oxyphenonium. (author)

  11. Dual isotope assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.F.W.; Stevens, R.A.J.; Jacoby, B.

    1980-01-01

    Dual isotope assays for thyroid function are performed by carrying out a radio-immunoassay for two of thyroxine (T4), tri-iodothyronine (T3), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroxine binding globulin (TBG), by a method wherein a version of one of the thyroid components, preferably T4 or T3 is labelled with Selenium-75 and the version of the other thyroid component is labelled with a different radionuclide, preferably Iodine-125. (author)

  12. Immune chromatography: a quantitative radioimmunological assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.W.; Demetriades, M.; Bowen, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Immune chromatography, a radioimmunological binding assay, employs paper chromatography to separate immune complexes from free antigen and antibodies. During chromatography free antigen and antibodies become distributed throughout the paper, while immune complexes remain near the bottoms of the strips. The chromatographic differences can be made quantitative by using either iodinated antigens or antibodies. Under these conditions nanogram quantities of antigen can be detected or antibodies in sera diluted several 1000-fold. The immune chromatography assay can also be performed as an indirect assay, since the paper strips are cut from nitrocellulose paper. In this case the immune components are absorbed by the paper during chromatography. Antigen is then detected with an iodinated second antibody. The indirect immune chromatography assay is particularly useful for identifying different sera that react with the same antigen. Reaction with the first serum before chromatography reduces the amount of antigen available to the second serum following chromatography. In addition to characterizing the immune chromatography procedure, we discuss the possible applications of chromatography assays for the quantitation of other types of molecular binding interactions. (Auth.)

  13. Adequate procedures for specific exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staevie, G.L.G.; Gattringer, D.K.; Dal Mas, C.R.; Tessman, M.

    1996-01-01

    Some ideal procedures for specific radiographic exams are briefly presented. The aim is to improve the quality standard, establishing a specific method for each exam in order to decrease films waste and reduce the patient dose exposure

  14. Screening of antifungal azole drugs and agrochemicals with an adapted alamarBlue-based assay demonstrates antibacterial activity of croconazole against Mycobacterium ulcerans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Nicole; Röltgen, Katharina; Witschel, Matthias; Pluschke, Gerd

    2012-12-01

    An alamarBlue-based growth inhibition assay has been adapted for the thermosensitive and slow-growing pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans. The standardized test procedure enables medium-throughput screening of preselected compound libraries. Testing of a set of 48 azoles with known antifungal activity led to the identification of an imidazole antifungal displaying an inhibitory dose (ID) of 9 μM for M. ulcerans.

  15. Environmental procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The European Bank has pledged in its Agreement to place environmental management at the forefront of its operations to promote sustainable economic development in central and eastern Europe. The Bank's environmental policy is set out in the document titled, Environmental Management: The Bank's Policy Approach. This document, Environmental Procedures, presents the procedures which the European Bank has adopted to implement this policy approach with respect to its operations. The environmental procedures aim to: ensure that throughout the project approval process, those in positions of responsibility for approving projects are aware of the environmental implications of the project, and can take these into account when making decisions; avoid potential liabilities that could undermine the success of a project for its sponsors and the Bank; ensure that environmental costs are estimated along with other costs and liabilities; and identify opportunities for environmental enhancement associated with projects. The review of environmental aspects of projects is conducted by many Bank staff members throughout the project's life. This document defines the responsibilities of the people and groups involved in implementing the environmental procedures. Annexes contain Environmental Management: The Bank's Policy Approach, examples of environmental documentation for the project file and other ancillary information

  16. HBA1c: clinical and biological agreement for standardization of assay methods. Report by the experts of ALFEDIAM (Association de Langue Française pour lEtude du Diabète et des Maladies Métabolique) and SFBC (Société Française de Biologie Clinique).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillery, P; Bordas-Fonfrède, M; Chapelle, J P; Drouin, P; Hue, G; Lévy-Marchal, C; Périer, C; Sélam, J L; Slama, G; Thivolet, C; Vialettes, B

