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Sample records for standard analytical methods

  1. Reactor Section standard analytical methods. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowden, D.

    1954-07-01

    the Standard Analytical Methods manual was prepared for the purpose of consolidating and standardizing all current analytical methods and procedures used in the Reactor Section for routine chemical analyses. All procedures are established in accordance with accepted practice and the general analytical methods specified by the Engineering Department. These procedures are specifically adapted to the requirements of the water treatment process and related operations. The methods included in this manual are organized alphabetically within the following five sections which correspond to the various phases of the analytical control program in which these analyses are to be used: water analyses, essential material analyses, cotton plug analyses boiler water analyses, and miscellaneous control analyses.

  2. Analytical chemistry methods for boron carbide absorber material. [Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DELVIN WL

    1977-07-01

    This standard provides analytical chemistry methods for the analysis of boron carbide powder and pellets for the following: total C and B, B isotopic composition, soluble C and B, fluoride, chloride, metallic impurities, gas content, water, nitrogen, and oxygen. (DLC)

  3. Net Analyte Signal Standard Additions Method for Simultaneous Determination of Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim in Pharmaceutical Formulations and Biological Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Givianrad, M. H.; Mohagheghian, M.

    2012-01-01

    The applicability of a novel net analyte signal standard addition method (NASSAM) to the resolving of overlapping spectra corresponding to the sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim was verified by UV-visible spectrophotometry. The results confirmed that the net analyte signal standard additions method with simultaneous addition of both analytes is suitable for the simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in aqueous media. Moreover, applying the net analyte signal standard a...

  4. Examination of fast reactor fuels, FBR analytical quality assurance standards and methods, and analytical methods development: irradiation tests. Progress report, April 1--June 30, 1976, and FY 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, R.D.

    1976-08-01

    Characterization of unirradiated and irradiated LMFBR fuels by analytical chemistry methods will continue, and additional methods will be modified and mechanized for hot cell application. Macro- and microexaminations will be made on fuel and cladding using the shielded electron microprobe, emission spectrograph, radiochemistry, gamma scanner, mass spectrometers, and other analytical facilities. New capabilities will be developed in gamma scanning, analyses to assess spatial distributions of fuel and fission products, mass spectrometric measurements of burnup and fission gas constituents and other chemical analyses. Microstructural analyses of unirradiated and irradiated materials will continue using optical and electron microscopy and autoradiographic and x-ray techniques. Analytical quality assurance standards tasks are designed to assure the quality of the chemical characterizations necessary to evaluate reactor components relative to specifications. Tasks include: (1) the preparation and distribution of calibration materials and quality control samples for use in quality assurance surveillance programs, (2) the development of and the guidance in the use of quality assurance programs for sampling and analysis, (3) the development of improved methods of analysis, and (4) the preparation of continuously updated analytical method manuals. Reliable analytical methods development for the measurement of burnup, oxygen-to-metal (O/M) ratio, and various gases in irradiated fuels is described

  5. Net Analyte Signal Standard Additions Method for Simultaneous Determination of Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim in Pharmaceutical Formulations and Biological Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Givianrad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The applicability of a novel net analyte signal standard addition method (NASSAM to the resolving of overlapping spectra corresponding to the sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim was verified by UV-visible spectrophotometry. The results confirmed that the net analyte signal standard additions method with simultaneous addition of both analytes is suitable for the simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in aqueous media. Moreover, applying the net analyte signal standard additions method revealed that the two drugs could be determined simultaneously with the concentration ratios of sulfamethoxazole to trimethoprim varying from 1:35 to 60:1 in the mixed samples. In addition, the limits of detections were 0.26 and 0.23 μmol L-1 for sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, respectively. The proposed method has been effectively applied to the simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in some synthetic, pharmaceutical formulation and biological fluid samples.

  6. Recent applications of nuclear analytical methods to the certification of elemental content in NIST standard reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, R.R.; Zeisler, R.; Mackey, E.A.

    2006-01-01

    Well-characterized, certified reference materials (CRMs) play an essential role in assuring the quality of analytical measurements. NIST has been producing CRMs, currently called NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs), to validate analytical measurements for nearly one hundred years. The predominant mode of certifying inorganic constituents in complex-matrix SRMs is through the use of two critically evaluated, independent analytical techniques at NIST. These techniques should have no significant sources of error in common. The use of nuclear analytical methods in combination with one of the chemically based analytical method at NIST eliminates the possibility of any significant, common error source. The inherent characteristics of the various forms of nuclear analytical methods make them extremely valuable for SRM certification. Instrumental NAA is nondestructive, which eliminates the possibility of any dissolution problems, and often provides homogeneity information. Radiochemical NAA typically provides nearly blank-free determinations of some highly important, but difficult elements at very low levels. Prompt-gamma NAA complements INAA, and provides independent determinations of some key elements. In addition, all significant uncertainty components can be evaluated for these techniques, and we believe these methods can meet all the requirements of a primary method of measurement as defined by ISO and the CCQM. NIST has certified several SRMs using INAA and RNAA as primary methods. In addition, NIST has compared measurements by INAA and PGAA with other primary methods as part of the CCQM intercomparisons of national metrology institutes. Some significant SRMs recently certified for inorganic constituents with contributions from the nuclear analytical methods include: Toxic Substances in Urine (SRM 2670a), Lake Superior Fish Tissue (SRM 1946), Air Particulate on Filter Media (SRM 2783), Inorganics in Marine Sediment (SRM 2702), Sediment for Solid Sampling (Small

  7. Net analyte signal standard addition method for simultaneous determination of sulphadiazine and trimethoprim in bovine milk and veterinary medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajian, Reza; Mousavi, Esmat; Shams, Nafiseh

    2013-06-01

    Net analyte signal standard addition method has been used for the simultaneous determination of sulphadiazine and trimethoprim by spectrophotometry in some bovine milk and veterinary medicines. The method combines the advantages of standard addition method with the net analyte signal concept which enables the extraction of information concerning a certain analyte from spectra of multi-component mixtures. This method has some advantages such as the use of a full spectrum realisation, therefore it does not require calibration and prediction step and only a few measurements require for the determination. Cloud point extraction based on the phenomenon of solubilisation used for extraction of sulphadiazine and trimethoprim in bovine milk. It is based on the induction of micellar organised media by using Triton X-100 as an extraction solvent. At the optimum conditions, the norm of NAS vectors increased linearly with concentrations in the range of 1.0-150.0 μmolL(-1) for both sulphadiazine and trimethoprim. The limits of detection (LOD) for sulphadiazine and trimethoprim were 0.86 and 0.92 μmolL(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Analytical method for the identification and assay of 12 phthalates in cosmetic products: application of the ISO 12787 international standard "Cosmetics-Analytical methods-Validation criteria for analytical results using chromatographic techniques".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Pascal; Maggio, Annie-Françoise; Bousquet, Claudine; Quoirez, Audrey; Civade, Corinne; Bonnet, Pierre-Antoine

    2012-08-31

    Esters of phthalic acid, more commonly named phthalates, may be present in cosmetic products as ingredients or contaminants. Their presence as contaminant can be due to the manufacturing process, to raw materials used or to the migration of phthalates from packaging when plastic (polyvinyl chloride--PVC) is used. 8 phthalates (DBP, DEHP, BBP, DMEP, DnPP, DiPP, DPP, and DiBP), classified H360 or H361, are forbidden in cosmetics according to the European regulation on cosmetics 1223/2009. A GC/MS method was developed for the assay of 12 phthalates in cosmetics, including the 8 phthalates regulated. Analyses are carried out on a GC/MS system with electron impact ionization mode (EI). The separation of phthalates is obtained on a cross-linked 5%-phenyl/95%-dimethylpolysiloxane capillary column 30 m × 0.25 mm (i.d.) × 0.25 mm film thickness using a temperature gradient. Phthalate quantification is performed by external calibration using an internal standard. Validation elements obtained on standard solutions, highlight a satisfactory system conformity (resolution>1.5), a common quantification limit at 0.25 ng injected, an acceptable linearity between 0.5 μg mL⁻¹ and 5.0 μg mL⁻¹ as well as a precision and an accuracy in agreement with in-house specifications. Cosmetic samples ready for analytical injection are analyzed after a dilution in ethanol whereas more complex cosmetic matrices, like milks and creams, are assayed after a liquid/liquid extraction using ter-butyl methyl ether (TBME). Depending on the type of cosmetics analyzed, the common limits of quantification for the 12 phthalates were set at 0.5 or 2.5 μg g⁻¹. All samples were assayed using the analytical approach described in the ISO 12787 international standard "Cosmetics-Analytical methods-Validation criteria for analytical results using chromatographic techniques". This analytical protocol is particularly adapted when it is not possible to make reconstituted sample matrices. Copyright © 2012

  9. Ficus deltoidea Standardization: Analytical Methods for Bioactive Markers in Deltozide Tablet 200 MG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazlina Ahmad Hassali; Zainah Adam; Rosniza Razali

    2016-01-01

    Standardization of herbal materials based on their chemical and biological profile is an important prerequisite for development of herbal product. The phyto pharmaceutical product that has been developed by Medical Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency is DELTOZIDE TABLET 200 MG containing 200 mg of spray-dried aqueous extract of Ficus deltoidea var kunstleri leaf as the active ingredient. Ficus deltoidea Jack or locally known as Mas Cotek is a South East Asian native plant traditionally used to treat several diseases. Pharmacological data showed that this plant exhibited good antioxidant, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. It is important to establish the chemical profiles and determine the phytochemicals content of this plant as it is popularly used in traditional medicines. Thus, the present study reports on the comprehensive phytochemicals evaluation of bioactive markers from this extract for the development of DELTOZIDE TABLET 200 MG . Characterization of extract using LCMS/ MS Triple TOF System showed the presence of major constituents representing vitexin, isovitexin, gallic acid, catechinic, api genin, epicatechin and caffeoylquinic acid along with other minor constituents. The extract was standardized by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) using two pharmacologically active markers, vitexin and isovitexin. Furthermore, qualitative determination of phytochemicals showed the presence of important phyto-constituents namely anthraquinones, terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins, phlobatannins, alkaloids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, steroids and phenols in the aqueous extract of Ficus deltoidea. Quantitative determination of phytochemicals revealed that the amount of total phenolic content (TPC; Gallic acid as standard) and total flavonoid content (TFC; Quercetin as standard) were 126.67±3.98 mg GAE/ g extract and 9.08±0.36 mg QE/ g extract respectively. The generated data provides some explanation for its wide usage in

  10. Orthogonal analytical methods for botanical standardization: determination of green tea catechins by qNMR and LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, José G; Gödecke, Tanja; Lankin, David C; Jaki, Birgit U; McAlpine, James B; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F

    2014-05-01

    The development of analytical methods for parallel characterization of multiple phytoconstituents is essential to advance the quality control of herbal products. While chemical standardization is commonly carried out by targeted analysis using gas or liquid chromatography-based methods, more universal approaches based on quantitative (1)H NMR (qHNMR) measurements are being used increasingly in the multi-targeted assessment of these complex mixtures. The present study describes the development of a 1D qHNMR-based method for simultaneous identification and quantification of green tea constituents. This approach utilizes computer-assisted (1)H iterative Full Spin Analysis (HiFSA) and enables rapid profiling of seven catechins in commercial green tea extracts. The qHNMR results were cross-validated against quantitative profiles obtained with an orthogonal LC-MS/MS method. The relative strengths and weaknesses of both approaches are discussed, with special emphasis on the role of identical reference standards in qualitative and quantitative analyses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Supercritical fluid analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.D.; Kalinoski, H.T.; Wright, B.W.; Udseth, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    Supercritical fluids are providing the basis for new and improved methods across a range of analytical technologies. New methods are being developed to allow the detection and measurement of compounds that are incompatible with conventional analytical methodologies. Characterization of process and effluent streams for synfuel plants requires instruments capable of detecting and measuring high-molecular-weight compounds, polar compounds, or other materials that are generally difficult to analyze. The purpose of this program is to develop and apply new supercritical fluid techniques for extraction, separation, and analysis. These new technologies will be applied to previously intractable synfuel process materials and to complex mixtures resulting from their interaction with environmental and biological systems

  12. Yarn supplier selection using analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and standardized unitless rating (SUR) method on textile industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfaisalsyah, M. H.; Mansur, A.; Khasanah, A. U.

    2017-11-01

    For a company which engaged in the textile field, specify the supplier of raw materials for production is one important part of supply chain management which can affect the company's business processes. This study aims to identify the best suppliers of raw material suppliers of yarn for PC. PKBI based on several criteria. In this study, the integration between the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and the Standardized Unitless Rating (SUR) are used to assess the performance of the suppliers. By using AHP, it can be known the value of the relative weighting of each criterion. While SUR shows the sequence performance value of the supplier. The result of supplier ranking calculation can be used to know the strengths and weaknesses of each supplier based on its performance criteria. From the final result, it can be known which suppliers should improve their performance in order to create long term cooperation with the company.

  13. H-point standard additions method for simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids with simultaneous addition of two analytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givianrad, M. H.; Saber-Tehrani, M.; Aberoomand-Azar, P.; Mohagheghian, M.

    2011-03-01

    The applicability of H-point standard additions method (HPSAM) to the resolving of overlapping spectra corresponding to the sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is verified by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The results show that the H-point standard additions method with simultaneous addition of both analytes is suitable for the simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in aqueous media. The results of applying the H-point standard additions method showed that the two drugs could be determined simultaneously with the concentration ratios of sulfamethoxazole to trimethoprim varying from 1:18 to 16:1 in the mixed samples. Also, the limits of detections were 0.58 and 0.37 μmol L -1 for sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, respectively. In addition the means of the calculated RSD (%) were 1.63 and 2.01 for SMX and TMP, respectively in synthetic mixtures. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in some synthetic, pharmaceutical formulation and biological fluid samples.

  14. The analytic Lanczos method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witte, N.S.

    1998-01-01

    The classical formalism of the Moment Problem has been combined with a cumulant approach and applied to the extensive many-body problem. This has yielded many new exact results for many-body systems in the thermodynamic limit - for the ground state energy, for excited state gaps, and for arbitrary ground state averages. The method applies to any extensive Hamiltonian system, for any phase or symmetry arising in the model, whether on a lattice or in the continuum, and for any dimensionality. The theorems are of a nonperturbative nature with respect to any couplings occuring in the model. (Copyright (1998) World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd)

  15. Local properties of analytic functions and non-standard analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brian, N.R.

    1976-01-01

    This is an expository account which shows how the methods of non-standard analysis can be applied to prove the Nullstellensatz for germs of analytic functions. This method of proof was discovered originally by Abraham Robinson. The necessary concepts from model theory are described in some detail and the Nullstellensatz is proved by investigating the relation between the set of infinitesimal elements in the complex n-plane and the spectrum of the ring of germs of analytic functions. (author)

  16. 7 CFR 93.13 - Analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... No. 1, USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service, Science and Technology, 3521 South Agriculture Building... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Analytical methods. 93.13 Section 93.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards...

  17. Analytical methods under emergency conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlet, J.

    1983-01-01

    This lecture discusses methods for the radiochemical determination of internal contamination of the body under emergency conditions, here defined as a situation in which results on internal radioactive contamination are needed quickly. The purpose of speed is to determine the necessity for medical treatment to increase the natural elimination rate. Analytical methods discussed include whole-body counting, organ counting, wound monitoring, and excreta analysis. 12 references

  18. Waste minimization in analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.W.; Smith, L.L.; Crain, J.S.; Boparai, A.S.; Kiely, J.T.; Yaeger, J.S. Schilling, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) will require a large number of waste characterizations over a multi-year period to accomplish the Department's goals in environmental restoration and waste management. Estimates vary, but two million analyses annually are expected. The waste generated by the analytical procedures used for characterizations is a significant source of new DOE waste. Success in reducing the volume of secondary waste and the costs of handling this waste would significantly decrease the overall cost of this DOE program. Selection of appropriate analytical methods depends on the intended use of the resultant data. It is not always necessary to use a high-powered analytical method, typically at higher cost, to obtain data needed to make decisions about waste management. Indeed, for samples taken from some heterogeneous systems, the meaning of high accuracy becomes clouded if the data generated are intended to measure a property of this system. Among the factors to be considered in selecting the analytical method are the lower limit of detection, accuracy, turnaround time, cost, reproducibility (precision), interferences, and simplicity. Occasionally, there must be tradeoffs among these factors to achieve the multiple goals of a characterization program. The purpose of the work described here is to add waste minimization to the list of characteristics to be considered. In this paper the authors present results of modifying analytical methods for waste characterization to reduce both the cost of analysis and volume of secondary wastes. Although tradeoffs may be required to minimize waste while still generating data of acceptable quality for the decision-making process, they have data demonstrating that wastes can be reduced in some cases without sacrificing accuracy or precision

  19. Jet substructure with analytical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Mrinal [University of Manchester, Consortium for Fundamental Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Manchester (United Kingdom); Fregoso, Alessandro; Powling, Alexander [University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy, Manchester (United Kingdom); Marzani, Simone [Durham University, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-15

    We consider the mass distribution of QCD jets after the application of jet-substructure methods, specifically the mass-drop tagger, pruning, trimming and their variants. In contrast to most current studies employing Monte Carlo methods, we carry out analytical calculations at the next-to-leading order level, which are sufficient to extract the dominant logarithmic behaviour for each technique, and compare our findings to exact fixed-order results. Our results should ultimately lead to a better understanding of these jet-substructure methods which in turn will influence the development of future substructure tools for LHC phenomenology. (orig.)

  20. Decision analytic methods in RODOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borzenko, V.; French, S.

    1996-01-01

    In the event of a nuclear accident, RODOS seeks to provide decision support at all levels ranging from the largely descriptive to providing a detailed evaluation of the benefits and disadvantages of various countermeasure strategies and ranking them according to the societal preferences as perceived by the decision makers. To achieve this, it must draw upon several decision analytic methods and bring them together in a coherent manner so that the guidance offered to decision makers is consistent from one stage of an accident to the next. The methods used draw upon multi-attribute value and utility theories

  1. Journal article reporting standards for qualitative primary, qualitative meta-analytic, and mixed methods research in psychology: The APA Publications and Communications Board task force report

    OpenAIRE

    Levitt, H. M.; Bamberg, M.; Creswell, J. W.; Frost, D. M.; Josselson, R.; Suárez-Orozco, C.

    2018-01-01

    The American Psychological Association Publications and Communications Board Working Group on Journal Article Reporting Standards for Qualitative Research (JARS–Qual Working Group) was charged with examining the state of journal article reporting standards as they applied to qualitative research and with generating recommendations for standards that would be appropriate for a wide range of methods within the discipline of psychology. These standards describe what should be included in a resea...

  2. 7 CFR 98.4 - Analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Analytical methods. 98.4 Section 98.4 Agriculture....4 Analytical methods. (a) The majority of analytical methods used by the USDA laboratories to perform analyses of meat, meat food products and MRE's are listed as follows: (1) Official Methods of...

