WorldWideScience

Sample records for standard anatomic imaging

  1. Anatomical imaging for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Philip M

    2008-01-01

    The goal of radiation therapy is to achieve maximal therapeutic benefit expressed in terms of a high probability of local control of disease with minimal side effects. Physically this often equates to the delivery of a high dose of radiation to the tumour or target region whilst maintaining an acceptably low dose to other tissues, particularly those adjacent to the target. Techniques such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), stereotactic radiosurgery and computer planned brachytherapy provide the means to calculate the radiation dose delivery to achieve the desired dose distribution. Imaging is an essential tool in all state of the art planning and delivery techniques: (i) to enable planning of the desired treatment, (ii) to verify the treatment is delivered as planned and (iii) to follow-up treatment outcome to monitor that the treatment has had the desired effect. Clinical imaging techniques can be loosely classified into anatomic methods which measure the basic physical characteristics of tissue such as their density and biological imaging techniques which measure functional characteristics such as metabolism. In this review we consider anatomical imaging techniques. Biological imaging is considered in another article. Anatomical imaging is generally used for goals (i) and (ii) above. Computed tomography (CT) has been the mainstay of anatomical treatment planning for many years, enabling some delineation of soft tissue as well as radiation attenuation estimation for dose prediction. Magnetic resonance imaging is fast becoming widespread alongside CT, enabling superior soft-tissue visualization. Traditionally scanning for treatment planning has relied on the use of a single snapshot scan. Recent years have seen the development of techniques such as 4D CT and adaptive radiotherapy (ART). In 4D CT raw data are encoded with phase information and reconstructed to yield a set of scans detailing motion through the breathing, or cardiac, cycle. In ART a set of

  2. Recent advances in standards for collaborative Digital Anatomic Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Context Collaborative Digital Anatomic Pathology refers to the use of information technology that supports the creation and sharing or exchange of information, including data and images, during the complex workflow performed in an Anatomic Pathology department from specimen reception to report transmission and exploitation. Collaborative Digital Anatomic Pathology can only be fully achieved using medical informatics standards. The goal of the international integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) initiative is precisely specifying how medical informatics standards should be implemented to meet specific health care needs and making systems integration more efficient and less expensive. Objective To define the best use of medical informatics standards in order to share and exchange machine-readable structured reports and their evidences (including whole slide images) within hospitals and across healthcare facilities. Methods Specific working groups dedicated to Anatomy Pathology within multiple standards organizations defined standard-based data structures for Anatomic Pathology reports and images as well as informatic transactions in order to integrate Anatomic Pathology information into the electronic healthcare enterprise. Results The DICOM supplements 122 and 145 provide flexible object information definitions dedicated respectively to specimen description and Whole Slide Image acquisition, storage and display. The content profile “Anatomic Pathology Structured Report” (APSR) provides standard templates for structured reports in which textual observations may be bound to digital images or regions of interest. Anatomic Pathology observations are encoded using an international controlled vocabulary defined by the IHE Anatomic Pathology domain that is currently being mapped to SNOMED CT concepts. Conclusion Recent advances in standards for Collaborative Digital Anatomic Pathology are a unique opportunity to share or exchange Anatomic Pathology structured

  3. TOPICAL REVIEW: Anatomical imaging for radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Philip M.

    2008-06-01

    The goal of radiation therapy is to achieve maximal therapeutic benefit expressed in terms of a high probability of local control of disease with minimal side effects. Physically this often equates to the delivery of a high dose of radiation to the tumour or target region whilst maintaining an acceptably low dose to other tissues, particularly those adjacent to the target. Techniques such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), stereotactic radiosurgery and computer planned brachytherapy provide the means to calculate the radiation dose delivery to achieve the desired dose distribution. Imaging is an essential tool in all state of the art planning and delivery techniques: (i) to enable planning of the desired treatment, (ii) to verify the treatment is delivered as planned and (iii) to follow-up treatment outcome to monitor that the treatment has had the desired effect. Clinical imaging techniques can be loosely classified into anatomic methods which measure the basic physical characteristics of tissue such as their density and biological imaging techniques which measure functional characteristics such as metabolism. In this review we consider anatomical imaging techniques. Biological imaging is considered in another article. Anatomical imaging is generally used for goals (i) and (ii) above. Computed tomography (CT) has been the mainstay of anatomical treatment planning for many years, enabling some delineation of soft tissue as well as radiation attenuation estimation for dose prediction. Magnetic resonance imaging is fast becoming widespread alongside CT, enabling superior soft-tissue visualization. Traditionally scanning for treatment planning has relied on the use of a single snapshot scan. Recent years have seen the development of techniques such as 4D CT and adaptive radiotherapy (ART). In 4D CT raw data are encoded with phase information and reconstructed to yield a set of scans detailing motion through the breathing, or cardiac, cycle. In ART a set of

  4. Internuclear ophthalmoplegia: MR imaging and anatomic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atlas, S.W.; Grossman, R.I.; Savino, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    Internuclear ophthalmoplegia is a gaze disorder characterized by impaired adduction of the side of a lesion in the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) with dissociated nystagmus of the abducting eye. Eleven patients with internuclear ophthalmoplegia (nine with multiple sclerosis, two with infarction) were examined with spin-echo MR imaging performed at 1.5 T. Nine of the 11 patients also underwent CT. MR imaging was highly sensitive (10 of 11 cases) and CT was of no value (0 of 9 cases) in detecting clinically suspected MLF lesions. These lesions must be distinguished from ''pseudo-MLF hyperintensity,'' which appears as a thin, strictly midline, linear hyperintensity just interior to the fourth ventricle and aqueduct in healthy subjects. True MLF lesions are nodular, more prominent, and slightly off the midline, corresponding to the paramedian anatomic site of the MLF

  5. A Methodology for Anatomic Ultrasound Image Diagnostic Quality Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lange, Theis; Brandt, Andreas Hjelm

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses methods for assessment of ultrasound image quality based on our experiences with evaluating new methods for anatomic imaging. It presents a methodology to ensure a fair assessment between competing imaging methods using clinically relevant evaluations. The methodology...... to properly reveal the clinical value. The paper exemplifies the methodology using recent studies of Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming tissue harmonic imaging....

  6. Anatomical and microstructural imaging of angiogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiessling, Fabian [University of Aachen (RWTH), Experimental Molecular Imaging, Aachen (Germany); Razansky, Daniel [Technical University of Munich and Helmholtz Center Munich, Institute for Biological and Medical Imaging, Munich (Germany); Alves, Frauke [University Medical Center, Department of Haematology and Oncology, Goettingen (Germany); Max-Planck-Institute for Experimental Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology of Neuronal Signals, Goettingen (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    This article reviews and discusses different options for visualizing the microarchitecture of vessels ex vivo and in vivo with respect to reliability, practicability and availability. The investigation of angiogenesis by standard histological methods, like microvessel density counts, is limited since the three-dimensional (3-D) architecture and the functionality of vessels cannot be considered properly. Coregistration of immunostained images of vessels may be performed but is time consuming and often not sufficiently accurate. Confocal fluorescence microscopy is an alternative, but only enables 3-D stacks of less than 500 nm in thickness. Multiphoton microscopy and other advanced technologies, such as optical coherence tomography and optical frequency domain imaging, provide a deeper view into tissues and allow for in vivo imaging of microvessels, which is a precondition for longitudinal studies. Besides these microscopic techniques, the vascularization in larger tissue samples can be investigated using corrosion casts in combination with scanning electron microscopy, or microcomputed tomography ({mu}CT). Furthermore, recent improvements in {mu}CT technology open up new perspectives for in vivo scans with high resolution and tolerable X-ray doses. Also 3-D contrast-enhanced high-frequency ultrasound has been shown to be sensitive for angiogenic vessels and even distinguishing between mature and immature vessels appears feasible. Microvessel architecture can also be visualized by MRI. Here, T1-weighted angiography techniques after injection of blood pool contrast agents appear preferable. Optoacoustic tomographic imaging has more recently shown promise for high-resolution in vivo mapping of the microvasculature in rodents using intrinsic haemoglobin-based contrast and exogenous contrast agents. (orig.)

  7. Computed-tomography-guided anatomic standardization for quantitative assessment of dopamine transporter SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Kota [National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Integrative Brain Imaging Center, Tokyo (Japan); Imabayashi, Etsuko; Matsuda, Hiroshi [National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Integrative Brain Imaging Center, Tokyo (Japan); Sumida, Kaoru; Sone, Daichi; Kimura, Yukio; Sato, Noriko [National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Mukai, Youhei; Murata, Miho [National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Department of Neurology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    For the quantitative assessment of dopamine transporter (DAT) using [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) (DaTscan), anatomic standardization is preferable for achieving objective and user-independent quantification of striatal binding using a volume-of-interest (VOI) template. However, low accumulation of DAT in Parkinson's disease (PD) would lead to a deformation error when using a DaTscan-specific template without any structural information. To avoid this deformation error, we applied computed tomography (CT) data obtained using SPECT/CT equipment to anatomic standardization. We retrospectively analyzed DaTscan images of 130 patients with parkinsonian syndromes (PS), including 80 PD and 50 non-PD patients. First we segmented gray matter from CT images using statistical parametric mapping 12 (SPM12). These gray-matter images were then anatomically standardized using the diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) algorithm. Next, DaTscan images were warped with the same parameters used in the CT anatomic standardization. The target striatal VOIs for decreased DAT in PD were generated from the SPM12 group comparison of 20 DaTscan images from each group. We applied these VOIs to DaTscan images of the remaining patients in both groups and calculated the specific binding ratios (SBRs) using nonspecific counts in a reference area. In terms of the differential diagnosis of PD and non-PD groups using SBR, we compared the present method with two other methods, DaTQUANT and DaTView, which have already been released as software programs for the quantitative assessment of DaTscan images. The SPM12 group comparison showed a significant DAT decrease in PD patients in the bilateral whole striatum. Of the three methods assessed, the present CT-guided method showed the greatest power for discriminating PD and non-PD groups, as it completely separated the two groups. CT-guided anatomic standardization using

  8. Generation of anatomically realistic numerical phantoms for optoacoustic breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yang; Mitsuhashi, Kenji; Appleton, Catherine M.; Oraevsky, Alexander; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2016-03-01

    Because optoacoustic tomography (OAT) can provide functional information based on hemoglobin contrast, it is a promising imaging modality for breast cancer diagnosis. Developing an effective OAT breast imaging system requires balancing multiple design constraints, which can be expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, computer- simulation studies are often conducted to facilitate this task. However, most existing computer-simulation studies of OAT breast imaging employ simple phantoms such as spheres or cylinders that over-simplify the complex anatomical structures in breasts, thus limiting the value of these studies in guiding real-world system design. In this work, we propose a method to generate realistic numerical breast phantoms for OAT research based on clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. The phantoms include a skin layer that defines breast-air boundary, major vessel branches that affect light absorption in the breast, and fatty tissue and fibroglandular tissue whose acoustical heterogeneity perturbs acoustic wave propagation. By assigning realistic optical and acoustic parameters to different tissue types, we establish both optic and acoustic breast phantoms, which will be exported into standard data formats for cross-platform usage.

  9. Standardization of SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishio, Kouji

    1989-01-01

    Though the use of instruments for SPECT imaging is prevailing, the SPECT images from the several instruments appears many differences in quality respectively. For the purpose of studying the cause of different image quality between several instruments, SPECT images of the same phantom were acquired and processed using 6 instruments in 5 institutes to compare. Up to now the quality of SPECT images was foundamentally dependent on the hardware, but factors of software, such as reconstruction algorithms and determinations of severl parameters seemed to have more important effect upon the image quality. The adoption of appropriate processing method after minimizing the imaging deterioration due to the hardware would make the difference of image quality minimum, and could make the standardization of SPECT imaging possible. (author)

  10. From medical imaging data to 3D printed anatomical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bücking, Thore M; Hill, Emma R; Robertson, James L; Maneas, Efthymios; Plumb, Andrew A; Nikitichev, Daniil I

    2017-01-01

    Anatomical models are important training and teaching tools in the clinical environment and are routinely used in medical imaging research. Advances in segmentation algorithms and increased availability of three-dimensional (3D) printers have made it possible to create cost-efficient patient-specific models without expert knowledge. We introduce a general workflow that can be used to convert volumetric medical imaging data (as generated by Computer Tomography (CT)) to 3D printed physical models. This process is broken up into three steps: image segmentation, mesh refinement and 3D printing. To lower the barrier to entry and provide the best options when aiming to 3D print an anatomical model from medical images, we provide an overview of relevant free and open-source image segmentation tools as well as 3D printing technologies. We demonstrate the utility of this streamlined workflow by creating models of ribs, liver, and lung using a Fused Deposition Modelling 3D printer.

  11. Anatomical and magnetic resonance imaging study of the medial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sally Mahmood Mohamed Hussin Omar

    2015-07-10

    Jul 10, 2015 ... Anatomical and magnetic resonance imaging study of the medial collateral ligament of the ankle joint. Sally Mahmood Mohamed Hussin Omar a. , Fardos Ahmed El-Kalaa a. ,. El Sebai Farag Ali b. , Ali Ali Abd El-Karim c. , Nancy Mohamed El Sekily d,. * a Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of ...

  12. Anatomically standardized statistical mapping of 123I-IMP SPECT in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Yasushi; Akimoto, Manabu; Matsushita, Akira; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Takano, Shingo; Matsumura, Akira

    2010-01-01

    123 I-iodoamphetamine Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (IMP SPECT) is used to evaluate cerebral blood flow. However, application of IMP SPECT to patients with brain tumors has been rarely reported. Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare tumor that shows delayed IMP uptake. The relatively low spatial resolution of SPECT is a clinical problem in diagnosing brain tumors. We examined anatomically standardized statistical mapping of IMP SPECT in patients with brain lesions. This study included 49 IMP SPECT images for 49 patients with brain lesions: 20 PCNSL, 1 Burkitt's lymphoma, 14 glioma, 4 other tumor, 7 inflammatory disease and 3 without any pathological diagnosis but a clinical diagnosis of PCNSL. After intravenous injection of 222 MBq of 123 I-IMP, early (15 minutes) and delayed (4 hours) images were acquired using a multi-detector SPECT machine. All SPECT data were transferred to a newly developed software program iNeurostat+ (Nihon Medi-physics). SPECT data were anatomically standardized on normal brain images. Regions of increased uptake of IMP were statistically mapped on the tomographic images of normal brain. Eighteen patients showed high uptake in the delayed IMP SPECT images (16 PCNSL, 2 unknown). Other tumor or diseases did not show high uptake of delayed IMP SPECT, so there were no false positives. Four patients with pathologically proven PCNSL showed no uptake in original IMP SPECT. These tumors were too small to detect in IMP SPECT. However, statistical mapping revealed IMP uptake in 18 of 20 pathologically verified PCNSL patients. A heterogeneous IMP uptake was seen in homogenous tumors in MRI. For patients with a hot IMP uptake, statistical mapping showed clearer uptake. IMP SPECT is a sensitive test to diagnose of PCNSL, although it produced false negative results for small posterior fossa tumor. Anatomically standardized statistical mapping is therefore considered to be a useful method for improving the diagnostic

  13. Imaging of hand injuries. Anatomic and radiodiagnostic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    Imaging recommendations for assessing injuries of the forearm, wrist, metacarpus and the digits are given with respect to anatomic considerations. Furthermore, dedicated algorithms of advanced imaging are introduced with radiography as the primary diagnostic tool. High-resolution CT is used for detecting and staging the complex fractures of the radius and the wrist, whereas contrast-enhanced MRI serves for depicting the injured soft tissues. At the wrist, tears of the intrinsic ligaments and the TFCC are assessed with high accuracy when applying MR arthrography or CT arthrography. Dedicated radiologic tools as well as comprehensive reports are suggested in the management of the various hand injuries. (orig.)

  14. From medical imaging data to 3D printed anatomical models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thore M Bücking

    Full Text Available Anatomical models are important training and teaching tools in the clinical environment and are routinely used in medical imaging research. Advances in segmentation algorithms and increased availability of three-dimensional (3D printers have made it possible to create cost-efficient patient-specific models without expert knowledge. We introduce a general workflow that can be used to convert volumetric medical imaging data (as generated by Computer Tomography (CT to 3D printed physical models. This process is broken up into three steps: image segmentation, mesh refinement and 3D printing. To lower the barrier to entry and provide the best options when aiming to 3D print an anatomical model from medical images, we provide an overview of relevant free and open-source image segmentation tools as well as 3D printing technologies. We demonstrate the utility of this streamlined workflow by creating models of ribs, liver, and lung using a Fused Deposition Modelling 3D printer.

  15. CAVEman: Standardized Anatomical Context for Biomedical Data Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turinsky, Andrei L.; Fanea, Elena; Trinh, Quang; Wat, Stephen; Hallgrimsson, Benedikt; Dong, Xiaoli; Shu, Xueling; Stromer, Julie N.; Hill, Jonathan W.; Edwards, Carol; Grosenick, Brenda; Yajima, Masumi; Sensen, Christoph W.

    2008-01-01

    The authors have created a software system called the CAVEman, for the visual integration and exploration of heterogeneous anatomical and biomedical data. The CAVEman can be applied for both education and research tasks. The main component of the system is a three-dimensional digital atlas of the adult male human anatomy, structured according to…

  16. Standard Anatomic Terminologies: Comparison for Use in a Health Information Exchange–Based Prior Computed Tomography (CT) Alerting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Tina; Vreeman, Daniel J; Loo, George T; Delman, Bradley N; Thum, Frederick L; Slovis, Benjamin H; Shapiro, Jason S

    2017-01-01

    Background A health information exchange (HIE)–based prior computed tomography (CT) alerting system may reduce avoidable CT imaging by notifying ordering clinicians of prior relevant studies when a study is ordered. For maximal effectiveness, a system would alert not only for prior same CTs (exams mapped to the same code from an exam name terminology) but also for similar CTs (exams mapped to different exam name terminology codes but in the same anatomic region) and anatomically proximate CTs (exams in adjacent anatomic regions). Notification of previous same studies across an HIE requires mapping of local site CT codes to a standard terminology for exam names (such as Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes [LOINC]) to show that two studies with different local codes and descriptions are equivalent. Notifying of prior similar or proximate CTs requires an additional mapping of exam codes to anatomic regions, ideally coded by an anatomic terminology. Several anatomic terminologies exist, but no prior studies have evaluated how well they would support an alerting use case. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the fitness of five existing standard anatomic terminologies to support similar or proximate alerts of an HIE-based prior CT alerting system. Methods We compared five standard anatomic terminologies (Foundational Model of Anatomy, Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms, RadLex, LOINC, and LOINC/Radiological Society of North America [RSNA] Radiology Playbook) to an anatomic framework created specifically for our use case (Simple ANatomic Ontology for Proximity or Similarity [SANOPS]), to determine whether the existing terminologies could support our use case without modification. On the basis of an assessment of optimal terminology features for our purpose, we developed an ordinal anatomic terminology utility classification. We mapped samples of 100 random and the 100 most frequent LOINC CT codes to anatomic regions in each

  17. Anatomical brain images alone can accurately diagnose chronic neuropsychiatric illnesses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Bansal

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Diagnoses using imaging-based measures alone offer the hope of improving the accuracy of clinical diagnosis, thereby reducing the costs associated with incorrect treatments. Previous attempts to use brain imaging for diagnosis, however, have had only limited success in diagnosing patients who are independent of the samples used to derive the diagnostic algorithms. We aimed to develop a classification algorithm that can accurately diagnose chronic, well-characterized neuropsychiatric illness in single individuals, given the availability of sufficiently precise delineations of brain regions across several neural systems in anatomical MR images of the brain. METHODS: We have developed an automated method to diagnose individuals as having one of various neuropsychiatric illnesses using only anatomical MRI scans. The method employs a semi-supervised learning algorithm that discovers natural groupings of brains based on the spatial patterns of variation in the morphology of the cerebral cortex and other brain regions. We used split-half and leave-one-out cross-validation analyses in large MRI datasets to assess the reproducibility and diagnostic accuracy of those groupings. RESULTS: In MRI datasets from persons with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Schizophrenia, Tourette Syndrome, Bipolar Disorder, or persons at high or low familial risk for Major Depressive Disorder, our method discriminated with high specificity and nearly perfect sensitivity the brains of persons who had one specific neuropsychiatric disorder from the brains of healthy participants and the brains of persons who had a different neuropsychiatric disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Although the classification algorithm presupposes the availability of precisely delineated brain regions, our findings suggest that patterns of morphological variation across brain surfaces, extracted from MRI scans alone, can successfully diagnose the presence of chronic neuropsychiatric disorders

  18. Image-anatomic research of the alar ligament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Caixian; Liu Jun; Jin Ying; Wang Jian; Zhong Jin; Wang Jinyue; Zhu Miao; Cheng Jinbao

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To detect position and morphous as well as coursing of the alar ligament, and to further investigate the sectional anatomy and CT and MRI imaging of the alar ligament. Methods: Twelve formalin fixed specimens including head and neck utilized, three of the twelve were observed in gross anatomy, nine of them were dissectioned. Fifty- one healthy volunteers from each group were selected to perform CT and MRI examination respectively. By combining gross and sectional anatomy. CT and MRI manifestations of the alar ligament were analyzed, the alar ligament width was measured. Results: Location and shape, as well as coursing of the alar ligament could be demonstrated clearly in gross and sectional anatomy. The transverse plane across the upper dens and the coronal plane by the middle dens were the optimal planes for demonstrating the alar ligament. The display ratio of the alar ligament was even 100% (51/51) in both images of CT and MRI. MRI had better advantages than CT in respect of demonstrating the alar ligament, PDWI (proton density weighted imaging, PDWI) is the most optimal sequence for the alar ligament. There were no significant differences of the alar ligament width between male and female and between the right and the left side (P>0.05). Conclusion: In combination with gross and sectional anatomy. CT and MRI could both provide an imageo-anatomic basis for diagnosis of the alar ligament trauma and malformation as well as infection. (authors)

  19. New semiquantitative assessment of 123I-FP-CIT by an anatomical standardization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Seiko; Yoshimura, Mana; Shindo, Hiroaki; Saito, Kazuhiro; Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Utsumi, Hiroya; Abe, Kimihiko

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated a new semiquantitative procedure to more easily and objectively estimate the striatal uptake of 123 I-FP-CIT in patients with Parkinsonian syndrome (PS) and essential tremor (ET), using an anatomical standardization method, the Neurostat. Eleven patients with PS and 8 with ET were examined by clinical assessment and 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT imaging. The modified Hoehn and Yahr Staging Scale and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) were used to assess the stage and severity of the disease. The co-registered MR and SPECT images were created with fusion software included in Neurostat. On the cross section, which shows the largest area of striate, irregular shaped regions of interest corresponding to the striate and occipital cortex were drawn. Then the ratio of specific striatal uptake to non-specific occipital cortex, V3''(F), was calculated. Another calculation was done by VOIClassic, which is a software included in Neurostat to estimate the counts per voxel of anatomically defined regions such as caudate nucleus, putamen, occipital cortex, and total cortex. Using these count data, the ratio of specific striatal uptake to non-specific occipital cortex, V3''(OC), and total cortex, V3''(TC), was calculated. A fair linear correlation was observed between V3''(OC) and V3''(F) (y=1.53x+1.40; r=0.756; p s =-0.816). However, V3''(OC) and V3''(TC) correlated less with UPDRS (r s =-0.667 and -0.645, respectively). Semiquantitative parameters, V3''(OC) and V3''(TC), calculated by VOIClassic including the Neurostat system are useful and easily calculable parameters as well as V3''(F) for the differential diagnosis of PS from ET. (author)

  20. Parametric spherical deconvolution: inferring anatomical connectivity using diffusion MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaden, Enrico; Knösche, Thomas R; Anwander, Alfred

    2007-08-15

    The human brain forms a complex neural network with a connectional architecture that is still far from being known in full detail, even at the macroscopic level. The advent of diffusion MR imaging has enabled the exploration of the structural properties of white matter in vivo. In this article we propose a new forward model that maps the microscopic geometry of nervous tissue onto the water diffusion process and further onto the measured MR signals. Our spherical deconvolution approach completely parameterizes the fiber orientation density by a finite mixture of Bingham distributions. In addition, we define the term anatomical connectivity, taking the underlying image modality into account. This neurophysiological metric may represent the proportion of the nerve fibers originating in the source area which intersect a given target region. The specified inverse problem is solved by Bayesian statistics. Posterior probability maps denote the probability that the connectivity value exceeds a chosen threshold, conditional upon the noisy observations. These maps allow us to draw inferences about the structural organization of the cerebral cortex. Moreover, we will demonstrate the proposed approach with diffusion-weighted data sets featuring high angular resolution.

  1. Deformable meshes for medical image segmentation accurate automatic segmentation of anatomical structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kainmueller, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    ? Segmentation of anatomical structures in medical image data is an essential task in clinical practice. Dagmar Kainmueller introduces methods for accurate fully automatic segmentation of anatomical structures in 3D medical image data. The author's core methodological contribution is a novel deformation model that overcomes limitations of state-of-the-art Deformable Surface approaches, hence allowing for accurate segmentation of tip- and ridge-shaped features of anatomical structures. As for practical contributions, she proposes application-specific segmentation pipelines for a range of anatom

  2. Database guided detection of anatomical landmark points in 3D images of the heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavides, Thomas; Esther Leung, K. Y.; Paclik, Pavel; Hendriks, Emile A.; Bosch, Johan G.

    2010-03-01

    Automated landmark detection may prove invaluable in the analysis of real-time three-dimensional (3D) echocardiograms. By detecting 3D anatomical landmark points, the standard anatomical views can be extracted automatically in apically acquired 3D ultrasound images of the left ventricle, for better standardization of visualization and objective diagnosis. Furthermore, the landmarks can serve as an initialization for other analysis methods, such as segmentation. The described algorithm applies landmark detection in perpendicular planes of the 3D dataset. The landmark detection exploits a large database of expert annotated images, using an extensive set of Haar features for fast classification. The detection is performed using two cascades of Adaboost classifiers in a coarse to fine scheme. The method is evaluated by measuring the distance of detected and manually indicated landmark points in 25 patients. The method can detect landmarks accurately in the four-chamber (apex: 7.9+/-7.1mm, septal mitral valve point: 5.6+/-2.7mm lateral mitral valve point: 4.0+/-2.6mm) and two-chamber view (apex: 7.1+/-6.7mm, anterior mitral valve point: 5.8+/-3.5mm, inferior mitral valve point: 4.5+/-3.1mm). The results compare well to those reported by others.

  3. Anatomic Variations of the Paranasal Sinuses on CT Scan Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR. Talaiepour

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Variation in paranasal sinus anatomy as shown on computed tomographic scans is of potential significance for it may pose risks during surgery or predispose to certain pathologic conditions.Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the relative frequency and concurrence of variations in paranasal sinus anatomy in a given population and to compare the results with previous investigations conducted on different populations.Materials and Methods: All patients over 16 years of age referred to Valiasr hospital,Tehran, Iran, with paranasal sinus tomographic scans and a clinical diagnosis of chronic sinusitis were considered for this study. After excluding those with altered anatomy(iatrogenic or pathologic, scans of unaltered patients were meticulously analyzed for variations in sinus anatomy. Findings were recorded on the patient’s data sheet. The distance between the maxillary sinus floor and the alveolar ridge at the level of the 1stmolar was recorded. All findings were analyzed, and tested with Chi square, where applicable.Results: Overall 143 patients were analyzed (48.3% male and 51.7% female. The frequency of major sinus variations was: Agger nasi cell in 56.7%, Haller cell in 3.5%,Onodi cell in 7%, nasal septal deviation in 63%, Concha bullosa in 35%, and dental anomalies in 4.9% of the studied cases. The distance between the upper alveolar ridge and maxillary sinus floor was 0-30mm (mean 12.16 on the right, and 0-52mm (mean 12.20 on the left.Conclusion: The frequency of anatomic variations in sinus anatomy may be related to race and heredity. A lower number of cases in addition to the use of low yield imaging may explain the discrepancies observed between our results and other investigations.The findings of the present study were based on computed tomography.

  4. An analysis of knee anatomic imaging factors associated with primary lateral patellar dislocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Elizabeth A; England, Kristin; Agel, Julie; Tompkins, Marc A

    2017-10-01

    Various knee anatomic imaging factors have been historically associated with lateral patellar dislocation. The characterization of these anatomic factors in a primary lateral patellar dislocation population has not been well described. Our purpose was to characterize the spectrum of anatomic factors from slice imaging measurements specific to a population of primary lateral patellar dislocation. A secondary purpose was to stratify these data by sex/skeletal maturity to better detail potential dimorphic characteristics. Patients with a history of primary lateral patellar dislocation between 2008 and 2012 were prospectively identified. Ten MRI measurements were analysed with results stratified by sex/skeletal maturity. A '4-factor' analysis was performed to detail the number of 'excessive' anatomic factors within a single individual. This study involved 157 knees (79 M/78 F), and 107 patients were skeletally mature. The measurements demonstrate more anatomic risk factors in this population than historical controls. Patella height and trochlear measurements are the most common 'dysplastic' anatomic factors in this population. There were differences based on sex for some patellar height measurements and for TT-TG; there were no differences based on skeletal maturity. Primary lateral patellar dislocation patients have MRI measurements of knee anatomic factors that are generally more dysplastic than the normal population; however, there is a broad spectrum of anatomic features with no pattern predominating. Characterizing knee anatomic imaging factors in the patient with a primary lateral patellar dislocation is a necessary first step in characterizing the (potential) differences between the primary and recurrent patellar dislocation patient. IV.

  5. Intersection syndrome: MR imaging with anatomic comparison of the distal forearm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Jose E. de; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Albertotti, Flavio; Resnick, Donald

    2004-01-01

    To correlate the anatomic and MR imaging characteristics of the area of intersection of the first and the second dorsal extensor tendon compartments (DETC) in the distal forearm in an attempt to improve the design of MR imaging protocols used for the evaluation of intersection syndrome. Ten forearms of nine cadavers underwent MR imaging in the axial and sagittal-oblique planes before and after tenography with direct injection of a gadolinium-containing contrast agent into the first DETC in four forearms, the second DETC in four forearms, and both compartments in the remaining two forearms. The area of intersection between the first and second DETC was identified in each case as well as its distance from Lister's tubercle. Subsequently all forearms were sectioned in the axial (8 forearms) or sagittal-oblique planes (2 remaining forearms) to parallel the imaging planes. Detailed examination of each of the anatomic slices was performed in a search for anatomic variations and for possible anatomic connections of the tendons sheaths. One forearm was dissected to identify the area of intersection. The area of intersection between the first and second DETC occurred between 3.5 cm and 4.8 cm (mean 4.18 cm) proximal to Lister's tubercle. After tenography, gadolinium solution was noted in the third DETC in two of four specimens in which the second DETC was injected and in one of two specimens in which both the first and second DETC were injected. Extension of the gadolinium solution between the first and second DETC was noted during isolated injections of either compartment, although this finding may have related to iatrogenic injection effects. The axial plane was the most valuable for assessment of the area of intersection of the first and second DETC. MR imaging is a noninvasive method that can be used for the evaluation of distal forearm and wrist pain. Standard wrist protocols do not include the area of intersection between the first and second DETC and, in those cases

  6. Intersection syndrome: MR imaging with anatomic comparison of the distal forearm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Jose E. de; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Albertotti, Flavio; Resnick, Donald [University of California, San Diego, VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego (United States)

    2004-11-01

    To correlate the anatomic and MR imaging characteristics of the area of intersection of the first and the second dorsal extensor tendon compartments (DETC) in the distal forearm in an attempt to improve the design of MR imaging protocols used for the evaluation of intersection syndrome. Ten forearms of nine cadavers underwent MR imaging in the axial and sagittal-oblique planes before and after tenography with direct injection of a gadolinium-containing contrast agent into the first DETC in four forearms, the second DETC in four forearms, and both compartments in the remaining two forearms. The area of intersection between the first and second DETC was identified in each case as well as its distance from Lister's tubercle. Subsequently all forearms were sectioned in the axial (8 forearms) or sagittal-oblique planes (2 remaining forearms) to parallel the imaging planes. Detailed examination of each of the anatomic slices was performed in a search for anatomic variations and for possible anatomic connections of the tendons sheaths. One forearm was dissected to identify the area of intersection. The area of intersection between the first and second DETC occurred between 3.5 cm and 4.8 cm (mean 4.18 cm) proximal to Lister's tubercle. After tenography, gadolinium solution was noted in the third DETC in two of four specimens in which the second DETC was injected and in one of two specimens in which both the first and second DETC were injected. Extension of the gadolinium solution between the first and second DETC was noted during isolated injections of either compartment, although this finding may have related to iatrogenic injection effects. The axial plane was the most valuable for assessment of the area of intersection of the first and second DETC. MR imaging is a noninvasive method that can be used for the evaluation of distal forearm and wrist pain. Standard wrist protocols do not include the area of intersection between the first and second DETC and, in

  7. Preliminary study of automatic detection method for anatomical landmarks in body trunk CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Mitsutaka; Nomura, Yukihiro; Masutani, Yoshitaka; Yoshikawa, Takeharu; Hayashi, Naoto; Yoshioka, Naoki; Ohtomo, Kuni; Hanaoka, Shouhei

    2010-01-01

    In the research field of medical image processing and analysis, it is important to develop medical image understanding methods which are robust for individual and case differences, since they often interfere with accurate medical image processing and analysis. Location of anatomical landmarks, which are localized regions with anatomical reference to the human body, allows for robust medical understanding since the relative position of anatomical landmarks is basically the same among cases. This is a preliminary study for detecting anatomical point landmarks by using a technique of local area model matching. The model for matching process, which is called appearance model, shows the spatial appearance of voxel values at the detection target landmark and its surrounding region, while the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used to train appearance models. In this study, we experimentally investigate the optimal appearance model for landmark detection and analyze detection accuracy of anatomical point landmarks. (author)

  8. Image Restoration Using Functional and Anatomical Information Fusion with Application to SPECT-MRI Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Benameur

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Image restoration is usually viewed as an ill-posed problem in image processing, since there is no unique solution associated with it. The quality of restored image closely depends on the constraints imposed of the characteristics of the solution. In this paper, we propose an original extension of the NAS-RIF restoration technique by using information fusion as prior information with application in SPECT medical imaging. That extension allows the restoration process to be constrained by efficiently incorporating, within the NAS-RIF method, a regularization term which stabilizes the inverse solution. Our restoration method is constrained by anatomical information extracted from a high resolution anatomical procedure such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. This structural anatomy-based regularization term uses the result of an unsupervised Markovian segmentation obtained after a preliminary registration step between the MRI and SPECT data volumes from each patient. This method was successfully tested on 30 pairs of brain MRI and SPECT acquisitions from different subjects and on Hoffman and Jaszczak SPECT phantoms. The experiments demonstrated that the method performs better, in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, than a classical supervised restoration approach using a Metz filter.

  9. Marginal space learning for medical image analysis efficient detection and segmentation of anatomical structures

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Yefeng

    2014-01-01

    Presents an award winning image analysis technology (Thomas Edison Patent Award, MICCAI Young Investigator Award) that achieves object detection and segmentation with state-of-the-art accuracy and efficiency Flexible, machine learning-based framework, applicable across multiple anatomical structures and imaging modalities Thirty five clinical applications on detecting and segmenting anatomical structures such as heart chambers and valves, blood vessels, liver, kidney, prostate, lymph nodes, and sub-cortical brain structures, in CT, MRI, X-Ray and Ultrasound.

  10. Network, anatomical, and non-imaging measures for the prediction of ADHD diagnosis in individual subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W Bohland

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain imaging methods have long held promise as diagnostic aids for neuropsychiatric conditions with complex behavioral phenotypes such as Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. This promise has largely been unrealized, at least partly due to the heterogeneity of clinical populations and the small sample size of many studies. A large, multi-center dataset provided by the ADHD-200 Consortium affords new opportunities to test methods for individual diagnosis based on MRI-observable structural brain attributes and functional interactions observable from resting state fMRI. In this study, we systematically calculated a large set of standard and new quantitative markers from individual subject datasets. These features (>12,000 per subject consisted of local anatomical attributes such as cortical thickness and structure volumes and both local and global resting state network measures. Three methods were used to compute graphs representing interdependencies between activations in different brain areas, and a full set of network features was derived from each. Of these, features derived from the inverse of the time series covariance matrix, under an L1-norm regularization penalty, proved most powerful. Anatomical and network feature sets were used individually, and combined with non-imaging phenotypic features from each subject. Machine learning algorithms were used to rank attributes, and performance was assessed under cross-validation and on a separate test set of 168 subjects for a variety of feature set combinations. While non-imaging features gave highest performance in cross-validation, the addition of imaging features in sufficient numbers led to improved generalization to new data. Stratification by gender also proved to be a fruitful strategy to improve classifier performance. We describe the overall approach used, compare the predictive power of different classes of features, and describe the most impactful features in relation to the

  11. Quantum noise properties of CT images with anatomical textured backgrounds across reconstruction algorithms: FBP and SAFIRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, Justin; Samei, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Quantum noise properties of CT images are generally assessed using simple geometric phantoms with uniform backgrounds. Such phantoms may be inadequate when assessing nonlinear reconstruction or postprocessing algorithms. The purpose of this study was to design anatomically informed textured phantoms and use the phantoms to assess quantum noise properties across two clinically available reconstruction algorithms, filtered back projection (FBP) and sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE). Methods: Two phantoms were designed to represent lung and soft-tissue textures. The lung phantom included intricate vessel-like structures along with embedded nodules (spherical, lobulated, and spiculated). The soft tissue phantom was designed based on a three-dimensional clustered lumpy background with included low-contrast lesions (spherical and anthropomorphic). The phantoms were built using rapid prototyping (3D printing) technology and, along with a uniform phantom of similar size, were imaged on a Siemens SOMATOM Definition Flash CT scanner and reconstructed with FBP and SAFIRE. Fifty repeated acquisitions were acquired for each background type and noise was assessed by estimating pixel-value statistics, such as standard deviation (i.e., noise magnitude), autocorrelation, and noise power spectrum. Noise stationarity was also assessed by examining the spatial distribution of noise magnitude. The noise properties were compared across background types and between the two reconstruction algorithms. Results: In FBP and SAFIRE images, noise was globally nonstationary for all phantoms. In FBP images of all phantoms, and in SAFIRE images of the uniform phantom, noise appeared to be locally stationary (within a reasonably small region of interest). Noise was locally nonstationary in SAFIRE images of the textured phantoms with edge pixels showing higher noise magnitude compared to pixels in more homogenous regions. For pixels in uniform regions, noise magnitude was

  12. Methods for processing and analysis functional and anatomical brain images: computerized tomography, emission tomography and nuclear resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazoyer, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    The various methods for brain image processing and analysis are presented and compared. The following topics are developed: the physical basis of brain image comparison (nature and formation of signals intrinsic performance of the methods image characteristics); mathematical methods for image processing and analysis (filtering, functional parameter extraction, morphological analysis, robotics and artificial intelligence); methods for anatomical localization (neuro-anatomy atlas, proportional stereotaxic atlas, numerized atlas); methodology of cerebral image superposition (normalization, retiming); image networks [fr

  13. X-ray volumetric imaging in image-guided radiotherapy: The new standard in on-treatment imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBain, Catherine A.; Henry, Ann M.; Sykes, Jonathan; Amer, Ali; Marchant, Tom; Moore, Christopher M.; Davies, Julie; Stratford, Julia; McCarthy, Claire; Porritt, Bridget; Williams, Peter; Khoo, Vincent S.; Price, Pat

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: X-ray volumetric imaging (XVI) for the first time allows for the on-treatment acquisition of three-dimensional (3D) kV cone beam computed tomography (CT) images. Clinical imaging using the Synergy System (Elekta, Crawley, UK) commenced in July 2003. This study evaluated image quality and dose delivered and assessed clinical utility for treatment verification at a range of anatomic sites. Methods and Materials: Single XVIs were acquired from 30 patients undergoing radiotherapy for tumors at 10 different anatomic sites. Patients were imaged in their setup position. Radiation doses received were measured using TLDs on the skin surface. The utility of XVI in verifying target volume coverage was qualitatively assessed by experienced clinicians. Results: X-ray volumetric imaging acquisition was completed in the treatment position at all anatomic sites. At sites where a full gantry rotation was not possible, XVIs were reconstructed from projection images acquired from partial rotations. Soft-tissue definition of organ boundaries allowed direct assessment of 3D target volume coverage at all sites. Individual image quality depended on both imaging parameters and patient characteristics. Radiation dose ranged from 0.003 Gy in the head to 0.03 Gy in the pelvis. Conclusions: On-treatment XVI provided 3D verification images with soft-tissue definition at all anatomic sites at acceptably low radiation doses. This technology sets a new standard in treatment verification and will facilitate novel adaptive radiotherapy techniques

  14. A new practical method to reconstruct cerebral surface anatomical images for computer-assisted neurosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Shin; Kato, Amami; Yoshimine, Toshiki; Taneda, Mamoru; Hayakawa, Toru (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1994-03-01

    Authors have developed a new, practical method to reconstruct cerebral surface anatomical images for better surgical orientation and surgical planning. Using a personal computer and a commercially available image handling software, an area encompassing the surface gyri and sulci is selected from the most superficial slice of T1-weighted MR images, after which this selected area, on adjusting the alignment, is overlayed onto the next superficial slice. By repeating this procedure for 4 to 7 times, the brain surface image obtained clearly displays the gyri and sulci. A vascular image of the cerebral surface can also be obtained by this same method by using T2-weighted images or MR angiograms. Then, by combining both the brain surface and vascular images, an anatomically reconstructed image of the cerebral surface is achieved. The outlines of the lesion or ventricles can also be added, if necessary, and the entire procedure takes an hour or less. The authors believe that this method is superior to conventional surface anatomy scanning for discriminating anatomical structures close to a lesion. This surface anatomical imaging method has been used for the surgical planning and its use helped to minimize surgical damage to the eloquent areas. (author).

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Torso FDG-PET Scans by Using Anatomical Standardization of Normal Cases from Thorough Physical Examinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Hara

    Full Text Available Understanding of standardized uptake value (SUV of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET depends on the background accumulations of glucose because the SUV often varies the status of patients. The purpose of this study was to develop a new method for quantitative analysis of SUV of FDG-PET scan images. The method included an anatomical standardization and a statistical comparison with normal cases by using Z-score that are often used in SPM or 3D-SSP approach for brain function analysis. Our scheme consisted of two approaches, which included the construction of a normal model and the determination of the SUV scores as Z-score index for measuring the abnormality of an FDG-PET scan image. To construct the normal torso model, all of the normal images were registered into one shape, which indicated the normal range of SUV at all voxels. The image deformation process consisted of a whole body rigid registration of shoulder to bladder region and liver registration and a non-linear registration of body surface by using the thin-plate spline technique. In order to validate usefulness of our method, we segment suspicious regions on FDG-PET images manually, and obtained the Z-scores of the regions based on the corresponding voxels that stores the mean and the standard deviations from the normal model. We collected 243 (143 males and 100 females normal cases to construct the normal model. We also extracted 432 abnormal spots from 63 abnormal cases (73 cancer lesions to validate the Z-scores. The Z-scores of 417 out of 432 abnormal spots were higher than 2.0, which statistically indicated the severity of the spots. In conclusions, the Z-scores obtained by our computerized scheme with anatomical standardization of torso region would be useful for visualization and detection of subtle lesions on FDG-PET scan images even when the SUV may not clearly show an abnormality.

  16. Distal insertions of the semimembranosus tendon: MR imaging with anatomic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeseneer, Michel de [Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Department of Radiology, Jette, Brussels (Belgium); Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Department of Experimental Anatomy, Brussels (Belgium); Shahabpour, Maryam; Milants, Annemieke; Ridder, Filip de; Mey, Johan de [Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Department of Radiology, Jette, Brussels (Belgium); Lenchik, Leon [Wake Forest University, Department of Radiology, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Cattrysse, Erik [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Department of Experimental Anatomy, Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the distal insertions of the semimembranosus tendon with MR imaging, correlated with findings in cadavers. Four fresh cadaveric specimens were studied with 3-T MR imaging. Sequences included proton density (PD) sequences (TE, 13; TR, 4957; FOV, 170 x 170; matrix, 424 x 413; NA, 2; slice thickness, 2.5 mm) in the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes and 3D fast field echo (FFE) sequences (TR 9.4; TE 6.9; FOV, 159 x 105; matrix, 200 x 211; NA, 2; slice thickness, 0.57 mm). One specimen was dissected and three specimens were sectioned with a bandsaw in the axial, coronal, and sagittal plane. The sections were photographed and correlated with MR images. To standardize the analysis, the semimembranosus muscle and tendon were assessed at seven levels for the axial sections, and at three levels for the coronal and sagittal sections. Anatomic dissection revealed six insertions of the distal semimembranosus tendon: direct arm, anterior arm, posterior oblique ligament extension, oblique popliteal ligament extension, distal tibial expansion (popliteus aponeurosis), and meniscal arm. Axial MR images showed five of six insertions: direct arm, anterior arm, oblique popliteal ligament extension, posterior oblique ligament extension, and distal tibial expansion. Sagittal MR images showed four of six insertions: direct arm, anterior arm, oblique popliteal ligament arm, and distal tibial expansion. Sagittal MR images were ideal for showing the direct arm insertion, but were less optimal than the axial images for showing the other insertions. The anterior arm was seen but volume averaging was present with the gracilis tendon. Coronal MR images optimally revealed the anterior arm, although magic angle artifact was present at its posterior aspect. The common semimembranosus tendon and meniscal arm were also well depicted. The division in anterior arm, direct arm, and oblique popliteal ligament arm was poorly seen on coronal images due to

  17. Increased cortical-limbic anatomical network connectivity in major depression revealed by diffusion tensor imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Fang

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported significant functional and structural differences between depressed patients and controls. Little attention has been given, however, to the abnormalities in anatomical connectivity in depressed patients. In the present study, we aim to investigate the alterations in connectivity of whole-brain anatomical networks in those suffering from major depression by using machine learning approaches. Brain anatomical networks were extracted from diffusion magnetic resonance images obtained from both 22 first-episode, treatment-naive adults with major depressive disorder and 26 matched healthy controls. Using machine learning approaches, we differentiated depressed patients from healthy controls based on their whole-brain anatomical connectivity patterns and identified the most discriminating features that represent between-group differences. Classification results showed that 91.7% (patients=86.4%, controls=96.2%; permutation test, p<0.0001 of subjects were correctly classified via leave-one-out cross-validation. Moreover, the strengths of all the most discriminating connections were increased in depressed patients relative to the controls, and these connections were primarily located within the cortical-limbic network, especially the frontal-limbic network. These results not only provide initial steps toward the development of neurobiological diagnostic markers for major depressive disorder, but also suggest that abnormal cortical-limbic anatomical networks may contribute to the anatomical basis of emotional dysregulation and cognitive impairments associated with this disease.

  18. Image analysis of anatomical traits in stalk transections of maize and other grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckwolf, Sven; Heckwolf, Marlies; Kaeppler, Shawn M; de Leon, Natalia; Spalding, Edgar P

    2015-01-01

    Grass stalks architecturally support leaves and reproductive structures, functionally support the transport of water and nutrients, and are harvested for multiple agricultural uses. Research on these basic and applied aspects of grass stalks would benefit from improved capabilities for measuring internal anatomical features. In particular, methods suitable for phenotyping populations of plants are needed. To meet the need for large-scale measurements of stalk anatomy features, we developed custom image processing software that utilized a variety of global thresholding, local filtering, and feature detection methods to measure rind thickness, pith area, vascular bundle counts, and individual vascular bundle size from digital images of hand-cut transections of stalks collected with a flatbed document scanner. The tool determined vascular bundle number with an average accuracy of 90% across maize genotypes that varied five-fold for this trait. The method is demonstrated on maize, sorghum, and Miscanthus stalks. The computer source code is staged for download. Simplicity of sample preparation and semi-automated analyses enabled by this tool greatly increase measurement throughput relative to standard microscopy-based techniques while maintaining high accuracy. The tool is expected to be useful in genetic and physiological studies of the relationships between stalk anatomy and traits such as biofuel suitability, water use efficiency, or nutrient transport.

  19. Unifying the analyses of anatomical and diffusion tensor images using volume-preserved warping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Dongrong; Hao, Xuejun; Bansal, Ravi

    2007-01-01

    morphologies of detected fiber bundles. We tested our framework using datasets from a group of patients with Tourette's syndrome (TS) and normal controls. RESULTS: Our framework automatically identified regions of localized volumetric differences across groups and then used those regions as seed points......PURPOSE: To introduce a framework that automatically identifies regions of anatomical abnormality within anatomical MR images and uses those regions in hypothesis-driven selection of seed points for fiber tracking with diffusion tensor (DT) imaging (DTI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Regions of interest...... (ROIs) are first extracted from MR images using an automated algorithm for volume-preserved warping (VPW) that identifies localized volumetric differences across groups. ROIs then serve as seed points for fiber tracking in coregistered DT images. Another algorithm automatically clusters and compares...

  20. Radiological diagnostics of abdomen and thorax. Image interpretation considering anatomical landmarks and clinical symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krombach, Gabriele A.; Mahnken, Andreas H.

    2015-01-01

    The book on radiological diagnostics of abdomen and thorax - image interpretation considering anatomical landmarks and clinical symptoms - includes three chapters: (1) imaging of different parts of the body: thorax and abdomen. (II) Thorax: head and neck; mediastinum; heard and pericardium; large vessels; lungs and pleura; mamma. (III) Abdomen: liver; gall bladder and biliary tract; pancreas; gastrointestinal tract; spleen and lymphatic system; adrenal glands; kidneys and urinary tract; female pelvis; male pelvis.

  1. Total Mesorectal Excision, an erroneous anatomical term for the gold standard in rectal cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Luna, María Rita; Guarneros-Zárate, Joaquín E; Tueme-Izaguirre, Jorge

    2015-11-01

    In 1986 Professor R J Heald published in The Lancet his new technique which he called Total Mesorectal Excision; today this is the gold standard for the surgical management of rectal cancer. In Total Mesorectal Excision (TME), the mesorectum is the term used to describe all the peri-rectal connective tissue including the posterior sheath of the endopelvic fascia containing the peri-rectal neurovascular structures. However, the mesenterium is a defined structure composed of a double layer of peritoneum which does not include the endopelvic fascia and the lateral rectal stalks, so these should not be included in the term 'mesorectum'. In our globalized medical culture it is important to use anatomic terms approved by the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, as contained in the Terminologia Anatomica produced by the Federative International Programme for Anatomical Terminology (FIPAT). The term mesorectum is not listed in the Terminologia Anatomica. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Utility of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Cardiac Venous Anatomic Variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckart, Robert E.; Leitch, W. Shad; Shry, Eric A.; Krasuski, Richard A.; Lane, Michael J.; Leclerc, Kenneth M.

    2003-01-01

    The incidence of persistent left superior venacava (PLSVC) is approximately 0.5% in the general population; however,the coexistent absence of the right SVC has a reported incidence in tertiary centers of 0.1%. The vast majority of reports are limited to pediatric cardiology. Likewise, sinus of Valsalva aneurysm is a rare congenital anomaly, with a reported incidence of 0.1-3.5% of all congenital heart defects. We present a 71-year-old patient undergoing preoperative evaluation for incidental finding of aortic root aneurysm,and found to have all three in coexistence. Suggestive findings were demonstrated on cardiac catheterization and definitive diagnosis was made by magnetic resonance imaging. The use of MRI for the diagnosis of asymptomatic adult congenital heart disease will be reviewed

  3. Effects of Instructional Strategies Using Cross Sections on the Recognition of Anatomical Structures in Correlated CT and MR Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed K.; Paas, Fred; Johnson, Tristan E.; Su, Yung K.; Payer, Andrew F.

    2008-01-01

    This research is an effort to best utilize the interactive anatomical images for instructional purposes based on cognitive load theory. Three studies explored the differential effects of three computer-based instructional strategies that use anatomical cross-sections to enhance the interpretation of radiological images. These strategies include:…

  4. Conformal ultrasound imaging system for anatomical breast inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouyer, Julien; Mensah, Serge; Franceschini, Emilie; Lasaygues, Philippe; Lefebvre, Jean-Pierre

    2012-07-01

    Ultrasound tomography has considerable potential as a means of breast cancer detection because it reduces the operator-dependency observed in echography. A half-ring transducer array was designed based on breast anatomy, to obtain reflectivity images of the ductolobular structures using tomographic reconstruction procedures. The 3-MHz transducer array comprises 1024 elements set in a 190-degree circular arc with a radius of 100 mm. The front-end electronics incorporate 32 independent parallel transmit/receive channels and a 32-to-1024 multiplexer unit. The transmit and receive circuitries have a variable sampling frequency of up to 80 MHz and 12-bit precision. Arbitrary waveforms are synthesized to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and to increase the spatial resolution when working with low-contrast objects. The setup was calibrated with academic objects and a needle hydrophone to develop the data correction tools and specify the properties of the system. The backscattering field was recorded using a restricted aperture, and tomographic acquisitions were performed with a pair of 0.08-mm-diameter steel wires, a low-contrast 2-D breast phantom, and a breast-shaped phantom containing inclusions. Data were processed with dedicated correction tools and a pulse compression technique. Objects were reconstructed using the elliptical back-projection algorithm.

  5. A New Measure of Imagination Ability: Anatomical Brain Imaging Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex Eugene Jung

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Imagination involves episodic memory retrieval, visualization, mental simulation, spatial navigation, and future thinking, making it a complex cognitive construct. Prior studies of imagination have attempted to study various elements of imagination (e.g., visualization, but none have attempted to capture the entirety of imagination ability in a single instrument. Here we describe the Hunter Imagination Questionnaire (HIQ, an instrument designed to assess imagination over an extended period of time, in a naturalistic manner. We hypothesized that the HIQ would be related to measures of creative achievement and to a network of brain regions previously identified to be important to imagination/creative abilities. Eighty subjects were administered the HIQ in an online format; all subjects were administered a broad battery of tests including measures of intelligence, personality, and aptitude, as well as structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMR. Responses of the HIQ were found to be normally distributed, and exploratory factor analysis yielded four factors. Internal consistency of the HIQ ranged from .76 to .79, and two factors (Implementation and Learning were significantly related to measures of Creative Achievement (Scientifific - r = .26 and Writing - r = .31 respectively, suggesting concurrent validity. We found that the HIQ and its factors were related to a broad network of brain volumes including increased bilateral hippocampi, lingual gyrus, and caudal/rostral middle frontal lobe, and decreased volumes within the nucleus accumbens and regions within the default mode network (e.g., precuneus, posterior cingulate, transverse temporal lobe. The HIQ was found to be a reliable and valid measure of imagination in a cohort of normal human subjects, and was related to brain volumes previously identified as central to imagination including episodic memory retrieval (e.g., hippocampus. We also identified compelling evidence suggesting imagination

  6. A New Measure of Imagination Ability: Anatomical Brain Imaging Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Rex E; Flores, Ranee A; Hunter, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Imagination involves episodic memory retrieval, visualization, mental simulation, spatial navigation, and future thinking, making it a complex cognitive construct. Prior studies of imagination have attempted to study various elements of imagination (e.g., visualization), but none have attempted to capture the entirety of imagination ability in a single instrument. Here we describe the Hunter Imagination Questionnaire (HIQ), an instrument designed to assess imagination over an extended period of time, in a naturalistic manner. We hypothesized that the HIQ would be related to measures of creative achievement and to a network of brain regions previously identified to be important to imagination/creative abilities. Eighty subjects were administered the HIQ in an online format; all subjects were administered a broad battery of tests including measures of intelligence, personality, and aptitude, as well as structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMRI). Responses of the HIQ were found to be normally distributed, and exploratory factor analysis yielded four factors. Internal consistency of the HIQ ranged from 0.76 to 0.79, and two factors ("Implementation" and "Learning") were significantly related to measures of Creative Achievement (Scientific-r = 0.26 and Writing-r = 0.31, respectively), suggesting concurrent validity. We found that the HIQ and its factors were related to a broad network of brain volumes including increased bilateral hippocampi, lingual gyrus, and caudal/rostral middle frontal lobe, and decreased volumes within the nucleus accumbens and regions within the default mode network (e.g., precuneus, posterior cingulate, transverse temporal lobe). The HIQ was found to be a reliable and valid measure of imagination in a cohort of normal human subjects, and was related to brain volumes previously identified as central to imagination including episodic memory retrieval (e.g., hippocampus). We also identified compelling evidence suggesting imagination ability

  7. Tendons in the plantar aspect of the foot: MR imaging and anatomic correlation in cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Rodrigo [University of California San Diego, Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Fleury Medical Center, Radiology, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Aguiar, Rodrigo; Trudell, Debra; Resnick, Donald [University of California San Diego, Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2007-02-15

    The purpose of this anatomic imaging study was to illustrate the normal complex anatomy of tendons of the plantar aspect of the ankle and foot using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with anatomic correlation in cadavers. Seven fresh cadaveric feet (obtained and used according to institutional guidelines, with informed consent from relatives of the deceased) were studied with intermediate-weighted fast-spin-echo MR imaging. For anatomic analysis, cadaveric specimens were sectioned in 3-mm-thick slices in the coronal and axial planes that approximated the sections acquired at MR imaging. The entire courses of the tendons into the plantar aspect of the foot were analyzed. The tibialis posterior tendon has a complex distal insertion. The insertions in the navicular, second, and third cuneiforms bones were identify in all cases using axial and coronal planes. A tendinous connection between the flexor hallucis longus and the flexor digitorum longus tendons was identified in five of our specimens (71%). The coronal plane provided the best evaluation. The peroneus longus tendon changes its direction at three points then obliquely crosses the sole and inserts in the base of the first metatarsal bone and the plantar aspect of the first cuneiform. MR imaging provides detailed information about the anatomy of tendons in the plantar aspect of the ankle and foot. It allows analysis of their insertions and the intertendinous connection between the flexor hallucis longus and the flexor digitorum longus tendons. (orig.)

  8. Complex distal insertions of the tibialis posterior tendon: detailed anatomic and MR imaging investigation in cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastore, Daniel; Cerri, Giovanni G. [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Radiology, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); VA Medical Center, University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Dirim, Berna; Wangwinyuvirat, Mani; Belentani, Clarissa L.; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald L. [VA Medical Center, University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Haghighi, Parviz [VA Medical Center, University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); VA Medical Center, University of California, Department of Histology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this report was to demonstrate the normal complex insertional anatomy of the tibialis posterior tendon (TPT) in cadavers using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with anatomic and histologic correlation. Ten cadaveric ankles were used according to institutional guidelines. MR T1-weighted spin echo imaging was performed to demonstrate aspects of the complex anatomic distal insertions of the TPT in cadaveric specimens. Findings on MR imaging were correlated with those derived from anatomic and histologic study. Generally, the TPT revealed a low signal in all MR images, except near the level of the medial malleolus, where the TPT suddenly changed direction and ''magic angle'' artifact could be observed. In five out of ten specimens (50%), a type I accessory navicular bone was found in the TPT. In all cases with a type I accessory navicular bone, the TPT had an altered signal in this area. Axial and coronal planes on MR imaging were the best in identifying the distal insertions of the TPT. A normal division of the TPT was observed just proximal to the insertion into the navicular bone in five specimens (100%) occurring at a maximum proximal distance from its attachment to the navicular bone of approximately 1.5 to 2 cm. In the other five specimens, in which a type I accessory navicular bone was present, the TPT directly inserted into the accessory bone and a slip less than 1.5 mm in thickness could be observed attaching to the medial aspect of the navicular bone (100%). Anatomic inspection confirmed the sites of the distal insertions of the components of the TPT. MR imaging enabled detailed analysis of the complex distal insertions of the TPT as well as a better understanding of those features of its insertion that can simulate a lesion. (orig.)

  9. Robust Estimation of Electron Density From Anatomic Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain Using a Unifying Multi-Atlas Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Shangjie [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Process Measurement and Control, School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California (United States); Hara, Wendy; Wang, Lei; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Le, Quynh-Thu; Xing, Lei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California (United States); Li, Ruijiang, E-mail: rli2@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Purpose: To develop a reliable method to estimate electron density based on anatomic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Methods and Materials: We proposed a unifying multi-atlas approach for electron density estimation based on standard T1- and T2-weighted MRI. First, a composite atlas was constructed through a voxelwise matching process using multiple atlases, with the goal of mitigating effects of inherent anatomic variations between patients. Next we computed for each voxel 2 kinds of conditional probabilities: (1) electron density given its image intensity on T1- and T2-weighted MR images; and (2) electron density given its spatial location in a reference anatomy, obtained by deformable image registration. These were combined into a unifying posterior probability density function using the Bayesian formalism, which provided the optimal estimates for electron density. We evaluated the method on 10 patients using leave-one-patient-out cross-validation. Receiver operating characteristic analyses for detecting different tissue types were performed. Results: The proposed method significantly reduced the errors in electron density estimation, with a mean absolute Hounsfield unit error of 119, compared with 140 and 144 (P<.0001) using conventional T1-weighted intensity and geometry-based approaches, respectively. For detection of bony anatomy, the proposed method achieved an 89% area under the curve, 86% sensitivity, 88% specificity, and 90% accuracy, which improved upon intensity and geometry-based approaches (area under the curve: 79% and 80%, respectively). Conclusion: The proposed multi-atlas approach provides robust electron density estimation and bone detection based on anatomic MRI. If validated on a larger population, our work could enable the use of MRI as a primary modality for radiation treatment planning.

  10. Gross feature recognition of Anatomical Images based on Atlas grid (GAIA): Incorporating the local discrepancy between an atlas and a target image to capture the features of anatomic brain MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuan-Yuan; Hsu, Johnny T; Yoshida, Shoko; Faria, Andreia V; Oishi, Kumiko; Unschuld, Paul G; Redgrave, Graham W; Ying, Sarah H; Ross, Christopher A; van Zijl, Peter C M; Hillis, Argye E; Albert, Marilyn S; Lyketsos, Constantine G; Miller, Michael I; Mori, Susumu; Oishi, Kenichi

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to develop a new method to convert T1-weighted brain MRIs to feature vectors, which could be used for content-based image retrieval (CBIR). To overcome the wide range of anatomical variability in clinical cases and the inconsistency of imaging protocols, we introduced the Gross feature recognition of Anatomical Images based on Atlas grid (GAIA), in which the local intensity alteration, caused by pathological (e.g., ischemia) or physiological (development and aging) intensity changes, as well as by atlas-image misregistration, is used to capture the anatomical features of target images. As a proof-of-concept, the GAIA was applied for pattern recognition of the neuroanatomical features of multiple stages of Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, spinocerebellar ataxia type 6, and four subtypes of primary progressive aphasia. For each of these diseases, feature vectors based on a training dataset were applied to a test dataset to evaluate the accuracy of pattern recognition. The feature vectors extracted from the training dataset agreed well with the known pathological hallmarks of the selected neurodegenerative diseases. Overall, discriminant scores of the test images accurately categorized these test images to the correct disease categories. Images without typical disease-related anatomical features were misclassified. The proposed method is a promising method for image feature extraction based on disease-related anatomical features, which should enable users to submit a patient image and search past clinical cases with similar anatomical phenotypes.

  11. Anatomically Constrained Neural Networks (ACNNs): Application to Cardiac Image Enhancement and Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktay, Ozan; Ferrante, Enzo; Kamnitsas, Konstantinos; Heinrich, Mattias; Bai, Wenjia; Caballero, Jose; Cook, Stuart A; de Marvao, Antonio; Dawes, Timothy; O'Regan, Declan P; Kainz, Bernhard; Glocker, Ben; Rueckert, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    Incorporation of prior knowledge about organ shape and location is key to improve performance of image analysis approaches. In particular, priors can be useful in cases where images are corrupted and contain artefacts due to limitations in image acquisition. The highly constrained nature of anatomical objects can be well captured with learning-based techniques. However, in most recent and promising techniques such as CNN-based segmentation it is not obvious how to incorporate such prior knowledge. State-of-the-art methods operate as pixel-wise classifiers where the training objectives do not incorporate the structure and inter-dependencies of the output. To overcome this limitation, we propose a generic training strategy that incorporates anatomical prior knowledge into CNNs through a new regularisation model, which is trained end-to-end. The new framework encourages models to follow the global anatomical properties of the underlying anatomy (e.g. shape, label structure) via learnt non-linear representations of the shape. We show that the proposed approach can be easily adapted to different analysis tasks (e.g. image enhancement, segmentation) and improve the prediction accuracy of the state-of-the-art models. The applicability of our approach is shown on multi-modal cardiac data sets and public benchmarks. In addition, we demonstrate how the learnt deep models of 3-D shapes can be interpreted and used as biomarkers for classification of cardiac pathologies.

  12. An automatic system for segmentation, matching, anatomical labeling and measurement of airways from CT images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens; Feragen, Aasa; Owen, Megan

    Purpose: Assessing airway dimensions and attenuation from CT images is useful in the study of diseases affecting the airways such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Measurements can be compared between patients and over time if specific airway segments can be identified. However......, manually finding these segments and performing such measurements is very time consuming. The purpose of the developed and validated system is to enable such measurements using automatic segmentations of the airway interior and exterior wall surfaces in three dimensions, anatomical branch labeling of all...... is used to match specific airway segments in multiple images of the same subject. The anatomical names of all segmental branches are assigned based on distances to a training set of expert labeled trees. Distances are measured in a geometric tree-space, incorporating both topology and centerline shape...

  13. Image-based metal artifact reduction in x-ray computed tomography utilizing local anatomical similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xue; Yang, Xiaofeng; Rosenfield, Jonathan; Elder, Eric; Dhabaan, Anees

    2017-03-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) is widely used in radiation therapy treatment planning in recent years. However, metal implants such as dental fillings and hip prostheses can cause severe bright and dark streaking artifacts in reconstructed CT images. These artifacts decrease image contrast and degrade HU accuracy, leading to inaccuracies in target delineation and dose calculation. In this work, a metal artifact reduction method is proposed based on the intrinsic anatomical similarity between neighboring CT slices. Neighboring CT slices from the same patient exhibit similar anatomical features. Exploiting this anatomical similarity, a gamma map is calculated as a weighted summation of relative HU error and distance error for each pixel in an artifact-corrupted CT image relative to a neighboring, artifactfree image. The minimum value in the gamma map for each pixel is used to identify an appropriate pixel from the artifact-free CT slice to replace the corresponding artifact-corrupted pixel. With the proposed method, the mean CT HU error was reduced from 360 HU and 460 HU to 24 HU and 34 HU on head and pelvis CT images, respectively. Dose calculation accuracy also improved, as the dose difference was reduced from greater than 20% to less than 4%. Using 3%/3mm criteria, the gamma analysis failure rate was reduced from 23.25% to 0.02%. An image-based metal artifact reduction method is proposed that replaces corrupted image pixels with pixels from neighboring CT slices free of metal artifacts. This method is shown to be capable of suppressing streaking artifacts, thereby improving HU and dose calculation accuracy.

  14. PHIV-RootCell: a supervised image analysis tool for rice root anatomical parameter quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc eLartaud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed the PHIV-RootCell software to quantify anatomical traits of rice roots transverse section images. Combined with an efficient root sample processing method for image acquisition, this program permits supervised measurements of areas (those of whole root section, stele, cortex and central metaxylem vessels, number of cell layers and number of cells per cell layer. The PHIV-RootCell toolset runs under ImageJ, an independent operating system that has a license-free status. To demonstrate the usefulness of PHIV-RootCell, we conducted a genetic diversity study and an analysis of salt-stress responses of root anatomical parameters in rice (Oryza sativa L.. Using 16 cultivars, we showed that we could discriminate between some of the varieties even at the 6 day-old stage, and that tropical japonica varieties had larger root sections due to an increase in cell number. We observed, as described previously, that root sections become enlarged under salt stress. However, our results show an increase in cell number in ground tissues (endodermis and cortex but a decrease in external (peripheral tissues (sclerenchyma, exodermis and epidermis. Thus, the PHIV-RootCell program is a user-friendly tool that will be helpful for future genetic and physiological studies that investigate root anatomical trait variations.