    1999-09-01

    Glycohaemoglobin, and particularly haemoglobin A1c(HbA1c), assays have been used for many years to retrospectively evaluate the glycaemic control of diabetic patients. Cut-off values have been established for deciding treatment modifications. The techniques used in the laboratories however exhibit varying quality, and all of them are not yet standardized. The consequence is an under-utilization of this test, especially in non-hospital practice. In this context, working groups of Société Française de Biologie Clinique (SFBC), Association de Langue Française pour l'Etude du Diabète et des Maladies Métaboliques (ALFEDIAM) and Société Française d'Endocrinologie (SFE) have met together, in order to analyze the national status, and to propose practical recommendations for implementing a standardization process on the basis of international experiences. It is recommended to exclusively express results as HbA1c percentage, using methods standardized and certified by comparison to reference methods such as those using Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) values. Simultaneously, contacts have been established with manufacturers, and the realisation of periodic quality control surveys was encouraged.

  17. Characteristics of Mobile Payment Procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Kreyer, Nina; Pousttchi, Key; Turowski, Klaus

    2002-01-01

    Companies are not going to invest into the development of innovative applications or services unless these can be charged for appropriately. Thus, the existence of standardized and widely accepted mobile payment procedures is crucial for successful business-to-customer mobile commerce. The acceptance of mobile payment procedures depends on costs, security and convenience issues. For the latter, it is important that a procedure can be used over the different payment scenarios mobile commerce, ...

  18. Laparoscopic reversal of Hartmann's procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Peter Olsen; Bulut, Orhan; Jess, Per

    2010-01-01

    of Hartmann's procedure as safely as in open surgery and with a faster recovery, shorter hospital stay and less blood loss despite a longer knife time. It therefore seems reasonable to offer patients a laparoscopic procedure at departments which are skilled in laparoscopic surgery and use it for standard...

  19. Neutralization potential as an assay of alkalinity of environmental solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grube, W.E.Jr.; Ammons, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    The method to determine neutralizing equivalence of agricultural limestone has been applied to quantify the amount of bases present in a broad diversity of mineral materials, solid reagents, and products involved in environmental processes. The capacity to neutralize native or imposed acidity must be known in many processes in order to preserve near-neutral material. The standard method for assaying agricultural limestones was adapted to quantify native alkalinity in calcareous rocks exposed by coal surface mining. Data from these analyses continue to provide the surface mining industry and regulating agencies with a measure of the extent to which acidic mine drainage may be neutralized by the natural components of surrounding rock strata and disturbed materials. This approach to determine base content has also been applied to commercially available industrial byproducts added to soils or wastes. Kiln dust, fly ash, sludge, and other additives have been evaluated routinely to measure their alkalinity contribution and also batch-to-batch uniformity. The application of this technique to monitor amounts of reagents added to neutralize acid waste materials by adding alkalis is discussed. Use of this procedure to evaluate different materials is documented with exemplary data. Results of analyses of a broad variety of rock and soil materials, amended soils, soil additives or amendments, industrial waste byproducts, sludge, and treated wastes are presented. Utility of the procedure for routine quality control in soil treatment, amendment uniformity, and product analysis is discussed

  20. Highly sensitive assay for tyrosine hydroxylase activity by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatsu, T; Oka, K; Kato, T

    1979-07-21

    A highly sensitive assay for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with amperometric detection was devised based on the rapid isolation of enzymatically formed DOPA by a double-column procedure, the columns fitted together sequentially (the top column of Amberlite CG-50 and the bottom column of aluminium oxide). DOPA was adsorbed on the second aluminium oxide column, then eluted with 0.5 M hydrochloric acid, and assayed by HPLC with amperometric detection. D-Tyrosine was used for the control. alpha-Methyldopa was added to the incubation mixture as an internal standard after incubation. This assay was more sensitive than radioassays and 5 pmol of DOPA formed enzymatically could be measured in the presence of saturating concentrations of tyrosine and 6-methyltetrahydropterin. The TH activity in 2 mg of human putamen could be easily measured, and this method was found to be particularly suitable for the assay of TH activity in a small number of nuclei from animal and human brain.