  3. 7 CFR 93.4 - Analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Analytical methods. 93.4 Section 93.4 Agriculture... PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Citrus Juices and Certain Citrus Products § 93.4 Analytical methods. (a) The majority of analytical methods for citrus products are found in the Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC...

  4. 7 CFR 94.303 - Analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Analytical methods. 94.303 Section 94.303 Agriculture... POULTRY AND EGG PRODUCTS Processed Poultry Products § 94.303 Analytical methods. The analytical methods... latest edition of the Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC INTERNATIONAL, Suite 500, 481 North Frederick...

  5. Analytical methods in rotor dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Dimarogonas, Andrew D; Chondros, Thomas G

    2013-01-01

    The design and construction of rotating machinery operating at supercritical speeds was, in the 1920s, an event of revolutionary importance for the then new branch of dynamics known as rotor dynamics. In the 1960s, another revolution occurred: In less than a decade, imposed by operational and economic needs, an increase in the power of turbomachinery by one order of magnitude took place. Dynamic analysis of complex rotor forms became a necessity, while the importance of approximate methods for dynamic analysis was stressed. Finally, the emergence of fracture mechanics, as a new branch of applied mechanics, provided analytical tools to investigate crack influence on the dynamic behavior of rotors. The scope of this book is based on all these developments. No topics related to the well-known classical problems are included, rather the book deals exclusively with modern high-power turbomachinery.

  6. Journal article reporting standards for qualitative primary, qualitative meta-analytic, and mixed methods research in psychology: The APA Publications and Communications Board task force report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Heidi M; Bamberg, Michael; Creswell, John W; Frost, David M; Josselson, Ruthellen; Suárez-Orozco, Carola

    2018-01-01

    The American Psychological Association Publications and Communications Board Working Group on Journal Article Reporting Standards for Qualitative Research (JARS-Qual Working Group) was charged with examining the state of journal article reporting standards as they applied to qualitative research and with generating recommendations for standards that would be appropriate for a wide range of methods within the discipline of psychology. These standards describe what should be included in a research report to enable and facilitate the review process. This publication marks a historical moment-the first inclusion of qualitative research in APA Style, which is the basis of both the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA, 2010) and APA Style CENTRAL, an online program to support APA Style. In addition to the general JARS-Qual guidelines, the Working Group has developed standards for both qualitative meta-analysis and mixed methods research. The reporting standards were developed for psychological qualitative research but may hold utility for a broad range of social sciences. They honor a range of qualitative traditions, methods, and reporting styles. The Working Group was composed of a group of researchers with backgrounds in varying methods, research topics, and approaches to inquiry. In this article, they present these standards and their rationale, and they detail the ways that the standards differ from the quantitative research reporting standards. They describe how the standards can be used by authors in the process of writing qualitative research for submission as well as by reviewers and editors in the process of reviewing research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. 7 CFR 94.103 - Analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Analytical methods. 94.103 Section 94.103 Agriculture... POULTRY AND EGG PRODUCTS Voluntary Analyses of Egg Products § 94.103 Analytical methods. The analytical methods used by the Science and Technology Division laboratories to perform voluntary analyses for egg...

  8. 7 CFR 94.4 - Analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Analytical methods. 94.4 Section 94.4 Agriculture... POULTRY AND EGG PRODUCTS Mandatory Analyses of Egg Products § 94.4 Analytical methods. The majority of analytical methods used by the USDA laboratories to perform mandatory analyses for egg products are listed as...

  9. Evaluation of the quality of results obtained in institutions participating in interlaboratory experiments and of the reliability characteristics of the analytical methods used on the basis of certification of standard soil samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parshin, A.K.; Obol' yaninova, V.G.; Sul' dina, N.P.

    1986-08-20

    Rapid monitoring of the level of pollution of the environment and, especially, of soils necessitates preparation of standard samples (SS) close in properties and material composition to the objects to be analyzed. During 1978-1982 four sets (three types of samples in each) of State Standard Samples of different soils were developed: soddy-podzolic sandy-loamy, typical chernozem, krasnozem, and calcareous sierozem. The certification studies of the SS of the soils were carried out in accordance with the classical scheme of interlab experiment (ILE). More than 100 institutions were involved in the ILE and the total number of independent analytical results was of the order of 10/sup 4/. With such a volume of analytical information at their disposal they were able to find some general characteristics intrinsic to certification studies, to assess the quality of work of the ILE participants with due regard for their specialization, and the reliability characteristics of the analytical methods used.

  10. Big data analytics methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, BLS; Rao, SB

    2016-01-01

    This book has a collection of articles written by Big Data experts to describe some of the cutting-edge methods and applications from their respective areas of interest, and provides the reader with a detailed overview of the field of Big Data Analytics as it is practiced today. The chapters cover technical aspects of key areas that generate and use Big Data such as management and finance; medicine and healthcare; genome, cytome and microbiome; graphs and networks; Internet of Things; Big Data standards; bench-marking of systems; and others. In addition to different applications, key algorithmic approaches such as graph partitioning, clustering and finite mixture modelling of high-dimensional data are also covered. The varied collection of themes in this volume introduces the reader to the richness of the emerging field of Big Data Analytics.

  11. Analytical methods used at model facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wing, N.S.

    1984-01-01

    A description of analytical methods used at the model LEU Fuel Fabrication Facility is presented. The methods include gravimetric uranium analysis, isotopic analysis, fluorimetric analysis, and emission spectroscopy

  12. Nuclear analytical methods in the life sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goeij, J.J.M.

    1994-01-01

    A survey is given of various nuclear analytical methods. The type of analytical information obtainable and advantageous features for application in the life sciences are briefly indicated. These features are: physically different basis of the analytical method, isotopic rather than elemental

  13. MASTERS OF ANALYTICAL TRADECRAFT: CERTIFYING THE STANDARDS AND ANALYTIC RIGOR OF INTELLIGENCE PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    AU/ACSC/2016 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY MASTERS OF ANALYTICAL TRADECRAFT: CERTIFYING THE STANDARDS AND ANALYTIC RIGOR OF...establishing unit level certified Masters of Analytic Tradecraft (MAT) analysts to be trained and entrusted to evaluate and rate the standards and...cues) ideally should meet or exceed effective rigor (based on analytical process).4 To accomplish this, decision makers should not be left to their

  14. 40 CFR 141.89 - Analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical methods. 141.89 Section 141...) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.89 Analytical methods. (a... shall be conducted with the methods in § 141.23(k)(1). (1) Analyses for alkalinity, calcium...

  15. 40 CFR 141.704 - Analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical methods. 141.704 Section... Monitoring Requirements § 141.704 Analytical methods. (a) Cryptosporidium. Systems must analyze for Cryptosporidium using Method 1623: Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Water by Filtration/IMS/FA, 2005, United States...

  16. Analytical methods for heat transfer and fluid flow problems

    CERN Document Server

    Weigand, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    This book describes useful analytical methods by applying them to real-world problems rather than solving the usual over-simplified classroom problems. The book demonstrates the applicability of analytical methods even for complex problems and guides the reader to a more intuitive understanding of approaches and solutions. Although the solution of Partial Differential Equations by numerical methods is the standard practice in industries, analytical methods are still important for the critical assessment of results derived from advanced computer simulations and the improvement of the underlying numerical techniques. Literature devoted to analytical methods, however, often focuses on theoretical and mathematical aspects and is therefore useless to most engineers. Analytical Methods for Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Problems addresses engineers and engineering students. The second edition has been updated, the chapters on non-linear problems and on axial heat conduction problems were extended. And worked out exam...

  17. High Pressure Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC) Determination of Dissolved Organic Matter Molecular Weight Revisited: Accounting for Changes in Stationary Phases, Analytical Standards, and Isolation Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Brandon C; Aiken, George R; McKnight, Diane M; Arnold, William A; Chin, Yu-Ping

    2018-01-16

    We reassessed the molecular weight of dissolved organic matter (DOM) determined by high pressure size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) using measurements made with different columns and various generations of polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) molecular weight standards. Molecular weight measurements made with a newer generation HPSEC column and PSS standards from more recent lots are roughly 200 to 400 Da lower than initial measurements made in the early 1990s. These updated numbers match DOM molecular weights measured by colligative methods and fall within a range of values calculated from hydroxyl radical kinetics. These changes suggest improved accuracy of HPSEC molecular weight measurements that we attribute to improved accuracy of PSS standards and changes in the column packing. We also isolated DOM from wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) using XAD-8, a cation exchange resin, and PPL, a styrene-divinylbenzene media, and observed little difference in molecular weight and specific UV absorbance at 280 nm (SUVA 280 ) between the two solid phase extraction resins, suggesting they capture similar DOM moieties. PPR DOM also showed lower SUVA 280 at similar weights compared to DOM isolates from a global range of environments, which we attribute to oxidized sulfur in PPR DOM that would increase molecular weight without affecting SUVA 280 .

  18. High pressure size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) determination of dissolved organic matter molecular weight revisited: Accounting for changes in stationary phases, analytical standards, and isolation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Brandon C.; Aiken, George R.; McKnight, Diane M.; Arnold, William A.; Chin, Yu-Ping

    2018-01-01

    We reassessed the molecular weight of dissolved organic matter (DOM) determined by high pressure size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) using measurements made with different columns and various generations of polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) molecular weight standards. Molecular weight measurements made with a newer generation HPSEC column and PSS standards from more recent lots are roughly 200 to 400 Da lower than initial measurements made in the early 1990s. These updated numbers match DOM molecular weights measured by colligative methods and fall within a range of values calculated from hydroxyl radical kinetics. These changes suggest improved accuracy of HPSEC molecular weight measurements that we attribute to improved accuracy of PSS standards and changes in the column packing. We also isolated DOM from wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) using XAD-8, a cation exchange resin, and PPL, a styrene-divinylbenzene media, and observed little difference in molecular weight and specific UV absorbance at 280 nm (SUVA280) between the two solid phase extraction resins, suggesting they capture similar DOM moieties. PPR DOM also showed lower SUVA280 at similar weights compared to DOM isolates from a global range of environments, which we attribute to oxidized sulfur in PPR DOM that would increase molecular weight without affecting SUVA280.

  19. HTGR analytical methods and design verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neylan, A.J.; Northup, T.E.

    1982-05-01

    Analytical methods for the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) include development, update, verification, documentation, and maintenance of all computer codes for HTGR design and analysis. This paper presents selected nuclear, structural mechanics, seismic, and systems analytical methods related to the HTGR core. This paper also reviews design verification tests in the reactor core, reactor internals, steam generator, and thermal barrier

  20. 42 CFR 493.1289 - Standard: Analytic systems quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Analytic systems quality assessment. 493.1289 Section 493.1289 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... through 493.1283. (b) The analytic systems quality assessment must include a review of the effectiveness...

  1. Analytical standards for accountability of uranium hexafluoride - 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    An analytical standard for the accountability of uranium hexafluoride is presented that includes procedures for subsampling, determination of uranium, determination of metallic impurities and isotopic analysis by gas and thermal ionization mass spectrometry

  2. Nuclear analytical methods: Past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    The development of nuclear analytical methods as an analytical tool began in 1936 with the publication of the first paper on neutron activation analysis (NAA). This year, 1996, marks the 60th anniversary of that event. This paper attempts to look back at the nuclear analytical methods of the past, to look around and to see where the technology is right now, and finally, to look ahead to try and see where nuclear methods as an analytical technique (or as a group of analytical techniques) will be going in the future. The general areas which the author focuses on are: neutron activation analysis; prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA); photon activation analysis (PAA); charged-particle activation analysis (CPAA)

  3. Analytical methods of radwaste characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, C.M.

    1994-10-01

    In view of the need to carry out more extensive studies on the design of newly proposed methods for the treatment of radioactive wastes collected at PNRI, this study is aimed to provide a guide in the characterization of wastes which is a preparatory step for a well-planned waste processing. (auth.). 8 refs

  4. Life cycle management of analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Maria Kristina; Schmidt, Alexander H

    2018-01-05

    In modern process management, the life cycle concept gains more and more importance. It focusses on the total costs of the process from invest to operation and finally retirement. Also for analytical procedures an increasing interest for this concept exists in the recent years. The life cycle of an analytical method consists of design, development, validation (including instrumental qualification, continuous method performance verification and method transfer) and finally retirement of the method. It appears, that also regulatory bodies have increased their awareness on life cycle management for analytical methods. Thus, the International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH), as well as the United States Pharmacopeial Forum discuss the enrollment of new guidelines that include life cycle management of analytical methods. The US Pharmacopeia (USP) Validation and Verification expert panel already proposed a new General Chapter 〈1220〉 "The Analytical Procedure Lifecycle" for integration into USP. Furthermore, also in the non-regulated environment a growing interest on life cycle management is seen. Quality-by-design based method development results in increased method robustness. Thereby a decreased effort is needed for method performance verification, and post-approval changes as well as minimized risk of method related out-of-specification results. This strongly contributes to reduced costs of the method during its life cycle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A New Method to Study Analytic Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ming Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new method to study analytic inequalities involving n variables. Regarding its applications, we proved some well-known inequalities and improved Carleman's inequality.

  6. Synergistic relationships between Analytical Chemistry and written standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcárcel, Miguel; Lucena, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Analytical Chemistry is influenced by international written standards. •Different relationships can be established between them. •Synergies can be generated when these standards are conveniently managed. -- Abstract: This paper describes the mutual impact of Analytical Chemistry and several international written standards (norms and guides) related to knowledge management (CEN-CWA 14924:2004), social responsibility (ISO 26000:2010), management of occupational health and safety (OHSAS 18001/2), environmental management (ISO 14001:2004), quality management systems (ISO 9001:2008) and requirements of the competence of testing and calibration laboratories (ISO 17025:2004). The intensity of this impact, based on a two-way influence, is quite different depending on the standard considered. In any case, a new and fruitful approach to Analytical Chemistry based on these relationships can be derived

  7. Synergistic relationships between Analytical Chemistry and written standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valcárcel, Miguel, E-mail: qa1vacam@uco.es; Lucena, Rafael

    2013-07-25

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Analytical Chemistry is influenced by international written standards. •Different relationships can be established between them. •Synergies can be generated when these standards are conveniently managed. -- Abstract: This paper describes the mutual impact of Analytical Chemistry and several international written standards (norms and guides) related to knowledge management (CEN-CWA 14924:2004), social responsibility (ISO 26000:2010), management of occupational health and safety (OHSAS 18001/2), environmental management (ISO 14001:2004), quality management systems (ISO 9001:2008) and requirements of the competence of testing and calibration laboratories (ISO 17025:2004). The intensity of this impact, based on a two-way influence, is quite different depending on the standard considered. In any case, a new and fruitful approach to Analytical Chemistry based on these relationships can be derived.

  8. Quantifying the measurement uncertainty of results from environmental analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, J; Wegscheider, W; Sperka-Gottlieb, C

    2001-07-01

    The Eurachem-CITAC Guide Quantifying Uncertainty in Analytical Measurement was put into practice in a public laboratory devoted to environmental analytical measurements. In doing so due regard was given to the provisions of ISO 17025 and an attempt was made to base the entire estimation of measurement uncertainty on available data from the literature or from previously performed validation studies. Most environmental analytical procedures laid down in national or international standards are the result of cooperative efforts and put into effect as part of a compromise between all parties involved, public and private, that also encompasses environmental standards and statutory limits. Central to many procedures is the focus on the measurement of environmental effects rather than on individual chemical species. In this situation it is particularly important to understand the measurement process well enough to produce a realistic uncertainty statement. Environmental analytical methods will be examined as far as necessary, but reference will also be made to analytical methods in general and to physical measurement methods where appropriate. This paper describes ways and means of quantifying uncertainty for frequently practised methods of environmental analysis. It will be shown that operationally defined measurands are no obstacle to the estimation process as described in the Eurachem/CITAC Guide if it is accepted that the dominating component of uncertainty comes from the actual practice of the method as a reproducibility standard deviation.

  9. Mathematical methods for physical and analytical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Goodson, David Z

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical Methods for Physical and Analytical Chemistry presents mathematical and statistical methods to students of chemistry at the intermediate, post-calculus level. The content includes a review of general calculus; a review of numerical techniques often omitted from calculus courses, such as cubic splines and Newton's method; a detailed treatment of statistical methods for experimental data analysis; complex numbers; extrapolation; linear algebra; and differential equations. With numerous example problems and helpful anecdotes, this text gives chemistry students the mathematical

  10. Preliminary results of testing bioassay analytical performance standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.R.; Robinson, A.V.; Hadley, R.T.

    1983-08-01

    The analytical performance of both in vivo and in vitro bioassay laboratories is being studied to determine the capability of these laboratories to meet the minimum criteria for accuracy and precision specified in the draft ANSI Standard N13.30, Performance Criteria for Radiobioassay. This paper presents preliminary results of the first round of testing

  11. Synthetic salt cake standards for analytical laboratory quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, A.E.; Miller, A.G.

    1980-01-01

    The validation of analytical results in the characterization of Hanford Nuclear Defense Waste requires the preparation of synthetic waste for standard reference materials. Two independent synthetic salt cake standards have been prepared to monitor laboratory quality control for the chemical characterization of high-level salt cake and sludge waste in support of Rockwell Hanford Operations' High-Level Waste Management Program. Each synthetic salt cake standard contains 15 characterized chemical species and was subjected to an extensive verification/characterization program in two phases. Phase I consisted of an initial verification of each analyte in salt cake form in order to determine the current analytical capability for chemical analysis. Phase II consisted of a final characterization of those chemical species in solution form where conflicting verification data were observed. The 95 percent confidence interval on the mean for the following analytes within each standard is provided: sodium, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, carbonate, sulfate, hydroxide, chromate, chloride, fluoride, aluminum, plutonium-239/240, strontium-90, cesium-137, and water

  12. 40 CFR 425.03 - Sulfide analytical methods and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfide analytical methods and applicability. 425.03 Section 425.03 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions...

  13. Analytical method for solving radioactive transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vudakin, Z.

    1999-01-01

    Analytical method for solving radioactive transformations is presented in this paper. High accuracy series expansion of the depletion function and nonsingular Bateman coefficients are used to overcome numerical difficulties when applying well-known Bateman solution of a simple radioactive decay. Generality and simplicity of the method are found to be useful in evaluating nuclide chains with one hundred or more nuclides in the chain. Method enables evaluation of complete chain, without elimination of short-lives nuclides. It is efficient and accurate

  14. Biodiesel Analytical Methods: August 2002--January 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Gerpen, J.; Shanks, B.; Pruszko, R.; Clements, D.; Knothe, G.

    2004-07-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engines that is receiving great attention worldwide. The material contained in this book is intended to provide the reader with information about biodiesel engines and fuels, analytical methods used to measure fuel properties, and specifications for biodiesel quality control.