  15. Neuroendocrine tumours of the head and neck: anatomical, functional and molecular imaging and contemporary management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Navaraj; Prestwich, Robin; Chowdhury, Fahmid; Patel, Chirag

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) of the head and neck are rare neoplasms and can be of epithelial or non-epithelial differentiation. Although the natural history of NETs is variable, it is crucial to establish an early diagnosis of these tumours as they can be potentially curable. Conventional anatomical imaging and functional imaging using radionuclide scintigraphy and positron emission tomography/computed tomography can be complementary for the diagnosis, staging and monitoring of treatment response. This article describes and illustrates the imaging features of head and neck NETs, discusses the potential future role of novel positron-emitting tracers that are emerging into clinical practice and reviews contemporary management of these tumours. Familiarity with the choice of imaging techniques and the variety of imaging patterns and treatment options should help guide radiologists in the management of this rare but important subgroup of head and neck neoplasms. PMID:24240099

  16. Triceps brachii tendon: anatomic-MR imaging study in cadavers with histologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belentani, Clarissa; Pastore, Daniel; Wangwinyuvirat, Mani; Dirim, Berna; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald; Haghighi, Parviz

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this cadaveric study was to describe the normal MR anatomy of the triceps brachii tendon (TBT) insertion, to correlate the findings with those seen in anatomic sections and histopathologic analysis, and to review triceps tendon injuries. Twelve cadaveric elbows were used according to institution guidelines. T1-weighted spin-echo MR images were acquired in three planes. Findings on MR imaging were correlated with those derived from anatomic and histologic study. On MR images, the TBT had a bipartite appearance as it inserted on olecranon in all specimens. The insertion of the medial head was deeper than that of the long and lateral heads and was mainly muscular at its insertion, with a small amount of the tendon blending with the muscle distally, necessitating histologic analysis to determine if there was tendon blending with the muscle at the site of insertion and if the medial head inserted together with the common tendon or as a single unit. At histopathologic analysis, the three heads of the triceps tendon had a common insertion on the olecranon. The bipartite aspect of the tendon that was identified in the MR images was not seen by histologic study, indicating that there was a union of the medial and common tendons just before they inserted into bone. TBT has a bipartite appearance on MR images and inserts on olecranon as a single unit. (orig.)

  17. Using photoshop filters to create anatomic line-art medical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Jacobo; Geller, Brian S

    2006-08-01

    There are multiple ways to obtain anatomic drawings suitable for publication or presentations. This article demonstrates how to use Photoshop to alter digital radiologic images to create line-art illustrations in a quick and easy way. We present two simple to use methods; however, not every image can adequately be transformed and personal preferences and specific changes need to be applied to each image to obtain the desired result. There are multiple ways to obtain anatomic drawings suitable for publication or to prepare presentations. Medical illustrators have always played a major role in the radiology and medical education process. Whether used to teach a complex surgical or radiologic procedure, to define typical or atypical patterns of the spread of disease, or to illustrate normal or aberrant anatomy, medical illustration significantly affects learning (). However, if you are not an accomplished illustrator, the alternatives can be expensive (contacting a professional medical illustrator or buying an already existing stock of digital images) or simply not necessarily applicable to what you are trying to communicate. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how using Photoshop (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA) to alter digital radiologic images we can create line-art illustrations in a quick, inexpensive, and easy way in preparation for electronic presentations and publication.

  18. Triceps brachii tendon: anatomic-MR imaging study in cadavers with histologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belentani, Clarissa [University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Pastore, Daniel; Wangwinyuvirat, Mani; Dirim, Berna; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald [University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California, VA Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Haghighi, Parviz [University of California, VA Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California, Department of Histology, San Diego (United States)

    2009-02-15

    The purpose of this cadaveric study was to describe the normal MR anatomy of the triceps brachii tendon (TBT) insertion, to correlate the findings with those seen in anatomic sections and histopathologic analysis, and to review triceps tendon injuries. Twelve cadaveric elbows were used according to institution guidelines. T1-weighted spin-echo MR images were acquired in three planes. Findings on MR imaging were correlated with those derived from anatomic and histologic study. On MR images, the TBT had a bipartite appearance as it inserted on olecranon in all specimens. The insertion of the medial head was deeper than that of the long and lateral heads and was mainly muscular at its insertion, with a small amount of the tendon blending with the muscle distally, necessitating histologic analysis to determine if there was tendon blending with the muscle at the site of insertion and if the medial head inserted together with the common tendon or as a single unit. At histopathologic analysis, the three heads of the triceps tendon had a common insertion on the olecranon. The bipartite aspect of the tendon that was identified in the MR images was not seen by histologic study, indicating that there was a union of the medial and common tendons just before they inserted into bone. TBT has a bipartite appearance on MR images and inserts on olecranon as a single unit. (orig.)

  19. Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements in Anatomically-Accurate Models of the Mammalian Nasal Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumple, C.; Richter, J.; Craven, B. A.; Krane, M.

    2012-11-01

    A summary of the research being carried out by our multidisciplinary team to better understand the form and function of the nose in different mammalian species that include humans, carnivores, ungulates, rodents, and marine animals will be presented. The mammalian nose houses a convoluted airway labyrinth, where two hallmark features of mammals occur, endothermy and olfaction. Because of the complexity of the nasal cavity, the anatomy and function of these upper airways remain poorly understood in most mammals. However, recent advances in high-resolution medical imaging, computational modeling, and experimental flow measurement techniques are now permitting the study of airflow and respiratory and olfactory transport phenomena in anatomically-accurate reconstructions of the nasal cavity. Here, we focus on efforts to manufacture transparent, anatomically-accurate models for stereo particle image velocimetry (SPIV) measurements of nasal airflow. Challenges in the design and manufacture of index-matched anatomical models are addressed and preliminary SPIV measurements are presented. Such measurements will constitute a validation database for concurrent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of mammalian respiration and olfaction. Supported by the National Science Foundation.

  20. Comparative study of thin sectional anatomical images from Chinese visible human data set and computed tomography images of superior mediastinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi; Luo, Na; Tan, Li-Wen; Fang, Bing-Ji; Li, Ying; Xie, Bing; Xu, Hao-Tong; Hu, Nan; Yang, Wei-Ping; Wu, Wei; Lamers, Wouter H; Zhang, Shao-Xiang

    2012-11-01

    The structures of superior mediastinum and their spatial relationships are complex and difficult to master. This study aimed to compare visualization of the superior mediastinum based on computed tomography (CT) images and on the thin sections of the Chinese visible human (CVH) data set to provide a sectional anatomical basis for diagnostic imaging of superior mediastinal pathology. CVH sections of the mediastinum of a 35-year old male were compared with plain and enhanced CT images of a 45-year old male without apparent abnormalities in the upper chest. In addition, a three-dimensional model based on the CVH sections was compared with a model based on CT images. Although CT imaging is noninvasive and can be carried out in many individuals, its weakness is clearly the visualization of small soft tissue structures. In this respect, the sectional anatomical approach of the CVH images is complementary, as it visualizes these small soft tissue structures due to the higher resolution in the plain of sectioning and the color of the different structures in the section. Three-dimensional surface and volume rendering of reconstructions of the CVH data set can help medical students and less experienced thoracic surgeons to familiarize themselves with the topographic anatomy of the superior mediastinal structures and their spatial relationships, and thus with interpreting CT images of patients. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Creation of three-dimensional craniofacial standards from CBCT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyan, Krishna; Palomo, Martin; Hans, Mark

    2006-03-01

    Low-dose three-dimensional Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) is becoming increasingly popular in the clinical practice of dental medicine. Two-dimensional Bolton Standards of dentofacial development are routinely used to identify deviations from normal craniofacial anatomy. With the advent of CBCT three dimensional imaging, we propose a set of methods to extend these 2D Bolton Standards to anatomically correct surface based 3D standards to allow analysis of morphometric changes seen in craniofacial complex. To create 3D surface standards, we have implemented series of steps. 1) Converting bi-plane 2D tracings into set of splines 2) Converting the 2D splines curves from bi-plane projection into 3D space curves 3) Creating labeled template of facial and skeletal shapes and 4) Creating 3D average surface Bolton standards. We have used datasets from patients scanned with Hitachi MercuRay CBCT scanner providing high resolution and isotropic CT volume images, digitized Bolton Standards from age 3 to 18 years of lateral and frontal male, female and average tracings and converted them into facial and skeletal 3D space curves. This new 3D standard will help in assessing shape variations due to aging in young population and provide reference to correct facial anomalies in dental medicine.

  2. Vascular anatomical relationships of the retropubic space and the sacrospinous ligament, using three-dimensional imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueñas-Garcia, Omar F; Kim, Youngwu; Leung, Katherine; Flynn, Michel K

    2017-08-01

    Pelvic anatomy is complex and intimate knowledge of variabilities in anatomical relationships is critical for surgeons to safely perform surgical procedures. Three-dimensional Imaging provides the opportunity to analyze undisturbed anatomical relationships. The authors hypothesized that three-dimensional models created from pelvic computed tomography angiograms could be used to obtain vascular anatomical measurements, and that the measurements obtained from three-dimensional models would be similar to those from cadaver studies. We included all pelvic computed tomography angiograms that were acquired in female patients older than 18 years at our institution within the previous 5 years. Three-dimensional models were created using the Invivo5 software based on the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine files. Structures of interest were virtually dissected and measured replicating previous cadaver studies. Statistical analysis of demographics and measurements was performed. The final analysis included 87 studies. The average age of the subjects was 66.9 years and their average BMI was 26.1 kg/m 2 . Of the 87 subjects, 12.6% had a history of hysterectomy, 2.3% a history of a continence procedure, and 1.1% a history of a prolapse procedure. The range of distance between the ischial spine and the pudendal artery was 3-17 mm. The closest vessels to the lower edge of the symphysis pubis were the obturator vessels. The aberrant corona mortis vessel was present in 27.9% of the subjects. Prior hysterectomy was associated with changes in the measurements of the obturator arteries with minimal changes in other measurements. Our results indicate that this technology provides similar measurements to those found in previous unembalmed cadaver studies. This technology offers a great opportunity to study anatomical relationships in a native undisturbed state.

  3. Evaluation of lesion detection capabilities of anatomically based MAP image reconstruction methods using the computer observer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Kudo, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the lesion detection capabilities of anatomically based maximum a posteriori (MAP) image reconstruction methods in emission computed tomography using the computer observer model. In lesion detection tasks, conventional anatomically based MAP reconstruction methods cannot preserve lesions not present in the anatomical image with high contrast and at the same time suppress noise in the background regions. We previously proposed a new anatomically based MAP reconstruction method called the SOS-MAP method, which is based on the spots-on-smooth image model in which the image is modeled by the sum of the smooth background image and the sparse spot image, and showed that the SOS-MAP method can overcome the above-mentioned drawback of conventional anatomically based MAP methods. However, the lesion detection capabilities of the SOS-MAP method remained to be clarified. In the present study, the computer observer model was used to evaluate the lesion detection capabilities of the SOS-MAP method, and it was found that the SOS-MAP method is superior to conventional anatomically based MAP methods for the detection of lesions. (author)

  4. Biologic considerations in anatomic imaging with radionuclides. Final progress report, July 1974--June 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potchen, E.J.

    1975-01-01

    An important task relating to anatomic imaging with radionuclides is the determination of factors which effect the use of imaging procedures. This is important to reduce radiation exposure in the population, to improve the efficacy of diagnostic imaging procedures and finally to provide a basis for evaluating the potential effects of proposed regulation of use rates. In this report we describe a methodology for obtaining clinical data relating to the use of the brain scan in an inner city teaching hospital. The development of a questionnaire suitable for use in a clinical setting and providing both prospective and retrospective data is presented. The results of the use of the questionnaire at the Johns Hopkins Hospital during a three month period in 1974 are shown and discussed. Some preliminary results from these data are given and a method for further analysis is indicated

  5. Using Anatomic Magnetic Resonance Image Information to Enhance Visualization and Interpretation of Functional Images: A Comparison of Methods Applied to Clinical Arterial Spin Labeling Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Dai, Weiying; Soman, Salil; Hackney, David B; Wong, Eric T; Robson, Philip M; Alsop, David C

    2017-02-01

    Functional imaging provides hemodynamic and metabolic information and is increasingly being incorporated into clinical diagnostic and research studies. Typically functional images have reduced signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution compared to other non-functional cross sectional images obtained as part of a routine clinical protocol. We hypothesized that enhancing visualization and interpretation of functional images with anatomic information could provide preferable quality and superior diagnostic value. In this work, we implemented five methods (frequency addition, frequency multiplication, wavelet transform, nonsubsampled contourlet transform and intensity-hue-saturation) and a newly proposed ShArpening by Local Similarity with Anatomic images (SALSA) method to enhance the visualization of functional images, while preserving the original functional contrast and quantitative signal intensity characteristics over larger spatial scales. Arterial spin labeling blood flow MR images of the brain were visualization enhanced using anatomic images with multiple contrasts. The algorithms were validated on a numerical phantom and their performance on images of brain tumor patients were assessed by quantitative metrics and neuroradiologist subjective ratings. The frequency multiplication method had the lowest residual error for preserving the original functional image contrast at larger spatial scales (55%-98% of the other methods with simulated data and 64%-86% with experimental data). It was also significantly more highly graded by the radiologists (p<0.005 for clear brain anatomy around the tumor). Compared to other methods, the SALSA provided 11%-133% higher similarity with ground truth images in the simulation and showed just slightly lower neuroradiologist grading score. Most of these monochrome methods do not require any prior knowledge about the functional and anatomic image characteristics, except the acquired resolution. Hence, automatic implementation on

  6. Accurate measurement of surface areas of anatomical structures by computer-assisted triangulation of computed tomography images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allardice, J.T.; Jacomb-Hood, J.; Abulafi, A.M.; Williams, N.S. (Royal London Hospital (United Kingdom)); Cookson, J.; Dykes, E.; Holman, J. (London Hospital Medical College (United Kingdom))

    1993-05-01

    There is a need for accurate surface area measurement of internal anatomical structures in order to define light dosimetry in adjunctive intraoperative photodynamic therapy (AIOPDT). The authors investigated whether computer-assisted triangulation of serial sections generated by computed tomography (CT) scanning can give an accurate assessment of the surface area of the walls of the true pelvis after anterior resection and before colorectal anastomosis. They show that the technique of paper density tessellation is an acceptable method of measuring the surface areas of phantom objects, with a maximum error of 0.5%, and is used as the gold standard. Computer-assisted triangulation of CT images of standard geometric objects and accurately-constructed pelvic phantoms gives a surface area assessment with a maximum error of 2.5% compared with the gold standard. The CT images of 20 patients' pelves have been analysed by computer-assisted triangulation and this shows the surface area of the walls varies from 143 cm[sup 2] to 392 cm[sup 2]. (Author).

  7. NPS comparison of anatomical noise characteristics in mammography, tomosynthesis, and breast CT images using power law metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Boone, John M.; Nosratieh, Anita; Abbey, Craig K.

    2011-03-01

    Digital mammography is the current standard for breast cancer screening, however breast tomosynthesis and breast CT (bCT) have been studied in clinical trials. At our institution, 30 women (BIRADS 4 and 5) underwent IRB-approved imaging by mammography, breast tomosynthesis, and bCT on the same day. Twenty three data sets were used for analysis. The 2D noise power spectrum (NPS) was computed and averaged for each data set. The NPS was computed for different slice thicknesses of dx × N, where dx ~ 0.3 mm and N=1-64, on the bCT data. Each 2D NPS was radially averaged, and the 1D data were fit using a power law function as proposed by Burgess: NPS(f) = αf-β. The value of β was determined over a range of frequencies corresponding to anatomical noise, for each patient and each modality. Averaged over the 30 women (26 for bCT, 28 for tomosynthesis, 28 for mammography), for mammography β=3.06 (0.25), for CC tomosynthesis β=2.91 (0.35), and for axial bCT β=1.72 (0.47). For sagittal bCT β=1.77 (0.36) and for coronal bCT, β=1.88 (0.45). The computation of β versus slice thickness on the coronal bCT data set led to β~1.7 for N=1, asymptotically reaching β ~ 3 for larger slice thickness. These results suggest that there is a fundamental difference in breast anatomic noise as characterized by β, between thin slices (<2 mm) and thicker slices. Tomosynthesis was found to have anatomic noise properties closer to mammography than breast CT, most likely due to the relatively thick slice sensitivity profile of tomosynthesis.

  8. Anatomical constraints on visualization of the human hippocampus using echo-planar imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Shuichiro; Kirino, Takaaki; Mihara, Ban; Sugishita, Morihiro

    2004-01-01

    Reliable visualization of the hippocampus on echo-planar imaging (EPI) is essential in analyzing memory function using functional magnetic resonance imaging. However, the hippocampal area is notoriously prone to susceptibility artifacts caused by structures at the skull base, and avoiding such artifacts by appropriately selecting the subjects for a study is of practical importance. To elucidate factors affecting the extent of the artifacts we obtained EPI in a total of 62 hippocampi from 31 healthy volunteers and evaluated various anatomical measurements possibly associated with the quality of the images. The hippocampal head was sufficiently well demonstrated on 40 of 62 images (65%), and there were two parameters that significantly differed between the good (n=40) and poor (n=22) imaging studies: The vertical diameter (DV) of the opening of the internal acoustic meatus (IAM) and the pneumatization rate of the sphenoid sinus (RP-SS). From logistic regression analysis with the stepwise method, in addition to these two factors, the distance between the hippocampal body and IAM (Dhippo-IAM) and the distance between the hippocampal head and the middle cranial fossa at the skull base (Dhippo-base) were extracted. DV-IAM, RP-SS, and Dhippo-base were negatively correlated with the good imaging of the hippocampal head. On the other hand, Dhippo-IAM was positively correlated. These easily measurable parameters will be helpful in selecting subjects and in increasing the efficiency of hippocampal visualization in studies on human memory function. (orig.)

  9. Advances of Molecular Imaging for Monitoring the Anatomical and Functional Architecture of the Olfactory System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xintong; Bi, Anyao; Gao, Quansheng; Zhang, Shuai; Huang, Kunzhu; Liu, Zhiguo; Gao, Tang; Zeng, Wenbin

    2016-01-20

    The olfactory system of organisms serves as a genetically and anatomically model for studying how sensory input can be translated into behavior output. Some neurologic diseases are considered to be related to olfactory disturbance, especially Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and so forth. However, it is still unclear how the olfactory system affects disease generation processes and olfaction delivery processes. Molecular imaging, a modern multidisciplinary technology, can provide valid tools for the early detection and characterization of diseases, evaluation of treatment, and study of biological processes in living subjects, since molecular imaging applies specific molecular probes as a novel approach to produce special data to study biological processes in cellular and subcellular levels. Recently, molecular imaging plays a key role in studying the activation of olfactory system, thus it could help to prevent or delay some diseases. Herein, we present a comprehensive review on the research progress of the imaging probes for visualizing olfactory system, which is classified on different imaging modalities, including PET, MRI, and optical imaging. Additionally, the probes' design, sensing mechanism, and biological application are discussed. Finally, we provide an outlook for future studies in this field.

  10. A novel 3D shape descriptor for automatic retrieval of anatomical structures from medical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Fátima L. S.; Bergamasco, Leila C. C.; Delmondes, Pedro H.; Valverde, Miguel A. G.; Jackowski, Marcel P.

    2017-03-01

    Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) aims at retrieving from a database objects that are similar to an object provided by a query, by taking into consideration a set of extracted features. While CBIR has been widely applied in the two-dimensional image domain, the retrieval of3D objects from medical image datasets using CBIR remains to be explored. In this context, the development of descriptors that can capture information specific to organs or structures is desirable. In this work, we focus on the retrieval of two anatomical structures commonly imaged by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computed Tomography (CT) techniques, the left ventricle of the heart and blood vessels. Towards this aim, we developed the Area-Distance Local Descriptor (ADLD), a novel 3D local shape descriptor that employs mesh geometry information, namely facet area and distance from centroid to surface, to identify shape changes. Because ADLD only considers surface meshes extracted from volumetric medical images, it substantially diminishes the amount of data to be analyzed. A 90% precision rate was obtained when retrieving both convex (left ventricle) and non-convex structures (blood vessels), allowing for detection of abnormalities associated with changes in shape. Thus, ADLD has the potential to aid in the diagnosis of a wide range of vascular and cardiac diseases.

  11. Imaging evidence for anatomical disturbances and neuroplastic compensation in persons with Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Bansal, Ravi; Peterson, Bradley S

    2009-01-01

    were reviewed. Findings of reduced caudate volumes across the life span and thinning of sensorimotor cortices that is proportional with tic severity in children with TS implicate these regions in the genesis of tics. Hypertrophy of limbic and prefrontal cortices and a smaller corpus callosum accompany......BACKGROUND: Tourette syndrome (TS) is a disorder of chronic motor and vocal tics that begins in childhood. METHODS: A systematic Medline search was conducted to identify existing anatomical imaging studies in persons with TS. RESULTS: Thirty studies were identified, and their methods and findings......, and methods of image analysis, the preponderance of evidence suggests that disturbances in the development of the motor portions of cortical-subcortical circuits likely predispose to the development TS and that neuroplastic changes in control systems of the brain help to modulate the severity of symptom...

  12. TH-CD-206-02: BEST IN PHYSICS (IMAGING): 3D Prostate Segmentation in MR Images Using Patch-Based Anatomical Signature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, X; Jani, A; Rossi, P; Mao, H; Curran, W; Liu, T

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: MRI has shown promise in identifying prostate tumors with high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of prostate cancer. Accurate segmentation of the prostate plays a key role various tasks: to accurately localize prostate boundaries for biopsy needle placement and radiotherapy, to initialize multi-modal registration algorithms or to obtain the region of interest for computer-aided detection of prostate cancer. However, manual segmentation during biopsy or radiation therapy can be time consuming and subject to inter- and intra-observer variation. This study’s purpose it to develop an automated method to address this technical challenge. Methods: We present an automated multi-atlas segmentation for MR prostate segmentation using patch-based label fusion. After an initial preprocessing for all images, all the atlases are non-rigidly registered to a target image. And then, the resulting transformation is used to propagate the anatomical structure labels of the atlas into the space of the target image. The top L similar atlases are further chosen by measuring intensity and structure difference in the region of interest around prostate. Finally, using voxel weighting based on patch-based anatomical signature, the label that the majority of all warped labels predict for each voxel is used for the final segmentation of the target image. Results: This segmentation technique was validated with a clinical study of 13 patients. The accuracy of our approach was assessed using the manual segmentation (gold standard). The mean volume Dice Overlap Coefficient was 89.5±2.9% between our and manual segmentation, which indicate that the automatic segmentation method works well and could be used for 3D MRI-guided prostate intervention. Conclusion: We have developed a new prostate segmentation approach based on the optimal feature learning label fusion framework, demonstrated its clinical feasibility, and validated its accuracy. This segmentation technique could be

  13. TH-CD-206-02: BEST IN PHYSICS (IMAGING): 3D Prostate Segmentation in MR Images Using Patch-Based Anatomical Signature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, X; Jani, A; Rossi, P; Mao, H; Curran, W; Liu, T [Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: MRI has shown promise in identifying prostate tumors with high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of prostate cancer. Accurate segmentation of the prostate plays a key role various tasks: to accurately localize prostate boundaries for biopsy needle placement and radiotherapy, to initialize multi-modal registration algorithms or to obtain the region of interest for computer-aided detection of prostate cancer. However, manual segmentation during biopsy or radiation therapy can be time consuming and subject to inter- and intra-observer variation. This study’s purpose it to develop an automated method to address this technical challenge. Methods: We present an automated multi-atlas segmentation for MR prostate segmentation using patch-based label fusion. After an initial preprocessing for all images, all the atlases are non-rigidly registered to a target image. And then, the resulting transformation is used to propagate the anatomical structure labels of the atlas into the space of the target image. The top L similar atlases are further chosen by measuring intensity and structure difference in the region of interest around prostate. Finally, using voxel weighting based on patch-based anatomical signature, the label that the majority of all warped labels predict for each voxel is used for the final segmentation of the target image. Results: This segmentation technique was validated with a clinical study of 13 patients. The accuracy of our approach was assessed using the manual segmentation (gold standard). The mean volume Dice Overlap Coefficient was 89.5±2.9% between our and manual segmentation, which indicate that the automatic segmentation method works well and could be used for 3D MRI-guided prostate intervention. Conclusion: We have developed a new prostate segmentation approach based on the optimal feature learning label fusion framework, demonstrated its clinical feasibility, and validated its accuracy. This segmentation technique could be

  14. Segmentation of the tissues from MR images using basic anatomical information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Nobutoshi; Notoya, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Toshiyasu; Mochimaru, Masaaki.

    1994-01-01

    Automatic segmentation methods of MR images have been developed for the cardiac surgery and the brain surgery. In these fields, Region Growing method has been used mainly. In this method, the core was inserted manually, and the pixel adjoining the core was judged whether it was homogeneous or not from its features based on image information. The core grew adding the homogeneous pixels, and the region of interest was obtained as the grown core. It is available for orthopedic surgery and biomechanics to obtain the location and the orientation of bones and soft tissues in vivo. However, MR images including them could not be segmented by the former region growing method based on only image information. This is because those tissues had fuzzy boundaries on the image. Thus, we used not only intensity and spatial gradient as image information but also location, size and complexity of the tissue to segment the MR images. The pixel adjoining the core was judged from three local features of the pixel ; its intensity, gradient and location, and two global features of the core region ; its size and complexity. Judgment was performed by Fuzzy Reasoning to allow their fuzzy boundaries. The homogeneous pixel was added into the core region. It grew into normal size and smooth shape under constraint of global anatomical features. Using the present method, as an example, radius, ulna and interosseous membrane were segmented from the multi-sliced MR images of forearm. Segmented tissues agreed with the shape inserted manually by a medical doctor. As s result, three tissues containing different features on the MR image could be segmented by a single algorithm. It takes about 10 sec per slice by using an engineering workstation. (author)

  15. Segmentation of the tissues from MR images using basic anatomical information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Nobutoshi; Notoya, Yoshiaki [Keio Univ., Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology; Nakamura, Toshiyasu; Mochimaru, Masaaki

    1994-11-01

    Automatic segmentation methods of MR images have been developed for the cardiac surgery and the brain surgery. In these fields, Region Growing method has been used mainly. In this method, the core was inserted manually, and the pixel adjoining the core was judged whether it was homogeneous or not from its features based on image information. The core grew adding the homogeneous pixels, and the region of interest was obtained as the grown core. It is available for orthopedic surgery and biomechanics to obtain the location and the orientation of bones and soft tissues in vivo. However, MR images including them could not be segmented by the former region growing method based on only image information. This is because those tissues had fuzzy boundaries on the image. Thus, we used not only intensity and spatial gradient as image information but also location, size and complexity of the tissue to segment the MR images. The pixel adjoining the core was judged from three local features of the pixel ; its intensity, gradient and location, and two global features of the core region ; its size and complexity. Judgment was performed by Fuzzy Reasoning to allow their fuzzy boundaries. The homogeneous pixel was added into the core region. It grew into normal size and smooth shape under constraint of global anatomical features. Using the present method, as an example, radius, ulna and interosseous membrane were segmented from the multi-sliced MR images of forearm. Segmented tissues agreed with the shape inserted manually by a medical doctor. As s result, three tissues containing different features on the MR image could be segmented by a single algorithm. It takes about 10 sec per slice by using an engineering workstation. (author).

  16. Effect of hyoscine butylbromide on prostate multiparametric MRI anatomical and functional image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slough, R A; Caglic, I; Hansen, N L; Patterson, A J; Barrett, T

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of the spasmolytic agent hyoscine butylbromide (HBB) on the quality of anatomical and functional imaging of the prostate. One hundred and seventy-three patients were included in this retrospective study. Eighty-seven patients received intravenous HBB prior to scanning (HBB group) and 86 patients did not (non-HBB group). Multiparametric (mp) 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed using a 32-channel body coil. Two radiologists independently evaluated the image quality of T2-weighted imaging (WI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps, using a five-point Likert scale. DWI was further assessed for distortion and artefact (four-point Likert scale), and T2WI for the presence of motion artefact or blurring. Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) image quality was assessed by recording the number of corrupt contrast curve data points. T2W image quality in the HBB group was significantly higher than in the non-HBB group (3.63±1.11 versus 2.84±0.899); ppoints from the contrast curve (2.47±2.44 versus 3.68±2.64), but this did not reach significance (p=0.052). Administration of HBB significantly improves the image quality of T2WI images. These results provide evidence for the use of HBB in routine patient preparation prior to prostate mpMRI. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. ASTM reference radiologic digital image standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wysnewski, R.; Wysnewski, D.

    1996-01-01

    ASTM Reference Radiographs have been essential in defining industry's material defect grade levels for many years. ASTM Reference Radiographs are used extensively as even the American Society for Metals Nondestructive Inspection and Quality Control Metals Handbook, Volume 11, eighth edition refers to ASTM Standard Reference Radiographs. The recently published E 1648 Standard Reference Radiographs for Examination of Aluminum Fusion Welds is a prime example of the on-going need for these references. To date, 14 Standard Reference Radiographs have been published to characterize material defects. Standard Reference Radiographs do not adequately address film-less radiologic methods. There are differences in mediums to content with. On a computer CRT defect indications appear differently when compared to indications viewed in a radiograph on a view box. Industry that uses non-film radiologic methods of inspection can be burdened with additional time and money developing internal standard reference radiologic images. These references may be deemed necessary for grading levels of product defects. Because there are no ASTM Standard Reference Radiologic data files for addressing this need in the industry, the authors of this paper suggested implementing a method for their creation under ASTM supervision. ASTM can assure continuity to those users making the transition from analog radiographic images to digital image data by swiftly addressing the requirements for reference digital image standards. The current status and possible future activities regarding a method to create digital data files is presented in this paper summary

  18. The impact of reorienting cone-beam computed tomographic images in varied head positions on the coordinates of anatomical landmarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hun; Jeong, Ho Gul; Hwang, Jae Joon; Lee, Jung Hee; Han, Sang Sun [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Yonsei University, College of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The aim of this study was to compare the coordinates of anatomical landmarks on cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) images in varied head positions before and after reorientation using image analysis software. CBCT images were taken in a normal position and four varied head positions using a dry skull marked with 3 points where gutta percha was fixed. In each of the five radiographic images, reference points were set, 20 anatomical landmarks were identified, and each set of coordinates was calculated. Coordinates in the images from the normally positioned head were compared with those in the images obtained from varied head positions using statistical methods. Post-reorientation coordinates calculated using a three-dimensional image analysis program were also compared to the reference coordinates. In the original images, statistically significant differences were found between coordinates in the normal-position and varied-position images. However, post-reorientation, no statistically significant differences were found between coordinates in the normal-position and varied-position images. The changes in head position impacted the coordinates of the anatomical landmarks in three-dimensional images. However, reorientation using image analysis software allowed accurate superimposition onto the reference positions.

  19. Image-guided surgical planning using anatomical landmarks in the retrosigmoid approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Erasmo Barros; Leal, André G; Milano, Jerônimo B; da Silva, Luis F Moura; Clemente, Rogério S; Ramina, Ricardo

    2010-05-01

    The suboccipital lateral or retrosigmoid approach is the main neurosurgical approach to the cerebellopontine angle (CPA). It is mainly used in the treatment of CPA tumors and vascular decompression of cranial nerves. A prospective study using navigation registered with anatomical landmarks in order to identify the transverse and sigmoid sinuses junction (TSSJ) was carried out in a series of 30 retrosigmoid craniotomies. The goal of this study was to determine the accuracy of this navigation technique and to establish the relationship between the location of the asterion and the TSSJ. From March through November 2008, 30 patients underwent a retrosigmoid craniotomy for removal of CPA tumors or for surgical treatment of neurovascular syndromes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T1 sequences with gadolinium (FSPGR with FatSst, 1.5 T GE Signa) and frameless navigation (Vector vision, Brainlab) were used for surgical planning. Registration was performed using six anatomical landmarks. The position of the TSSJ indicated by navigation was the landmark to guide the craniotomy. The location of the asterion was compared with the position of the TSSJ. After craniotomy, the real TSSJ position was compared with the virtual position, as demonstrated by navigation. There were 19 cases of vestibular schwannomas, 5 petroclival meningiomas, 3 trigeminal neuralgias, 1 angioblastoma, 1 epidermoid cyst and 1 hemifacial spasm. In all cases, navigation enabled the location of the TSSJ and the emissary vein, with an accuracy flaw below 2 mm. The asterion was located directly over the TSSJ in only seven cases. One patient had a laceration of the sigmoid sinus during the craniotomy. Navigation using anatomical landmarks for registration is a reliable method in the localization of the TSSJ for retrosigmoid craniotomies and thereby avoiding unnecessary sinus exposure. In addition, the method proved to be fast and accurate. The asterion was found to be a less accurate landmark for the

  20. The Anterolateral Limit of the Occipital Lobe: An Anatomical and Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Cassius Vinicius C; Yagmurlu, Kaan; Elhadi, Ali M; Dru, Alexander; Lei, Ting; Gusmão, Sebastião N S; Tazinaffo, Uédson; Zabramski, Joseph M; Spetzler, Robert F; Preul, Mark C

    2016-12-01

    Objectives  The boundaries of the temporal lobe, the parietal lobe, and the anterior portion of the occipital lobe (OL) are poorly defined. Lesions in these areas can be difficult to localize. Therefore, we studied the anterolateral limit of the OL to identify reliable anatomical landmarks. Design  In 10 formalin-fixed cadaveric heads, the boundaries of the OL and relative anatomical landmarks were studied. Main Outcome Measures  Distances between the following structures were measured: (1) preoccipital tentorial plica (POTP) to the junction between lambdoid suture and superior border of the transverse sinus (POTP-SL), (2) POTP to the sinodural angle of Citelli (POTP-PP), (3) lambda to parietooccipital sulcus (L-POS), and (4) preoccipital notch to termination of the vein of Labbé (PON-VL). Landmarks in 559 computed tomography and magnetic resonance images were also studied. Results  The POTP was found on the tentorium of all anatomical specimens, located at the same coronal level as the PON and its attachment to the bony protuberance (BP) at the lateral cranial wall. The mean distances were POTP-SL, 6.5 ± 6.4 mm; POTP-PP, 18.1 ± 7.8 mm; L-POS, 10.8 ± 5.0 mm; and PON-VL, 8.8 ± 10.1 mm. Conclusion  Osseous (asterion, lambda, and BP), dural (POTP), and vascular (VL) landmarks can be used as reference structures to identify the anterolateral limit of the OL.

  1. Positioning a Novel Transcutaneous Bone Conduction Hearing Implant: a Systematic Anatomical and Radiological Study to Standardize the Retrosigmoid Approach, Correlating Navigation-guided, and Landmark-based Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Heinz; Schulze, Maximilian; Wolpert, Stephan; Hirt, Bernhard; Tropitzsch, Anke; Zimmermann, Rainer; Radeloff, Andreas; Löwenheim, Hubert; Reimann, Katrin

    2018-04-01

    Anatomical and radiological evaluation improves safety and accuracy of the retrosigmoid approach for positioning a transcutaneous bone conduction implant and provides anatomical reference data for standardized, landmark-based implantation at this alternative site. The primary implantation site for the floating mass transducer of a novel bone conduction hearing implant is the mastoid. However, anatomical limitations or previous mastoid surgery may prevent mastoid implantation. Therefore, the retrosigmoid approach has been introduced as an alternative. Mastoid and retrosigmoid implantation sites were radiologically identified and evaluated in preoperative computed tomography scans of anatomical head specimens. Navigation-guided implantation was then performed in the retrosigmoid site (n = 20). The optimal retrosigmoid position was determined in relation to both the asterion and the mastoid notch as surgical landmarks in an anatomical coordinate system. Preoperative radiological analysis revealed spatial limitations in the mastoid in 45% of the specimens. Navigation-guided retrosigmoid implantation was possible without affecting the sigmoid sinus in all the specimens. The optimal implantation site was located 1.9 ± 0.1 cm posterior/1.7 ± 0.1 cm inferior to the asterion and 3.3 ± 0.2 cm posterior/2.1 ± 0.1 cm superior to the mastoid notch.Retrosigmoid skull thickness was 6.6 ± 0.4 mm, measured anatomically, 7.0 ± 0.4 mm, measured radiologically and 6.7 ± 0.5 mm, measured with the navigation software. The navigation-guided retrosigmoid approach seemed to be a reliable procedure in all the specimens. Measurements of bone thickness revealed the need for spacers in 95% of the specimens. Reference coordinates of the optimal implantation site are provided and can confirm image-guided surgery or facilitate orientation if a navigation system is not available.

  2. Construction of a homogeneous phantom for radiographic image standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, Diana Rodrigues de

    1996-01-01

    The principle of radiodiagnosis consists in the fact the X-ray beam is attenuated at different degrees by distinct tissues. For this reason, the anatomical structures have distinct radiological opacities, that produce the radiographic image. The progresses in radiology are related to the development if new radiographic image formation systems that enable an amplification in the quality, with low dose and/or risk to the patient. The objective of this work is the sensitometric valuation of a screen-film combination, that is still the most used, for the standardization, of radiographic images. Thinking about this, were constructed homogeneous phantoms of the chest, skull and pelvis, for the calibration of X-ray beams, with the purpose of obtaining radiographic images of good quality, basing in the routine of a radiodiagnosis service and in the scientific knowledge. Questions were approached about the choice of the suitable equipment, that allow the obtention of k Vp and m As combinations, to produce radiographic images of good quality, and the reproduction of these combinations to any conventional equipment of diagnostic X-rays. Also presented are the comparison of the doses imparted by these combinations and those used in routine of the Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto's radiodiagnosis service. (author)

  3. Particle image velocimetry measurements in an anatomical vascular model fabricated using inkjet 3D printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycock, Kenneth I.; Hariharan, Prasanna; Craven, Brent A.

    2017-11-01

    For decades, the study of biomedical fluid dynamics using optical flow visualization and measurement techniques has been limited by the inability to fabricate transparent physical models that realistically replicate the complex morphology of biological lumens. In this study, we present an approach for producing optically transparent anatomical models that are suitable for particle image velocimetry (PIV) using a common 3D inkjet printing process (PolyJet) and stock resin (VeroClear). By matching the index of refraction of the VeroClear material using a room-temperature mixture of water, sodium iodide, and glycerol, and by printing the part in an orientation such that the flat, optical surfaces are at an approximately 45° angle to the build plane, we overcome the challenges associated with using this 3D printing technique for PIV. Here, we summarize our methodology and demonstrate the process and the resultant PIV measurements of flow in an optically transparent anatomical model of the human inferior vena cava.

  4. Automated Analysis of 123I-beta-CIT SPECT Images with Statistical Probabilistic Anatomical Mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eo, Jae Seon; Lee, Hoyoung; Lee, Jae Sung; Kim, Yu Kyung; Jeon, Bumseok; Lee, Dong Soo

    2014-01-01

    Population-based statistical probabilistic anatomical maps have been used to generate probabilistic volumes of interest for analyzing perfusion and metabolic brain imaging. We investigated the feasibility of automated analysis for dopamine transporter images using this technique and evaluated striatal binding potentials in Parkinson's disease and Wilson's disease. We analyzed 2β-Carbomethoxy-3β-(4- 123 I-iodophenyl)tropane ( 123 I-beta-CIT) SPECT images acquired from 26 people with Parkinson's disease (M:F=11:15,mean age=49±12 years), 9 people with Wilson's disease (M: F=6:3, mean age=26±11 years) and 17 normal controls (M:F=5:12, mean age=39±16 years). A SPECT template was created using striatal statistical probabilistic map images. All images were spatially normalized onto the template, and probability-weighted regional counts in striatal structures were estimated. The binding potential was calculated using the ratio of specific and nonspecific binding activities at equilibrium. Voxel-based comparisons between groups were also performed using statistical parametric mapping. Qualitative assessment showed that spatial normalizations of the SPECT images were successful for all images. The striatal binding potentials of participants with Parkinson's disease and Wilson's disease were significantly lower than those of normal controls. Statistical parametric mapping analysis found statistically significant differences only in striatal regions in both disease groups compared to controls. We successfully evaluated the regional 123 I-beta-CIT distribution using the SPECT template and probabilistic map data automatically. This procedure allows an objective and quantitative comparison of the binding potential, which in this case showed a significantly decreased binding potential in the striata of patients with Parkinson's disease or Wilson's disease

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of the tensor vastus intermedius: A topographic study based on anatomical dissections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Karl; Manestar, Mirjana; Gascho, Dominic; Ackland, Timothy; Gilbey, Helen; Fretz, Christian; Kuster, Markus S

    2017-11-01

    The tensor of the vastus intermedius (TVI) is a newly described component of the extensor apparatus of the knee joint. The objective of this study was to evaluate the appearance of the TVI on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and its association with the adjacent vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus intermedius (VI) muscles and to compare these findings with the corresponding anatomy. MR images were analyzed from a cadaveric thigh where the TVI, as part of the extensor apparatus of the knee joint, had been dissected. The course of the TVI in relation to the adjacent VL and VI was studied. The anatomic dissection and MR imaging revealed a multilayered organization of the lateral extensor apparatus of the knee joint. The TVI is an intervening muscle between the VL and VI that combined into a broad flat aponeurosis in the midthigh and merged into the quadriceps tendon. Dorsally, the muscle fibers of the TVI joined those of the VL and VI and blended into the attachment at the lateral lip of the linea aspera. In this area, distinguishing between these three muscles was not possible macroscopically or virtually by MR imaging. In the dorsal aspect, the onion-like muscle layers of the VL, TVI, and VI fuse to a hardly separable muscle mass indicating that these muscles work in conjunction to produce knee extension torque when knee joint action is performed. Clin. Anat. 30:1096-1102, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Computerized detection of unruptured aneurysms in MRA images: reduction of false positives using anatomical location features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Yoshikazu; Gao, Xin; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi; Ando, Hiromichi; Yamakawa, Hiroyasu; Asano, Takahiko; Kato, Hiroki; Iwama, Toru; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Hoshi, Hiroaki

    2008-03-01

    The detection of unruptured aneurysms is a major subject in magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). However, their accurate detection is often difficult because of the overlapping between the aneurysm and the adjacent vessels on maximum intensity projection images. The purpose of this study is to develop a computerized method for the detection of unruptured aneurysms in order to assist radiologists in image interpretation. The vessel regions were first segmented using gray-level thresholding and a region growing technique. The gradient concentration (GC) filter was then employed for the enhancement of the aneurysms. The initial candidates were identified in the GC image using a gray-level threshold. For the elimination of false positives (FPs), we determined shape features and an anatomical location feature. Finally, rule-based schemes and quadratic discriminant analysis were employed along with these features for distinguishing between the aneurysms and the FPs. The sensitivity for the detection of unruptured aneurysms was 90.0% with 1.52 FPs per patient. Our computerized scheme can be useful in assisting the radiologists in the detection of unruptured aneurysms in MRA images.

  7. Standard digital reference images for titanium castings

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 The digital reference images provided in the adjunct to this standard illustrate various types and degrees of discontinuities occurring in titanium castings. Use of this standard for the specification or grading of castings requires procurement of the adjunct digital reference images, which illustrate the discontinuity types and severity levels. They are intended to provide the following: 1.1.1 A guide enabling recognition of titanium casting discontinuities and their differentiation both as to type and degree through digital radiographic examination. 1.1.2 Example digital radiographic illustrations of discontinuities and a nomenclature for reference in acceptance standards, specifications and drawings. 1.2 The digital reference images consist of seventeen digital files each illustrating eight grades of increasing severity. The files illustrate seven common discontinuity types representing casting sections up to 1-in. (25.4-mm). 1.3 The reference radiographs were developed for casting sections up to 1...

  8. Quantitatively Measured Anatomic Location and Volume of Optic Disc Drusen: An Enhanced Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmqvist, Lasse; Lindberg, Anne-Sofie Wessel; Dahl, Vedrana Andersen

    2017-01-01

    Optic disc drusen (ODD) are found in up to 2.4% of the population and are known to cause visual field defects. The purpose of the current study was to investigate how quantitatively estimated volume and anatomic location of ODD influence optic nerve function. Anatomic location, volume of ODD......, and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer and macular ganglion cell layer thickness were assessed in 37 ODD patients using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography. Volume of ODD was calculated by manual segmentation of ODD in 97 B-scans per eye. Anatomic characteristics were compared with optic nerve.......025) and had a higher effect on MD when compared to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness. Large ODD volume is associated with optic nerve dysfunction. The worse visual field defects associated with visible ODD should only be ascribed to larger ODD volume and not to a more superficial anatomic ODD location....

  9. Imaging evidence for anatomical disturbances and neuroplastic compensation in persons with Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Bansal, Ravi; Peterson, Bradley S

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tourette syndrome (TS) is a disorder of chronic motor and vocal tics that begins in childhood. METHODS: A systematic Medline search was conducted to identify existing anatomical imaging studies in persons with TS. RESULTS: Thirty studies were identified, and their methods and findings...... were reviewed. Findings of reduced caudate volumes across the life span and thinning of sensorimotor cortices that is proportional with tic severity in children with TS implicate these regions in the genesis of tics. Hypertrophy of limbic and prefrontal cortices and a smaller corpus callosum accompany...... fewer symptoms in children with TS, likely representing an activity-dependent plasticity within these regions that help to modulate tic severity. CONCLUSION: Although existing studies differ with respect to sample size, gender composition, quality of clinical characterization, pulse sequences...

  10. Development of anatomically and dielectrically accurate breast phantoms for microwave imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, M.; Lohfeld, S.; Ruvio, G.; Browne, J.; Krewer, F.; Ribeiro, C. O.; Inacio Pita, V. C.; Conceicao, R. C.; Jones, E.; Glavin, M.

    2014-05-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women. In the United States alone, it accounts for 31% of new cancer cases, and is second only to lung cancer as the leading cause of deaths in American women. More than 184,000 new cases of breast cancer are diagnosed each year resulting in approximately 41,000 deaths. Early detection and intervention is one of the most significant factors in improving the survival rates and quality of life experienced by breast cancer sufferers, since this is the time when treatment is most effective. One of the most promising breast imaging modalities is microwave imaging. The physical basis of active microwave imaging is the dielectric contrast between normal and malignant breast tissue that exists at microwave frequencies. The dielectric contrast is mainly due to the increased water content present in the cancerous tissue. Microwave imaging is non-ionizing, does not require breast compression, is less invasive than X-ray mammography, and is potentially low cost. While several prototype microwave breast imaging systems are currently in various stages of development, the design and fabrication of anatomically and dielectrically representative breast phantoms to evaluate these systems is often problematic. While some existing phantoms are composed of dielectrically representative materials, they rarely accurately represent the shape and size of a typical breast. Conversely, several phantoms have been developed to accurately model the shape of the human breast, but have inappropriate dielectric properties. This study will brie y review existing phantoms before describing the development of a more accurate and practical breast phantom for the evaluation of microwave breast imaging systems.

  11. Anisotropic Margin Expansions in 6 Anatomic Directions for Oropharyngeal Image Guided Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yock, Adam D.; Garden, Adam S.; Court, Laurence E.; Beadle, Beth M.; Zhang, Lifei; Dong, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to determine the expansions in 6 anatomic directions that produced optimal margins considering nonrigid setup errors and tissue deformation for patients receiving image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) of the oropharynx. Methods and Materials: For 20 patients who had received IGRT to the head and neck, we deformably registered each patient's daily images acquired with a computed tomography (CT)-on-rails system to his or her planning CT. By use of the resulting vector fields, the positions of volume elements within the clinical target volume (CTV) (target voxels) or within a 1-cm shell surrounding the CTV (normal tissue voxels) on the planning CT were identified on each daily CT. We generated a total of 15,625 margins by dilating the CTV by 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 mm in the posterior, anterior, lateral, medial, inferior, and superior directions. The optimal margins were those that minimized the relative volume of normal tissue voxels positioned within the margin while satisfying 1 of 4 geometric target coverage criteria and 1 of 3 population criteria. Results: Each pair of geometric target coverage and population criteria resulted in a unique, anisotropic, optimal margin. The optimal margin expansions ranged in magnitude from 1 to 5 mm depending on the anatomic direction of the expansion and on the geometric target coverage and population criteria. Typically, the expansions were largest in the medial direction, were smallest in the lateral direction, and increased with the demand of the criteria. The anisotropic margin resulting from the optimal set of expansions always included less normal tissue than did any isotropic margin that satisfied the same pair of criteria. Conclusions: We demonstrated the potential of anisotropic margins to reduce normal tissue exposure without compromising target coverage in IGRT to the head and neck

  12. Cone beam volume tomography: an imaging option for diagnosis of complex mandibular third molar anatomical relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danforth, Robert A; Peck, Jerry; Hall, Paul

    2003-11-01

    Complex impacted third molars present potential treatment complications and possible patient morbidity. Objectives of diagnostic imaging are to facilitate diagnosis, decision making, and enhance treatment outcomes. As cases become more complex, advanced multiplane imaging methods allowing for a 3-D view are more likely to meet these objectives than traditional 2-D radiography. Until recently, advanced imaging options were somewhat limited to standard film tomography or medical CT, but development of cone beam volume tomography (CBVT) multiplane 3-D imaging systems specifically for dental use now provides an alternative imaging option. Two cases were utilized to compare the role of CBVT to these other imaging options and to illustrate how multiplane visualization can assist the pretreatment evaluation and decision-making process for complex impacted mandibular third molar cases.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging based classification of anatomic relationship between the cochleovestibular nerve and anterior inferior cerebellar artery in patients with non-specific neuro-otologic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirikci, Akif; Bayazit, Yildirim; Ozer, Enver; Ozkur, Ayhan; Adaletli, Ibrahim; Cüce, M Ali; Bayram, Metin

    2005-12-01

    In this study, we aimed to assess anatomical relationship between the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) and cochleovestibular nerve (CNV) in patients with non-specific cochleovestibular symptoms using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). One-hundred and forty patients with non-specific neuro-otologic symptoms were assessed using cranial and temporal MRI. Classification was performed according to four different types of anatomical relationship observed between the AICA and CVN. In type 1 (point compression), the AICA compresses only a limited portion of the CVN. In type 2 (longitudinal compression), the AICA approaches the CVN as both traverse parallel to each other. In type 3 (loop compression), the vascular loop of the AICA encircles the CVN. In type 4 (indentation), the AICA compresses the CVN so as to make an indentation in the nerve. The anatomical relationship between the CVN and AICA was encountered in 19 out of 140 (13.6%) patients (20 ears). The VCC was unilateral in 18 patients (94.7%) and bilateral in one patient (5.3%). There was no other vascular structure causing VCC to the CVN except for vertebral artery that was seen in 2 out of 140 patients (1.4%). These were unilateral cases. There were tinnitus, vertigo or dizziness, hearing loss, and both hearing loss and vertigo in 5 (25%), 13 (65%), 1 (5%) and 1 (5%) ears of 20 patients, respectively. There was no relationship between the cochleovestibular symptoms and type of compression (p>0.05). Neurovascular relationship between the CVN and AICA can be imaged properly using MR and MR based classification may help reporting this relationship in a standard way. Although, MR images can show the anatomical relationship accurately, diagnosis of vascular conflict should not be based on imaging findings alone.

  14. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging for real-time intraoperative anatomical guidance in minimally invasive surgery: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schols, Rutger M; Connell, Niels J; Stassen, Laurents P S

    2015-05-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging, using contrast agents with fluorescent characteristics in the near-infrared (NIR: 700-900 nm) window, is considered to possess great potential for clinical practice in the future of minimally invasive surgery (MIS), given its capacity for intraoperative, real-time anatomical navigation, and identification. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the literature concerning the current and potential future applications of fluorescence imaging in supporting anatomical guidance during MIS, and thereby guiding future research. A systematic literature search was performed in the PubMed and Embase databases. All identified articles were screened and checked for eligibility by two authors. In addition, literature was sought by screening references of eligible articles. After administration of a fluorescent dye (e.g., indocyanine green), NIRF imaging can be helpful to improve the visualization of vital anatomical structures during MIS. Extra-hepatic bile ducts, arteries, ureters, sentinel lymph nodes, and lymph vessels have successfully been identified using NIRF imaging. A uniform approach regarding timing and route of dye administration has not yet been established. Optimization of both imaging systems and fluorescent dyes is needed to improve current shortcomings. New preclinical dyes are considered for optimization of NIRF imaging. Future implementation of new intraoperative optical methods, such as NIRF, could significantly contribute to intraoperative anatomy navigation and facilitate critical decision-making in MIS. Further research (i.e., large multi-center randomized controlled trials) is needed to establish the true value of this innovative optical imaging technique in standard clinical practice.

  15. Ultrasound in Radiology: from Anatomic, Functional, Molecular Imaging to Drug Delivery and Image-Guided Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klibanov, Alexander L.; Hossack, John A.

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, ultrasound has expanded medical imaging well beyond the “traditional” radiology setting - a combination of portability, low cost and ease of use makes ultrasound imaging an indispensable tool for radiologists as well as for other medical professionals who need to obtain imaging diagnosis or guide a therapeutic intervention quickly and efficiently. Ultrasound combines excellent ability for deep penetration into soft tissues with very good spatial resolution, with only a few exceptions (i.e. those involving overlying bone or gas). Real-time imaging (up to hundreds and thousands frames per second) enables guidance of therapeutic procedures and biopsies; characterization of the mechanical properties of the tissues greatly aids with the accuracy of the procedures. The ability of ultrasound to deposit energy locally brings about the potential for localized intervention encompassing: tissue ablation, enhancing penetration through the natural barriers to drug delivery in the body and triggering drug release from carrier micro- and nanoparticles. The use of microbubble contrast agents brings the ability to monitor and quantify tissue perfusion, and microbubble targeting with ligand-decorated microbubbles brings the ability to obtain molecular biomarker information, i.e., ultrasound molecular imaging. Overall, ultrasound has become the most widely used imaging modality in modern medicine; it will continue to grow and expand. PMID:26200224

  16. Development of image and information management system for Korean standard brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Soon Cheol; Choi, Do Young; Tack, Gye Rae; Sohn, Jin Hun

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish a reference for image acquisition for completing a standard brain for diverse Korean population, and to develop database management system that saves and manages acquired brain images and personal information of subjects. 3D MP-RAGE (Magnetization Prepared Rapid Gradient Echo) technique which has excellent Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR) as well as reduces image acquisition time was selected for anatomical image acquisition, and parameter values were obtained for the optimal image acquisition. Using these standards, image data of 121 young adults (early twenties) were obtained and stored in the system. System was designed to obtain, save, and manage not only anatomical image data but also subjects' basic demographic factors, medical history, handedness inventory, state-trait anxiety inventory, A-type personality inventory, self-assessment depression inventory, mini-mental state examination, intelligence test, and results of personality test via a survey questionnaire. Additionally this system was designed to have functions of saving, inserting, deleting, searching, and printing image data and personal information of subjects, and to have accessibility to them as well as automatic connection setup with ODBC. This newly developed system may have major contribution to the completion of a standard brain for diverse Korean population since it can save and manage their image data and personal information.

  17. Computed tomographic, magnetic resonance imaging, and cross-sectional anatomic features of the manus in a normal American black bear (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, C P; Freeman, L E

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed description of cross-sectional anatomic structures of the manus of a black bear cadaver and correlate anatomic findings with corresponding features in computed tomographic (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images. CT, MR imaging, and transverse sectioning were performed on the thoracic limb of a cadaver female black bear which had no evidence of lameness or thoracic limb abnormality prior to death. Features in CT and MR images corresponding to clinically important anatomic structures in anatomic sections were identified. Most of the structures identified in transverse anatomic sections were also identified using CT and MR imaging. Bones, muscles and tendons were generally easily identified with both imaging modalities, although divisions between adjacent muscles were rarely visible with CT and only visible sometimes with MR imaging. Vascular structures could not be identified with either imaging modality.

  18. The quest for standards in medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibaud, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on standards supporting interoperability and system integration in the medical imaging domain. We introduce the basic concepts and actors and we review the most salient achievements in this domain, especially with the DICOM standard, and the definition of IHE integration profiles. We analyze and discuss what was successful, and what could still be more widely adopted by industry. We then sketch out a perspective of what should be done next, based on our vision of new requirements for the next decade. In particular, we discuss the challenges of a more explicit sharing of image and image processing semantics, and we discuss the help that semantic web technologies (and especially ontologies) may bring to achieving this goal.

  19. Analysis of the priority of anatomic structures according to the diagnostic task in cone-beam computed tomographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dankook University College of Dentistry, Chunan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    This study was designed to evaluate differences in the required visibility of anatomic structures according to the diagnostic tasks of implant planning and periapical diagnosis. Images of a real skull phantom were acquired under 24 combinations of different exposure conditions in a cone-beam computed tomography scanner (60, 70, 80, 90, 100, and 110 kV and 4, 6, 8, and 10 mA). Five radiologists evaluated the visibility of anatomic structures and the image quality for diagnostic tasks using a 6-point scale. The visibility of the periodontal ligament space showed the closest association with the ability to use an image for periapical diagnosis in both jaws. The visibility of the sinus floor and canal wall showed the closest association with the ability to use an image for implant planning. Variations in tube voltage were associated with significant differences in image quality for all diagnostic tasks. However, tube current did not show significant associations with the ability to use an image for implant planning. The required visibility of anatomic structures varied depending on the diagnostic task. Tube voltage was a more important exposure parameter for image quality than tube current. Different settings should be used for optimization and image quality evaluation depending on the diagnostic task.

  20. Analysis of the priority of anatomic structures according to the diagnostic task in cone-beam computed tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jin Woo

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate differences in the required visibility of anatomic structures according to the diagnostic tasks of implant planning and periapical diagnosis. Images of a real skull phantom were acquired under 24 combinations of different exposure conditions in a cone-beam computed tomography scanner (60, 70, 80, 90, 100, and 110 kV and 4, 6, 8, and 10 mA). Five radiologists evaluated the visibility of anatomic structures and the image quality for diagnostic tasks using a 6-point scale. The visibility of the periodontal ligament space showed the closest association with the ability to use an image for periapical diagnosis in both jaws. The visibility of the sinus floor and canal wall showed the closest association with the ability to use an image for implant planning. Variations in tube voltage were associated with significant differences in image quality for all diagnostic tasks. However, tube current did not show significant associations with the ability to use an image for implant planning. The required visibility of anatomic structures varied depending on the diagnostic task. Tube voltage was a more important exposure parameter for image quality than tube current. Different settings should be used for optimization and image quality evaluation depending on the diagnostic task

  1. Comparison of brain perfusion SPECT abnormalities with anatomical imaging in mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Asadi

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trauma is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized countries and also in Iran. Anatomical imaging (AI CT and MRI is helpful in the diagnosis of acute traumatic complications however it is not efficient in the diagnosis of disabling injury syndrome. In contrast, brain perfusion SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography can be more useful for evaluation of microvascular structure. This study was designed to compare these two diagnostic methods. Methods: A total of 50 patients who had been suffering from traumatic brain injury for more than 1 year, and were followed as mild traumatic brain injury group according to “the Brain Injury Interdisciplinary Special Interest Group of the Ameri can Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine” criteria, were examined by brain perfusion SPECT and AI. The common anatomical classification of the lobes of brain was used. Results: The male to female ratio was 3:2. The mean age was 32.32±11.8 years and mean post-traumatic time was 1.48±0.65 years. The most common symptoms were headache (60%, agusia (36% and anosmia (32%. Among 400 examined brain lobes in this study, brain perfusion SPECT revealed remarkable abnormality in 76 lobes (19%, but AI determined abnormalities in 38 lobes (9.5% therefore, SPECT was twice sensitive than AI in mild traumatic brain injury (P<0.001. The correlation between SPECT and AI findings was 84%. SPECT was more sensitive than AI in demonstrating brain abnormalities in frontal lobe it was more obvious in the male group however, there was no significant difference between more and less than 30 years old groups. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, we recommend using brain perfusion SPECT for all patients with chronic complications of head trauma, particularly those who have signs and symptoms of hypofrontalism, even though with some abnormalities in AI.

  2. MIDA: A Multimodal Imaging-Based Detailed Anatomical Model of the Human Head and Neck.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ida Iacono

    Full Text Available Computational modeling and simulations are increasingly being used to complement experimental testing for analysis of safety and efficacy of medical devices. Multiple voxel- and surface-based whole- and partial-body models have been proposed in the literature, typically with spatial resolution in the range of 1-2 mm and with 10-50 different tissue types resolved. We have developed a multimodal imaging-based detailed anatomical model of the human head and neck, named "MIDA". The model was obtained by integrating three different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI modalities, the parameters of which were tailored to enhance the signals of specific tissues: i structural T1- and T2-weighted MRIs; a specific heavily T2-weighted MRI slab with high nerve contrast optimized to enhance the structures of the ear and eye; ii magnetic resonance angiography (MRA data to image the vasculature, and iii diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to obtain information on anisotropy and fiber orientation. The unique multimodal high-resolution approach allowed resolving 153 structures, including several distinct muscles, bones and skull layers, arteries and veins, nerves, as well as salivary glands. The model offers also a detailed characterization of eyes, ears, and deep brain structures. A special automatic atlas-based segmentation procedure was adopted to include a detailed map of the nuclei of the thalamus and midbrain into the head model. The suitability of the model to simulations involving different numerical methods, discretization approaches, as well as DTI-based tensorial electrical conductivity, was examined in a case-study, in which the electric field was generated by transcranial alternating current stimulation. The voxel- and the surface-based versions of the models are freely available to the scientific community.

  3. Standardized food images: A photographing protocol and image database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnier, Lisette; van Meer, Floor; van der Laan, Laura N; Viergever, Max A; Smeets, Paul A M

    2016-01-01

    The regulation of food intake has gained much research interest because of the current obesity epidemic. For research purposes, food images are a good and convenient alternative for real food because many dietary decisions are made based on the sight of foods. Food pictures are assumed to elicit anticipatory responses similar to real foods because of learned associations between visual food characteristics and post-ingestive consequences. In contemporary food science, a wide variety of images are used which introduces between-study variability and hampers comparison and meta-analysis of results. Therefore, we created an easy-to-use photographing protocol which enables researchers to generate high resolution food images appropriate for their study objective and population. In addition, we provide a high quality standardized picture set which was characterized in seven European countries. With the use of this photographing protocol a large number of food images were created. Of these images, 80 were selected based on their recognizability in Scotland, Greece and The Netherlands. We collected image characteristics such as liking, perceived calories and/or perceived healthiness ratings from 449 adults and 191 children. The majority of the foods were recognized and liked at all sites. The differences in liking ratings, perceived calories and perceived healthiness between sites were minimal. Furthermore, perceived caloric content and healthiness ratings correlated strongly (r ≥ 0.8) with actual caloric content in both adults and children. The photographing protocol as well as the images and the data are freely available for research use on http://nutritionalneuroscience.eu/. By providing the research community with standardized images and the tools to create their own, comparability between studies will be improved and a head-start is made for a world-wide standardized food image database. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Automatic segmentation of thoracic and pelvic CT images for radiotherapy planning using implicit anatomic knowledge and organ-specific segmentation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, B; Coradi, T; Scholz, M; Kunz, P; Huber, M; Oppitz, U; André, L; Lengkeek, V; Huyskens, D; van Esch, A; Reddick, R

    2008-03-21

    Automatic segmentation of anatomical structures in medical images is a valuable tool for efficient computer-aided radiotherapy and surgery planning and an enabling technology for dynamic adaptive radiotherapy. This paper presents the design, algorithms and validation of new software for the automatic segmentation of CT images used for radiotherapy treatment planning. A coarse to fine approach is followed that consists of presegmentation, anatomic orientation and structure segmentation. No user input or a priori information about the image content is required. In presegmentation, the body outline, the bones and lung equivalent tissue are detected. Anatomic orientation recognizes the patient's position, orientation and gender and creates an elastic mapping of the slice positions to a reference scale. Structure segmentation is divided into localization, outlining and refinement, performed by procedures with implicit anatomic knowledge using standard image processing operations. The presented version of algorithms automatically segments the body outline and bones in any gender and patient position, the prostate, bladder and femoral heads for male pelvis in supine position, and the spinal canal, lungs, heart and trachea in supine position. The software was developed and tested on a collection of over 600 clinical radiotherapy planning CT stacks. In a qualitative validation on this test collection, anatomic orientation correctly detected gender, patient position and body region in 98% of the cases, a correct mapping was produced for 89% of thorax and 94% of pelvis cases. The average processing time for the entire segmentation of a CT stack was less than 1 min on a standard personal computer. Two independent retrospective studies were carried out for clinical validation. Study I was performed on 66 cases (30 pelvis, 36 thorax) with dosimetrists, study II on 52 cases (39 pelvis, 13 thorax) with radio-oncologists as experts. The experts rated the automatically produced

  5. Adaptation requirements due to anatomical changes in free-breathing and deep-inspiration breath-hold for standard and dose-escalated radiotherapy of lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibolt, Patrik; Ottosson, Wiviann; Sjöström, David; Larsen, Christina; Behrens, Claus F

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy of lung cancer patients is subject to uncertainties related to heterogeneities, anatomical changes and breathing motion. Use of deep-inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) can reduce the treated volume, potentially enabling dose-escalated (DE) treatments. This study was designed to investigate the need for adaptation due to anatomical changes, for both standard (ST) and DE plans in free-breathing (FB) and DIBH. The effect of tumor shrinkage (TS), pleural effusion (PE) and atelectasis was investigated for patients and for a CIRS thorax phantom. Sixteen patients were computed tomography (CT) imaged both in FB and DIBH. Anatomical changes were simulated by CT information editing and re-calculations, of both ST and DE plans, in the treatment planning system. PE was systematically simulated by adding fluid in the dorsal region of the lung and TS by reduction of the tumor volume. Phantom simulations resulted in maximum deviations in mean dose to the GTV-T (GTV-T) of -1% for 3 cm PE and centrally located tumor, and + 3% for TS from 5 cm to 1 cm diameter for an anterior tumor location. For the majority of the patients, simulated PE resulted in a decreasing GTV-T with increasing amount of fluid and increasing GTV-T for decreasing tumor volume. Maximum change in GTV-T of -3% (3 cm PE in FB for both ST and DE plans) and + 10% (2 cm TS in FB for DE plan) was observed. Large atelectasis reduction increased the GTV-T with 2% for FB and had no effect for DIBH. Phantom simulations provided potential adaptation action levels for PE and TS. For the more complex patient geometry, individual assessment of the dosimetric impact is recommended for both ST and DE plans in DIBH as well as in FB. However, DIBH was found to be superior over FB for DE plans, regarding robustness of GTV-T to TS.

  6. Adaptation requirements due to anatomical changes in free-breathing and deep-inspiration breath-hold for standard and dose-escalated radiotherapy of lung cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sibolt, Patrik; Ottosson, Wiviann; Sjöström, David

    2015-01-01

    to investigate the need for adaptation due to anatomical changes, for both standard (ST) and DE plans in free-breathing (FB) and DIBH. Material and methods. The effect of tumor shrinkage (TS), pleural effusion (PE) and atelectasis was investigated for patients and for a CIRS thorax phantom. Sixteen patients were...... computed tomography (CT) imaged both in FB and DIBH. Anatomical changes were simulated by CT information editing and re-calculations, of both ST and DE plans, in the treatment planning system. PE was systematically simulated by adding fl uid in the dorsal region of the lung and TS by reduction of the tumor...... GTV-T with increasing amount of fluid and increasing GTV-T for decreasing tumor volume. Maximum change in GTV-T of -3% (3 cm PE in FB for both ST and DE plans) and + 10% (2 cm TS in FB for DE plan) was observed. Large atelectasis reduction increased the GTV-T with 2% for FB...

  7. Multi-modal anatomical optical coherence tomography and CT for in vivo dynamic upper airway imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Santosh; Bu, Ruofei; Price, Hillel; Zdanski, Carlton; Oldenburg, Amy L.

    2017-02-01

    We describe a novel, multi-modal imaging protocol for validating quantitative dynamic airway imaging performed using anatomical Optical Coherence Tomography (aOCT). The aOCT system consists of a catheter-based aOCT probe that is deployed via a bronchoscope, while a programmable ventilator is used to control airway pressure. This setup is employed on the bed of a Siemens Biograph CT system capable of performing respiratory-gated acquisitions. In this arrangement the position of the aOCT catheter may be visualized with CT to aid in co-registration. Utilizing this setup we investigate multiple respiratory pressure parameters with aOCT, and respiratory-gated CT, on both ex vivo porcine trachea and live, anesthetized pigs. This acquisition protocol has enabled real-time measurement of airway deformation with simultaneous measurement of pressure under physiologically relevant static and dynamic conditions- inspiratory peak or peak positive airway pressures of 10-40 cm H2O, and 20-30 breaths per minute for dynamic studies. We subsequently compare the airway cross sectional areas (CSA) obtained from aOCT and CT, including the change in CSA at different stages of the breathing cycle for dynamic studies, and the CSA at different peak positive airway pressures for static studies. This approach has allowed us to improve our acquisition methodology and to validate aOCT measurements of the dynamic airway for the first time. We believe that this protocol will prove invaluable for aOCT system development and greatly facilitate translation of OCT systems for airway imaging into the clinical setting.