  15. Analytical Method for the Validation of Three Polyphenols as a Marker Compound for the Standardization of Solidago virgaurea subsp. gigantea Extracts and Antiadipogenesis of Harvesting Time and Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hwan Hwang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Protocatechuic acid (PC, chlorogenic acid (CA, and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (K-O-R, isolated from the Solidago virgaurea subsp. gigantea (SV extract, were quickly and efficiently separated using HPLC. Our chromatographic method was found to effectively separate PC, CA, and K-O-R at retention times of 5.36, 8.22, and 17.04 min, respectively. Linearity of PC, CA, and K-O-R was found to be in the range of 4.85–485.00, 47.5–1900.00, and 8.50–850.00 μg/ml. Recoveries ranged between 101.32 and 103.30%, 95.82 and 100.25%, and 96.18 and 99.37%, for PC, CA, and K-O-R, respectively. The antiadipogenesis activity of SV extracts collected from five different months and from seven different regions was evaluated using an Oil Red O staining assay in 3T3-L1 cells. Extract from SV collected in April from the Ulleung Island produced over 106.89% inhibition of adipogenesis without cytotoxicity at 50 μg/ml. This extract had a high amount of PC and K-O-R. The developed HPLC method was found to be fast, accurate, precise, and reproducible and could be applied to qualitative and quantitative analysis of three bioactive compounds in SV extracts. The SV extract collected in April from Ulleung Island can be used as a functional food ingredient preventing obesity.

  16. Prioritizing pesticide compounds for analytical methods development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Julia E.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Nowell, Lisa H.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a periodic need to re-evaluate pesticide compounds in terms of priorities for inclusion in monitoring and studies and, thus, must also assess the current analytical capabilities for pesticide detection. To meet this need, a strategy has been developed to prioritize pesticides and degradates for analytical methods development. Screening procedures were developed to separately prioritize pesticide compounds in water and sediment. The procedures evaluate pesticide compounds in existing USGS analytical methods for water and sediment and compounds for which recent agricultural-use information was available. Measured occurrence (detection frequency and concentrations) in water and sediment, predicted concentrations in water and predicted likelihood of occurrence in sediment, potential toxicity to aquatic life or humans, and priorities of other agencies or organizations, regulatory or otherwise, were considered. Several existing strategies for prioritizing chemicals for various purposes were reviewed, including those that identify and prioritize persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic compounds, and those that determine candidates for future regulation of drinking-water contaminants. The systematic procedures developed and used in this study rely on concepts common to many previously established strategies. The evaluation of pesticide compounds resulted in the classification of compounds into three groups: Tier 1 for high priority compounds, Tier 2 for moderate priority compounds, and Tier 3 for low priority compounds. For water, a total of 247 pesticide compounds were classified as Tier 1 and, thus, are high priority for inclusion in analytical methods for monitoring and studies. Of these, about three-quarters are included in some USGS analytical method; however, many of these compounds are included on research methods that are expensive and for which there are few data on environmental samples. The remaining quarter of Tier 1

  17. Analytical detection methods for irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    The present publication is a review of scientific literature on the analytical identification of foods treated with ionizing radiation and the quantitative determination of absorbed dose of radiation. Because of the extremely low level of chemical changes resulting from irradiation or because of the lack of specificity to irradiation of any chemical changes, a few methods of quantitative determination of absorbed dose have shown promise until now. On the other hand, the present review has identified several possible methods, which could be used, following further research and testing, for the identification of irradiated foods. An IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on Analytical Detection Methods for Irradiation Treatment of Food ('ADMIT'), established in 1990, is currently investigating many of the methods cited in the present document. Refs and tab

  18. Workshop on Analytical Methods in Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Jurečková, Jana; Maciak, Matúš; Pešta, Michal

    2017-01-01

    This volume collects authoritative contributions on analytical methods and mathematical statistics. The methods presented include resampling techniques; the minimization of divergence; estimation theory and regression, eventually under shape or other constraints or long memory; and iterative approximations when the optimal solution is difficult to achieve. It also investigates probability distributions with respect to their stability, heavy-tailness, Fisher information and other aspects, both asymptotically and non-asymptotically. The book not only presents the latest mathematical and statistical methods and their extensions, but also offers solutions to real-world problems including option pricing. The selected, peer-reviewed contributions were originally presented at the workshop on Analytical Methods in Statistics, AMISTAT 2015, held in Prague, Czech Republic, November 10-13, 2015.

  19. Systems and Methods for Composable Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-29

    simplistic module that performs a mathematical operation on two numbers. The most important method is the Execute() method. This will get called when it is...addition, an input control is also specified in the example below. In this example, the mathematical operator can only be chosen from a preconfigured...approaches. Some of the industries that could benefit from Composable Analytics include pharmaceuticals, health care, insurance, actuaries , and

  20. Synergistic relationships between Analytical Chemistry and written standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel, Miguel; Lucena, Rafael

    2013-07-25

    This paper describes the mutual impact of Analytical Chemistry and several international written standards (norms and guides) related to knowledge management (CEN-CWA 14924:2004), social responsibility (ISO 26000:2010), management of occupational health and safety (OHSAS 18001/2), environmental management (ISO 14001:2004), quality management systems (ISO 9001:2008) and requirements of the competence of testing and calibration laboratories (ISO 17025:2004). The intensity of this impact, based on a two-way influence, is quite different depending on the standard considered. In any case, a new and fruitful approach to Analytical Chemistry based on these relationships can be derived. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Nuclear analytical methods for platinum group elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    Platinum group elements (PGE) are of special interest for analytical research due to their economic importance like chemical peculiarities as catalysts, medical applications as anticancer drugs, and possible environmental detrimental impact as exhaust from automobile catalyzers. Natural levels of PGE are so low in concentration that most of the current analytical techniques approach their limit of detection capacity. In addition, Ru, Rh, Pd, Re, Os, Ir, and Pt analyses still constitute a challenge in accuracy and precision of quantification in natural matrices. Nuclear analytical techniques, such as neutron activation analysis, X ray fluorescence, or proton-induced X ray emission (PIXE), which are generally considered as reference methods for many analytical problems, are useful as well. However, due to methodological restrictions, they can, in most cases, only be applied after pre-concentration and under special irradiation conditions. This report was prepared following a coordinated research project and a consultants meeting addressing the subject from different viewpoints. The experts involved suggested to discuss the issue according to the (1) application, hence, the concentration levels encountered, and (2) method applied for analysis. Each of the different fields of application needs special consideration for sample preparation, PGE pre-concentration, and determination. Additionally, each analytical method requires special attention regarding the sensitivity and sample type. Quality assurance/quality control aspects are considered towards the end of the report. It is intended to provide the reader of this publication with state-of-the-art information on the various aspects of PGE analysis and to advise which technique might be most suitable for a particular analytical problem related to platinum group elements. In particular, many case studies described in detail from the authors' laboratory experience might help to decide which way to go. As in many cases

  2. Secondary waste minimization in analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.W.; Smith, L.L.; Crain, J.S.; Boparai, A.S.; Kiely, J.T.; Yaeger, J.S.; Schilling, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The characterization phase of site remediation is an important and costly part of the process. Because toxic solvents and other hazardous materials are used in common analytical methods, characterization is also a source of new waste, including mixed waste. Alternative analytical methods can reduce the volume or form of hazardous waste produced either in the sample preparation step or in the measurement step. The authors are examining alternative methods in the areas of inorganic, radiological, and organic analysis. For determining inorganic constituents, alternative methods were studied for sample introduction into inductively coupled plasma spectrometers. Figures of merit for the alternative methods, as well as their associated waste volumes, were compared with the conventional approaches. In the radiological area, the authors are comparing conventional methods for gross α/β measurements of soil samples to an alternative method that uses high-pressure microwave dissolution. For determination of organic constituents, microwave-assisted extraction was studied for RCRA regulated semivolatile organics in a variety of solid matrices, including spiked samples in blank soil; polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in soils, sludges, and sediments; and semivolatile organics in soil. Extraction efficiencies were determined under varying conditions of time, temperature, microwave power, moisture content, and extraction solvent. Solvent usage was cut from the 300 mL used in conventional extraction methods to about 30 mL. Extraction results varied from one matrix to another. In most cases, the microwave-assisted extraction technique was as efficient as the more common Soxhlet or sonication extraction techniques

  3. Comparison of nuclear analytical methods with competitive methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    The use of nuclear analytical techniques, especially neutron activation analysis, already have a 50 year old history. Today several sensitive and accurate, non-nuclear trace element analytical techniques are available and new methods are continuously developed. The IAEA is supporting the development of nuclear analytical laboratories in its Member States. In order to be able to advise the developing countries which methods to use in different applications, it is important to know the present status and development trends of nuclear analytical methods, what are their benefits, drawbacks and recommended fields of application, compared with other, non-nuclear techniques. In order to get an answer to these questions the IAEA convened this Advisory Group Meeting. This volume is the outcome of the presentations and discussions of the meeting. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 21 papers. Refs, figs, tabs

  4. A GPU code for analytic continuation through a sampling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Nordström

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We here present a code for performing analytic continuation of fermionic Green’s functions and self-energies as well as bosonic susceptibilities on a graphics processing unit (GPU. The code is based on the sampling method introduced by Mishchenko et al. (2000, and is written for the widely used CUDA platform from NVidia. Detailed scaling tests are presented, for two different GPUs, in order to highlight the advantages of this code with respect to standard CPU computations. Finally, as an example of possible applications, we provide the analytic continuation of model Gaussian functions, as well as more realistic test cases from many-body physics.

  5. Directory of Analytical Methods, Department 1820

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whan, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Materials Characterization Department performs chemical, physical, and thermophysical analyses in support of programs throughout the Laboratories. The department has a wide variety of techniques and instruments staffed by experienced personnel available for these analyses, and we strive to maintain near state-of-the-art technology by continued updates. We have prepared this Directory of Analytical Methods in order to acquaint you with our capabilities and to help you identify personnel who can assist with your analytical needs. The descriptions of the various capabilities are requester-oriented and have been limited in length and detail. Emphasis has been placed on applications and limitations with notations of estimated analysis time and alternative or related techniques. A short, simplified discussion of underlying principles is also presented along with references if more detail is desired. The contents of this document have been organized in the order: bulky analysis, microanalysis, surface analysis, optical and thermal property measurements

  6. Modern methods in analytical acoustics lecture notes

    CERN Document Server

    Crighton, D G; Williams, J E Ffowcs; Heckl, M; Leppington, F G

    1992-01-01

    Modern Methods in Analytical Acoustics considers topics fundamental to the understanding of noise, vibration and fluid mechanisms. The series of lectures on which this material is based began by some twenty five years ago and has been developed and expanded ever since. Acknowledged experts in the field have given this course many times in Europe and the USA. Although the scope of the course has widened considerably, the primary aim of teaching analytical techniques of acoustics alongside specific areas of wave motion and unsteady fluid mechanisms remains. The distinguished authors of this volume are drawn from Departments of Acoustics, Engineering of Applied Mathematics in Berlin, Cambridge and London. Their intention is to reach a wider audience of all those concerned with acoustic analysis than has been able to attend the course.

  7. Analytical chromatography. Methods, instrumentation and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashin, Ya I; Yashin, A Ya

    2006-01-01

    The state-of-the-art and the prospects in the development of main methods of analytical chromatography, viz., gas, high performance liquid and ion chromatographic techniques, are characterised. Achievements of the past 10-15 years in the theory and general methodology of chromatography and also in the development of new sorbents, columns and chromatographic instruments are outlined. The use of chromatography in the environmental control, biology, medicine, pharmaceutics, and also for monitoring the quality of foodstuffs and products of chemical, petrochemical and gas industries, etc. is considered.

  8. The Emergence of the Analytical Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    2012-01-01

    accountability, visibility and documentation. It is argued that pedagogy is generated as a sequential and unit-specified way of working on the production of ‘the learning child’, forming a time- and material-optimising approach. Hereby, the nursery teacher, as a daily scientific researcher, comes to serve...... the nation by an ongoing observational intervention, producing the learning foundation for the entrepreneurial citizen, and thus the nation as a knowledge society in a globalised world. This is what this article terms the emergence of the analytical method....

  9. Development and validation of analytical methods for dietary supplements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, Darryl; Crowley, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The expanding use of innovative botanical ingredients in dietary supplements and foods has resulted in a flurry of research aimed at the development and validation of analytical methods for accurate measurement of active ingredients. The pressing need for these methods is being met through an expansive collaborative initiative involving industry, government, and analytical organizations. This effort has resulted in the validation of several important assays as well as important advances in the method engineering procedures which have improved the efficiency of the process. The initiative has also allowed researchers to hurdle many of the barricades that have hindered accurate analysis such as the lack of reference standards and comparative data. As the availability for nutraceutical products continues to increase these methods will provide consumers and regulators with the scientific information needed to assure safety and dependable labeling

  10. Analytical N beam position monitor method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wegscheider

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Measurement and correction of focusing errors is of great importance for performance and machine protection of circular accelerators. Furthermore LHC needs to provide equal luminosities to the experiments ATLAS and CMS. High demands are also set on the speed of the optics commissioning, as the foreseen operation with β^{*}-leveling on luminosity will require many operational optics. A fast measurement of the β-function around a storage ring is usually done by using the measured phase advance between three consecutive beam position monitors (BPMs. A recent extension of this established technique, called the N-BPM method, was successfully applied for optics measurements at CERN, ALBA, and ESRF. We present here an improved algorithm that uses analytical calculations for both random and systematic errors and takes into account the presence of quadrupole, sextupole, and BPM misalignments, in addition to quadrupolar field errors. This new scheme, called the analytical N-BPM method, is much faster, further improves the measurement accuracy, and is applicable to very pushed beam optics where the existing numerical N-BPM method tends to fail.

  11. Analytical N beam position monitor method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegscheider, A.; Langner, A.; Tomás, R.; Franchi, A.

    2017-11-01

    Measurement and correction of focusing errors is of great importance for performance and machine protection of circular accelerators. Furthermore LHC needs to provide equal luminosities to the experiments ATLAS and CMS. High demands are also set on the speed of the optics commissioning, as the foreseen operation with β*-leveling on luminosity will require many operational optics. A fast measurement of the β -function around a storage ring is usually done by using the measured phase advance between three consecutive beam position monitors (BPMs). A recent extension of this established technique, called the N-BPM method, was successfully applied for optics measurements at CERN, ALBA, and ESRF. We present here an improved algorithm that uses analytical calculations for both random and systematic errors and takes into account the presence of quadrupole, sextupole, and BPM misalignments, in addition to quadrupolar field errors. This new scheme, called the analytical N-BPM method, is much faster, further improves the measurement accuracy, and is applicable to very pushed beam optics where the existing numerical N-BPM method tends to fail.

  12. Preparation of standard hair material and development of analytical methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangadharan, S.; Ganapathi Iyer, S.; Ali, M.M.; Thantry, S.S.; Verma, R.; Arunachalam, J.; Walvekar, A.P.

    1992-01-01

    In 1976 Indian Researchers suggested the possible use of hair as an indicator of environmental exposure and established through a study of country wide student population and general population of the metropolitan city of Bombay that human scalp hair could indeed be an effective first level monitor in a scheme of multilevel monitoring of environmental exposure to inorganic pollutants. It was in this context and in view of the ready availability of large quantities of scalp hair subjected to minimum treatment by chemicals that they proposed to participate in the preparation of a standard material of hair. It was also recognized that measurements of trace element concentrations at very low levels require cross-validation by different analytical techniques, even within the same laboratory. The programme of work that has been carried out since the first meeting of the CRP had been aimed at these two objectives. These objectives include the preparation of standard material of hair and the development of analytical methodologies for determination of elements and species of interest. 1 refs., 3 tabs

  13. The analytic nodal method in cylindrical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prinsloo, Rian H.; Tomasevic, Djordje I.

    2008-01-01

    Nodal diffusion methods have been used extensively in nuclear reactor calculations, specifically for their performance advantage, but also for their superior accuracy. More specifically, the Analytic Nodal Method (ANM), utilising the transverse integration principle, has been applied to numerous reactor problems with much success. In this work, a nodal diffusion method is developed for cylindrical geometry. Application of this method to three-dimensional (3D) cylindrical geometry has never been satisfactorily addressed and we propose a solution which entails the use of conformal mapping. A set of 1D-equations with an adjusted, geometrically dependent, inhomogeneous source, is obtained. This work describes the development of the method and associated test code, as well as its application to realistic reactor problems. Numerical results are given for the PBMR-400 MW benchmark problem, as well as for a 'cylindrisized' version of the well-known 3D LWR IAEA benchmark. Results highlight the improved accuracy and performance over finite-difference core solutions and investigate the applicability of nodal methods to 3D PBMR type problems. Results indicate that cylindrical nodal methods definitely have a place within PBMR applications, yielding performance advantage factors of 10 and 20 for 2D and 3D calculations, respectively, and advantage factors of the order of 1000 in the case of the LWR problem

  14. Determination of aluminum by four analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, T.J.; Smetana, K.M.

    1975-11-01

    Four procedures have been developed for determining the aluminum concentration in basic matrices. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) was the routine method of analysis. Citrate was required to complex the aluminum and eliminate matrix effects. AAS was the least accurate of the four methods studied and was adversely affected by high aluminum concentrations. The Fluoride Electrode Method was the most accurate and precise of the four methods. A Gran's Plot determination was used to determine the end point and average standard recovery was 100% +- 2%. The Thermometric Titration Method was the fastest method for determining aluminum and could also determine hydroxide concentration at the same time. Standard recoveries were 100% +- 5%. The pH Electrode Method also measures aluminum and hydroxide content simultaneously, but is less accurate and more time consuming that the thermal titration. Samples were analyzed using all four methods and results were compared to determine the strengths and weaknesses of each. On the basis of these comparisons, conclusions were drawn concerning the application of each method to our laboratory needs

  15. Radiochemical methods. Analytical chemistry by open learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geary, W.J.; James, A.M. (ed.)

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the analytical uses of radioactive isotopes within the context of radiochemistry as a whole. It is designed for scientists with relatively little background knowledge of the subject. Thus the initial emphasis is on developing the basic concepts of radioactive decay, particularly as they affect the potential usage of radioisotopes. Discussion of the properties of various types of radiation, and of factors such as half-life, is related to practical considerations such as counting and preparation methods, and handling/disposal problems. Practical aspects are then considered in more detail, and the various radioanalytical methods are outlined with particular reference to their applicability. The approach is 'user friendly' and the use of self assessment questions allows the reader to test his/her understanding of individual sections easily. For those who wish to develop their knowledge further, a reading list is provided.

  16. Numerical methods: Analytical benchmarking in transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganapol, B.D.

    1988-01-01

    Numerical methods applied to reactor technology have reached a high degree of maturity. Certainly one- and two-dimensional neutron transport calculations have become routine, with several programs available on personal computer and the most widely used programs adapted to workstation and minicomputer computational environments. With the introduction of massive parallelism and as experience with multitasking increases, even more improvement in the development of transport algorithms can be expected. Benchmarking an algorithm is usually not a very pleasant experience for the code developer. Proper algorithmic verification by benchmarking involves the following considerations: (1) conservation of particles, (2) confirmation of intuitive physical behavior, and (3) reproduction of analytical benchmark results. By using today's computational advantages, new basic numerical methods have been developed that allow a wider class of benchmark problems to be considered

  17. Solution standards for quality control of nuclear-material analytical measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Analytical chemistry measurement control depends upon reliable solution standards. At the Savannah River Plant Control Laboratory over a thousand analytical measurements are made daily for process control, product specification, accountability, and nuclear safety. Large quantities of solution standards are required for a measurement quality control program covering the many different analytical chemistry methods. Savannah River Plant produced uranium, plutonium, neptunium, and americium metals or oxides are dissolved to prepare stock solutions for working or Quality Control Standards (QCS). Because extensive analytical effort is required to characterize or confirm these solutions, they are prepared in large quantities. These stock solutions are diluted and blended with different chemicals and/or each other to synthesize QCS that match the matrices of different process streams. The target uncertainty of a standard's reference value is 10% of the limit of error of the methods used for routine measurements. Standard Reference Materials from NBS are used according to special procedures to calibrate the methods used in measuring the uranium and plutonium standards so traceability can be established. Special precautions are required to minimize the effects of temperature, radiolysis, and evaporation. Standard reference values are periodically corrected to eliminate systematic errors caused by evaporation or decay products. Measurement control is achieved by requiring analysts to analyze a blind QCS each shift a measurement system is used on plant samples. Computer evaluation determines whether or not a measurement is within the +- 3 sigma control limits. Monthly evaluations of the QCS measurements are made to determine current bias correction factors for accountability measurements and detect significant changes in the bias and precision statistics. The evaluations are also used to plan activities for improving the reliability of the analytical chemistry measurements

  18. Detection of food irradiation - two analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This publication summarizes the activities of Nordic countries in the field of detection of irradiated food. The National Food Agency of Denmark has coordinated the project. The two analytical methods investigated were: the gas-chromatographic determination of the hydrocarbon/lipid ratio in irradiated chicken meat, and a bioassay based on microelectrophoresis of DNA from single cells. Also a method for determination of o-tyrosine in the irradiated and non-irradiated chicken meat has been tested. The first method based on radiolytical changes in fatty acids, contained in chicken meat, has been tested and compared in the four Nordic countries. Four major hydrocarbons (C16:2, C16:3, C17:1 and C17:2) have been determined and reasonable agreement was observed between the dose level and hydrocarbons concentration. Results of a bioassay, where strand breaks of DNA are demonstrated by microelectrophoresis of single cells, prove a correlation between the dose levels and the pattern of DNA fragments migration. The hydrocarbon method can be applied to detect other irradiated, fat-containing foods, while the DNA method can be used for some animal and some vegetable foods as well.Both methods allow to determine the fact of food irradiation beyond any doubt, thus making them suitable for food control analysis. The detailed determination protocols are given. (EG)

  19. Analytical method for Buddleja colorants in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, H; Kuze, N; Ichi, T; Koda, T

    2001-04-01

    Buddleja yellow colorant derived from Buddleja officinalis Maxim. has recently been approved for use as a new kind of natural colorant for food additives in China. In order to distinguish Buddleja yellow colorant from other yellow colorants, two known phenylpropanoid glycosides, acteoside (= verbascoside) and poliumoside, were isolated from the colorant as marker substances for Buddleja yellow colorant. Poliumoside has not been detected in B. officinalis Maxim. previously. These phenylpropanoid glycosides were not detected in the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis or in the stamens of the flowers of Crocus sativus L., which also contain crocetin derivatives as coloring components, using a photodiode array and mass chromatograms. Thus, an analytical HPLC method was developed to distinguish foods that have been colored with yellow colorants containing crocetin derivatives, using phenylpropanoid glycosides as markers.

  20. Analytical methods for determination of mycotoxins: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nicholas W; Subrahmanyam, Sreenath; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2009-01-26

    Mycotoxins are small (MW approximately 700), toxic chemical products formed as secondary metabolites by a few fungal species that readily colonise crops and contaminate them with toxins in the field or after harvest. Ochratoxins and Aflatoxins are mycotoxins of major significance and hence there has been significant research on broad range of analytical and detection techniques that could be useful and practical. Due to the variety of structures of these toxins, it is impossible to use one standard technique for analysis and/or detection. Practical requirements for high-sensitivity analysis and the need for a specialist laboratory setting create challenges for routine analysis. Several existing analytical techniques, which offer flexible and broad-based methods of analysis and in some cases detection, have been discussed in this manuscript. There are a number of methods used, of which many are lab-based, but to our knowledge there seems to be no single technique that stands out above the rest, although analytical liquid chromatography, commonly linked with mass spectroscopy is likely to be popular. This review manuscript discusses (a) sample pre-treatment methods such as liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), solid phase extraction (SPE), (b) separation methods such as (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), and capillary electrophoresis (CE) and (c) others such as ELISA. Further currents trends, advantages and disadvantages and future prospects of these methods have been discussed.

  1. Microgenetic Learning Analytics Methods: Workshop Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghababyan, Ani; Martin, Taylor; Janisiewicz, Philip; Close, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Learning analytics is an emerging discipline and, as such, benefits from new tools and methodological approaches. This work reviews and summarizes our workshop on microgenetic data analysis techniques using R, held at the second annual Learning Analytics Summer Institute in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on 30 June 2014. Specifically, this paper…

  2. Hanford environmental analytical methods: Methods as of March 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M.; Daniel, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    This paper from the analytical laboratories at Hanford describes the method used to measure pH of single-shell tank core samples. Sludge or solid samples are mixed with deionized water. The pH electrode used combines both a sensor and reference electrode in one unit. The meter amplifies the input signal from the electrode and displays the pH visually

  3. Does leaf chemistry differentially affect breakdown in tropical vs temperate streams? Importance of standardized analytical techniques to measure leaf chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelo Ard& #243; n; Catherine M. Pringle; Susan L. Eggert

    2009-01-01

    Comparisons of the effects of leaf litter chemistry on leaf breakdown rates in tropical vs temperate streams are hindered by incompatibility among studies and across sites of analytical methods used to measure leaf chemistry. We used standardized analytical techniques to measure chemistry and breakdown rate of leaves from common riparian tree species at 2 sites, 1...

  4. Standardized waste form test methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slate, S.C.

    1984-11-01

    The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) is developing standard tests to characterize nuclear waste forms. Development of the first thirteen tests was originally initiated to provide data to compare different high-level waste (HLW) forms and to characterize their basic performance. The current status of the first thirteen MCC tests and some sample test results is presented: The radiation stability tests (MCC-6 and 12) and the tensile-strength test (MCC-11) are approved; the static leach tests (MCC-1, 2, and 3) are being reviewed for full approval; the thermal stability (MCC-7) and microstructure evaluation (MCC-13) methods are being considered for the first time; and the flowing leach tests methods (MCC-4 and 5), the gas generation methods (MCC-8 and 9), and the brittle fracture method (MCC-10) are indefinitely delayed. Sample static leach test data on the ARM-1 approved reference material are presented. Established tests and proposed new tests will be used to meet new testing needs. For waste form production, tests on stability and composition measurement are needed to provide data to ensure waste form quality. In transportation, data are needed to evaluate the effects of accidents on canisterized waste forms. The new MCC-15 accident test method and some data are presented. Compliance testing needs required by the recent draft repository waste acceptance specifications are described. These specifications will control waste form contents, processing, and performance. 2 references, 2 figures

  5. Standardized waste form test methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slate, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) is developing standard tests to characterize nuclear waste forms. Development of the first thirteen tests was originally initiated to provide data to compare different high-level waste (HLW) forms and to characterize their basic performance. The current status of the first thirteen MCC tests and some sample test results are presented: the radiation stability tests (MCC-6 and 12) and the tensile-strength test (MCC-11) are approved; the static leach tests (MCC-1, 2, and 3) are being reviewed for full approval; the thermal stability (MCC-7) and microstructure evaluation (MCC-13) methods are being considered for the first time; and the flowing leach test methods (MCC-4 and 5), the gas generation methods (MCC-8 and 9), and the brittle fracture method (MCC-10) are indefinitely delayed. Sample static leach test data on the ARM-1 approved reference material are presented. Established tests and proposed new tests will be used to meet new testing needs. For waste form production, tests on stability and composition measurement are needed to provide data to ensure waste form quality. In transporation, data are needed to evaluate the effects of accidents on canisterized waste forms. The new MCC-15 accident test method and some data are presented. Compliance testing needs required by the recent draft repository waste acceptance specifications are described. These specifications will control waste form contents, processing, and performance

  6. Method for effective usage of Google Analytics tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Николаевна Егорова

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern Google Analytics tools have been investigated against effective attraction channels for users and bottlenecks detection. Conducted investigation allowed to suggest modern method for effective usage of Google Analytics tools. The method is based on main traffic indicators analysis, as well as deep analysis of goals and their consecutive tweaking. Method allows to increase website conversion and might be useful for SEO and Web analytics specialists

  7. An interactive website for analytical method comparison and bias estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Burak; Tuncel, Ayse F; Holmes, Earle W; Holmes, Daniel T

    2017-12-01

    Regulatory standards mandate laboratories to perform studies to ensure accuracy and reliability of their test results. Method comparison and bias estimation are important components of these studies. We developed an interactive website for evaluating the relative performance of two analytical methods using R programming language tools. The website can be accessed at https://bahar.shinyapps.io/method_compare/. The site has an easy-to-use interface that allows both copy-pasting and manual entry of data. It also allows selection of a regression model and creation of regression and difference plots. Available regression models include Ordinary Least Squares, Weighted-Ordinary Least Squares, Deming, Weighted-Deming, Passing-Bablok and Passing-Bablok for large datasets. The server processes the data and generates downloadable reports in PDF or HTML format. Our website provides clinical laboratories a practical way to assess the relative performance of two analytical methods. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nonlinear ordinary differential equations analytical approximation and numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Hermann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The book discusses the solutions to nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) using analytical and numerical approximation methods. Recently, analytical approximation methods have been largely used in solving linear and nonlinear lower-order ODEs. It also discusses using these methods to solve some strong nonlinear ODEs. There are two chapters devoted to solving nonlinear ODEs using numerical methods, as in practice high-dimensional systems of nonlinear ODEs that cannot be solved by analytical approximate methods are common. Moreover, it studies analytical and numerical techniques for the treatment of parameter-depending ODEs. The book explains various methods for solving nonlinear-oscillator and structural-system problems, including the energy balance method, harmonic balance method, amplitude frequency formulation, variational iteration method, homotopy perturbation method, iteration perturbation method, homotopy analysis method, simple and multiple shooting method, and the nonlinear stabilized march...

  9. 40 CFR 141.25 - Analytical methods for radioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical methods for radioactivity... § 141.25 Analytical methods for radioactivity. (a) Analysis for the following contaminants shall be conducted to determine compliance with § 141.66 (radioactivity) in accordance with the methods in the...

  10. Methods and applications of analytical perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchgraber, U.; Stiefel, E.

    1978-01-01

    This monograph on perturbation theory is based on various courses and lectures held by the authors at the ETH, Zurich and at the University of Texas, Austin. Its principal intention is to inform application-minded mathematicians, physicists and engineers about recent developments in this field. The reader is not assumed to have mathematical knowledge beyond what is presented in standard courses on analysis and linear algebra. Chapter I treats the transformations of systems of differential equations and the integration of perturbed systems in a formal way. These tools are applied in Chapter II to celestial mechanics and to the theory of tops and gyroscopic motion. Chapter III is devoted to the discussion of Hamiltonian systems of differential equations and exposes the algebraic aspects of perturbation theory showing also the necessary modifications of the theory in case of singularities. The last chapter gives the mathematical justification for the methods developed in the previous chapters and investigates important questions such as error estimations for the solutions and asymptotic stability. Each chapter ends with useful comments and an extensive reference to the original literature. (HJ) [de

  11. Recent developments in analytical detection methods for radiation processed foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jilan

    1993-01-01

    A short summary of the programmes of 'ADMIT' (FAO/IAEA) and the developments in analytical detection methods for radiation processed foods has been given. It is suggested that for promoting the commercialization of radiation processed foods and controlling its quality, one must pay more attention to the study of analytical detection methods of irradiated food

  12. Analytical methods for predicting contaminant transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.

    1989-09-01

    This paper summarizes some of the previous and recent work at the University of California on analytical solutions for predicting contaminate transport in porous and fractured geologic media. Emphasis is given here to the theories for predicting near-field transport, needed to derive the time-dependent source term for predicting far-field transport and overall repository performance. New theories summarized include solubility-limited release rate with flow backfill in rock, near-field transport of radioactive decay chains, interactive transport of colloid and solute, transport of carbon-14 as carbon dioxide in unsaturated rock, and flow of gases out of and a waste container through cracks and penetrations. 28 refs., 4 figs

  13. Some analytical methods for explosives: Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selig, W.

    1965-12-08

    This report is the second compilation of methods for analyzing explosives. All the methods were developed for routine performance by techniques, and an attempt has therefore been made to keep them as simple as possible. Methods are presented for analyzing plastic-bonded explosives based on sym-cyclomethylenetetra-nitramine (HMX), based on viton in addition to HMX, and based on pentraerythritol tetranitrate (PETN).

  14. Analytical method for solving radioactive transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukadin, Z.

    1999-01-01

    The exact method of solving radioactive transformations is presented. Nonsingular Bateman coefficients, which can be computed using recurrence formulas, greatly reduce computational time and eliminate singularities that often arise in problems involving nuclide transmutations. Depletion function power series expansion enables high accuracy of the performed calculations, specially in a case of a decay constants with closely spaced values. Generality and simplicity of the method make the method useful for many practical applications. (author)

  15. Application of system reliability analytical method, GO-FLOW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Takeshi; Fukuto, Junji; Mitomo, Nobuo; Miyazaki, Keiko; Matsukura, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Michiyuki

    1999-01-01

    The Ship Research Institute proceed a developmental study on GO-FLOW method with various advancing functionalities for the system reliability analysis method occupying main parts of PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment). Here was attempted to intend to upgrade functionality of the GO-FLOW method, to develop an analytical function integrated with dynamic behavior analytical function, physical behavior and probable subject transfer, and to prepare a main accident sequence picking-out function. In 1997 fiscal year, in dynamic event-tree analytical system, an analytical function was developed by adding dependency between headings. In simulation analytical function of the accident sequence, main accident sequence of MRX for improved ship propulsion reactor became possible to be covered perfectly. And, input data for analysis was prepared with a function capable easily to set by an analysis operator. (G.K.)

  16. Extension of the analytic nodal method to four energy groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, D.K.; Nigg, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Analytic Nodal Method is one of several recently-developed coarse mesh numerical methods for efficiently and accurately solving the multidimensional static and transient neutron diffusion equations. This summary describes a mathematically rigorous extension of the Analytic Nodal Method to the frequently more physically realistic four-group case. A few general theoretical considerations are discussed, followed by some calculated results for a typical steady-state two-dimensional PWR quarter core application. 8 refs

  17. Analytical methods applied to water pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudin, G.

    1977-01-01

    A comparison of different methods applied to water analysis is given. The discussion is limited to the problems presented by inorganic elements, accessible to nuclear activation analysis methods. The following methods were compared: activation analysis: with gamma-ray spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometry, fluorimetry, emission spectrometry, colorimetry or spectrophotometry, X-ray fluorescence, mass spectrometry, voltametry, polarography or other electrochemical methods, activation analysis-beta measurements. Drinking-water, irrigation waters, sea waters, industrial wastes and very pure waters are the subjects of the investigations. The comparative evaluation is made on the basis of storage of samples, in situ analysis, treatment and concentration, specificity and interference, monoelement or multielement analysis, analysis time and accuracy. The significance of the neutron analysis is shown. (T.G.)

  18. Analytical method for establishing indentation rolling resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gładysiewicz Lech

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Belt conveyors are highly reliable machines able to work in special operating conditions. Harsh environment, long distance of transporting and great mass of transported martials are cause of high energy usage. That is why research in the field of belt conveyor transportation nowadays focuses on reducing the power consumption without lowering their efficiency. In this paper, previous methods for testing rolling resistance are described, and new method designed by authors was presented. New method of testing rolling resistance is quite simple and inexpensive. Moreover it allows to conduct the experimental tests of the impact of different parameters on the value of indentation rolling resistance such as core design, cover thickness, ambient temperature, idler travel frequency, or load value as well. Finally results of tests of relationship between rolling resistance and idler travel frequency and between rolling resistance and idler travel speed was presented.

  19. Analytical method for establishing indentation rolling resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gładysiewicz, Lech; Konieczna, Martyna

    2018-01-01

    Belt conveyors are highly reliable machines able to work in special operating conditions. Harsh environment, long distance of transporting and great mass of transported martials are cause of high energy usage. That is why research in the field of belt conveyor transportation nowadays focuses on reducing the power consumption without lowering their efficiency. In this paper, previous methods for testing rolling resistance are described, and new method designed by authors was presented. New method of testing rolling resistance is quite simple and inexpensive. Moreover it allows to conduct the experimental tests of the impact of different parameters on the value of indentation rolling resistance such as core design, cover thickness, ambient temperature, idler travel frequency, or load value as well. Finally results of tests of relationship between rolling resistance and idler travel frequency and between rolling resistance and idler travel speed was presented.

  20. Preparation of standard hair material and development of analytical methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangadharan, S.; Walvekar, A.P.; Ali, M.M.; Thantry, S.S.; Verma, R.; Devi, R.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of the use of human scalp hair as a first level indicator of exposure to inorganic pollutants has been established by us earlier. Efforts towards the preparation of a hair reference material are described. The analytical approaches for the determination of total mercury by cold vapour AAS and INAA and of methylmercury by extraction combined with gas chromatography coupled to an ECD are summarized with results on some of the samples analyzed, including the stability of values over a period of time of storage. (author)

  1. Toward analytic aids for standard setting in nuclear regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.V.; O'Connor, M.F.; Peterson, C.R.

    1979-05-01

    US NRC promulgates standards for nuclear reprocessing and other facilities to safeguard against the diversion of nuclear material. Two broad tasks have been directed toward establishing performance criteria for standard settings: general-purpose modeling, and analysis specific to a particular performance criterion option. This report emphasizes work on the second task. Purpose is to provide a framework for the evaluation of such options that organizes the necessary components in a way that provides for meaningful assessments with respect to required inputs

  2. Description of JNC's analytical method and its performance for FBR cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, M.