  8. A topo-graph model for indistinct target boundary definition from anatomical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hui; Wang, Xiuying; Zhou, Jianlong; Gong, Guanzhong; Eberl, Stefan; Yin, Yong; Wang, Lisheng; Feng, Dagan; Fulham, Michael

    2018-06-01

    It can be challenging to delineate the target object in anatomical imaging when the object boundaries are difficult to discern due to the low contrast or overlapping intensity distributions from adjacent tissues. We propose a topo-graph model to address this issue. The first step is to extract a topographic representation that reflects multiple levels of topographic information in an input image. We then define two types of node connections - nesting branches (NBs) and geodesic edges (GEs). NBs connect nodes corresponding to initial topographic regions and GEs link the nodes at a detailed level. The weights for NBs are defined to measure the similarity of regional appearance, and weights for GEs are defined with geodesic and local constraints. NBs contribute to the separation of topographic regions and the GEs assist the delineation of uncertain boundaries. Final segmentation is achieved by calculating the relevance of the unlabeled nodes to the labels by the optimization of a graph-based energy function. We test our model on 47 low contrast CT studies of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), 10 contrast-enhanced CT liver cases and 50 breast and abdominal ultrasound images. The validation criteria are the Dice's similarity coefficient and the Hausdorff distance. Student's t-test show that our model outperformed the graph models with pixel-only, pixel and regional, neighboring and radial connections (p-values <0.05). Our findings show that the topographic representation and topo-graph model provides improved delineation and separation of objects from adjacent tissues compared to the tested models. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Diagnosis of vertebral artery dissection with basiparallel anatomical scanning magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuno, Makoto; Kobayashi, Shiro

    2011-01-01

    There is no consensus regarding the optimal method for diagnosing the dissection of intracranial arteries. We have developed a rapid and accurate examination method to diagnose vertebral artery dissection in the acute stage of cerebral infarction. Twenty-two patients with severe headache and neck pain and/or symptoms of brain stem or cerebellar ischemia underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a 1.5-T scanner. Our protocol generated 3 contrast-weighted scans (T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted, and basi-parallel anatomical scanning [BPAS]-MRI) and conventional angiographs within 3 hours of the onset of symptoms. Then, we retrospectively analyzed the findings to identify the most reliable imaging method for diagnosing vertebral artery dissection in the acute stage of cerebral infarction. Based on the symptoms and the findings of T2-weighted imaging and conventional angiography, the initial diagnosis was dissection in 17 patients, lacunar infarction in 3 patients, and atherothrombosis in 2 patients. After follow-up studies the diagnosis was changed in 7 patients. The diagnosis based on symptoms and the findings of T2-weighted MRI and BPAS-MRI was dissection in 13 patients, atherothrombosis in 6 patients, and lacunar infarction in 3 patients. In 3 patients the diagnosis was changed during the follow-up phase. The diagnostic accuracy rate was higher with T2-weighted MRI and BPAS-MRI than with T2-weighted MRI and conventional angiography. We suggest that when intracranial vascular dissection is suspected, both the inner and outer contours of vessels must be inspected and that BPAS-MRI should be performed instead of conventional angiography to establish the definite diagnosis. (author)

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of meniscal anatomic variants and of the perimeniscal ligamentous anatomy: potential interpretation pitfalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simao, Marcelo Novelino; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge of meniscal anatomic variants and of the normal peri meniscal structures is essential to understand magnetic resonance imaging studies of the knee, both for the diagnosis of meniscal lesions and to avoid potential interpretation pitfalls. The present article reviews anatomic variants that change the size, shape and stability of the menisci, including the different types of discoid menisci, other less frequent meniscal malformations and the meniscal ossicle. Additionally, the anatomy of peri meniscal structures, particularly those including the meniscocapsular, intermeniscal, meniscofemoral ligaments and other menisco-ligamentous structures is reviewed. (author)

  11. Time-resolved diffuse optical tomographic imaging for the provision of both anatomical and functional information about biological tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huijuan; Gao, Feng; Tanikawa, Yukari; Homma, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Yukio

    2005-04-01

    We present in vivo images of near-infrared (NIR) diffuse optical tomography (DOT) of human lower legs and forearm to validate the dual functions of a time-resolved (TR) NIR DOT in clinical diagnosis, i.e., to provide anatomical and functional information simultaneously. The NIR DOT system is composed of time-correlated single-photon-counting channels, and the image reconstruction algorithm is based on the modified generalized pulsed spectral technique, which effectively incorporates the TR data with reasonable computation time. The reconstructed scattering images of both the lower legs and the forearm revealed their anatomies, in which the bones were clearly distinguished from the muscles. In the absorption images, some of the blood vessels were observable. In the functional imaging, a subject was requested to do handgripping exercise to stimulate physiological changes in the forearm tissue. The images of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and total hemoglobin concentration changes in the forearm were obtained from the differential images of the absorption at three wavelengths between the exercise and the rest states, which were reconstructed with a differential imaging scheme. These images showed increases in both blood volume and oxyhemoglobin concentration in the arteries and simultaneously showed hypoxia in the corresponding muscles. All the results have demonstrated the capability of TR NIR DOT by reconstruction of the absolute images of the scattering and the absorption with a high spatial resolution that finally provided both the anatomical and functional information inside bulky biological tissues.

  12. Towards establishing compact imaging spectrometer standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Allen, David W.; Resmini, Ronald G.

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing science is currently undergoing a tremendous expansion in the area of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technology. Spurred largely by the explosive growth of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), sometimes called Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), or drones, HSI capabilities that once required access to one of only a handful of very specialized and expensive sensor systems are now miniaturized and widely available commercially. Small compact imaging spectrometers (CIS) now on the market offer a number of hyperspectral imaging capabilities in terms of spectral range and sampling. The potential uses of HSI/CIS on UAVs/UASs seem limitless. However, the rapid expansion of unmanned aircraft and small hyperspectral sensor capabilities has created a number of questions related to technological, legal, and operational capabilities. Lightweight sensor systems suitable for UAV platforms are being advertised in the trade literature at an ever-expanding rate with no standardization of system performance specifications or terms of reference. To address this issue, both the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Institute of Standards and Technology are eveloping draft standards to meet these issues. This paper presents the outline of a combined USGS/NIST cooperative strategy to develop and test a characterization methodology to meet the needs of a new and expanding UAV/CIS/HSI user community.

  13. Relationship between external anal sphincter atrophy at endoanal magnetic resonance imaging and clinical, functional, and anatomic characteristics in patients with fecal incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terra, Maaike P.; Deutekom, Marije; Beets-Tan, Regina G. H.; Engel, Alexander F.; Janssen, Lucas W. M.; Boeckxstaens, Guy E. E.; Dobben, Annette C.; Baeten, Cor G. M. I.; de Priester, Jacobus A.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Stoker, Jaap

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: External anal sphincter atrophy at endoanal magnetic resonance imaging has been associated with poor outcome of anal sphincter repair. We studied the relationship between external anal sphincter atrophy on endoanal magnetic resonance imaging and clinical, functional, and anatomic

  14. An anatomical study of the parasacral block using magnetic resonance imaging of healthy volunteers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Maeve

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: The parasacral approach to sciatic blockade is reported to be easy to learn and perform, with a high success rate and few complications. METHODS: Using magnetic resonance imaging, we evaluated the accuracy of a simulated needle (perpendicular to skin) in contacting the sacral plexus with this approach in 10 volunteers. Intrapelvic structures encountered during the simulated parasacral blocks were also recorded. RESULTS: The sacral plexus was contacted by the simulated needle in 4 of the 10 volunteers, and the sciatic nerve itself in one volunteer. The plexus was accurately located adjacent to a variety of visceral structures, including small bowel, blood vessels, and ovary. In the remaining five volunteers (in whom the plexus was not contacted on first needle pass), small bowel, rectum, blood vessels, seminal vesicles, and bony structures were encountered. Historically, when plexus is not encountered, readjustment of the needle insertion point more caudally has been recommended. We found that such an adjustment resulted in simulated perforation of intrapelvic organs or the perianal fossa. CONCLUSIONS: These findings question the reliability of the anatomical landmarks of the parasacral block and raise the possibility of frequent visceral puncture using this technique.

  15. A general XML schema and SPM toolbox for storage of neuro-imaging results and anatomical labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keator, David Bryant; Gadde, Syam; Grethe, Jeffrey S; Taylor, Derek V; Potkin, Steven G

    2006-01-01

    With the increased frequency of multisite, large-scale collaborative neuro-imaging studies, the need for a general, self-documenting framework for the storage and retrieval of activation maps and anatomical labels becomes evident. To address this need, we have developed and extensible markup language (XML) schema and associated tools for the storage of neuro-imaging activation maps and anatomical labels. This schema, as part of the XML-based Clinical Experiment Data Exchange (XCEDE) schema, provides storage capabilities for analysis annotations, activation threshold parameters, and cluster and voxel-level statistics. Activation parameters contain information describing the threshold, degrees of freedom, FWHM smoothness, search volumes, voxel sizes, expected voxels per cluster, and expected number of clusters in the statistical map. Cluster and voxel statistics can be stored along with the coordinates, threshold, and anatomical label information. Multiple threshold types can be documented for a given cluster or voxel along with the uncorrected and corrected probability values. Multiple atlases can be used to generate anatomical labels and stored for each significant voxel or cluter. Additionally, a toolbox for Statistical Parametric Mapping software (http://www. fil. ion.ucl.ac.uk/spm/) was created to capture the results from activation maps using the XML schema that supports both SPM99 and SPM2 versions (http://nbirn.net/Resources/Users/ Applications/xcede/SPM_XMLTools.htm). Support for anatomical labeling is available via the Talairach Daemon (http://ric.uthscsa. edu/projects/talairachdaemon.html) and Automated Anatomical Labeling (http://www. cyceron.fr/freeware/).

  16. Image-based dose planning of intracavitary brachytherapy: registration of serial-imaging studies using deformable anatomic templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, Gary E.; Carlson, Blake; Chao, K.S. Clifford; Yin Pen; Grigsby, Perry W.; Nguyen, Kim; Dempsey, James F; Lerma, Fritz A.; Bae, Kyongtae T.; Vannier, Michael W.; Williamson, Jeffrey F.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate that high-dimensional voxel-to-voxel transformations, derived from continuum mechanics models of the underlying pelvic tissues, can be used to register computed tomography (CT) serial examinations into a single anatomic frame of reference for cumulative dose calculations. Methods and Materials: Three patients with locally advanced cervix cancer were treated with CT-compatible intracavitary (ICT) applicators. Each patient underwent five volumetric CT examinations: before initiating treatment, and immediately before and after the first and second ICT insertions, respectively. Each serial examination was rigidly registered to the patient's first ICT examination by aligning the bony anatomy. Detailed nonrigid alignment for organs (or targets) of interest was subsequently achieved by deforming the CT exams as a viscous-fluid, described by the Navier-Stokes equation, until the coincidence with the corresponding targets on CT image was maximized. In cases where ICT insertion induced very large and topologically complex rearrangements of pelvic organs, e.g., extreme uterine canal reorientation following tandem insertion, a viscous-fluid-landmark transformation was used to produce an initial registration. Results: For all three patients, reasonable registrations for organs (or targets) of interest were achieved. Fluid-landmark initialization was required in 4 of the 11 registrations. Relative to the best rigid bony landmark alignment, the viscous-fluid registration resulted in average soft-tissue displacements from 2.8 to 28.1 mm, and improved organ coincidence from the range of 5.2% to 72.2% to the range of 90.6% to 100%. Compared to the viscous-fluid transformation, global registration of bony anatomy mismatched 5% or more of the contoured organ volumes by 15-25 mm. Conclusion: Pelvic soft-tissue structures undergo large deformations and displacements during the external-beam and multiple-ICT course of radiation therapy for locally advanced cervix

  17. Multi-stage 3D-2D registration for correction of anatomical deformation in image-guided spine surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketcha, M. D.; De Silva, T.; Uneri, A.; Jacobson, M. W.; Goerres, J.; Kleinszig, G.; Vogt, S.; Wolinsky, J.-P.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2017-06-01

    A multi-stage image-based 3D-2D registration method is presented that maps annotations in a 3D image (e.g. point labels annotating individual vertebrae in preoperative CT) to an intraoperative radiograph in which the patient has undergone non-rigid anatomical deformation due to changes in patient positioning or due to the intervention itself. The proposed method (termed msLevelCheck) extends a previous rigid registration solution (LevelCheck) to provide an accurate mapping of vertebral labels in the presence of spinal deformation. The method employs a multi-stage series of rigid 3D-2D registrations performed on sets of automatically determined and increasingly localized sub-images, with the final stage achieving a rigid mapping for each label to yield a locally rigid yet globally deformable solution. The method was evaluated first in a phantom study in which a CT image of the spine was acquired followed by a series of 7 mobile radiographs with increasing degree of deformation applied. Second, the method was validated using a clinical data set of patients exhibiting strong spinal deformation during thoracolumbar spine surgery. Registration accuracy was assessed using projection distance error (PDE) and failure rate (PDE  >  20 mm—i.e. label registered outside vertebra). The msLevelCheck method was able to register all vertebrae accurately for all cases of deformation in the phantom study, improving the maximum PDE of the rigid method from 22.4 mm to 3.9 mm. The clinical study demonstrated the feasibility of the approach in real patient data by accurately registering all vertebral labels in each case, eliminating all instances of failure encountered in the conventional rigid method. The multi-stage approach demonstrated accurate mapping of vertebral labels in the presence of strong spinal deformation. The msLevelCheck method maintains other advantageous aspects of the original LevelCheck method (e.g. compatibility with standard clinical workflow, large

  18. Evaluation of polynomial image deformation for matching of 3D- abdominal MR-images using anatomical landmarks and for atlas construction

    CERN Document Server

    Kimiaei, S; Jonsson, E; Crafoord, J; Maguire, G Q

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare and evaluate the potential usability of linear and non-linear (polynomial) 3D-warping for constructing an atlas by matching abdominal MR-images from a number of different individuals using manually picked anatomical landmarks. The significance of this study lies in the fact that it illustrates the potential to use polynomial matching at a local or organ level. This is a necessary requirement for constructing an atlas and for fine intra-patient image matching and fusion. Finally 3D-image warping using anatomical landmark for inter-patient intra-modality image co-registration and fusion was found to be a very powerful and robust method. Additionally it can be used for intra-patient inter- modality image matching.

  19. Evaluation of contrast reproduction method based on the anatomical guidance of the cerebral images reconstruction in positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataille, F.

    2007-04-01

    Positron emission tomography is a medical imaging modality providing in-vivo volumetric images of functional processes of the human body, which is used for the diagnosis and the following of neuro degenerative diseases. PET efficiency is however limited by its poor spatial resolution, which generates a decrease of the image local contrast and leads to an under-estimation of small cerebral structures involved in the degenerative mechanism of those diseases. This so-called partial volume effect degradation is usually corrected in a post-reconstruction processing framework through the use of anatomical information, whose spatial resolution allows a better discrimination between functional tissues. However, this kind of method has the major drawback of being very sensitive to the residual mismatches on the anatomical information processing. We developed in this thesis an alternative methodology to compensate for the degradation, by incorporating in the reconstruction process both a model of the system impulse response and an anatomically-based image prior constraint. This methodology was validated by comparison with a post-reconstruction correction strategy, using data from an anthropomorphic phantom acquisition and then we evaluated its robustness to the residual mismatches through a realistic Monte Carlo simulation corresponding to a cerebral exam. The proposed algorithm was finally applied to clinical data reconstruction. (author)

  20. Guidelines for imaging retinoblastoma: imaging principles and MRI standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graaf, Pim de; Rodjan, Firazia; Castelijns, Jonas A. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Goericke, Sophia [University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Galluzzi, Paolo [Azienda Ospedaliera e Universitaria Senese, Policlinico ' ' Le Scotte' ' , Unit of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Neuroradiology, Siena (Italy); Maeder, Philippe [CHUV, Service de Radiodiagnostic et Radiologie Interventionelle, Lausanne (Switzerland); Brisse, Herve J. [Institut Curie, Departement d' Imagerie, Paris (France)

    2012-01-15

    Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular tumor in children. The diagnosis is usually established by the ophthalmologist on the basis of fundoscopy and US. Together with US, high-resolution MRI has emerged as an important imaging modality for pretreatment assessment, i.e. for diagnostic confirmation, detection of local tumor extent, detection of associated developmental malformation of the brain and detection of associated intracranial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (trilateral retinoblastoma). Minimum requirements for pretreatment diagnostic evaluation of retinoblastoma or mimicking lesions are presented, based on consensus among members of the European Retinoblastoma Imaging Collaboration (ERIC). The most appropriate techniques for imaging in a child with leukocoria are reviewed. CT is no longer recommended. Implementation of a standardized MRI protocol for retinoblastoma in clinical practice may benefit children worldwide, especially those with hereditary retinoblastoma, since a decreased use of CT reduces the exposure to ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  1. Identifying the mesenchymal molecular subtype of glioblastoma using quantitative volumetric analysis of anatomic magnetic resonance images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeini, Kourosh M.; Pope, Whitney B.; Cloughesy, Timothy F.; Harris, Robert J.; Lai, Albert; Eskin, Ascia; Chowdhury, Reshmi; Phillips, Heidi S.; Nghiemphu, Phioanh L.; Behbahanian, Yalda; Ellingson, Benjamin M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Subtypes of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) based on genetic and molecular alterations are thought to cause alterations in anatomic MRI owing to downstream biological changes, such as edema production, blood–brain barrier breakdown, and necrosis. The purpose of the current study was to identify a potential relationship between imaging features and the mesenchymal (MES) GBM subtype, which has the worst patient prognosis. Methods MRIs from 46 patients with histologically confirmed GBM were retrospectively analyzed. The volume of contrast enhancement, regions of central necrosis, and hyperintensity of T2/fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) were measured. Additionally, the ratio of T2/FLAIR hyperintense volume to the volume of contrast enhancement and necrosis was calculated. Results The volume of contrast enhancement, volume of central necrosis, combined volume of contrast enhancement and central necrosis, and the ratio of T2/FLAIR to contrast enhancement and necrosis were significantly different in MES compared with non-MES GBM (Mann–Whitney, P < .05). Receiver-operator characteristics indicated that these 4 metrics were all significant predictors of the MES phenotype. The volume ratio of T2 hyperintensity to contrast enhancement and central necrosis was significantly lower in MES vs non-MES GBM (P < .0001), was a significant predictor of the MES phenotype (area under the curve = 0.93, P < .001), and could be used to stratify short- and long-term overall survival (log-rank, P = .0064 using cutoff of 3.0). These trends were also present when excluding isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutant tumors and incorporating covariates such as age and KPS score. Conclusions Results suggest that volume ratio may be a simple, cost-effective, and noninvasive biomarker for quickly identifying MES GBM. PMID:23444259

  2. Developing a Korean standard brain atlas on the basis of statistical and probabilistic approach and visualization tool for functional image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, B. B.; Lee, J. M.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, I. Y.; Kim, S. I.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, D. S.; Kwon, J. S.; Kim, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    The probabilistic anatomical maps are used to localize the functional neuro-images and morphological variability. The quantitative indicator is very important to inquire the anatomical position of an activated region because functional image data has the low-resolution nature and no inherent anatomical information. Although previously developed MNI probabilistic anatomical map was enough to localize the data, it was not suitable for the Korean brains because of the morphological difference between Occidental and Oriental. In this study, we develop a probabilistic anatomical map for Korean normal brain. Normal 75 brains of T1-weighted spoiled gradient echo magnetic resonance images were acquired on a 1.5-T GESIGNA scanner. Then, a standard brain is selected in the group through a clinician searches a brain of the average property in the Talairach coordinate system. With the standard brain, an anatomist delineates 89 regions of interest (ROI) parcellating cortical and subcortical areas. The parcellated ROIs of the standard are warped and overlapped into each brain by maximizing intensity similarity. And every brain is automatically labeled with the registered ROIs. Each of the same-labeled region is linearly normalize to the standard brain, and the occurrence of each region is counted. Finally, 89 probabilistic ROI volumes are generated. This paper presents a probabilistic anatomical map for localizing the functional and structural analysis of Korean normal brain. In the future, we'll develop the group specific probabilistic anatomical maps of OCD and schizophrenia disease

  3. Coronoid process of the ulna: paleopathologic and anatomic study with imaging correlation. Emphasis on the anteromedial ''facet''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas Valle de Lemos Weber, Marcio; Barbosa, Diogo Miranda; Belentani, Clarissa; Negrao Ramos, Pedro Miguel; Trudell, Debra; Resnick, Donald

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed description of the anatomy of the coronoid process of the ulna and to use magnetic resonance (MR) images and anatomic correlation with cadavers to show the macroscopic configuration of this structure. Photography and high-resolution radiography were performed in 26 ulna specimens from the collection of a local museum. MR imaging of the coronoid process of 11 cadaveric elbows was performed. The images were compared with those seen on anatomic sectioning. The anteromedial rim of the coronoid process of the ulna had a regular surface, without osseous irregularities or facets in 69.2% of the specimens. In 30.8% of the specimens, the anteromedial rim was not regular and a small ridge could be identified. The insertion site of the joint capsule was onto the anterior aspect of the coronoid process, at an average distance of 5.9 mm distal to the tip. The attachment of the anterior band of the ulnar collateral ligament at the sublime tubercle was flush with the articular margin in 63.6% of the specimens. In 36.4% of the specimens, a more distal attachment, with a separation between the undersurface of the ligament and the adjacent tubercle, was seen. The brachialis tendon was attached to the coronoid process at a mean distance of 12.1 mm distal to the tip. The coronoid process of the ulna is a small osseous structure with a complex anatomy and presents some anatomical variations. (orig.)

  4. Use of cranial surface anatomic fiducials for interactive image-guided navigation in the temporal bone: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrionis, F D; Foley, K T; Robertson, J H; Shea, J J

    1997-04-01

    Because of the intricate anatomy of the temporal bone, we examined the feasibility and reliability of cranial surface anatomic fiducials to register computed tomographic images of the temporal bone by using a frameless image-guided system. One-millimeter thick computed tomographic slices and the smallest possible field of view were used to register 10 dry and 10 fresh temporal bones from cadavers. The fiducials used for registration included the umbo of the tympanic membrane, emissary foramina, the asterion, various sutures, the tip of the mastoid process, and Henle's spine. Mean initial fiducial registration error ranged from 0.6 to 0.7 mm, and was reduced to 0.5 and 0.4 mm for the dry cranial and cadaveric studies, respectively, by eliminating or reregistering inexact fiducials. Mean target localization error ranged from 0.91 to 2.44 mm for superficial structures of the temporal bone in the dry cranial specimens and from 0.71 to 1.52 mm for deep structures such as the facial nerve, semicircular canals and ossicles in the cadaveric study. Interactive image-guided navigation in the temporal bone is possible with registration of cranial surface anatomic fiducials. It may be useful to the neurosurgeon and otologist in identifying critical anatomic structures of the temporal bone encountered during the translabyrinthine, retrolabyrinthine presigmoid, and suboccipital approaches.

  5. WE-DE-207A-02: Advances in Cone Beam CT Anatomical and Functional Imaging in Angio-Suite to Enable One-Stop-Shop Stroke Imaging Workflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, G.

    2016-01-01

    pursued. For the highest spatial and temporal resolution, x-ray guidance with fluoroscopy and angiography although dominant are still being vastly improved. New detectors such as the Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscope (MAF) and x-ray source designs that enable higher outputs while maintaining small focal spots will be highlighted along with new methods for minimizing the radiation dose to patients. Additionally, new platforms for training and device testing that include patient-specific 3D printed vascular phantoms and new metrics such as generalized relative object detectability for objectively inter-comparing systems will be discussed. This will improve the opportunity for better evaluation of these technological advances which should contribute to the safety and efficacy of image guided minimally invasive neuro-endovascular procedures. Learning Objectives: To understand the operation of new x-ray imaging chain components such as detectors and sources To be informed about the latest testing methods, with 3D printed vascular phantoms, and new evaluation metrics for advanced imaging in x-ray image guided neurovascular interventions Advances in cone beam CT anatomical and functional imaging in angio-suite to enable one-stop-shop stroke imaging workflow Guang-Hong Chen - The introduction of flat-panel detector based cone-beam CT in clinical angiographic imaging systems enabled treating physicians to obtain three-dimensional anatomic roadmaps for bony structure, soft brain tissue, and vasculatures for treatment planning and efficacy checking after the procedures. However, much improvement is needed to reduce image artifacts, reduce radiation dose, and add potential functional imaging capability to provide four-dimensional dynamic information of vasculature and brain perfusion. In this presentation, some of the new techniques developed to address radiation dose issues, image artifact reduction and brain perfusion using C-arm cone-beam CT imaging system will be introduced for the

  6. WE-DE-207A-02: Advances in Cone Beam CT Anatomical and Functional Imaging in Angio-Suite to Enable One-Stop-Shop Stroke Imaging Workflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, G. [University of Wisconsin (United States)

    2016-06-15

    pursued. For the highest spatial and temporal resolution, x-ray guidance with fluoroscopy and angiography although dominant are still being vastly improved. New detectors such as the Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscope (MAF) and x-ray source designs that enable higher outputs while maintaining small focal spots will be highlighted along with new methods for minimizing the radiation dose to patients. Additionally, new platforms for training and device testing that include patient-specific 3D printed vascular phantoms and new metrics such as generalized relative object detectability for objectively inter-comparing systems will be discussed. This will improve the opportunity for better evaluation of these technological advances which should contribute to the safety and efficacy of image guided minimally invasive neuro-endovascular procedures. Learning Objectives: To understand the operation of new x-ray imaging chain components such as detectors and sources To be informed about the latest testing methods, with 3D printed vascular phantoms, and new evaluation metrics for advanced imaging in x-ray image guided neurovascular interventions Advances in cone beam CT anatomical and functional imaging in angio-suite to enable one-stop-shop stroke imaging workflow Guang-Hong Chen - The introduction of flat-panel detector based cone-beam CT in clinical angiographic imaging systems enabled treating physicians to obtain three-dimensional anatomic roadmaps for bony structure, soft brain tissue, and vasculatures for treatment planning and efficacy checking after the procedures. However, much improvement is needed to reduce image artifacts, reduce radiation dose, and add potential functional imaging capability to provide four-dimensional dynamic information of vasculature and brain perfusion. In this presentation, some of the new techniques developed to address radiation dose issues, image artifact reduction and brain perfusion using C-arm cone-beam CT imaging system will be introduced for the

  7. Improving thoracic four-dimensional cone-beam CT reconstruction with anatomical-adaptive image regularization (AAIR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shieh, Chun-Chien; Kipritidis, John; O'Brien, Ricky T; Cooper, Benjamin J; Keall, Paul J; Kuncic, Zdenka

    2015-01-01

    Total-variation (TV) minimization reconstructions can significantly reduce noise and streaks in thoracic four-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (4D CBCT) images compared to the Feldkamp–Davis–Kress (FDK) algorithm currently used in practice. TV minimization reconstructions are, however, prone to over-smoothing anatomical details and are also computationally inefficient. The aim of this study is to demonstrate a proof of concept that these disadvantages can be overcome by incorporating the general knowledge of the thoracic anatomy via anatomy segmentation into the reconstruction. The proposed method, referred as the anatomical-adaptive image regularization (AAIR) method, utilizes the adaptive-steepest-descent projection-onto-convex-sets (ASD-POCS) framework, but introduces an additional anatomy segmentation step in every iteration. The anatomy segmentation information is implemented in the reconstruction using a heuristic approach to adaptively suppress over-smoothing at anatomical structures of interest. The performance of AAIR depends on parameters describing the weighting of the anatomy segmentation prior and segmentation threshold values. A sensitivity study revealed that the reconstruction outcome is not sensitive to these parameters as long as they are chosen within a suitable range. AAIR was validated using a digital phantom and a patient scan and was compared to FDK, ASD-POCS and the prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS) method. For the phantom case, AAIR reconstruction was quantitatively shown to be the most accurate as indicated by the mean absolute difference and the structural similarity index. For the patient case, AAIR resulted in the highest signal-to-noise ratio (i.e. the lowest level of noise and streaking) and the highest contrast-to-noise ratios for the tumor and the bony anatomy (i.e. the best visibility of anatomical details). Overall, AAIR was much less prone to over-smoothing anatomical details compared to ASD-POCS and

  8. Dual-modality brain PET-CT image segmentation based on adaptive use of functional and anatomical information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yong; Eberl, Stefan; Wen, Lingfeng; Fulham, Michael; Feng, David Dagan

    2012-01-01

    Dual medical imaging modalities, such as PET-CT, are now a routine component of clinical practice. Medical image segmentation methods, however, have generally only been applied to single modality images. In this paper, we propose the dual-modality image segmentation model to segment brain PET-CT images into gray matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid. This model converts PET-CT image segmentation into an optimization process controlled simultaneously by PET and CT voxel values and spatial constraints. It is innovative in the creation and application of the modality discriminatory power (MDP) coefficient as a weighting scheme to adaptively combine the functional (PET) and anatomical (CT) information on a voxel-by-voxel basis. Our approach relies upon allowing the modality with higher discriminatory power to play a more important role in the segmentation process. We compared the proposed approach to three other image segmentation strategies, including PET-only based segmentation, combination of the results of independent PET image segmentation and CT image segmentation, and simultaneous segmentation of joint PET and CT images without an adaptive weighting scheme. Our results in 21 clinical studies showed that our approach provides the most accurate and reliable segmentation for brain PET-CT images. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Localization of anatomical point landmarks in 3D medical images by fitting 3D parametric intensity models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörz, Stefan; Rohr, Karl

    2006-02-01

    We introduce a new approach for the localization of 3D anatomical point landmarks. This approach is based on 3D parametric intensity models which are directly fitted to 3D images. To efficiently model tip-like, saddle-like, and sphere-like anatomical structures we introduce analytic intensity models based on the Gaussian error function in conjunction with 3D rigid transformations as well as deformations. To select a suitable size of the region-of-interest (ROI) where model fitting is performed, we also propose a new scheme for automatic selection of an optimal 3D ROI size based on the dominant gradient direction. In addition, to achieve a higher level of automation we present an algorithm for automatic initialization of the model parameters. Our approach has been successfully applied to accurately localize anatomical landmarks in 3D synthetic data as well as 3D MR and 3D CT image data. We have also compared the experimental results with the results of a previously proposed 3D differential approach. It turns out that the new approach significantly improves the localization accuracy.

  10. Anatomical variants of lister's tubercle; A new morphological classification based on magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Wan Ying; Chong, Le Roy [Dept. of Radiology, Changi General Hospital, Singapore (Singapore)

    2017-11-15

    Lister's tubercle is used as a standard anatomical landmark in hand surgery and arthroscopy procedures. In this study, we aimed to evaluate and propose a classification for anatomical variants of Lister's tubercle. Between September 2011 and July 2014, 360 MRI examinations for wrists performed using 1.5T scanners in a single institution were retrospectively evaluated. The prevalence of anatomical variants of Lister's tubercle based on the heights and morphology of its radial and ulnar peaks was assessed. These were classified into three distinct types: radial peak larger than ulnar peak (Type 1), similar radial and ulnar peaks (Type 2) and ulnar peak larger than radial peak (Type 3). Each type was further divided into 2 subtypes (A and B) based on the morphology of the peaks. The proportions of Type 1, Type 2, and Type 3 variants in the study population were 69.2, 21.4, and 9.5%, respectively. For the subtypes, the Type 1A variant was the most common (41.4%) and conformed to the classical appearance of Lister's tubercle; whereas, Type 3A and 3B variants were rare configurations (6.4% and 3.1%, respectively) wherein the extensor pollicis longus tendon coursed along the radial aspect of Lister's tubercle. Anatomical variations of Lister's tubercle have potential clinical implications for certain pathological conditions and pre-procedural planning. The proposed classification system facilitates a better understanding of these anatomical variations and easier identification of at-risk and rare variants.

  11. Detection of various anatomic patterns of root canals in mandibular incisors using digital periapical radiography, 3 cone-beam computed tomographic scanners, and micro-computed tomographic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes da Silva Ramos Fernandes, Luciana Maria; Rice, Dwight; Ordinola-Zapata, Ronald; Alvares Capelozza, Ana Lucia; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; Jaramillo, David; Christensen, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of digital periapical (PA) radiography and 3 cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) scanners in the identification of various internal anatomic patterns in mandibular incisors. Forty mandibular incisors were scanned using micro-computed tomographic imaging as the gold standard to establish the internal anatomic pattern. The number of root canals and internal patterns were classified into type I (single canal, n = 12), type Ia (single oval canal, n = 12), and type III (2 canals, n = 16). The teeth were placed in a human mandible, and digital PA radiography and 3 CBCT scans (Kodak 9000 3D [Carestream Health, Rochester, NY], Veraviewepocs 3De [J Morita MFG Corp, Kyoto, Japan], NewTom 5G [QR Srl, Verona, Italy]) were performed. Two blinded examiners classified each tooth's anatomic pattern, which were then compared with the micro-computed tomographic determinations. Considering type I and type Ia, which both presented with 1 root canal, there was a high degree of accuracy for all methods used (P > .05). The same result was found for type III. When identifying the shape of single canals (type I), CBCT imaging was more accurate compared with PA radiography. Concerning oval canals (type Ia), there was a significant difference between PA radiography and NewTom CBCT (PA radiography = 44%, NewTom = 88%). However, there were no significant differences between the 3 CBCT units. Double-exposure digital PA radiography for mandibular incisors is sufficient for the identification of the number of root canals. All CBCT devices showed improved accuracy in the identification of single root canal anatomy when a narrow canal was present. However, the identification of oval canals was improved only with the NewTom CBCT device. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ultrasound of the rotator cuff with MRI and anatomic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutten, Matthieu J.C.M. [Department of Radiology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Nieuwstraat 34, 5211 NL ' s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands)]. E-mail: M.Rutten@JBZ.nl; Maresch, Bas J. [Department of Radiology, Hospital Gelderse Vallei, Willy Brandtlaan 10, 6710 HN Ede (Netherlands)]. E-mail: MareschB@zgv.nl; Jager, Gerrit J. [Department of Radiology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Nieuwstraat 34, 5211 NL ' s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands)]. E-mail: G.Jager@JBZ.nl; Blickman, Johan G. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Nijmegen, Geert Grooteplein Zuid 18, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: J.Blickman@rad.umcn.nl; Holsbeeck, Marnix T. van [Department of Radiology, Henry Ford Hospital, 2799 W Grand Boulevard, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States)]. E-mail: vanholsbeeck@comcast.net

    2007-06-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging and high-resolution ultrasound (US) are frequently used for the detection of rotator cuff tears. The diagnostic yield of US is influenced by several factors as technique, knowledge of the imaging characteristics of anatomic and pathologic findings and of pitfalls. The purpose of this article is to illustrates that the standardized high-resolution US examination of the shoulder covers the entire rotator cuff and correlates with MR imaging and anatomic sections.

  13. Development of quantitative analysis method for stereotactic brain image. Assessment of reduced accumulation in extent and severity using anatomical segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumura, Sunao; Kumita, Shin-ichiro; Cho, Keiichi; Ishihara, Makiko; Nakajo, Hidenobu; Toba, Masahiro; Kumazaki, Tatsuo

    2003-01-01

    Through visual assessment by three-dimensional (3D) brain image analysis methods using stereotactic brain coordinates system, such as three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections and statistical parametric mapping, it is difficult to quantitatively assess anatomical information and the range of extent of an abnormal region. In this study, we devised a method to quantitatively assess local abnormal findings by segmenting a brain map according to anatomical structure. Through quantitative local abnormality assessment using this method, we studied the characteristics of distribution of reduced blood flow in cases with dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT). Using twenty-five cases with DAT (mean age, 68.9 years old), all of whom were diagnosed as probable Alzheimer's disease based on National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke-Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCDS-ADRDA), we collected I-123 iodoamphetamine SPECT data. A 3D brain map using the 3D-stereotactic surface projections (SSP) program was compared with the data of 20 cases in the control group, who age-matched the subject cases. To study local abnormalities on the 3D images, we divided the whole brain into 24 segments based on anatomical classification. We assessed the extent of an abnormal region in each segment (rate of the coordinates with a Z-value that exceeds the threshold value, in all coordinates within a segment), and severity (average Z-value of the coordinates with a Z-value that exceeds the threshold value). This method clarified orientation and expansion of reduced accumulation, through classifying stereotactic brain coordinates according to the anatomical structure. This method was considered useful for quantitatively grasping distribution abnormalities in the brain and changes in abnormality distribution. (author)

  14. Anatomical and metabolic small-animal whole-body imaging using ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun; Chatni, Muhammad; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.

    2013-03-01

    Due to the wide use of animals for human disease studies, small animal whole-body imaging plays an increasingly important role in biomedical research. Currently, none of the existing imaging modalities can provide both anatomical and glucose metabolic information, leading to higher costs of building dual-modality systems. Even with image coregistration, the spatial resolution of the metabolic imaging modality is not improved. We present a ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography (RC-PACT) system that can provide both assessments in a single modality. Utilizing the novel design of confocal full-ring light delivery and ultrasound transducer array detection, RC-PACT provides full-view cross-sectional imaging with high spatial resolution. Scanning along the orthogonal direction provides three-dimensional imaging. While the mouse anatomy was imaged with endogenous hemoglobin contrast, the glucose metabolism was imaged with a near-infrared dye-labeled 2-deoxyglucose. Through mouse tumor models, we demonstrate that RC-PACT may be a paradigm shifting imaging method for preclinical research.

  15. Transforming Dermatologic Imaging for the Digital Era: Metadata and Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffery, Liam J; Clunie, David; Curiel-Lewandrowski, Clara; Malvehy, Josep; Soyer, H Peter; Halpern, Allan C

    2018-01-17

    Imaging is increasingly being used in dermatology for documentation, diagnosis, and management of cutaneous disease. The lack of standards for dermatologic imaging is an impediment to clinical uptake. Standardization can occur in image acquisition, terminology, interoperability, and metadata. This paper presents the International Skin Imaging Collaboration position on standardization of metadata for dermatologic imaging. Metadata is essential to ensure that dermatologic images are properly managed and interpreted. There are two standards-based approaches to recording and storing metadata in dermatologic imaging. The first uses standard consumer image file formats, and the second is the file format and metadata model developed for the Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) standard. DICOM would appear to provide an advantage over using consumer image file formats for metadata as it includes all the patient, study, and technical metadata necessary to use images clinically. Whereas, consumer image file formats only include technical metadata and need to be used in conjunction with another actor-for example, an electronic medical record-to supply the patient and study metadata. The use of DICOM may have some ancillary benefits in dermatologic imaging including leveraging DICOM network and workflow services, interoperability of images and metadata, leveraging existing enterprise imaging infrastructure, greater patient safety, and better compliance to legislative requirements for image retention.

  16. EVALUATION OF VERTEBRAL COLLAPSE BASED ON ANATOMIC SITE AND MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Danappa Patil

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Vertebral collapse is the breakdown of a vertebra resulting in a decreased height of its body and can develop anywhere along spinal cord from neck to the lower spine. Magnetic resonance imaging is the gold standard in imaging for suspected vertebral collapse. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study is basically a prospective observational study conducted on 50 cases from December 2014 to June 2016. The group comprised of patients who were referred to Department of Radiodiagnosis with complaint of back pain, lower limb weakness and generalised body ache. RESULTS The study showed that there was a male predominance with 66% and 34% being females. The age of presentation in maximum number of patients were in the age group of 31-40 (22%, followed by 51-60 years (20% and 61-70 years (20%. Vertebral collapse was most commonly seen in lumbar spine in 43.4% cases followed by dorsal spine in 39.1% cases. Out of 50 cases, solitary vertebral collapse was seen in a total of 10 cases (20% presenting with traumatic aetiology in 6 cases (12% and 2 cases each (4% due to metastasis and osteoporosis. 40 cases (80% presented with multiple vertebral collapses, majority of them osteoporotic in nature. In present study, MRI diagnosed 100% malignant collapse cases. CONCLUSION It was concluded in our study that the MRI helps to evaluate various Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI features in differentiating malignant from benign vertebral collapses, which aid to achieve the goals of preservation of neurologic function and restoration of spinal stability.

  17. Segmentation of brain magnetic resonance images based on multi-atlas likelihood fusion: testing using data with a broad range of anatomical and photometric profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoying; Crocetti, Deana; Kutten, Kwame; Ceritoglu, Can; Albert, Marilyn S; Mori, Susumu; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Miller, Michael I

    2015-01-01

    We propose a hierarchical pipeline for skull-stripping and segmentation of anatomical structures of interest from T1-weighted images of the human brain. The pipeline is constructed based on a two-level Bayesian parameter estimation algorithm called multi-atlas likelihood fusion (MALF). In MALF, estimation of the parameter of interest is performed via maximum a posteriori estimation using the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. The likelihoods of multiple atlases are fused in the E-step while the optimal estimator, a single maximizer of the fused likelihoods, is then obtained in the M-step. There are two stages in the proposed pipeline; first the input T1-weighted image is automatically skull-stripped via a fast MALF, then internal brain structures of interest are automatically extracted using a regular MALF. We assess the performance of each of the two modules in the pipeline based on two sets of images with markedly different anatomical and photometric contrasts; 3T MPRAGE scans of pediatric subjects with developmental disorders vs. 1.5T SPGR scans of elderly subjects with dementia. Evaluation is performed quantitatively using the Dice overlap as well as qualitatively via visual inspections. As a result, we demonstrate subject-level differences in the performance of the proposed pipeline, which may be accounted for by age, diagnosis, or the imaging parameters (particularly the field strength). For the subcortical and ventricular structures of the two datasets, the hierarchical pipeline is capable of producing automated segmentations with Dice overlaps ranging from 0.8 to 0.964 when compared with the gold standard. Comparisons with other representative segmentation algorithms are presented, relative to which the proposed hierarchical pipeline demonstrates comparative or superior accuracy.

  18. Segmentation of brain magnetic resonance images based on multi-atlas likelihood fusion: testing using data with a broad range of anatomical and photometric profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoying eTang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose a hierarchical pipeline for skull-stripping and segmentation of anatomical structures of interest from T1-weighted images of the human brain. The pipeline is constructed based on a two-level Bayesian parameter estimation algorithm called multi-atlas likelihood fusion (MALF. In MALF, estimation of the parameter of interest is performed via maximum a posteriori estimation using the expectation-maximization (EM algorithm. The likelihoods of multiple atlases are fused in the E-step while the optimal estimator, a single maximizer of the fused likelihoods, is then obtained in the M-step. There are two stages in the proposed pipeline; first the input T1-weighted image is automatically skull-stripped via a fast MALF, then internal brain structures of interest are automatically extracted using a regular MALF. We assess the performance of each of the two modules in the pipeline based on two sets of images with markedly different anatomical and photometric contrasts; 3T MPRAGE scans of pediatric subjects with developmental disorders versus 1.5T SPGR scans of elderly subjects with dementia. Evaluation is performed quantitatively using the Dice overlap as well as qualitatively via visual inspections. As a result, we demonstrate subject-level differences in the performance of the proposed pipeline, which may be accounted for by age, diagnosis, or the imaging parameters (particularly the field strength. For the subcortical and ventricular structures of the two datasets, the hierarchical pipeline is capable of producing automated segmentations with Dice overlaps ranging from 0.8 to 0.964 when compared with the gold standard. Comparisons with other representative segmentation algorithms are presented, relative to which the proposed hierarchical pipeline demonstrates comparative or superior accuracy.

  19. How accurate is image-free computer navigation for hip resurfacing arthroplasty? An anatomical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnurr, C.; Nessler, J.; Koenig, D.P.; Meyer, C.; Schild, H.H.; Koebke, J.

    2009-01-01

    The existing studies concerning image-free navigated implantation of hip resurfacing arthroplasty are based on analysis of the accuracy of conventional biplane radiography. Studies have shown that these measurements in biplane radiography are imprecise and that precision is improved by use of three-dimensional (3D) computer tomography (CT) scans. To date, the accuracy of image-free navigation devices for hip resurfacing has not been investigated using CT scans, and anteversion accuracy has not been assessed at all. Furthermore, no study has tested the reliability of the navigation software concerning the automatically calculated implant position. The purpose of our study was to analyze the accuracy of varus-valgus and anteversion using an image-free hip resurfacing navigation device. The reliability of the software-calculated implant position was also determined. A total of 32 femoral hip resurfacing components were implanted on embalmed human femurs using an image-free navigation device. In all, 16 prostheses were implanted with the proposed position generated by the navigation software; the 16 prostheses were inserted in an optimized valgus position. A 3D CT scan was undertaken before and after operation. The difference between the measured and planned varus-valgus angle averaged 1 deg (mean±standard deviation (SD): group I, 1 deg±2 deg; group II, 1 deg±1 deg). The mean±SD difference between femoral neck anteversion and anteversion of the implant was 4 deg (group I, 4 deg±4 deg; group II, 4 deg±3 deg). The software-calculated implant position differed 7 deg±8 deg from the measured neck-shaft angle. These measured accuracies did not differ significantly between the two groups. Our study proved the high accuracy of the navigation device concerning the most important biomechanical factor: the varus-valgus angle. The software calculation of the proposed implant position has been shown to be inaccurate and needs improvement. Hence, manual adjustment of the

  20. Effect of patient size, anatomical location and modulation strength on dose delivered and image-quality on CT examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greffier, Joel; Larbi, Ahmed; Macri, Francesco; Beregi, Jean-Paul; Pereira, Fabricio

    2017-01-01

    To study the effect of patient size, anatomical location and modulation strength (MS) on image-quality and delivered dose of CT scans acquired with automatic-exposure control system (AEC). Four anthropomorphic phantoms (three paediatric and one thin adult) were studied, and normal and obese adults were simulated by placing bolus plates around the adult phantom. Thorax and abdomen pelvis CT were performed using an AEC system equipped with five possible MS. Modulated tube current (mAs mod ) was compared to Reference mAs and image-noise was assessed. Effective-mAs were lower than Reference-mAs for all but the obese phantom. However, reversal points were estimated for an effective diameter of 27.8 cm in thorax and 26.9 cm in abdomen pelvis scans, beyond which the patterns of MS were inverted. mAs mod were dependent on attenuation differences among distinct anatomical location. Finally, dose delivered was associated to the mAs mod and patient s size, with both affecting image-quality. (authors)

  1. Anatomic localization of scintillation colour image by means of simultaneous colour polaroid film photographing of emission scintiphoto and transmission scintiphoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kida, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Akira; Kobayashi, Katsuko

    1977-01-01

    A study has been made of a simple and practical method to add information of anatomical localization upon the emission scintiphoto of the generally used polaroid film. First, a polaroid film of a transmission scintiphoto, according to the Anger method, was made, and then, that of an emission scintiphoto was made. Next, by double-exposing these two photos to the same polaroid film with the Mamiya-made duplicator, these photos were made into a composite photo. In that case, in order to distinguish the images of these scintiphotos on this composite photo, a colour polaroid film was used in the double exposure, and here, when each of the two scintiphotos was given its own colour-filter, it was found that the image could be sharply sorted by colour. This method does not require any highly expensive apparatus; and, according to this method, a disc source and a polaroid duplicator are enough for the exact anatomical localization of scintiphoto-images by the polaroid film. (auth.)

  2. Three-dimensional in vivo imaging of the murine liver: a micro-computed tomography-based anatomical study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Fiebig

    Full Text Available Various murine models are currently used to study acute and chronic pathological processes of the liver, and the efficacy of novel therapeutic regimens. The increasing availability of high-resolution small animal imaging modalities presents researchers with the opportunity to precisely identify and describe pathological processes of the liver. To meet the demands, the objective of this study was to provide a three-dimensional illustration of the macroscopic anatomical location of the murine liver lobes and hepatic vessels using small animal imaging modalities. We analysed micro-CT images of the murine liver by integrating additional information from the published literature to develop comprehensive illustrations of the macroscopic anatomical features of the murine liver and hepatic vasculature. As a result, we provide updated three-dimensional illustrations of the macroscopic anatomy of the murine liver and hepatic vessels using micro-CT. The information presented here provides researchers working in the field of experimental liver disease with a comprehensive, easily accessable overview of the macroscopic anatomy of the murine liver.

  3. Current and emerging standards in document imaging and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronas, Jean M.

    1992-05-01

    Standards publications being developed by scientists, engineers, and business managers in the Association for Information and Image Management (AIIM) standards committees can be applied to `electronic image management' (EIM) processes including: document image transfer, retrieval and evaluation; optical disk and document scanning; and document design and conversion. When combined with EIM system planning and operations, standards can help generate image databases that are interchangeable among a variety of systems. AIIM is an accredited American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards developer with more than twenty committees. The committees are comprised of 300 volunteers representing users, vendors, and manufacturers. The standards publications that are developed in these committees have national acceptance. They provide the basis for international harmonization in the development of new International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards. Until standard implementation parameters are established, the application of different approaches to image management cause uncertainty in EIM system compatibility, calibration, performance, and upward compatibility. The AIIM standards for these applications can be used to decrease the uncertainty, successfully integrate imaging processes, and promote `open systems.' This paper describes AIIM's EIM standards and a new effort at AIIM, a database on standards projects in a wide framework, including image capture, recording, processing, duplication, distribution, display, evaluation, preservation, and media. The AIIM Imagery Database covers imaging standards being developed by many organizations in many different countries. It contains standards publications' dates, origins, related national and international projects, status, keywords, and abstracts. The ANSI Image Technology Standards Board (ITSB) requested that such a database be established, as did the International Standards Organization

  4. Survey of standards for electronic image displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, William A.

    1996-02-01

    Electronic visual displays have been evolving from the 1960's basis of cathode ray tube (CRT) technology. Now, many other technologies are also available, including both flat panels and projection displays. Standards for these displays are being developed at both the national level and the international levels. Standards activity within the United States is in its infancy and is fragmented according to the inclination of each of the standards developing organizations. The latest round of flat panel display technology was primarily developed in Japan. Initially standards arose from component vendor-to-OEM customer relationships. As a result, Japanese standards for components are the best developed. The Electronics Industries Association of Japan (EIAJ) is providing their standards to the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) for adoption. On the international level, professional societies such as the human factors society (hfs) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) have completed major standards, hfs developed the first ergonomic standard hfs-100 and the ISO has developed some sections of a broader ergonomic standard ISO 9241. This paper addresses the organization of standards activity. Active organizations and their areas of focus are identified. The major standards that have been completed or are in development are described. Finally, suggestions for improving the this standards activity are proposed.

  5. Novel analysis of 4DCT imaging quantifies progressive increases in anatomic dead space during mechanical ventilation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Elizabeth H; Preissner, Melissa; Carnibella, Richard P; Samarage, Chaminda R; Bennett, Ellen; Diniz, Marcio A; Fouras, Andreas; Zosky, Graeme R; Jones, Heather D

    2017-09-01

    Increased dead space is an important prognostic marker in early acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that correlates with mortality. The cause of increased dead space in ARDS has largely been attributed to increased alveolar dead space due to ventilation/perfusion mismatching and shunt. We sought to determine whether anatomic dead space also increases in response to mechanical ventilation. Mice received intratracheal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline and mechanical ventilation (MV). Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) scans were performed at onset of MV and after 5 h of MV. Detailed measurements of airway volumes and lung tidal volumes were performed using image analysis software. The forced oscillation technique was used to obtain measures of airway resistance, tissue damping, and tissue elastance. The ratio of airway volumes to total tidal volume increased significantly in response to 5 h of mechanical ventilation, regardless of LPS exposure, and airways demonstrated significant variation in volumes over the respiratory cycle. These findings were associated with an increase in tissue elastance (decreased lung compliance) but without changes in tidal volumes. Airway volumes increased over time with exposure to mechanical ventilation without a concomitant increase in tidal volumes. These findings suggest that anatomic dead space fraction increases progressively with exposure to positive pressure ventilation and may represent a pathological process. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We demonstrate that anatomic dead space ventilation increases significantly over time in mice in response to mechanical ventilation. The novel functional lung-imaging techniques applied here yield sensitive measures of airway volumes that may have wide applications. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Thyroid gland visualization with 3D/4D ultrasound: integrated hands-on imaging in anatomical dissection laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, John L; Patel, Ankura; Hocum, Gabriel; Benninger, Brion

    2017-05-01

    In teaching anatomy, clinical imaging has been utilized to supplement the traditional dissection laboratory promoting education through visualization of spatial relationships of anatomical structures. Viewing the thyroid gland using 3D/4D ultrasound can be valuable to physicians as well as students learning anatomy. The objective of this study was to investigate the perceptions of first-year medical students regarding the integration of 3D/4D ultrasound visualization of spatial anatomy during anatomical education. 108 first-year medical students were introduced to 3D/4D ultrasound imaging of the thyroid gland through a detailed 20-min tutorial taught in small group format. Students then practiced 3D/4D ultrasound imaging on volunteers and donor cadavers before assessment through acquisition and identification of thyroid gland on at least three instructor-verified images. A post-training survey was administered assessing student impression. All students visualized the thyroid gland using 3D/4D ultrasound. Students revealed 88.0% strongly agreed or agreed 3D/4D ultrasound is useful revealing the thyroid gland and surrounding structures and 87.0% rated the experience "Very Easy" or "Easy", demonstrating benefits and ease of use including 3D/4D ultrasound in anatomy courses. When asked, students felt 3D/4D ultrasound is useful in teaching the structure and surrounding anatomy of the thyroid gland, they overwhelmingly responded "Strongly Agree" or "Agree" (90.2%). This study revealed that 3D/4D ultrasound was successfully used and preferred over 2D ultrasound by medical students during anatomy dissection courses to accurately identify the thyroid gland. In addition, 3D/4D ultrasound may nurture and further reinforce stereostructural spatial relationships of the thyroid gland taught during anatomy dissection.

  7. Accuracy of anatomical landmark identification using different CBCT- and MSCT-based 3D images: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medelnik, Jürgen; Hertrich, Klaus; Steinhäuser-Andresen, Stefanie; Hirschfelder, Ursula; Hofmann, Elisabeth

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of anatomical landmarks and the accuracy of different cone-beam CTs (CBCTs/DVTs) and a multislice spiral CT (MSCT) scanner. A human, fresh-frozen cadaver head was scanned with four CBCTs (Accuitomo 3D, 3D eXam, Pax Reve 3D, Pax Zenith 3D) and one MSCT (SOMATOM Sensation 64) scanner. The three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the volume data sets and location of the anthropometric landmarks (n=11), together with linear (n=5) and angular (n=1) measurements were carried out by three examiners using the program VoXim® 6.1. The measurements were taken twice at a 14-day interval. Descriptive analyses were made and the standard deviations were used to compare differences in the accuracy of landmark identification. The descriptive statistics showed distinct differences in the reference points in the three axes of the coordinate system. Because of anatomical and morphological factors, the pogonion and gnathion reference points displayed higher standard deviations when set on the transverse plane (SD(CBCT) Pog: 0.66-1.57 mm; SD(MSCT) Pog: 0.14-1.09 mm; SD(CBCT) Gn: 1.05-1.77 mm; SD(MSCT) Gn: 0.20-0.85 mm), thus showing less accuracy. However, standard deviations on the sagittal and vertical planes were smaller. Genion, anterior nasal spine and infradentale had very low standard deviations on all three planes. The distance (Mfl-Mfr) and angle (Krl-Krr-Ge) revealed significantly smaller standard deviations in the MSCT (SD(CBCT) Krl-Krr-Ge: 0.51-0.75 mm; SD(MSCT) Krl-Krr-Ge: 0.22 mm). The CBCT devices evaluated in this study are suitable for taking exact 3D measurements of anatomical structures and meet all requirements for 3D cephalometric analysis.

  8. Miscellaneous conditions of the shoulder: Anatomical, clinical, and pictorial review emphasizing potential pitfalls in imaging diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farid, Nikdokht [University of California San Diego, Department of Radiology, 200 West Arbor Drive, San Diego, CA 92103 (United States); VA Healthcare System San Diego, Department of Radiology, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, La Jolla, CA 92161 (United States); Bruce, Dean [University of California San Diego, Department of Radiology, 200 West Arbor Drive, San Diego, CA 92103 (United States); VA Healthcare System San Diego, Department of Radiology, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, La Jolla, CA 92161 (United States); University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Chung, Christine B. [University of California San Diego, Department of Radiology, 200 West Arbor Drive, San Diego, CA 92103 (United States); VA Healthcare System San Diego, Department of Radiology, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, La Jolla, CA 92161 (United States)], E-mail: cbchung@ucsd.edu

    2008-10-15

    The purpose of this article is to review the key imaging findings in major categories of pathology affecting the shoulder joint including hydroxyapatite deposition disease, rotator cuff interval pathology, acromioclavicular joint pathology, glenohumeral osteoarthrosis, and synovial inflammatory processes, with specific emphasis on findings that have associated pitfalls in imaging diagnosis. The pathophysiology and clinical manifestations of the above mentioned categories of pathology will be reviewed, followed in each section by a detailed pictorial review of the key imaging findings in each category including plain film, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging findings as applicable. Imaging challenges that relate to both diagnosis and characterization will be addressed with each type of pathology. The goal is that after reading this article, the reader will be able to recognize the key imaging findings in major categories of pathology affecting the shoulder joint and will become familiar with the potential pitfalls in their imaging diagnosis.

  9. A Review of Salivary Gland Malignancies: Common Histologic Types, Anatomic Considerations, and Imaging Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Remy; Hawk, Jeffrey; Srinivasan, Ashok

    2018-05-01

    Major and minor salivary gland malignancies come in various shapes and sizes. They can present as palpable masses or can be detected incidentally when imaging patients for other indications. A complete evaluation of salivary gland malignancies requires knowledge of the anatomy and various routes of spread of neoplasias. Computed tomography (CT) and MR imaging are complementary tools in this respect and offer useful information to the proceduralist. Advanced imaging (diffusion-weighted imaging and PET-CT) and other modalities (eg, ultrasound) help with characterization, although biopsy or excision is often needed for definitive tissue diagnosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. MODIS Level-3 Standard Mapped Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes chlorophyll-a concentration data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  11. A guide for effective anatomical vascularization studies: useful ex vivo methods for both CT and MRI imaging before dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Yohann; Hossu, Gabriela; Chen, Bailiang; Krebs, Marine; Labrousse, Marc; Perez, Manuela

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a simple and useful injection protocol for imaging cadaveric vascularization and dissection. Mixtures of contrast agent and cast product should provide adequate contrast for two types of ex vivo imaging (MRI and CT) and should harden to allow gross dissection of the injected structures. We tested the most popular contrast agents and cast products, and selected the optimal mixture composition based on their availability and ease of use. All mixtures were first tested in vitro to adjust dilution parameters of each contrast agent and to fine-tune MR imaging acquisition sequences. Mixtures were then injected in 24 pig livers and one human pancreas for MR and computed tomography (CT) imaging before anatomical dissection. Colorized latex, gadobutrol and barite mixture met the above objective. Mixtures composed of copper sulfate (CuSO 4 ) gadoxetic acid (for MRI) and iodine (for CT) gave an inhomogeneous signal or extravasation of the contrast agent. Agar did not harden sufficiently for gross dissection but appears useful for CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies without dissection. Silicone was very hard to inject but achieved the goals of the study. Resin is particularly difficult to use but could replace latex as an alternative for corrosion instead of dissection. This injection protocol allows CT and MRI images to be obtained of cadaveric vascularization and anatomical casts in the same anatomic specimen. Post-imaging processing software allow easy 3D reconstruction of complex anatomical structures using this technique. Applications are numerous, e.g. surgical training, teaching methods, postmortem anatomic studies, pathologic studies, and forensic diagnoses. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  12. Using Unfiltered Images to Perform Standard Filter Band Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlitz, J.

    2017-06-01

    This paper demonstrates that raw instrumental magnitudes of stars measured from a single unfiltered CCD image can be transformed into standard passband magnitudes. Star fields that have good catalogued photometric magnitudes can be used as a reference to transform unfiltered instrumental magnitudes into a standard system. To demonstrate this, the AAVSO (VSP) M-67 catalogued stars are used. It is shown that, within certain constraints, the standard B, V, Rc, and Ic magnitudes can be accurately determined from unfiltered instrumental magnitudes. For well behaved, well calibrated stars, the transformations to standard magnitudes can be done within a standard deviation of better than 0.021 magnitude. The paper further presents a simple spreadsheet tool to automatically derive the "standard" magnitudes from the raw instrumental magnitudes. This greatly simplifies the task of calculating transformation coefficients, and makes it possible to calibrate a CCD imaging system on an image-by-image basis.

  13. Unifying the analyses of anatomical and diffusion tensor images using volume-preserved warping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Dongrong; Hao, Xuejun; Bansal, Ravi

    2007-01-01

    (ROIs) are first extracted from MR images using an automated algorithm for volume-preserved warping (VPW) that identifies localized volumetric differences across groups. ROIs then serve as seed points for fiber tracking in coregistered DT images. Another algorithm automatically clusters and compares...

  14. The suprapineal recess of the third ventricle: an anatomic study with magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Satoshi; Ono, Hideo; Yasumoto, Yukimasa

    2017-07-01

    The suprapineal recess (SPR) is a small, backward extension of the third ventricle. Few radiological studies have investigated the morphology of the SPR. Here, we explore the SPR with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. A total of 124 patients underwent thin-slice MR imaging examinations with T2-weighted imaging and the constructive interference steady-state (CISS) sequence. Imaging data were transferred to a workstation for analysis. The pineal gland (P) was delineated in 99% of the patients on T2-weighted imaging and 100% of the patients on the CISS sequence. In contrast, the SPR was identified in 27% of the patients on T2-weighted imaging and 82% of the patients on the CISS sequence. The location of the P relative to the lowest point of the splenium was roughly classified into two types. Of them, the anterior P location was the more frequent type and observed in 73% of the patients. The angle formed by the roof and floor of the SPR showed remarkable interindividual diversity. A membranous posterior extension with variable length, spanning between the posterosuperior margin of the P and Galenic complex was found in 55% of the identified SPRs on T2-weighted imaging and 45% on the CISS sequence. The SPR is a distinct structure with diversity in appearance among individuals but commonly extends posterior to the P. High-resolution MR imaging is useful for delineating the SPR in vivo.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of the visual pathway - anatomical and technical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosnowski, P.; Paprzycki, W.

    1993-01-01

    Magnetic resonance tomography creates possibility of imaging the whole visual pathway and is superior to CT. Plenitude of MR techniques can sometimes be the reason of unnecessary prolongation of the examination. This study tries to evaluate usefulness of different MR techniques and planes for optimal imaging of consecutive sections of visual pathway. (author)

  16. Improving nodule detection in chest CT images using a cylindrical filter based on the anatomical structure of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeya, Ai; Teramoto, Atsushi; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    In a previous study, we developed a cylindrical filter for the detection of lung nodules in chest CT images. However, the detection rate of this method is reduced when nodules are adjacent to or overlap blood vessels or bronchi. The main objective of the present study was to develop a novel technique for improving the nodule detection capabilities of our method based on the anatomical structure of the bronchi and blood vessels obtained from CT images. In the proposed method, chest CT images are divided into a region consisting of normal lung structures (bronchi and blood vessels) and another region. Then, cylindrical filters with different characteristics are applied to the two regions. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of this method, the proposed method and the conventional method were applied to chest CT images, and their nodule detection capabilities were compared. The results showed that the true positive rate of the conventional method was 0.72, whereas that of the proposed method was 0.79. The number of false positives per case was 4.19 for both methods. These results indicate that the proposed method may be useful for improving nodule detection performance. (author)

  17. Discrimination and anatomical mapping of PET-positive lesions: comparison of CT attenuation-corrected PET images with coregistered MR and CT images in the abdomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Felix P.; Crook, David W.; Mader, Caecilia E.; Appenzeller, Philippe; Schulthess, G.K. von; Schmid, Daniel T. [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Medical Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-01-15

    PET/MR has the potential to become a powerful tool in clinical oncological imaging. The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the performance of a single T1-weighted (T1w) fat-suppressed unenhanced MR pulse sequence of the abdomen in comparison with unenhanced low-dose CT images to characterize PET-positive lesions. A total of 100 oncological patients underwent sequential whole-body {sup 18}F-FDG PET with CT-based attenuation correction (AC), 40 mAs low-dose CT and two-point Dixon-based T1w 3D MRI of the abdomen in a trimodality PET/CT-MR system. PET-positive lesions were assessed by CT and MRI with regard to their anatomical location, conspicuity and additional relevant information for characterization. From among 66 patients with at least one PET-positive lesion, 147 lesions were evaluated. No significant difference between MRI and CT was found regarding anatomical lesion localization. The MR pulse sequence used performed significantly better than CT regarding conspicuity of liver lesions (p < 0.001, Wilcoxon signed ranks test), whereas no difference was noted for extrahepatic lesions. For overall lesion characterization, MRI was considered superior to CT in 40 % of lesions, equal to CT in 49 %, and inferior to CT in 11 %. Fast Dixon-based T1w MRI outperformed low-dose CT in terms of conspicuity and characterization of PET-positive liver lesions and performed similarly in extrahepatic tumour manifestations. Hence, under the assumption that the technical issue of MR AC for whole-body PET examinations is solved, in abdominal PET/MR imaging the replacement of low-dose CT by a single Dixon-based MR pulse sequence for anatomical lesion correlation appears to be valid and robust. (orig.)

  18. Anatomical Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Typically Developing Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giedd, Jay N.; Lalonde, Francois M.; Celano, Mark J.; White, Samantha L.; Wallace, Gregory L.; Lee, Nancy R.; Lenroot, Rhoshel K.

    2009-01-01

    Methodological issues relevant to magnetic resonance imaging studies of brain anatomy are discussed along with the findings on the neuroanatomic changes during childhood and adolescence. The development of the brain is also discussed.

  19. Visualization of Anatomical Information in Near-Infrared Imaging for Robotic Urological Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savarimuthu, Thiusius Rajeeth; Minnillo, Brian; Taylor, Russels

    2011-01-01

    it may not relate to the surface visible in the visual endoscopic images. As critical surfaces as well as surgical targets often lie subsurface, a range of techniques (e.g. ultrasound and near-infrared imaging) and registration methods have been investigated as robotic surgery gains popularity. While...... aim to enhance surgical awareness and make critical uretary tasks such as mobilization of the ureters easier. Engineering validation experiments with a prototype imager, and in-vivo experiments using a prototype Hamamatsu Photodynamic Eye (PDE) imager together with the da Vinci surgical system demonstrating...... feasibility are presented. These initial experiments have also shown encouraging response from the clinicians....

  20. Robust 3D-2D image registration: application to spine interventions and vertebral labeling in the presence of anatomical deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otake, Yoshito; Wang, Adam S.; Webster Stayman, J.; Uneri, Ali; Kleinszig, Gerhard; Vogt, Sebastian; Khanna, A. Jay; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2013-12-01

    We present a framework for robustly estimating registration between a 3D volume image and a 2D projection image and evaluate its precision and robustness in spine interventions for vertebral localization in the presence of anatomical deformation. The framework employs a normalized gradient information similarity metric and multi-start covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy optimization with local-restarts, which provided improved robustness against deformation and content mismatch. The parallelized implementation allowed orders-of-magnitude acceleration in computation time and improved the robustness of registration via multi-start global optimization. Experiments involved a cadaver specimen and two CT datasets (supine and prone) and 36 C-arm fluoroscopy images acquired with the specimen in four positions (supine, prone, supine with lordosis, prone with kyphosis), three regions (thoracic, abdominal, and lumbar), and three levels of geometric magnification (1.7, 2.0, 2.4). Registration accuracy was evaluated in terms of projection distance error (PDE) between the estimated and true target points in the projection image, including 14 400 random trials (200 trials on the 72 registration scenarios) with initialization error up to ±200 mm and ±10°. The resulting median PDE was better than 0.1 mm in all cases, depending somewhat on the resolution of input CT and fluoroscopy images. The cadaver experiments illustrated the tradeoff between robustness and computation time, yielding a success rate of 99.993% in vertebral labeling (with ‘success’ defined as PDE vertebral labeling) in image-guided spine surgery.

  1. Wavelet/scalar quantization compression standard for fingerprint images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brislawn, C.M.

    1996-06-12

    US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has recently formulated a national standard for digitization and compression of gray-scale fingerprint images. Fingerprints are scanned at a spatial resolution of 500 dots per inch, with 8 bits of gray-scale resolution. The compression algorithm for the resulting digital images is based on adaptive uniform scalar quantization of a discrete wavelet transform subband decomposition (wavelet/scalar quantization method). The FBI standard produces archival-quality images at compression ratios of around 15 to 1 and will allow the current database of paper fingerprint cards to be replaced by digital imagery. The compression standard specifies a class of potential encoders and a universal decoder with sufficient generality to reconstruct compressed images produced by any compliant encoder, allowing flexibility for future improvements in encoder technology. A compliance testing program is also being implemented to ensure high standards of image quality and interchangeability of data between different implementations.

  2. Automatic iterative segmentation of multiple sclerosis lesions using Student's t mixture models and probabilistic anatomical atlases in FLAIR images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Paulo G L; Ferrari, Ricardo J

    2016-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating autoimmune disease that attacks the central nervous system (CNS) and affects more than 2 million people worldwide. The segmentation of MS lesions in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a very important task to assess how a patient is responding to treatment and how the disease is progressing. Computational approaches have been proposed over the years to segment MS lesions and reduce the amount of time spent on manual delineation and inter- and intra-rater variability and bias. However, fully-automatic segmentation of MS lesions still remains an open problem. In this work, we propose an iterative approach using Student's t mixture models and probabilistic anatomical atlases to automatically segment MS lesions in Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) images. Our technique resembles a refinement approach by iteratively segmenting brain tissues into smaller classes until MS lesions are grouped as the most hyperintense one. To validate our technique we used 21 clinical images from the 2015 Longitudinal Multiple Sclerosis Lesion Segmentation Challenge dataset. Evaluation using Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC), True Positive Ratio (TPR), False Positive Ratio (FPR), Volume Difference (VD) and Pearson's r coefficient shows that our technique has a good spatial and volumetric agreement with raters' manual delineations. Also, a comparison between our proposal and the state-of-the-art shows that our technique is comparable and, in some cases, better than some approaches, thus being a viable alternative for automatic MS lesion segmentation in MRI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mid-IR image acquisition using a standard CCD camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Sørensen, Knud Palmelund; Pedersen, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Direct image acquisition in the 3-5 µm range is realized using a standard CCD camera and a wavelength up-converter unit. The converter unit transfers the image information to the NIR range were state-of-the-art cameras exist.......Direct image acquisition in the 3-5 µm range is realized using a standard CCD camera and a wavelength up-converter unit. The converter unit transfers the image information to the NIR range were state-of-the-art cameras exist....

  4. An automatic system for segmentation, matching, anatomical labeling and measurement of airways from CT images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens; Feragen, Aasa; Owen, Megan

    Purpose: Assessing airway dimensions and attenuation from CT images is useful in the study of diseases affecting the airways such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Measurements can be compared between patients and over time if specific airway segments can be identified. However...... segmental branches, and longitudinal matching of airway branches in repeated scans of the same subject. Methods and Materials: The segmentation process begins from an automatically detected seed point in the trachea. The airway centerline tree is then constructed by iteratively adding locally optimal paths...... that most resemble the airway centerlines based on a statistical model derived from a training set. A full segmentation of the wall surfaces is then extracted around the centerline, using a graph based approach, which simultaneously detects both surfaces using image gradients. Deformable image registration...

  5. Performance evaluation of emerging JPEGXR compression standard for medical images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basit, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Medical images require loss less compression as a small error due to lossy compression may be considered as a diagnostic error. JPEG XR is the latest image compression standard designed for variety of applications and has a support for lossy and loss less modes. This paper provides in-depth performance evaluation of latest JPEGXR with existing image coding standards for medical images using loss less compression. Various medical images are used for evaluation and ten images of each organ are tested. Performance of JPEGXR is compared with JPEG2000 and JPEGLS using mean square error, peak signal to noise ratio, mean absolute error and structural similarity index. JPEGXR shows improvement of 20.73 dB and 5.98 dB over JPEGLS and JPEG2000 respectively for various test images used in experimentation. (author)

  6. Image standards in Tissue-Based Diagnosis (Diagnostic Surgical Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vollmer Ekkehard

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Progress in automated image analysis, virtual microscopy, hospital information systems, and interdisciplinary data exchange require image standards to be applied in tissue-based diagnosis. Aims To describe the theoretical background, practical experiences and comparable solutions in other medical fields to promote image standards applicable for diagnostic pathology. Theory and experiences Images used in tissue-based diagnosis present with pathology – specific characteristics. It seems appropriate to discuss their characteristics and potential standardization in relation to the levels of hierarchy in which they appear. All levels can be divided into legal, medical, and technological properties. Standards applied to the first level include regulations or aims to be fulfilled. In legal properties, they have to regulate features of privacy, image documentation, transmission, and presentation; in medical properties, features of disease – image combination, human – diagnostics, automated information extraction, archive retrieval and access; and in technological properties features of image acquisition, display, formats, transfer speed, safety, and system dynamics. The next lower second level has to implement the prescriptions of the upper one, i.e. describe how they are implemented. Legal aspects should demand secure encryption for privacy of all patient related data, image archives that include all images used for diagnostics for a period of 10 years at minimum, accurate annotations of dates and viewing, and precise hardware and software information. Medical aspects should demand standardized patients' files such as DICOM 3 or HL 7 including history and previous examinations, information of image display hardware and software, of image resolution and fields of view, of relation between sizes of biological objects and image sizes, and of access to archives and retrieval. Technological aspects should deal with image

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of lumbar disc herniation with special reference to the myelographic and anatomical correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamura, Yuichi; Imamura, Kiyohiko; Uematsu, Hirokazu; Sakai, Naotaka; Yamashita, Hajime; Takemura, Kenji (Yokosuka Kyosai Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan))

    1992-08-01

    T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images of 49 lumbar vertebrae from 44 patients were restrospectively reviewed, focusing on herniated material, low signal intensity zone and extradural fatty tissue in the posterior edge of intervertebral disc. Morphological MR appearance was correlated with myelograms and surgical findings to determine which morphology can be detected by MR imaging alone. The MR features of the posterior edge of intervertebral disc were morphologically divided into three main types: (I) massive, swollen herniation and clear low signal intensity zone, but little or no disruption of the extradual fatty tissue; (II) posterior protrusion of the segmental herniation, partial unclearness or lack of low signal intensity zone, and disrupted extradual fatty tissue; and (III) massive herniation, lack of low signal intensity zone, and widespread disruption of the extradual fatty tissue. Types I, II and, III were seen in 18, 19, and 12 vertebrae, respectively. Herniation was clearly visualized on T1-weighted images in 73% for Type II and 83% for Type III, compared to 28% for Type I. Herniated material was seen as isointensity in 18 vertebrae in Type II and as hyperintensity in 7 vertebrae in Type III. Fifteen vertebrae (79%) in Type II and 9 vertebrae (75%) in Type III were diagnosed by MR imaging alone, which is contrast with Type I in which 11 vertebrae required myelography for diagnosis. In evaluable 25 vertebrae, common surgical findings were bulging in Type I, prolaps in Type II, and extrusion or sequestration in Type III. (N.K.).

  8. Live-Wire-Based Segmentation of 3D Anatomical Structures for Image-Guided Lung Interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, K.; Xu, S.; Xue, Z.; Wong, S.T.

    2011-01-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) has been widely used for assisting lung cancer detection/diagnosis and treatment. In lung cancer diagnosis, suspect lesions or regions of interest (ROIs) are usually analyzed in screening CT scans, and CT-based image-guided minimally invasive procedures are performed for

  9. Imaging evidence for anatomical disturbances and neuroplastic compensation in persons with Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Bansal, Ravi; Peterson, Bradley S

    2009-01-01

    , and methods of image analysis, the preponderance of evidence suggests that disturbances in the development of the motor portions of cortical-subcortical circuits likely predispose to the development TS and that neuroplastic changes in control systems of the brain help to modulate the severity of symptom...

  10. Anatomical Reconstruction and Functional Imaging Reveal an Ordered Array of Skylight Polarization Detectors in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Peter T; Henze, Miriam J; Bleul, Christiane; Baumann-Klausener, Franziska; Labhart, Thomas; Dickinson, Michael H

    2016-05-11

    Many insects exploit skylight polarization as a compass cue for orientation and navigation. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, photoreceptors R7 and R8 in the dorsal rim area (DRA) of the compound eye are specialized to detect the electric vector (e-vector) of linearly polarized light. These photoreceptors are arranged in stacked pairs with identical fields of view and spectral sensitivities, but mutually orthogonal microvillar orientations. As in larger flies, we found that the microvillar orientation of the distal photoreceptor R7 changes in a fan-like fashion along the DRA. This anatomical arrangement suggests that the DRA constitutes a detector for skylight polarization, in which different e-vectors maximally excite different positions in the array. To test our hypothesis, we measured responses to polarized light of varying e-vector angles in the terminals of R7/8 cells using genetically encoded calcium indicators. Our data confirm a progression of preferred e-vector angles from anterior to posterior in the DRA, and a strict orthogonality between the e-vector preferences of paired R7/8 cells. We observed decreased activity in photoreceptors in response to flashes of light polarized orthogonally to their preferred e-vector angle, suggesting reciprocal inhibition between photoreceptors in the same medullar column, which may serve to increase polarization contrast. Together, our results indicate that the polarization-vision system relies on a spatial map of preferred e-vector angles at the earliest stage of sensory processing. The fly's visual system is an influential model system for studying neural computation, and much is known about its anatomy, physiology, and development. The circuits underlying motion processing have received the most attention, but researchers are increasingly investigating other functions, such as color perception and object recognition. In this work, we investigate the early neural processing of a somewhat exotic sense, called

  11. Lateral Augmentation Procedures in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Anatomic, Biomechanical, Imaging, and Clinical Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Alexander E; Zuke, William; Mayer, Erik N; Forsythe, Brian; Getgood, Alan; Verma, Nikhil N; Bach, Bernard R; Bedi, Asheesh; Cole, Brian J

    2018-02-01

    There has been an increasing interest in lateral-based soft tissue reconstructive techniques as augments to anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). The objective of these procedures is to minimize anterolateral rotational instability of the knee after surgery. Despite the relatively rapid increase in surgical application of these techniques, many clinical questions remain. To provide a comprehensive update on the current state of these lateral-based augmentation procedures by reviewing the origins of the surgical techniques, the biomechanical data to support their use, and the clinical results to date. Systematic review. A systematic search of the literature was conducted via the Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, SportDiscus, and CINAHL databases. The search was designed to encompass the literature on lateral extra-articular tenodesis (LET) procedures and the anterolateral ligament (ALL) reconstruction. Titles and abstracts were reviewed for relevance and sorted into the following categories: anatomy, biomechanics, imaging/diagnostics, surgical techniques, and clinical outcomes. The search identified 4016 articles. After review for relevance, 31, 53, 27, 35, 45, and 78 articles described the anatomy, biomechanics, imaging/diagnostics, surgical techniques, and clinical outcomes of either LET procedures or the ALL reconstruction, respectively. A multitude of investigations were available, revealing controversy in addition to consensus in several categories. The level of evidence obtained from this search was not adequate for systematic review or meta-analysis; thus, a current concepts review of the anatomy, biomechanics, imaging, surgical techniques, and clinical outcomes was performed. Histologically, the ALL appears to be a distinct structure that can be identified with advanced imaging techniques. Biomechanical evidence suggests that the anterolateral structures of the knee, including the ALL, contribute to minimizing anterolateral rotational instability

  12. Pericardial sinuses and recesses effusion of 16-slice helical CT imaging and anatomic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Chunyan; Yang Zhigang; Zhou Xiangping; Yu Jianqun; Zhu Jie; Yang Kaiqing

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the CT features and implications of the pericardial sinuses and recesses effusion by combining the sectional cadavers and 16 multi-slice CT (MSCT) reformation. Methods: The anatomy and communication of the pericardial sinuses and recesses on the axial, coronal and saggital sectional cadavers (respectively 1 case), and the morphologic features on MSCT reformatted images in 104 patients were observed. The detection rate of effusion was analyzed. Results: The sectional cadavers and CT images showed that the pericardial sinuses and recesses were formed by the reflections of the pericardium on the root of the great vessels. The detection rate of the sinuses and recesses was lower in small effusion than in moderate and large effusion (P<0.05). The superior aortic recess was the most common recess for pericardial effusion. Conclusion: The MSCT reformatted images can show the morphologic features of pericardial sinuses and recesses effusion and communications with the pericardial cavity, help differentiate pericardial effusion from other mediastinal or pericardial lesions. (authors)

  13. Anatomic and pathological characterization of choroidal melanoma using multimodal imaging: what is practical, what is needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Tobias; Langner, Sönke; Falke, Karen; Walter, Uwe; Krüger, Paul-Christian; Pohlmann, Andreas; Zimpfer, Annette; Stahnke, Thomas; Hadlich, Stefan; Guthoff, Rudolf; Erbersdobler, Andreas; Niendorf, Thoralf; Stachs, Oliver

    2015-06-01

    Choroidal melanoma is the most frequently occurring intraocular tumor in adults. The aim of this work is to assess the potential of state-of-the art in-vivo and ex-vivo imaging modalities for the characterization of choroidal melanoma. Multimodal imaging of a choroidal melanoma was performed in a 53-year-old male patient. In-vivo ophthalmoscopy, ultrasound microscopy, duplex ultrasound, and 7.0 T MRI were performed. Ex-vivo examination of the enucleated eye included 7.0 and 9.4 T magnetic resonance microscopy as well as histopathology with hematoxylin and eosin staining. Imaging of choroidal melanoma with ultrahigh field MRI and duplex sonography provides detailed morphologic and functional information of the eye. High-spatial-resolution MRI at 9.4 T shows details of the internal texture of melanoma and other structures of the eye with an in-plane spatial resolution of 32 μm. Ultrahigh field in-vivo MRI at 7.0 T and ex-vivo MRI at 7.0 and 9.4 T correlate well with histologic evaluation. In-vivo ultrahigh field MRI is an emerging technique for the characterization and staging of ocular tumors. The combination of in-vivo ultrahigh-field MRI and duplex sonography has the potential to complement or even substitute complex and invasive biopsies.

  14. How the cervix shortens: an anatomic study using 3-dimensional transperineal sonography and image registration in singletons and twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Reshma; Patel, Atur; Stack, Trevor; Socrate, Simona; House, Michael

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a fixed reference to study movement (displacement) of the cervical internal os from the second to the third trimester in singletons and twins. The rationale was to gain insight into anatomic changes associated with cervical shortening. For each patient, 2 transperineal scans were performed 12 weeks apart (20 and 32 weeks). The internal os and symphysis pubis were visualized in the same field of view. Image registration techniques were used to align the 2 scans using the symphysis as a fixed reference. Total displacement, anterior displacement, and inferior displacement of the internal os were measured. Displacements were correlated with cervical shortening. Bland-Altman plots and interobserver intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated. A total of 42 healthy participants were studied: 28 with singletons and 14 with twins. The mean ± SD values for total displacement were 2.1 ± 1.2 and 2.0 ± 1.2 cm for singletons and twins, respectively (P = .75). The direction of displacement was significantly different. The mean anterior displacement was 1.1 cm greater for singletons than for twins (95% confidence interval, 0.29-2.0 cm, P = .01). Mean inferior displacement was 1.3 cm greater for twins than for singletons (95% confidence interval, 2.2-0.1 cm; P = .03). Only inferior displacement correlated with cervical shortening (P < .001; R(2) = 0.74). For every 2.2 cm of inferior displacement, the cervix shortened 1.0 cm. Assessments of reliability showed good agreement between 2 observers. The anatomic position of the internal cervical os depends on gestational age and fetal number. Cervical shortening correlated most strongly with inferior displacement.

  15. Magnetocardiographic classification and non-invasive electro-anatomical imaging of outflow tract ventricular arrhythmias in recreational sport activity practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Gianmarco; Sorbo, Anna Rita; Guida, Gianluigi; La Brocca, Lara; Fenici, Riccardo; Brisinda, Donatella

    2018-02-16

    Ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) with left bundle-branch-block and inferior axis morphology (LBBB-IA), suggestive of outflow tract (OT) origin, are a challenge in sports medicine because they can be benign or expression of a silent cardiomyopathy. Non-invasive classification is essential to plan ablation strategy if required. We aimed to evaluating magnetocardiographic (MCG) discrimination of OT-VAs site of origin (SoO). MCG and ECG data of 26 sports activity practitioners, with OT-VAs were analyzed. OT-VAs-SoO was classified with discriminant analysis (DA) of 8 MCG parameters and with invasively-validated ECG algorithms. MCG inverse source-localization merged with magnetic resonance (CMR) provided three-dimensional electro-anatomical imaging (MCG 3D-EAI). ECG classification was univocal in 73%. MCG-DA differentiated right ventricular OT from aortic sinus cusp VAs, with 94.7% accuracy. MCG 3D-EAI confirmed OT-VAs-SoO in CMR images. In cases undergoing ablation, MCG 3D-EAI was confirmed by CARTO 3D-EAI. MCG-DA improves non-invasive classification of OT-VAs-SoO. Further comparison with interventional results is required. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Quantification of brain images using Korean standard templates and structural and cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Yu Kyeong

    2004-01-01

    Population based structural and functional maps of the brain provide effective tools for the analysis and interpretation of complex and individually variable brain data. Brain MRI and PET standard templates and statistical probabilistic maps based on image data of Korean normal volunteers have been developed and probabilistic maps based on cytoarchitectonic data have been introduced. A quantification method using these data was developed for the objective assessment of regional intensity in the brain images. Age, gender and ethnic specific anatomical and functional brain templates based on MR and PET images of Korean normal volunteers were developed. Korean structural probabilistic maps for 89 brain regions and cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps for 13 Brodmann areas were transformed onto the standard templates. Brain FDG PET and SPGR MR images of normal volunteers were spatially normalized onto the template of each modality and gender. Regional uptake of radiotracers in PET and gray matter concentration in MR images were then quantified by averaging (or summing) regional intensities weighted using the probabilistic maps of brain regions. Regionally specific effects of aging on glucose metabolism in cingulate cortex were also examined. Quantification program could generate quantification results for single spatially normalized images per 20 seconds. Glucose metabolism change in cingulate gyrus was regionally specific: ratios of glucose metabolism in the rostral anterior cingulate vs. posterior cingulate and the caudal anterior cingulate vs. posterior cingulate were significantly decreased as the age increased. 'Rostral anterior' / 'posterior' was decreased by 3.1% per decade of age (p -11 , r=0.81) and 'caudal anterior' / 'posterior' was decreased by 1.7% (p -8 , r=0.72). Ethnic specific standard templates and probabilistic maps and quantification program developed in this study will be useful for the analysis of brain image of Korean people since the difference

  17. Standardization of Image Quality Analysis – ISO 19264

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Wüller, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    There are a variety of image quality analysis tools available for the archiving world, which are based on different test charts and analysis algorithms. ISO has formed a working group in 2012 to harmonize these approaches and create a standard way of analyzing the image quality for archiving...

  18. Standardized food images: A photographing protocol and image database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charbonnier, L.; Meer, van der F.; Laan, van der L.N.; Viergever, M.A.; Smeets, P.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The regulation of food intake has gained much research interest because of the current obesity epidemic. For research purposes, food images are a good and convenient alternative for real food because many dietary decisions are made based on the sight of foods. Food pictures are assumed to elicit

  19. Standardized food images : A photographing protocol and image database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charbonnier, Lisette; van Meer, Floor; van der Laan, Laura N.; Viergever, Max A.; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-01-01

    The regulation of food intake has gained much research interest because of the current obesity epidemic. For research purposes, food images are a good and convenient alternative for real food because many dietary decisions are made based on the sight of foods. Food pictures are assumed to elicit

  20. Rationale and development of image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy post-prostatectomy: the present standard of care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Julia R; McNair, Helen A; Dearnaley, David P

    2015-01-01

    The indications for post-prostatectomy radiotherapy have evolved over the last decade, although the optimal timing, dose, and target volume remain to be well defined. The target volume is susceptible to anatomical variations with its borders interfacing with the rectum and bladder. Image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy has become the gold standard for radical prostate radiotherapy. Here we review the current evidence for image-guided techniques with intensity-modulated radiotherapy to the prostate bed and describe current strategies to reduce or account for interfraction and intrafraction motion.

  1. Adaptive radiation image enhancement based on different image quality evaluation standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xiaojing; Wu Zhifang

    2012-01-01

    Genetic algorithm based on incomplete Beta function was realized, and adaptive gray transform based on the said genetic algorithm was implemented, based as such, three image quality evaluation standards were applied in the adaptive gray transform of radiation images, and effects of processing time, stability, generation number and so on of the three standards were compared. The better algorithm scheme was applied in image processing module of container DR/CT inspection system to obtain effective adaptive image enhancement. (authors)

  2. Radiological diagnostics of abdomen and thorax. Image interpretation considering anatomical landmarks and clinical symptoms; Radiologische Diagnostik Abdomen und Thorax. Bildinterpretation unter Beruecksichtigung anatomischer Landmarken und klinischer Symptome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krombach, Gabriele A. [Universitaetsklinikum Giessen (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Mahnken, Andreas H. (ed.) [Universitaetsklinikum Marburg (Germany). Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2015-07-01

    The book on radiological diagnostics of abdomen and thorax - image interpretation considering anatomical landmarks and clinical symptoms - includes three chapters: (1) imaging of different parts of the body: thorax and abdomen. (II) Thorax: head and neck; mediastinum; heard and pericardium; large vessels; lungs and pleura; mamma. (III) Abdomen: liver; gall bladder and biliary tract; pancreas; gastrointestinal tract; spleen and lymphatic system; adrenal glands; kidneys and urinary tract; female pelvis; male pelvis.

  3. First performance evaluation of software for automatic segmentation, labeling and reformation of anatomical aligned axial images of the thoracolumbar spine at CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholtz, Jan-Erik, E-mail: janerikscholtz@gmail.com; Wichmann, Julian L.; Kaup, Moritz; Fischer, Sebastian; Kerl, J. Matthias; Lehnert, Thomas; Vogl, Thomas J.; Bauer, Ralf W.

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: •Automatic segmentation and labeling of the thoracolumbar spine. •Automatically generated double-angulated and aligned axial images of spine segments. •High grade of accurateness for the symmetric depiction of anatomical structures. •Time-saving and may improve workflow in daily practice. -- Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate software for automatic segmentation, labeling and reformation of anatomical aligned axial images of the thoracolumbar spine on CT in terms of accuracy, potential for time savings and workflow improvement. Material and methods: 77 patients (28 women, 49 men, mean age 65.3 ± 14.4 years) with known or suspected spinal disorders (degenerative spine disease n = 32; disc herniation n = 36; traumatic vertebral fractures n = 9) underwent 64-slice MDCT with thin-slab reconstruction. Time for automatic labeling of the thoracolumbar spine and reconstruction of double-angulated axial images of the pathological vertebrae was compared with manually performed reconstruction of anatomical aligned axial images. Reformatted images of both reconstruction methods were assessed by two observers regarding accuracy of symmetric depiction of anatomical structures. Results: In 33 cases double-angulated axial images were created in 1 vertebra, in 28 cases in 2 vertebrae and in 16 cases in 3 vertebrae. Correct automatic labeling was achieved in 72 of 77 patients (93.5%). Errors could be manually corrected in 4 cases. Automatic labeling required 1 min in average. In cases where anatomical aligned axial images of 1 vertebra were created, reconstructions made by hand were significantly faster (p < 0.05). Automatic reconstruction was time-saving in cases of 2 and more vertebrae (p < 0.05). Both reconstruction methods revealed good image quality with excellent inter-observer agreement. Conclusion: The evaluated software for automatic labeling and anatomically aligned, double-angulated axial image reconstruction of the thoracolumbar spine on CT is time

  4. The FBI compression standard for digitized fingerprint images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brislawn, C.M.; Bradley, J.N. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Onyshczak, R.J. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Hopper, T. [Federal Bureau of Investigation, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The FBI has formulated national standards for digitization and compression of gray-scale fingerprint images. The compression algorithm for the digitized images is based on adaptive uniform scalar quantization of a discrete wavelet transform subband decomposition, a technique referred to as the wavelet/scalar quantization method. The algorithm produces archival-quality images at compression ratios of around 15 to 1 and will allow the current database of paper fingerprint cards to be replaced by digital imagery. A compliance testing program is also being implemented to ensure high standards of image quality and interchangeability of data between different implementations. We will review the current status of the FBI standard, including the compliance testing process and the details of the first-generation encoder.

  5. Algorithms for biomagnetic source imaging with prior anatomical and physiological information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughett, Paul William [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences

    1995-12-01

    This dissertation derives a new method for estimating current source amplitudes in the brain and heart from external magnetic field measurements and prior knowledge about the probable source positions and amplitudes. The minimum mean square error estimator for the linear inverse problem with statistical prior information was derived and is called the optimal constrained linear inverse method (OCLIM). OCLIM includes as special cases the Shim-Cho weighted pseudoinverse and Wiener estimators but allows more general priors and thus reduces the reconstruction error. Efficient algorithms were developed to compute the OCLIM estimate for instantaneous or time series data. The method was tested in a simulated neuromagnetic imaging problem with five simultaneously active sources on a grid of 387 possible source locations; all five sources were resolved, even though the true sources were not exactly at the modeled source positions and the true source statistics differed from the assumed statistics.

  6. Robust 3D–2D image registration: application to spine interventions and vertebral labeling in the presence of anatomical deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, Yoshito; Wang, Adam S; Webster Stayman, J; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H; Uneri, Ali; Kleinszig, Gerhard; Vogt, Sebastian; Khanna, A Jay; Gokaslan, Ziya L

    2013-01-01

    We present a framework for robustly estimating registration between a 3D volume image and a 2D projection image and evaluate its precision and robustness in spine interventions for vertebral localization in the presence of anatomical deformation. The framework employs a normalized gradient information similarity metric and multi-start covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy optimization with local-restarts, which provided improved robustness against deformation and content mismatch. The parallelized implementation allowed orders-of-magnitude acceleration in computation time and improved the robustness of registration via multi-start global optimization. Experiments involved a cadaver specimen and two CT datasets (supine and prone) and 36 C-arm fluoroscopy images acquired with the specimen in four positions (supine, prone, supine with lordosis, prone with kyphosis), three regions (thoracic, abdominal, and lumbar), and three levels of geometric magnification (1.7, 2.0, 2.4). Registration accuracy was evaluated in terms of projection distance error (PDE) between the estimated and true target points in the projection image, including 14 400 random trials (200 trials on the 72 registration scenarios) with initialization error up to ±200 mm and ±10°. The resulting median PDE was better than 0.1 mm in all cases, depending somewhat on the resolution of input CT and fluoroscopy images. The cadaver experiments illustrated the tradeoff between robustness and computation time, yielding a success rate of 99.993% in vertebral labeling (with ‘success’ defined as PDE <5 mm) using 1,718 664 ± 96 582 function evaluations computed in 54.0 ± 3.5 s on a mid-range GPU (nVidia, GeForce GTX690). Parameters yielding a faster search (e.g., fewer multi-starts) reduced robustness under conditions of large deformation and poor initialization (99.535% success for the same data registered in 13.1 s), but given good initialization (e.g., ±5 mm, assuming a robust

  7. Plantar calcaneal enthesophytes: new observations regarding sites of origin based on radiographic, MR imaging, anatomic, and paleopathologic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, M.R.; Chung, C.B.; Mendes, L.; Mohana-Borges, A.; Trudell, D.; Resnick, D. [Department of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Section, VA San Diego Healthcare System, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, San Diego, CA 92161 (United States)

    2003-01-01

    To determine the relationship between sites of calcaneal plantar enthesophytes and surrounding fascial and soft tissue structures using routine radiography, MR imaging, and data derived from cadaveric and paleopathologic specimens.Design and patients. Two observers analyzed the MR imaging studies of 40 ankles in 38 patients (35 males, 3 females; mean age 48.3 years) with plantar calcaneal enthesophytes that were selected from all the ankle MR examinations performed during the past year. Data derived from these MR examinations were the following: the size of the enthesophyte; its location in relation to the plantar fascia (PF) and flexor muscles; and the thickness and signal of the PF. The corresponding radiographs of the ankles were evaluated at a different time by the same observers for the presence or absence of plantar enthesophytes and, when present, their measurements. A third observer reviewed all the discordant observations of MR imaging and radiographic examinations. Two observers analyzed 22 calcaneal specimens with plantar enthesophytes at an anthropology museum to determine the orientation of each plantar enthesophyte. MR imaging of a cadaveric foot with a plantar enthesophyte with subsequent sagittal sectioning was performed to provide further anatomic understanding.Results. With regard to MR imaging, the mean size of the plantar enthesophytes was 4.41 mm (SD 2.4). Twenty (50%) enthesophytes were located above the PF, 16 (40%) between the fascia and abductor digiti minimi, flexor digitorum brevis and abductor hallucis muscles, and only one (3%) was located within the PF. In three (8%) cases the location was not determined. The size of enthesophytes seen with MR imaging and radiographs was highly correlated (P<0.01). The interobserver agreement for all measurements was good (Pearson >0.8, kappa >0.9). Eleven of the 22 bone specimens had plantar enthesophytes oriented in the direction of the abductor digiti minimi and 11 oriented in the direction of the

  8. Plantar calcaneal enthesophytes: new observations regarding sites of origin based on radiographic, MR imaging, anatomic, and paleopathologic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, M.R.; Chung, C.B.; Mendes, L.; Mohana-Borges, A.; Trudell, D.; Resnick, D.

    2003-01-01

    To determine the relationship between sites of calcaneal plantar enthesophytes and surrounding fascial and soft tissue structures using routine radiography, MR imaging, and data derived from cadaveric and paleopathologic specimens.Design and patients. Two observers analyzed the MR imaging studies of 40 ankles in 38 patients (35 males, 3 females; mean age 48.3 years) with plantar calcaneal enthesophytes that were selected from all the ankle MR examinations performed during the past year. Data derived from these MR examinations were the following: the size of the enthesophyte; its location in relation to the plantar fascia (PF) and flexor muscles; and the thickness and signal of the PF. The corresponding radiographs of the ankles were evaluated at a different time by the same observers for the presence or absence of plantar enthesophytes and, when present, their measurements. A third observer reviewed all the discordant observations of MR imaging and radiographic examinations. Two observers analyzed 22 calcaneal specimens with plantar enthesophytes at an anthropology museum to determine the orientation of each plantar enthesophyte. MR imaging of a cadaveric foot with a plantar enthesophyte with subsequent sagittal sectioning was performed to provide further anatomic understanding.Results. With regard to MR imaging, the mean size of the plantar enthesophytes was 4.41 mm (SD 2.4). Twenty (50%) enthesophytes were located above the PF, 16 (40%) between the fascia and abductor digiti minimi, flexor digitorum brevis and abductor hallucis muscles, and only one (3%) was located within the PF. In three (8%) cases the location was not determined. The size of enthesophytes seen with MR imaging and radiographs was highly correlated (P 0.8, kappa >0.9). Eleven of the 22 bone specimens had plantar enthesophytes oriented in the direction of the abductor digiti minimi and 11 oriented in the direction of the flexor digitorum brevis and PF. The cadaveric sections revealed different

  9. Anatomically oriented right ventricular volume measurements with dynamic three-dimensional echocardiography validated by 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, Petra S; Pinho, Luiz; Balbach, Thomas; Galuschky, Christian; Blankenhagen, Michael; Silberbach, Michael; Broberg, Craig; Jerosch-Herold, Michael; Sahn, David J

    2007-10-23

    We tested a newly developed 4-dimensional (4D) right ventricular (RV) analysis method for computing RV volumes for both 3-dimensional (3D) ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) images. Asymmetry and the anatomical complexity of the RV make accurate determination of RV shape and volume difficult. Thirty patients, 14 with grossly normal cardiac anatomy and 16 with major congenital heart disease, were studied at the same visit with both 3D echocardiography (echo) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for RV size and function. Ultrasound images were acquired on a Philips 7500 system (Philips Medical Systems, Andover, Massachusetts) with a matrix-array transducer (real-time 3D echo) with full volume sweeps from apical and subcostal views. Sagittal, 4-chamber, and coronal views were derived for contour detection (all 12 to 24 slices). The MR images were acquired with a 3-T MRI magnet with segmented cine-loop gradient echo sequences in short- and rotated long-axis views to cover the RV inflow, body, and outflow tract. The RV volumes were analyzed with the new software applicable to 3D echo MR images. New software aided delineation of the RV free wall, tricuspid valve, RV outflow tract, and apex on 3D echo volumes. Although there was a slightly higher variability measuring right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) and volumes obtained by US compared with MRI, both imaging methods showed closely correlated results. The RVEF was measured with 4% variability for US and 5% variability for MRI with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.91. The RV end-diastolic volume was measured at 70.97 +/- 15.0 ml with 3D US and at 70.06 +/- 14.8 ml with MRI (r = 0.99), end-systolic volume measured 39.8 +/- 10.4 ml with 3D US and 39.1 +/- 10.2 ml with MRI (r = 0.98). The new RV analysis software allowed validation of the accuracy of 4D echo RV volume data compared with MRI.

  10. Zuckerkandl Tubercle of the Thyroid Gland: Correlations between Findings of Anatomic Dissections and CT Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, H-J; Won, H-S; Kwak, D-S; Jang, J; Jung, S-L; Kim, I-B

    2017-07-01

    The Zuckerkandl tubercle is located at the posteromedial border of the thyroid lobe, and it may be confused with a neoplasm or other mass. This study was performed to clarify the position and morphologic characteristics of the Zuckerkandl tubercle by dissecting cadavers and to compare the findings with the corresponding CT images obtained in the same cadavers. One hundred thyroid lobes from 50 fresh cadavers were dissected for this study (20 males and 30 females; mean age at death, 77.3 ± 11.5 years). CT scans were obtained in 10 of the cadavers by using a 128-channel multidetector row CT scanner before dissection. The Zuckerkandl tubercle of the thyroid gland was observed in 83% of the specimens. It was mostly located at the posteromedial border of the thyroid lobe and within the middle two quarters (2nd and 3rd) of the thyroid lobe. The Zuckerkandl tubercle was classified into 3 types based on its direction of extension: posteromedial in 64% of the specimens, posteromedial and superior in 13%, and posteromedial and inferior in 6%. On axial CT, the Zuckerkandl tubercle was usually continuous with the posteromedial part of the thyroid lobe and extended posteromedially to the esophagus. The parts of the Zuckerkandl tubercle that protrude posteromedially and superiorly or posteromedially and inferiorly from the thyroid lobe appeared separated from the thyroid gland by a thin, low-density string on axial CT. Zuckerkandl tubercles that protrude toward the posteromedial and superior or inferior direction could cause confusion due to their separation when performing diagnoses with CT images. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  11. Anatomic guidelines defined by reformatting images on MRI for volume measurement of amygdala and hippocampus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshida, Tohru; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Uematsu, Sumio.

    1995-01-01

    Twelve patients with intractable partial epilepsy underwent MR scans at the Epilepsy Center of the Johns Hopkins Hospital. There were five women and seven men, ranging in age from five to 51 years (mean age: 26 years). Coronal images were obtained using a 3-D SPGR. The coronal images were transferred to an Allegro 5.1 workstation, and reformatted along the cardinal axes (axial and sagittal) in multiple view points. The anterior end of the amygdala was measured at the level just posterior to the disappearance of the temporal stem. The semilunar gyrus of the amygdala was separated from the ambient gyrus by the semianular sulcus that forms the boundary between the amygdala and the entorhinal cortex. The delineation of the hippocampal formation included the subicular complex, hippocampal proper, dentate gyrus, alveus, and fimbria. The uncal cleft separated the uncus above from the parahippocampal gyrus below. The roof of this cleft was formed by the hippocampus and the dentate gyrus, and the floor, by the presubiculum and subiculum. Although using some guidelines, strictly separating the hippocampal head from the posterior part of the amygdala was not feasible as was previously reported, because of the isointensity on MRI between the cortex of the amygdala and the hippocampus. The most posterior portion of the hippocampus was measured at the level of the subsplenial gyri, just below the splenium of the corpus callosum, to measure the hippocampal volume in its near totality. Therefore, it is reliable, and clinically useful, to measure the combined total volume of the amygdala and the hippocampus when comparing results with those of other centers. (S.Y.)

  12. Emulation of the laparoscopic environment for image-guided liver surgery via an abdominal phantom system with anatomical ligamenture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiselman, Jon S.; Collins, Jarrod A.; Clements, Logan W.; Weis, Jared A.; Simpson, Amber L.; Geevarghese, Sunil K.; Jarnagin, William R.; Miga, Michael I.

    2017-03-01

    In order to rigorously validate techniques for image-guided liver surgery (IGLS), an accurate mock representation of the intraoperative surgical scene with quantifiable localization of subsurface targets would be highly desirable. However, many attempts to reproduce the laparoscopic environment have encountered limited success due to neglect of several crucial design aspects. The laparoscopic setting is complicated by factors such as gas insufflation of the abdomen, changes in patient orientation, incomplete organ mobilization from ligaments, and limited access to organ surface data. The ability to accurately represent the influences of anatomical changes and procedural limitations is critical for appropriate evaluation of IGLS methodologies such as registration and deformation correction. However, these influences have not yet been comprehensively integrated into a platform usable for assessment of methods in laparoscopic IGLS. In this work, a mock laparoscopic liver simulator was created with realistic ligamenture to emulate the complexities of this constrained surgical environment for the realization of laparoscopic IGLS. The mock surgical system reproduces an insufflated abdominal cavity with dissectible ligaments, variable levels of incline matching intraoperative patient positioning, and port locations in accordance with surgical protocol. True positions of targets embedded in a tissue-mimicking phantom are measured from CT images. Using this setup, image-to-physical registration accuracy was evaluated for simulations of laparoscopic right and left lobe mobilization to assess rigid registration performance under more realistic laparoscopic conditions. Preliminary results suggest that non-rigid organ deformations and the region of organ surface data collected affect the ability to attain highly accurate registrations in laparoscopic applications.

  13. Arcuate sign of posterolateral knee injuries: anatomic, radiographic, and MR imaging data related to patterns of injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Josephine; Trudell, Debra; Resnick, Donald L. [Department of Radiology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Papakonstantinou, Olympia [Department of Radiology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Department of Radiology/MRI Unit, University Hospital of Heraklion (Greece); Brookenthal, Keith R. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2003-11-01

    The ''arcuate sign'' is considered a pathognomonic sign for injuries of the posterolateral (PL) corner of the knee. The purpose of our study was to identify different patterns of injury to the fibular head that may associate with injuries to specific ligaments and tendons of the PL corner of the knee. The anatomic relations between the insertions of fibular collateral ligament (FCL), biceps femoris tendon (BFT), popliteofibular ligament (PFL), and arcuate ligament in normal cadaveric knees were also investigated. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in two cadaveric knees which subsequently were dissected. Radiopaque markers were placed upon the fibular insertions of the FCL, BFT, PFL, and arcuate ligament in the dissected knees, and knee radiographs were then obtained. Twelve patients with radiographic or MR imaging evidence of isolated injury to the PL corner of the knee were retrospectively reviewed, with regard to avulsion fractures and marrow edema in the fibular head and the integrity of the ligaments of the PL corner of the knee. The PFL and arcuate ligament were seen to attach directly to the posterior and medial aspect of the styloid process of the fibular head. The FCL and BFT attached as a conjoined structure on the lateral aspect of the fibular head lateral, anterior and inferior to the attachment site of the PFL and arcuate ligament. Injury to the arcuate ligament or PFL was diagnosed in 8 patients who presented with a small avulsion fracture of the styloid process of the fibula (n=2), bone marrow edema in the medial aspect of the fibular head (n=3), or both (n=3). In 4 patients with injury to the conjoined tendon or FCL, a larger avulsion fragment and more diffuse proximal fibular edema were seen. Radiographic and MR imaging findings in injuries of the posterolateral corner of the knee may suggest injury to specific structures inserting in the fibular head. (orig.)

  14. STANDARDIZING QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF FUSED REMOTELY SENSED IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pohl

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The multitude of available operational remote sensing satellites led to the development of many image fusion techniques to provide high spatial, spectral and temporal resolution images. The comparison of different techniques is necessary to obtain an optimized image for the different applications of remote sensing. There are two approaches in assessing image quality: 1. Quantitatively by visual interpretation and 2. Quantitatively using image quality indices. However an objective comparison is difficult due to the fact that a visual assessment is always subject and a quantitative assessment is done by different criteria. Depending on the criteria and indices the result varies. Therefore it is necessary to standardize both processes (qualitative and quantitative assessment in order to allow an objective image fusion quality evaluation. Various studies have been conducted at the University of Osnabrueck (UOS to establish a standardized process to objectively compare fused image quality. First established image fusion quality assessment protocols, i.e. Quality with No Reference (QNR and Khan's protocol, were compared on varies fusion experiments. Second the process of visual quality assessment was structured and standardized with the aim to provide an evaluation protocol. This manuscript reports on the results of the comparison and provides recommendations for future research.

  15. Standardizing Quality Assessment of Fused Remotely Sensed Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, C.; Moellmann, J.; Fries, K.

    2017-09-01

    The multitude of available operational remote sensing satellites led to the development of many image fusion techniques to provide high spatial, spectral and temporal resolution images. The comparison of different techniques is necessary to obtain an optimized image for the different applications of remote sensing. There are two approaches in assessing image quality: 1. Quantitatively by visual interpretation and 2. Quantitatively using image quality indices. However an objective comparison is difficult due to the fact that a visual assessment is always subject and a quantitative assessment is done by different criteria. Depending on the criteria and indices the result varies. Therefore it is necessary to standardize both processes (qualitative and quantitative assessment) in order to allow an objective image fusion quality evaluation. Various studies have been conducted at the University of Osnabrueck (UOS) to establish a standardized process to objectively compare fused image quality. First established image fusion quality assessment protocols, i.e. Quality with No Reference (QNR) and Khan's protocol, were compared on varies fusion experiments. Second the process of visual quality assessment was structured and standardized with the aim to provide an evaluation protocol. This manuscript reports on the results of the comparison and provides recommendations for future research.

  16. Recommendation on standardization of radionuclide imaging (1984 revised)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    A revised edition of ''Recommendation on standardization of radionuclide imaging'', which was published in the Radioisotope (Tokyo), v. 28(11): 708-717, is introduced. An item of SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) was added in its application on the brain, myocardium and liver. Furthermore, stress myocardial scintigraphy, sup(99m)Tc RBC-labeled scintigraphy, gated blood pool imaging, dexamethasone-inhibited adrenal test, imaging for gastrointestinal bleeding, and imaging for the testes were added. Imaging for the placenta was deleted. The classification and use of a collimator was identified. Names of radiopharmaceuticals were in principle based on the standards of them. It was proposed to use Bq as a unit of radioactivity and to parenthesize Ci as a reference unit. The most recent literature on exposure doses was presented and figures of doses were revised. (Namekawa, K.)

  17. Anatomic distribution of renal artery stenosis in children: implications for imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, Nghia J.; Racadio, Judy M.; Johnson, Neil D.; Hammelman, Ben D.; Strife, C.F.; Racadio, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Renal artery stenosis (RAS) causes significant hypertension in children. Frequently, pediatric RAS occurs with systemic disorders. In these cases, stenoses are often complex and/or include long segments. We believed that hypertensive children without comorbid conditions had a different lesion distribution and that the difference might have implications for imaging and treatment. To identify locations of RAS lesions in these hypertensive children without comorbid conditions. Patients who had renal angiography for hypertension from 1993 to 2005 were identified. Patients with systemic disorders, renovascular surgery, or normal angiograms were excluded. The angiograms of the remaining patients were reviewed for number, type, and location of stenoses. Eighty-seven patients underwent renal angiography for hypertension; 30 were excluded for comorbid conditions. Twenty-one of the remaining 57 patients had abnormal angiograms; 24 stenoses were identified in those patients. All were focal and distributed as follows: 6 (25%) main renal artery, 12 (50%) 2nd order branch, 3 (12.5%) 3rd order branch, and 3 (12.5%) accessory renal artery. Hypertensive children without comorbid conditions who have RAS usually have single, focal branch artery stenoses. This distribution supports angiography in these patients because of its superior sensitivity in detecting branch vessel disease and its therapeutic role in percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty. (orig.)

  18. Comparative Study of Thin Sectional Anatomical Images from Chinese Visible Human Data Set and Computed Tomography Images of Superior Mediastinum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Yi; Luo, Na; Tan, Li-Wen; Fang, Bing-Ji; Li, Ying; Xie, Bing; Xu, Hao-Tong; Hu, Nan; Yang, Wei-Ping; Wu, Wei; Lamers, Wouter H.; Zhang, Shao-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    The structures of superior mediastinum and their spatial relationships are complex and difficult to master. This study aimed to compare visualization of the superior mediastinum based on computed tomography (CT) images and on the thin sections of the Chinese visible human (CVH) data set to provide a

  19. MO-F-CAMPUS-J-05: Using 2D Relative Gamma Analysis From EPID Image as a Predictor of Plan Deterioration Due to Anatomical Changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piron, O; Varfalvy, N; Archambault, L [Departement de radio-oncologie et axe oncologie du centre de recherche du CHU de Quebec, CHU de Quebec, QC (Canada); Departement de physique, genie physique et d’optique et Centre de recherche sur le cancer, Universite Laval, QC (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: One of the side effects of radiotherapy for head and neck (H&N) cancer is the patient’s anatomical changes. The changes can strongly affect the planned dose distribution. In this work, our goal is to demonstrate that relative analysis of EPID images is a fast and simple method to detect anatomical changes that can have a strong dosimetric impact on the treatment plan for H&N patients. Methods: EPID images were recorded at every beam and all fractions for 50 H&N patients. Of these, five patients that showed important anatomical changes were selected to evaluate dosimetric impacts of these changes and to correlate them with a 2D relative gamma analysis of EPID images. The planning CT and original contours were deformed onto CBCTs (one mid treatment and one at the end of treatment). By using deformable image registration, it was possible to map accurate CT numbers from the planning CT to the anatomy of the day obtained with CBCTs. Clinical treatment plan were then copied on the deformed dataset and dose was re-computed. In parallel, EPID images were analysed using the gamma index (3%3mm) relative to the first image. Results: It was possible to divide patients in two distinct, statistically different (p<0.001) categories using an average gamma index of 0.5 as a threshold. Below this threshold no significant dosimetric degradation of the plan are observed. Above this threshold two types of plan deterioration were seen: (1) target dose increases, but coverage remains adequate while dose to at least one OAR increases beyond tolerances; (2) the OAR doses remain low, but the target dose is reduced and coverage becomes inadequate. Conclusion: Relative analysis gamma of EPID images could indeed be a fast and simple method to detect anatomical changes that can potentially deteriorates treatment plan for H&N patients. This work was supported in part by Varian Medical System.

  20. Standardization of the first-trimester fetal cardiac examination using spatiotemporal image correlation with tomographic ultrasound and color Doppler imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, S; Turan, O M; Ty-Torredes, K; Harman, C R; Baschat, A A

    2009-06-01

    The challenges of the first-trimester examination of the fetal heart may in part be overcome by technical advances in three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound techniques. Our aim was to standardize the first-trimester 3D imaging approach to the cardiac examination to provide the most consistent and accurate display of anatomy. Low-risk women with normal findings on first-trimester screening at 11 to 13 + 6 weeks had cardiac ultrasound using the following sequence: (1) identification of the four-chamber view; (2) four-dimensional (4D) volume acquisition with spatiotemporal image correlation (STIC) and color Doppler imaging (angle = 20 degrees, sweep 10 s); (3) offline, tomographic ultrasound imaging (TUI) analysis with standardized starting plane (four-chamber view), slice number and thickness; (4) assessment of fetal cardiac anatomy (four-chamber view, cardiac axis, size and symmetry, atrioventricular valves, great arteries and descending aorta) with and without color Doppler. 107 consecutive women (age, 16-42 years, body mass index 17.2-50.2 kg/m(2)) were studied. A minimum of three 3D volumes were obtained for each patient, transabdominally in 91.6%. Fetal motion artifact required acquisition of more than three volumes in 20%. The median time for TUI offline analysis was 100 (range, 60-240) s. Individual anatomic landmarks were identified in 89.7-99.1%. Visualization of all structures in one panel was observed in 91 patients (85%). Starting from a simple two-dimensional cardiac landmark-the four-chamber view-the standardized STIC-TUI technique enables detailed segmental cardiac evaluation of the normal fetal heart in the first trimester. (c) 2009 ISUOG.

  1. Combining anatomical, diffusion, and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging for individual classification of mild and moderate Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijn M. Schouten

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is sensitive to structural and functional changes in the brain caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD, and can therefore be used to help in diagnosing the disease. Improving classification of AD patients based on MRI scans might help to identify AD earlier in the disease's progress, which may be key in developing treatments for AD. In this study we used an elastic net classifier based on several measures derived from the MRI scans of mild to moderate AD patients (N=77 from the prospective registry on dementia study and controls (N=173 from the Austrian Stroke Prevention Family Study. We based our classification on measures from anatomical MRI, diffusion weighted MRI and resting state functional MRI. Our unimodal classification performance ranged from an area under the curve (AUC of 0.760 (full correlations between functional networks to 0.909 (grey matter density. When combining measures from multiple modalities in a stepwise manner, the classification performance improved to an AUC of 0.952. This optimal combination consisted of grey matter density, white matter density, fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and sparse partial correlations between functional networks. Classification performance for mild AD as well as moderate AD also improved when using this multimodal combination. We conclude that different MRI modalities provide complementary information for classifying AD. Moreover, combining multiple modalities can substantially improve classification performance over unimodal classification.

  2. Accuracy in identifying the elbow rotation axis on simulated fluoroscopic images using a new anatomical landmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggers, J K; Snijders, R M; Dobbe, J G G; Streekstra, G J; den Hartog, D; Schep, N W L

    2017-11-01

    External fixation of the elbow requires identification of the elbow rotation axis, but the accuracy of traditional landmarks (capitellum and trochlea) on fluoroscopy is limited. The relative distance (RD) of the humerus may be helpful as additional landmark. The first aim of this study was to determine the optimal RD that corresponds to an on-axis lateral image of the elbow. The second aim was to assess whether the use of the optimal RD improves the surgical accuracy to identify the elbow rotation axis on fluoroscopy. CT scans of elbows from five volunteers were used to simulate fluoroscopy; the actual rotation axis was calculated with CT-based flexion-extension analysis. First, three observers measured the optimal RD on simulated fluoroscopy. The RD is defined as the distance between the dorsal part of the humerus and the projection of the posteromedial cortex of the distal humerus, divided by the anteroposterior diameter of the humerus. Second, eight trauma surgeons assessed the elbow rotation axis on simulated fluoroscopy. In a preteaching session, surgeons used traditional landmarks. The surgeons were then instructed how to use the optimal RD as additional landmark in a postteaching session. The deviation from the actual rotation axis was expressed as rotational and translational error (±SD). Measurement of the RD was robust and easily reproducible; the optimal RD was 45%. The surgeons identified the elbow rotation axis with a mean rotational error decreasing from 7.6° ± 3.4° to 6.7° ± 3.3° after teaching how to use the RD. The mean translational error decreased from 4.2 ± 2.0 to 3.7 ± 2.0 mm after teaching. The humeral RD as additional landmark yielded small but relevant improvements. Although fluoroscopy-based external fixator alignment to the elbow remains prone to error, it is recommended to use the RD as additional landmark.

  3. Joint analysis of three-dimensional anatomical and functional data considering the cerebral post mortem imaging in rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, Albertine

    2008-01-01

    The recent development of dedicated small animal anatomical (MRI) and functional (micro-PET) scanners has opened up the possibility of performing repeated functional in vivo studies in the same animal as the longitudinal follow-up of cerebral glucose metabolism. However, these systems still suffer technical limitations including a limited sensitivity and a reduced spatial resolution. Hence, autoradiography and histological studies remain the reference and widely used techniques for biological studies in small animals. The major disadvantage of these post mortem imaging techniques is that they require brain tissue sectioning, entailing the production of large numbers (up to several hundreds) of serial sections and the inherent loss of three-dimensional (3D) spatial consistency. The first step towards improving the analysis of this post mortem information was the development of reliable, automated procedures for the 3D reconstruction of the whole brain sections. We first developed an optimized data acquisition from large numbers of post mortem data (2D sections and block-face photographs). Then, we proposed different strategies of 3D reconstruction of the corresponding volumes. We also addressed the histological to autoradiographic sections and to block-face photographs co-registration problem (the photographic volume is intrinsically spatially consistent). These developments were essential for the 3D reconstruction but also enabled the evaluation of different methods of functional data analysis, from the most straightforward (manual delineation of regions of interest) to the most automated (Statistical Parametric Mapping-like approaches for group analysis). Two biological applications were carried out: visual stimulation in rats and cerebral metabolism in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. One perspective of this work is to match reconstructed post mortem data with in vivo images of the same animal. (author) [fr

  4. Association between power law coefficients of the anatomical noise power spectrum and lesion detectability in breast imaging modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lin; Boone, John M; Abbey, Craig K

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that a parameter extracted from a power function fit to the anatomical noise power spectrum, β, may be predictive of breast mass lesion detectability in x-ray based medical images of the breast. In this investigation, the value of β was compared with a number of other more widely used parameters, in order to determine the relationship between β and these other parameters. This study made use of breast CT data sets, acquired on two breast CT systems developed in our laboratory. A total of 185 breast data sets in 183 women were used, and only the unaffected breast was used (where no lesion was suspected). The anatomical noise power spectrum computed from two-dimensional region of interests (ROIs), was fit to a power function (NPS(f) = α f −β ), and the exponent parameter (β) was determined using log/log linear regression. Breast density for each of the volume data sets was characterized in previous work. The breast CT data sets analyzed in this study were part of a previous study which evaluated the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve performance using simulated spherical lesions and a pre-whitened matched filter computer observer. This ROC information was used to compute the detectability index as well as the sensitivity at 95% specificity. The fractal dimension was computed from the same ROIs which were used for the assessment of β. The value of β was compared to breast density, detectability index, sensitivity, and fractal dimension, and the slope of these relationships was investigated to assess statistical significance from zero slope. A statistically significant non-zero slope was considered to be a positive association in this investigation. All comparisons between β and breast density, detectability index, sensitivity at 95% specificity, and fractal dimension demonstrated statistically significant association with p < 0.001 in all cases. The value of β was also found to be associated with patient age

  5. Assessment of the Anatomical Position and Shape of Mental Foramen in the Cone Beam Computed Tomography Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Eskandarlo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The mental foramen is a part of lower jaw which has neurovascular bundles and also is important in biology. 3D imaging of this area by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT before surgery can prevent some problems. This study aims to evaluate the anatomic position and geometrical shape of the mental foramen by CBCT imagesMaterials & Methods: In this research, the CBCT images (by NewTom and Planmeca promax 3D set of 85 patients referred to dentistry school clinic or other clinics in Hamadan city were studied. These patients did not have their first and second premolar teeth extracted in both right and left sides. The geometrical shape of mental foramen, the canal angle connecting to mental foramen compared to the buccal plate of lower jaw, distance from the lower border of mental foramen to the lower border of lower jaw, position of mental foramen relating to the root of adjacent tooth and the incidence of accessory mental foramen were studied.Results: The means of canal angle connecting to mental foramen in the right side in men and women were 123.3 and 130.1 and in the left side were 123.8 and 133.7, respectively. The mean distance from the lower border of mental foramen to the lower border of lower jaw in the right side in men and women were: 12.4 and 13.3 mm and in the left side were: 12.7 and 13.6 mm, respectively. Also, there is a meaningful statistical relation between gender and the angle of canal of mental foramen, regarding to the buccal plate in both sides.Conclusion: Regarding to the variations in the position and shape of mental foramen and the angle connecting to the mental foramen related to the buccal plate and accessory mental foramen, investigation of CBCT images before placement of implants is necessary.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(2:39-43

  6. Introducing the Open Affective Standardized Image Set (OASIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdi, Benedek; Lozano, Shayn; Banaji, Mahzarin R

    2017-04-01

    We introduce the Open Affective Standardized Image Set (OASIS), an open-access online stimulus set containing 900 color images depicting a broad spectrum of themes, including humans, animals, objects, and scenes, along with normative ratings on two affective dimensions-valence (i.e., the degree of positive or negative affective response that the image evokes) and arousal (i.e., the intensity of the affective response that the image evokes). The OASIS images were collected from online sources, and valence and arousal ratings were obtained in an online study (total N = 822). The valence and arousal ratings covered much of the circumplex space and were highly reliable and consistent across gender groups. OASIS has four advantages: (a) the stimulus set contains a large number of images in four categories; (b) the data were collected in 2015, and thus OASIS features more current images and reflects more current ratings of valence and arousal than do existing stimulus sets; (c) the OASIS database affords users the ability to interactively explore images by category and ratings; and, most critically, (d) OASIS allows for free use of the images in online and offline research studies, as they are not subject to the copyright restrictions that apply to the International Affective Picture System. The OASIS images, along with normative valence and arousal ratings, are available for download from www.benedekkurdi.com/#oasis or https://db.tt/yYTZYCga .

  7. The Gold Standard Paradox in Digital Image Analysis: Manual Versus Automated Scoring as Ground Truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeffner, Famke; Wilson, Kristin; Martin, Nathan T; Black, Joshua C; Hendriks, Cris L Luengo; Bolon, Brad; Rudmann, Daniel G; Gianani, Roberto; Koegler, Sally R; Krueger, Joseph; Young, G Dave

    2017-09-01

    - Novel therapeutics often target complex cellular mechanisms. Increasingly, quantitative methods like digital tissue image analysis (tIA) are required to evaluate correspondingly complex biomarkers to elucidate subtle phenotypes that can inform treatment decisions with these targeted therapies. These tIA systems need a gold standard, or reference method, to establish analytical validity. Conventional, subjective histopathologic scores assigned by an experienced pathologist are the gold standard in anatomic pathology and are an attractive reference method. The pathologist's score can establish the ground truth to assess a tIA solution's analytical performance. The paradox of this validation strategy, however, is that tIA is often used to assist pathologists to score complex biomarkers because it is more objective and reproducible than manual evaluation alone by overcoming known biases in a human's visual evaluation of tissue, and because it can generate endpoints that cannot be generated by a human observer. - To discuss common visual and cognitive traps known in traditional pathology-based scoring paradigms that may impact characterization of tIA-assisted scoring accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. - This manuscript reviews the current literature from the past decades available for traditional subjective pathology scoring paradigms and known cognitive and visual traps relevant to these scoring paradigms. - Awareness of the gold standard paradox is necessary when using traditional pathologist scores to analytically validate a tIA tool because image analysis is used specifically to overcome known sources of bias in visual assessment of tissue sections.

  8. Molecular imaging with little anatomic information: combined scintigraphic-radiologic imaging of thyroid cancer and sentinel-lymph-node; Molekulare Bildgebung bei geringer anatomischer Bildinformation: Kombinierte szintigraphisch-radiologische Darstellung beim Schilddruesenkarzinom und Sentinel-Lymph-Node

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlemmer, H.; Jigalin, A.; Freter, B.T.; Gasthaus, K.; Langer, H.; Lerch, H. [Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, HELIOS Klinikum Wuppertal, Univ. Witten-Herdecke (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    The combined SPECT-CT examination is a procedure applied for acquisition, overlaying, and analysis of the scintigraphic functional data with the anatomic information in one single examination. This is considered especially for the molecular imaging with only little anatomic information. By giving examples, this elaboration demonstrates the advantages of the method of combining SPECT and radiologic presentation at the iodine-131-radio-nuclide imaging of differentiated thyroid cancer and the sentinel-lymph-node-scanning of different tumor entities. The possibility of combined imaging permits the examiner more diagnostic accuracy by better recognizing of pathologic processes with exact anatomic localisation. It is a simple examination which can be done in one process and hardly stresses the patient. (orig.)

  9. Assessment of metastatic colorectal cancer with hybrid imaging: comparison of reading performance using different combinations of anatomical and functional imaging techniques in PET/MRI and PET/CT in a short case series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brendle, C.; Schwenzer, N.F.; Rempp, H.; Schmidt, H.; Pfannenberg, C.; Nikolaou, K.; Schraml, C. [Eberhard Karls University, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); La Fougere, C. [Eberhard Karls University, Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    The purpose was to investigate the diagnostic performance of different combinations of anatomical and functional imaging techniques in PET/MRI and PET/CT for the evaluation of metastatic colorectal cancer lesions. Image data of 15 colorectal cancer patients (FDG-PET/CT and subsequent FDG-PET/MRI) were retrospectively evaluated by two readers in five reading sessions: MRI (morphology) alone, MRI/diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI), MRI/PET, MRI/DWI/PET; and PET/CT. Diagnostic performance of lesion detection with each combination was assessed in general and organ-based. The reference standard was given by histology and/or follow-up imaging. Separate analysis of mucinous tumours was performed. One hundred and eighty lesions (110 malignant) were evaluated (intestine n = 6, liver n = 37, lymph nodes n = 55, lung n = 4, and peritoneal n = 74). The overall lesion-based diagnostic accuracy was 0.46 for MRI, 0.47 for MRI/DWI, 0.57 for MRI/PET, 0.69 for MRI/DWI/PET and 0.66 for PET/CT. In the organ-based assessment, MRI/DWI/PET showed the highest accuracy for liver metastases (0.74), a comparable accuracy to PET/CT in peritoneal lesions (0.55), and in lymph node metastases (0.84). The accuracy in mucinous tumour lesions was limited in all modalities (MRI/DWI/PET = 0.52). PET/MRI including DWI is comparable to PET/CT in the evaluation of colorectal cancer metastases, with a markedly higher accuracy when using combined imaging data than the modalities separately. Further improvement is needed in the imaging of peritoneal carcinomatosis and mucinous tumours. (orig.)

  10. Anatomical-Molecular Distribution of EphrinA1 in Infarcted Mouse Heart Using MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefcoski, Stephan; Kew, Kimberly; Reece, Shaun; Torres, Maria J.; Parks, Justin; Reece, Sky; de Castro Brás, Lisandra E.; Virag, Jitka A. I.

    2018-03-01

    EphrinA1 is a tyrosine kinase receptor localized in the cellular membrane of healthy cardiomyocytes, the expression of which is lost upon myocardial infarction (MI). Intra-cardiac injection of the recombinant form of ephrinA1 (ephrinA1-Fc) at the time of ligation in mice has shown beneficial effects by reducing infarct size and myocardial necrosis post-MI. To date, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting comprise the only experimental approaches utilized to localize and quantify relative changes of ephrinA1 in sections and homogenates of whole left ventricle, respectively. Herein, we used matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) coupled with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI/TOF MS) to identify intact as well as tryptic fragments of ephrinA1 in healthy controls and acutely infarcted murine hearts. The purpose of the present study was 3-fold: (1) to spatially resolve the molecular distribution of endogenous ephrinA1, (2) to determine the anatomical expression profile of endogenous ephrinA1 after acute MI, and (3) to identify molecular targets of ephrinA1-Fc action post-MI. The tryptic fragments detected were identified as the ephrinA1-isoform with 38% and 34% sequence coverage and Mascot scores of 25 for the control and MI hearts, respectively. By using MALDI-MSI, we have been able to simultaneously measure the distribution and spatial localization of ephrinA1, as well as additional cardiac proteins, thus offering valuable information for the elucidation of molecular partners, mediators, and targets of ephrinA1 action in cardiac muscle.

  11. Anatomical-Molecular Distribution of EphrinA1 in Infarcted Mouse Heart Using MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefcoski, Stephan; Kew, Kimberly; Reece, Shaun; Torres, Maria J.; Parks, Justin; Reece, Sky; de Castro Brás, Lisandra E.; Virag, Jitka A. I.

    2018-01-01

    EphrinA1 is a tyrosine kinase receptor localized in the cellular membrane of healthy cardiomyocytes, the expression of which is lost upon myocardial infarction (MI). Intra-cardiac injection of the recombinant form of ephrinA1 (ephrinA1-Fc) at the time of ligation in mice has shown beneficial effects by reducing infarct size and myocardial necrosis post-MI. To date, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting comprise the only experimental approaches utilized to localize and quantify relative changes of ephrinA1 in sections and homogenates of whole left ventricle, respectively. Herein, we used matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) coupled with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI/TOF MS) to identify intact as well as tryptic fragments of ephrinA1 in healthy controls and acutely infarcted murine hearts. The purpose of the present study was 3-fold: (1) to spatially resolve the molecular distribution of endogenous ephrinA1, (2) to determine the anatomical expression profile of endogenous ephrinA1 after acute MI, and (3) to identify molecular targets of ephrinA1-Fc action post-MI. The tryptic fragments detected were identified as the ephrinA1-isoform with 38% and 34% sequence coverage and Mascot scores of 25 for the control and MI hearts, respectively. By using MALDI-MSI, we have been able to simultaneously measure the distribution and spatial localization of ephrinA1, as well as additional cardiac proteins, thus offering valuable information for the elucidation of molecular partners, mediators, and targets of ephrinA1 action in cardiac muscle.