    2000-01-01

    The description of JNC's analytical method and its performance for FBR cores includes: an outline of JNC's Analytical System Compared with ERANOS; a standard data base for FBR Nuclear Design in JNC; JUPITER Critical Experiment; details of Analytical Method and Its Effects on JUPITER; performance of JNC Analytical System (effective multiplication factor k eff , control rod worth, and sodium void reactivity); design accuracy of a 600 MWe-class FBR Core. JNC developed a consistent analytical system for FBR core evaluation, based on JENDL library, f-table method, and three dimensional diffusion/transport theory, which includes comprehensive sensitivity tools to improve the prediction accuracy of core parameters. JNC system was verified by analysis of JUPITER critical experiment, and other facilities. Its performance can be judged quite satisfactory for FBR-core design work, though there is room for further improvement, such as more detailed treatment of cross-section resonance regions

  3. Analytical methods for the determination of tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topping, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    Methods developed and employed in the recent literature (1969 to 1975) for the detection and determination of tungsten in a wide variety of matrices are reviewed. This paper is a supplement to the books, monographs and review papers which deal with the earlier literature. (author)

  4. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in honey: comparison of analytical methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempf, M.; Wittig, M.; Reinhard, A.; Ohe, von der K.; Blacquière, T.; Raezke, K.P.; Michel, R.; Schreier, P.; Beuerle, T.

    2011-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a structurally diverse group of toxicologically relevant secondary plant metabolites. Currently, two analytical methods are used to determine PA content in honey. To achieve reasonably high sensitivity and selectivity, mass spectrometry detection is demanded. One

  5. NUMERICAL AND ANALYTIC METHODS OF ESTIMATION BRIDGES’ CONSTRUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Luchko

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the numerical and analytical methods of calculation of the stressed-and-strained state of bridge constructions are considered. The task on increasing of reliability and accuracy of the numerical method and its solution by means of calculations in two bases are formulated. The analytical solution of the differential equation of deformation of a ferro-concrete plate under the action of local loads is also obtained.

  6. Analytical techniques for instrument design - matrix methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    We take the traditional Cooper-Nathans approach, as has been applied for many years for steady-state triple-axis spectrometers, and consider its generalisation to other inelastic scattering spectrometers. This involves a number of simple manipulations of exponentials of quadratic forms. In particular, we discuss a toolbox of matrix manipulations that can be performed on the 6- dimensional Cooper-Nathans matrix: diagonalisation (Moller-Nielsen method), coordinate changes e.g. from (Δk I ,Δk F to ΔE, ΔQ ampersand 2 dummy variables), integration of one or more variables (e.g. over such dummy variables), integration subject to linear constraints (e.g. Bragg's Law for analysers), inversion to give the variance-covariance matrix, and so on. We show how these tools can be combined to solve a number of important problems, within the narrow-band limit and the gaussian approximation. We will argue that a generalised program that can handle multiple different spectrometers could (and should) be written in parallel to the Monte-Carlo packages that are becoming available. We will also discuss the complementarity between detailed Monte-Carlo calculations and the approach presented here. In particular, Monte-Carlo methods traditionally simulate the real experiment as performed in practice, given a model scattering law, while the Cooper-Nathans method asks the inverse question: given that a neutron turns up in a particular spectrometer configuration (e.g. angle and time of flight), what is the probability distribution of possible scattering events at the sample? The Monte-Carlo approach could be applied in the same spirit to this question

  7. Surface analytical methods in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgaertner, F.

    1985-06-01

    Application of SEM-EDX, AES, XPS are exemplarily demonstrated for highly radioactive materials with ionizing dose rates of about 1 Sv near the surface. The samples studied are aerosols from the high level waste vitrification process, postprecipitation in a pretreated fuel solution and emulsifying sludge from a solvent extraction process. The results of the chemical composition differentiated down to microscopic level reveal much more information about the history of a sample than those available from the integral macro-methods analysing. Elucidication of chemical composition and body structure in micrometer level may give insight into the origin and generation processes of samples under investigation. (orig.)

  8. Analytical techniques for instrument design - Matrix methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The authors take the traditional Cooper-Nathans approach, as has been applied for many years for steady-state triple-axis spectrometers, and consider its generalization to other inelastic scattering spectrometers. This involves a number of simple manipulations of exponentials of quadratic forms. In particular, they discuss a toolbox of matrix manipulations that can be performed on the 6-dimensional Cooper-Nathans matrix. They show how these tools can be combined to solve a number of important problems, within the narrow-band limit and the gaussian approximation. They will argue that a generalized program that can handle multiple different spectrometers could (and should) be written in parallel to the Monte-Carlo packages that are becoming available. They also discuss the complementarity between detailed Monte-Carlo calculations and the approach presented here. In particular, Monte-Carlo methods traditionally simulate the real experiment as performed in practice, given a model scattering law, while the Cooper-Nathans method asks the inverse question: given that a neutron turns up in a particular spectrometer configuration (e.g. angle and time of flight), what is the probability distribution of possible scattering events at the sample? The Monte-Carlo approach could be applied in the same spirit to this question

  9. Manual of selected physico-chemical analytical methods. IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beran, M.; Klosova, E.; Krtil, J.; Sus, F.; Kuvik, V.; Vrbova, L.; Hamplova, M.; Lengyel, J.; Kelnar, L.; Zakouril, K.

    1990-11-01

    The Central Testing Laboratory of the Nuclear Research Institute at Rez has for a decade been participating in the development of analytical procedures and has been providing analyses of samples of different types and origin. The analytical procedures developed have been published in special journals and a number of them in the Manuals of analytical methods, in three parts. The 4th part of the Manual contains selected physico-chemical methods developed or modified by the Laboratory in the years 1986-1990 within the project ''Development of physico-chemical analytical methods''. In most cases, techniques are involved for non-nuclear applications. Some can find wider applications, especially in analyses of environmental samples. Others have been developed for specific cases of sample analyses or require special instrumentation (mass spectrometer), which partly restricts their applicability by other institutions. (author)

  10. Chapter 12. Sampling and analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busenberg, E.; Plummer, L.N.; Cook, P.G.; Solomon, D.K.; Han, L.F.; Groening, M.; Oster, H.

    2006-01-01

    When water samples are taken for the analysis of CFCs, regardless of the sampling method used, contamination of samples by contact with atmospheric air (with its 'high' CFC concentrations) is a major concern. This is because groundwaters usually have lower CFC concentrations than those waters which have been exposed to the modern air. Some groundwaters might not contain CFCs and, therefore, are most sensitive to trace contamination by atmospheric air. Thus, extreme precautions are needed to obtain uncontaminated samples when groundwaters, particularly those with older ages, are sampled. It is recommended at the start of any CFC investigation that samples from a CFC-free source be collected and analysed, as a check upon the sampling equipment and methodology. The CFC-free source might be a deep monitoring well or, alternatively, CFC-free water could be carefully prepared in the laboratory. It is especially important that all tubing, pumps and connection that will be used in the sampling campaign be checked in this manner

  11. Application of Statistical Methods to Activation Analytical Results near the Limit of Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Wanscher, B.

    1978-01-01

    Reporting actual numbers instead of upper limits for analytical results at or below the detection limit may produce reliable data when these numbers are subjected to appropriate statistical processing. Particularly in radiometric methods, such as activation analysis, where individual standard...... deviations of analytical results may be estimated, improved discrimination may be based on the Analysis of Precision. Actual experimental results from a study of the concentrations of arsenic in human skin demonstrate the power of this principle....

  12. Analytical methods for study of transmission line lightning protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, Per.

    1993-04-01

    Transmission line lightning performance is studied by analytical methods. The elements of shielding failure flashovers and back-flashovers are analysed as functions of incidence, response and insulation. Closed-form approximate expressions are sought to enhance understanding of the phenomena. Probabilistic and wave propagation aspects are particularly studied. The electrogeometric model of lightning attraction to structures is used in combination with the log-normal probability distribution of lightning to ground currents. The log-normality is found to be retained for the currents collected by mast-type as well as line-type structures, but with a change of scale. For both types, exceedingly simple formulas for the number of hits are derived. Simple closed-form expressions for the line outage rates from back- flashovers and shielding failure flashovers are derived in a uniform way as functions of the critical currents. The expressions involve the standardized normal distribution function. System response is analysed by use of Laplace transforms in combination with text-book transmission-line theory. Inversion into time domain is accomplished by an approximate asymptotic method producing closed-form results. The back-flashover problem is analysed in particular. Approximate, image type expressions are derived for shunt admittance of wires above, on and under ground for analyses of fast transients. The derivation parallels that for series impedance, now well-known. 3 refs, 5 figs

  13. Analytic Methods Used in Quality Control in a Compounding Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Loyd V

    2017-01-01

    Analytical testing will no doubt become a more important part of pharmaceutical compounding as the public and regulatory agencies demand increasing documentation of the quality of compounded preparations. Compounding pharmacists must decide what types of testing and what amount of testing to include in their quality-control programs, and whether testing should be done in-house or outsourced. Like pharmaceutical compounding, analytical testing should be performed only by those who are appropriately trained and qualified. This article discusses the analytical methods that are used in quality control in a compounding pharmacy. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  14. Statistically qualified neuro-analytic failure detection method and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilim, Richard B.; Garcia, Humberto E.; Chen, Frederick W.

    2002-03-02

    An apparatus and method for monitoring a process involve development and application of a statistically qualified neuro-analytic (SQNA) model to accurately and reliably identify process change. The development of the SQNA model is accomplished in two stages: deterministic model adaption and stochastic model modification of the deterministic model adaptation. Deterministic model adaption involves formulating an analytic model of the process representing known process characteristics, augmenting the analytic model with a neural network that captures unknown process characteristics, and training the resulting neuro-analytic model by adjusting the neural network weights according to a unique scaled equation error minimization technique. Stochastic model modification involves qualifying any remaining uncertainty in the trained neuro-analytic model by formulating a likelihood function, given an error propagation equation, for computing the probability that the neuro-analytic model generates measured process output. Preferably, the developed SQNA model is validated using known sequential probability ratio tests and applied to the process as an on-line monitoring system. Illustrative of the method and apparatus, the method is applied to a peristaltic pump system.

  15. New Analytical Method for the Determination of Metronidazole in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New Analytical Method for the Determination of Metronidazole in Human Plasma: Application to Bioequivalence Study. ... Methods: Metronidazole was extracted from human plasma through one step of ... http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v11i5.14.

  16. Development and Validation of Analytical Method for Losartan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development and Validation of Analytical Method for Losartan-Copper Complex Using UV-Vis Spectrophotometry. ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... Purpose: To develop a new spectrophotometric method for the analysis of losartan potassium in pharmaceutical formulations by making its complex with ...

  17. An Investigation to Manufacturing Analytical Services Composition using the Analytical Target Cascading Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Kai-Wen; Kulvatunyou, Boonserm; Jung, Kiwook; Prabhu, Vittaldas

    2017-01-01

    As cloud computing is increasingly adopted, the trend is to offer software functions as modular services and compose them into larger, more meaningful ones. The trend is attractive to analytical problems in the manufacturing system design and performance improvement domain because 1) finding a global optimization for the system is a complex problem; and 2) sub-problems are typically compartmentalized by the organizational structure. However, solving sub-problems by independent services can result in a sub-optimal solution at the system level. This paper investigates the technique called Analytical Target Cascading (ATC) to coordinate the optimization of loosely-coupled sub-problems, each may be modularly formulated by differing departments and be solved by modular analytical services. The result demonstrates that ATC is a promising method in that it offers system-level optimal solutions that can scale up by exploiting distributed and modular executions while allowing easier management of the problem formulation.

  18. OPTIMAL METHOD FOR PREPARATION OF SILICATE ROCK SAMPLES FOR ANALYTICAL PURPOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Vrkljan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine an optimal dissolution method for silicate rock samples for further analytical purposes. Analytical FAAS method of determining cobalt, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc content in gabbro sample and geochemical standard AGV-1 has been applied for verification. Dissolution in mixtures of various inorganic acids has been tested, as well as Na2CO3 fusion technique. The results obtained by different methods have been compared and dissolution in the mixture of HNO3 + HF has been recommended as optimal.

  19. Teaching Analytical Method Transfer through Developing and Validating Then Transferring Dissolution Testing Methods for Pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimaru, Irene; Koether, Marina; Chichester, Kimberly; Eaton, Lafayette

    2017-01-01

    Analytical method transfer (AMT) and dissolution testing are important topics required in industry that should be taught in analytical chemistry courses. Undergraduate students in senior level analytical chemistry laboratory courses at Kennesaw State University (KSU) and St. John Fisher College (SJFC) participated in development, validation, and…

  20. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in honey: comparison of analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, M; Wittig, M; Reinhard, A; von der Ohe, K; Blacquière, T; Raezke, K-P; Michel, R; Schreier, P; Beuerle, T

    2011-03-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a structurally diverse group of toxicologically relevant secondary plant metabolites. Currently, two analytical methods are used to determine PA content in honey. To achieve reasonably high sensitivity and selectivity, mass spectrometry detection is demanded. One method is an HPLC-ESI-MS-MS approach, the other a sum parameter method utilising HRGC-EI-MS operated in the selected ion monitoring mode (SIM). To date, no fully validated or standardised method exists to measure the PA content in honey. To establish an LC-MS method, several hundred standard pollen analysis results of raw honey were analysed. Possible PA plants were identified and typical commercially available marker PA-N-oxides (PANOs). Three distinct honey sets were analysed with both methods. Set A consisted of pure Echium honey (61-80% Echium pollen). Echium is an attractive bee plant. It is quite common in all temperate zones worldwide and is one of the major reasons for PA contamination in honey. Although only echimidine/echimidine-N-oxide were available as reference for the LC-MS target approach, the results for both analytical techniques matched very well (n = 8; PA content ranging from 311 to 520 µg kg(-1)). The second batch (B) consisted of a set of randomly picked raw honeys, mostly originating from Eupatorium spp. (0-15%), another common PA plant, usually characterised by the occurrence of lycopsamine-type PA. Again, the results showed good consistency in terms of PA-positive samples and quantification results (n = 8; ranging from 0 to 625 µg kg(-1) retronecine equivalents). The last set (C) was obtained by consciously placing beehives in areas with a high abundance of Jacobaea vulgaris (ragwort) from the Veluwe region (the Netherlands). J. vulgaris increasingly invades countrysides in Central Europe, especially areas with reduced farming or sites with natural restorations. Honey from two seasons (2007 and 2008) was sampled. While only trace amounts of

  1. Rigid inclusions-Comparison between analytical and numerical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Perez, R.; Melentijevic, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares different analytical methods for analysis of rigid inclusions with finite element modeling. First of all, the load transfer in the distribution layer is analyzed for its different thicknesses and different inclusion grids to define the range between results obtained by analytical and numerical methods. The interaction between the soft soil and the inclusion in the estimation of settlements is studied as well. Considering different stiffness of the soft soil, settlements obtained analytical and numerically are compared. The influence of the soft soil modulus of elasticity on the neutral point depth was also performed by finite elements. This depth has a great importance for the definition of the total length of rigid inclusion. (Author)

  2. SPANDOM - source projection analytic nodal discrete ordinates method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Hyeong; Cho, Nam Zin

    1994-01-01

    We describe a new discrete ordinates nodal method for the two-dimensional transport equation. We solve the discrete ordinates equation analytically after the source term is projected and represented in polynomials. The method is applied to two fast reactor benchmark problems and compared with the TWOHEX code. The results indicate that the present method accurately predicts not only multiplication factor but also flux distribution

  3. Analytical chemistry in semiconductor manufacturing: Techniques, role of nuclear methods and need for quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This report is the result of a consultants meeting held in Gaithersburg, USA, 2-3 October 1987. The meeting was hosted by the National Bureau of Standards and Technology, and it was attended by 18 participants from Denmark, Finland, India, Japan, Norway, People's Republic of China and the USA. The purpose of the meeting was to assess the present status of analytical chemistry in semiconductor manufacturing, the role of nuclear analytical methods and the need for internationally organized quality control of the chemical analysis. The report contains the three presentations in full and a summary report of the discussions. Thus, it gives an overview of the need of analytical chemistry in manufacturing of silicon based devices, the use of nuclear analytical methods, and discusses the need for quality control. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Evaluation methods for neutron cross section standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    Methods used to evaluate the neutron cross section standards are reviewed and their relative merits, assessed. These include phase-shift analysis, R-matrix fit, and a number of other methods by Poenitz, Bhat, Kon'shin and the Bayesian or generalized least-squares procedures. The problems involved in adopting these methods for future cross section standards evaluations are considered, and the prospects for their use, discussed. 115 references, 5 figures, 3 tables

  5. Approximate analytical methods for solving ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Radhika, TSL; Rani, T Raja

    2015-01-01

    Approximate Analytical Methods for Solving Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) is the first book to present all of the available approximate methods for solving ODEs, eliminating the need to wade through multiple books and articles. It covers both well-established techniques and recently developed procedures, including the classical series solution method, diverse perturbation methods, pioneering asymptotic methods, and the latest homotopy methods.The book is suitable not only for mathematicians and engineers but also for biologists, physicists, and economists. It gives a complete descripti

  6. Analytical Evaluation of Beam Deformation Problem Using Approximate Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin; Kimiaeifar, A.; Domairry, G.

    2010-01-01

    The beam deformation equation has very wide applications in structural engineering. As a differential equation, it has its own problem concerning existence, uniqueness and methods of solutions. Often, original forms of governing differential equations used in engineering problems are simplified......, and this process produces noise in the obtained answers. This paper deals with the solution of second order of differential equation governing beam deformation using four analytical approximate methods, namely the Perturbation, Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM), Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM) and Variational...... Iteration Method (VIM). The comparisons of the results reveal that these methods are very effective, convenient and quite accurate for systems of non-linear differential equation....

  7. From basic survival analytic theory to a non-standard application

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Georg Zimmermann provides a mathematically rigorous treatment of basic survival analytic methods. His emphasis is also placed on various questions and problems, especially with regard to life expectancy calculations arising from a particular real-life dataset on patients with epilepsy. The author shows both the step-by-step analyses of that dataset and the theory the analyses are based on. He demonstrates that one may face serious and sometimes unexpected problems, even when conducting very basic analyses. Moreover, the reader learns that a practically relevant research question may look rather simple at first sight. Nevertheless, compared to standard textbooks, a more detailed account of the theory underlying life expectancy calculations is needed in order to provide a mathematically rigorous framework. Contents Regression Models for Survival Data Model Checking Procedures Life Expectancy Target Groups Researchers, lecturers, and students in the fields of mathematics and statistics Academics and experts work...

  8. Analytic continuation of quantum Monte Carlo data. Stochastic sampling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanem, Khaldoon; Koch, Erik [Institute for Advanced Simulation, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We apply Bayesian inference to the analytic continuation of quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) data from the imaginary axis to the real axis. Demanding a proper functional Bayesian formulation of any analytic continuation method leads naturally to the stochastic sampling method (StochS) as the Bayesian method with the simplest prior, while it excludes the maximum entropy method and Tikhonov regularization. We present a new efficient algorithm for performing StochS that reduces computational times by orders of magnitude in comparison to earlier StochS methods. We apply the new algorithm to a wide variety of typical test cases: spectral functions and susceptibilities from DMFT and lattice QMC calculations. Results show that StochS performs well and is able to resolve sharp features in the spectrum.