  12. Educational Utility of Advanced 3-Dimensional Virtual Imaging in Evaluating the Anatomical Configuration of the Frontal Recess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbetoba, Abib; Luong, Amber; Siow, Jin Keat; Senior, Brent; Callejas, Claudio; Szczygielski, Kornel; Citardi, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Endoscopic sinus surgery represents a cornerstone in the professional development of otorhinolaryngology trainees. Mastery of these surgical skills requires an understanding of paranasal sinus and skull base anatomy. The frontal sinus is associated with a wide range of variation and complex anatomical configuration, and thus represents an important challenge for all trainees performing endoscopic sinus surgery. Methods Forty-five otorhinolaryngology trainees and 20 medical school students from five academic institutions were enrolled and randomized into 1 of 2 groups. Each subject underwent learning of frontal recess anatomy with both traditional 2D learning methods using a standard DICOM viewing software (RadiAnt Dicom Viewer Version 1.9.16) and 3D learning utilizing a novel preoperative virtual planning software (Scopis Building Blocks), with half learning with the 2D method first and the other half learning with the 3D method first. Four questionnaires that included a total of twenty items were scored for subjects’ self-assessment on knowledge of frontal recess and frontal sinus drainage pathway anatomy following each learned modality. A two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used in the statistical analysis comparing the 2 groups. Results Most trainees (89%) believed that the virtual 3D planning software significantly improved their understanding of the spatial orientation of the frontal sinus drainage pathway. Conclusion Incorporation of virtual 3D planning surgical software may help augment trainees understanding and spatial orientation of the frontal recess and sinus anatomy. The potential increase in trainee proficiency and comprehension theoretically may translate to improved surgical skill and patient outcomes and in reduced surgical time. PMID:27754596

  13. Image contrast enhancement based on a local standard deviation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Dah-Chung; Wu, Wen-Rong

    1996-01-01

    The adaptive contrast enhancement (ACE) algorithm is a widely used image enhancement method, which needs a contrast gain to adjust high frequency components of an image. In the literature, the gain is usually inversely proportional to the local standard deviation (LSD) or is a constant. But these cause two problems in practical applications, i.e., noise overenhancement and ringing artifact. In this paper a new gain is developed based on Hunt's Gaussian image model to prevent the two defects. The new gain is a nonlinear function of LSD and has the desired characteristic emphasizing the LSD regions in which details are concentrated. We have applied the new ACE algorithm to chest x-ray images and the simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm

  14. SU-D-17A-04: The Impact of Audiovisual Biofeedback On Image Quality During 4D Functional and Anatomic Imaging: Results of a Prospective Clinical Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keall, P; Pollock, S [University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia); Yang, J; Diehn, M; Berger, J; Graves, E; Loo, B [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Yamamoto, T [UC Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The ability of audiovisual (AV) biofeedback to improve breathing regularity has not previously been investigated for functional imaging studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of AV biofeedback on 4D-PET and 4D-CT image quality in a prospective clinical trial. We hypothesized that motion blurring in 4D-PET images and the number of artifacts in 4D-CT images are reduced using AV biofeedback. Methods: AV biofeedback is a real-time, interactive and personalized system designed to help a patient self-regulate his/her breathing using a patient-specific representative waveform and musical guides. In an IRB-approved prospective clinical trial, 4D-PET and 4D-CT images of 10 lung cancer patients were acquired with AV biofeedback (AV) and free breathing (FB). The 4D-PET images in 6 respiratory bins were analyzed for motion blurring by: (1) decrease of GTVPET and (2) increase of SUVmax in 4-DPET compared to 3D-PET. The 4D-CT images were analyzed for artifacts by: (1) comparing normalized cross correlation-based scores (NCCS); and (2) quantifying a visual assessment score (VAS). A two-tailed paired t-test was used to test the hypotheses. Results: The impact of AV biofeedback on 4D-PET and 4D-CT images varied widely between patients, suggesting inconsistent patient comprehension and capability. Overall, the 4D-PET decrease of GTVPET was 2.0±3.0cm3 with AV and 2.3±3.9cm{sup 3} for FB (p=0.61). The 4D-PET increase of SUVmax was 1.6±1.0 with AV and 1.1±0.8 with FB (p=0.002). The 4D-CT NCCS were 0.65±0.27 with AV and 0.60±0.32 for FB (p=0.32). The 4D-CT VAS was 0.0±2.7 (p=ns). Conclusion: A 10-patient study demonstrated a statistically significant reduction of motion blurring of AV over FB for 1/2 functional 4D-PET imaging metrics. No difference between AV and FB was found for 2 anatomic 4D-CT imaging metrics. Future studies will focus on optimizing the human-computer interface and including patient training sessions for improved

  15. SU-D-17A-04: The Impact of Audiovisual Biofeedback On Image Quality During 4D Functional and Anatomic Imaging: Results of a Prospective Clinical Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keall, P; Pollock, S; Yang, J; Diehn, M; Berger, J; Graves, E; Loo, B; Yamamoto, T

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The ability of audiovisual (AV) biofeedback to improve breathing regularity has not previously been investigated for functional imaging studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of AV biofeedback on 4D-PET and 4D-CT image quality in a prospective clinical trial. We hypothesized that motion blurring in 4D-PET images and the number of artifacts in 4D-CT images are reduced using AV biofeedback. Methods: AV biofeedback is a real-time, interactive and personalized system designed to help a patient self-regulate his/her breathing using a patient-specific representative waveform and musical guides. In an IRB-approved prospective clinical trial, 4D-PET and 4D-CT images of 10 lung cancer patients were acquired with AV biofeedback (AV) and free breathing (FB). The 4D-PET images in 6 respiratory bins were analyzed for motion blurring by: (1) decrease of GTVPET and (2) increase of SUVmax in 4-DPET compared to 3D-PET. The 4D-CT images were analyzed for artifacts by: (1) comparing normalized cross correlation-based scores (NCCS); and (2) quantifying a visual assessment score (VAS). A two-tailed paired t-test was used to test the hypotheses. Results: The impact of AV biofeedback on 4D-PET and 4D-CT images varied widely between patients, suggesting inconsistent patient comprehension and capability. Overall, the 4D-PET decrease of GTVPET was 2.0±3.0cm3 with AV and 2.3±3.9cm 3 for FB (p=0.61). The 4D-PET increase of SUVmax was 1.6±1.0 with AV and 1.1±0.8 with FB (p=0.002). The 4D-CT NCCS were 0.65±0.27 with AV and 0.60±0.32 for FB (p=0.32). The 4D-CT VAS was 0.0±2.7 (p=ns). Conclusion: A 10-patient study demonstrated a statistically significant reduction of motion blurring of AV over FB for 1/2 functional 4D-PET imaging metrics. No difference between AV and FB was found for 2 anatomic 4D-CT imaging metrics. Future studies will focus on optimizing the human-computer interface and including patient training sessions for improved comprehension and

  16. Standardized ultrasound templates for diagnosing appendicitis reduce annual imaging costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Andrew B; Sales, Stephen; Nielsen, Jason W; Adler, Brent; Bates, David Gregory; Kenney, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Ultrasound is preferred over computed tomography (CT) for diagnosing appendicitis in children to avoid undue radiation exposure. We previously reported our experience in instituting a standardized appendicitis ultrasound template, which decreased CT rates by 67.3%. In this analysis, we demonstrate the ongoing cost savings associated with using this template. Retrospective chart review for the time period preceding template implementation (June 2012-September 2012) was combined with prospective review through December 2015 for all patients in the emergency department receiving diagnostic imaging for appendicitis. The type of imaging was recorded, and imaging rates and ultrasound test statistics were calculated. Estimated annual imaging costs based on pretemplate ultrasound and CT utilization rates were compared with post-template annual costs to calculate annual and cumulative savings. In the pretemplate period, ultrasound and CT rates were 80.2% and 44.3%, respectively, resulting in a combined annual cost of $300,527.70. Similar calculations were performed for each succeeding year, accounting for changes in patient volume. Using pretemplate rates, our projected 2015 imaging cost was $371,402.86; however, our ultrasound rate had increased to 98.3%, whereas the CT rate declined to 9.6%, yielding an annual estimated cost of $224,853.00 and a savings of $146,549.86. Since implementation, annual savings have steadily increased for a cumulative cost savings of $336,683.83. Standardizing ultrasound reports for appendicitis not only reduces the use of CT scans and the associated radiation exposure but also decreases annual imaging costs despite increased numbers of imaging studies. Continued cost reduction may be possible by using diagnostic algorithms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantification of brain images using Korean standard templates and structural and cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Yu Kyeong [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    2004-06-01

    Population based structural and functional maps of the brain provide effective tools for the analysis and interpretation of complex and individually variable brain data. Brain MRI and PET standard templates and statistical probabilistic maps based on image data of Korean normal volunteers have been developed and probabilistic maps based on cytoarchitectonic data have been introduced. A quantification method using these data was developed for the objective assessment of regional intensity in the brain images. Age, gender and ethnic specific anatomical and functional brain templates based on MR and PET images of Korean normal volunteers were developed. Korean structural probabilistic maps for 89 brain regions and cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps for 13 Brodmann areas were transformed onto the standard templates. Brain FDG PET and SPGR MR images of normal volunteers were spatially normalized onto the template of each modality and gender. Regional uptake of radiotracers in PET and gray matter concentration in MR images were then quantified by averaging (or summing) regional intensities weighted using the probabilistic maps of brain regions. Regionally specific effects of aging on glucose metabolism in cingulate cortex were also examined. Quantification program could generate quantification results for single spatially normalized images per 20 seconds. Glucose metabolism change in cingulate gyrus was regionally specific: ratios of glucose metabolism in the rostral anterior cingulate vs. posterior cingulate and the caudal anterior cingulate vs. posterior cingulate were significantly decreased as the age increased. 'Rostral anterior' / 'posterior' was decreased by 3.1% per decade of age (p<10{sup -11}, r=0.81) and 'caudal anterior' / 'posterior' was decreased by 1.7% (p<10{sup -8}, r=0.72). Ethnic specific standard templates and probabilistic maps and quantification program developed in this study will be useful for the analysis

  18. Automated segmentation of 3D anatomical structures on CT images by using a deep convolutional network based on end-to-end learning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiangrong; Takayama, Ryosuke; Wang, Song; Zhou, Xinxin; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2017-02-01

    We have proposed an end-to-end learning approach that trained a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) for automatic CT image segmentation, which accomplished a voxel-wised multiple classification to directly map each voxel on 3D CT images to an anatomical label automatically. The novelties of our proposed method were (1) transforming the anatomical structures segmentation on 3D CT images into a majority voting of the results of 2D semantic image segmentation on a number of 2D-slices from different image orientations, and (2) using "convolution" and "deconvolution" networks to achieve the conventional "coarse recognition" and "fine extraction" functions which were integrated into a compact all-in-one deep CNN for CT image segmentation. The advantage comparing to previous works was its capability to accomplish real-time image segmentations on 2D slices of arbitrary CT-scan-range (e.g. body, chest, abdomen) and produced correspondingly-sized output. In this paper, we propose an improvement of our proposed approach by adding an organ localization module to limit CT image range for training and testing deep CNNs. A database consisting of 240 3D CT scans and a human annotated ground truth was used for training (228 cases) and testing (the remaining 12 cases). We applied the improved method to segment pancreas and left kidney regions, respectively. The preliminary results showed that the accuracies of the segmentation results were improved significantly (pancreas was 34% and kidney was 8% increased in Jaccard index from our previous results). The effectiveness and usefulness of proposed improvement for CT image segmentations were confirmed.

  19. Rationale and development of image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy post-prostatectomy: the present standard of care?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray JR

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Julia R Murray,1,2 Helen A McNair,2 David P Dearnaley1,2 1Academic Urology Unit, Institute of Cancer Research, London, 2Department of Radiotherapy, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton, UK Abstract: The indications for post-prostatectomy radiotherapy have evolved over the last decade, although the optimal timing, dose, and target volume remain to be well defined. The target volume is susceptible to anatomical variations with its borders interfacing with the rectum and bladder. Image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy has become the gold standard for radical prostate radiotherapy. Here we review the current evidence for image-guided techniques with intensity-modulated radiotherapy to the prostate bed and describe current strategies to reduce or account for interfraction and intrafraction motion. Keywords: radiotherapy, prostate cancer, post-prostatectomy, image-guided radiation therapy

  20. Relationship between anterior inferior cerebellar artery and facial-vestibulocochlear nerve complex: an anatomical and magnetic resonance images correlation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtseven, T; Savaş, R; Koçak, A; Turhan, T; Aktaş, E O; Işlekel, S

    2004-10-01

    For the successful microneurosurgical treatment of CP angle located pathologies, an understanding of the relationship and variations between neural and vascular structures and a certain diagnosis are the most valuable factors for surgeons. CP angle lesions have now become a visible area by advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology. An evaluation of this area and the decision for a neurosurgical decompression procedure are easier than before. Twenty unfixed adult human cadaver specimens, that have no sign of central nervous system pathology, were obtained and dissected bilaterally at routine autopsy. The facial-vestibulocochlear (VII - VIIIth) nerve complex and the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) were identified in all specimens. Thirteen of the 40 (32.5 %) AICA were situated ventrally and fourteen (35 %) were located dorsally to the VII - VIIIth nerve complex. Thirteen (32.5 %) passed between the VIIth and the VIIIth nerve fibers. Five of the 40 (12.5 %) AICA had a loop near the nerve complex and then passed the nerves ventrally or dorsally. In an MRI study 74 adult persons (148 sides) were investigated by using three-dimensional Fourier transformation constructive interference in the steady state technique (3D FT-CISS) on a 1.5 Tesla MRI system (Siemens Magnetom, Erlangen, Germany). The results were as follows; 48 AICA (32.4 % of all 148 AICA) were situated ventrally to the VII-VIIIth nerve complex, 45 AICA (30.4 %) were situated dorsally to the VII-VIIIth nerve complex, and the AICA passed between the VIIth and VIIIth nerves in 51 samples (34.5 %). In four of the 148 CP angles (2.7 %), the AICA was not identified. There was an AICA loop coursing to the internal acoustic meatus in 15 patients (10.1 %). In this study, we examined the relations between VIIth and VIIIth nerve complex and the AICA in cadaver and MRI materials for an understanding of the value and reliability of the radiological data. This study also shows the anatomical

  1. Technical Note: Anatomic identification of isolated modern human molars: testing Procrustes aligned outlines as a standardization procedure for elliptic fourier analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corny, Julien; Détroit, Florent

    2014-02-01

    The determination of the precise position of permanent first and second modern human molars, following standard tooth identification criteria, is often difficult because of their morphological similarities. Here, we proposed to evaluate the suitability of two-dimensional crown contour shape analysis in achieving this objective. The method was tested separately on 180 first and second maxillary molars (UM) and 180 first and second mandibular molars (LM) securely identified (in anatomical position in their sockets). Generalized Procrustes superimposition is used to normalize the outlines prior to applying elliptic Fourier analyses ("EFAproc" method). Reliability and effectiveness of this morphometric procedure was evaluated by comparing the results obtained for the same dataset with four other morphometric methods of contour analysis. Cross-validated ("leave one individual out") percentages of misclassification yielded by linear discriminant analyses were used for determining the anatomic position of modern human molars. The percentages of misclassifications obtained from every method of contour analysis were low (1.67% to 3.33% for the UM, 5.56% to 6.67% for the LM) indicating the high suitability of crown contour analyses in correctly identifying molars. A reliable protocol, based on predictive linear discriminant analyses, was then proposed for identification of isolated molars. In addition, our results confirmed that the EFAproc method is suitable for normalizing outlines prior to undertaking elliptic Fourier analyses, especially in the case of nearly circular outlines: it obtained better classification than the classic method of normalization of Fourier descriptors for UM and provided also some advantages over the three landmarks-based methods tested here. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Luminosity and contrast normalization in color retinal images based on standard reference image

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Varnousfaderani, Ehsan; Yousefi, Siamak; Belghith, Akram; Goldbaum, Michael H.

    2016-03-01

    Color retinal images are used manually or automatically for diagnosis and monitoring progression of a retinal diseases. Color retinal images have large luminosity and contrast variability within and across images due to the large natural variations in retinal pigmentation and complex imaging setups. The quality of retinal images may affect the performance of automatic screening tools therefore different normalization methods are developed to uniform data before applying any further analysis or processing. In this paper we propose a new reliable method to remove non-uniform illumination in retinal images and improve their contrast based on contrast of the reference image. The non-uniform illumination is removed by normalizing luminance image using local mean and standard deviation. Then the contrast is enhanced by shifting histograms of uniform illuminated retinal image toward histograms of the reference image to have similar histogram peaks. This process improve the contrast without changing inter correlation of pixels in different color channels. In compliance with the way humans perceive color, the uniform color space of LUV is used for normalization. The proposed method is widely tested on large dataset of retinal images with present of different pathologies such as Exudate, Lesion, Hemorrhages and Cotton-Wool and in different illumination conditions and imaging setups. Results shows that proposed method successfully equalize illumination and enhances contrast of retinal images without adding any extra artifacts.

  3. Standard digital reference images for inspection of aluminum castings

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 These digital reference images illustrate the types and degrees of discontinuities that may be found in aluminum-alloy castings. The castings illustrated are in thicknesses of 1/ 4 in. [6.35 mm] and 3/4 in. [19.1mm]. 1.2 All areas of this standard may be open to agreement between the cognizant engineering organization and the supplier, or specific direction from the cognizant engineering organization. These items should be addressed in the purchase order or the contract. 1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. 1.4 These digital reference images are not intended to illustrate the types and degrees of discontinuities found in aluminum-alloy castings when performing film radiography. If performing film radiography of aluminum-alloy castings, refer to Reference Radiographs E 155. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and he...

  4. Chiasma crurale: intersection of the tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus tendons above the ankle. Magnetic resonance imaging-anatomic correlation in cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Florian M. [VA San Diego Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Institut fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Zurich (Switzerland); Gheno, Ramon; Nico, Marcelo A.C.; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald [VA San Diego Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Haghighi, Parviz [VA San Diego Medical Center, Department of Pathology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2010-06-15

    To determine the precise anatomy and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearance of the chiasma crurale in cadavers, paying special attention to degenerative changes Twelve fresh human ankles were harvested from 11 nonembalmed cadavers (mean age at death 77 years) and used according to institutional guidelines. MR imaging and MR tenography were used to investigate the anatomy of the chiasma crurale using proton density-weighted sequences. The gross anatomy of the chiasma crurale was evaluated and compared to the MR imaging findings. Histology was used to elucidate further the structure of the chiasma crurale. Above the chiasma, five specimens had a small amount of fat tissue between the tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus tendon. In all specimens both tendons had a sheath below the chiasma but not above it. At the central portion of the chiasma there was no soft tissue between the tendons, except in two specimens that showed an anatomic variant consisting of a thick septum connecting the tibial periosteum and the deep transverse fascia of the leg. In MR images, eight specimens showed what were believed to be degenerative changes in the tendons at the level of the chiasma. However, during gross inspection and histologic analysis of the specimens, there was no tendon degeneration visible. At the central portion of the chiasma, there is no tissue between the tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus tendons unless there is an anatomic variant. At the chiasma crurale, areas with irregular tendon surfaces are normal findings and are not associated with tendon degeneration (fraying). (orig.)

  5. Deep learning of the sectional appearances of 3D CT images for anatomical structure segmentation based on an FCN voting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiangrong; Takayama, Ryosuke; Wang, Song; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2017-10-01

    We propose a single network trained by pixel-to-label deep learning to address the general issue of automatic multiple organ segmentation in three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) images. Our method can be described as a voxel-wise multiple-class classification scheme for automatically assigning labels to each pixel/voxel in a 2D/3D CT image. We simplify the segmentation algorithms of anatomical structures (including multiple organs) in a CT image (generally in 3D) to a majority voting scheme over the semantic segmentation of multiple 2D slices drawn from different viewpoints with redundancy. The proposed method inherits the spirit of fully convolutional networks (FCNs) that consist of "convolution" and "deconvolution" layers for 2D semantic image segmentation, and expands the core structure with 3D-2D-3D transformations to adapt to 3D CT image segmentation. All parameters in the proposed network are trained pixel-to-label from a small number of CT cases with human annotations as the ground truth. The proposed network naturally fulfills the requirements of multiple organ segmentations in CT cases of different sizes that cover arbitrary scan regions without any adjustment. The proposed network was trained and validated using the simultaneous segmentation of 19 anatomical structures in the human torso, including 17 major organs and two special regions (lumen and content inside of stomach). Some of these structures have never been reported in previous research on CT segmentation. A database consisting of 240 (95% for training and 5% for testing) 3D CT scans, together with their manually annotated ground-truth segmentations, was used in our experiments. The results show that the 19 structures of interest were segmented with acceptable accuracy (88.1% and 87.9% voxels in the training and testing datasets, respectively, were labeled correctly) against the ground truth. We propose a single network based on pixel-to-label deep learning to address the challenging

  6. Probabilistic anatomical labeling of brain structures using statistical probabilistic anatomical maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Byung Il; Lee, Jae Sung; Shin, Hee Won; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2002-01-01

    The use of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) program has increased for the analysis of brain PET and SPECT images. Montreal neurological institute (MNI) coordinate is used in SPM program as a standard anatomical framework. While the most researchers look up Talairach atlas to report the localization of the activations detected in SPM program, there is significant disparity between MNI templates and Talairach atlas. That disparity between Talairach and MNI coordinates makes the interpretation of SPM result time consuming, subjective and inaccurate. The purpose of this study was to develop a program to provide objective anatomical information of each x-y-z position in ICBM coordinate. Program was designed to provide the anatomical information for the given x-y-z position in MNI coordinate based on the statistical probabilistic anatomical map (SPAM) images of ICBM. When x-y-z position was given to the program, names of the anatomical structures with non-zero probability and the probabilities that the given position belongs to the structures were tabulated. The program was coded using IDL and JAVA language for the easy transplantation to any operating system or platform. Utility of this program was shown by comparing the results of this program to those of SPM program. Preliminary validation study was performed by applying this program to the analysis of PET brain activation study of human memory in which the anatomical information on the activated areas are previously known. Real time retrieval of probabilistic information with 1 mm spatial resolution was archived using the programs. Validation study showed the relevance of this program: probability that the activated area for memory belonged to hippocampal formation was more than 80%. These programs will be useful for the result interpretation of the image analysis performed on MNI coordinate, as done in SPM program

  7. Automatic standard plane adjustment on mobile C-Arm CT images of the calcaneus using atlas-based feature registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehler, Michael; Görres, Joseph; Wolf, Ivo; Franke, Jochen; von Recum, Jan; Grützner, Paul A.; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Nabers, Diana

    2014-03-01

    Intraarticular fractures of the calcaneus are routinely treated by open reduction and internal fixation followed by intraoperative imaging to validate the repositioning of bone fragments. C-Arm CT offers surgeons the possibility to directly verify the alignment of the fracture parts in 3D. Although the device provides more mobility, there is no sufficient information about the device-to-patient orientation for standard plane reconstruction. Hence, physicians have to manually align the image planes in a position that intersects with the articular surfaces. This can be a time-consuming step and imprecise adjustments lead to diagnostic errors. We address this issue by introducing novel semi-/automatic methods for adjustment of the standard planes on mobile C-Arm CT images. With the semi-automatic method, physicians can quickly adjust the planes by setting six points based on anatomical landmarks. The automatic method reconstructs the standard planes in two steps, first SURF keypoints (2D and newly introduced pseudo-3D) are generated for each image slice; secondly, these features are registered to an atlas point set and the parameters of the image planes are transformed accordingly. The accuracy of our method was evaluated on 51 mobile C-Arm CT images from clinical routine with manually adjusted standard planes by three physicians of different expertise. The average time of the experts (46s) deviated from the intermediate user (55s) by 9 seconds. By applying 2D SURF key points 88% of the articular surfaces were intersected correctly by the transformed standard planes with a calculation time of 10 seconds. The pseudo-3D features performed even better with 91% and 8 seconds.

  8. Image guided radiotherapy: equipment specifications and performance - an analysis of the dosimetric consequences of anatomic variations during head-and-neck radiotherapy treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marguet, Maud

    2009-01-01

    Anatomic variations during head-and-neck radiotherapy treatment may compromise the delivery of the planned dose distribution, particularly in the case of IMRT treatments. The aim of this thesis was to establish 'dosimetric indicators' to identify patients who delivered dose deviates from the planned dose, to allow an eventual re-optimisation of the patient's dosimetry, if necessary, during the course of their radiotherapy treatment. These anatomic variations were monitored by regular acquisition of 3D patient images using an onboard imaging system, for which a rigorous quality control program was implemented. The patient dose distribution analysis and comparison was performed using a modified gamma index technique which was named gammaLSC3D. This improved gamma index technique quantified and identified the location of changes in the dose distribution in a stack of 2D images, with particular reference to the target volume (PTV) or organs at risk (parotids). The changes observed in the dose distribution for the PTV or parotids were then analysed and presented in the form of gamma-volume histograms in order to facilitate the follow up of dosimetric changes during the radiotherapy treatment. This analysis method has been automated, and is applicable in clinical routine to follow dose variations during head and neck radiotherapy treatment. (author) [fr

  9. Effects of posture and anatomical location on inter-recti distance measured using ultrasound imaging in parous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, S; Ryan, C G; Stokes, M; Warner, M; Dixon, J

    2018-04-01

    Cross-sectional repeated measures. To quantify the effects of posture and measurement site on the inter-recti distance (IRD) and investigate the reliability of IRD measurement using ultrasound imaging in different postures. The linea alba connects the rectus abdominis muscles anteriorly and the width is known as the IRD. The IRD is usually measured in crook-lying and is the primary outcome measure to assess for a divarication of recti abdominis (DRA). The effects of posture and measurement site on the IRD have not been investigated. Ultrasound imaging was used to measure IRD in 41 women ≥8 weeks postpartum. The IRD was measured at three sites (superior-umbilicus, umbilicus and inferior-umbilicus), in three postures (crook-lying, sitting and standing), and repeated one-week later. The effects of posture and site were investigated using one-way ANOVAs. Reliability was analysed using Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), Bland Altman analyses, standard error of measurement and minimal detectable change. The IRD was wider when standing vs. lying at both the superior-umbilicus and umbilicus by 0.30 cm (95% CI 0.21 to 0.39) and 0.20 cm (0.11-0.30) respectively (p < 0.001). Measurements at the inferior-umbilicus were, on average, 1.6 and 2.1 cm narrower than superior-umbilicus and umbilicus sites, respectively (p < 0.001). There was high intra-rater reliability within-session (ICC 3.3 ) and between-session (ICC 3.1 ) at all sites measured. The IRD can be measured reliably at all sites and postures. The IRD is wider at superior-umbilicus and umbilicus when upright compared with lying. There is a difference in IRD between all sites measured. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. CT following US for possible appendicitis: anatomic coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Malley, Martin E. [University of Toronto, Princess Margaret Hospital, 3-920, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Alharbi, Fawaz [University of Toronto, Toronto General Hospital, NCSB 1C572, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Qassim University, Department of Medical Imaging, Buraydah, Qassim (Saudi Arabia); Chawla, Tanya P. [University of Toronto, Mount Sinai Hospital, Room 567, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Moshonov, Hadas [University of Toronto, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-02-15

    To determine superior-inferior anatomic borders for CT following inconclusive/nondiagnostic US for possible appendicitis. Ninety-nine patients with possible appendicitis and inconclusive/nondiagnostic US followed by CT were included in this retrospective study. Two radiologists reviewed CT images and determined superior-inferior anatomic borders required to diagnose or exclude appendicitis and diagnose alternative causes. This ''targeted'' coverage was used to estimate potential reduction in anatomic coverage compared to standard abdominal/pelvic CT. The study group included 83 women and 16 men; mean age 32 (median, 29; range 18-73) years. Final diagnoses were: nonspecific abdominal pain 50/99 (51 %), appendicitis 26/99 (26 %), gynaecological 12/99 (12 %), gastrointestinal 9/99 (10 %), and musculoskeletal 2/99 (2 %). Median dose-length product for standard CT was 890.0 (range, 306.3 - 2493.9) mGy.cm. To confidently diagnose/exclude appendicitis or identify alternative diagnoses, maximum superior-inferior anatomic CT coverage was the superior border of L2-superior border of pubic symphysis, for both reviewers. Targeted CT would reduce anatomic coverage by 30-55 % (mean 39 %, median 40 %) compared to standard CT. When CT is performed for appendicitis following inconclusive/nondiagnostic US, targeted CT from the superior border of L2-superior border of pubic symphysis can be used resulting in significant reduction in exposure to ionizing radiation compared to standard CT. (orig.)

  11. Guidelines from the Canadian Association of Pathologists for establishing a telepathology service for anatomic pathology using whole-slide imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of telepathology for clinical applications in Canada has steadily become more attractive over the last 10 years, driven largely by its potential to provide rapid pathology consulting services throughout the country regardless of the location of a particular institution. Based on this trend, the president of the Canadian Association of Pathologists asked a working group consisting of pathologists, technologists, and healthcare administrators from across Canada to oversee the development of guidelines to provide Canadian pathologists with basic information on how to implement and use this technology. The guidelines were systematically developed, based on available medical literature and the clinical experience of early adopters of telepathology in Canada. While there are many different modalities and applications of telepathology, this document focuses specifically on whole-slide imaging as applied to intraoperative pathology consultation (frozen section, primary diagnosis, expert or second opinions and quality assurance activities. Applications such as hematopathology, microbiology, tumour boards, education, research and technical and/or standard-related issues are not covered.

  12. Image formats: Five years after the AAPM standard for digital image interchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maguire, G.Q. Jr.; Noz, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    The publication of AAPM Report No. 10 was the first attempt to standardize image formats in the medical imaging community. Since then, three other groups have formed (CART--the Scandinavian collaboration for Computer Assisted Radiation Therapy treatment planning; ACR-NEMA, a collaboration whose purpose is to formulate a standard digital interface to medical imaging equipment; and COST B2 Nuclear Medicine Project a European collaboration whose purpose is to define a format for digital image exchange in Nuclear Medicine). The AAPM format uses key-value pairs in plain text to keep track of all information associated with a particular image. The radiation oncology community in the U.S. has been defining key-value pairs for use with CT, nuclear medicine and magnetic resonance (MR) images. The COST B2 Nuclear Medicine Project has also adopted this format and together with the Australian/New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Technical Standards Sub-Committee which has also adopted this format, has defined an initial set of key-value pairs for Nuclear Medicine images. Additionally, both ACR-NEMA and CART have been defining fields for use with the same types of images. The CART collaboration has introduced a database which is available electronically, but is maintained by a group of individuals. ACR-NEMA operates through committee meetings. The COST B2 Nuclear Medicine Project operates through electronic (and postal where necessary) mail. To insure a consistent set of field names in such a rapidly developing arena requires the use of a server rather than a committee. Via a server a person would inquire if a particular field had been defined. If so, the defined name would be returned

  13. Free-form image registration of human cochlear μCT data using skeleton similarity as anatomical prior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjer, Hans Martin; Fagertun, Jens; Vera, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Better understanding of the anatomical variability of the human cochlear is important for the design and function of Cochlear Implants. Proper non-rigid alignment of high-resolution cochlear μCT data is a challenge for the typical cubic B-spline registration model. In this paper we study one way...... to provide a more global guidance of the alignment. The resulting registrations are evaluated using different metrics for accuracy and model behavior, and compared to the results of a registration without the prior....

  14. The benefits of magnetic resonance imaging methods to extend the knowledge of the anatomical organisation of the periaqueductal gray in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menant, Ophélie; Andersson, Frédéric; Zelena, Dóra; Chaillou, Elodie

    2016-11-01

    The periaqueductal gray (PAG) is a mesencephalic brain structure involved in the expression of numerous behaviours such as maternal, sexual and emotional. Histological approaches showed the PAG is composed by subdivisions with specific cell organisation, neurochemical composition and connections with the rest of the brain. The comparison of studies performed in rodents and cats as the most often examined species, suggests that PAG organisation differs between mammals. However, we should also consider the plurality of the methods used in these studies that makes difficult the comparison of the PAG organisation between species. Therefore, to study the PAG in all mammals including human, the most relevant in vivo imaging method seems to be the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The purpose of this review was to summarize the knowledge of the anatomical organisation of the PAG in mammals and highlights the benefits of MRI methods to extend this knowledge. Results obtained by MRI so far support the conclusions of ex vivo studies, especially to describe the subdivisions and the connections of the PAG. In these latter, diffusion-weighted MRI and functional connectivity seem the most appropriate methods. In conclusion firstly, the MRI seems to be the best judicious method to compare species and improve the comprehension of the role of the PAG. Secondly, MRI is an in vivo method aimed to manage repeated measures in the same cohort of subjects allowing to study the impact of aging and the development on the anatomical organisation of the PAG. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Delineation of the anatomical relationship of innominate artery and trachea by respiratory-gated MR imaging with true FISP sequence in patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, Yoshinao; Sato, Noriko; Sugai, Kenji; Endo, Yusaku; Matsufuji, Hiroki; Oomi, Tsuyoshi; Honzawa, Shiho; Sasaki, Masayuki

    2008-01-01

    Tracheoinnominate artery fistula is a well-known complication that arises on using a cannula. Therefore, routine examination of the anatomical relationship of the innominate artery and trachea should be carried out. We evaluated the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging in 5 patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities (SMID) using a combination of true-fast imaging of steady-state precession (true-FISP) sequences and two-dimensional prospective acquisition correction (2D-PACE). For all patients, the trachea and the innominate artery were identified without sedation and contrast media. In one patient, the innominate artery was observed to be pressing on the trachea. In three patients, the trachea and innominate artery were brought very close each other, and in the other patient the anatomical relationship of the trachea and surrounding structure was delineated before tracheotomy. The validity of true-FISP sequences combined with the respiratory-gated technique was confirmed useful for the patients who are difficult to lie quietly and to hold their breath voluntarily. (author)

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears: Evaluation of Standard Orthogonal and Tailored Paracoronal Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duc, S.R.; Zanetti, M.; Kramer, J.; Kaech, K.P.; Zollikofer, C.L.; Wentz, K.U.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the three standard orthogonal imaging planes and a paracoronal imaging plane for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. Material and Methods: Ninety patients (91 knees; 29 F and 61 M) aged between 15 and 84 years (mean 36.9±16.4 years) underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee prior to arthroscopy. At surgery, 32 knees had an intact ACL, 4 a partial tear, and 55 a complete ACL tear. In all patients, axial, sagittal, coronal, and paracoronal T2-weighted turbo-SE images were acquired. The ACL was classified as intact, partially, or completely torn. Partial and complete tears were combined for statistical evaluation. Results: Partial ACL tears (four cases) were not correctly diagnosed at MRI except in one knee by one observer on coronal images. Sensitivity in detecting ACL tears was 95%/63% (reader1/reader2) in the axial, 93%/95% in the sagittal, 93%/86% in the coronal, and 100%/93% in the paracoronal plane. Specificity was 75%/81% in the axial, 72%/81% in the sagittal, 78%/94% in the coronal, and 78%/88% in the paracoronal plane. Conclusion: ACL tears can be diagnosed accurately with each of the standard orthogonal planes. Based on reader confidence and interobserver agreement paracoronal images may be useful in equivocal cases

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears: Evaluation of Standard Orthogonal and Tailored Paracoronal Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duc, S.R.; Zanetti, M.; Kramer, J.; Kaech, K.P.; Zollikofer, C.L.; Wentz, K.U. [Cantonal Hospital, Inst. of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland). MR Research Group

    2005-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the three standard orthogonal imaging planes and a paracoronal imaging plane for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. Material and Methods: Ninety patients (91 knees; 29 F and 61 M) aged between 15 and 84 years (mean 36.9{+-}16.4 years) underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee prior to arthroscopy. At surgery, 32 knees had an intact ACL, 4 a partial tear, and 55 a complete ACL tear. In all patients, axial, sagittal, coronal, and paracoronal T2-weighted turbo-SE images were acquired. The ACL was classified as intact, partially, or completely torn. Partial and complete tears were combined for statistical evaluation. Results: Partial ACL tears (four cases) were not correctly diagnosed at MRI except in one knee by one observer on coronal images. Sensitivity in detecting ACL tears was 95%/63% (reader1/reader2) in the axial, 93%/95% in the sagittal, 93%/86% in the coronal, and 100%/93% in the paracoronal plane. Specificity was 75%/81% in the axial, 72%/81% in the sagittal, 78%/94% in the coronal, and 78%/88% in the paracoronal plane. Conclusion: ACL tears can be diagnosed accurately with each of the standard orthogonal planes. Based on reader confidence and interobserver agreement paracoronal images may be useful in equivocal cases.

  18. SU-F-J-201: Validation Study of Proton Radiography Against CT Data for Quantitative Imaging of Anatomical Changes in Head and Neck Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammi, A; Weber, D; Lomax, A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In clinical pencil-beam-scanned (PBS) proton therapy, the advantage of the characteristic sharp dose fall-off after the Bragg Peak (BP) becomes a disadvantage if the BP positions of a plan’s constituent pencil beams are shifted, eg.due to anatomical changes. Thus, for fractionated PBS proton therapy, accurate knowledge of the water equivalent path length (WEPL) of the traversed anatomy is critical. In this work we investigate the feasibility of using 2D proton range maps (proton radiography, PR) with the active-scanning gantry at PSI. Methods: We simulated our approach using Monte Carlo methods (MC) to simulate proton beam interactions in patients using clinical imaging data. We selected six head and neck cases having significant anatomical changes detected in per-treatment CTs.PRs (two at 0°/90°) were generated from MC simulations of low-dose pencil beams at 230MeV. Each beam’s residual depth-dose was propagated through the patient geometry (from CT) and detected on exiting the patient anatomy in an ideal depth-resolved detector (eg. range telescope). Firstly, to validate the technique, proton radiographs were compared to the ground truth, which was the WEPL from ray-tracing in the patient CT at the pencil beam location. Secondly, WEPL difference maps (per-treatment – planning imaging timepoints) were then generated to locate the anatomical changes, both in the CT (ground truth) and in the PRs. Binomial classification was performed to evaluate the efficacy of the technique relative to CT. Results: Over the projections simulated over all six patients, 70%, 79% and 95% of the grid points agreed with the ground truth proton range to within ±0.5%, ±1%, and ±3% respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, precision and accuracy were high (mean±1σ, 83±8%, 87±13%, 95±10%, 83±7% respectively). Conclusion: We show that proton-based radiographic images can accurately monitor patient positioning and in vivo range verification, while providing

  19. Early fetal anatomical sonography.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnelly, Jennifer C

    2012-10-01

    Over the past decade, prenatal screening and diagnosis has moved from the second into the first trimester, with aneuploidy screening becoming both feasible and effective. With vast improvements in ultrasound technology, sonologists can now image the fetus in greater detail at all gestational ages. In the hands of experienced sonographers, anatomic surveys between 11 and 14 weeks can be carried out with good visualisation rates of many structures. It is important to be familiar with the normal development of the embryo and fetus, and to be aware of the major anatomical landmarks whose absence or presence may be deemed normal or abnormal depending on the gestational age. Some structural abnormalities will nearly always be detected, some will never be and some are potentially detectable depending on a number of factors.

  20. Anatomy of the anterior cruciate ligament insertion sites: comparison of plain radiography and three-dimensional computed tomographic imaging to anatomic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon Kyu; Lee, Sahnghoon; Seong, Sang Cheol; Lee, Myung Chul

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to provide quantitative data on insertion sites of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and to assess the correlation among measurements of anatomic dissection, plain radiographs, and 3D CT images to determine whether radiologic data can accurately reflect real anatomic measurements. Fifteen cadaveric knees were assessed using the three measurement modalities. Lengths of the long and short axis, area, and centre position of each bundle insertion sites by quadrant method were examined on both the femur and tibia. Distances from the insertion centre to distal cortical and posterior cortical margins of condyle on femur, and distance between insertion centres on tibia were also inspected. The average ACL insertion position in the three measurement modalities was at 33.9 % in deep-shallow position and at 26.5 % in high-low position for anteromedial (AM) bundle and at 39.2 and 54.8 %, respectively, for posterolateral (PL) bundle in femur. For tibia, it was at 36.9 % in anterior-posterior position and 47.1 % in medial-lateral position for AM bundle and at 43.1 and 53.5 %, respectively, for PL bundle. The slight differences in various measurements among the three modalities were not statistically significant. The femoral insertion positions were considerably shallow and low, whereas tibial insertion positions were near the average compared to those in previous studies. Plain radiographic and 3D CT measurements showed a reliable correlation with anatomic dissection measurements. The clinical relevance is that plain radiographs rather than 3D CT can be used as a post-operative evaluation tool after ACL reconstruction.

  1. Multimodal fusion imaging ensemble for targeted sentinel lymph node management: initial results of an innovative promising approach for anatomically difficult lymphatic drainage in different tumour entities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maza, Sofiane; Munz, Dieter L.; Taupitz, Mathias; Taymoorian, Kasra; Winzer, Klaus J.; Rueckert, Jens; Paschen, Christian; Raeber, Gert; Schneider, Sylke; Trefzer, Uwe

    2007-01-01

    There are situations where exact identification and localisation of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) are very difficult using lymphoscintigraphy, a hand-held gamma probe and vital dye, either a priori or a posteriori. We developed a new method using a simultaneous injection of two lymphotropic agents for exact topographical tomographic localisation and biopsy of draining SLNs. The purpose of this prospective pilot study was to investigate the feasibility and efficacy of this method ensemble. Fourteen patients with different tumour entities were enrolled. A mixture of 99m Tc-nanocolloid and a dissolved superparamagnetic iron oxide was injected interstitially. Dynamic, sequential static lymphoscintigraphy and SPECT served as pathfinders. MR imaging was performed 2 h after injection. SPECT, contrast MRI and, if necessary, CT scan data sets were fused and evaluated with special regard to the topographical location of SLNs. The day after injection, nine patients underwent SLN biopsy and, in the presence of SLN metastasis, an elective lymph node dissection. Twenty-five SLNs were localised in the 14 patients examined. A 100% fusion correlation was achieved in all patients. The anatomical sites of SLNs detected during surgery showed 100% agreement with those localised on the multimodal fusion images. SLNs could be excised in 11/14 patients, six of whom had nodal metastasis. Our novel approach of multimodal fusion imaging for targeted SLN management in primary tumours with lymphatic drainage to anatomically difficult regions enables SLN biopsy even in patients with lymphatic drainage to obscure regions. Currently, we are testing its validity in larger patient groups and other tumour entities. (orig.)

  2. Construction of a homogeneous phantom for radiographic image standardization; Construcao de um fantoma homogeneo para padronizacao de imagens radiograficas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pina, Diana Rodrigues de

    1996-12-31

    The principle of radiodiagnosis consists in the fact the X-ray beam is attenuated at different degrees by distinct tissues. For this reason, the anatomical structures have distinct radiological opacities, that produce the radiographic image. The progresses in radiology are related to the development if new radiographic image formation systems that enable an amplification in the quality, with low dose and/or risk to the patient. The objective of this work is the sensitometric valuation of a screen-film combination, that is still the most used, for the standardization, of radiographic images. Thinking about this, were constructed homogeneous phantoms of the chest, skull and pelvis, for the calibration of X-ray beams, with the purpose of obtaining radiographic images of good quality, basing in the routine of a radiodiagnosis service and in the scientific knowledge. Questions were approached about the choice of the suitable equipment, that allow the obtention of k Vp and m As combinations, to produce radiographic images of good quality, and the reproduction of these combinations to any conventional equipment of diagnostic X-rays. Also presented are the comparison of the doses imparted by these combinations and those used in routine of the Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto`s radiodiagnosis service. (author) 24 refs., 27 figs., 12 tabs.

  3. Evaluation of Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuester-Hauser syndrome with magnetic resonance imaging: Three patterns of uterine remnants and related anatomical features and clinical settings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yue; Lu, Jingjing; Jiang, Bo; Feng, Feng; Jin, Zhengyu [Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing (China); Zhu, Lan; Sun, Zhijing [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Bejing (China)

    2017-12-15

    To characterize the anatomical features and clinical settings of Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuester-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome and correlate them with patterns of uterine involvement. Pelvic magnetic resonance images and medical records of 92 MRKH patients were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were subgrouped by uterine morphology: uterine agenesis, unilateral rudimentary uterus and bilateral rudimentary uteri. Uterine volume, presence of endometrium, location of ovary, endometriosis and pelvic pain were compared among groups. The mean uterine volume was 33.5 ml (17.5-90.0 ml) for unilateral uterine remnants, and 16.1 ml (3.5-21.5 ml) for bilateral uterine rudiments (p<0.01). The incidence of presence of endometrium (100% vs. 22%, p<0.001), haematometra (56% vs. 3%, p<0.001) and ovarian endometriosis (22% vs. 3%, p<0.01) was significantly increased in the group of unilateral rudimentary uteri as compared with the group of bilateral uterine remnants. Thirty-one patients (38%) showed ectopic ovaries. Pelvic pain was more common in individuals with unilateral rudimentary uterus than those who had no (56% vs. 5%, p<0.01) or bilateral uterine remnants (56% vs. 14%, p<0.05). MRKH patients with different patterns of uterine involvement may have differentiated anatomical features and clinical settings. (orig.)

  4. Automatic exposure control in CT: the effect of patient size, anatomical region and prescribed modulation strength on tube current and image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadakis, Antonios E. [University Hospital of Heraklion, Department of Medical Physics, Stavrakia, P.O. Box 1352, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Perisinakis, Kostas; Damilakis, John [University of Crete, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Physics, P.O. Box 2208, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2014-10-15

    To study the effect of patient size, body region and modulation strength on tube current and image quality on CT examinations that use automatic tube current modulation (ATCM). Ten physical anthropomorphic phantoms that simulate an individual as neonate, 1-, 5-, 10-year-old and adult at various body habitus were employed. CT acquisition of head, neck, thorax and abdomen/pelvis was performed with ATCM activated at weak, average and strong modulation strength. The mean modulated mAs (mAs{sub mod}) values were recorded. Image noise was measured at selected anatomical sites. The mAs{sub mod} recorded for neonate compared to 10-year-old increased by 30 %, 14 %, 6 % and 53 % for head, neck, thorax and abdomen/pelvis, respectively, (P < 0.05). The mAs{sub mod} was lower than the preselected mAs with the exception of the 10-year-old phantom. In paediatric and adult phantoms, the mAs{sub mod} ranged from 44 and 53 for weak to 117 and 93 for strong modulation strength, respectively. At the same exposure parameters image noise increased with body size (P < 0.05). The ATCM system studied here may affect dose differently for different patient habitus. Dose may decrease for overweight adults but increase for children older than 5 years old. Care should be taken when implementing ATCM protocols to ensure that image quality is maintained. circle ATCM efficiency is related to the size of the patient's body. (orig.)

  5. Automatic exposure control in CT: the effect of patient size, anatomical region and prescribed modulation strength on tube current and image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadakis, Antonios E.; Perisinakis, Kostas; Damilakis, John

    2014-01-01

    To study the effect of patient size, body region and modulation strength on tube current and image quality on CT examinations that use automatic tube current modulation (ATCM). Ten physical anthropomorphic phantoms that simulate an individual as neonate, 1-, 5-, 10-year-old and adult at various body habitus were employed. CT acquisition of head, neck, thorax and abdomen/pelvis was performed with ATCM activated at weak, average and strong modulation strength. The mean modulated mAs (mAs mod ) values were recorded. Image noise was measured at selected anatomical sites. The mAs mod recorded for neonate compared to 10-year-old increased by 30 %, 14 %, 6 % and 53 % for head, neck, thorax and abdomen/pelvis, respectively, (P mod was lower than the preselected mAs with the exception of the 10-year-old phantom. In paediatric and adult phantoms, the mAs mod ranged from 44 and 53 for weak to 117 and 93 for strong modulation strength, respectively. At the same exposure parameters image noise increased with body size (P < 0.05). The ATCM system studied here may affect dose differently for different patient habitus. Dose may decrease for overweight adults but increase for children older than 5 years old. Care should be taken when implementing ATCM protocols to ensure that image quality is maintained. circle ATCM efficiency is related to the size of the patient's body. (orig.)

  6. Image fusion in dual energy computed tomography for detection of various anatomic structures - Effect on contrast enhancement, contrast-to-noise ratio, signal-to-noise ratio and image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Jijo, E-mail: jijopaul1980@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Goethe University Hospital, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Department of Biophysics, Goethe University, Max von Laue-Str.1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Bauer, Ralf W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Goethe University Hospital, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Maentele, Werner [Department of Biophysics, Goethe University, Max von Laue-Str.1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Vogl, Thomas J. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Goethe University Hospital, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate image fusion in dual energy computed tomography for detecting various anatomic structures based on the effect on contrast enhancement, contrast-to-noise ratio, signal-to-noise ratio and image quality. Material and methods: Forty patients underwent a CT neck with dual energy mode (DECT under a Somatom Definition flash Dual Source CT scanner (Siemens, Forchheim, Germany)). Tube voltage: 80-kV and Sn140-kV; tube current: 110 and 290 mA s; collimation-2 x 32 x 0.6 mm. Raw data were reconstructed using a soft convolution kernel (D30f). Fused images were calculated using a spectrum of weighting factors (0.0, 0.3, 0.6 0.8 and 1.0) generating different ratios between the 80- and Sn140-kV images (e.g. factor 0.6 corresponds to 60% of their information from the 80-kV image, and 40% from the Sn140-kV image). CT values and SNRs measured in the ascending aorta, thyroid gland, fat, muscle, CSF, spinal cord, bone marrow and brain. In addition, CNR values calculated for aorta, thyroid, muscle and brain. Subjective image quality evaluated using a 5-point grading scale. Results compared using paired t-tests and nonparametric-paired Wilcoxon-Wilcox-test. Results: Statistically significant increases in mean CT values noted in anatomic structures when increasing weighting factors used (all P {<=} 0.001). For example, mean CT values derived from the contrast enhanced aorta were 149.2 {+-} 12.8 Hounsfield Units (HU), 204.8 {+-} 14.4 HU, 267.5 {+-} 18.6 HU, 311.9 {+-} 22.3 HU, 347.3 {+-} 24.7 HU, when the weighting factors 0.0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 were used. The highest SNR and CNR values were found in materials when the weighting factor 0.6 used. The difference CNR between the weighting factors 0.6 and 0.3 was statistically significant in the contrast enhanced aorta and thyroid gland (P = 0.012 and P = 0.016, respectively). Visual image assessment for image quality showed the highest score for the data reconstructed using the

  7. Image fusion in dual energy computed tomography for detection of various anatomic structures - Effect on contrast enhancement, contrast-to-noise ratio, signal-to-noise ratio and image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Jijo; Bauer, Ralf W.; Maentele, Werner; Vogl, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate image fusion in dual energy computed tomography for detecting various anatomic structures based on the effect on contrast enhancement, contrast-to-noise ratio, signal-to-noise ratio and image quality. Material and methods: Forty patients underwent a CT neck with dual energy mode (DECT under a Somatom Definition flash Dual Source CT scanner (Siemens, Forchheim, Germany)). Tube voltage: 80-kV and Sn140-kV; tube current: 110 and 290 mA s; collimation-2 x 32 x 0.6 mm. Raw data were reconstructed using a soft convolution kernel (D30f). Fused images were calculated using a spectrum of weighting factors (0.0, 0.3, 0.6 0.8 and 1.0) generating different ratios between the 80- and Sn140-kV images (e.g. factor 0.6 corresponds to 60% of their information from the 80-kV image, and 40% from the Sn140-kV image). CT values and SNRs measured in the ascending aorta, thyroid gland, fat, muscle, CSF, spinal cord, bone marrow and brain. In addition, CNR values calculated for aorta, thyroid, muscle and brain. Subjective image quality evaluated using a 5-point grading scale. Results compared using paired t-tests and nonparametric-paired Wilcoxon-Wilcox-test. Results: Statistically significant increases in mean CT values noted in anatomic structures when increasing weighting factors used (all P ≤ 0.001). For example, mean CT values derived from the contrast enhanced aorta were 149.2 ± 12.8 Hounsfield Units (HU), 204.8 ± 14.4 HU, 267.5 ± 18.6 HU, 311.9 ± 22.3 HU, 347.3 ± 24.7 HU, when the weighting factors 0.0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 were used. The highest SNR and CNR values were found in materials when the weighting factor 0.6 used. The difference CNR between the weighting factors 0.6 and 0.3 was statistically significant in the contrast enhanced aorta and thyroid gland (P = 0.012 and P = 0.016, respectively). Visual image assessment for image quality showed the highest score for the data reconstructed using the weighting factor 0

  8. Technology and Technique Standards for Camera-Acquired Digital Dermatologic Images: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Elizabeth A; Tokay, Barbara A; Jewell, Sarah T; Marchetti, Michael A; Halpern, Allan C

    2015-08-01

    Photographs are invaluable dermatologic diagnostic, management, research, teaching, and documentation tools. Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standards exist for many types of digital medical images, but there are no DICOM standards for camera-acquired dermatologic images to date. To identify and describe existing or proposed technology and technique standards for camera-acquired dermatologic images in the scientific literature. Systematic searches of the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were performed in January 2013 using photography and digital imaging, standardization, and medical specialty and medical illustration search terms and augmented by a gray literature search of 14 websites using Google. Two reviewers independently screened titles of 7371 unique publications, followed by 3 sequential full-text reviews, leading to the selection of 49 publications with the most recent (1985-2013) or detailed description of technology or technique standards related to the acquisition or use of images of skin disease (or related conditions). No universally accepted existing technology or technique standards for camera-based digital images in dermatology were identified. Recommendations are summarized for technology imaging standards, including spatial resolution, color resolution, reproduction (magnification) ratios, postacquisition image processing, color calibration, compression, output, archiving and storage, and security during storage and transmission. Recommendations are also summarized for technique imaging standards, including environmental conditions (lighting, background, and camera position), patient pose and standard view sets, and patient consent, privacy, and confidentiality. Proposed standards for specific-use cases in total body photography, teledermatology, and dermoscopy are described. The literature is replete with descriptions of obtaining photographs of skin disease, but universal imaging standards have not been developed

  9. The wavelet/scalar quantization compression standard for digital fingerprint images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, J.N.; Brislawn, C.M.

    1994-04-01

    A new digital image compression standard has been adopted by the US Federal Bureau of Investigation for use on digitized gray-scale fingerprint images. The algorithm is based on adaptive uniform scalar quantization of a discrete wavelet transform image decomposition and is referred to as the wavelet/scalar quantization standard. The standard produces archival quality images at compression ratios of around 20:1 and will allow the FBI to replace their current database of paper fingerprint cards with digital imagery.

  10. Developing an ANSI standard for image quality tools for the testing of active millimeter wave imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Jeffrey; Greca, Joseph; Yam, Kevin; Weatherall, James C.; Smith, Peter R.; Smith, Barry T.

    2017-05-01

    In 2016, the millimeter wave (MMW) imaging community initiated the formation of a standard for millimeter wave image quality metrics. This new standard, American National Standards Institute (ANSI) N42.59, will apply to active MMW systems for security screening of humans. The Electromagnetic Signatures of Explosives Laboratory at the Transportation Security Laboratory is supporting the ANSI standards process via the creation of initial prototypes for round-robin testing with MMW imaging system manufacturers and experts. Results obtained for these prototypes will be used to inform the community and lead to consensus objective standards amongst stakeholders. Images collected with laboratory systems are presented along with results of preliminary image analysis. Future directions for object design, data collection and image processing are discussed.

  11. Reference Man anatomical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristy, M.

    1994-10-01

    The 70-kg Standard Man or Reference Man has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s to represent adult males. It came into use in radiation protection in the late 1940s and was developed extensively during the 1950s and used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its Publication 2 in 1959. The current Reference Man for Purposes of Radiation Protection is a monumental book published in 1975 by the ICRP as ICRP Publication 23. It has a wealth of information useful for radiation dosimetry, including anatomical and physiological data, gross and elemental composition of the body and organs and tissues of the body. The anatomical data includes specified reference values for an adult male and an adult female. Other reference values are primarily for the adult male. The anatomical data include much data on fetuses and children, although reference values are not established. There is an ICRP task group currently working on revising selected parts of the Reference Man document.

  12. Quality of brain perfusion single-photon emission tomography images: multicentre evaluation using an anatomically accurate three-dimensional phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, J.; Kuikka, J.T.; Ahonen, A.; Rautio, P.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of routine brain perfusion single-photon emission tomography (SPET) images in Finnish nuclear medicine laboratories. Twelve laboratories participated in the study. A three-dimensional high resolution brain phantom (Data Spectrum's 3D Hoffman Brain Phantom) was filled with a well-mixed solution of technetium-99m (110 MBq), water and detergent. Acquisition, reconstruction and printing were performed according to the clinical routine in each centre. Three nuclear medicine specialists blindly evaluated all image sets. The results were ranked from 1 to 5 (poor quality-high quality). Also a SPET performance phantom (Nuclear Associates' PET/SPECT Performance Phantom PS 101) was filled with the same radioactivity concentration as the brain phantom. The parameters for the acquisition, the reconstruction and the printing were exactly the same as with the brain phantom. The number of detected ''hot'' (from 0 to 8) and ''cold'' lesions (from 0 to 7) was visually evaluated from hard copies. Resolution and contrast were quantified from digital images. Average score for brain phantom images was 2.7±0.8 (range 1.5-4.5). The average diameter of the ''hot'' cylinders detected was 16 mm (range 9.2-20.0 mm) and that of the ''cold'' cylinders detected, 11 mm (5.9-14.3 mm) according to visual evaluation. Quantification of digital images showed that the hard copy was one reason for low-quality images. The quality of the hard copies was good only in four laboratories and was amazingly low in the others when comparing it with the actual structure of the brain phantom. The described quantification method is suitable for optimizing resolution and contrast detectability of hard copies. This study revealed the urgent need for external quality assurance of clinical brain perfusion SPET images. (orig.)

  13. Integration of 3D anatomical data obtained by CT imaging and 3D optical scanning for computer aided implant surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paoli Alessandro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A precise placement of dental implants is a crucial step to optimize both prosthetic aspects and functional constraints. In this context, the use of virtual guiding systems has been recognized as a fundamental tool to control the ideal implant position. In particular, complex periodontal surgeries can be performed using preoperative planning based on CT data. The critical point of the procedure relies on the lack of accuracy in transferring CT planning information to surgical field through custom-made stereo-lithographic surgical guides. Methods In this work, a novel methodology is proposed for monitoring loss of accuracy in transferring CT dental information into periodontal surgical field. The methodology is based on integrating 3D data of anatomical (impression and cast and preoperative (radiographic template models, obtained by both CT and optical scanning processes. Results A clinical case, relative to a fully edentulous jaw patient, has been used as test case to assess the accuracy of the various steps concurring in manufacturing surgical guides. In particular, a surgical guide has been designed to place implants in the bone structure of the patient. The analysis of the results has allowed the clinician to monitor all the errors, which have been occurring step by step manufacturing the physical templates. Conclusions The use of an optical scanner, which has a higher resolution and accuracy than CT scanning, has demonstrated to be a valid support to control the precision of the various physical models adopted and to point out possible error sources. A case study regarding a fully edentulous patient has confirmed the feasibility of the proposed methodology.

  14. An automatic MRI/SPECT registration algorithm using image intensity and anatomical feature as matching characters: application on the evaluation of Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.-D.; Huang, C.-H.; Weng, Y.-H.; Lin, K.-J.; Chen, C.-T.

    2007-01-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of dopamine transporters with 99m Tc-TRODAT-1 has recently been proposed to offer valuable information in assessing the functionality of dopaminergic systems. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and SPECT imaging are important in the noninvasive examination of dopamine concentration in vivo. Therefore, this investigation presents an automated MRI/SPECT image registration algorithm based on a new similarity metric. This similarity metric combines anatomical features that are characterized by specific binding, the mean count per voxel in putamens and caudate nuclei, and the distribution of image intensity that is characterized by normalized mutual information (NMI). A preprocess, a novel two-cluster SPECT normalization algorithm, is also presented for MRI/SPECT registration. Clinical MRI/SPECT data from 18 healthy subjects and 13 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients are involved to validate the performance of the proposed algorithms. An appropriate color map, such as 'rainbow,' for image display enables the two-cluster SPECT normalization algorithm to provide clinically meaningful visual contrast. The proposed registration scheme reduces target registration error from >7 mm for conventional registration algorithm based on NMI to approximately 4 mm. The error in the specific/nonspecific 99m Tc-TRODAT-1 binding ratio, which is employed as a quantitative measure of TRODAT receptor binding, is also reduced from 0.45±0.22 to 0.08±0.06 among healthy subjects and from 0.28±0.18 to 0.12±0.09 among PD patients

  15. Study on the Construction of a High-definition Whole-body Voxel Model based on Cadaver's Color Photographic Anatomical Slice Images and Monte Carlo Dose Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sang Hyoun

    2007-08-01

    Ajou University School of Medicine made the serially sectioned anatomical images from the Visible Korean Human (VKH) Project in Korea. The VKH images, which are the high-resolution color photographic images, show the organs and tissues in the human body very clearly at 0.2 mm intervals. In this study, we constructed a high-quality voxel model (VKH-Man) with a total of 30 organs and tissues by manual and automatic segmentation method using the serially sectioned anatomical image data from the Visible Korean Human (VKH) project in Korea. The height and weight of VKH-Man voxel model is 164 cm and 57.6 kg, respectively, and the voxel resolution is 1.875 x 1.875 x 2 mm 3 . However, this voxel phantom can be used to calculate the organ and tissue doses of only one person. Therefore, in this study, we adjusted the voxel phantom to the 'Reference Korean' data to construct the voxel phantom that represents the radiation workers in Korea. The height and weight of the voxel model (HDRK-Man) that is finally developed are 171 cm and 68 kg, respectively, and the voxel resolution is 1.981 x 1.981 x 2.0854 mm 3 . VKH-Man and HDRK-Man voxel model were implemented in a Monte Carlo particle transport simulation code for calculation of the organ and tissue doses in various irradiation geometries. The calculated values were compared with each other to see the effect of the adjustment and also compared with other computational models (KTMAN-2, ICRP-74 and VIP-Man). According to the results, the adjustment of the voxel model was found hardly affect the dose calculations and most of the organ and tissue equivalent doses showed some differences among the models. These results shows that the difference in figure, and organ topology affects the organ doses more than the organ size. The calculated values of the effective dose from VKH-Man and HDRK-Man according to the ICRP-60 and upcoming ICRP recommendation were compared. For the other radiation geometries (AP, LLAT, RLAT) except for PA

  16. Magnitude of speed of sound aberration corrections for ultrasound image guided radiotherapy for prostate and other anatomical sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontanarosa, Davide; Meer, Skadi van der; Bloemen-van Gurp, Esther; Stroian, Gabriela; Verhaegen, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to assess the magnitude of speed of sound (SOS) aberrations in three-dimensional ultrasound (US) imaging systems in image guided radiotherapy. The discrepancy between the fixed SOS value of 1540 m/s assumed by US systems in human soft tissues and its actual nonhomogeneous distribution in patients produces small but systematic errors of up to a few millimeters in the positions of scanned structures. Methods: A correction, provided by a previously published density-based algorithm, was applied to a set of five prostate, five liver, and five breast cancer patients. The shifts of the centroids of target structures and the change in shape were evaluated. Results: After the correction the prostate cases showed shifts up to 3.6 mm toward the US probe, which may explain largely the reported positioning discrepancies in the literature on US systems versus other imaging modalities. Liver cases showed the largest changes in volume of the organ, up to almost 9%, and shifts of the centroids up to more than 6 mm either away or toward the US probe. Breast images showed systematic small shifts of the centroids toward the US probe with a maximum magnitude of 1.3 mm. Conclusions: The applied correction in prostate and liver cancer patients shows positioning errors of several mm due to SOS aberration; the errors are smaller in breast cancer cases, but possibly becoming more important when breast tissue thickness increases.

  17. Absolute Versus Relative Myocardial Blood Flow by Dynamic CT Myocardial Perfusion Imaging in Patients With Anatomic Coronary Artery Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wichmann, Julian L.; Meinel, Felix G.; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Lo, Gladys G.; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Wang, Yining; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Varga-Szemes, Akos; Muscogiuri, Giuseppe; Cannao, Paola M.; De Cecco, Carlo N.

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in the diagnostic accuracy of absolute and relative territorial myocardial blood flow (MBF) derived from stress dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) for the detection of significant coronary artery stenosis. MATERIALS AND

  18. The current and ideal state of anatomic pathology patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Stephen Spencer

    2014-01-01

    An anatomic pathology diagnostic error may be secondary to a number of active and latent technical and/or cognitive components, which may occur anywhere along the total testing process in clinical and/or laboratory domains. For the pathologist interpretive steps of diagnosis, we examine Kahneman's framework of slow and fast thinking to explain different causes of error in precision (agreement) and in accuracy (truth). The pathologist cognitive diagnostic process involves image pattern recognition and a slow thinking error may be caused by the application of different rationally-constructed mental maps of image criteria/patterns by different pathologists. This type of error is partly related to a system failure in standardizing the application of these maps. A fast thinking error involves the flawed leap from image pattern to incorrect diagnosis. In the ideal state, anatomic pathology systems would target these cognitive error causes as well as the technical latent factors that lead to error.

  19. Anatomical pathology is dead? Long live anatomical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, John M; Francis, Glenn D

    2011-10-01

    The standard diagnostic instrument used for over 150 years by anatomical pathologists has been the optical microscope and glass slide. The advent of immunohistochemistry in the routine laboratory in the 1980s, followed by in situ hybridisation in the 1990s, has increased the armamentaria available to the diagnostic pathologist, and this technology has led to changed patient management in a limited number of neoplastic diseases. The first decade of the 21 century has seen an increasing number of publications using proteomic technologies that promise to change disease diagnosis and management, the traditional role of an anatomical pathologist. Despite the plethora of publications on proteomics and pathology, to date there are actually limited data where proteomic technologies do appear to be of greater diagnostic value than the standard histological slide. Though proteomic techniques will become more prevalent in the future, it will need the expertise of an anatomical pathologist to dissect out and validate this added information.

  20. Hoffa's fat pad injuries and their relationship with anterior cruciate ligament tears: new observations based on MR imaging in patients and MR imaging and anatomic correlation in cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Marcelo R. [University of California San Diego, VA Health Care System, San Diego, CA (United States); Chung, Christine B.; Trudell, Debra; Resnick, Donald [University of California San Diego, VA Health Care System, San Diego, CA (United States); Hospital Mae de Deus, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2008-04-15

    To determine the normal anatomic relationships of Hoffa's fat pad with the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and with the frequency of Hoffa's fat pad abnormalities in ACL-deficient knees. Retrospective clinical study on patients and observational anatomic study on cadavers. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. MR imaging studies of the knees of 100 patients (21-48 years old) with or without arthroscopically proven tears of the ACL, performed at a single institution, were reviewed by two readers for abnormalities of Hoffa's fat pad. Ten cadaveric knee specimens were studied with MR imaging and Faxitron radiographs, and by inspection of sections and histology. Alterations in Hoffa's fat pad on MR imaging were present in 64% (32/50) of patients with torn ACLs, and in 24% (12/50) of patients without a tear of the ACL (P < 0.05). Hoffa's fat pad inserted into the intercondylar notch in 50% (5/10) of cadaveric specimens, four in conjunction with the ligamentum mucosum and in one in an isolated fashion. Histological study demonstrated the composition of the ligamentum mucosum and Hoffa's fat pad and their course and insertion sites in the intercondylar notch. Abnormalities of Hoffa's fat pad, such as focal and diffuse edema, tears, scars and synovial proliferation, are more common in knees with torn ACLs than in knees with intact ACLs. (orig.)

  1. Standard practice for determining relative image quality response of industrial radiographic imaging systems

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This standard provides a practice whereby industrial radiographic imaging systems may be comparatively assessed using the concept of relative image quality response (RIQR). The RIQR method presented within this practice is based upon the use of equivalent penetrameter sensitivity (EPS) described within Practice E 1025 and subsection 5.2 of this practice. Figure 1 illustrates a relative image quality indicator (RIQI) that has four different steel plaque thicknesses (.015, .010, .008, and .005 in.) sequentially positioned (from top to bottom) on a ¾-in. thick steel plate. The four plaques contain a total of 14 different arrays of penetrameter-type hole sizes designed to render varied conditions of threshold visibility ranging from 1.92 % EPS (at the top) to .94 % EPS (at the bottom) when exposed to nominal 200 keV X-ray radiation. Each “EPS” array consists of 30 identical holes; thus, providing the user with a quantity of threshold sensitivity levels suitable for relative image qualitative response com...

  2. 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging: A new standard in liver imaging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girometti, Rossano

    2015-07-28

    An ever-increasing number of 3.0 Tesla (T) magnets are installed worldwide. Moving from the standard of 1.5 T to higher field strength implies a number of potential advantage and drawbacks, requiring careful optimization of imaging protocols or implementation of novel hardware components. Clinical practice and literature review suggest that state-of-the-art 3.0 T is equivalent to 1.5 T in the assessment of focal liver lesions and diffuse liver disease. Therefore, further technical improvements are needed in order to fully exploit the potential of higher field strength.

  3. Dose reduction in abdominal computed tomography: intraindividual comparison of image quality of full-dose standard and half-dose iterative reconstructions with dual-source computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Matthias S; Wüst, Wolfgang; Brand, Michael; Stahl, Christian; Allmendinger, Thomas; Schmidt, Bernhard; Uder, Michael; Lell, Michael M

    2011-07-01

    We sought to evaluate the image quality of iterative reconstruction in image space (IRIS) in half-dose (HD) datasets compared with full-dose (FD) and HD filtered back projection (FBP) reconstruction in abdominal computed tomography (CT). To acquire data with FD and HD simultaneously, contrast-enhanced abdominal CT was performed with a dual-source CT system, both tubes operating at 120 kV, 100 ref.mAs, and pitch 0.8. Three different image datasets were reconstructed from the raw data: Standard FD images applying FBP which served as reference, HD images applying FBP and HD images applying IRIS. For the HD data sets, only data from 1 tube detector-system was used. Quantitative image quality analysis was performed by measuring image noise in tissue and air. Qualitative image quality was evaluated according to the European Guidelines on Quality criteria for CT. Additional assessment of artifacts, lesion conspicuity, and edge sharpness was performed. : Image noise in soft tissue was substantially decreased in HD-IRIS (-3.4 HU, -22%) and increased in HD-FBP (+6.2 HU, +39%) images when compared with the reference (mean noise, 15.9 HU). No significant differences between the FD-FBP and HD-IRIS images were found for the visually sharp anatomic reproduction, overall diagnostic acceptability (P = 0.923), lesion conspicuity (P = 0.592), and edge sharpness (P = 0.589), while HD-FBP was rated inferior. Streak artifacts and beam hardening was significantly more prominent in HD-FBP while HD-IRIS images exhibited a slightly different noise pattern. Direct intrapatient comparison of standard FD body protocols and HD-IRIS reconstruction suggest that the latest iterative reconstruction algorithms allow for approximately 50% dose reduction without deterioration of the high image quality necessary for confident diagnosis.

  4. A trial fabrication of activity standard surface sources and positional standard surface sources for an imaging plate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yasushi; Hino, Yoshio; Yamada, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Mikio

    2003-01-01

    An imaging plate system can detect low level activity, but quantitative analysis is difficult because there are no adequate standard surface sources. A new fabrication method was developed for standard surface sources by printing on a sheet of paper using an ink-jet printer with inks in which a radioactive material was mixed. The fabricated standard surface sources had high uniformity, high positional resolution arbitrary shapes and a broad intensity range. The standard sources were used for measurement of surface activity as an application. (H. Yokoo)

  5. Diffusion tensor imaging: the normal evolution of ADC, RA, FA, and eigenvalues studied in multiple anatomical regions of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loebel, Ulrike [University Hospital Jena, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Jena (Germany); St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Radiological Sciences, Memphis, TN (United States); Sedlacik, Jan [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Radiological Sciences, Memphis, TN (United States); University Hospital Jena, Medical Physics Group, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Jena (Germany); Guellmar, Daniel [University Hospital Jena, Medical Physics Group, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Jena (Germany); University Hospital Jena, Biomagnetic Center, Department of Neurology, Jena (Germany); Kaiser, Werner A.; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim [University Hospital Jena, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Jena (Germany); Reichenbach, Juergen R. [University Hospital Jena, Medical Physics Group, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Jena (Germany)

    2009-04-15

    The aim of our work was to investigate the process of myelination in healthy patients using the diffusion parameters apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), relative anisotropy (RA), fractional anisotropy (FA), and eigenvalues. Age-dependent changes were assessed using the slope m of the fit functions that best described the data. Seventy-two patients (3 weeks-19 years) without pathological magnetic resonance imaging findings were selected from all pediatric patients scanned with diffusion tensor imaging over a 5-year period at our institution. ADC, RA, FA, and eigenvalue maps were calculated and regions of interest were selected in anterior/posterior pons, genu/splenium of corpus callosum (CC), anterior/posterior limb of internal capsule (IC), and white matter (WM) regions (frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital WM). Statistical analysis was performed using Spearman correlation coefficient and regression analysis. Mean values ranged 71.6 x 10{sup -5} to 90.3 x 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s (pons/parietal WM) for ADC, 0.32-0.94 (frontal WM/CC) for RA, and 0.36-0.81 (frontal WM/splenium) for FA. Logarithmic fit functions best described the data. Strong age influences were observed for CC, pons, and parietal/frontal WM and changes were significant for all three eigenvalues, most pronounced for perpendicular eigenvalues. Changes in RA and FA differed depending on the structure anisotropy. Changes observed for ADC, RA, FA, and eigenvalues with age were consistent with previous findings. Changes detected for RA and FA varied due to the different scaling of both parameters. We found that the use of the largely linear scaled RA adds more valuable information for the assessment of age-dependent structural changes as compared to FA. Additionally, we report normative values for the diffusion parameters studied. (orig.)

  6. Anatomical accuracy of lesion localization. Retrospective interactive rigid image registration between 18F-FDG-PET and X-ray CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noemayr, A.; Roemer, W.; Kuwert, T.; Hothorn, T.; Pfahlberg, A.; Hornegger, J.; Bautz, W.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the anatomical accuracy and reproducibility of retrospective interactive rigid image registration (RIR) between routinely archived X-ray computer tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography performed with 18 F-deoxyglucose (FDG-PET) in oncological patients. Methods: two observers registered PET and CT data obtained in 37 patients using a commercially available image fusion tool. RIR was performed separately for the thorax and the abdomen using physiological FDG uptake in several organs as a reference. One observer performed the procedure twice (01a and 01b), another person once (02). For 94 malignant lesions, clearly visible in CT and PET, the signed and absolute distances between their representation on PET and CT were measured in X-, Y-, and Z-direction with reference to a coordinate system centered in the CT representation of each lesion (X-, Y-, Z-distances). Results: the mean differences of the signed and absolute distances between 01a, 01b, and 02 did not exceed 3 mm in any dimension. The absolute X-, Y-, and Z-distances ranged between 0.57 ± 0.58 cm for 01a (X-direction) and 1.12 ± 1.28 cm for 02 (Z-direction). When averaging the absolute distances measured by 01a, 01b, and 02, the percentage of lesions misregistered by less than 1.5 cm was 91% for the X-, 88% for the Y-, and 77% for the Z-direction. The larger error of fusion determined for the remaining lesions was caused by non-rigid body transformations due to differences in breathing, arm position, or bowel movements between the two examinations. Mixed effects analysis of the signed and absolute X-, Y-, and Z-distances disclosed a significantly greater misalignment in the thorax than in the abdomen as well as axially than transaxially. Conclusion: the anatomical inaccuracy of RIR can be expected to be <1.5 cm for the majority of neoplastic foci. errors of alignment are bigger in the thorax and in Z-direction, due to non-rigid body transformations caused, e

  7. Correlating metabolic and anatomic responses of primary lung cancers to radiotherapy by combined F-18 FDG PET-CT imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grills Inga

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To correlate the metabolic changes with size changes for tumor response by concomitant PET-CT evaluation of lung cancers after radiotherapy. Methods 36 patients were studied pre- and post-radiotherapy with18FDG PET-CT scans at a median interval of 71 days. All of the patients were followed clinically and radiographically after a mean period of 342 days for assessment of local control or failure rates. Change in size (sum of maximum orthogonal diameters was correlated with that of maximum standard uptake value (SUV of the primary lung cancer before and after conventional radiotherapy. Results There was a significant reduction in both SUV and size of the primary cancer after radiotherapy (p Conclusion Correlating and incorporating metabolic change by PET into size change by concomitant CT is more sensitive in assessing therapeutic response than CT alone.

  8. Report from the research committee of digital imaging standardization in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yutaka; Ise, Toshihide; Isetani, Osamu; Ichihara, Takashi; Ohya, Nobuyoshi; Kanaya, Shinichi; Fukuda, Toshio; Horii, Hitoshi.

    1994-01-01

    Since digital scintillation camera systems were developed in 1982, digital imaging is rapidly replacing analog imaging. During the first year, the research committee of digital imaging standardization has collected and analyzed basic data concerning digital examination equipment systems, display equipments, films, and hardware and software techniques to determine items required for the standardization of digital imaging. During the second year, it has done basic phantom studies to assess digital images and analyzed the results from both physical and visual viewpoints. On the basis of the outcome of the research committee's activities and the nationwide survey, the draft of digital imaging standardization in nuclear medicine has been presented. In this paper. the analytical data of the two-year survey, made by the research committee of digital imaging standardization, are presented. The descriptions are given under the following four items: (1) standardization digital examination techniques, (2) standardization of display techniques, (3) the count and pixel of digital images, and (4) standardization of digital imaging techniques. (N.K.)

  9. Thoughts on standardization of parameters for image evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, F. C.

    1976-01-01

    Images received for image processing and analysis are obtained from a wide variety of sources and with a wide variety of sensors. Because it is desirable to have image processing algorithms be as universally applicable as possible, they should be designed, where possible, to be insensitive to the parametric variations of the source material. Where this is not possible, these variations must be taken into account. Therefore, it is necessary to consider what parameters may be defined in common across a suite of image types. Objective parameters or measurements of images which, in the proper combinations, may serve as surrogates for real images may be pixel-specific, location dependent, or combinations thereof. Parameters which have proven useful in defining the characteristics of images include the gray scale linearity, granularity of the quantization, spectral content, geometrical fidelity, resolution of the system expressed as either the point spread function or the modulation transfer function, and the spatial frequency content and characteristics of the data itself.

  10. Mental foramen and lingual vascular canals of mandible on MDCT images: anatomical study and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direk, Filiz; Uysal, Ismihan Ilknur; Kivrak, Ali Sami; Fazliogullari, Zeliha; Unver Dogan, Nadire; Karabulut, Ahmet Kagan

    2018-03-01

    The mental foramen and lingual vascular canals are related to vessels and nerves in the mandibular body. The aim of the present study was to determine the number and location of these structures and to make measurements of them. The archived Multidetector Computed Tomography images of 100 adult (15- to 70-year-old) patients were evaluated retrospectively. The diameters of the mental foramens and their distances from the front, back, upper and lower reference points were measured. The distribution of mental foramens with respect to the teeth was also researched. The presence of lingual vascular canals, and the number of median and lateral canals was determined, and the length of the median lingual vascular canals measured. All measurement parameters were analyzed by gender, side and age group. Eleven patients demonstrated a total of 15 accessory mental foramen. Median lingual vascular canals were observed in 100% of cases, with lateral lingual vascular canals determined in 32%. Significant differences were observed in the results of different gender groups (P mental foramen was determined mostly in males, and unilaterally on the right side; also, the distances of mental foramen, except the distance from the back border of the mandible (P mental foramen, as well as the presence, position and size of lingual vascular canals can be clearly investigated by multidetector computed tomography. A preoperative knowledge of the positions of neurovascular and bone structures is very important for preventing complications that may occur during or after operations.

  11. Standardization of image quality and radiation dose in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrick, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Image quality is the cornerstone to the practice of high-quality mammography. To ensure high quality in the practice of mammography, the American College of Radiology has established a voluntary program for the accreditation of mammographic screening sites. Between August 15, 1987, and February 1, 1989, 647 mammography units completed the accreditation program. Data collected from those units are presented, demonstrating that broad ranges of image quality and dose currently exist among mammographic screening sites. Reasons are discussed for the wide ranges observed, and steps are proposed to narrow the ranges of image quality and dose in the practice of mammography

  12. The FBI wavelet/scalar quantization standard for gray-scale fingerprint image compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, J.N.; Brislawn, C.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hopper, T. [Federal Bureau of Investigation, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The FBI has recently adopted a standard for the compression of digitized 8-bit gray-scale fingerprint images. The standard is based on scalar quantization of a 64-subband discrete wavelet transform decomposition of the images, followed by Huffman coding. Novel features of the algorithm include the use of symmetric boundary conditions for transforming finite-length signals and a subband decomposition tailored for fingerprint images scanned at 500 dpi. The standard is intended for use in conjunction with ANSI/NBS-CLS 1-1993, American National Standard Data Format for the Interchange of Fingerprint Information, and the FBI`s Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System.

  13. The FBI wavelet/scalar quantization standard for gray-scale fingerprint image compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, J.N.; Brislawn, C.M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Hopper, T. (Federal Bureau of Investigation, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The FBI has recently adopted a standard for the compression of digitized 8-bit gray-scale fingerprint images. The standard is based on scalar quantization of a 64-subband discrete wavelet transform decomposition of the images, followed by Huffman coding. Novel features of the algorithm include the use of symmetric boundary conditions for transforming finite-length signals and a subband decomposition tailored for fingerprint images scanned at 500 dpi. The standard is intended for use in conjunction with ANSI/NBS-CLS 1-1993, American National Standard Data Format for the Interchange of Fingerprint Information, and the FBI's Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System.

  14. Effective DQE (eDQE) for monoscopic and stereoscopic chest radiography imaging systems with the incorporation of anatomical noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, Sarah J. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Choudhury, Kingshuk Roy [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Samei, Ehsan [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: Stereoscopic chest biplane correlation imaging (stereo/BCI) has been proposed as an alternative modality to single view chest x-ray (CXR). The metrics effective modulation transfer function (eMTF), effective normalized noise power spectrum (eNNPS), and effective detective quantum efficiency (eDQE) have been proposed as clinically relevant metrics for assessing clinical system performance taking into consideration the magnification and scatter effects. This study compared the metrics eMTF, eNNPS, eDQE, and detectability index for stereo/BCI and single view CXR under isodose conditions at two magnifications for two anthropomorphic phantoms of differing sizes.Methods: Measurements for the eMTF were taken for two phantom sizes with an opaque edge test device using established techniques. The eNNPS was measured at two isodose conditions for two phantoms using established techniques. The scatter was measured for two phantoms using an established beam stop method. All measurements were also taken at two different magnifications with two phantoms. A geometrical phantom was used for comparison with prior results for CXR although the results for an anatomy free phantom are not expected to vary for BCI.Results: Stereo/BCI resulted in improved metrics compared to single view CXR. Results indicated that magnification can potentially improve the detection performance primarily due to the air gap which reduced scatter by ∼20%. For both phantoms, at isodose, eDQE(0) for stereo/BCI was ∼100 times higher than that for CXR. Magnification at isodose improved eDQE(0) by ∼10 times for stereo/BCI. Increasing the dose did not improve eDQE. The detectability index for stereo/BCI was ∼100 times better than single view CXR for all conditions. The detectability index was also not improved with increased dose.Conclusions: The findings indicate that stereo/BCI with magnification may improve detectability of subtle lung nodules compared to single view CXR. Results were improved

  15. Additive Manufacturing of Anatomical Models from Computed Tomography Scan Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gür, Y

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the study presented here was to investigate the manufacturability of human anatomical models from Computed Tomography (CT) scan data via a 3D desktop printer which uses fused deposition modelling (FDM) technology. First, Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) CT scan data were converted to 3D Standard Triangle Language (STL) format by using In Vaselius digital imaging program. Once this STL file is obtained, a 3D physical version of the anatomical model can be fabricated by a desktop 3D FDM printer. As a case study, a patient's skull CT scan data was considered, and a tangible version of the skull was manufactured by a 3D FDM desktop printer. During the 3D printing process, the skull was built using acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) co-polymer plastic. The printed model showed that the 3D FDM printing technology is able to fabricate anatomical models with high accuracy. As a result, the skull model can be used for preoperative surgical planning, medical training activities, implant design and simulation to show the potential of the FDM technology in medical field. It will also improve communication between medical stuff and patients. Current result indicates that a 3D desktop printer which uses FDM technology can be used to obtain accurate anatomical models.

  16. Analyzing functional, structural, and anatomical correlation of hemispheric language lateralization in healthy subjects using functional MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, and voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jija S; Kumari, Sheela R; Sreedharan, Ruma Madhu; Thomas, Bejoy; Radhkrishnan, Ashalatha; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of diffusion fiber tractography (DFT) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) for lateralizing language in comparison with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to noninvasively assess hemispheric language lateralization in normal healthy volunteers. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the concordance of language lateralization obtained by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and VBM to fMRI, and thus to see whether there exists an anatomical correlate for language lateralization result obtained using fMRI. This is an advanced neuroimaging study conducted in normal healthy volunteers. Fifty-seven normal healthy subjects (39 males and 18 females; age range: 15-40 years) underwent language fMRI and 30 underwent direction DTI. fMRI language laterality index (LI), fiber tract asymmetry index (AI), and tract-based statistics of dorsal and ventral language pathways were calculated. The combined results were correlated with VBM-based volumetry of Heschl's gyrus (HG), planum temporale (PT), and insula for lateralization of language function. A linear regression analysis was done to study the correlation between fMRI, DTI, and VBM measurements. A good agreement was found between language fMRI LI and fiber tract AI, more specifically for arcuate fasciculus (ArcF) and inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF). The study demonstrated significant correlations (P based statistics, and PT and HG volumetry for determining language lateralization. A strong one-to-one correlation between fMRI, laterality index, DTI tractography measures, and VBM-based volumetry measures for determining language lateralization exists.

  17. Image and video compression for multimedia engineering fundamentals, algorithms, and standards

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Yun Q

    2008-01-01

    Part I: Fundamentals Introduction Quantization Differential Coding Transform Coding Variable-Length Coding: Information Theory Results (II) Run-Length and Dictionary Coding: Information Theory Results (III) Part II: Still Image Compression Still Image Coding: Standard JPEG Wavelet Transform for Image Coding: JPEG2000 Nonstandard Still Image Coding Part III: Motion Estimation and Compensation Motion Analysis and Motion Compensation Block Matching Pel-Recursive Technique Optical Flow Further Discussion and Summary on 2-D Motion Estimation Part IV: Video Compression Fundam

  18. Standard practice for digital imaging and communication nondestructive evaluation (DICONDE) for computed radiography (CR) test methods

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice facilitates the interoperability of computed radiography (CR) imaging and data acquisition equipment by specifying image data transfer and archival storage methods in commonly accepted terms. This practice is intended to be used in conjunction with Practice E2339 on Digital Imaging and Communication in Nondestructive Evaluation (DICONDE). Practice E2339 defines an industrial adaptation of the NEMA Standards Publication titled Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM, see http://medical.nema.org), an international standard for image data acquisition, review, storage and archival storage. The goal of Practice E2339, commonly referred to as DICONDE, is to provide a standard that facilitates the display and analysis of NDE results on any system conforming to the DICONDE standard. Toward that end, Practice E2339 provides a data dictionary and a set of information modules that are applicable to all NDE modalities. This practice supplements Practice E2339 by providing information objec...

  19. A high-resolution anatomical framework of the neonatal mouse brain for managing gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyl Boline

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to provide a high-resolution atlas and use it as an anatomical framework to localize the gene expression data for mouse brain on postnatal day 0 (P0. A color Nissl-stained volume with a resolution of 13.3×50×13.3 µm3 was constructed and co-registered to a standard anatomical space defined by an averaged geometry of C57BL/6J P0 mouse brains. A 145 anatomical structures were delineated based on the histological images. Anatomical relationships of delineated structures were established based on the hierarchical relations defined in the atlas of adult mouse brain (MacKenzie-Graham et al., 2004 so the P0 atlas can be related to the database associated with the adult atlas. The co-registered multimodal atlas as well as the original anatomical delineations is available for download at http://www.loni.ucla.edu/Atlases/. The region-specific anatomical framework based on the neonatal atlas allows for the analysis of gene activity within a high-resolution anatomical space at an early developmental stage. We demonstrated the potential application of this framework by incorporating gene expression data generated using in situ hybridization to the atlas space. By normalizing the gene expression patterns revealed by different images, experimental results from separate studies can be compared and summarized in an anatomical context. Co-displaying multiple registered datasets in the atlas space allows for 3D reconstruction of the co-expression patterns of the different genes in the atlas space, hence providing better insight into the relationship between the differentiated distribution pattern of gene products and specific anatomical systems.

  20. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain - a link between brain morphology and function, imaging of the functional status of the brain on a detailed anatomic background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obenberger, J.; Seidl, Z.; Ruzicka, E.; Jech, R.; Krasensky, J.

    1998-01-01

    The basic principles of functional magnetic resonance imaging are outlined. The current status of knowledge and ideas for a future development are highlighted. The application fields of this technique include neurosurgery, neurology, psychiatry. The method also serves as a research tool, where it may prove helpful in solving problems of sleep disorder and the generation and perception of speech. A brief overview of the requirements and the necessary background is given for those wishing to start their own activity in this field

  1. Anatomical Variation of Age-Related Changes in Vertebral Bone Marrow Composition Using Chemical Shift Encoding-Based Water–Fat Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Baum

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of vertebral bone marrow composition has been proposed as imaging biomarker for osteoporosis, hematopoietic, and metabolic disorders. We investigated the anatomical variation of age-related changes of vertebral proton density fat fraction (PDFF using chemical shift encoding-based water–fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. 156 healthy subjects were recruited (age range 20–29 years: 12/30 males/females; 30–39: 15/9; 40–49: 4/14; 50–59: 9/27; 60–69: 5/19; 70–79: 4/8. An eight-echo 3D spoiled gradient-echo sequence at 3T MRI was used for chemical shift-encoding based water–fat separation at the lumbar spine. Vertebral bodies of L1–L4 were manually segmented to extract PDFF values at each vertebral level. PDFF averaged over L1–L4 was significantly (p < 0.05 higher in males than females in the twenties (32.0 ± 8.0 vs. 27.2 ± 6.0% and thirties (35.3 ± 6.7 vs. 27.3 ± 6.2%. With increasing age, females showed an accelerated fatty conversion of the bone marrow compared to men with no significant (p > 0.05 mean PDFF differences in the forties (32.4 ± 8.4 vs. 34.5 ± 6.8% and fifties (42.0 ± 6.1 vs. 40.5 ± 9.7%. The accelerated conversion process continued resulting in greater mean PDFF values in females than males in the sixties (40.2 ± 6.9 vs. 48.8 ± 7.7%; p = 0.033 and seventies (43.9 ± 7.6 vs. 50.5 ± 8.2%; p = 0.208, though the latter did not reach statistical significance. Relative age-related PDFF change from the twenties to the seventies increased from 16.7% (L1 to 51.4% (L4 in males and 76.8% (L1 to 85.7% (L4 in females. An accelerated fatty conversion of bone marrow was observed in females with increasing age particularly evident after menopause. Relative age-related PDFF changes showed an anatomical variation with most pronounced changes at lower lumbar vertebral levels in both sexes.

  2. Study of the anatomical position of the femoral nerve by magnetic resonance imaging in patients with fractured neck of femur: relevance to femoral nerve block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mehmood, Shehzad

    2012-01-31

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the anatomical location of the femoral nerve in patients who have sustained fracture of the neck of femur, and its relevance to femoral nerve block technique. DESIGN: Prospective, observational clinical study. SETTING: Orthopedic and Radiology departments of a regional hospital. SUBJECTS: 10 consecutive adult ASA physical status II and III patients (mean age, 78.5 yrs) and 4 adult healthy volunteers. INTERVENTIONS: A T1 magnetic resonance imaging scan was performed of both upper thighs in patients and healthy volunteers successfully. MEASUREMENTS: The distance (mm) between the midpoint of the femoral artery and the midpoint of the femoral nerve, and the distance of the femoral nerve from the skin was measured at the mid-inguinal ligament, the pubic tubercle, and at the mid-inguinal crease. Data are shown as means (SD). Differences between both sides were compared using paired Student\\'s t-tests. P < 0.05 was significant. MAIN RESULTS: In patients the mean distance (mm) between the midpoint of the femoral nerve from the midpoint of femoral artery at the mid-inguinal crease on the fractured and non-fractured sides was 10.7 and 11.0, respectively (P = 0.87). The mean distance (mm) between the midpoint of the femoral nerve from the midpoint of the femoral artery at the mid-inguinal ligament on the fractured and non-fractured sides was 9.64 and 12.5, respectively (P = 0.03). The mean distance (mm) between the midpoint of the femoral nerve from the midpoint of the femoral artery at the pubic tubercle on the fractured and non-fractured sides was 8.74 and 10.49, respectively (P = 0.18). CONCLUSIONS: Blockade of the femoral nerve may be easier to perform at the mid-inguinal crease in patients with fractured neck of femur.

  3. DEVELOPING AN IMAGE PROCESSING APPLICATION THAT SUPPORTS NEW FEATURES OF JPEG2000 STANDARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgin GÖÇERİ

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, developing technologies in multimedia brought the importance of image processing and compression. Images that are reduced in size using lossless and lossy compression techniques without degrading the quality of the image to an unacceptable level take up much less space in memory. This enables them to be sent and received over the Internet or mobile devices in much shorter time. The wavelet-based image compression standard JPEG2000 has been created by the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG committee to superseding the former JPEG standard. Works on various additions to this standard are still under development. In this study, an Application has been developed in Visual C# 2005 which implies important image processing techniques such as edge detection and noise reduction. The important feature of this Application is to support JPEG2000 standard as well as supporting other image types, and the implementation does not only apply to two-dimensional images, but also to multi-dimensional images. Modern software development platforms that support image processing have also been compared and several features of the developed software have been identified.

  4. Establishment of quality assessment standard for mammographic equipment: evaluation of phantom and clinical images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Hoon; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Chung, Soo Young

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a quality standard for mammographic equipment Korea and to eventually improve mammographic quality in clinics and hospitals throughout Korea by educating technicians and clinic personnel. For the phantom test and on site assessment, we visited 37 sites and examined 43 sets of mammographic equipment. Items that were examined include phantom test, radiation dose measurement, developer assessment, etc. The phantom images were assessed visually and by optical density measurements. For the clinical image assessment, clinical images from 371 sites were examined following the new Korean standard for clinical image evaluation. The items examined include labeling, positioning, contrast, exposure, artifacts, collimation among others. Quality standard of mammographic equipment was satisfied in all equipment on site visits. Average mean glandular dose was 114.9 mRad. All phantom image test scores were over 10 points (average, 10.8 points). However, optical density measurements were below 1.2 in 9 sets of equipment (20.9%). Clinical image evaluation revealed appropriate image quality in 83.5%, while images from non-radiologist clinics were adequate in 74.6% (91/122), which was the lowest score of any group. Images were satisfactory in 59.0% (219/371) based on evaluation by specialists following the new Korean standard for clinical image evaluation. Satisfactory images had a mean score of 81.7 (1 S.D. =8.9) and unsatisfactory images had a mean score of 61.9 (1 S.D = 11). The correlation coefficient between the two observers was 0.93 (ρ < 0.01) in 49 consecutive cases. The results of the phantom tests suggest that optical density measurements should be performed as part of a new quality standard for mammographic equipment. The new clinical evaluation criteria that was used in this study can be implemented with some modifications for future mammography quality control by the Korean government

  5. Image integration into 3-dimensional-electro-anatomical mapping system facilitates safe ablation of ventricular arrhythmias originating from the aortic root and its vicinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jularic, Mario; Akbulak, Ruken Özge; Schäffer, Benjamin; Moser, Julia; Nuehrich, Jana; Meyer, Christian; Eickholt, Christian; Willems, Stephan; Hoffmann, Boris A

    2018-03-01

    During ablation in the vicinity of the coronary arteries establishing a safe distance from the catheter tip to the relevant vessels is mandatory and usually assessed by fluoroscopy alone. The aim of the study was to investigate the feasibility of an image integration module (IIM) for continuous monitoring of the distance of the ablation catheter tip to the main coronary arteries during ablation of ventricular arrhythmias (VA) originating in the sinus of valsalva (SOV) and the left ventricular summit part of which can be reached via the great cardiac vein (GCV). Of 129 patients undergoing mapping for outflow tract arrhythmias from June 2014 till October 2015, a total of 39 patients (52.4 ± 18.1 years, 17 female) had a source of origin in the SOV or the left ventricular summit. Radiofrequency (RF) ablation was performed when a distance of at least 5 mm could be demonstrated with IIM. A safe distance in at least one angiographic plane could be demonstrated in all patients with a source of origin in the SOV, whereas this was not possible in 50% of patients with earliest activation in the summit area. However, using the IIM a safe position at an adjacent site within the GCV could be obtained in three of these cases and successful RF ablation performed safely without any complications. Ablation was successful in 100% of patients with an origin in the SOV, whereas VAs originating from the left ventricular summit could be abolished completely in only 60% of cases. Image integration combining electroanatomical mapping and fluoroscopy allows assessment of the safety of a potential ablation site by continuous real-time monitoring of the spatial relations of the catheter tip to the coronary vessels prior to RF application. It aids ablation in anatomically complex regions like the SOV or the ventricular summit providing biplane angiograms merged into the three-dimensional electroanatomical map. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved.

  6. Medical image registration algorithms assesment Bronze Standard application enactment on grids using the MOTEUR workflow engine

    CERN Document Server

    Glatard, T; Pennec, X

    2006-01-01

    Medical image registration is pre-processing needed for many medical image analysis procedures. A very large number of registration algorithms are available today, but their performance is often not known and very difficult to assess due to the lack of gold standard. The Bronze Standard algorithm is a very data and compute intensive statistical approach for quantifying registration algorithms accuracy. In this paper, we describe the Bronze Standard application and we discuss the need for grids to tackle such computations on medical image databases. We demonstrate MOTEUR, a service-based workflow engine optimized for dealing with data intensive applications. MOTEUR eases the enactment of the Bronze Standard and similar applications on the EGEE production grid infrastructure. It is a generic workflow engine, based on current standards and freely available, that can be used to instrument legacy application code at low cost.

  7. Anatomical and functional assessment of Tryton bifurcation stent before and after final kissing balloon dilatation: Evaluations by three-dimensional coronary angiography, optical coherence tomography imaging and fractional flow reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyxaras, Stylianos A; Toth, Gabor G; Di Gioia, Giuseppe; Ughi, Giovanni J; Tu, Shengxian; Rusinaru, Dan; Adriaenssens, Tom; Reiber, Johan H C; Leon, Martin B; Bax, Jeroen J; Wijns, William

    2017-07-01

    To assess the anatomical and functional impact of final kissing balloon inflation (FKBI) after implantation of a dedicated bifurcation stent system. Current evidence suggests clinical benefit of FKBI in patients undergoing bifurcation dilatation using the Tryton side branch stent (Tryton-SBS). We hypothesized that FKBI improves anatomical reconstruction and functional results of bifurcation treated by Tryton-SBS. An unselected group of patients with complex bifurcation coronary lesions undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with Tryton-SBS underwent paired anatomical assessment with two- and three-dimensional quantitative coronary analysis (2D- and 3D-QCA), and optical coherence tomography (OCT), including 3D reconstruction before and after FKBI. Functional assessment by fractional flow reserve (FFR) was performed in the main branch (MB) and side branch (SB) before and after FKBI. Paired pre- and post-FKBI data were obtained in 10 patients. By OCT imaging, FKBI increased both the SB ostial area (4.93 ± 2.81 vs. 7.43 ± 2.87 mm 2 , P system, FKBI is associated with improved anatomical and functional results at the SB level, without compromising the result at the MB. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. ACR/NEMA Digital Image Interface Standard (An Illustrated Protocol Overview)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, G. Robert

    1985-09-01

    The American College of Radiologists (ACR) and the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) have sponsored a joint standards committee mandated to develop a universal interface standard for the transfer of radiology images among a variety of PACS imaging devicesl. The resulting standard interface conforms to the ISO/OSI standard reference model for network protocol layering. The standard interface specifies the lower layers of the reference model (Physical, Data Link, Transport and Session) and implies a requirement of the Network Layer should a requirement for a network exist. The message content has been considered and a flexible message and image format specified. The following Imaging Equipment modalities are supported by the standard interface... CT Computed Tomograpy DS Digital Subtraction NM Nuclear Medicine US Ultrasound MR Magnetic Resonance DR Digital Radiology The following data types are standardized over the transmission interface media.... IMAGE DATA DIGITIZED VOICE HEADER DATA RAW DATA TEXT REPORTS GRAPHICS OTHERS This paper consists of text supporting the illustrated protocol data flow. Each layer will be individually treated. Particular emphasis will be given to the Data Link layer (Frames) and the Transport layer (Packets). The discussion utilizes a finite state sequential machine model for the protocol layers.

  9. Standardization of I-123-meta-iodobenzylguanidine myocardial sympathetic activity imaging: phantom calibration and clinical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakajima, Kenichi; Verschure, Derk O.; Okuda, Koichi; Verberne, Hein J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Myocardial sympathetic imaging with I-123-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (I-123-mIBG) has gained clinical momentum. Although the need for standardization of I-123-mIBG myocardial uptake has been recognized, the availability of practical clinical standardization approaches is limited. The need for

  10. Strain analysis in CRT candidates using the novel segment length in cine (SLICE) post-processing technique on standard CMR cine images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweerink, Alwin; Allaart, Cornelis P.; Wu, LiNa; Beek, Aernout M.; Rossum, Albert C. van; Nijveldt, Robin [VU University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, and Institute for Cardiovascular Research (ICaR-VU), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kuijer, Joost P.A. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Physics and Medical Technology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ven, Peter M. van de [VU University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Meine, Mathias [University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Croisille, Pierre; Clarysse, Patrick [Univ Lyon, UJM-Saint-Etienne, INSA, CNRS UMR 5520, INSERM U1206, CREATIS, Saint-Etienne (France)

    2017-12-15

    Although myocardial strain analysis is a potential tool to improve patient selection for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), there is currently no validated clinical approach to derive segmental strains. We evaluated the novel segment length in cine (SLICE) technique to derive segmental strains from standard cardiovascular MR (CMR) cine images in CRT candidates. Twenty-seven patients with left bundle branch block underwent CMR examination including cine imaging and myocardial tagging (CMR-TAG). SLICE was performed by measuring segment length between anatomical landmarks throughout all phases on short-axis cines. This measure of frame-to-frame segment length change was compared to CMR-TAG circumferential strain measurements. Subsequently, conventional markers of CRT response were calculated. Segmental strains showed good to excellent agreement between SLICE and CMR-TAG (septum strain, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.76; lateral wall strain, ICC 0.66). Conventional markers of CRT response also showed close agreement between both methods (ICC 0.61-0.78). Reproducibility of SLICE was excellent for intra-observer testing (all ICC ≥0.76) and good for interobserver testing (all ICC ≥0.61). The novel SLICE post-processing technique on standard CMR cine images offers both accurate and robust segmental strain measures compared to the 'gold standard' CMR-TAG technique, and has the advantage of being widely available. (orig.)

  11. Extending MESSENGER's Mercury dual imager's eight-color photometric standardization to cover all eleven filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingue, Deborah L.; Hash, Christopher D.; Denevi, Brett W.; Murchie, Scott L.

    2017-11-01

    The photometric standardization model derived from the Mercury Dual Imaging System's (MDIS) eight-color photometric observations has been extrapolated to provide photometric parameters for the remaining three colors, such that images acquired through each of the eleven narrow-band filters can be photometrically standardized using a consistent model. The resulting photometric standardization parameters for the three filters not included in the original eight-color analysis display spectral variations commensurate with those observed within the original eight-color photometry. Some caution should be exercised on spectral interpretations based strongly on the behavior in the 698.8-nm filter.

  12. Color Standardization Method and System for Whole Slide Imaging Based on Spectral Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsuke Tani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the field of whole slide imaging, the imaging device or staining process cause color variations for each slide that affect the result of image analysis made by pathologist. In order to stabilize the analysis, we developed a color standardization method and system as described below: 1 Color standardization method based on RGB imaging and multi spectral sensing, which utilize less band (16 bands than conventional method (60 bands, 2 High speed spectral sensing module. As a result, we confirmed the following effect: 1 We confirmed the performance improvement of nucleus detection by the color standardization. And we can conduct without training data set which is needed in conventional method, 2 We can get detection performance of H&E component equivalent to conventional method (60 bands. And measurement process is more than 255 times faster.

  13. Clinical Image Evaluation of Film Mammograms in Korea: Comparison with the ACR Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwak, Yeon Joo; Kim, Hye Jung; Kwak, Jin Young; Son, Eun Ju; Ko, Kyung Hee; Lee, Jin Hwa; Lim, Hyo Soon; Lee, You Jin; Park, Ji Won; Shin, Kyung Min; Jang, Yun-Jin

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study is to compare the overall quality of film mammograms taken according to the Korean standards with the American College of Radiology (ACR) standard for clinical image evaluation and to identify means of improving mammography quality in Korea. Four hundred and sixty eight sets of film mammograms were evaluated with respect to the Korean and ACR standards for clinical image evaluation. The pass and failure rates of mammograms were compared by medical facility types. Average scores in each category of the two standards were evaluated. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to identify an optimal Korean standard pass mark by taking the ACR standard as the reference standard. 93.6% (438/468) of mammograms passed the Korean standard, whereas only 80.1% (375/468) passed the ACR standard (p < 0.001). Non-radiologic private clinics had the lowest pass rate (88.1%: Korean standard, 71.8%: ACR standard) and the lowest total score (76.0) by the Korean standard. Average scores of positioning were lowest (19.3/29 by the Korean standard and 3.7/5 by the ACR standard). A cutoff score of 77.0 for the Korean standard was found to correspond to a pass level when the ACR standard was applied. We suggest that tighter regulations, such as, raising the Korean pass mark, subtracting more for severe deficiencies, or considering a very low scores in even a single category as failure, are needed to improve the quality of mammography in Korea

  14. Standardization of size, shape and internal structure of spinal cord images: comparison of three transformation methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhisa Fujiki

    Full Text Available Functional fluorescence imaging has been widely applied to analyze spatio-temporal patterns of cellular dynamics in the brain and spinal cord. However, it is difficult to integrate spatial information obtained from imaging data in specific regions of interest across multiple samples, due to large variability in the size, shape and internal structure of samples. To solve this problem, we attempted to standardize transversely sectioned spinal cord images focusing on the laminar structure in the gray matter. We employed three standardization methods, the affine transformation (AT, the angle-dependent transformation (ADT and the combination of these two methods (AT+ADT. The ADT is a novel non-linear transformation method developed in this study to adjust an individual image onto the template image in the polar coordinate system. We next compared the accuracy of these three standardization methods. We evaluated two indices, i.e., the spatial distribution of pixels that are not categorized to any layer and the error ratio by the leave-one-out cross validation method. In this study, we used neuron-specific marker (NeuN-stained histological images of transversely sectioned cervical spinal cord slices (21 images obtained from 4 rats to create the standard atlas and also to serve for benchmark tests. We found that the AT+ADT outperformed other two methods, though the accuracy of each method varied depending on the layer. This novel image standardization technique would be applicable to optical recording such as voltage-sensitive dye imaging, and will enable statistical evaluations of neural activation across multiple samples.

  15. Minimal requirements of ACR-NEMA digital imaging and communication standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Horrii, S.; Lehr, J.

    1986-01-01

    The American College of Radiology-National Electrical Manufacturers Association (ACR-NEMA) Digital Imaging and Communication Standards were formally adopted in December 1985. They are intended to facilitate management and communication of digital image information regardless of source, format, or device manufacturer; to promote the development and expansion of radiologic imaging and communication systems that can also interface with other systems of hospital information; and to allow the creation of diagnostic information databases that can be interrogated by a wide variety of devices distributed geographically. The Standards specify the hardware interface, a minimum set of software commands, and a consistent set of data formats for communication across the interface between an imaging device and a network interface unit or another imaging device

  16. WE-EF-BRD-03: I Want It Now!: Advances in MRI Acquisition, Reconstruction and the Use of Priors to Enable Fast Anatomic and Physiologic Imaging to Inform Guidance and Adaptation Decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Y. [Mayo Clinic Arizona (United States)

    2015-06-15

    MRI-guided treatment is a growing area of medicine, particularly in radiotherapy and surgery. The exquisite soft tissue anatomic contrast offered by MRI, along with functional imaging, makes the use of MRI during therapeutic procedures very attractive. Challenging the utility of MRI in the therapy room are many issues including the physics of MRI and the impact on the environment and therapeutic instruments, the impact of the room and instruments on the MRI; safety, space, design and cost. In this session, the applications and challenges of MRI-guided treatment will be described. The session format is: Past, present and future: MRI-guided radiotherapy from 2005 to 2025: Jan Lagendijk Battling Maxwell’s equations: Physics challenges and solutions for hybrid MRI systems: Paul Keall I want it now!: Advances in MRI acquisition, reconstruction and the use of priors to enable fast anatomic and physiologic imaging to inform guidance and adaptation decisions: Yanle Hu MR in the OR: The growth and applications of MRI for interventional radiology and surgery: Rebecca Fahrig Learning Objectives: To understand the history and trajectory of MRI-guided radiotherapy To understand the challenges of integrating MR imaging systems with linear accelerators To understand the latest in fast MRI methods to enable the visualisation of anatomy and physiology on radiotherapy treatment timescales To understand the growing role and challenges of MRI for image-guided surgical procedures My disclosures are publicly available and updated at: http://sydney.edu.au/medicine/radiation-physics/about-us/disclosures.php.

  17. Super-resolution for everybody: An image processing workflow to obtain high-resolution images with a standard confocal microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, France; Cladière, Damien; Guillaume, Cyndélia; Wassmann, Katja; Bolte, Susanne

    2017-02-15

    In the presented work we aimed at improving confocal imaging to obtain highest possible resolution in thick biological samples, such as the mouse oocyte. We therefore developed an image processing workflow that allows improving the lateral and axial resolution of a standard confocal microscope. Our workflow comprises refractive index matching, the optimization of microscope hardware parameters and image restoration by deconvolution. We compare two different deconvolution algorithms, evaluate the necessity of denoising and establish the optimal image restoration procedure. We validate our workflow by imaging sub resolution fluorescent beads and measuring the maximum lateral and axial resolution of the confocal system. Subsequently, we apply the parameters to the imaging and data restoration of fluorescently labelled meiotic spindles of mouse oocytes. We measure a resolution increase of approximately 2-fold in the lateral and 3-fold in the axial direction throughout a depth of 60μm. This demonstrates that with our optimized workflow we reach a resolution that is comparable to 3D-SIM-imaging, but with better depth penetration for confocal images of beads and the biological sample. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. MR-guided stereotactic neurosurgery-comparison of fiducial-based and anatomical landmark transformation approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunsche, S; Sauner, D; Maarouf, M; Hoevels, M; Luyken, K; Schulte, O; Lackner, K; Sturm, V; Treuer, H

    2004-01-01

    For application in magnetic resonance (MR) guided stereotactic neurosurgery, two methods for transformation of MR-image coordinates in stereotactic, frame-based coordinates exist: the direct stereotactic fiducial-based transformation method and the indirect anatomical landmark method. In contrast to direct stereotactic MR transformation, indirect transformation is based on anatomical landmark coregistration of stereotactic computerized tomography and non-stereotactic MR images. In a patient study, both transformation methods have been investigated with visual inspection and mutual information analysis. Comparison was done for our standard imaging protocol, including t2-weighted spin-echo as well as contrast enhanced t1-weighted gradient-echo imaging. For t2-weighted spin-echo imaging, both methods showed almost similar and satisfying performance with a small, but significant advantage for fiducial-based transformation. In contrast, for t1-weighted gradient-echo imaging with more geometric distortions due to field inhomogenities and gradient nonlinearity than t2-weighted spin-echo imaging, mainly caused by a reduced bandwidth per pixel, anatomical landmark transformation delivered markedly better results. Here, fiducial-based transformation yielded results which are intolerable for stereotactic neurosurgery. Mean Euclidian distances between both transformation methods were 0.96 mm for t2-weighted spin-echo and 1.67 mm for t1-weighted gradient-echo imaging. Maximum deviations were 1.72 mm and 3.06 mm, respectively

  19. Robotic 3D scanner as an alternative to standard modalities of medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromy, Adam; Zalud, Ludek

    2014-01-01

    There are special medical cases, where standard medical imaging modalities are able to offer sufficient results, but not in the optimal way. It means, that desired results are produced with unnecessarily high expenses, with redundant informations or with needless demands on patient. This paper deals with one special case, where information useful for examination is the body surface only, inner sight into the body is needless. New specialized medical imaging device is developed for this situation. In the Introduction section, analysis of presently used medical imaging modalities is presented, which declares, that no available imaging device is best fitting for mentioned purposes. In the next section, development of the new specialized medical imaging device is presented, and its principles and functions are described. Then, the parameters of new device are compared with present ones. It brings significant advantages comparing to present imaging systems.

  20. Comparison of in vivo vs. frozen vs. Thiel cadaver specimens in visualisation of anatomical structures of the ankle on proton density Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) through a visual grading analysis (VGA) study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarb, F.; McNulty, J.; Gatt, A.; Formosa, C.; Chockalingam, N.; Evanoff, M.G.; Rainford, L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The use of cadavers for medical education purposes and for radiology research methodologies which involve subjective image quality evaluation of anatomical criteria is well documented. The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of cadaver tissue preservation in producing MR images that are representative of living tissue by comparing the visualisation of anatomical structures of the ankle obtained from live and cadaver (fresh frozen and Thiel embalmed) specimens through a visual grading analysis (VGA) study. Methods: A VGA study was conducted on an image data set consisting of 4 coronal proton density weighted (PDw) sequences obtained from ankles of a live patient and those of a cadaveric specimen, of which the right ankle was frozen and the left Thiel embalmed. Results: Comparison of the image quality scores obtained from: the live patient vs. the Thiel specimen indicate a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) between the scores in favour of the Thiel specimen; between the live patient vs. the frozen specimen indicate a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) in favour of the frozen specimen and between the frozen vs. the Thiel specimen indicate a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) in favour of the Thiel specimen. Conclusions: The advantages of the use of cadavers (frozen or Thiel embalmed) has been shown to also apply for use with proton density (PD) MR imaging. The preservation of cadavers especially using Thiel is a suitable alternative for MRI optimisation and protocol development purposes. - Highlights: • Thiel preservation: a better alternative compared to frozen methods for MR image analysis. • VGA demonstrated an efficient research study design for the investigation of embalming methods. • Thiel embalmed cadavers: an acceptable alternative from patients for MR imaging optimisation. • Additional MR sequences and increased sample sizes are recommended for further investigation.

  1. - LAA Occluder View for post-implantation Evaluation (LOVE) - standardized imaging proposal evaluating implanted left atrial appendage occlusion devices by cardiac computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behnes, Michael; Akin, Ibrahim; Sartorius, Benjamin; Fastner, Christian; El-Battrawy, Ibrahim; Borggrefe, Martin; Haubenreisser, Holger; Meyer, Mathias; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Henzler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    A standardized imaging proposal evaluating implanted left atrial appendage (LAA) occlusion devices by cardiac computed tomography angiography (cCTA) has never been investigated. cCTA datasets were acquired on a 3 rd generation dual-source CT system and reconstructed with a slice thickness of 0.5 mm. An interdisciplinary evaluation was performed by two interventional cardiologists and one radiologist on a 3D multi-planar workstation. A standardized multi-planar reconstruction algorithm was developed in order to assess relevant clinical aspects of implanted LAA occlusion devices being outlined within a pictorial essay. The following clinical aspects of implanted LAA occlusion devices were evaluated within the most appropriate cCTA multi-planar reconstruction: (1) topography to neighboring structures, (2) peri-device leaks, (3) coverage of LAA lobes, (4) indirect signs of neo-endothelialization. These are illustrated within concise CT imaging examples emphasizing the potential value of the proposed cCTA imaging algorithm: Starting from anatomical cCTA planes and stepwise angulation planes perpendicular to the base of the LAA devices generates an optimal LAA Occluder View for post-implantation Evaluation (LOVE). Aligned true axial, sagittal and coronal LOVE planes offer a standardized and detailed evaluation of LAA occlusion devices after percutaneous implantation. This pictorial essay presents a standardized imaging proposal by cCTA using multi-planar reconstructions that enables systematical follow-up and comparison of patients after LAA occlusion device implantation. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12880-016-0127-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  2. Strain analysis in CRT candidates using the novel segment length in cine (SLICE) post-processing technique on standard CMR cine images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweerink, Alwin; Allaart, Cornelis P; Kuijer, Joost P A; Wu, LiNa; Beek, Aernout M; van de Ven, Peter M; Meine, Mathias; Croisille, Pierre; Clarysse, Patrick; van Rossum, Albert C; Nijveldt, Robin

    2017-12-01

    Although myocardial strain analysis is a potential tool to improve patient selection for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), there is currently no validated clinical approach to derive segmental strains. We evaluated the novel segment length in cine (SLICE) technique to derive segmental strains from standard cardiovascular MR (CMR) cine images in CRT candidates. Twenty-seven patients with left bundle branch block underwent CMR examination including cine imaging and myocardial tagging (CMR-TAG). SLICE was performed by measuring segment length between anatomical landmarks throughout all phases on short-axis cines. This measure of frame-to-frame segment length change was compared to CMR-TAG circumferential strain measurements. Subsequently, conventional markers of CRT response were calculated. Segmental strains showed good to excellent agreement between SLICE and CMR-TAG (septum strain, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.76; lateral wall strain, ICC 0.66). Conventional markers of CRT response also showed close agreement between both methods (ICC 0.61-0.78). Reproducibility of SLICE was excellent for intra-observer testing (all ICC ≥0.76) and good for interobserver testing (all ICC ≥0.61). The novel SLICE post-processing technique on standard CMR cine images offers both accurate and robust segmental strain measures compared to the 'gold standard' CMR-TAG technique, and has the advantage of being widely available. • Myocardial strain analysis could potentially improve patient selection for CRT. • Currently a well validated clinical approach to derive segmental strains is lacking. • The novel SLICE technique derives segmental strains from standard CMR cine images. • SLICE-derived strain markers of CRT response showed close agreement with CMR-TAG. • Future studies will focus on the prognostic value of SLICE in CRT candidates.

  3. Image Format Conversion to DICOM and Lookup Table Conversion to Presentation Value of the Japanese Society of Radiological Technology (JSRT) Standard Digital Image Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagita, Satoshi; Imahana, Masato; Suwa, Kazuaki; Sugimura, Hitomi; Nishiki, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Japanese Society of Radiological Technology (JSRT) standard digital image database contains many useful cases of chest X-ray images, and has been used in many state-of-the-art researches. However, the pixel values of all the images are simply digitized as relative density values by utilizing a scanned film digitizer. As a result, the pixel values are completely different from the standardized display system input value of digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM), called presentation value (P-value), which can maintain a visual consistency when observing images using different display luminance. Therefore, we converted all the images from JSRT standard digital image database to DICOM format followed by the conversion of the pixel values to P-value using an original program developed by ourselves. Consequently, JSRT standard digital image database has been modified so that the visual consistency of images is maintained among different luminance displays.

  4. Image quality assesment using NEMA NU 4/2008 standards in small animal PET scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gontijo, Rodrigo M.G.; Ferreira, Andréa V.; Silva, Juliana B.; Mamede, Marcelo, E-mail: rodrigo.gontijo@cdtn.br, E-mail: rodrigogadelhagontijo1@hotmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In Brazil, there are few micro PET in use and a quality control protocols standardization are needed to harmonize their use in the research field. Thus, the purpose of this study is to characterize the image quality performance of the micro PET scanner (Lab PET 4, GE healthcare Technologies, Waukesha, WI) using the NEMA NU 4/ 2008 standards and specific phantom. The NEMA image-quality (IQ) phantom consists of 3 different regions to analyze distinct characteristics: image noise (%SD), expressed as percentage SD in a uniform region (%SD), recovery coefficient (RC) and Spill-over (SOR) in air and water. The IQ phantom was filled with {sup 18}F-FDG calibrated at the beginning of acquisition, placed in the center of the field-of-view (FOV) and measured with the typical whole body imaging protocol. The images were reconstructed with different reconstruction methods (FBP-2D; MLEM-3D and OSEM-3D); with and without high resolution (HR) when possible. The results were compared. The LabPET 4 system produces appropriate image and with performance according to the literature. The present study is an initial step to verify the NEMA NU 4/2008 use in the Brazilian scenario for further standardization. (author)

  5. Image quality assesment using NEMA NU 4/2008 standards in small animal PET scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gontijo, Rodrigo M.G.; Ferreira, Andréa V.; Silva, Juliana B.; Mamede, Marcelo

    2017-01-01

    In Brazil, there are few micro PET in use and a quality control protocols standardization are needed to harmonize their use in the research field. Thus, the purpose of this study is to characterize the image quality performance of the micro PET scanner (Lab PET 4, GE healthcare Technologies, Waukesha, WI) using the NEMA NU 4/ 2008 standards and specific phantom. The NEMA image-quality (IQ) phantom consists of 3 different regions to analyze distinct characteristics: image noise (%SD), expressed as percentage SD in a uniform region (%SD), recovery coefficient (RC) and Spill-over (SOR) in air and water. The IQ phantom was filled with 18 F-FDG calibrated at the beginning of acquisition, placed in the center of the field-of-view (FOV) and measured with the typical whole body imaging protocol. The images were reconstructed with different reconstruction methods (FBP-2D; MLEM-3D and OSEM-3D); with and without high resolution (HR) when possible. The results were compared. The LabPET 4 system produces appropriate image and with performance according to the literature. The present study is an initial step to verify the NEMA NU 4/2008 use in the Brazilian scenario for further standardization. (author)

  6. TEORÍA ANATÓMICA DE LA CONSTRUCCIÓN DE LA IMAGEN VISUAL. Anatomic theory of the visual image construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo H R A Otegui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Este trabajo se propone elaborar una teoría anatómica de la construcción de la imagen visual en función de la conectividad de las áreas visuales del lóbulo occipital con otras áreas del cerebro y sus posibles funciones. Material y Métodos: La muestra la constituyen 10 hemisferios cerebrales humanos, colocados por una semana en solución de formol al 50%. La disección se realiza con espátulas de madera de diseños diferentes, desarrolladas en nuestro laboratorio. Resultados: Hemos reconocido seis sistemas fibrilares que conectan la corteza visual del lóbulo occipital con otras áreas. Discusión: En vista de las áreas conectadas y los síntomas asociados a lesiones en las mismas podemos conjeturar las funciones de los fascículos hallados: 1- Fascículo longitudinal superior - fibras occipito-frontales, exploración visual voluntaria. 2- Fascículo longitudinal superior- fibras occipito-parietales, identificación del contexto en el que se sitúa nuestro objeto de interés, es la vía del dónde. 3- Fascículo longitudinal superior- fibras occipito-temporales, reconocimiento de un objeto en cuanto a categoría semántica, es la vía del qué general, y sus lesiones podrían implicar un déficit en la memoria declarativa semántica. 4- Fascículo longitudinal inferior, reconocimiento de objetos familiares como caras, es la vía del qué especial y su déficit podría implicar falencias en la memoria declarativa episódica y trastornos de prosopagnosia. 5- Fascículo occipito-frontal inferior, categorización semántica integrando lo que se ve con la memoria de trabajo. 6- Fibras occipito-cingulares, valoración emocional del objeto percibido. Objectives: This paper suggests an anatomic theory of the visual image construction considering the connectivity of the visual areas of the occipital lobe with other brain´s areas and those possible functions. Material and Methods: The samples consisted of 10 human cerebral

  7. DICOM Standard Conformance in Veterinary Medicine in Germany: a Survey of Imaging Studies in Referral Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brühschwein, Andreas; Klever, Julius; Wilkinson, Tom; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andrea

    2018-02-01

    In 2016, the recommendations of the DICOM Standards Committee for the use of veterinary identification DICOM tags had its 10th anniversary. The goal of our study was to survey veterinary DICOM standard conformance in Germany regarding the specific identification tags veterinarians should use in veterinary diagnostic imaging. We hypothesized that most veterinarians in Germany do not follow the guidelines of the DICOM Standards Committee. We analyzed the metadata of 488 imaging studies of referral cases from 115 different veterinary institutions in Germany by computer-aided DICOM header readout. We found that 25 (5.1%) of the imaging studies fully complied with the "veterinary DICOM standard" in this survey. The results confirmed our hypothesis that the recommendations of the DICOM Standards Committee for the consistent and advantageous use of veterinary identification tags have found minimal acceptance amongst German veterinarians. DICOM does not only enable connectivity between machines, DICOM also improves communication between veterinarians by sharing correct and valuable metadata for better patient care. Therefore, we recommend that lecturers, universities, societies, authorities, vendors, and other stakeholders should increase their effort to improve the spread of the veterinary DICOM standard in the veterinary world.

  8. First clinical use of a standardized three-dimensional ultrasound for breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotsianos-Hermle, D. [Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Munich (Germany)], E-mail: dorothea.hermle@med.uni-muenchen.de; Wirth, S.; Fischer, T. [Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Munich (Germany); Hiltawsky, K.M. [General Electric, Global Research, Garching (Germany); Reiser, M. [Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Munich (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    Objectives: The feasibility, image quality, and diagnostic potential of the prototype of an automated ultrasound (US) breast scanner were examined. Methods: Ninety-seven patients with suspicious breast lesions had mammograms, manual US, and an automated breast US. The data were evaluated according to the breast imaging reporting and data system (BIRADS) classification, image quality, and amount to diagnostic information. All lesions were confirmed histological. Results: The image quality of the three-dimensional (3D) data sets was equal to or satisfactory compared with cross-sectional images from manual US in at least 72% of cases (p < 0.05). The diagnostic information was equal or superior in at least 63% of cases (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Standardized 3D US scanning is a promising diagnostic adjunct to mammography, but is no substitute for manual US at the current stage of development.

  9. An efficient architecture to support digital pathology in standard medical imaging repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques Godinho, Tiago; Lebre, Rui; Silva, Luís Bastião; Costa, Carlos

    2017-07-01

    In the past decade, digital pathology and whole-slide imaging (WSI) have been gaining momentum with the proliferation of digital scanners from different manufacturers. The literature reports significant advantages associated with the adoption of digital images in pathology, namely, improvements in diagnostic accuracy and better support for telepathology. Moreover, it also offers new clinical and research applications. However, numerous barriers have been slowing the adoption of WSI, among which the most important are performance issues associated with storage and distribution of huge volumes of data, and lack of interoperability with other hospital information systems, most notably Picture Archive and Communications Systems (PACS) based on the DICOM standard. This article proposes an architecture of a Web Pathology PACS fully compliant with DICOM standard communications and data formats. The solution includes a PACS Archive responsible for storing whole-slide imaging data in DICOM WSI format and offers a communication interface based on the most recent DICOM Web services. The second component is a zero-footprint viewer that runs in any web-browser. It consumes data using the PACS archive standard web services. Moreover, it features a tiling engine especially suited to deal with the WSI image pyramids. These components were designed with special focus on efficiency and usability. The performance of our system was assessed through a comparative analysis of the state-of-the-art solutions. The results demonstrate that it is possible to have a very competitive solution based on standard workflows. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Batch fabrication of scanning microscopy probes for thermal and magnetic imaging using standard micromachining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarajlic, Edin; Vermeer, Rolf; Delalande, M.Y.; Siekman, Martin Herman; Huijink, R.; Fujita, H.; Abelmann, Leon

    2010-01-01

    We present a process for batch fabrication of a novel scanning microscopy probe for thermal and magnetic imaging using standard micromachining and conventional optical contact lithography. The probe features an AFM-type cantilever with a sharp pyramidal tip composed of four freestanding silicon

  11. Utilization management in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandrowski, Kent; Black-Schaffer, Steven

    2014-01-01

    There is relatively little published literature concerning utilization management in anatomic pathology. Nonetheless there are many utilization management opportunities that currently exist and are well recognized. Some of these impact only the cost structure within the pathology department itself whereas others reduce charges for third party payers. Utilization management may result in medical legal liabilities for breaching the standard of care. For this reason it will be important for pathology professional societies to develop national utilization guidelines to assist individual practices in implementing a medically sound approach to utilization management. © 2013.

  12. Target localization on standard axial images in computed tomography (CT) stereotaxis for functional neurosurgery - a technical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, A.-A.

    1986-01-01

    A simple technique for marking functional neurosurgery target on computed tomography (CT) axial image is described. This permits the use of standard axial image for computed tomography (CT) stereotaxis in functional neurosurgery. (Author)

  13. Standard digital reference images for investment steel castings for aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 The digital reference images provided in the adjunct to this standard illustrate various types and degrees of discontinuities occurring in thin-wall steel investment castings. Use of this standard for the specification or grading of castings requires procurement of the adjunct digital reference images which illustrate the discontinuity types and severity levels. They are intended to provide the following: 1.1.1 A guide enabling recognition of thin-wall steel casting discontinuities and their differentiation both as to type and degree through digital radiographic examination. 1.1.2 Example digital radiographic illustrations of discontinuities and a nomenclature for reference in acceptance standards, specifications and drawings. 1.2 Two illustration categories are covered as follows: 1.2.1 Graded—Six common discontinuity types each illustrated in eight degrees of progressively increasing severity. 1.2.2 Ungraded—Twelve single illustrations of additional discontinuity types and of patterns and imper...

  14. Extended substitution-diffusion based image cipher using chaotic standard map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Ghose, M. K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an extended substitution-diffusion based image cipher using chaotic standard map [1] and linear feedback shift register to overcome the weakness of previous technique by adding nonlinearity. The first stage consists of row and column rotation and permutation which is controlled by the pseudo-random sequences which is generated by standard chaotic map and linear feedback shift register, second stage further diffusion and confusion is obtained in the horizontal and vertical pixels by mixing the properties of the horizontally and vertically adjacent pixels, respectively, with the help of chaotic standard map. The number of rounds in both stage are controlled by combination of pseudo-random sequence and original image. The performance is evaluated from various types of analysis such as entropy analysis, difference analysis, statistical analysis, key sensitivity analysis, key space analysis and speed analysis. The experimental results illustrate that performance of this is highly secured and fast.

  15. Informatics in radiology: automated structured reporting of imaging findings using the AIM standard and XML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Stefan L; Kim, Woojin; Boonn, William W

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative and descriptive imaging data are a vital component of the radiology report and are frequently of paramount importance to the ordering physician. Unfortunately, current methods of recording these data in the report are both inefficient and error prone. In addition, the free-text, unstructured format of a radiology report makes aggregate analysis of data from multiple reports difficult or even impossible without manual intervention. A structured reporting work flow has been developed that allows quantitative data created at an advanced imaging workstation to be seamlessly integrated into the radiology report with minimal radiologist intervention. As an intermediary step between the workstation and the reporting software, quantitative and descriptive data are converted into an extensible markup language (XML) file in a standardized format specified by the Annotation and Image Markup (AIM) project of the National Institutes of Health Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid. The AIM standard was created to allow image annotation data to be stored in a uniform machine-readable format. These XML files containing imaging data can also be stored on a local database for data mining and analysis. This structured work flow solution has the potential to improve radiologist efficiency, reduce errors, and facilitate storage of quantitative and descriptive imaging data for research. Copyright © RSNA, 2011.

  16. Prediction of standard-dose brain PET image by using MRI and low-dose brain [{sup 18}F]FDG PET images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jiayin [School of Electronics Engineering, Huaihai Institute of Technology, Lianyungang, Jiangsu 222005, China and IDEA Laboratory, Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Gao, Yaozong [IDEA Laboratory, Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 and Department of Computer Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Shi, Feng [IDEA Laboratory, Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Lalush, David S. [Joint UNC-NCSU Department of Biomedical Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Lin, Weili [MRI Laboratory, Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Shen, Dinggang, E-mail: dgshen@med.unc.edu [IDEA Laboratory, Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 and Department of Brain and Cognitive Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medical imaging technology that produces 3D images reflecting tissue metabolic activity in human body. PET has been widely used in various clinical applications, such as in diagnosis of brain disorders. High-quality PET images play an essential role in diagnosing brain diseases/disorders. In practice, in order to obtain high-quality PET images, a standard-dose radionuclide (tracer) needs to be used and injected into a living body. As a result, it will inevitably increase the patient’s exposure to radiation. One solution to solve this problem is predicting standard-dose PET images using low-dose PET images. As yet, no previous studies with this approach have been reported. Accordingly, in this paper, the authors propose a regression forest based framework for predicting a standard-dose brain [{sup 18}F]FDG PET image by using a low-dose brain [{sup 18}F]FDG PET image and its corresponding magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) image. Methods: The authors employ a regression forest for predicting the standard-dose brain [{sup 18}F]FDG PET image by low-dose brain [{sup 18}F]FDG PET and MRI images. Specifically, the proposed method consists of two main steps. First, based on the segmented brain tissues (i.e., cerebrospinal fluid, gray matter, and white matter) in the MRI image, the authors extract features for each patch in the brain image from both low-dose PET and MRI images to build tissue-specific models that can be used to initially predict standard-dose brain [{sup 18}F]FDG PET images. Second, an iterative refinement strategy, via estimating the predicted image difference, is used to further improve the prediction accuracy. Results: The authors evaluated their algorithm on a brain dataset, consisting of 11 subjects with MRI, low-dose PET, and standard-dose PET images, using leave-one-out cross-validations. The proposed algorithm gives promising results with well-estimated standard-dose brain [{sup 18}F]FDG PET

  17. Prediction of standard-dose brain PET image by using MRI and low-dose brain [18F]FDG PET images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Jiayin; Gao, Yaozong; Shi, Feng; Lalush, David S.; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medical imaging technology that produces 3D images reflecting tissue metabolic activity in human body. PET has been widely used in various clinical applications, such as in diagnosis of brain disorders. High-quality PET images play an essential role in diagnosing brain diseases/disorders. In practice, in order to obtain high-quality PET images, a standard-dose radionuclide (tracer) needs to be used and injected into a living body. As a result, it will inevitably increase the patient’s exposure to radiation. One solution to solve this problem is predicting standard-dose PET images using low-dose PET images. As yet, no previous studies with this approach have been reported. Accordingly, in this paper, the authors propose a regression forest based framework for predicting a standard-dose brain [ 18 F]FDG PET image by using a low-dose brain [ 18 F]FDG PET image and its corresponding magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) image. Methods: The authors employ a regression forest for predicting the standard-dose brain [ 18 F]FDG PET image by low-dose brain [ 18 F]FDG PET and MRI images. Specifically, the proposed method consists of two main steps. First, based on the segmented brain tissues (i.e., cerebrospinal fluid, gray matter, and white matter) in the MRI image, the authors extract features for each patch in the brain image from both low-dose PET and MRI images to build tissue-specific models that can be used to initially predict standard-dose brain [ 18 F]FDG PET images. Second, an iterative refinement strategy, via estimating the predicted image difference, is used to further improve the prediction accuracy. Results: The authors evaluated their algorithm on a brain dataset, consisting of 11 subjects with MRI, low-dose PET, and standard-dose PET images, using leave-one-out cross-validations. The proposed algorithm gives promising results with well-estimated standard-dose brain [ 18 F]FDG PET image and substantially

  18. Comparison of the image quality of digital radiography system and film screen system - Radiologist' rating of the visibility of normal anatomic - Structures in chest PA, Skull radiograph and K. U. B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kounn Sik; Kim, Young Goo; Lee, Jong Beum; Kim, Kun Sang

    1987-01-01

    Digital image acquisition and display is widely used in computed tomography, ultrasonography, digital subtraction angiography, nuclear medicine and magnetic resonance image. But most of the radiological examinations performed in radiology department are made by using conventional system. The development of the digital radiography system is essential if totally digitized radiology department is desired. The advantages of digitizing the radiographic information are usually discussed in terms of PACS (picture archiving and communication system), furthermore there are many other advantages such as contrast modification, spatial filtering subtraction and superimposition of the images through the image processing by computer. Currently several approaches are under development or in clinical use, the most promising approach is the use of imaging plate composed of photostimulate phosphors such as barium fluorohalide crystal read with a He-Ne laser to produce digital radiographic images. Another promising approach is scan projection radiography. The authors performed the clinical study of comparing the image qualities of digital radiography system using scanning laser luminescence (FCR) and conventional film-screen system in chest PA, skull radiography and K. U. B. in terms of the visibility of the normal anatomic structure rating those (qualities) on a scale of 0 to 3 and obtained the following results. Normal contrast digital images are comparable to conventional film-screen images, but the images of high frequency enhancement is far superior to conventional film-screen especially in peripherally located structures such as skin, subcutaneous fat, musculoskeletal systems, nasal bone, inner and outer table of the skull including the diploic space, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx and larynx, trachea and main bronchi, mediastinal structures, retrocardiac and subphrenic vascular markings. Another promising aspects of digital radiography system is its wide exposure latitude and

  19. Standardization of methods of maxillofacial roentgenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabukhina, N.A.; Arzhantsev, A.P.; Chikirdin, Eh.G.; Tombak, M.I.; Stavitskij, R.V.; Vasil'ev, Yu.D.

    1989-01-01

    Typical errors in teeth roentgenography reproduced in experiment, indicate that considerable disproportional distortions of images of anatomical structures which are decisive for radiodiagnosis, may occur in these cases. Standardization of intraoral roentgenography is based on a strict position of the patient's head, angle of inclination and alignment of a tube. Specialized R3-1 film should be used

  20. Anatomical database generation for radiation transport modeling from computed tomography (CT) scan data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margle, S.M.; Tinnel, E.P.; Till, L.E.; Eckerman, K.F.; Durfee, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Geometric models of the anatomy are used routinely in calculations of the radiation dose in organs and tissues of the body. Development of such models has been hampered by lack of detailed anatomical information on children, and models themselves have been limited to quadratic conic sections. This summary reviews the development of an image processing workstation used to extract anatomical information from routine diagnostic CT procedure. A standard IBM PC/AT microcomputer has been augmented with an automatically loading 9-track magnetic tape drive, an 8-bit 1024 x 1024 pixel graphics adapter/monitor/film recording package, a mouse/trackball assembly, dual 20 MB removable cartridge media, a 72 MB disk drive, and a printer. Software utilized by the workstation includes a Geographic Information System (modified for manipulation of CT images), CAD software, imaging software, and various modules to ease data transfer among the software packages. 5 refs., 3 figs

  1. Clinical significance of the position of dorsal root ganglia in degenerative lumbar diseases. Correlation between anatomic study and imaging study with MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Masahiro; Kikuchi, Tomiichi [Fukushima Medical Coll., Matsuoka (Japan)

    1995-06-01

    In order to estimate the ralationship between the position of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and radicular symptoms, anatomical study was done on 81 cadavers, and a clinical study with MRI was done on 20 cases of lumbar disc herniation and 20 of lumbar spondylosis with L{sub 5} radiculopathy. The position of DRG is not related to the occurrence of radicular symptoms in disc herniation, while in lumbar spondylosis proximally placed DRG are related to both of unilateral and bilateral occurrence of redicular symptoms. Unilateral occurrence of radicular symptoms is influenced by surrounding tissues of the nerve root, rather than the position of DRG. (author).