  9. Standard setting: Comparison of two methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyebode Femi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The outcome of assessments is determined by the standard-setting method used. There is a wide range of standard – setting methods and the two used most extensively in undergraduate medical education in the UK are the norm-reference and the criterion-reference methods. The aims of the study were to compare these two standard-setting methods for a multiple-choice question examination and to estimate the test-retest and inter-rater reliability of the modified Angoff method. Methods The norm – reference method of standard -setting (mean minus 1 SD was applied to the 'raw' scores of 78 4th-year medical students on a multiple-choice examination (MCQ. Two panels of raters also set the standard using the modified Angoff method for the same multiple-choice question paper on two occasions (6 months apart. We compared the pass/fail rates derived from the norm reference and the Angoff methods and also assessed the test-retest and inter-rater reliability of the modified Angoff method. Results The pass rate with the norm-reference method was 85% (66/78 and that by the Angoff method was 100% (78 out of 78. The percentage agreement between Angoff method and norm-reference was 78% (95% CI 69% – 87%. The modified Angoff method had an inter-rater reliability of 0.81 – 0.82 and a test-retest reliability of 0.59–0.74. Conclusion There were significant differences in the outcomes of these two standard-setting methods, as shown by the difference in the proportion of candidates that passed and failed the assessment. The modified Angoff method was found to have good inter-rater reliability and moderate test-retest reliability.

  10. Literature Review on Processing and Analytical Methods for ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report The purpose of this report was to survey the open literature to determine the current state of the science regarding the processing and analytical methods currently available for recovery of F. tularensis from water and soil matrices, and to determine what gaps remain in the collective knowledge concerning F. tularensis identification from environmental samples.

  11. THE QuEChERS ANALYTICAL METHOD COMBINED WITH LOW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The method has also been applied to different cereal samples and satisfactory average recoveries ... Analysis of multiclass pesticide residues in foods is a challenging task because of the ... compounds set by regulatory bodies. ..... analytes were used to evaluate the influences of the selected factors on performance of the.

  12. Frontier in nanoscale flows fractional calculus and analytical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Roland; Liu, Hong-yan

    2014-01-01

    This ebook covers the basic properties of nanoscale flows, and various analytical and numerical methods for nanoscale flows and environmental flows. This ebook is a good reference not only for audience of the journal, but also for various communities in mathematics, nanotechnology and environmental science.

  13. Advances in the Analytical Methods for Determining the Antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Advances in the Analytical Methods for Determining the Antioxidant Properties of Honey: A Review. M Moniruzzaman, MI Khalil, SA Sulaiman, SH Gan. Abstract. Free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in contributing to the processes of aging and disease. In an effort to combat free radical ...

  14. Analytical difficulties facing today's regulatory laboratories: issues in method validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, James D

    2012-08-01

    The challenges facing analytical laboratories today are not unlike those faced in the past, although both the degree of complexity and the rate of change have increased. Challenges such as development and maintenance of expertise, maintenance and up-dating of equipment, and the introduction of new test methods have always been familiar themes for analytical laboratories, but international guidelines for laboratories involved in the import and export testing of food require management of such changes in a context which includes quality assurance, accreditation, and method validation considerations. Decisions as to when a change in a method requires re-validation of the method or on the design of a validation scheme for a complex multi-residue method require a well-considered strategy, based on a current knowledge of international guidance documents and regulatory requirements, as well the laboratory's quality system requirements. Validation demonstrates that a method is 'fit for purpose', so the requirement for validation should be assessed in terms of the intended use of a method and, in the case of change or modification of a method, whether that change or modification may affect a previously validated performance characteristic. In general, method validation involves method scope, calibration-related parameters, method precision, and recovery. Any method change which may affect method scope or any performance parameters will require re-validation. Some typical situations involving change in methods are discussed and a decision process proposed for selection of appropriate validation measures. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Standard setting: comparison of two methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sanju; Haque, M Sayeed; Oyebode, Femi

    2006-09-14

    The outcome of assessments is determined by the standard-setting method used. There is a wide range of standard-setting methods and the two used most extensively in undergraduate medical education in the UK are the norm-reference and the criterion-reference methods. The aims of the study were to compare these two standard-setting methods for a multiple-choice question examination and to estimate the test-retest and inter-rater reliability of the modified Angoff method. The norm-reference method of standard-setting (mean minus 1 SD) was applied to the 'raw' scores of 78 4th-year medical students on a multiple-choice examination (MCQ). Two panels of raters also set the standard using the modified Angoff method for the same multiple-choice question paper on two occasions (6 months apart). We compared the pass/fail rates derived from the norm reference and the Angoff methods and also assessed the test-retest and inter-rater reliability of the modified Angoff method. The pass rate with the norm-reference method was 85% (66/78) and that by the Angoff method was 100% (78 out of 78). The percentage agreement between Angoff method and norm-reference was 78% (95% CI 69% - 87%). The modified Angoff method had an inter-rater reliability of 0.81-0.82 and a test-retest reliability of 0.59-0.74. There were significant differences in the outcomes of these two standard-setting methods, as shown by the difference in the proportion of candidates that passed and failed the assessment. The modified Angoff method was found to have good inter-rater reliability and moderate test-retest reliability.

  16. Prediction of polymer flooding performance using an analytical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Czek Hoong; Mariyamni Awang; Foo Kok Wai

    2001-01-01

    The study investigated the applicability of an analytical method developed by El-Khatib in polymer flooding. Results from a simulator UTCHEM and experiments were compared with the El-Khatib prediction method. In general, by assuming a constant viscosity polymer injection, the method gave much higher recovery values than the simulation runs and the experiments. A modification of the method gave better correlation, albeit only oil production. Investigation is continuing on modifying the method so that a better overall fit can be obtained for polymer flooding. (Author)

  17. Use of scientometrics to assess nuclear and other analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.S.

    1986-01-01

    Scientometrics involves the use of quantitative methods to investigate science viewed as an information process. Scientometric studies can be useful in ascertaining which methods have been most employed for various analytical determinations as well as for predicting which methods will continue to be used in the immediate future and which appear to be losing favor with the analytical community. Published papers in the technical literature are the primary source materials for scientometric studies; statistical methods and computer techniques are the tools. Recent studies have included growth and trends in prompt nuclear analysis impact of research published in a technical journal, and institutional and national representation, speakers and topics at several IAEA conferences, at modern trends in activation analysis conferences, and at other non-nuclear oriented conferences. Attempts have also been made to predict future growth of various topics and techniques. 13 refs., 4 figs., 17 tabs

  18. An analytic data analysis method for oscillatory slug tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Shyun

    2006-01-01

    An analytical data analysis method is developed for slug tests in partially penetrating wells in confined or unconfined aquifers of high hydraulic conductivity. As adapted from the van der Kamp method, the determination of the hydraulic conductivity is based on the occurrence times and the displacements of the extreme points measured from the oscillatory data and their theoretical counterparts available in the literature. This method is applied to two sets of slug test response data presented by Butler et al.: one set shows slow damping with seven discernable extremities, and the other shows rapid damping with three extreme points. The estimates of the hydraulic conductivity obtained by the analytic method are in good agreement with those determined by an available curve-matching technique.

  19. Use of scientometrics to assess nuclear and other analytical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, W.S.

    1986-01-01

    Scientometrics involves the use of quantitative methods to investigate science viewed as an information process. Scientometric studies can be useful in ascertaining which methods have been most employed for various analytical determinations as well as for predicting which methods will continue to be used in the immediate future and which appear to be losing favor with the analytical community. Published papers in the technical literature are the primary source materials for scientometric studies; statistical methods and computer techniques are the tools. Recent studies have included growth and trends in prompt nuclear analysis impact of research published in a technical journal, and institutional and national representation, speakers and topics at several IAEA conferences, at modern trends in activation analysis conferences, and at other non-nuclear oriented conferences. Attempts have also been made to predict future growth of various topics and techniques. 13 refs., 4 figs., 17 tabs.

  20. An analytical optimization method for electric propulsion orbit transfer vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleson, S.R.

    1993-01-01

    Due to electric propulsion's inherent propellant mass savings over chemical propulsion, electric propulsion orbit transfer vehicles (EPOTVs) are a highly efficient mode of orbit transfer. When selecting an electric propulsion device (ion, MPD, or arcjet) and propellant for a particular mission, it is preferable to use quick, analytical system optimization methods instead of time intensive numerical integration methods. It is also of interest to determine each thruster's optimal operating characteristics for a specific mission. Analytical expressions are derived which determine the optimal specific impulse (Isp) for each type of electric thruster to maximize payload fraction for a desired thrusting time. These expressions take into account the variation of thruster efficiency with specific impulse. Verification of the method is made with representative electric propulsion values on a LEO-to-GEO mission. Application of the method to specific missions is discussed

  1. Long-Term Prediction of Satellite Orbit Using Analytical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Cheol Yoon

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available A long-term prediction algorithm of geostationary orbit was developed using the analytical method. The perturbation force models include geopotential upto fifth order and degree and luni-solar gravitation, and solar radiation pressure. All of the perturbation effects were analyzed by secular variations, short-period variations, and long-period variations for equinoctial elements such as the semi-major axis, eccentricity vector, inclination vector, and mean longitude of the satellite. Result of the analytical orbit propagator was compared with that of the cowell orbit propagator for the KOREASAT. The comparison indicated that the analytical solution could predict the semi-major axis with an accuarcy of better than ~35meters over a period of 3 month.

  2. Methods of analytical check for highly pure tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miklin, D.G.; Karpov, Yu.A.; Orlova, V.A.

    1993-01-01

    The review is devoted to the methods of high-purity tungsten analysis. Current trends in the development of this branch of analytical chemistry are considered. Application of both instrument mass-spectrometry analysis and optico-spectral, activation methods and mass-spectrometry ones with inductively-bound plasma in combination with preliminary isolation of the basis and impurity concentration is expected to be the most actual

  3. Comparison of three analytical methods for the determination of trace elements in whole blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, N.I.; Stephens, R.; Ryan, D.E.

    1979-01-01

    Three different analytical techniques were compared in a study of the role of trace elements in multiple sclerosis. Data for eight elements (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mg, Mn, Pb, Zn) from neutron activation, flame atomic absorption and electrothermal atomic absorption methods were compared and evaluated statistically. No difference (probability less than 0.001) was observed in the elemental values obtained. Comparison of data between suitably different analytical methods gives increased confidence in the results obtained and is of particular value when standard reference materials are not available. (Auth.)

  4. Hanford environmental analytical methods (methods as of March 1990)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goheen, S.D.; McCulloch, M.; Daniel, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    Information is provided on the techniques employed towards the chemical analysis of volatile, semi-volatile matter, pesticides and PCB's at the Hanford Reservation. Sample preparation methods are included

  5. Nuclear and nuclear related analytical methods applied in environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Ion V.; Gheboianu, Anca; Bancuta, Iulian; Cimpoca, G. V; Stihi, Claudia; Radulescu, Cristiana; Oros Calin; Frontasyeva, Marina; Petre, Marian; Dulama, Ioana; Vlaicu, G.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear Analytical Methods can be used for research activities on environmental studies like water quality assessment, pesticide residues, global climatic change (transboundary), pollution and remediation. Heavy metal pollution is a problem associated with areas of intensive industrial activity. In this work the moss bio monitoring technique was employed to study the atmospheric deposition in Dambovita County Romania. Also, there were used complementary nuclear and atomic analytical methods: Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). These high sensitivity analysis methods were used to determine the chemical composition of some samples of mosses placed in different areas with different pollution industrial sources. The concentrations of Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn were determined. The concentration of Fe from the same samples was determined using all these methods and we obtained a very good agreement, in statistical limits, which demonstrate the capability of these analytical methods to be applied on a large spectrum of environmental samples with the same results. (authors)

  6. FORECASTING PILE SETTLEMENT ON CLAYSTONE USING NUMERICAL AND ANALYTICAL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomarev Andrey Budimirovich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problem of designing pile foundations on claystones is reviewed. The purpose of this paper is comparative analysis of the analytical and numerical methods for forecasting the settlement of piles on claystones. The following tasks were solved during the study: 1 The existing researches of pile settlement are analyzed; 2 The characteristics of experimental studies and the parameters for numerical modeling are presented, methods of field research of single piles’ operation are described; 3 Calculation of single pile settlement is performed using numerical methods in the software package Plaxis 2D and analytical method according to the requirements SP 24.13330.2011; 4 Experimental data is compared with the results of analytical and numerical calculations; 5 Basing on these results recommendations for forecasting pile settlement on claystone are presented. Much attention is paid to the calculation of pile settlement considering the impacted areas in ground space beside pile and the comparison with the results of field experiments. Basing on the obtained results, for the prediction of settlement of single pile on claystone the authors recommend using the analytical method considered in SP 24.13330.2011 with account for the impacted areas in ground space beside driven pile. In the case of forecasting the settlement of single pile on claystone by numerical methods in Plaxis 2D the authors recommend using the Hardening Soil model considering the impacted areas in ground space beside the driven pile. The analyses of the results and calculations are presented for examination and verification; therefore it is necessary to continue the research work of deep foundation at another experimental sites to improve the reliability of the calculation of pile foundation settlement. The work is of great interest for geotechnical engineers engaged in research, design and construction of pile foundations.

  7. Nanometrology, Standardization and Regulation of Nanomaterials in Brazil: A Proposal for an Analytical-Prospective Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rusmerg Giménez Ledesma

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to propose an analytical-prospective model as a tool to support decision-making processes concerning metrology, standardization and regulation of nanomaterials in Brazil, based on international references and ongoing initiatives in the world. In the context of nanotechnology development in Brazil, the motivation for carrying out this research was to identify potential benefits of metrology, standardization and regulation of nanomaterials production, from the perspective of future adoption of the model by the main stakeholders of development of these areas in Brazil. The main results can be summarized as follows: (i an overview of international studies on metrology, standardization and regulation of nanomaterials, and nanoparticles, in special; (ii the analytical-prospective model; and (iii the survey questionnaire and the roadmapping tool for metrology, standardization and regulation of nanomaterials in Brazil, based on international references and ongoing initiatives in the world.

  8. An analytical method for neutron thermalization calculations in heterogenous reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pop-Jordanov, J [Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1965-07-01

    It is well known that the use of the diffusion approximation for stumethods are rather laborious and require the use of large digital computers. In this paper, the use of the diffusion approximation in absorbing media has been avoided, but the treatment remained analytical, thus simplifying practical calculations.

  9. Methods for the calculation of uncertainty in analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, M. Y.; Sohn, S. C.; Park, Y. J.; Park, K. K.; Jee, K. Y.; Joe, K. S.; Kim, W. H

    2000-07-01

    This report describes the statistical rules for evaluating and expressing uncertainty in analytical chemistry. The procedures for the evaluation of uncertainty in chemical analysis are illustrated by worked examples. This report, in particular, gives guidance on how uncertainty can be estimated from various chemical analyses. This report can be also used for planning the experiments which will provide the information required to obtain an estimate of uncertainty for the method.

  10. Application of Multi-Analyte Methods for Pesticide Formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantos, J.; Virtics, I. [Plant Protection & Soil Conservation Service of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County, Nyíregyháza (Hungary)

    2009-07-15

    The application of multi-analyte methods for pesticide formulations by GC analysis is discussed. HPLC was used to determine active ingredients. HPLC elution sequences were related to individual n-octanol/water partition coefficients. Real laboratory data are presented and evaluated with regard to validation requirements. The retention time data of pesticides on different HPLC columns under gradient and isocratic conditions are compared to illustrate the applicability of the methodologies. (author)

  11. An analytical method for neutron thermalization calculations in heterogenous reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop-Jordanov, J.

    1965-01-01

    It is well known that the use of the diffusion approximation for studying neutron thermalization in heterogeneous reactors may result in considerable errors. On the other hand, more exact numerical methods are rather laborious and require the use of large digital computers. In this paper, the use of the diffusion approximation in absorbing media has been avoided, but the treatment remained analytical, thus simplifying practical calculations

  12. Standard Test Method for Sandwich Corrosion Test

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method defines the procedure for evaluating the corrosivity of aircraft maintenance chemicals, when present between faying surfaces (sandwich) of aluminum alloys commonly used for aircraft structures. This test method is intended to be used in the qualification and approval of compounds employed in aircraft maintenance operations. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information. 1.3 This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific hazard statements appear in Section 9.

  13. Analytical Methods for Biomass Characterization during Pretreatment and Bioconversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pu, Yunqiao [ORNL; Meng, Xianzhi [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Yoo, Chang Geun; Li, Mi; Ragauskas, Arthur J [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass has been introduced as a promising resource for alternative fuels and chemicals because of its abundance and complement for petroleum resources. Biomass is a complex biopolymer and its compositional and structural characteristics largely vary depending on its species as well as growth environments. Because of complexity and variety of biomass, understanding its physicochemical characteristics is a key for effective biomass utilization. Characterization of biomass does not only provide critical information of biomass during pretreatment and bioconversion, but also give valuable insights on how to utilize the biomass. For better understanding biomass characteristics, good grasp and proper selection of analytical methods are necessary. This chapter introduces existing analytical approaches that are widely employed for biomass characterization during biomass pretreatment and conversion process. Diverse analytical methods using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for biomass characterization are reviewed. In addition, biomass accessibility methods by analyzing surface properties of biomass are also summarized in this chapter.

  14. EPA's analytical methods for water: The next generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hites, R.A.; Budde, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    By the late 1970s, it had become clear to EPA that organic compounds were polluting many of the nation's waters. By 1977, as a result of a lawsuit by several environmentally concerned plaintiffs, EPA had focused on a list of 114 'priority' organic pollutants. Its long-term goal was the regulation of specific compounds that were found to pose significant environmental problems, a daunting task. Tens of thousands of samples needed to be measured by hundreds of different laboratories. Clearly, there were concerns about the comparability of data among laboratories. The result was a series of laboratory-based analytical 'methods.' These EPA methods are detailed, step-by-step directions (recipes) that describe everything the analyst needs to know to complete a satisfactory analysis. During the 1970s the first set of methods was developed; this was the '600 series' for the analysis of organic compounds in wastewater. In 1979 and the 1980s, a set of '500 series' methods, focusing on drinking water, was developed. By now, many of the 500 and 600 series methods are in widespread use, and it is clear that there are considerably overlaps among the methods in terms of both procedures and analytes. Indiana University was asked by EPA to consider the question, 'Is it possible to revise or eliminate some of the 500 and 600 series methods and effect a savings of time and money?' This and related questions were studied and recommendations were developed

  15. An Analytical Method for the Abel Inversion of Asymmetrical Gaussian Profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guosheng; Wan Baonian

    2007-01-01

    An analytical algorithm for fast calculation of the Abel inversion for density profile measurement in tokamak is developed. Based upon the assumptions that the particle source is negligibly small in the plasma core region, density profiles can be approximated by an asymmetrical Gaussian distribution controlled only by one parameter V 0 /D and V 0 /D is constant along the radial direction, the analytical algorithm is presented and examined against a testing profile. The validity is confirmed by benchmark with the standard Abel inversion method and the theoretical profile. The scope of application as well as the error analysis is also discussed in detail

  16. Multiplier ideal sheaves and analytic methods in algebraic geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demailly, J.-P.