  2. Prospective observer and software-based assessment of magnetic resonance imaging quality in head and neck cancer: Should standard positioning and immobilization be required for radiation therapy applications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yao; Mohamed, Abdallah S R; Yang, Jinzhong; Colen, Rivka R; Frank, Steven J; Wang, Jihong; Wassal, Eslam Y; Wang, Wenjie; Kantor, Michael E; Balter, Peter A; Rosenthal, David I; Lai, Stephen Y; Hazle, John D; Fuller, Clifton D

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of a head and neck magnetic resonance simulation and immobilization protocol on reducing motion-induced artifacts and improving positional variance for radiation therapy applications. Two groups (group 1, 17 patients; group 2, 14 patients) of patients with head and neck cancer were included under a prospective, institutional review board-approved protocol and signed informed consent. A 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner was used for anatomic and dynamic contrast-enhanced acquisitions with standard diagnostic MRI setup for group 1 and radiation therapy immobilization devices for group 2 patients. The impact of magnetic resonance simulation/immobilization was evaluated qualitatively by 2 observers in terms of motion artifacts and positional reproducibility and quantitatively using 3-dimensional deformable registration to track intrascan maximum motion displacement of voxels inside 7 manually segmented regions of interest. The image quality of group 2 (29 examinations) was significantly better than that of group 1 (50 examinations) as rated by both observers in terms of motion minimization and imaging reproducibility (P quality of head and neck MRI in terms of motion-related artifacts and positional reproducibility was greatly improved by use of radiation therapy immobilization devices. Consequently, immobilization with external and intraoral fixation in MRI examinations is required for radiation therapy application. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Anatomical terminology in Ophthalmology

    OpenAIRE

    Abib, Fernando César; Oréfice, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    O objetivo deste artigo é informar à classe oftalmológica a existência da edição em língua portuguesa da Terminologia Anatômica Internacional, editada pela Federation Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT). No Brasil a Terminologia Anatômica Internacional é traduzida pela Comissão de Terminologia Anatômica (CTA) da Sociedade Brasileira de Anatomia (SBA).The purpose of this article is inform ophthalmologists of the International Anatomical Terminology in the Portuguese language edited by t...

  4. Handbook of anatomical models for radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Eckerman, Keith F

    2010-01-01

    Covering the history of human model development, this title presents the major anatomical and physical models that have been developed for human body radiation protection, diagnostic imaging, and nuclear medicine therapy. It explores how these models have evolved and the role that modern technologies have played in this development.

  5. Fire service and first responder thermal imaging camera (TIC) advances and standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konsin, Lawrence S.; Nixdorff, Stuart

    2007-04-01

    Fire Service and First Responder Thermal Imaging Camera (TIC) applications are growing, saving lives and preventing injury and property damage. Firefighters face a wide range of serious hazards. TICs help mitigate the risks by protecting Firefighters and preventing injury, while reducing time spent fighting the fire and resources needed to do so. Most fire safety equipment is covered by performance standards. Fire TICs, however, are not covered by such standards and are also subject to inadequate operational performance and insufficient user training. Meanwhile, advancements in Fire TICs and lower costs are driving product demand. The need for a Fire TIC Standard was spurred in late 2004 through a Government sponsored Workshop where experts from the First Responder community, component manufacturers, firefighter training, and those doing research on TICs discussed strategies, technologies, procedures, best practices and R&D that could improve Fire TICs. The workshop identified pressing image quality, performance metrics, and standards issues. Durability and ruggedness metrics and standard testing methods were also seen as important, as was TIC training and certification of end-users. A progress report on several efforts in these areas and their impact on the IR sensor industry will be given. This paper is a follow up to the SPIE Orlando 2004 paper on Fire TIC usage (entitled Emergency Responders' Critical Infrared) which explored the technological development of this IR industry segment from the viewpoint of the end user, in light of the studies and reports that had established TICs as a mission critical tool for firefighters.

  6. Standard test method for determining nodularity and nodule count in ductile iron using image analysis

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method is used to determine the percent nodularity and the nodule count per unit area (that is, number of nodules per mm2) using a light microscopical image of graphite in nodular cast iron. Images generated by other devices, such as a scanning electron microscope, are not specifically addressed, but can be utilized if the system is calibrated in both x and y directions. 1.2 Measurement of secondary or temper carbon in other types of cast iron, for example, malleable cast iron or in graphitic tool steels, is not specifically included in this standard because of the different graphite shapes and sizes inherent to such grades 1.3 This standard deals only with the recommended test method and nothing in it should be construed as defining or establishing limits of acceptability or fitness for purpose of the material tested. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address al...

  7. Evaluation of contrast reproduction method based on the anatomical guidance of the cerebral images reconstruction in positron emission tomography; Evaluation d'une methode de restitution de contraste basee sur le guidage anatomique de la reconstruction des images cerebrales en tomographie par emission de positons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataille, F

    2007-04-15

    Positron emission tomography is a medical imaging modality providing in-vivo volumetric images of functional processes of the human body, which is used for the diagnosis and the following of neuro degenerative diseases. PET efficiency is however limited by its poor spatial resolution, which generates a decrease of the image local contrast and leads to an under-estimation of small cerebral structures involved in the degenerative mechanism of those diseases. This so-called partial volume effect degradation is usually corrected in a post-reconstruction processing framework through the use of anatomical information, whose spatial resolution allows a better discrimination between functional tissues. However, this kind of method has the major drawback of being very sensitive to the residual mismatches on the anatomical information processing. We developed in this thesis an alternative methodology to compensate for the degradation, by incorporating in the reconstruction process both a model of the system impulse response and an anatomically-based image prior constraint. This methodology was validated by comparison with a post-reconstruction correction strategy, using data from an anthropomorphic phantom acquisition and then we evaluated its robustness to the residual mismatches through a realistic Monte Carlo simulation corresponding to a cerebral exam. The proposed algorithm was finally applied to clinical data reconstruction. (author)

  8. Determining the Standard Value of the Oily Distortion of Acquisition the Fingerprint Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Syam

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This research describes a novel procedure for determining the standard value of the oily distortion of acquisition the fingerprint images based on the score of clarity and ridge-valley thickness ratio. The fingerprint image is quantized into blocks size 32 x 32 pixels. Inside each block, an orientation line, which perpendicular to the ridge direction, is computed. The center of the block along the ridge direction, a two-dimension (2-D vector  V1 (slanted square with the pixel size 32 x 13 pixels can be extracted and transformed to a vertical 2-D vector V2. Linear regression can be applied to the one-dimension (1-D vector V3 to find the determinant threshold (DT1. The lower regions than DT1 are the ridges, otherwise are the valleys. Tests carried out by calculating the clarity  of the image from the overlapping area of the gray-level distribution of ridge and valley that has been separated. Thickness ratio size of the ridge to valley, it is computation per block, the thickness of ridge and valley obtained from the gray-level values per block of image in the normal direction toward the ridge, the average values obtained from the overall image. The results shown that the standard value of the oily distortion of acquisition the fingerprint image is said to oily fingerprint when the images have local clarity scores (LCS is between 0.01446 to 0.01550, global clarity scores (GCS is between 0.01186 to 0.01230, and ridge-valley thickness ratio (RVTR is between 6.98E-05 to 7.22E-05.

  9. Methodology of the individual detection of cerebral activations by positrons emission tomography: statistical characterization of noise images and introduction of anatomical information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoine, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The work that presented here has been done in the context of non invasive study of human brain, with metabolism images techniques ( positrons emission tomography or P.E.T.) and anatomy images techniques (imaging by nuclear magnetic resonance or MRI). The objective of this thesis was to use jointly, the information given by these two ways, in the aim of improving the individual detection of cerebral activation. (N.C.)

  10. Evaluation of cassette-based digital radiography detectors using standardized image quality metrics: AAPM TG-150 Draft Image Detector Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang; Greene, Travis C; Nishino, Thomas K; Willis, Charles E

    2016-09-08

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate several of the standardized image quality metrics proposed by the American Association of Physics in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group 150. The task group suggested region-of-interest (ROI)-based techniques to measure nonuniformity, minimum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), number of anomalous pixels, and modulation transfer function (MTF). This study evaluated the effects of ROI size and layout on the image metrics by using four different ROI sets, assessed result uncertainty by repeating measurements, and compared results with two commercially available quality control tools, namely the Carestream DIRECTVIEW Total Quality Tool (TQT) and the GE Healthcare Quality Assurance Process (QAP). Seven Carestream DRX-1C (CsI) detectors on mobile DR systems and four GE FlashPad detectors in radiographic rooms were tested. Images were analyzed using MATLAB software that had been previously validated and reported. Our values for signal and SNR nonuniformity and MTF agree with values published by other investigators. Our results show that ROI size affects nonuniformity and minimum SNR measurements, but not detection of anomalous pixels. Exposure geometry affects all tested image metrics except for the MTF. TG-150 metrics in general agree with the TQT, but agree with the QAP only for local and global signal nonuniformity. The difference in SNR nonuniformity and MTF values between the TG-150 and QAP may be explained by differences in the calculation of noise and acquisition beam quality, respectively. TG-150's SNR nonuniformity metrics are also more sensitive to detector nonuniformity compared to the QAP. Our results suggest that fixed ROI size should be used for consistency because nonuniformity metrics depend on ROI size. Ideally, detector tests should be performed at the exact calibration position. If not feasible, a baseline should be established from the mean of several repeated measurements. Our study indicates that the TG-150 tests can be

  11. Determining customer satisfaction in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarbo, Richard J

    2006-05-01

    Measurement of physicians' and patients' satisfaction with laboratory services has become a standard practice in the United States, prompted by national accreditation requirements. Unlike other surveys of hospital-, outpatient care-, or physician-related activities, no ongoing, comprehensive customer satisfaction survey of anatomic pathology services is available for subscription that would allow continual benchmarking against peer laboratories. Pathologists, therefore, must often design their own local assessment tools to determine physician satisfaction in anatomic pathology. To describe satisfaction survey design that would elicit specific information from physician customers about key elements of anatomic pathology services. The author shares his experience in biannually assessing customer satisfaction in anatomic pathology with survey tools designed at the Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Mich. Benchmarks for physician satisfaction, opportunities for improvement, and characteristics that correlated with a high level of physician satisfaction were identified nationally from a standardized survey tool used by 94 laboratories in the 2001 College of American Pathologists Q-Probes quality improvement program. In general, physicians are most satisfied with professional diagnostic services and least satisfied with pathology services related to poor communication. A well-designed and conducted customer satisfaction survey is an opportunity for pathologists to periodically educate physician customers about services offered, manage unrealistic expectations, and understand the evolving needs of the physician customer. Armed with current information from physician customers, the pathologist is better able to strategically plan for resources that facilitate performance improvements in anatomic pathology laboratory services that align with evolving clinical needs in health care delivery.

  12. Development of Standard Process for Private Information Protection of Medical Imaging Issuance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Bum Jin; Jeong, Jae Ho; Son, Gi Gyeong Son; Kang, Hee Doo; Yoo, Beong Gyu; Lee, Jong Seok

    2009-01-01

    The medical imaging issuance is changed from conventional film method to Digital Compact Disk solution because of development on IT technology. However other medical record department's are undergoing identification check through and through whereas medical imaging department cannot afford to do that. So, we examine present applicant's recognition of private intelligence safeguard, and medical imaging issuance condition by CD and DVD medium toward various medical facility and then perform comparative analysis associated with domestic and foreign law and recommendation, lastly suggest standard for medical imaging issuance and process relate with internal environment. First, we surveyed issuance process and required documents when situation of medical image issuance in the metropolitan medical facility by wire telephone between 2008.6.-12008.7.1. in accordance with the medical law Article 21clause 2, suggested standard through applicant's required documents occasionally - (1) in the event of oneself verifying identification, (2) in the event of family verifying applicant identification and family relations document (health insurance card, attested copy, and so on), (3) third person or representative verifying applicant identification and letter of attorney and certificate of one's seal impression. Second, also checked required documents of applicant in accordance with upper standard when situation of medical image issuance in Kyung-hee university medical center during 3 month 2008.5.-12008.7.31. Third, developed a work process by triangular position of issuance procedure for situation when verifying required documents and management of unpreparedness. Look all over the our manufactured output in the hospital - satisfy the all conditions 4 place(12%), possibly request everyone 4 place(12%), and apply in the clinic section 9 place(27%) that does not medical imaging issuance office, so we don't know about required documents condition. and look into whether meet or not

  13. Image-guided Tumor Ablation: Standardization of Terminology and Reporting Criteria—A 10-Year Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbiati, Luigi; Brace, Christopher L.; Breen, David J.; Callstrom, Matthew R.; Charboneau, J. William; Chen, Min-Hua; Choi, Byung Ihn; de Baère, Thierry; Dodd, Gerald D.; Dupuy, Damian E.; Gervais, Debra A.; Gianfelice, David; Gillams, Alice R.; Lee, Fred T.; Leen, Edward; Lencioni, Riccardo; Littrup, Peter J.; Livraghi, Tito; Lu, David S.; McGahan, John P.; Meloni, Maria Franca; Nikolic, Boris; Pereira, Philippe L.; Liang, Ping; Rhim, Hyunchul; Rose, Steven C.; Salem, Riad; Sofocleous, Constantinos T.; Solomon, Stephen B.; Soulen, Michael C.; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Vogl, Thomas J.; Wood, Bradford J.; Goldberg, S. Nahum

    2014-01-01

    Image-guided tumor ablation has become a well-established hallmark of local cancer therapy. The breadth of options available in this growing field increases the need for standardization of terminology and reporting criteria to facilitate effective communication of ideas and appropriate comparison among treatments that use different technologies, such as chemical (eg, ethanol or acetic acid) ablation, thermal therapies (eg, radiofrequency, laser, microwave, focused ultrasound, and cryoablation) and newer ablative modalities such as irreversible electroporation. This updated consensus document provides a framework that will facilitate the clearest communication among investigators regarding ablative technologies. An appropriate vehicle is proposed for reporting the various aspects of image-guided ablation therapy including classification of therapies, procedure terms, descriptors of imaging guidance, and terminology for imaging and pathologic findings. Methods are addressed for standardizing reporting of technique, follow-up, complications, and clinical results. As noted in the original document from 2003, adherence to the recommendations will improve the precision of communications in this field, leading to more accurate comparison of technologies and results, and ultimately to improved patient outcomes. © RSNA, 2014 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:24927329

  14. Designing image segmentation studies: Statistical power, sample size and reference standard quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Eli; Hu, Yipeng; Huisman, Henkjan J; Barratt, Dean C

    2017-12-01

    Segmentation algorithms are typically evaluated by comparison to an accepted reference standard. The cost of generating accurate reference standards for medical image segmentation can be substantial. Since the study cost and the likelihood of detecting a clinically meaningful difference in accuracy both depend on the size and on the quality of the study reference standard, balancing these trade-offs supports the efficient use of research resources. In this work, we derive a statistical power calculation that enables researchers to estimate the appropriate sample size to detect clinically meaningful differences in segmentation accuracy (i.e. the proportion of voxels matching the reference standard) between two algorithms. Furthermore, we derive a formula to relate reference standard errors to their effect on the sample sizes of studies using lower-quality (but potentially more affordable and practically available) reference standards. The accuracy of the derived sample size formula was estimated through Monte Carlo simulation, demonstrating, with 95% confidence, a predicted statistical power within 4% of simulated values across a range of model parameters. This corresponds to sample size errors of less than 4 subjects and errors in the detectable accuracy difference less than 0.6%. The applicability of the formula to real-world data was assessed using bootstrap resampling simulations for pairs of algorithms from the PROMISE12 prostate MR segmentation challenge data set. The model predicted the simulated power for the majority of algorithm pairs within 4% for simulated experiments using a high-quality reference standard and within 6% for simulated experiments using a low-quality reference standard. A case study, also based on the PROMISE12 data, illustrates using the formulae to evaluate whether to use a lower-quality reference standard in a prostate segmentation study. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. British Standard method for determining the luminance distribution of electro-optical x-ray image intensifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Under the direction of the Light Electrical Engineering Standards Committee, a British Standard method has been prepared for determining the luminance distribution of electro-optical X-ray image intensifiers. The luminance distribution is determined from the measurement of the luminance over the area of the output image related to conditions of uniform exposure rate in the entrance plane of an electro-optical X-ray image intensifier. (U.K.)

  16. A new phantom using polyethylene glycol as an apparent diffusion coefficient standard for MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuya, Ryohei; Kuroda, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Yoshitsugu; Kato, Hirokazu; Matsuzaki, Hidenobu; Asaumi, Junichi; Murakami, Jun; Katashima, Kazunori; Ashida, Masakazu; Sasaki, Takanori; Sei, Tetsuro; Himei, Kengo; Katsui, Kuniaki; Katayama, Norihisa; Takemoto, Mitsuhiro; Kanazawa, Susumu; Mimura, Seiichi; Oono, Seiichiro; Kitayama, Takuichi; Tahara, Seiji; Inamura, Keiji

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has seen wide clinical use, such as for early detection of cerebrovascular diseases and whole body screening for tumors. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) standard phantom, which mimics the ADC values of several lesions in the body, is indispensable for the development of new pulse sequences for DWI, such as diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body-signal suppression (DWIBS). However, information on the ADC values of the previously reported ADC standard phantoms is limited, because these phantoms were made using only a few different materials at a limited range of concentrations, and the ADC values were measured only at certain temperatures. It has been considered difficult, if not impossible, to create a phantom that provides arbitrary ADC values, because it is difficult to calculate the concentrations of the materials and the temperature at ADC measurement. In this study, we used polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a phantom material, and developed an empirical formula to calculate the PEG concentration at any measurement temperature to obtain arbitrary ADC values of the phantom. DWI images of phantoms made using seven different PEG concentrations were taken under heating from 17 to 46 degrees C at 1 degrees C intervals. Using ADC values calculated from these DWI images, we developed two empirical formulas: i) an empirical formula to calculate the ADC values of phantoms made using any PEG concentration at any measurement temperature; and ii) an empirical formula to calculate PEG concentrations to obtain arbitrary ADC values at any measurement temperature. We inspected the accuracy of these empirical formulas by newly made PEG phantoms. A comparison between the ADC values calculated with the empirical formulas and the measured ADC values confirmed the high accuracy of these formulas. PEG phantoms are safe, inexpensive and easy to make, compared with the

  17. Comparison of three multichannel transmit/receive radiofrequency coil configurations for anatomic and functional cardiac MRI at 7.0T: implications for clinical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, Lukas; Graessl, Andreas; Hezel, Fabian; Thalhammer, Christof; Kellman, Peter; Renz, Wolfgang; Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian von; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Tkachenko, Valeriy; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2012-01-01

    To implement, examine, and compare three multichannel transmit/receive coil configurations for cardiovascular MR (CMR) at 7T. Three radiofrequency transmit-receive (TX/RX) coils with 4-, 8-, and 16-coil elements were used. Ten healthy volunteers (seven males, age 28 ± 4 years) underwent CMR at 7T. For all three RX/TX coils, 2D CINE FLASH images of the heart were acquired. Cardiac chamber quantification, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) analysis, parallel imaging performance assessment, and image quality scoring were performed. Mean total examination time was 29 ± 5 min. All images obtained with the 8- and 16-channel coils were diagnostic. No significant difference in ejection fraction (EF) (P > 0.09) or left ventricular mass (LVM) (P > 0.31) was observed between the coils. The 8- and 16-channel arrays yielded a higher mean SNR in the septum versus the 4-channel coil. The lowest geometry factors were found for the 16-channel coil (mean ± SD 2.3 ± 0.5 for R = 4). Image quality was rated significantly higher (P < 0.04) for the 16-channel coil versus the 8- and 4-channel coils. All three coil configurations are suitable for CMR at 7.0T under routine circumstances. A larger number of coil elements enhances image quality and parallel imaging performance but does not impact the accuracy of cardiac chamber quantification. (orig.)

  18. Comparison of three multichannel transmit/receive radiofrequency coil configurations for anatomic and functional cardiac MRI at 7.0T: implications for clinical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, Lukas; Graessl, Andreas; Hezel, Fabian; Thalhammer, Christof [Max-Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility, Berlin (Germany); Kellman, Peter [National Institutes of Health/NHLBI, Laboratory of Cardiac Energetics, Bethesda, MD (United States); Renz, Wolfgang [Max-Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility, Berlin (Germany); Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen (Germany); Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian von; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette [Max-Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility, Berlin (Germany); HELIOS Klinikum Berlin-Buch, Department of Cardiology and Nephrology, Berlin (Germany); Charite Medical Faculty and the Max-Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Tkachenko, Valeriy [Charite Medical Faculty and the Max-Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Niendorf, Thoralf [Max-Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility, Berlin (Germany); Charite Medical Faculty and the Max-Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    To implement, examine, and compare three multichannel transmit/receive coil configurations for cardiovascular MR (CMR) at 7T. Three radiofrequency transmit-receive (TX/RX) coils with 4-, 8-, and 16-coil elements were used. Ten healthy volunteers (seven males, age 28 {+-} 4 years) underwent CMR at 7T. For all three RX/TX coils, 2D CINE FLASH images of the heart were acquired. Cardiac chamber quantification, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) analysis, parallel imaging performance assessment, and image quality scoring were performed. Mean total examination time was 29 {+-} 5 min. All images obtained with the 8- and 16-channel coils were diagnostic. No significant difference in ejection fraction (EF) (P > 0.09) or left ventricular mass (LVM) (P > 0.31) was observed between the coils. The 8- and 16-channel arrays yielded a higher mean SNR in the septum versus the 4-channel coil. The lowest geometry factors were found for the 16-channel coil (mean {+-} SD 2.3 {+-} 0.5 for R = 4). Image quality was rated significantly higher (P < 0.04) for the 16-channel coil versus the 8- and 4-channel coils. All three coil configurations are suitable for CMR at 7.0T under routine circumstances. A larger number of coil elements enhances image quality and parallel imaging performance but does not impact the accuracy of cardiac chamber quantification. (orig.)

  19. The Application of an Anatomical Database for Fetal Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Pei, Qiu-Yan; Li, Yun-Tao; Yang, Zhen-Juan

    2015-10-05

    Fetal congenital heart anomalies are the most common congenital anomalies in live births. Fetal echocardiography (FECG) is the only prenatal diagnostic approach used to detect fetal congenital heart disease (CHD). FECG is not widely used, and the antenatal diagnosis rate of CHD varies considerably. Thus, mastering the anatomical characteristics of different kinds of CHD is critical for ultrasound physicians to improve FECG technology. The aim of this study is to investigate the applications of a fetal CHD anatomic database in FECG teaching and training program. We evaluated 60 transverse section databases including 27 types of fetal CHD built in the Prenatal Diagnosis Center in Peking University People's Hospital. Each original database contained 400-700 cross-sectional digital images with a resolution of 3744 pixels × 5616 pixels. We imported the database into Amira 5.3.1 (Australia Visage Imaging Company, Australia) three-dimensional (3D) software. The database functions use a series of 3D software visual operations. The features of the fetal CHD anatomical database were analyzed to determine its applications in FECG continuing education and training. The database was rebuilt using the 3D software. The original and rebuilt databases can be displayed dynamically, continuously, and synchronically and can be rotated at arbitrary angles. The sections from the dynamic displays and rotating angles are consistent with the sections in FECG. The database successfully reproduced the anatomic structures and spatial relationship features of different fetal CHDs. We established a fetal CHD anatomy training database and a standardized training database for FECG. Ultrasound physicians and students can learn the anatomical features of fetal CHD and FECG through either centralized training or distance education. The database of fetal CHD successfully reproduced the anatomic structures and spatial relationship of different kinds of fetal CHD. This database can be widely used in

  20. Diffusion kurtosis imaging of the liver at 3 Tesla: in vivo comparison to standard diffusion-weighted imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budjan, Johannes; Sauter, Elke A; Zoellner, Frank G; Lemke, Andreas; Wambsganss, Jens; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Attenberger, Ulrike I

    2018-01-01

    Background Functional techniques like diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) are gaining more and more importance in liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) is an advanced technique that might help to overcome current limitations of DWI. Purpose To evaluate DKI for the differentiation of hepatic lesions in comparison to conventional DWI at 3 Tesla. Material and Methods Fifty-six consecutive patients were examined using a routine abdominal MR protocol at 3 Tesla which included DWI with b-values of 50, 400, 800, and 1000 s/mm 2 . Apparent diffusion coefficient maps were calculated applying a standard mono-exponential fit, while a non-Gaussian kurtosis fit was used to obtain DKI maps. ADC as well as Kurtosis-corrected diffusion ( D) values were quantified by region of interest analysis and compared between lesions. Results Sixty-eight hepatic lesions (hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC] [n = 25]; hepatic adenoma [n = 4], cysts [n = 18]; hepatic hemangioma [HH] [n = 18]; and focal nodular hyperplasia [n = 3]) were identified. Differentiation of malignant and benign lesions was possible based on both DWI ADC as well as DKI D-values ( P values were in the range of 0.04 to < 0.0001). Conclusion In vivo abdominal DKI calculated using standard b-values is feasible and enables quantitative differentiation between malignant and benign liver lesions. Assessment of conventional ADC values leads to similar results when using b-values below 1000 s/mm 2 for DKI calculation.

  1. Anatomic breast coordinate system for mammogram analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karemore, Gopal; Brandt, S.; Karssemeijer, N.

    2011-01-01

    inside the breast. Most of the risk assessment and CAD modules use a breast region in a image centered Cartesian x,y coordinate system. Nevertheless, anatomical structure follows curve-linear trajectories. We examined an anatomical breast coordinate system that preserves the anatomical correspondence...... between the mammograms and allows extracting not only the aligned position but also the orientation aligned with the anatomy of the breast tissue structure. Materials and Methods The coordinate system used the nipple location as the point A and the border of the pectoral muscle as a line BC. The skin air...... interface was identified as a curve passing through A and intersecting the pectoral muscle line. The nipple was defined as the origin of the coordinate system. A family of second order curves were defined through the nipple and intersecting the pectoral line (AD). Every pixel location in mammogram...

  2. Standard test methods for determining average grain size using semiautomatic and automatic image analysis

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2015-01-01

    1.1 These test methods are used to determine grain size from measurements of grain intercept lengths, intercept counts, intersection counts, grain boundary length, and grain areas. 1.2 These measurements are made with a semiautomatic digitizing tablet or by automatic image analysis using an image of the grain structure produced by a microscope. 1.3 These test methods are applicable to any type of grain structure or grain size distribution as long as the grain boundaries can be clearly delineated by etching and subsequent image processing, if necessary. 1.4 These test methods are applicable to measurement of other grain-like microstructures, such as cell structures. 1.5 This standard deals only with the recommended test methods and nothing in it should be construed as defining or establishing limits of acceptability or fitness for purpose of the materials tested. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user ...

  3. Survey of Compliance with Radiation Protection Standards in Diagnostic Imaging Centers of Khuzestan Province in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    farshid mahmoudi

    2017-03-01

    rooms in 32 diagnostic imaging centers in Khuzestan Province, Iran, 2015. The centers were chosen through random cluster sampling method. The data were obtained using open-ended interview and a checklist designed based on the recommendations of the International Commission for Radiation Protection and Atomic Energy Organization of Iran. Results: The compliance rates with regard to radiology room, radiology equipment, darkroom, and radiographer’s protection were 80.76%, 80.47%, 69.28%, and 93.12%, respectively. Maximum and minimum rates of compliance with the standards were related to performance of the cassette tray (100% and hopper status (25%, respectively. Comparison of public and private imaging centers in terms of safety standards showed no significant differences (P>0.05.Conclusion: The observance of the radiation protection standards in Khuzestan Province was in a relativly desirable condition. However, there are some shortcomings in compliance with the principles of protection in the darkroom. In this regard, with recommend adopting protection measures such as timelyreplacement of processing solution, appropriate ventilation of darkroom, provisionof protection equipment and appliances, and protection training required for entering the darkroom.

  4. Groupwise consistent image registration: a crucial step for the construction of a standardized near infrared hyper-spectral teeth database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špiclin, Žiga; Usenik, Peter; Bürmen, Miran; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2011-03-01

    Construction of a standardized near infrared (NIR) hyper-spectral teeth database is a first step in the development of a reliable diagnostic tool for quantification and early detection of dental diseases. The standardized diffuse reflectance hyper-spectral database was constructed by imaging 12 extracted human teeth with natural lesions of various degrees in the spectral range from 900 to 1700 nm with spectral resolution of 10 nm. Additionally, all the teeth were imaged by X-ray and digital color camera. The color and X-ray teeth images were presented to the expert for localization and classification of the dental diseases, thereby obtaining a dental disease gold standard. Accurate transfer of the dental disease gold standard to the NIR images was achieved by image registration in a groupwise manner, taking advantage of the multichannel image information and promoting image edges as the features for the improvement of spatial correspondence detection. By the presented fully automatic multi-modal groupwise registration method, images of new teeth samples can be accurately and reliably registered and then added to the standardized NIR hyper-spectral teeth database. Adding more samples increases the biological and patho-physiological variability of the NIR hyper-spectral teeth database and can importantly contribute to the objective assessment of the sensitivity and specificity of multivariate image analysis techniques used for the detection of dental diseases. Such assessment is essential for the development and validation of reliable qualitative and especially quantitative diagnostic tools based on NIR spectroscopy.

  5. Phantom-based standardization of CT angiography images for spot sign detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morotti, Andrea; Rosand, Jonathan [Harvard Medical School, Division of Neurocritical Care and Emergency Neurology, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, J. P. Kistler Stroke Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Romero, Javier M. [Harvard Medical School, Division of Neurocritical Care and Emergency Neurology, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, J. P. Kistler Stroke Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, Neuroradiology Service, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Jessel, Michael J.; Vashkevich, Anastasia; Schwab, Kristin; Greenberg, Steven M. [Harvard Medical School, J. P. Kistler Stroke Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Hernandez, Andrew M.; Boone, John M. [University of California Davis, Department of Radiology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Burns, Joseph D. [Lahey Hospital and Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Burlington, MA (United States); Shah, Qaisar A. [Abington Memorial Hospital, Abington, PA (United States); Bergman, Thomas A. [Hennepin County Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Suri, M.F.K. [St. Cloud Hospital, St. Cloud, MN (United States); Ezzeddine, Mustapha [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Kirmani, Jawad F. [JFK Medical Center, Stroke and Neurovascular Center, Edison, NJ (United States); Agarwal, Sachin [Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Hays Shapshak, Angela [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Messe, Steven R. [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Venkatasubramanian, Chitra [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Palmieri, Katherine [The University of Kansas Health System, Kansas City, KS (United States); Lewandowski, Christopher [Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (United States); Chang, Tiffany R. [University of Texas Medical School, Houston, TX (United States); Chang, Ira [Colorado Neurological Institute, Swedish Medical Center, Englewood, CO (United States); Rose, David Z. [Tampa General Hospital, University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa, FL (United States); Smith, Wade [UCSF Medical Center, San Francisco, CA (United States); Hsu, Chung Y.; Liu, Chun-Lin [China Medical University Hospital, Taichung (China); Lien, Li-Ming; Hsiao, Chen-Yu [Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei (China); Iwama, Toru [Gifu University Hospital, Gifu (Japan); Afzal, Mohammad Rauf; Qureshi, Adnan I. [University of Minnesota, Zeenat Qureshi Stroke Research Center, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Cassarly, Christy; Hebert Martin, Renee [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Public Health Sciences, Charleston, SC (United States); Goldstein, Joshua N. [Harvard Medical School, Division of Neurocritical Care and Emergency Neurology, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, J. P. Kistler Stroke Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, Department of Emergency Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Collaboration: ATACH-II and NETT Investigators

    2017-09-15

    The CT angiography (CTA) spot sign is a strong predictor of hematoma expansion in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, CTA parameters vary widely across centers and may negatively impact spot sign accuracy in predicting ICH expansion. We developed a CT iodine calibration phantom that was scanned at different institutions in a large multicenter ICH clinical trial to determine the effect of image standardization on spot sign detection and performance. A custom phantom containing known concentrations of iodine was designed and scanned using the stroke CT protocol at each institution. Custom software was developed to read the CT volume datasets and calculate the Hounsfield unit as a function of iodine concentration for each phantom scan. CTA images obtained within 8 h from symptom onset were analyzed by two trained readers comparing the calibrated vs. uncalibrated density cutoffs for spot sign identification. ICH expansion was defined as hematoma volume growth >33%. A total of 90 subjects qualified for the study, of whom 17/83 (20.5%) experienced ICH expansion. The number of spot sign positive scans was higher in the calibrated analysis (67.8 vs 38.9% p < 0.001). All spot signs identified in the non-calibrated analysis remained positive after calibration. Calibrated CTA images had higher sensitivity for ICH expansion (76 vs 52%) but inferior specificity (35 vs 63%) compared with uncalibrated images. Normalization of CTA images using phantom data is a feasible strategy to obtain consistent image quantification for spot sign analysis across different sites and may improve sensitivity for identification of ICH expansion. (orig.)

  6. Phantom-based standardization of CT angiography images for spot sign detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morotti, Andrea; Romero, Javier M; Jessel, Michael J; Hernandez, Andrew M; Vashkevich, Anastasia; Schwab, Kristin; Burns, Joseph D; Shah, Qaisar A; Bergman, Thomas A; Suri, M Fareed K; Ezzeddine, Mustapha; Kirmani, Jawad F; Agarwal, Sachin; Shapshak, Angela Hays; Messe, Steven R; Venkatasubramanian, Chitra; Palmieri, Katherine; Lewandowski, Christopher; Chang, Tiffany R; Chang, Ira; Rose, David Z; Smith, Wade; Hsu, Chung Y; Liu, Chun-Lin; Lien, Li-Ming; Hsiao, Chen-Yu; Iwama, Toru; Afzal, Mohammad Rauf; Cassarly, Christy; Greenberg, Steven M; Martin, Renee' Hebert; Qureshi, Adnan I; Rosand, Jonathan; Boone, John M; Goldstein, Joshua N

    2017-09-01

    The CT angiography (CTA) spot sign is a strong predictor of hematoma expansion in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, CTA parameters vary widely across centers and may negatively impact spot sign accuracy in predicting ICH expansion. We developed a CT iodine calibration phantom that was scanned at different institutions in a large multicenter ICH clinical trial to determine the effect of image standardization on spot sign detection and performance. A custom phantom containing known concentrations of iodine was designed and scanned using the stroke CT protocol at each institution. Custom software was developed to read the CT volume datasets and calculate the Hounsfield unit as a function of iodine concentration for each phantom scan. CTA images obtained within 8 h from symptom onset were analyzed by two trained readers comparing the calibrated vs. uncalibrated density cutoffs for spot sign identification. ICH expansion was defined as hematoma volume growth >33%. A total of 90 subjects qualified for the study, of whom 17/83 (20.5%) experienced ICH expansion. The number of spot sign positive scans was higher in the calibrated analysis (67.8 vs 38.9% p signs identified in the non-calibrated analysis remained positive after calibration. Calibrated CTA images had higher sensitivity for ICH expansion (76 vs 52%) but inferior specificity (35 vs 63%) compared with uncalibrated images. Normalization of CTA images using phantom data is a feasible strategy to obtain consistent image quantification for spot sign analysis across different sites and may improve sensitivity for identification of ICH expansion.

  7. Multispectral Fluorescence Imaging During Robot-assisted Laparoscopic Sentinel Node Biopsy: A First Step Towards a Fluorescence-based Anatomic Roadmap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Nynke S; Buckle, Tessa; KleinJan, Gijs H; van der Poel, Henk G; van Leeuwen, Fijs W B

    2017-07-01

    During (robot-assisted) sentinel node (SN) biopsy procedures, intraoperative fluorescence imaging can be used to enhance radioguided SN excision. For this combined pre- and intraoperative SN identification was realized using the hybrid SN tracer, indocyanine green- 99m Tc-nanocolloid. Combining this dedicated SN tracer with a lymphangiographic tracer such as fluorescein may further enhance the accuracy of SN biopsy. Clinical evaluation of a multispectral fluorescence guided surgery approach using the dedicated SN tracer ICG- 99m Tc-nanocolloid, the lymphangiographic tracer fluorescein, and a commercially available fluorescence laparoscope. Pilot study in ten patients with prostate cancer. Following ICG- 99m Tc-nanocolloid administration and preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and single-photon emission computed tomograpy imaging, the number and location of SNs were determined. Fluorescein was injected intraprostatically immediately after the patient was anesthetized. A multispectral fluorescence laparoscope was used intraoperatively to identify both fluorescent signatures. Multispectral fluorescence imaging during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy with extended pelvic lymph node dissection and SN biopsy. (1) Number and location of preoperatively identified SNs. (2) Number and location of SNs intraoperatively identified via ICG- 99m Tc-nanocolloid imaging. (3) Rate of intraoperative lymphatic duct identification via fluorescein imaging. (4) Tumor status of excised (sentinel) lymph node(s). (5) Postoperative complications and follow-up. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging of ICG- 99m Tc-nanocolloid visualized 85.3% of the SNs. In 8/10 patients, fluorescein imaging allowed bright and accurate identification of lymphatic ducts, although higher background staining and tracer washout were observed. The main limitation is the small patient population. Our findings indicate that a lymphangiographic tracer can provide additional information during SN biopsy based on ICG- 99m

  8. Comparisons of neural networks to standard techniques for image classification and correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paola, Justin D.; Schowengerdt, Robert A.

    1994-01-01

    Neural network techniques for multispectral image classification and spatial pattern detection are compared to the standard techniques of maximum-likelihood classification and spatial correlation. The neural network produced a more accurate classification than maximum-likelihood of a Landsat scene of Tucson, Arizona. Some of the errors in the maximum-likelihood classification are illustrated using decision region and class probability density plots. As expected, the main drawback to the neural network method is the long time required for the training stage. The network was trained using several different hidden layer sizes to optimize both the classification accuracy and training speed, and it was found that one node per class was optimal. The performance improved when 3x3 local windows of image data were entered into the net. This modification introduces texture into the classification without explicit calculation of a texture measure. Larger windows were successfully used for the detection of spatial features in Landsat and Magellan synthetic aperture radar imagery.

  9. Standard Male Body Image and its Influence on Food Values, Attitudes and Behavior in Food University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela de Souza Dias

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Body image corresponds to the way the individual sees his body. The beauty standards body are established from references in which illusory short fall. The great changes in recent years in markets as food and fitness show mainly focused on developing new habits for health concerns and aesthetics. This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between body image values, attitudes and dietary behavior in college men. We used a range of silhouettes adapted model Stunkard, Sorenson e Schlusinger (1983 as cited in Kety, Rowland, Sidman & Matthysse, 1983 and Lima, Orlando, Teixeira, Castro e Damasceno (2008,

  10. A New Standard for Assessing the Performance of High Contrast Imaging Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen-Clem, Rebecca; Mawet, Dimitri; Gomez Gonzalez, Carlos A.; Absil, Olivier; Belikov, Ruslan; Currie, Thayne; Kenworthy, Matthew A.; Marois, Christian; Mazoyer, Johan; Ruane, Garreth; Tanner, Angelle; Cantalloube, Faustine

    2018-01-01

    As planning for the next generation of high contrast imaging instruments (e.g., WFIRST, HabEx, and LUVOIR, TMT-PFI, EELT-EPICS) matures and second-generation ground-based extreme adaptive optics facilities (e.g., VLT-SPHERE, Gemini-GPI) finish their principal surveys, it is imperative that the performance of different designs, post-processing algorithms, observing strategies, and survey results be compared in a consistent, statistically robust framework. In this paper, we argue that the current industry standard for such comparisons—the contrast curve—falls short of this mandate. We propose a new figure of merit, the “performance map,” that incorporates three fundamental concepts in signal detection theory: the true positive fraction, the false positive fraction, and the detection threshold. By supplying a theoretical basis and recipe for generating the performance map, we hope to encourage the widespread adoption of this new metric across subfields in exoplanet imaging.

  11. Digital pathology imaging as a novel platform for standardization and globalization of quantitative nephropathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barisoni, Laura; Gimpel, Charlotte; Kain, Renate; Laurinavicius, Arvydas; Bueno, Gloria; Zeng, Caihong; Liu, Zhihong; Schaefer, Franz; Kretzler, Matthias; Holzman, Lawrence B; Hewitt, Stephen M

    2017-04-01

    The introduction of digital pathology to nephrology provides a platform for the development of new methodologies and protocols for visual, morphometric and computer-aided assessment of renal biopsies. Application of digital imaging to pathology made substantial progress over the past decade; it is now in use for education, clinical trials and translational research. Digital pathology evolved as a valuable tool to generate comprehensive structural information in digital form, a key prerequisite for achieving precision pathology for computational biology. The application of this new technology on an international scale is driving novel methods for collaborations, providing unique opportunities but also challenges. Standardization of methods needs to be rigorously evaluated and applied at each step, from specimen processing to scanning, uploading into digital repositories, morphologic, morphometric and computer-aided assessment, data collection and analysis. In this review, we discuss the status and opportunities created by the application of digital imaging to precision nephropathology, and present a vision for the near future.

  12. A standardized infrared imaging technique that specifically detects UCP1-mediated thermogenesis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Justin D; Mottillo, Emilio P; Farncombe, Troy H; Morrison, Katherine M; Steinberg, Gregory R

    2014-07-01

    The activation and expansion of brown adipose tissue (BAT) has emerged as a promising strategy to counter obesity and the metabolic syndrome by increasing energy expenditure. The subsequent testing and validation of novel agents that augment BAT necessitates accurate pre-clinical measurements in rodents regarding the capacity for BAT-derived thermogenesis. We present a novel method to measure BAT thermogenesis using infrared imaging following β3-adrenoreceptor stimulation in mice. We show that the increased body surface temperature observed using this method is due solely to uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1)-mediated thermogenesis and that this technique is able to discern differences in BAT activity in mice acclimated to 23 °C or thermoneutrality (30 °C). These findings represent the first standardized method utilizing infrared imaging to specifically detect UCP1 activity in vivo.

  13. Performance test on 2-dimensional PIV and 3-dimensional PIV using standard images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Tae Gyu; Doh, Deog Hee

    2004-01-01

    Quantitative performance test on the conventional 2D-PIV and the hybrid angular 3D-PIV (Stereoscopic PIV) was carried out. LES Data sets on an impinging jet which are provided on the webpage(http://www.vsj.or.jp/piv) for the PIV Standard Project were used for the generation of virtual images. The generated virtual images were used for the 2D-PIV and 3D-PIV measurements test. It has been shown that the results obtained by 2D-PIV on average values are slightly closer to the LES data than those obtained by 3D-PIV, but the turbulent properties obtained by 2D-PIV are largely underestimated than those obtained by 3D-PIV

  14. Total-body photography in skin cancer screening: the clinical utility of standardized imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Alexandra; Meyerle, Jon H

    2017-05-01

    Early detection of skin cancer is essential to reducing morbidity and mortality from both melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Total-body skin examinations (TBSEs) may improve early detection of malignant melanomas (MMs) but are controversial due to the poor quality of data available to establish a mortality benefit from skin cancer screening. Total-body photography (TBP) promises to provide a way forward by lowering the costs of dermatologic screening while simultaneously leveraging technology to increase patient access to dermatologic care. Standardized TBP also offers the ability for dermatologists to work synergistically with modern computer technology involving algorithms capable of analyzing high-quality images to flag concerning lesions that may require closer evaluation. On a population level, inexpensive TBP has the potential to increase access to skin cancer screening and it has several specific applications in a military population. The utility of standardized TBP is reviewed in the context of skin cancer screening and teledermatology.

  15. A no-gold-standard technique for objective assessment of quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Abhinav K; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C

    2016-04-07

    The objective optimization and evaluation of nuclear-medicine quantitative imaging methods using patient data is highly desirable but often hindered by the lack of a gold standard. Previously, a regression-without-truth (RWT) approach has been proposed for evaluating quantitative imaging methods in the absence of a gold standard, but this approach implicitly assumes that bounds on the distribution of true values are known. Several quantitative imaging methods in nuclear-medicine imaging measure parameters where these bounds are not known, such as the activity concentration in an organ or the volume of a tumor. We extended upon the RWT approach to develop a no-gold-standard (NGS) technique for objectively evaluating such quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods with patient data in the absence of any ground truth. Using the parameters estimated with the NGS technique, a figure of merit, the noise-to-slope ratio (NSR), can be computed, which can rank the methods on the basis of precision. An issue with NGS evaluation techniques is the requirement of a large number of patient studies. To reduce this requirement, the proposed method explored the use of multiple quantitative measurements from the same patient, such as the activity concentration values from different organs in the same patient. The proposed technique was evaluated using rigorous numerical experiments and using data from realistic simulation studies. The numerical experiments demonstrated that the NSR was estimated accurately using the proposed NGS technique when the bounds on the distribution of true values were not precisely known, thus serving as a very reliable metric for ranking the methods on the basis of precision. In the realistic simulation study, the NGS technique was used to rank reconstruction methods for quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) based on their performance on the task of estimating the mean activity concentration within a known volume of interest

  16. A no-gold-standard technique for objective assessment of quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Abhinav K; Frey, Eric C; Caffo, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The objective optimization and evaluation of nuclear-medicine quantitative imaging methods using patient data is highly desirable but often hindered by the lack of a gold standard. Previously, a regression-without-truth (RWT) approach has been proposed for evaluating quantitative imaging methods in the absence of a gold standard, but this approach implicitly assumes that bounds on the distribution of true values are known. Several quantitative imaging methods in nuclear-medicine imaging measure parameters where these bounds are not known, such as the activity concentration in an organ or the volume of a tumor. We extended upon the RWT approach to develop a no-gold-standard (NGS) technique for objectively evaluating such quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods with patient data in the absence of any ground truth. Using the parameters estimated with the NGS technique, a figure of merit, the noise-to-slope ratio (NSR), can be computed, which can rank the methods on the basis of precision. An issue with NGS evaluation techniques is the requirement of a large number of patient studies. To reduce this requirement, the proposed method explored the use of multiple quantitative measurements from the same patient, such as the activity concentration values from different organs in the same patient. The proposed technique was evaluated using rigorous numerical experiments and using data from realistic simulation studies. The numerical experiments demonstrated that the NSR was estimated accurately using the proposed NGS technique when the bounds on the distribution of true values were not precisely known, thus serving as a very reliable metric for ranking the methods on the basis of precision. In the realistic simulation study, the NGS technique was used to rank reconstruction methods for quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) based on their performance on the task of estimating the mean activity concentration within a known volume of interest

  17. The possibilities and limitations of neuronavigation method in the treatment of intracranial pathology, on the basis of anatomic registering markers and preoperative magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lickendorf, M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The evaluation of technical parameters of the system and the evaluation of the influence of changing intraoperative conditions on the accuracy of the indications of the neuronavigational system has the key meaning in the effectiveness on the work of a neurosurgeon. On the other hand the employment of neuronavigation during an operation on the brain allows to get an insight into the dynamics and directions of the shifts of individual brain structures in regard to themselves and hard integuments. Material and methods: In the experimental part of the work an analysis was done of the theoretical and actual accuracy of indications of the neuronavigational system obtained after the registering process in modal and clinical conditions. In the clinical part of the work, during the operations of 69 patients with the use of the neuronavigational system an analysis was done of the dynamics and the direction of shifts of the brain's surface and the boundaries of pathological focus in regard to the placement and volume of the pathological focus, volume of the peritumorous edema and the usage of the escape of the cerebrospinal fluid, as well as resulting from those shifts the divergence in the indications of the neuronavigational system. Results and conclusions: A smaller accuracy of the neuronavigational system in clinical than in modal conditions was proved. Anatomical registering markers cause the shifts of areas of greatest accuracy to the face area of patients, not including in its range the back sides of the head and there localized 65.4% of pathological focuses. In model and clinical conditions significant differences between computer error of the RMSE registering process and the marker localization error empirically defined were proved. In result of the analysis of the shifts of the cerebral cortex during the operation of tumors: Meta, Astr. II, Astr. III, GBM, vascular and intrachamberal it was proved that the peritumorous edema, the volume of the

  18. Frequency and anatomical distribution of magnetic resonance imaging features in sacroiliac joints of young athletes: Exploring "background noise" towards a data-driven definition of sacroiliitis in early spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Ulrich; Jurik, Anne Grethe; Zejden, Anna; Larsen, Ejnar; Jørgensen, Steen Hylgaard; Rufibach, Kaspar; Schioldan, Christian; Schmidt-Olsen, Søren

    2018-02-12

    Low grade bone marrow edema (BME) was reported in the sacroiliac joints (SIJ) of 25% of healthy individuals and mechanical back pain patients, challenging the imaging discrimination from early spondyloarthritis (SpA). It is unknown whether stress injury in competition sports may trigger BME. We explored frequency and anatomical distribution of SIJ MRI lesions in recreational and elite athletes. After pre-test calibration, semicoronal SIJ MRI scans of 20 recreational runners (RR) before/after running and 22 elite ice-hockey players (IP) were assessed by 3 blinded readers for BME and structural lesions using an SIJ quadrant-based module. Scans of TNF-treated SpA patients served to mask readers. Readers recorded subjects meeting the ASAS definition for active sacroiliitis. Descriptive analysis comprised frequency of SIJ quadrants with BME/structural lesions and their distribution in 8 anatomical SIJ regions: upper/lower ilium and sacrum, subdivided in anterior/posterior slices, as concordantly recorded by ≥2/3 readers. The proportions in RR/IP fulfilling the ASAS definition concordantly by ≥2/3 readers were 30-35%/41%. The mean number (SD) of SIJ quadrants showing BME was 3.1 (4.2)/3.1 (4.5) in RR before/after running, and 3.6 (3.0) in IP. The posterior lower ilium was the single most affected SIJ region, followed by the anterior upper sacrum. Erosion was virtually absent. In recreational and elite athletes, BME showed on average in 3-4 SIJ quadrants, meeting the ASAS definition in 30%-41%. The posterior lower ilium was the single most affected SIJ region. These findings in athletes help refine data-driven thresholds for defining sacroiliitis in early SpA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. The Vector, Signal, and Image Processing Library (VSIPL): an Open Standard for Astronomical Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepner, J. V.; Janka, R. S.; Lebak, J.; Richards, M. A.

    1999-12-01

    The Vector/Signal/Image Processing Library (VSIPL) is a DARPA initiated effort made up of industry, government and academic representatives who have defined an industry standard API for vector, signal, and image processing primitives for real-time signal processing on high performance systems. VSIPL supports a wide range of data types (int, float, complex, ...) and layouts (vectors, matrices and tensors) and is ideal for astronomical data processing. The VSIPL API is intended to serve as an open, vendor-neutral, industry standard interface. The object-based VSIPL API abstracts the memory architecture of the underlying machine by using the concept of memory blocks and views. Early experiments with VSIPL code conversions have been carried out by the High Performance Computing Program team at the UCSD. Commercially, several major vendors of signal processors are actively developing implementations. VSIPL has also been explicitly required as part of a recent Rome Labs teraflop procurement. This poster presents the VSIPL API, its functionality and the status of various implementations.

  20. Imaging of the optic disk in caring for patients with glaucoma: ophthalmoscopy and photography remain the gold standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaeth, George L; Reddy, Swathi C

    2014-01-01

    Optic disk imaging is integral to the diagnosis and treatment of patients with glaucoma. We discuss the various forms of imaging the optic nerve, including ophthalmoscopy, photography, and newer imaging modalities, including optical coherence tomography (OCT), confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (HRT), and scanning laser polarimetry (GDx), specifically highlighting their benefits and disadvantages. We argue that ophthalmoscopy and photography remain the gold standard of imaging due to portability, ease of interpretation, and the presence of a large database of images for comparison. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Understanding anatomical terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, L A; Natrajan, M; Kothari, M L

    1996-01-01

    Words are our masters and words are our slaves, all depending on how we use them. The whole of medical science owes its origin to Greco-Roman culture and is replete with terms whose high sound is not necessarily accompanied by sound meaning. This is even more the case in the initial, pre-clinical years. Anatomical terminology seems bewildering to the initiate; and maybe that is a reason why love of anatomy as a subject does not always spill over through later years. Employing certain classifications of the origin of the anatomical terms, we have prepared an anthology that we hope will ease the student's task and also heighten the student's appreciation of the new terms. This centers on revealing the Kiplingian "how, why, when, where, what, and who" of a given term. This presentation should empower students to independently formulate a wide network of correlations once they understand a particular term. The article thus hopes to stimulate students' analytic and synthetic faculties as well. A small effort can reap large rewards in terms of enjoyment of the study of anatomy and the related subjects of histology, embryology, and genetics. It is helpful to teachers and students alike. This exercise in semantics and etymology does not demand of the student or his teacher any background in linguistics, grammar, Greek, Latin, Sanskrit, anatomy, or medicine.

  2. Application of dual nuclide standardized meal in gastric emptying dynamic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Wuhe; Zheng Pude; Zeng Jinzhang

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the application of dual nuclide standardized meal in gastric emptying imaging and its clinical value. Methods: A standardized meal labelled with dual nuclide [ 131 I-bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the solid phase], 99m Tc-DTPA as the liquid phase) was employed to measure gastric emptying (GE) by dynamic imaging in 35 patients with chronic gastritis and 10 healthy controls. A second solid phase, 99m Tc-Sc (Sulphur colloid), was used as an agent control. Both solid meals underwent delabelling test, being incubated in human gastric juice (pH 2.0) for more than 2 hours. Only two of the participants had another test using dual nuclide meal with 99m Tc-Sc instead of 131 I-BSA. Results: The delabelling rates of 131 I and 99m Tc from the solid meal in the in vitro test were 3.00% and 5.16%, respectively. The half-solid-emptying time (HSET) and half-liquid-emptying-time (HLET) for the control group were 58.2 +- 17.7 min and 23.5 +- 9.4 min; the HSET and HLET for the patient group were 92.5 +- 29.6 min and 37.2 +- 16.6 min. The differences between the results of two groups, for both solid and liquid phase, were significant (t = 3.474, 2.485; P < 0.01). Conclusions: This study shows that putting both solid and liquid phase in one meal is a simpler, more convenient and economical way to do gastric emptying dynamic imaging, and is of good repeatability

  3. Visualization of postoperative anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction bone tunnels: Reliability of standard radiographs, CT scans, and 3D virtual reality images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Meuffels (Duncan); J.W. Potters (Jan Willem); A.H.J. Koning (Anton); C.H. Brown Jr Jr. (Charles); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); M. Reijman (Max)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground and purpose: Non-anatomic bone tunnel placement is the most common cause of a failed ACL reconstruction. Accurate and reproducible methods to visualize and document bone tunnel placement are therefore important. We evaluated the reliability of standard radiographs, CT scans,

  4. Standardized image interpretation and post processing in cardiovascular magnetic resonance: Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (SCMR) board of trustees task force on standardized post processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Bluemke, David A; Bremerich, Jens; Flamm, Scott D; Fogel, Mark A; Friedrich, Matthias G; Kim, Raymond J; von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian; Kramer, Christopher M; Pennell, Dudley J; Plein, Sven; Nagel, Eike

    2013-05-01

    With mounting data on its accuracy and prognostic value, cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is becoming an increasingly important diagnostic tool with growing utility in clinical routine. Given its versatility and wide range of quantitative parameters, however, agreement on specific standards for the interpretation and post-processing of CMR studies is required to ensure consistent quality and reproducibility of CMR reports. This document addresses this need by providing consensus recommendations developed by the Task Force for Post Processing of the Society for Cardiovascular MR (SCMR). The aim of the task force is to recommend requirements and standards for image interpretation and post processing enabling qualitative and quantitative evaluation of CMR images. Furthermore, pitfalls of CMR image analysis are discussed where appropriate.

  5. Improvement of in vivo quantification of [123I]-Iodobenzovesamicol in single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography using anatomic image to brain atlas nonrigid registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamare, Frederic; Mazere, Joachim; Attila, Mathieu; Mayo, Willy; De Clermont-Gallerande, Henri; Meissner, Wassilios; Fernandez, Philippe; Allard, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Brain anatomy variability is a major problem in quantifying functional images in nuclear medicine, in particular relative to aging and neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to compare affine and elastic model-based methods for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to brain atlas registration and to assess their impact on the quantification of cholinergic neurotransmission. Patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) and age-matched healthy subjects underwent an MRI and a single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) examination using [123I]-iodobenzovesamicol (IBVM). Both affine and elastic methods were compared to register the subjects' MRI with the Montreal Neurological Institute brain atlas. Performance of the registration accuracy was quantitatively assessed and the impact on the IBVM quantification was studied. For both subject groups, elastic registration achieved better quantitative performance compared to the affine model. For patients suffering from neurogenerative disease, this study demonstrates the importance and relevance of MRI to atlas registration in quantification of neuronal integrity. In this context, in comparison with rigid registrations, an elastic model-based registration provides the best relocation of the brain structures to the atlas for accurately quantifying cholinergic neurotransmission.

  6. The Superior Frontal Transsulcal Approach to the Anterior Ventricular System: Exploring the Sulcal and Subcortical Anatomy Using Anatomic Dissections and Diffusion Tensor Imaging Tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsarnakis, Christos; Liakos, Faidon; Kalyvas, Aristotelis V; Skandalakis, Georgios P; Komaitis, Spyros; Christidi, Fotini; Karavasilis, Efstratios; Liouta, Evangelia; Stranjalis, George

    2017-10-01

    To explore the superior frontal sulcus (SFS) morphology, trajectory of the applied surgical corridor, and white matter bundles that are traversed during the superior frontal transsulcal transventricular approach. Twenty normal, adult, formalin-fixed cerebral hemispheres and 2 cadaveric heads were included in the study. The topography, morphology, and dimensions of the SFS were recorded in all specimens. Fourteen hemispheres were investigated through the fiber dissection technique whereas the remaining 6 were explored using coronal cuts. The cadaveric heads were used to perform the superior frontal transsulcal transventricular approach. In addition, 2 healthy volunteers underwent diffusion tensor imaging and tractography reconstruction studies. The SFS was interrupted in 40% of the specimens studied and was always parallel to the interhemispheric fissure. The proximal 5 cm of the SFS (starting from the SFS precentral sulcus meeting point) were found to overlie the anterior ventricular system in all hemispheres. Five discrete white matter layers were identified en route to the anterior ventricular system (i.e., the arcuate fibers, the frontal aslant tract, the external capsule, internal capsule, and the callosal radiations). Diffusion tensor imaging studies confirmed the fiber tract architecture. When feasible, the superior frontal transsulcal transventricular approach offers a safe and effective corridor to the anterior part of the lateral ventricle because it minimizes brain retraction and transgression and offers a wide and straightforward working corridor. Meticulous preoperative planning coupled with a sound microneurosurgical technique are prerequisites to perform the approach successfully. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The application of anatomical side markers during abdominal and IVU examinations: An investigation of practice prior to and post-installation of computed radiography (CR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platt, Jane M.; Strudwick, Ruth M.

    2009-01-01

    Professionally, radiographers are accountable for their practice. Available literature highlights the ramifications of not using anatomical side markers within the primary beam. It was thought by the authors that the installation of a computed radiography (CR) system could potentially cause a change in practice due to the ease of adding anatomical side markers manually/electronically during post-processing. This study assessed anatomical marker use within the primary beam at a district general hospital in East Anglia, one-year pre-CR installation and one-year post-CR installation. 100 abdominal images were evaluated from each time period and the presence of anatomical side markers was recorded and compared to establish any significant change. The study showed that although there was a decline in use of anatomical side markers used within the primary beam post-CR installation (from 32% to 25%), the changes were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). However, the agreed standard of 100% images having the primary beam side marker present was not met. There is a conflict of opinion about the necessity for anatomical side markers to be used within the primary beam. However, the researchers believe there is a case for recommending alterations and improvements to practice to comply with 'best practice' requirements.

  8. Assessment of anatomical knowledge: Approaches taken by higher education institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Bipasha; Freemont, Anthony

    2017-04-01

    Assessment serves the primary function of determining a student's competence in a subject. Several different assessment formats are available for assessing anatomical skills, knowledge and understanding and, as assessment can drive learning, a careful selection of assessments can help to engender the correct deep learning facility required of the safe clinical practitioner. The aim of this review was to survey the published literature to see whether higher education institutions are taking an andragogical approach to assessment. Five databases (EMBASE, ERIC, Medline, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge) were searched using standardized search terms with two limits applied (English language, and 2000 to the present). Among the 2,094 papers found, 32 were deemed suitable for this review. Current literature on assessment can be categorized into the following themes: assessment driven learning, types of assessments, frequency of assessments, and use of images in assessments. The consensus is to use a variety of methods, written and practical, to assess anatomical knowledge and skill in different domains. Institutions aim for different levels of Bloom's taxonomy for students at similar stages of their medical degree. Formative assessments are used widely, in differing formats, with mostly good effects on the final examination grade. In conclusion, a wide variety of assessments, each aimed at a different level of Bloom's taxonomy, are used by different institutions. Clin. Anat. 30:290-299, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Anatomical location differences between mutated and wild-type isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 in low-grade gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jinhua; Shi, Zhifeng; Ji, Chunhong; Lian, Yuxi; Wang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Liang; Mao, Ying

    2017-10-01

    Anatomical location of gliomas has been considered as a factor implicating the contributions of a specific precursor cells during the tumor growth. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) is a pathognomonic biomarker with a significant impact on the development of gliomas and remarkable prognostic effect. The correlation between anatomical location of tumor and IDH1 states for low-grade gliomas was analyzed quantitatively in this study. Ninety-two patients diagnosed of low-grade glioma pathologically were recruited in this study, including 65 patients with IDH1-mutated glioma and 27 patients with wide-type IDH1. A convolutional neural network was designed to segment the tumor from three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging images. Voxel-based lesion symptom mapping was then employed to study the tumor location distribution differences between gliomas with mutated and wild-type IDH1. In order to characterize the location differences quantitatively, the Automated Anatomical Labeling Atlas was used to partition the standard brain atlas into 116 anatomical volumes of interests (AVOIs). The percentages of tumors with different IDH1 states in 116 AVOIs were calculated and compared. Support vector machine and AdaBoost algorithms were used to estimate the IDH1 status based on the 116 location features of each patient. Experimental results proved that the quantitative tumor location measurement could be a very important group of imaging features in biomarker estimation based on radiomics analysis of glioma.

  10. Comparison of myocardial perfusion imaging between the new high-speed gamma camera and the standard anger camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hirokazu; Chikamori, Taishiro; Hida, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) solid-state detectors have been recently introduced into the field of myocardial perfusion imaging. The aim of this study was to prospectively compare the diagnostic performance of the CZT high-speed gamma camera (Discovery NM 530c) with that of the standard 3-head gamma camera in the same group of patients. The study group consisted of 150 consecutive patients who underwent a 1-day stress-rest 99m Tc-sestamibi or tetrofosmin imaging protocol. Image acquisition was performed first on a standard gamma camera with a 15-min scan time each for stress and for rest. All scans were immediately repeated on a CZT camera with a 5-min scan time for stress and a 3-min scan time for rest, using list mode. The correlations between the CZT camera and the standard camera for perfusion and function analyses were strong within narrow Bland-Altman limits of agreement. Using list mode analysis, image quality for stress was rated as good or excellent in 97% of the 3-min scans, and in 100% of the ≥4-min scans. For CZT scans at rest, similarly, image quality was rated as good or excellent in 94% of the 1-min scans, and in 100% of the ≥2-min scans. The novel CZT camera provides excellent image quality, which is equivalent to standard myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography, despite a short scan time of less than half of the standard time. (author)

  11. Assessment of image quality of a standard and two dose-reducing protocols in paediatric pelvic CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratcliffe, John; Frawley, Kieran; Coakley, Kerry; Cloake, John [Department of Radiology, The Royal Children' s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Swanson, Cheryl E. [Department of Surgery, University of Queensland (Australia); Hafiz, Niru [Department of Child Health, The Royal Children' s Hospital, Brisbane (Australia)

    2003-03-01

    Concerns exist regarding the effect of radiation dose from paediatric pelvic CT scans and the potential later risk of radiation-induced neoplasm and teratogenic outcomes in these patients. To assess the diagnostic quality of CT images of the paediatric pelvis using either reduced mAs or increased pitch compared with standard settings. A prospective study of pelvic CT scans of 105 paediatric patients was performed using one of three protocols: (1) 31 at a standard protocol of 200 mA with rotation time of 0.75 s at 120 kVp and a pitch factor approximating 1.4; (2) 31 at increased pitch factor approaching 2 and 200 mA; and (3) 43 at a reduced setting of 100 mA and a pitch factor of 1.4. All other settings remained the same in all three groups. Image quality was assessed by radiologists blinded to the protocol used in each scan. No significant difference was found between the quality of images acquired at standard settings and those acquired at half the standard mAs. The use of increased pitch factor resulted in a higher proportion of poor images. Images acquired at 120 kVp using 75 mAs are equivalent in diagnostic quality to those acquired at 150 mAs. Reduced settings can provide useful imaging of the paediatric pelvis and should be considered as a standard protocol in these situations. (orig.)

  12. Standardized cine-loop documentation in abdominal ultrasound facilitates offline image interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormagen, Johann Baptist; Gaarder, Mario; Drolsum, Anders

    2015-01-01

    One of the main disadvantages of conventional ultrasound is its operator dependency, which might impede the reproducibility of the sonographic findings. A new approach with cine-loops and standardized scan protocols can overcome this drawback. To compare abdominal ultrasound findings of immediate bedside reading by performing radiologist with offline reading by a non-performing radiologist, using standardized cine-loop sequences. Over a 6-month period, three radiologists performed 140 dynamic ultrasound organ-based examinations in 43 consecutive outpatients. Examination protocols were standardized and included predefined probe position and sequences of short cine-loops of the liver, gallbladder, pancreas, kidneys, and urine bladder, covering the organs completely in two planes. After bedside examinations, the studies were reviewed and read out immediately by the performing radiologist. Image quality was registered from 1 (no diagnostic value) to 5 (excellent cine-loop quality). Offline reading was performed blinded by a radiologist who had not performed the examination. Bedside and offline reading were compared with each other and with consensus results. In 140 examinations, consensus reading revealed 21 cases with renal disorders, 17 cases with liver and bile pathology, and four cases with bladder pathology. Overall inter-observer agreement was 0.73 (95% CI 0.61-0.91), with lowest agreement for findings of the urine bladder (0.36) and highest agreement in liver examinations (0.90). Disagreements between the two readings were seen in nine kidneys, three bladder examinations, one pancreas and bile system examinations each, and in one liver, giving a total number of mismatches of 11%. Nearly all cases of mismatch were of minor clinical significance. The median image quality was 3 (range, 2-5) with most examinations deemed a quality of 3. Compared to consensus reading, overall accuracy was 96% for bedside reading and 94% for offline reading. Standardized cine

  13. Characterizing the energy output generated by a standard electric detonator using shadowgraph imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petr, V.; Lozano, E.

    2017-09-01

    This paper overviews a complete method for the characterization of the explosive energy output from a standard detonator. Measurements of the output of explosives are commonly based upon the detonation parameters of the chemical energy content of the explosive. These quantities provide a correct understanding of the energy stored in an explosive, but they do not provide a direct measure of the different modes in which the energy is released. This optically based technique combines high-speed and ultra-high-speed imaging to characterize the casing fragmentation and the detonator-driven shock load. The procedure presented here could be used as an alternative to current indirect methods—such as the Trauzl lead block test—because of its simplicity, high data accuracy, and minimum demand for test repetition. This technique was applied to experimentally measure air shock expansion versus time and calculating the blast wave energy from the detonation of the high explosive charge inside the detonator. Direct measurements of the shock front geometry provide insight into the physics of the initiation buildup. Because of their geometry, standard detonators show an initial ellipsoidal shock expansion that degenerates into a final spherical wave. This non-uniform shape creates variable blast parameters along the primary blast wave. Additionally, optical measurements are validated using piezoelectric pressure transducers. The energy fraction spent in the acceleration of the metal shell is experimentally measured and correlated with the Gurney model, as well as to several empirical formulations for blasts from fragmenting munitions. The fragment area distribution is also studied using digital particle imaging analysis and correlated with the Mott distribution. Understanding the fragmentation distribution plays a critical role when performing hazard evaluation from these types of devices. In general, this technique allows for characterization of the detonator within 6-8% error

  14. Localization of the Trace Elements Iron, Zinc and Selenium in Relation to Anatomical Structures in Bovine Ovaries by X-Ray Fluorescence Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceko, Melanie J; Hummitzsch, Katja; Bonner, Wendy M; Aitken, Jade B; Spiers, Kathryn M; Rodgers, Raymond J; Harris, Hugh H

    2015-06-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was used to image 40 histological cross-sections of bovine ovaries (n=19), focusing on structures including: antral follicles at different stages of growth or atresia, corpora lutea at three stages of development (II-IV), and capillaries, arterioles, and other blood vessels. This method identified three key trace elements [iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se)] within the ovarian tissue which appeared to be localized to specific structures. Owing to minimal preprocessing of the ovaries, important high-resolution information regarding the spatial distribution of these elements was obtained with elemental trends and colocalizations of Fe and Zn apparent, as well as the infrequent appearance of Se surrounding the antrum of large follicles, as previously reported. The ability to use synchrotron radiation to measure trace element distributions in bovine ovaries at such high resolution and over such large areas could have a significant impact on understanding the mechanisms of ovarian development. This research is intended to form a baseline study of healthy ovaries which can later be extended to disease states, thereby improving our current understanding of infertility and endocrine diseases involving the ovary.

  15. Reliability of a coordinate system based on anatomical landmarks of the maxillofacial skeleton. An evaluation method for three-dimensional images obtained by cone-beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Momoko; Nawa, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Kazuhito; Muramatsu, Atsushi; Fuyamada, Mariko; Goto, Shigemi; Ariji, Eiichiro; Tokumori, Kenji; Katsumata, Akitoshi

    2009-01-01

    We propose a method for evaluating the reliability of a coordinate system based on maxillofacial skeletal landmarks and use it to assess two coordinate systems. Scatter plots and 95% confidence ellipses of an objective landmark were defined as an index for demonstrating the stability of the coordinate system. A head phantom was positioned horizontally in reference to the Frankfurt horizontal and occlusal planes and subsequently scanned once in each position using cone-beam computed tomography. On the three-dimensional images created with a volume-rendering procedure, six dentists twice set two different coordinate systems: coordinate system 1 was defined by the nasion, sella, and basion, and coordinate system 2 was based on the left orbitale, bilateral porions, and basion. The menton was assigned as an objective landmark. The scatter plot and 95% ellipse of the menton indicated the high-level reliability of coordinate system 2. The patterns with the two coordinate systems were similar between data obtained in different head positions. The method presented here may be effective for evaluating the reliability (reproducibility) of coordinate systems based on skeletal landmarks. (author)

  16. Subclinical abnormal gyration pattern, a potential anatomic marker of epileptogenic zone in patients with magnetic resonance imaging negative frontal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regis, J.; Tamura, M.; Park, M.C.; McGonigal, A.; Riviere, D.; Coulon, O.; Bartolomei, F.; Girard, N.; Figarella-Branger, D.; Chauvel, P.; Mangin, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Epilepsy surgery for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-negative patients has a less favorable outcome. Objective: Detection of subclinical abnormal gyration (SAG) patterns and their potential contribution to assessment of the topography of the epileptogenic zone (EZ) is addressed in MRI-negative patients with frontal lobe epilepsy. Methods: Between September 1998 and July 2005, 12 MRI-negative frontal lobe epilepsy patients underwent stereo-electro-encephalography with postcorticectomy follow-up of longer than 1 year (average, 3.3 years). Original software (BrainVISA/Anatomist, http://brainvisa.info) trained on a database of normal volunteers was used to determine which sulci had morphology out of the normal range (SAG). Topography of the EZ, SAG pattern, corticectomy, postoperative seizure control, and histopathology were analyzed. Results: At last follow-up, 8 of 12 patients (66.7%) were Engel class I (7 IA and 1 IB), 2 class II, and 2 class IV. Small focal cortical dysplasia was histologically diagnosed in 9 of the 12 patients (75%), including 7 of 8 seizure-free patients (87.5%). A SAG pattern was found to be in the EZ area in 9 patients (75%), in the ipsilateral frontal lobe out of the EZ in 2, and limited to the contralateral hemisphere in 1. Conclusion: SAG patterns appear to be associated with the topography of the EZ in MRI-negative frontal lobe epilepsy and may have a useful role in preoperative assessment. Small focal cortical dysplasia not detected with MRI is often found on histopathological examination, particularly in the depth of the posterior part of the superior frontal sulcus and intermediate frontal sulcus, suggesting a specific developmental critical zone in these locations. (authors)

  17. Standardization Study of Thermal Imaging using the Acupoints in Human Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Chon, Choi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The purpose of this study was to invigorate the use of infrared thermal imaging apparatus as a diagnostic tool in Oriental medicine by providing standard temperature on specific acupoints. Methods : Subjects for the study was recruited through an advertisement in the school homepage (www.sangji.ac.kr explaining the objectives and methods. 100 volunteers agreeing to terms were selected and measured the full body thermal image. Common acupoints used in the clinical surrounding were chosen and final 63 acupoints were selected for the measurement. Male/female and right / left readings were obtained for the analysis. Results : Following results were obtained from analyzing the body temperature of 50 male subjects and 50 female subjects 1. Subjects participating in the study ranged from 19 years of age to 44 years. Median male age at 26.86±6.02 and female age at 22.88±2.74, respectively. 2. For all acupoints, no significant differences were witnessed between the gender and right, left side of the body. 3. 10 acupoints from the facial region(18 bilateral, 8 acupoints from the chest /abdomen region(10bilateral, 6 acupoints from the back region(11 bilateral, 17 acupoints from the upper extremity(34bilateral, and 22 acupoints from the lower extremity(44 bilateral were chosen. 4. In the facial region, BL2 showed the highest temperature and GV26 showed the lowest. 5. In the chest/abdomen region, CV22 showed the highest temperature and CV6 showed the lowest. 6. In the back region, GV14 showed the highest temperature and BL23 showed the lowest. 7. In the upper extremity region, jianqian(extra point showed the highest temperature and baxie(extra point showed the lowest. 8. In the lower extremity region, KI1 and bafeng(extra point shoed the highest temperature and BL40 showed the lowest. Conclusions : Based on the standard body temperature measured on specific acupoints throughout the body, we hope these findings can trigger further studies on

  18. Split-screen display system and standardized methods for ultrasound image acquisition and multi-frame data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selzer, Robert H. (Inventor); Hodis, Howard N. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A standardized acquisition methodology assists operators to accurately replicate high resolution B-mode ultrasound images obtained over several spaced-apart examinations utilizing a split-screen display in which the arterial ultrasound image from an earlier examination is displayed on one side of the screen while a real-time "live" ultrasound image from a current examination is displayed next to the earlier image on the opposite side of the screen. By viewing both images, whether simultaneously or alternately, while manually adjusting the ultrasound transducer, an operator is able to bring into view the real-time image that best matches a selected image from the earlier ultrasound examination. Utilizing this methodology, dynamic material properties of arterial structures, such as IMT and diameter, are measured in a standard region over successive image frames. Each frame of the sequence has its echo edge boundaries automatically determined by using the immediately prior frame's true echo edge coordinates as initial boundary conditions. Computerized echo edge recognition and tracking over multiple successive image frames enhances measurement of arterial diameter and IMT and allows for improved vascular dimension measurements, including vascular stiffness and IMT determinations.

  19. Automatic anatomical segmentation of the liver by separation planes

    OpenAIRE

    Boltcheva , Dobrina; Passat , Nicolas; Agnus , Vincent; Jacob-Da Col , Marie-Andrée; Ronse , Christian; Soler , Luc

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Surgical planning in oncological liver surgery is based on the location of the 8 anatomical segments according to Couinaud’s definition and tumors inside these structures. The detection of the boundaries between the segments is then the first step of the preoperative planning. The proposed method, devoted to binary images of livers segmented from CT-scans, has been designed to delineate these segments. It automatically detects a set of landmarks using a priori anatomic...

  20. Anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using an individualized approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola F. van Eck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction is one of the most commonly performed orthopaedic procedures. Recently, there has been a shift in interest towards reconstruction techniques that more closely restore the native anatomy of the ACL. This review paper discusses our approach to individualized anatomic ACL reconstruction, including the anatomy of the ACL, the physical exam, imaging modalities, the surgical technique for anatomic reconstruction including pre- and intraoperative considerations and our postoperative rehabilitation protocol.

  1. Differential anatomical expression of ganglioside GM1 species containing d18:1 or d20:1 sphingosine detected by MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry in mature rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina eWeishaupt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available GM1 ganglioside plays a role in essential neuronal processes, including differentiation, survival and signaling. Yet, little is known about GM1 species with different sphingosine bases, such as the most abundant species containing 18 carbon atoms in the sphingosine chain (GM1d18:1, and the less abundant containing 20 carbon atoms (GM1d20:1. While absent in the early fetal brain, GM1d20:1 continues to increase throughout pre- and postnatal development and into old age, raising questions about the functional relevance of the GM1d18:1 to GM1d20:1 ratio. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry is a novel technology that allows differentiation between these two GM1 species and quantification of their expression within an anatomical context. Using this technology, we find GM1d18:1/d20:1 expression ratios are highly specific to defined anatomical brain regions in adult rats. Thus, the ratio was significantly different among different thalamic nuclei and between the corpus callosum and internal capsule. Differential GM1d18:1/GM1d20:1 ratios measured in hippocampal subregions in rat brain complement previous studies conducted in mice. Across layers of the sensory cortex, opposing expression gradients were found for GM1d18:1 and GM1d20:1. Superficial layers demonstrated lower GM1d18:1 and higher GM1d20:1 signal than other layers, while in deep layers GM1d18:1 expression was relatively high and GM1d20:1 expression low. By far the highest GM1d18:1/d20:1 ratio was found in the amygdala. Differential expression of GM1 with d18:1- or d20:1-sphingosine bases in the adult rat brain suggests tight regulation of expression and points toward a distinct functional relevance for each of these GM1 species in neuronal processes.

  2. Software Designation to Assess the Proximity of Different Facial Anatomic Landmarks to Midlines of the Mouth and Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshkelgosha V

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Recognition and determination of facial and dental midline is important in dentistry. Currently, there are no verifiable guidelines that direct the choice of specific anatomic landmarks to determine the midline of the face or mouth. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine which of facial anatomic landmarks is closest to the midline of the face as well as that of the mouth. Materials and Methods: Frontal full-face digital images of 92 subjects (men and women age range: 20-30 years in smile were taken under standardized conditions; commonly used anatomic landmarks, nasion, tip of the nose, and tip of the philtrum were digitized on the images of subjects and aesthetic analyzer software used for midline analysis using Esthetic Frame. Deviations from the midlines of the face and mouth were measured for the 3 clinical landmarks; the existing dental midline was considered as the fourth landmark. The entire process of midline analysis was done by a single observer and repeated twice. Reliability analysis and 1-sample t- tests were conducted. Results: The Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs for reliability analysis of RFV and RCV measures made two times revealed that the reliabilities were all acceptable. The results indicated that each of the 4 landmarks deviated uniquely and significantly (P<.001 from the midlines of the face as well as mouth in both males and females. Conclusions: There was a significant difference between the mean ratios of the chosen anatomic landmarks and the midlines of the face and mouth. The hierarchy of anatomic landmarks closest to the midline of the face is: (1 midline of the commissures, (2 nasion , (3 tip of philtrum,(4 dental midline, and (5 tip ofthe nose. The closest anatomic landmarks to the mouth midline are: (1 tip of philtrum, (2 dental midline, (3 tip of nose, and (4 nasion.

  3. Oriental eyelids. Anatomic difference and surgical consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D; Hsu, W M

    1986-01-01

    Fashions change with time and beauty standards differ in different cultures. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of immigrants to the United States from the Orient. The creation of an upper eyelid crease has been for the past several decades the most popular cosmetic procedure in many Asian countries. In order to perform this procedure to the satisfaction of an Oriental patient, the surgeon must know what the patient perceives as beautiful and the anatomic differences between the Oriental and the Occidental eyelids. In this paper with data collected from over 3,600 patients, we are presenting important statistics that enables the surgeon to understand better the Oriental mind and facilitate communications. The anatomic difference in the upper eyelid is also discussed.

  4. Differentiation of malignant from benign soft tissue tumours: use of additive qualitative and quantitative diffusion-weighted MR imaging to standard MR imaging at 3.0 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, So-Yeon; Jee, Won-Hee; Jung, Joon-Yong; Park, Michael Y.; Kim, Sun-Ki; Jung, Chan-Kwon; Chung, Yang-Guk

    2016-01-01

    To determine the added value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to differentiate malignant from benign soft tissue tumours at 3.0 T. 3.0 T MR images including DWI in 63 patients who underwent surgery for soft tissue tumours were retrospectively analyzed. Two readers independently interpreted MRI for the presence of malignancy in two steps: standard MRI alone, standard MRI and DWI with qualitative and quantitative analysis combined. There were 34 malignant and 29 non-malignant soft tissue tumours. In qualitative analysis, hyperintensity relative to skeletal muscle was more frequent in malignant than benign tumours on DWI (P=0.003). In quantitative analysis, ADCs of malignant tumours were significantly lower than those of non-malignant tumours (P≤0.002): 759±385 vs. 1188±423 μm 2 /sec minimum ADC value, 941±440 vs. 1310±440 μm 2 /sec average ADC value. The mean sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of both readers were 96 %, 72 %, and 85 % on standard MRI alone and 97 %, 90 %, and 94 % on standard MRI with DWI. The addition of DWI to standard MRI improves the diagnostic accuracy for differentiation of malignant from benign soft tissue tumours at 3.0 T. (orig.)

  5. Standard and reduced radiation dose liver CT images: adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction versus model-based iterative reconstruction-comparison of findings and image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, William P; Chan, Keith T; Busey, Janet M; Mitsumori, Lee M; Choi, Eunice; Koprowicz, Kent M; Kanal, Kalpana M

    2014-12-01

    To investigate whether reduced radiation dose liver computed tomography (CT) images reconstructed with model-based iterative reconstruction ( MBIR model-based iterative reconstruction ) might compromise depiction of clinically relevant findings or might have decreased image quality when compared with clinical standard radiation dose CT images reconstructed with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction ( ASIR adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction ). With institutional review board approval, informed consent, and HIPAA compliance, 50 patients (39 men, 11 women) were prospectively included who underwent liver CT. After a portal venous pass with ASIR adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction images, a 60% reduced radiation dose pass was added with MBIR model-based iterative reconstruction images. One reviewer scored ASIR adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction image quality and marked findings. Two additional independent reviewers noted whether marked findings were present on MBIR model-based iterative reconstruction images and assigned scores for relative conspicuity, spatial resolution, image noise, and image quality. Liver and aorta Hounsfield units and image noise were measured. Volume CT dose index and size-specific dose estimate ( SSDE size-specific dose estimate ) were recorded. Qualitative reviewer scores were summarized. Formal statistical inference for signal-to-noise ratio ( SNR signal-to-noise ratio ), contrast-to-noise ratio ( CNR contrast-to-noise ratio ), volume CT dose index, and SSDE size-specific dose estimate was made (paired t tests), with Bonferroni adjustment. Two independent reviewers identified all 136 ASIR adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction image findings (n = 272) on MBIR model-based iterative reconstruction images, scoring them as equal or better for conspicuity, spatial resolution, and image noise in 94.1% (256 of 272), 96.7% (263 of 272), and 99.3% (270 of 272), respectively. In 50 image sets, two reviewers

  6. "MASSIVE" brain dataset: Multiple acquisitions for standardization of structural imaging validation and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froeling, Martijn; Tax, Chantal M W; Vos, Sjoerd B; Luijten, Peter R; Leemans, Alexander

    2017-05-01

    In this work, we present the MASSIVE (Multiple Acquisitions for Standardization of Structural Imaging Validation and Evaluation) brain dataset of a single healthy subject, which is intended to facilitate diffusion MRI (dMRI) modeling and methodology development. MRI data of one healthy subject (female, 25 years) were acquired on a clinical 3 Tesla system (Philips Achieva) with an eight-channel head coil. In total, the subject was scanned on 18 different occasions with a total acquisition time of 22.5 h. The dMRI data were acquired with an isotropic resolution of 2.5 mm 3 and distributed over five shells with b-values up to 4000 s/mm 2 and two Cartesian grids with b-values up to 9000 s/mm 2 . The final dataset consists of 8000 dMRI volumes, corresponding B 0 field maps and noise maps for subsets of the dMRI scans, and ten three-dimensional FLAIR, T 1 -, and T 2 -weighted scans. The average signal-to-noise-ratio of the non-diffusion-weighted images was roughly 35. This unique set of in vivo MRI data will provide a robust framework to evaluate novel diffusion processing techniques and to reliably compare different approaches for diffusion modeling. The MASSIVE dataset is made publically available (both unprocessed and processed) on www.massive-data.org. Magn Reson Med 77:1797-1809, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  7. Imaging Facilities' Adherence to PI-RADS v2 Minimum Technical Standards for the Performance of Prostate MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esses, Steven J; Taneja, Samir S; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to assess variability in imaging facilities' adherence to the minimum technical standards for prostate magnetic resonance imaging acquisition established by Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) version 2 (v2). A total of 107 prostate magnetic resonance imaging examinations performed at 107 unique imaging facilities after the release of PI-RADS v2 and that were referred to a tertiary care center for secondary interpretation were included. Image sets, DICOM headers, and outside reports were reviewed to assess adherence to 21 selected PI-RADS v2 minimum technical standards. Hardware arrangements were 23.1%, 1.5T without endorectal coil; 7.7%, 1.5T with endorectal coil; 63.5%, 3T without endorectal coil; and 5.8%, 3T with endorectal coil. Adherence to minimum standards was lowest on T2 weighted imaging (T2WI) for frequency resolution ≤0.4 mm (16.8%) and phase resolution ≤0.7 mm (48.6%), lowest on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for field of view (FOV) 120-220 mm (30.0%), and lowest on dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) imaging for slice thickness 3 mm (33.3%) and temporal resolution value (≥1400 s/mm 2 ) images were included in 58.0% (calculated in 25.9%). Adherence to T2WI phase resolution and DWI inter-slice gap were greater (P  .05) for any parameter between examinations performed with and without an endorectal coil. Adherence was greater for examinations performed at teaching facilities for T2WI slice thickness and DCE temporal resolution (P  .05). Facilities' adherence to PI-RADS v2 minimum technical standards was variable, being particularly poor for T2WI frequency resolution and DCE temporal resolution. The standards warrant greater community education. Certain technical standards may be too stringent, and revisions should be considered. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Anatomical adaptations of aquatic mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidenberg, Joy S

    2007-06-01

    This special issue of the Anatomical Record explores many of the anatomical adaptations exhibited by aquatic mammals that enable life in the water. Anatomical observations on a range of fossil and living marine and freshwater mammals are presented, including sirenians (manatees and dugongs), cetaceans (both baleen whales and toothed whales, including dolphins and porpoises), pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses), the sea otter, and the pygmy hippopotamus. A range of anatomical systems are covered in this issue, including the external form (integument, tail shape), nervous system (eye, ear, brain), musculoskeletal systems (cranium, mandible, hyoid, vertebral column, flipper/forelimb), digestive tract (teeth/tusks/baleen, tongue, stomach), and respiratory tract (larynx). Emphasis is placed on exploring anatomical function in the context of aquatic life. The following topics are addressed: evolution, sound production, sound reception, feeding, locomotion, buoyancy control, thermoregulation, cognition, and behavior. A variety of approaches and techniques are used to examine and characterize these adaptations, ranging from dissection, to histology, to electron microscopy, to two-dimensional (2D) and 3D computerized tomography, to experimental field tests of function. The articles in this issue are a blend of literature review and new, hypothesis-driven anatomical research, which highlight the special nature of anatomical form and function in aquatic mammals that enables their exquisite adaptation for life in such a challenging environment. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Anatomically shaped cranial collimation (ACC) for lateral cephalometric radiography: a technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogeveen, R C; van der Stelt, P F; Berkhout, W E R

    2014-01-01

    Lateral cephalograms in orthodontic practice display an area cranial of the base of the skull that is not required for diagnostic evaluation. Attempts have been made to reduce the radiation dose to the patient using collimators combining the shielding of the areas above the base of the skull and below the mandible. These so-called "wedge-shaped" collimators have not become standard equipment in orthodontic offices, possibly because these collimators were not designed for today's combination panoramic-cephalometric imaging systems. It also may be that the anatomical variability of the area below the mandible makes this area unsuitable for standardized collimation. In addition, a wedge-shaped collimator shields the cervical vertebrae; therefore, assessment of skeletal maturation, which is based on the stage of development of the cervical vertebrae, cannot be performed. In this report, we describe our investigations into constructing a collimator to be attached to the cephalostat and shield the cranial area of the skull, while allowing the visualization of diagnostically relevant structures and markedly reducing the size of the irradiated area. The shape of the area shielded by this "anatomically shaped cranial collimator" (ACC) was based on mean measurements of cephalometric landmarks of 100 orthodontic patients. It appeared that this collimator reduced the area of irradiation by almost one-third without interfering with the imaging system or affecting the quality of the image. Further research is needed to validate the clinical efficacy of the collimator.

  10. Computerized assessment of body image in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: comparison with standardized body image assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Asaf; Amiaz, Revital; Davidson, Noa; Czerniak, Efrat; Gur, Eitan; Kiryati, Nahum; Harari, Daniel; Furst, Miriam; Stein, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Body image disturbances are a prominent feature of eating disorders (EDs). Our aim was to test and evaluate a computerized assessment of body image (CABI), to compare the body image disturbances in different ED types, and to assess the factors affecting body image. The body image of 22 individuals undergoing inpatient treatment with restricting anorexia nervosa (AN-R), 22 with binge/purge AN (AN-B/P), 20 with bulimia nervosa (BN), and 41 healthy controls was assessed using the Contour Drawing Rating Scale (CDRS), the CABI, which simulated the participants' self-image in different levels of weight changes, and the Eating Disorder Inventory-2-Body Dissatisfaction (EDI-2-BD) scale. Severity of depression and anxiety was also assessed. Significant differences were found among the three scales assessing body image, although most of their dimensions differentiated between patients with EDs and controls. Our findings support the use of the CABI in the comparison of body image disturbances in patients with EDs vs. Moreover, the use of different assessment tools allows for a better understanding of the differences in body image disturbances in different ED types.

  11. Use of virtual microscopy for didactic live-audience presentation in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, David J; Suster, Saul

    2003-02-01

    Didactic presentations on the topic of anatomic pathology in front of a live audience have been largely dependent on the use of standard 2 x 2 inch projection slides (Kodachromes) of selected still images from the topic at hand. Because of the highly visual nature of the specialty of anatomic pathology, this method has had some serious limitations. With the advent of digital imaging techniques and the availability of new electronic software for the projection of images, new possibilities have become available for didactic presentations in anatomic pathology in front of a large, live audience. We describe a method whereby large digital images or "virtual slides" were produced from digitally scanned whole-mount sections of histologic glass slides and projected using a combination of PowerPoint (Microsoft Corp, Redmond, WA) and virtual microscopy in front of a live audience. To provide a seamless transition between the two presentation formats, the personal computer-based PowerPoint slides were hyperlinked to a browser-based virtual microscope viewer. The presenter, with the use of a mouse, was able to "move" the image of the scanned slide on the screen, to transition seamlessly among various magnifications, and to rapidly select from the whole-mount scanned slide among any areas of interest pertinent to the topic. Thus, the visual experience obtained by the audience simulated that of viewing a glass slide at a multi-headed microscope during a glass slide tutorial. Because this most closely approximates the experience of reviewing glass slides under the microscope for practicing pathologists, the educational experience of the presentation is greatly enhanced by the use of this technique. Also, this method permits making this type of presentation available to a much larger group of individuals in a live audience. Copyright 2003, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  12. Submillisievert standard-pitch CT pulmonary angiography with ultra-low dose contrast media administration: A comparison to standard CT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntharalingam, Saravanabavaan; Mikat, Christian; Stenzel, Elena; Erfanian, Youssef; Wetter, Axel; Schlosser, Thomas; Forsting, Michael; Nassenstein, Kai

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the image quality and radiation dose of submillisievert standard-pitch CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) with ultra-low dose contrast media administration in comparison to standard CTPA. Hundred patients (56 females, 44 males, mean age 69.6±15.4 years; median BMI: 26.6, IQR: 5.9) with suspected pulmonary embolism were examined with two different protocols (n = 50 each, group A: 80 kVp, ref. mAs 115, 25 ml of contrast medium; group B: 100 kVp, ref. mAs 150, 60 ml of contrast medium) using a dual-source CT equipped with automated exposure control. Objective and subjective image qualities, radiation exposure as well as the frequency of pulmonary embolism were evaluated. There was no significant difference in subjective image quality scores between two groups regarding pulmonary arteries (p = 0.776), whereby the interobserver agreement was excellent (group A: k = 0.9; group B k = 1.0). Objective image analysis revealed that signal intensities (SI), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the pulmonary arteries were equal or significantly higher in group B. There was no significant difference in the frequency of pulmonary embolism (p = 0.65). Using the low dose and low contrast media protocol resulted in a radiation dose reduction by 71.8% (2.4 vs. 0.7 mSv; pcontrast agent volume can obtain sufficient image quality to exclude or diagnose pulmonary emboli while reducing radiation dose by approximately 71%.

  13. Improved magnetic resonance myelography using image fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhardt, K.; Ganslandt, O.; Stadlbauer, A.; Landesklinikum St. Poelten

    2013-01-01

    To demonstrate that the disadvantage of missing anatomical information in heavily T2-weighted MR myelography images can be eliminated by image fusion and phase encoding in the coronal direction of the source images, resulting in MR myelography images comparable to the gold standard, i. e., post-myelography CT. This study included 110 patients suffering from extradural pathologies of the cervical and lumbar spine. All patients were investigated using 3D MR myelography and post-myelography CT. The MRI data were post-processed using image fusion and reconstruction algorithms and were compared to the corresponding images of post-myelography CT. Our approach for visualization (3D MR myelography) was able to depict intradural structures in high spatial resolution and without artifacts. The results of our visualization approach were comparable to the gold standard - post-myelography CT. Anatomical correlation was reached by image fusion of different MR data sets. The required post-processing steps were performed quickly and were available on a commercial workstation. Image fusion of different MR data sets allows for visualization of 3D data sets with enhanced quality. The results for the visualization of MR myelography in particular are comparable to conventional myelography and post-myelography CT. The missing anatomical information in heavily T2-weighted MR myelography images can be compensated by image fusion with conventional MRI. (orig.)

  14. Normalization of cortical thickness measurements across different T1 magnetic resonance imaging protocols by novel W-Score standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jinyong; Yoo, Kwangsun; Lee, Peter; Kim, Chan Mi; Roh, Jee Hoon; Park, Ji Eun; Kim, Sang Joon; Seo, Sang Won; Shin, Jeong-Hyeon; Seong, Joon-Kyung; Jeong, Yong

    2017-10-01

    The use of different 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance (T1 MR) imaging protocols induces image incompatibility across multicenter studies, negating the many advantages of multicenter studies. A few methods have been developed to address this problem, but significant image incompatibility still remains. Thus, we developed a novel and convenient method to improve image compatibility. W-score standardization creates quality reference values by using a healthy group to obtain normalized disease values. We developed a protocol-specific w-score standardization to control the protocol effect, which is applied to each protocol separately. We used three data sets. In dataset 1, brain T1 MR images of normal controls (NC) and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) from two centers, acquired with different T1 MR protocols, were used (Protocol 1 and 2, n = 45/group). In dataset 2, data from six subjects, who underwent MRI with two different protocols (Protocol 1 and 2), were used with different repetition times, echo times, and slice thicknesses. In dataset 3, T1 MR images from a large number of healthy normal controls (Protocol 1: n = 148, Protocol 2: n = 343) were collected for w-score standardization. The protocol effect and disease effect on subjects' cortical thickness were analyzed before and after the application of protocol-specific w-score standardization. As expected, different protocols resulted in differing cortical thickness measurements in both NC and AD subjects. Different measurements were obtained for the same subject when imaged with different protocols. Multivariate pattern difference between measurements was observed between the protocols. Classification accuracy between two protocols was nearly 90%. After applying protocol-specific w-score standardization, the differences between the protocols substantially decreased. Most importantly, protocol-specific w-score standardization reduced both univariate and multivariate differences in the images while

  15. Technique for evaluation of spatial resolution and microcalcifications in digital and scanned images of a standard breast phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, Priscila do C.; Gomes, Danielle S.; Oliveira, Marcio A.; Oliveira, Paulo Marcio C. de; Meira-Belo, Luiz C.; Nogueira-Tavares, Maria S.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, an automated methodology to evaluate digital and scanned images of a standard phantom (Phantom Mama) was studied. The Phantom Mama was used as an important tool to check the quality of mammographs. The scanned images were digitized using a ScanMaker 9800XL, with resolution of 900 dpi. The aim of this work is to test an automatic methodology for evaluation of spatial resolution and microcalcifications group of phantom mama images acquired with the same parameters in the same equipment. In order to analyze the images we have used the ImageJ software (in Java) which is public domain. We have used the Fast Fourier transform technique to evaluate the spatial resolution and used the ImageJ function Subtract Background and the Light Background plus Sliding Paraboloid on the evaluation of the five groups of microcalcifications on the breast phantom to assess the viability of using automated methods for both types of images. The methodology was adequate for evaluated the microcalcifications group and the spatial resolution in scanned and digital images, but the Phantom Mama doesn't provide sufficient parameters to evaluate the spatial resolution in this images. (author)

  16. Principal component analysis-based anatomical motion models for use in adaptive radiation therapy of head and neck cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetvertkov, Mikhail A.

    Purpose: To develop standard and regularized principal component analysis (PCA) models of anatomical changes from daily cone beam CTs (CBCTs) of head and neck (H&N) patients, assess their potential use in adaptive radiation therapy (ART), and to extract quantitative information for treatment response assessment. Methods: Planning CT (pCT) images of H&N patients were artificially deformed to create "digital phantom" images, which modeled systematic anatomical changes during Radiation Therapy (RT). Artificial deformations closely mirrored patients' actual deformations, and were interpolated to generate 35 synthetic CBCTs, representing evolving anatomy over 35 fractions. Deformation vector fields (DVFs) were acquired between pCT and synthetic CBCTs (i.e., digital phantoms), and between pCT and clinical CBCTs. Patient-specific standard PCA (SPCA) and regularized PCA (RPCA) models were built from these synthetic and clinical DVF sets. Eigenvectors, or eigenDVFs (EDVFs), having the largest eigenvalues were hypothesized to capture the major anatomical deformations during treatment. Modeled anatomies were used to assess the dose deviations with respect to the planned dose distribution. Results: PCA models achieve variable results, depending on the size and location of anatomical change. Random changes prevent or degrade SPCA's ability to detect underlying systematic change. RPCA is able to detect smaller systematic changes against the background of random fraction-to-fraction changes, and is therefore more successful than SPCA at capturing systematic changes early in treatment. SPCA models were less successful at modeling systematic changes in clinical patient images, which contain a wider range of random motion than synthetic CBCTs, while the regularized approach was able to extract major modes of motion. For dose assessment it has been shown that the modeled dose distribution was different from the planned dose for the parotid glands due to their shrinkage and shift into

  17. Sub-milliSievert (sub-mSv) CT colonography: a prospective comparison of image quality and polyp conspicuity at reduced-dose versus standard-dose imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubner, Meghan G.; Pooler, B.D.; Kitchin, Douglas R.; Kim, David H.; Munoz del Rio, Alejandro; Pickhardt, Perry J.; Tang, Jie; Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2015-01-01

    To prospectively compare reduced-dose (RD) CT colonography (CTC) with standard-dose (SD) imaging using several reconstruction algorithms. Following SD supine CTC, 40 patients (mean age, 57.3 years; 17 M/23 F; mean BMI, 27.2) underwent an additional RD supine examination (targeted dose reduction, 70-90 %). DLP, CTDI vol , effective dose, and SSDE were compared. Several reconstruction algorithms were applied to RD series. SD-FBP served as reference standard. Objective image noise, subjective image quality and polyp conspicuity were assessed. Mean CTDI vol and effective dose for RD series was 0.89 mGy (median 0.65) and 0.6 mSv (median 0.44), compared with 3.8 mGy (median 3.1) and 2.8 mSv (median 2.3) for SD series, respectively. Mean dose reduction was 78 %. Mean image noise was significantly reduced on RD-PICCS (24.3 ± 19HU) and RD-MBIR (19 ± 18HU) compared with RD-FBP (90 ± 33), RD-ASIR (72 ± 27) and SD-FBP (47 ± 14 HU). 2D image quality score was higher with RD-PICCS, RD-MBIR, and SD-FBP (2.7 ± 0.4/2.8 ± 0.4/2.9 ± 0.6) compared with RD-FBP (1.5 ± 0.4) and RD-ASIR (1.8 ± 0.44). A similar trend was seen with 3D image quality scores. Polyp conspicuity scores were similar between SD-FBP/RD-PICCS/RD-MBIR (3.5 ± 0.6/3.2 ± 0.8/3.3 ± 0.6). Sub-milliSievert CTC performed with iterative reconstruction techniques demonstrate decreased image quality compared to SD, but improved image quality compared to RD images reconstructed with FBP. (orig.)

  18. On the new anatomical nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marecková, E; Simon, F; Cervený, L

    2001-05-01

    The present paper is concerned with the linguistic aspect of the new anatomical nomenclature (Terminologia Anatomica 1998). Orthographic, morphological, syntactic, lexical, and terminological comments are presented. In the authors' opinion, shortcomings might have been effectively avoided by cooperation with linguists.

  19. Anatomical decomposition in dual energy chest digital tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Ye-seul; Choi, Sunghoon; Lee, Haenghwa; Choi, Seungyeon; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2016-03-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide and the early diagnosis of lung cancer has recently become more important. For early screening lung cancer, computed tomography (CT) has been used as a gold standard for early diagnosis of lung cancer [1]. The major advantage of CT is that it is not susceptible to the problem of misdiagnosis caused by anatomical overlapping while CT has extremely high radiation dose and cost compared to chest radiography. Chest digital tomosynthesis (CDT) is a recently introduced new modality for lung cancer screening with relatively low radiation dose compared to CT [2] and also showing high sensitivity and specificity to prevent anatomical overlapping occurred in chest radiography. Dual energy material decomposition method has been proposed for better detection of pulmonary nodules as means of reducing the anatomical noise [3]. In this study, possibility of material decomposition in CDT was tested by simulation study and actual experiment using prototype CDT. Furthermore organ absorbed dose and effective dose were compared with single energy CDT. The Gate v6 (Geant4 application for tomographic emission), and TASMIP (Tungsten anode spectral model using the interpolating polynomial) code were used for simulation study and simulated cylinder shape phantom consisted of 4 inner beads which were filled with spine, rib, muscle and lung equivalent materials. The patient dose was estimated by PCXMC 1.5 Monte Carlo simulation tool [4]. The tomosynthesis scan was performed with a linear movement and 21 projection images were obtained over 30 degree of angular range with 1.5° degree of angular interval. The proto type CDT system has same geometry with simulation study and composed of E7869X (Toshiba, Japan) x-ray tube and FDX3543RPW (Toshiba, Japan) detector. The result images showed that reconstructed with dual energy clearly visualize lung filed by removing unnecessary bony structure. Furthermore, dual energy CDT could enhance

  20. International Image Concordance Study to Compare a Point-of-Care Tampon Colposcope With a Standard-of-Care Colposcope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jenna L; Asma, Elizabeth; Lam, Christopher T; Krieger, Marlee S; Gallagher, Jennifer E; Erkanli, Alaattin; Hariprasad, Roopa; Malliga, J S; Muasher, Lisa C; Mchome, Bariki; Oneko, Olola; Taylor, Peyton; Venegas, Gino; Wanyoro, Anthony; Mehrotra, Ravi; Schmitt, John W; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2017-04-01

    Barriers to cervical cancer screening in low-resource settings include lack of accessible, high-quality services, high cost, and the need for multiple visits. To address these challenges, we developed a low-cost, intravaginal, optical cervical imaging device, the point-of-care tampon (POCkeT) colposcope and evaluated whether its performance is comparable with a standard-of-care colposcope. There were 2 protocols, which included 44 and 18 patients. For the first protocol, white-light cervical images were collected in vivo, blinded by device, and sent electronically to 8 physicians from high-, middle-, and low-income countries. For the second protocol, green-light images were also collected and sent electronically to the highest performing physician from the first protocol who has experience in both a high- and low-income country. For each image, physicians completed a survey assessing cervix characteristics and severity of precancerous lesions. Corresponding pathology was obtained for all image pairs. For the first protocol, average percent agreement between devices was 70% across all physicians. The POCkeT and standard-of-care colposcope images had 37% and 51% agreement with pathology for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs), respectively. Investigation of HSIL POCkeT images revealed decreased visibility of vascularization and lack of contrast in lesion margins. After changes were made for the second protocol, the 2 devices achieved similar agreement to pathology for HSIL lesions (55%). Based on the exploratory study, physician interpretation of cervix images acquired using a portable, low-cost POCkeT colposcope was comparable to a standard-of-care colposcope.

  1. Watermarking Techniques Using Least Significant Bit Algorithm for Digital Image Security Standard Solution- Based Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Muzakir

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ease of deployment of digital image through the internet has positive and negative sides, especially for owners of the original digital image. The positive side of the ease of rapid deployment is the owner of that image deploys digital image files to various sites in the world address. While the downside is that if there is no copyright that serves as protector of the image it will be very easily recognized ownership by other parties. Watermarking is one solution to protect the copyright and know the results of the digital image. With Digital Image Watermarking, copyright resulting digital image will be protected through the insertion of additional information such as owner information and the authenticity of the digital image. The least significant bit (LSB is one of the algorithm is simple and easy to understand. The results of the simulations carried out using android smartphone shows that the LSB watermarking technique is not able to be seen by naked human eye, meaning there is no significant difference in the image of the original files with images that have been inserted watermarking. The resulting image has dimensions of 640x480 with a bit depth of 32 bits. In addition, to determine the function of the ability of the device (smartphone in processing the image using this application used black box testing. 

  2. Post-processing image filtration enabling dose reduction in standard abdominal CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leander, Peter; Söderberg, Marcus; Fält, Tobias; Gunnarsson, Mikael; Albertsson, Ida

    2010-01-01

    The collective effective radiation dose to the population is increasing due to a higher use of computerised tomography. SharpView AB, Linköping, Sweden, has developed an adaptive non-linear post-processing image filtration that may enable the use of lower radiation doses. The present study assessed if a lower dose with image filtration had the same image quality as a higher dose without the filter applied. All imaging was performed on a Siemens Somatom Sensation 16 CT. The parameters used were 120 kV and 200 mAs (40 patients) and 130 mAs without and with image filtering (40 patients), respectively. All studies were quantitatively evaluated for noise and image quality was assessed by visual grading characteristics (VGC) analysis. After image filtration, the noise in the processed images was lowered and the image quality was improved as shown by the VGC analysis. However, images using the higher dose were still ranked as the best in five out of eight criteria as shown by the VGC analysis. Image filtration enhances CT images significantly and further studies will show if 130 mAs with image filtration may be sufficient for clinically general abdominal CT.

  3. Anatomic Preformed Post: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Lamas Lara, César; Cirujano Dentista, Docente del Área de Operatoria Dental y Endodoncia de la Facultad de OdontoIogía de la UNMSM.; Alvarado Menacho, Sergio; Cirujano Dentista, Especialista en Rehabilitación Oral, Profesor Asociado del Área de Prótesis y Oclusión de la Facultad de Odontología de la UNMSM.; Pari Espinoza, Rosa; Alumna del 5to año de Odontología de la UNMSM.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, preformed posts are being used frequently, but they do not follow root canal anatomy. Obtaining a more anatomical form of the root canal and reducing the space of the cement, it would help to reduce the possibility of its eviction. This article details the process of making of an anatomical preformed post and the advantages that would represent its clinical use. En la actualidad los postes preformados se utilizan con mucha frecuencia, pero tienenla dificultad de no seguir la anat...

  4. Development of a viability standard curve for microencapsulated probiotic bacteria using confocal microscopy and image analysis software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sarah; Kailasapathy, Kasipathy; Phillips, Michael; Jones, Mark R

    2015-07-01

    Microencapsulation is proposed to protect probiotic strains from food processing procedures and to maintain probiotic viability. Little research has described the in situ viability of microencapsulated probiotics. This study successfully developed a real-time viability standard curve for microencapsulated bacteria using confocal microscopy, fluorescent dyes and image analysis software. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of image quality between mammography dedicated monitor and UHD 4K monitor, using standard mammographic phantom: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Young; Cha, Soon Joo; Hong, Sung Hwan; Kim, Su Young; Kim, Yong Hoon; Kim, You Sung; Kim, Jeong A [Dept. of Radiology, Inje Unveristy Ilsan Paik Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Using standard mammographic phantom images, we compared the image quality obtained between a mammography dedicated 5 megapixel monitor (5M) and a UHD 4K (4K) monitor with digital imaging and communications in medicine display, to investigate the possibility of clinical application of 4K monitors. Three different exposures (autoexposure, overexposure and underexposure) images of mammographic phantom were obtained, and six radiologists independently evaluated the images in 5M and 4K without image modulation, by scoring of fibers, groups of specks and masses within the phantom image. The mean score of each object on both monitors was independently analyzed, using t-test and interobserver reliability by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of SPSS. The overall mean scores of fiber, group of specks, and mass in 5M were 4.25, 3.92, and 3.28 respectively, and scores obtained in 4K monitor were 3.81, 3.58, and 3.14, respectively. No statistical difference was seen in scores of fiber and mass between the two monitors at all exposure conditions, but the score of group of specks in 4K was statistically lower in the overall (p = 0.0492) and in underexposure conditions (p = 0.012). The ICC for interobserver reliability was excellent (0.874). Our study suggests that since the mammographic phantom images are appropriate with no significant difference in image quality observed between the two monitors, the 4K monitor could be used for clinical studies. Since this is a small preliminary study using phantom images, the result may differ in actual mammographic images, and subsequent investigation with clinical mammographic images is required.

  6. Computed tomography of the cervical spine: comparison of image quality between a standard-dose and a low-dose protocol using filtered back-projection and iterative reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becce, Fabio [University of Lausanne, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland); Universite Catholique Louvain, Department of Radiology, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Brussels (Belgium); Ben Salah, Yosr; Berg, Bruno C. vande; Lecouvet, Frederic E.; Omoumi, Patrick [Universite Catholique Louvain, Department of Radiology, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Brussels (Belgium); Verdun, Francis R. [University of Lausanne, Institute of Radiation Physics, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland); Meuli, Reto [University of Lausanne, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2013-07-15

    To compare image quality of a standard-dose (SD) and a low-dose (LD) cervical spine CT protocol using filtered back-projection (FBP) and iterative reconstruction (IR). Forty patients investigated by cervical spine CT were prospectively randomised into two groups: SD (120 kVp, 275 mAs) and LD (120 kVp, 150 mAs), both applying automatic tube current modulation. Data were reconstructed using both FBP and sinogram-affirmed IR. Image noise, signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR) ratios were measured. Two radiologists independently and blindly assessed the following anatomical structures at C3-C4 and C6-C7 levels, using a four-point scale: intervertebral disc, content of neural foramina and dural sac, ligaments, soft tissues and vertebrae. They subsequently rated overall image quality using a ten-point scale. For both protocols and at each disc level, IR significantly decreased image noise and increased SNR and CNR, compared with FBP. SNR and CNR were statistically equivalent in LD-IR and SD-FBP protocols. Regardless of the dose and disc level, the qualitative scores with IR compared with FBP, and with LD-IR compared with SD-FBP, were significantly higher or not statistically different for intervertebral discs, neural foramina and ligaments, while significantly lower or not statistically different for soft tissues and vertebrae. The overall image quality scores were significantly higher with IR compared with FBP, and with LD-IR compared with SD-FBP. LD-IR cervical spine CT provides better image quality for intervertebral discs, neural foramina and ligaments, and worse image quality for soft tissues and vertebrae, compared with SD-FBP, while reducing radiation dose by approximately 40 %. (orig.)

  7. Development of an Amendment to X3D to Create a Standard Specification of Medical Image Volume Rendering, Segmentation, and Registration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ressler, Sandy; Aratow, Mike

    2006-01-01

    ...) medical imaging data. Extensible 3D (X3D) is an International Standards Organization (ISO) ratified, freely available standard that defines a runtime system and delivery mechanism for 3D graphics on the World Wide Web...

  8. MIB-1 Index-Stratified Assessment of Dual-Tracer PET/CT with68Ga-DOTATATE and18F-FDG and Multimodality Anatomic Imaging in Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumors of Unknown Primary in a PRRT Workup Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampathirao, Nikita; Basu, Sandip

    2017-03-01

    Our aim was to comparatively assess dual-tracer PET/CT ( 68 Ga-DOTATATE and 18 F-FDG) and multimodality anatomic imaging in studying metastatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of unknown primary (CUP-NETs) scheduled for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy for divergence of tracer uptake on dual-tracer PET/CT, detection of primary, and overall lesion detection vis-a-vis tumor proliferation index (MIB-1/Ki-67). Methods: Fifty-one patients with CUP-NETs (25 men, 26 women; age, 22-74 y), histopathologically proven and thoroughly investigated with conventional imaging modalities (ultrasonography, CT/contrast-enhanced CT, MRI, and endoscopic ultrasound, wherever applicable), were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were primarily referred for deciding on feasibility of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (except 2 patients), and all had undergone 68 Ga-DOTATATE and 18 F-FDG PET/CT as part of pretreatment workup. The sites of metastases included liver, lung/mediastinum, skeleton, abdominal nodes, and other soft-tissue sites. Patients were divided into 5 groups on the basis of MIB-1/Ki-67 index on a 5-point scale: group I (1%-5%) ( n = 35), group II (6%-10%) ( n = 8), group III (11%-15%) ( n = 4), group IV (16%-20%) ( n = 2), and group V (>20%) ( n = 2). Semiquantitative analysis of tracer uptake was undertaken by SUV max of metastatic lesions and the primary (when detected). The SUV max values were studied over increasing MIB-1/Ki-67 index. The detection sensitivity of 68 Ga-DOTATATE for primary and metastatic lesions was assessed and compared with other imaging modalities including 18 F-FDG PET/CT. Results: Unknown primary was detected on 68 Ga-DOTATATE in 31 of 51 patients, resulting in sensitivity of 60.78% whereas overall lesion detection sensitivity was 96.87%. The overall lesion detection sensitivities (individual groupwise from group I to group V) were 97.75%, 87.5%, 100%, 100%, and 66.67%, respectively. As MIB-1/Ki-67 index increased, 68 Ga-DOTATATE uptake

  9. JJ1017 committee report: image examination order codes--standardized codes for imaging modality, region, and direction with local expansion: an extension of DICOM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Michio; Kuranishi, Makoto; Sukenobu, Yoshiharu; Watanabe, Hiroki; Tani, Shigeki; Sakusabe, Takaya; Nakajima, Takashi; Morimura, Shinya; Kabata, Shun

    2002-06-01

    The digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) standard includes parts regarding nonimage data information, such as image study ordering data and performed procedure data, and is used for sharing information between HIS/RIS and modality systems, which is essential for IHE. To bring such parts of the DICOM standard into force in Japan, a joint committee of JIRA and JAHIS established the JJ1017 management guideline, specifying, for example, which items are legally required in Japan, while remaining optional in the DICOM standard. In Japan, the contents of orders from referring physicians for radiographic examinations include details of the examination. Such details are not used typically by referring physicians requesting radiographic examinations in the United States, because radiologists in the United States often determine the examination protocol. The DICOM standard has code tables for examination type, region, and direction for image examination orders. However, this investigation found that it does not include items that are detailed sufficiently for use in Japan, because of the above-mentioned reason. To overcome these drawbacks, we have generated the JJ1017 code for these 3 codes for use based on the JJ1017 guidelines. This report introduces the JJ1017 code. These codes (the study type codes in particular) must be expandable to keep up with technical advances in equipment. Expansion has 2 directions: width for covering more categories and depth for specifying the information in more detail (finer categories). The JJ1017 code takes these requirements into consideration and clearly distinguishes between the stem part as the common term and the expansion. The stem part of the JJ1017 code partially utilizes the DICOM codes to remain in line with the DICOM standard. This work is an example of how local requirements can be met by using the DICOM standard and extending it.

  10. A Comparison of Image Quality and Radiation Exposure Between the Mini C-Arm and the Standard C-Arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rappard, Juliaan R M; Hummel, Willy A; de Jong, Tijmen; Mouës, Chantal M

    2018-04-01

    The use of intraoperative fluoroscopy has become mandatory in osseous hand surgery. Due to its overall practicality, the mini C-arm has gained popularity among hand surgeons over the standard C-arm. This study compares image quality and radiation exposure for patient and staff between the mini C-arm and the standard C-arm, both with flat panel technology. An observer-based subjective image quality study was performed using a contrast detail (CD) phantom. Five independent observers were asked to determine the smallest circles discernable to them. The results were plotted in a graph, forming a CD curve. From each curve, an image quality figure (IQF) was derived. A lower IQF equates to a better image quality. The patients' entrance skin dose was measured, and to obtain more information about the staff exposure dose, a perspex hand phantom was used. The scatter radiation was measured at various distances and angles relative to a central point on the detector. The IQF was significantly lower for the mini C-arm resulting in a better image quality. The patients' entrance dose was 10 times higher for the mini C-arm as compared with the standard C-arm, and the scatter radiation threefold. Due to its improved image quality and overall practicality, the mini C-arm is recommended for hand surgical procedures. To ensure that the surgeons' radiation exposure is not exceeding the safety limits, monitoring radiation exposure using mini C-arms with flat panel technology during surgery should be done in a future clinical study.

  11. Workshop on Standards for Image Pattern Recognition. Computer Seience & Technology Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, John M. , Ed.; And Others

    Automatic image pattern recognition techniques have been successfully applied to improving productivity and quality in both manufacturing and service applications. Automatic Image Pattern Recognition Algorithms are often developed and tested using unique data bases for each specific application. Quantitative comparison of different approaches and…

  12. Feature-based morphometry: discovering group-related anatomical patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Matthew; Wells, William; Collins, D Louis; Arbel, Tal

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents feature-based morphometry (FBM), a new fully data-driven technique for discovering patterns of group-related anatomical structure in volumetric imagery. In contrast to most morphometry methods which assume one-to-one correspondence between subjects, FBM explicitly aims to identify distinctive anatomical patterns that may only be present in subsets of subjects, due to disease or anatomical variability. The image is modeled as a collage of generic, localized image features that need not be present in all subjects. Scale-space theory is applied to analyze image features at the characteristic scale of underlying anatomical structures, instead of at arbitrary scales such as global or voxel-level. A probabilistic model describes features in terms of their appearance, geometry, and relationship to subject groups, and is automatically learned from a set of subject images and group labels. Features resulting from learning correspond to group-related anatomical structures that can potentially be used as image biomarkers of disease or as a basis for computer-aided diagnosis. The relationship between features and groups is quantified by the likelihood of feature occurrence within a specific group vs. the rest of the population, and feature significance is quantified in terms of the false discovery rate. Experiments validate FBM clinically in the analysis of normal (NC) and Alzheimer's (AD) brain images using the freely available OASIS database. FBM automatically identifies known structural differences between NC and AD subjects in a fully data-driven fashion, and an equal error classification rate of 0.80 is achieved for subjects aged 60-80 years exhibiting mild AD (CDR=1). Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. WE-G-BRD-07: Automated MR Image Standardization and Auto-Contouring Strategy for MRI-Based Adaptive Brachytherapy for Cervix Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, H Al; Erickson, B; Paulson, E [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: MRI-based adaptive brachytherapy (ABT) is an emerging treatment modality for patients with gynecological tumors. However, MR image intensity non-uniformities (IINU) can vary from fraction to fraction, complicating image interpretation and auto-contouring accuracy. We demonstrate here an automated MR image standardization and auto-contouring strategy for MRI-based ABT of cervix cancer. Methods: MR image standardization consisted of: 1) IINU correction using the MNI N3 algorithm, 2) noise filtering using anisotropic diffusion, and 3) signal intensity normalization using the volumetric median. This post-processing chain was implemented as a series of custom Matlab and Java extensions in MIM (v6.4.5, MIM Software) and was applied to 3D T2 SPACE images of six patients undergoing MRI-based ABT at 3T. Coefficients of variation (CV=σ/µ) were calculated for both original and standardized images and compared using Mann-Whitney tests. Patient-specific cumulative MR atlases of bladder, rectum, and sigmoid contours were constructed throughout ABT, using original and standardized MR images from all previous ABT fractions. Auto-contouring was performed in MIM two ways: 1) best-match of one atlas image to the daily MR image, 2) multi-match of all previous fraction atlas images to the daily MR image. Dice’s Similarity Coefficients (DSCs) were calculated for auto-generated contours relative to reference contours for both original and standardized MR images and compared using Mann-Whitney tests. Results: Significant improvements in CV were detected following MR image standardization (p=0.0043), demonstrating an improvement in MR image uniformity. DSCs consistently increased for auto-contoured bladder, rectum, and sigmoid following MR image standardization, with the highest DSCs detected when the combination of MR image standardization and multi-match cumulative atlas-based auto-contouring was utilized. Conclusion: MR image standardization significantly improves MR image

  14. WE-G-BRD-07: Automated MR Image Standardization and Auto-Contouring Strategy for MRI-Based Adaptive Brachytherapy for Cervix Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, H Al; Erickson, B; Paulson, E

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: MRI-based adaptive brachytherapy (ABT) is an emerging treatment modality for patients with gynecological tumors. However, MR image intensity non-uniformities (IINU) can vary from fraction to fraction, complicating image interpretation and auto-contouring accuracy. We demonstrate here an automated MR image standardization and auto-contouring strategy for MRI-based ABT of cervix cancer. Methods: MR image standardization consisted of: 1) IINU correction using the MNI N3 algorithm, 2) noise filtering using anisotropic diffusion, and 3) signal intensity normalization using the volumetric median. This post-processing chain was implemented as a series of custom Matlab and Java extensions in MIM (v6.4.5, MIM Software) and was applied to 3D T2 SPACE images of six patients undergoing MRI-based ABT at 3T. Coefficients of variation (CV=σ/µ) were calculated for both original and standardized images and compared using Mann-Whitney tests. Patient-specific cumulative MR atlases of bladder, rectum, and sigmoid contours were constructed throughout ABT, using original and standardized MR images from all previous ABT fractions. Auto-contouring was performed in MIM two ways: 1) best-match of one atlas image to the daily MR image, 2) multi-match of all previous fraction atlas images to the daily MR image. Dice’s Similarity Coefficients (DSCs) were calculated for auto-generated contours relative to reference contours for both original and standardized MR images and compared using Mann-Whitney tests. Results: Significant improvements in CV were detected following MR image standardization (p=0.0043), demonstrating an improvement in MR image uniformity. DSCs consistently increased for auto-contoured bladder, rectum, and sigmoid following MR image standardization, with the highest DSCs detected when the combination of MR image standardization and multi-match cumulative atlas-based auto-contouring was utilized. Conclusion: MR image standardization significantly improves MR image

  15. Variation in radiotherapy target volume definition, dose to organs at risk and clinical target volumes using anatomic (computed tomography) versus combined anatomic and molecular imaging (positron emission tomography/computed tomography): intensity-modulated radiotherapy delivered using a tomotherapy Hi Art machine: final results of the VortigERN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, S; Frew, J; Mott, J; McCallum, H; Stevenson, P; Maxwell, R; Wilsdon, J; Kelly, C G

    2012-12-01

    Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) is the current standard for delineating tumours of the head and neck for radiotherapy. Although metabolic imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) has been used in recent years, the studies were non-confirmatory in establishing its routine role in radiotherapy planning in the modern era. This study explored the difference in gross tumour volume and clinical target volume definitions for the primary and nodal volumes when FDG PET/CT was used as compared with CECT in oropharyngeal cancer cases. Twenty patients with oropharyngeal cancers had a PET/CT scan in the treatment position after consent. Target volumes were defined on CECT scans by a consultant clinical oncologist who was blind to the PET scans. After obtaining inputs from a radiologist, another set of target volumes were outlined on the PET/CT data set. The gross and clinical target volumes as defined on the two data sets were then analysed. The hypothesis of more accurate target delineation, preventing geographical miss and comparative overlap volumes between CECT and PET/CT, was explored. The study also analysed the volumes of intersection and analysed whether there was any TNM stage migration when PET/CT was used as compared with CECT for planning. In 17 of 20 patients, the TNM stage was not altered when adding FDG PET information to CT. PET information prevented geographical miss in two patients and identified distant metastases in one case. PET/CT gross tumour volumes were smaller than CECT volumes (mean ± standard deviation: 25.16 cm(3) ± 35.8 versus 36.56 cm(3) ± 44.14; P standard deviation: CECT versus PET/CT 32.48 cm(3) ± 36.63 versus 32.21 cm(3) ± 37.09; P > 0.86) were not statistically different. Similarity and discordance coefficients were calculated and are reported. PET/CT as compared with CECT could provide more clinically relevant information and prevent geographical miss when used for radiotherapy planning for advanced oropharyngeal

  16. Celiac plexus block: an anatomical study and simulation using computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Augusta Mateus Pereira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze anatomical variations associated with celiac plexus complex by means of computed tomography simulation, assessing the risk for organ injury as the transcrural technique is utilized. Materials and Methods: One hundred eight transaxial computed tomography images of abdomen were analyzed. The aortic-vertebral, celiac trunk (CeT-vertebral, CeT-aortic and celiac-aortic-vertebral topographical relationships were recorded. Two needle insertion pathways were drawn on each of the images, at right and left, 9 cm and 4.5 cm away from the midline. Transfixed vital organs and gender-related associations were recorded. Results: Aortic-vertebral - 45.37% at left and 54.62% in the middle; CeT-vertebral - T12, 36.11%; T12-L1, 32.4%; L1, 27.77%; T11-T12, 2.77%; CeT-aortic - 53.7% at left and 46.3% in the middle; celiac-aortic-vertebral - L-l, 22.22%; M-m, 23.15%; L-m, 31.48%; M-l, 23.15%. Neither correspondence on the right side nor significant gender-related associations were observed. Conclusion: Considering the wide range of abdominal anatomical variations and the characteristics of needle insertion pathways, celiac plexus block should not be standardized. Imaging should be performed prior to the procedure in order to reduce the risks for injuries or for negative outcomes to patients. Gender-related anatomical variations involved in celiac plexus block should be more deeply investigated, since few studies have addressed the subject.

  17. Celiac plexus block: an anatomical study and simulation using computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Gabriela Augusta Mateus; Lopes, Paulo Tadeu Campos; Santos, Ana Maria Pujol Vieira dos, E-mail: pclopes@ulbra.br [Universidade Luterana do Brasil (Ulbra), Canoas, RS (Brazil); Pozzobon, Adriane [Centro Universitario Univates, Lajeado, RS (Brazil); Duarte, Rodrigo Dias; Cima, Alexandre da Silveira; Massignan, Angela [Fundacao Serdil/Saint Pastous, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Objective: to analyze anatomical variations associated with celiac plexus complex by means of computed tomography simulation, assessing the risk for organ injury as the transcrural technique is utilized. Materials and Methods: one hundred eight transaxial computed tomography images of abdomen were analyzed. The aortic-vertebral, celiac trunk (CeT)-vertebral, CeT-aortic and celiac-aortic-vertebral topographical relationships were recorded. Two needle insertion pathways were drawn on each of the images, at right and left, 9 cm and 4.5 cm away from the midline. Transfixed vital organs and gender-related associations were recorded. Results: aortic-vertebral - 45.37% at left and 54.62% in the middle; CeT-vertebral - T12, 36.11%; T12-L1, 32.4%; L1, 27.77%; T11-T12, 2.77%; CeT-aortic - 53.7% at left and 46.3% in the middle; celiac-aortic-vertebral - L-l, 22.22%; M-m, 23.15%; L-m, 31.48%; M-l, 23.15%. Neither correspondence on the right side nor significant gender-related associations were observed. Conclusion: considering the wide range of abdominal anatomical variations and the characteristics of needle insertion pathways, celiac plexus block should not be standardized. Imaging should be performed prior to the procedure in order to reduce the risks for injuries or for negative outcomes to patients. Gender-related anatomical variations involved in celiac plexus block should be more deeply investigated, since few studies have addressed the subject. (author)

  18. Detection of proximal caries in vitro using standard and task-specific enhanced images from a storage phosphor plate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G; Sanderink, G C H; Berkhout, W E R; Syriopoulos, K; van der Stelt, P F

    2007-01-01

    Eight dentists evaluated 72 proximal surfaces of premolars with respect to all caries lesions and to lesions into dentine in digital images from a storage phosphor plate system. The images were processed in four different ways: (1) the default algorithm of the standard imaging system (DF); (2) an algorithm correcting for attenuation and visual response (AV), and two proprietary caries-specific enhancement algorithms (3) K1, and (4) K2, respectively. The lesions were validated by histological examination. There were no significant differences in the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves between differently processed radiographs for the categories of all caries lesions and caries into dentine. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Standard magnetic resonance imaging is inadequate for patients with refractory focal epilepsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oertzen, J. von; Urbach, H.; Jungbluth, S.; Kurthen, M.; Reuber, M.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Elger, C.E.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Patients with intractable epilepsy may benefit from epilepsy surgery especially if they have a radiologically demonstrable cerebral lesion. Dedicated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols as performed at epilepsy surgery centres can detect epileptogenic abnormalities with great

  20. A standard data set for performance analysis of advanced IR image processing techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, A.R.; Adomeit, U.; Chevalier, P.; Landeau, S.; Bijl, P.; Champagnat, F.; Dijk, J.; Göhler, B.; Landini, S.; Reynolds, J.P.; Smith, L.N.

    2012-01-01

    Modern IR cameras are increasingly equipped with built-in advanced (often non-linear) image and signal processing algorithms (like fusion, super-resolution, dynamic range compression etc.) which can tremendously influence performance characteristics. Traditional approaches to range performance

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of standard radiotherapy field borders in patients with uterine cervix cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire, Geison Moreira; Dias, Rodrigo Souza; Giordani, Adelmo Jose; Segreto, Helena Regina Comodo; Segreto, Roberto Araujo; Ribalta, Julisa Chamorro Lascasas

    2010-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate, by means of magnetic resonance imaging, the standardized field borders in radiotherapy for malignant neoplasm of uterine cervix, and to determine the role of this method in the reduction of possible planning errors related to the conventional technique. Materials and methods: magnetic resonance imaging studies for planning of treatment of 51 patients with uterine cervix cancer were retrospectively analyzed. The parameters assessed were the anterior and posterior field borders on sagittal section. Results: The anterior field border was inappropriate in 20 (39.2%) patients and geographic miss was observed in 37.3% of cases in the posterior border. The inappropriateness of both field borders did not correlate with clinical parameters such as patients' age, tumor staging, histological type and degree. Conclusion: the evaluation of standardized field borders with the use of magnetic resonance imaging has demonstrated high indices of inappropriateness of the lateral field borders, as well as the relevant role of magnetic resonance imaging in the radiotherapy planning for patients with uterine cervix cancer with a view to reduce the occurrence of geographic miss of the target volume. (author)

  2. Quantitative Image Quality Comparison of Reduced- and Standard-Dose Dual-Energy Multiphase Chest, Abdomen, and Pelvis CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buty, Mario; Xu, Ziyue; Wu, Aaron; Gao, Mingchen; Nelson, Chelyse; Papadakis, Georgios Z; Teomete, Uygar; Celik, Haydar; Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter; Mollura, Daniel J; Bagci, Ulas; Folio, Les R

    2017-06-01

    We present a new image quality assessment method for determining whether reducing radiation dose impairs the image quality of computed tomography (CT) in qualitative and quantitative clinical analyses tasks. In this Institutional Review Board-exempt study, we conducted a review of 50 patients (male, 22; female, 28) who underwent reduced-dose CT scanning on the first follow-up after standard-dose multiphase CT scanning. Scans were for surveillance of von Hippel-Lindau disease (N = 26) and renal cell carcinoma (N = 10). We investigated density, morphometric, and structural differences between scans both at tissue (fat, bone) and organ levels (liver, heart, spleen, lung). To quantify structural variations caused by image quality differences, we propose using the following metrics: dice similarity coefficient, structural similarity index, Hausdorff distance, gradient magnitude similarity deviation, and weighted spectral distance. Pearson correlation coefficient and Welch 2-sample t test were used for quantitative comparisons of organ morphometry and to compare density distribution of tissue, respectively. For qualitative evaluation, 2-sided Kendall Tau test was used to assess agreement among readers. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluations were designed to examine significance of image differences for clinical tasks. Qualitative judgment served as an overall assessment, whereas detailed quantifications on structural consistency, intensity homogeneity, and texture similarity revealed more accurate and global difference estimations. Qualitative and quantitative results indicated no significant image quality degradation. Our study concludes that low(er)-dose CT scans can be routinely used because of no significant loss in quantitative image information compared with standard-dose CT scans.

  3. Needs Assessment for Standardized Medical Student Imaging Education: Review of the Literature and a Survey of Deans and Chairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Emily M; Naeger, David M; McNulty, Nancy J; Straus, Christopher M

    2015-10-01

    Medical imaging education often has limited representation in formal medical student curricula. Although the need for greater inclusion of radiology material is generally agreed on, the exact skillset that should be taught is less clear. The purpose of our study was to perform a needs assessment for a national radiology curriculum for medical students. We analyzed data from previous unpublished portions of the American College of Radiology/Alliance of Medical Student Educators in Radiology survey of Deans and Radiology Chairs regarding prevalence of radiology curricular revisions, assessment tools, use of the American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria, and resources used in curriculum revision. We also performed a literature search through both PubMED and a general search engine (Google) to identify available resources for designing and implementing imaging curricula and curricular revisions. Medical school deans and chairs reported a need for more overall radiology content; one of every six programs (15%) reported they had no recognized imaging curriculum. Of schools currently with imaging curricula, 82% have undergone revision in the last 10 years using a variety of different resources, but there is no universally agreed on guide or standard curriculum. The PubMED and Google searches identified only 23 and eight resources, respectively, suggesting a sizable deficit in available guidance; however, a single published medical student radiology curriculum is available through the Alliance of Medical Student Educators in Radiology. There is a need, but few available resources, to guide educators in adding imaging content to medical school curricula. We postulate that a standardized national curriculum directed by a focused skillset may be useful to educators and could result in greater uniformity of imaging skills among graduating US medical students. A proposed skillset to guide a national curriculum in radiology is described. Copyright © 2015 AUR

  4. Anatomic Boundaries of the Clinical Target Volume (Prostate Bed) After Radical Prostatectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltshire, Kirsty L.; Brock, Kristy K.; Haider, Masoom A.; Zwahlen, Daniel; Kong, Vickie; Chan, Elisa; Moseley, Joanne; Bayley, Andrew; Catton, Charles; Chung, Peter W.M.; Gospodarowicz, Mary; Milosevic, Michael; Kneebone, Andrew; Warde, Padraig; Menard, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to derive and validate an interdisciplinary consensus definition for the anatomic boundaries of the postoperative clinical target volume (CTV, prostate bed). Methods and Materials: Thirty one patients who had planned for radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy were enrolled and underwent computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) simulation prior to radiotherapy. Through an iterative process of consultation and discussion, an interdisciplinary consensus definition was derived based on a review of published data, patterns of local failure, surgical practice, and radiologic anatomy. In validation, we analyzed the distribution of surgical clips in reference to the consensus CTV and measured spatial uncertainties in delineating the CTV and vesicourethral anastomosis. Clinical radiotherapy plans were retrospectively evaluated against the consensus CTV (prostate bed). Results: Anatomic boundaries of the consensus CTV (prostate bed) are described. Surgical clips (n = 339) were well distributed throughout the CTV. The vesicourethral anastomosis was accurately localized using central sagittal computed tomography reconstruction, with a mean ± standard deviation uncertainty of 1.8 ± 2.5 mm. Delineation uncertainties were small for both MRI and computed tomography (mean reproducibility, 0-3.8 mm; standard deviation, 1.0-2.3); they were most pronounced in the anteroposterior and superoinferior dimensions and at the superior/posterior-most aspect of the CTV. Retrospectively, the mean ± standard deviation CTV (prostate bed) percentage of volume receiving 100% of prescribed dose was only 77% ± 26%. Conclusions: We propose anatomic boundaries for the CTV (prostate bed) and present evidence supporting its validity. In the absence of gross recurrence, the role of MRI in delineating the CTV remains to be confirmed. The CTV is larger than historically practiced at our institution and should be encompassed by a microscopic tumoricidal dose

  5. Fusing Simultaneous EEG and fMRI Using Functional and Anatomical Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sofie Therese; Winkler, Irene; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2015-01-01

    SPoC), to not only use functional but also anatomical information. The goal is to extract correlated source components from electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Anatomical information enters our proposed extension to mSPoC via the forward model, which relates the activity...

  6. Development of a new statistical evaluation method for brain SPECT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Ryuta; Sato, Kazunori; Ito, Hiroshi; Koyama, Masamichi; Goto, Ryoui; Yoshioka, Seiro; Ono, Shuichi; Sato, Tachio; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new statistical evaluation method for brain SPECT images. First, we made normal brain image databases using 99m Tc-ECD and SPECT in 10 normal subjects as described previously. Each SPECT images were globally normalized and anatomically standardized to the standard brain shape using Human Brain Atlas (HBA) of Roland et al. and each subject's X-CT. Then, mean and SD images were calculated voxel by voxel. For the next step, 99m Tc-ECD SPECT images of a patient were obtained, and global normalization and anatomical standardization were performed as the same way. Th