    2001-01-01

    Our main purpose here is to describe a few analytic tools which are useful to study questions such as linear series and vanishing theorems for algebraic vector bundles. One of the early successes of analytic methods in this context is Kodaira's use of the Bochner technique in relation with the theory of harmonic forms, during the decade 1950-60.The idea is to represent cohomology classes by harmonic forms and to prove vanishing theorems by means of suitable a priori curvature estimates. We pursue the study of L2 estimates, in relation with the Nullstellenstatz and with the extension problem. We show how subadditivity can be used to derive an approximation theorem for (almost) plurisubharmonic functions: any such function can be approximated by a sequence of (almost) plurisubharmonic functions which are smooth outside an analytic set, and which define the same multiplier ideal sheaves. From this, we derive a generalized version of the hard Lefschetz theorem for cohomology with values in a pseudo-effective line bundle; namely, the Lefschetz map is surjective when the cohomology groups are twisted by the relevant multiplier ideal sheaves. These notes are essentially written with the idea of serving as an analytic tool- box for algebraic geometers. Although efficient algebraic techniques exist, our feeling is that the analytic techniques are very flexible and offer a large variety of guidelines for more algebraic questions (including applications to number theory which are not discussed here). We made a special effort to use as little prerequisites and to be as self-contained as possible; hence the rather long preliminary sections dealing with basic facts of complex differential geometry

  17. Multiplier ideal sheaves and analytic methods in algebraic geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demailly, J -P [Universite de Grenoble I, Institut Fourier, Saint-Martin d' Heres (France)

    2001-12-15

    Our main purpose here is to describe a few analytic tools which are useful to study questions such as linear series and vanishing theorems for algebraic vector bundles. One of the early successes of analytic methods in this context is Kodaira's use of the Bochner technique in relation with the theory of harmonic forms, during the decade 1950-60.The idea is to represent cohomology classes by harmonic forms and to prove vanishing theorems by means of suitable a priori curvature estimates. We pursue the study of L2 estimates, in relation with the Nullstellenstatz and with the extension problem. We show how subadditivity can be used to derive an approximation theorem for (almost) plurisubharmonic functions: any such function can be approximated by a sequence of (almost) plurisubharmonic functions which are smooth outside an analytic set, and which define the same multiplier ideal sheaves. From this, we derive a generalized version of the hard Lefschetz theorem for cohomology with values in a pseudo-effective line bundle; namely, the Lefschetz map is surjective when the cohomology groups are twisted by the relevant multiplier ideal sheaves. These notes are essentially written with the idea of serving as an analytic tool- box for algebraic geometers. Although efficient algebraic techniques exist, our feeling is that the analytic techniques are very flexible and offer a large variety of guidelines for more algebraic questions (including applications to number theory which are not discussed here). We made a special effort to use as little prerequisites and to be as self-contained as possible; hence the rather long preliminary sections dealing with basic facts of complex differential geometry.

  18. Analytic function expansion nodal method for nuclear reactor core design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Hae Man

    1995-02-01

    In most advanced nodal methods the transverse integration is commonly used to reduce the multi-dimensional diffusion equation into equivalent one- dimensional diffusion equations when derving the nodal coupling equations. But the use of the transverse integration results in some limitations. The first limitation is that the transverse leakage term which appears in the transverse integration procedure must be appropriately approximated. The second limitation is that the one-dimensional flux shapes in each spatial direction resulted from the nodal calculation are not accurate enough to be directly used in reconstructing the pinwise flux distributions. Finally the transverse leakage defined for a non-rectangular node such as a hexagonal node or a triangular node is too complicated to be easily handled and may contain non-physical singular terms of step-function and delta-function types. In this thesis, the Analytic Function Expansion Nodal (AFEN) method and its two variations : the Polynomial Expansion Nodal (PEN) method and the hybrid of the AFEN and PEN methods, have been developed to overcome the limitations of the transverse integration procedure. All of the methods solve the multidimensional diffusion equation without the transverse integration. The AFEN method which we believe is the major contribution of this study to the reactor core analysis expands the homogeneous flux distributions within a node in non-separable analytic basis functions satisfying the neutron diffusion equations at any point of the node and expresses the coefficients of the flux expansion in terms of the nodal unknowns which comprise a node-average flux, node-interface fluxes, and corner-point fluxes. Then, the nodal coupling equations composed of the neutron balance equations, the interface current continuity equations, and the corner-point leakage balance equations are solved iteratively to determine all the nodal unknowns. Since the AFEN method does not use the transverse integration in

  19. Modelling of packet traffic with matrix analytic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Allan T.

    1995-01-01

    BISDN network. The heuristic formula did not seem to yield substantially better results than already available approximations. Finally, some results for the finite capacity BMAP/G/1 queue have been obtained. The steady state probability vector of the embedded chain is found by a direct method where...... process. A heuristic formula for the tail behaviour of a single server queue fed by a superposition of renewal processes has been evaluated. The evaluation was performed by applying Matrix Analytic methods. The heuristic formula has applications in the Call Admission Control (CAC) procedure of the future...

  20. Benchmark Comparison of Cloud Analytics Methods Applied to Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, Chris; Little, Mike; Huang, Thomas; Jacob, Joseph; Yang, Phil; Kuo, Kwo-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing has the potential to bring high performance computing capabilities to the average science researcher. However, in order to take full advantage of cloud capabilities, the science data used in the analysis must often be reorganized. This typically involves sharding the data across multiple nodes to enable relatively fine-grained parallelism. This can be either via cloud-based file systems or cloud-enabled databases such as Cassandra, Rasdaman or SciDB. Since storing an extra copy of data leads to increased cost and data management complexity, NASA is interested in determining the benefits and costs of various cloud analytics methods for real Earth Observation cases. Accordingly, NASA's Earth Science Technology Office and Earth Science Data and Information Systems project have teamed with cloud analytics practitioners to run a benchmark comparison on cloud analytics methods using the same input data and analysis algorithms. We have particularly looked at analysis algorithms that work over long time series, because these are particularly intractable for many Earth Observation datasets which typically store data with one or just a few time steps per file. This post will present side-by-side cost and performance results for several common Earth observation analysis operations.

  1. Benchmark Comparison of Cloud Analytics Methods Applied to Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, C.; Little, M. M.; Huang, T.; Jacob, J. C.; Yang, C. P.; Kuo, K. S.

    2016-12-01

    Cloud computing has the potential to bring high performance computing capabilities to the average science researcher. However, in order to take full advantage of cloud capabilities, the science data used in the analysis must often be reorganized. This typically involves sharding the data across multiple nodes to enable relatively fine-grained parallelism. This can be either via cloud-based filesystems or cloud-enabled databases such as Cassandra, Rasdaman or SciDB. Since storing an extra copy of data leads to increased cost and data management complexity, NASA is interested in determining the benefits and costs of various cloud analytics methods for real Earth Observation cases. Accordingly, NASA's Earth Science Technology Office and Earth Science Data and Information Systems project have teamed with cloud analytics practitioners to run a benchmark comparison on cloud analytics methods using the same input data and analysis algorithms. We have particularly looked at analysis algorithms that work over long time series, because these are particularly intractable for many Earth Observation datasets which typically store data with one or just a few time steps per file. This post will present side-by-side cost and performance results for several common Earth observation analysis operations.

  2. Analytical Methods for Mycotoxin Detection in Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chee Wei; Chung, Gerald; Chan, Sheot Harn

    2017-10-03

    Aflatoxins B 1 (AFB 1 ) and B₂ (AFB₂) and G 1 and G₂ remain the top mycotoxins routinely analyzed and monitored by Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) national laboratories primarily for food safety regulation in the major food commodities, nuts and spices. LC tandem fluorescence detection (LC–fluorescence) represents a current mainstream analytical method, with a progressive migration to a primary method by LC tandem MS (MS/MS) for the next half decade. Annual proficiency testing (PT) is conducted by ASEAN Food Reference Laboratories (AFRLs) for mycotoxin testing as part of capability building in national laboratories, with the scope of PT materials spanning from naturally mycotoxin-contaminated spices and nuts in the early 2010s to the recent contamination of corn flour in 2017 for total aflatoxin assay development. The merits of the mainstream LC–fluorescence method are witnessed by a significant improvement ( P < 0.05) in PT z -score passing rates (≤2) from 11.8 to 79.2% for AFB 1 , 23.5 to 83.3% for AFB₂, and 23.5 to 79.2% for total aflatoxins in the last 5 years. This paper discusses the journey of ASEAN national laboratories in analytical testing through AFRLs, and the progressive collective adoption of a multimycotoxin LC-MS/MS method aided by an isotopic dilution assay as a future primary method for safer food commodities.

  3. Analytical method used for intermediate products in continuous distillation of furfural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z.L.; Jia, M.; Wang, L.J.; Deng, Y.X.

    1981-01-01

    During distillation of furfural, analysis of main components in the crude furfural condensate and intermediate products is very important. Since furfural and methylfurfural are homologous and both furfural and acetone contain a carbonyl group, components in the sample must be separated before analysis. An improved analytical method has been studied, the accuracy and precision of which would meet the requirement of industrial standards. The analytical procedure was provided as follows: to determine the furfural content with gravimetric method of barbituric acid; to determine the methanol content with dichromate method after precipitating furfural and acetone, and distilling the liquid for analysis; and to determine the methylfurfural content with bromide-bromate method, which can be used only in the sample containing higher content of methylfurfural. For the sample in low content, the gas-liquid chromatographic method can be used. 7 references.

  4. The stability of uranium microspheres for future application as reference standard in analytical measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middendorp, R.; Duerr, M.; Bosbach, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, IEK-6, 52428 Juelich (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The monitoring of fuel-cycle facilities provides a tool to confirm the compliant operation, for example with respect to emissions into the environment or to supervise non-proliferation commitments. Hereby, anomalous situations can be detected in a timely manner and responsive action can be initiated to prevent an escalation into an event of severe consequence to society. In order to verify non-nuclear weapon states' compliance with the non-proliferation treaty (NPT), international authorities such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) conduct inspections at facilities dealing with fissile or fertile nuclear materials. One measure consists of collection of swipe samples through inspectors for later analysis of collected nuclear material traces in the laboratory. Highly sensitive mass spectrometric methods provide a means to detect traces from nuclear material handling activities that provide indication of undeclared use of the facility. There are, however, no relevant (certified) reference materials available that can be used as calibration or quality control standards. Therefore, an aerosol-generation based process was established at Forschungszentrum Juelich for the production of spherical, mono-disperse uranium oxide micro-particles with accurately characterized isotopic compositions and amounts of uranium in the pico-gram range. The synthesized particles are studied with respect to their suitability as (certified) reference material in ultra-trace analysis. Several options for preparation and stabilization of the particles are available, where preparation of particles in suspension offers the possibility to produces specific particle mixtures. In order to assess the stability of particles, dissolution behavior and isotope exchange effects of particles in liquid suspension is studied on the bulk of suspended particles and also via micro-analytical methods applied for single particle characterization. The insights gained within these studies will

  5. Development of analytical methods for the determination of trace elements in sediment with Neutron ActivAtion method (NAA) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Sang Ho; Kim, Jae Jin; Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Sun Ha

    2005-01-01

    The analytical methods for the determination of major elements (Al, Ca, K, Fe, Mg) in sediment have been investigated with ICP-MS. The analytical results of major elements with Cool ICP-MS were much better than those with normal ICP-MS. The analytical results were compared with those of NAA. NAA were a little superior to ICP-MS for the determination of major elements in sediment, and NAA is a non-destructive analytical method. The analytical methods for the determination of minor elements (Cr, Ce, U, Co, Pb, As, Se) in sediment have been also studied with ICP-MS. The analytical results by standard calibration with ICP-MS were not accurate due to matrix interferences. Thus, internal standard method was applied, then the analytical results for minor element with ICP-MS were greatly improved. The analytical results obtained by ICP-MS were compared with those obtained by NAA. It showed that the two analytical methods have great capabilities for the determination of minor elements in sediments

  6. A nonlinear analytic function expansion nodal method for transient calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Han Gyn; Park, Sang Yoon; Cho, Byung Oh; Zee, Sung Quun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The nonlinear analytic function expansion nodal (AFEN) method is applied to the solution of the time-dependent neutron diffusion equation. Since the AFEN method requires both the particular solution and the homogeneous solution to the transient fixed source problem, the derivation of the solution method is focused on finding the particular solution efficiently. To avoid complicated particular solutions, the source distribution is approximated by quadratic polynomials and the transient source is constructed such that the error due to the quadratic approximation is minimized, In addition, this paper presents a new two-node solution scheme that is derived by imposing the constraint of current continuity at the interface corner points. The method is verified through a series of application to the NEACRP PWR rod ejection benchmark problems. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  7. Analytical methods for toxic gases from thermal degradation of polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, M.-T. S.

    1977-01-01

    Toxic gases evolved from the thermal oxidative degradation of synthetic or natural polymers in small laboratory chambers or in large scale fire tests are measured by several different analytical methods. Gas detector tubes are used for fast on-site detection of suspect toxic gases. The infrared spectroscopic method is an excellent qualitative and quantitative analysis for some toxic gases. Permanent gases such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane and ethylene, can be quantitatively determined by gas chromatography. Highly toxic and corrosive gases such as nitrogen oxides, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen fluoride, hydrogen chloride and sulfur dioxide should be passed into a scrubbing solution for subsequent analysis by either specific ion electrodes or spectrophotometric methods. Low-concentration toxic organic vapors can be concentrated in a cold trap and then analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The limitations of different methods are discussed.

  8. A nonlinear analytic function expansion nodal method for transient calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Han Gyn; Park, Sang Yoon; Cho, Byung Oh; Zee, Sung Quun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-31

    The nonlinear analytic function expansion nodal (AFEN) method is applied to the solution of the time-dependent neutron diffusion equation. Since the AFEN method requires both the particular solution and the homogeneous solution to the transient fixed source problem, the derivation of the solution method is focused on finding the particular solution efficiently. To avoid complicated particular solutions, the source distribution is approximated by quadratic polynomials and the transient source is constructed such that the error due to the quadratic approximation is minimized, In addition, this paper presents a new two-node solution scheme that is derived by imposing the constraint of current continuity at the interface corner points. The method is verified through a series of application to the NEACRP PWR rod ejection benchmark problems. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  9. Reducing waste generation and radiation exposure by analytical method modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    The primary goal of an analytical support laboratory has traditionally been to provide accurate data in a timely and cost effective fashion. Added to this goal is now the need to provide the same high quality data while generating as little waste as possible. At the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), we have modified and reengineered several methods to decrease generated waste and hence reduce radiation exposure. These method changes involved improving detection limits (which decreased the amount of sample required for analysis), decreasing reaction and analysis time, decreasing the size of experimental set-ups, recycling spent solvent and reagents, and replacing some methods. These changes had the additional benefits of reducing employee radiation exposure and exposure to hazardous chemicals. In all cases, the precision, accuracy, and detection limits were equal to or better than the replaced method. Most of the changes required little or no expenditure of funds. This paper describes these changes and discusses some of their applications

  10. Concepts of analytical user interface evaluation method for continuous work in NPP main control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. J.; Heo, G. Y.; Jang, S. H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a conceptual study of analytical evaluation method for computer-based user interface in the main control room of advanced nuclear power plant. User interfaces can classify them into two groups as static interface and dynamic interface. Existing evaluation and design methods of user interface have been mainly performed for the static user interface. But, it is useful for the dynamic user interface to control the complex system, and proper evaluation method for this is seldom. Therefore an evaluation method for dynamic user interface is proper for continuous works by standards of the load of cognition and the similarity of an interface

  11. Comparison of Three Analytical Methods for Separation of Mineral and Chelated Fraction from an Adulterated Zn-EDTA Fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.S.; Qazi, M.A.; Khan, N.A.; Mian, S.M.; Ahmed, N.; Ahmed, N.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Different analytical procedures are being employed in the world to quantify the chelated portion in a Zn-EDTA fertilizer. Agriculture Department, Government of the Punjab is following Shahid's analytical method in this regard. This method is based on Ion-chromatography (IC) that separates the mineral zinc (Zn) from an adulterated Zn-EDTA fertilizer sample i.e. mixture of mineral and chelated Zn fractions. To find out its effectiveness and suitability, this comparative study was carried out by analyzing adulterated, non-adulterated Zn-EDTA standard and Zn-EDTA samples taken from market in thrice following three methods namely Shahid's (IC) analytical method, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric (AAS) method based on the principle of precipitating the mineral Zn fraction at high pH value by using alkali solution of suitable concentration and analysis of filtrate containing only chelated fraction and Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) method FM-841 respectively. Adulterated Zn-EDTA samples were prepared by mixing of known quantity of mineral Zn with chelated Zn-EDTA standard. The results showed that Shahid's analytical method and AAS method, both successfully estimated the chelated fraction. The AOAC FM-841 method was insensitive to put a ceiling on the mineral fraction hence did not furnish the reliable results. The Shahid's analytical method was selected being equallyeffective to produce reliable results both for solid and liquid Zn-EDTA samples. The AAS method was comparable in only liquid samples. (author)

  12. Analytical methods for the evaluation of melamine contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Stuart L; Gupta, Abhay; Khan, Mansoor A

    2014-02-01

    There is an urgent need for the analysis of melamine in the global pharmaceutical supply chain to detect economically motivated adulteration or unintentional contamination using a simple, nondestructive analytical technique that confirms the extent of adulteration in a shorter time period. In this work, different analytical techniques (thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), FT-Raman, and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy) were evaluated for their ability to detect a range of melamine levels in gelatin. While FT-IR and FT-Raman provided qualitative assessment of melamine contamination or adulteration, powder X-ray diffraction and NIR were able to detect and quantify the presence of melamine at levels as low as 1.0% w/w. Multivariate analysis of the NIR data yielded the most accurate model when three principal components were used. Data were pretreated using standard normal variate transformation to remove multiplicative interferences of scatter and particle size. The model had a root-mean-square error of calibration of 2.4 (R(2) = 0.99) and root-mean square error of prediction of 2.5 (R(2) = 0.96). The value of the paired t test for actual and predicted samples (1%-50% w/w) was 0.448 (p 5), further indicating the robustness of the model. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Analytical method for thermal stress analysis of plasma facing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, J. H.; Bolt, H.

    2001-10-01

    The thermo-mechanical response of plasma facing materials (PFMs) to heat loads from the fusion plasma is one of the crucial issues in fusion technology. In this work, a fully analytical description of the thermal stress distribution in armour tiles of plasma facing components is presented which is expected to occur under typical high heat flux (HHF) loads. The method of stress superposition is applied considering the temperature gradient and thermal expansion mismatch. Several combinations of PFMs and heat sink metals are analysed and compared. In the framework of the present theoretical model, plastic flow and the effect of residual stress can be quantitatively assessed. Possible failure features are discussed.

  14. Analytical method for thermal stress analysis of plasma facing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, J.H.; Bolt, H.

    2001-01-01

    The thermo-mechanical response of plasma facing materials (PFMs) to heat loads from the fusion plasma is one of the crucial issues in fusion technology. In this work, a fully analytical description of the thermal stress distribution in armour tiles of plasma facing components is presented which is expected to occur under typical high heat flux (HHF) loads. The method of stress superposition is applied considering the temperature gradient and thermal expansion mismatch. Several combinations of PFMs and heat sink metals are analysed and compared. In the framework of the present theoretical model, plastic flow and the effect of residual stress can be quantitatively assessed. Possible failure features are discussed

  15. Higher geometry an introduction to advanced methods in analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Woods, Frederick S

    2005-01-01

    For students of mathematics with a sound background in analytic geometry and some knowledge of determinants, this volume has long been among the best available expositions of advanced work on projective and algebraic geometry. Developed from Professor Woods' lectures at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, it bridges the gap between intermediate studies in the field and highly specialized works.With exceptional thoroughness, it presents the most important general concepts and methods of advanced algebraic geometry (as distinguished from differential geometry). It offers a thorough study

  16. Method of sections in analytical calculations of pneumatic tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, V. N.; Boyarkina, I. V.

    2018-01-01

    Analytical calculations in the pneumatic tire theory are more preferable in comparison with experimental methods. The method of section of a pneumatic tire shell allows to obtain equations of intensities of internal forces in carcass elements and bead rings. Analytical dependencies of intensity of distributed forces have been obtained in tire equator points, on side walls (poles) and pneumatic tire bead rings. Along with planes in the capacity of secant surfaces cylindrical surfaces are used for the first time together with secant planes. The tire capacity equation has been obtained using the method of section, by means of which a contact body is cut off from the tire carcass along the contact perimeter by the surface which is normal to the bearing surface. It has been established that the Laplace equation for the solution of tasks of this class of pneumatic tires contains two unknown values that requires the generation of additional equations. The developed computational schemes of pneumatic tire sections and new equations allow to accelerate the pneumatic tire structure improvement process during engineering.

  17. Performance of analytical methods for tomographic gamma scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prettyman, T.H.; Mercer, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The use of gamma-ray computerized tomography for nondestructive assay of radioactive materials has led to the development of specialized analytical methods. Over the past few years, Los Alamos has developed and implemented a computer code, called ARC-TGS, for the analysis of data obtained by tomographic gamma scanning (TGS). ARC-TGS reduces TGS transmission and emission tomographic data, providing the user with images of the sample contents, the activity or mass of selected radionuclides, and an estimate of the uncertainty in the measured quantities. The results provided by ARC-TGS can be corrected for self-attenuation when the isotope of interest emits more than one gamma-ray. In addition, ARC-TGS provides information needed to estimate TGS quantification limits and to estimate the scan time needed to screen for small amounts of radioactivity. In this report, an overview of the analytical methods used by ARC-TGS is presented along with an assessment of the performance of these methods for TGS

  18. Analytical Method to Estimate the Complex Permittivity of Oil Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Su

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an analytical method to estimate the complex dielectric constant of liquids is presented. The method is based on the measurement of the transmission coefficient in an embedded microstrip line loaded with a complementary split ring resonator (CSRR, which is etched in the ground plane. From this response, the dielectric constant and loss tangent of the liquid under test (LUT can be extracted, provided that the CSRR is surrounded by such LUT, and the liquid level extends beyond the region where the electromagnetic fields generated by the CSRR are present. For that purpose, a liquid container acting as a pool is added to the structure. The main advantage of this method, which is validated from the measurement of the complex dielectric constant of olive and castor oil, is that reference samples for calibration are not required.

  19. Analytical method of spectra calculations in the Bargmann representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciejewski, Andrzej J.; Przybylska, Maria; Stachowiak, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    We formulate a universal method for solving an arbitrary quantum system which, in the Bargmann representation, is described by a system of linear equations with one independent variable, such as one- and multi-photon Rabi models, or N level systems interacting with a single mode of the electromagnetic field and their various generalizations. We explain three types of conditions that determine the spectrum and show their usage for two deformations of the Rabi model. We prove that the spectra of both models are just zeros of transcendental functions, which in one case are given explicitly in terms of confluent Heun functions. - Highlights: • Analytical method of spectrum determination in Bargmann representation is proposed. • Three types of conditions determining spectrum are identified. • Method to two generalizations of the Rabi system is applied

  20. Analytical method for the isotopic characterization of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibello Hernandez, Rita; Cozzella, Maria Letizia; Mariani, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop an analytical method in order to determine the isotopic composition of different elements in soil samples and to determine the existence of contamination. The method used in the digestion of the samples was the EPA 3050B, and some metal concentration were determined including uranium and thorium. For elements with even lower concentrations such as plutonium and radium a treatment after mineralization by EPA, was necessary. The measurement technique used was mass spectrometry with quadrupole and plasma induced associated (ICP-MS). Results of the analysis performed in two laboratories showed a good correspondence. This method allowed to perform the isotopic characterization of studied soils and results showed that the studied soils do not present any local pollution and that the presence of plutonium-239, is due to global failure

  1. Determination of trace impurities in uranium-transition metal alloy fuels by ICP-MS using extended common analyte internal standardization (ECAIS) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Abhijit; Deb, S.B.; Nagar, B.K.; Saxena, M.K.

    2015-01-01

    An analytical methodology was developed for the determination of eight trace impurities viz, Al, B, Cd, Co, Cu, Mg, Mn and Ni in three different uranium-transition metal alloy fuels (U-Me; Me = Ti, Zr and Mo) employing inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The well known common analyte internal standardization (CAIS) chemometric technique was modified and then employed to minimize and account for the matrix effect on analyte intensity. Standard addition of analytes to the pure synthetic U-Me sample solutions and subsequently their ≥ 94% recovery by the ICP-MS measurement validates the proposed methodology. One real sample of each of these alloys was analyzed by the developed analytical methodology and the %RSD observed was in the range of 5-8%. The method detection limits were found to be within 4-10 μg L -1 . (author)

  2. Vertical equilibrium with sub-scale analytical methods for geological CO2 sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    Gasda, S. E.; Nordbotten, J. M.; Celia, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    equilibrium with sub-scale analytical method (VESA) combines the flexibility of a numerical method, allowing for heterogeneous and geologically complex systems, with the efficiency and accuracy of an analytical method, thereby eliminating expensive grid

  3. Mixed gamma emitting gas standard and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, R.C.; McFarland, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The invention in one aspect pertains to a method of calibrating gamma spectroscopy systems for gas counting in a variety of counting containers comprising withdrawing a precision volume of a mixed gamma-emitting gas standard from a precision volume vial and delivering the withdrawn precision volume of the gas standard to the interior of a gas counting container. Another aspect of the invention pertains to a mixed gamma-emitting gas standard, comprising a precision spherical vial of predetermined volume, multiple mixed emitting gas components enclosed within the vial, and means for withdrawing from the vial a predetermined amount of the components wherein the gas standard is used to calibrate a gamma spectrometer system for gas counting over a wide energy range without the use of additional standards. A third aspect comprehends a gamma spectrometer calibration system for gas counting, comprising a precision volume spherical glass vial for receiving mixed multiisotope gas components, and two tubular arms extending from the vial. A ground glass stopcock is positioned on each arm, and the outer end of one arm is provided with a rubber septum port

  4. Heat Conduction Analysis Using Semi Analytical Finite Element Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wargadipura, A. H. S.

    1997-01-01

    Heat conduction problems are very often found in science and engineering fields. It is of accrual importance to determine quantitative descriptions of this important physical phenomena. This paper discusses the development and application of a numerical formulation and computation that can be used to analyze heat conduction problems. The mathematical equation which governs the physical behaviour of heat conduction is in the form of second order partial differential equations. The numerical resolution used in this paper is performed using the finite element method and Fourier series, which is known as semi-analytical finite element methods. The numerical solution results in simultaneous algebraic equations which is solved using the Gauss elimination methodology. The computer implementation is carried out using FORTRAN language. In the final part of the paper, a heat conduction problem in a rectangular plate domain with isothermal boundary conditions in its edge is solved to show the application of the computer program developed and also a comparison with analytical solution is discussed to assess the accuracy of the numerical solution obtained

  5. Selection of analytical methods for mixed waste analysis at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morant, P.M.

    1994-09-01

    This document describes the process that the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) and contractor laboratories use to select appropriate or develop new or modified analytical methods. These methods are needed to provide reliable mixed waste characterization data that meet project-specific quality assurance (QA) requirements while also meeting health and safety standards for handling radioactive materials. This process will provide the technical basis for DOE's analysis of mixed waste and support requests for regulatory approval of these new methods when they are used to satisfy the regulatory requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-party Agreement) (Ecology et al. 1992)

  6. Analytic moment method calculations of the drift wave spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, D.R.; Molvig, K.

    1985-11-01

    A derivation and approximate solution of renormalized mode coupling equations describing the turbulent drift wave spectrum is presented. Arguments are given which indicate that a weak turbulence formulation of the spectrum equations fails for a system with negative dissipation. The inadequacy of the weak turbulence theory is circumvented by utilizing a renormalized formation. An analytic moment method is developed to approximate the solution of the nonlinear spectrum integral equations. The solution method employs trial functions to reduce the integral equations to algebraic equations in basic parameters describing the spectrum. An approximate solution of the spectrum equations is first obtained for a mode dissipation with known solution, and second for an electron dissipation in the NSA

  7. Introduction to Analytical Methods for Internal Combustion Engine Cam Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, J J

    2013-01-01

    Modern design methods of Automotive Cam Design require the computation of a range of parameters. This book provides a logical sequence of steps for the derivation of the relevant equations from first principles, for the more widely used cam mechanisms. Although originally derived for use in high performance engines, this work is equally applicable to the design of mass produced automotive and other internal combustion engines.   Introduction to Analytical Methods for Internal Combustion Engine Cam Mechanisms provides the equations necessary for the design of cam lift curves with an associated smooth acceleration curve. The equations are derived for the kinematics and kinetics of all the mechanisms considered, together with those for cam curvature and oil entrainment velocity. This permits the cam shape, all loads, and contact stresses to be evaluated, and the relevant tribology to be assessed. The effects of asymmetry on the manufacture of cams for finger follower and offset translating curved followers is ...

  8. Principles of Single-Laboratory Validation of Analytical Methods for Testing the Chemical Composition of Pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrus, A. [Hungarian Food Safety Office, Budapest (Hungary)

    2009-07-15

    Underlying theoretical and practical approaches towards pesticide formulation analysis are discussed, i.e. general principles, performance characteristics, applicability of validation data, verification of method performance, and adaptation of validated methods by other laboratories. The principles of single laboratory validation of analytical methods for testing the chemical composition of pesticides are outlined. Also the theoretical background is described for performing pesticide formulation analysis as outlined in ISO, CIPAC/AOAC and IUPAC guidelines, including methodological characteristics such as specificity, selectivity, linearity, accuracy, trueness, precision and bias. Appendices I–III hereof give practical and elaborated examples on how to use the Horwitz approach and formulae for estimating the target standard deviation towards acceptable analytical repeatability. The estimation of trueness and the establishment of typical within-laboratory reproducibility are treated in greater detail by means of worked-out examples. (author)

  9. An analytical method for computing atomic contact areas in biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Paul; Koehl, Patrice

    2013-01-15

    We propose a new analytical method for detecting and computing contacts between atoms in biomolecules. It is based on the alpha shape theory and proceeds in three steps. First, we compute the weighted Delaunay triangulation of the union of spheres representing the molecule. In the second step, the Delaunay complex is filtered to derive the dual complex. Finally, contacts between spheres are collected. In this approach, two atoms i and j are defined to be in contact if their centers are connected by an edge in the dual complex. The contact areas between atom i and its neighbors are computed based on the caps formed by these neighbors on the surface of i; the total area of all these caps is partitioned according to their spherical Laguerre Voronoi diagram on the surface of i. This method is analytical and its implementation in a new program BallContact is fast and robust. We have used BallContact to study contacts in a database of 1551 high resolution protein structures. We show that with this new definition of atomic contacts, we generate realistic representations of the environments of atoms and residues within a protein. In particular, we establish the importance of nonpolar contact areas that complement the information represented by the accessible surface areas. This new method bears similarity to the tessellation methods used to quantify atomic volumes and contacts, with the advantage that it does not require the presence of explicit solvent molecules if the surface of the protein is to be considered. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. GenoSets: visual analytic methods for comparative genomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora A Cain

    Full Text Available Many important questions in biology are, fundamentally, comparative, and this extends to our analysis of a growing number of sequenced genomes. Existing genomic analysis tools are often organized around literal views of genomes as linear strings. Even when information is highly condensed, these views grow cumbersome as larger numbers of genomes are added. Data aggregation and summarization methods from the field of visual analytics can provide abstracted comparative views, suitable for sifting large multi-genome datasets to identify critical similarities and differences. We introduce a software system for visual analysis of comparative genomics data. The system automates the process of data integration, and provides the analysis platform to identify and explore features of interest within these large datasets. GenoSets borrows techniques from business intelligence and visual analytics to provide a rich interface of interactive visualizations supported by a multi-dimensional data warehouse. In GenoSets, visual analytic approaches are used to enable querying based on orthology, functional assignment, and taxonomic or user-defined groupings of genomes. GenoSets links this information together with coordinated, interactive visualizations for both detailed and high-level categorical analysis of summarized data. GenoSets has been designed to simplify the exploration of multiple genome datasets and to facilitate reasoning about genomic comparisons. Case examples are included showing the use of this system in the analysis of 12 Brucella genomes. GenoSets software and the case study dataset are freely available at http://genosets.uncc.edu. We demonstrate that the integration of genomic data using a coordinated multiple view approach can simplify the exploration of large comparative genomic data sets, and facilitate reasoning about comparisons and features of interest.

  11. Manual of analytical methods for the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greulich, K.A.; Gray, C.E. (comp.)

    1991-08-01

    This Manual is compiled from techniques used in the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The procedures are similar to those used in other laboratories devoted to industrial hygiene practices. Some of the methods are standard; some, modified to suit our needs; and still others, developed at Sandia. The authors have attempted to present all methods in a simple and concise manner but in sufficient detail to make them readily usable. It is not to be inferred that these methods are universal for any type of sample, but they have been found very reliable for the types of samples mentioned.

  12. Manual of analytical methods for the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greulich, K.A.; Gray, C.E.

    1991-08-01

    This Manual is compiled from techniques used in the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The procedures are similar to those used in other laboratories devoted to industrial hygiene practices. Some of the methods are standard; some, modified to suit our needs; and still others, developed at Sandia. The authors have attempted to present all methods in a simple and concise manner but in sufficient detail to make them readily usable. It is not to be inferred that these methods are universal for any type of sample, but they have been found very reliable for the types of samples mentioned

  13. International Society for Analytical Cytology biosafety standard for sorting of unfixed cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Ingrid; Lambert, Claude; Ambrozak, David; Marti, Gerald E; Moss, Delynn M; Perfetto, Stephen P

    2007-06-01

    Cell sorting of viable biological specimens has become very prevalent in laboratories involved in basic and clinical research. As these samples can contain infectious agents, precautions to protect instrument operators and the environment from hazards arising from the use of sorters are paramount. To this end the International Society of Analytical Cytology (ISAC) took a lead in establishing biosafety guidelines for sorting of unfixed cells (Schmid et al., Cytometry 1997;28:99-117). During the time period these recommendations have been available, they have become recognized worldwide as the standard practices and safety precautions for laboratories performing viable cell sorting experiments. However, the field of cytometry has progressed since 1997, and the document requires an update. Initially, suggestions about the document format and content were discussed among members of the ISAC Biosafety Committee and were incorporated into a draft version that was sent to all committee members for review. Comments were collected, carefully considered, and incorporated as appropriate into a draft document that was posted on the ISAC web site to invite comments from the flow cytometry community at large. The revised document was then submitted to ISAC Council for review. Simultaneously, further comments were sought from newly-appointed ISAC Biosafety committee members. This safety standard for performing viable cell sorting experiments was recently generated. The document contains background information on the biohazard potential of sorting and the hazard classification of infectious agents as well as recommendations on (1) sample handling, (2) operator training and personal protection, (3) laboratory design, (4) cell sorter set-up, maintenance, and decontamination, and (5) testing the instrument for the efficiency of aerosol containment. This standard constitutes an updated and expanded revision of the 1997 biosafety guideline document. It is intended to provide

  14. USING ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS (AHP METHOD IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Cengiz

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Rural development is a body of economical and social policies towards improving living conditions in rural areas through enabling rural population to utilize economical, social, cultural and technological blessing of city life in place, without migrating. As it is understood from this description, rural development is a very broad concept. Therefore, in development efforts problem should be stated clearly, analyzed and many criterias should be evaluated by experts. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method can be utilized at there stages of development efforts. AHP methods is one of multi-criteria decision method. After degrading a problem in smaller pieces, relative importance and level of importance of two compared elements are determined. It allows evaluation of quality and quantity factors. At the same time, it permits utilization of ideas of many experts and use them in decision process. Because mentioned features of AHP method, it could be used in rural development works. In this article, cultural factors, one of the important components of rural development is often ignored in many studies, were evaluated as an example. As a result of these applications and evaluations, it is concluded that AHP method could be helpful in rural development efforts.

  15. An Analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources Solution for Plane Wave Scattering by Impedance Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2004-01-01

    Analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources solutions for plane wave scattering by circular impedance cylinders are derived by transformation of the exact eigenfunction series solutions employing the Hankel function wave transformation. The analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources solution thus obtained...

  16. Analytical methods and problems for the diamides type of extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuillerdier, C.; Nigond, L.; Musikas, C.; Vitart, H.; Hoel, P.

    1989-01-01

    Diamides of carboxylic acids and especially malonamides are able to extract alpha emitters (including trivalent ions such as Am and Cm) contained in the wastes solutions of the nuclear industry. As they are completely incinerable and easy to purify, they could be an alternative to the mixture CMPO-TBP which is used in the TRUEX process. A large oxyalkyl radical enhances the distribution coefficients of americium in nitric acid sufficiently to permit the decontamination of wastes solutions in a classical mixers-settlers battery. Now researches are pursued with the aim of optimizing the formula of extractant, the influence of the structure of the extractant on its basicity and stability under radiolysis and hydrolysis is investigated. Analytical methods (potentiometry and NMR of C 13 ) have been developed for solvent titration and to evaluate the percentage of degradation and to identify some of the degradation products

  17. Analytical methods used in plutonium purification cycles by trilaurylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, J.J.

    1965-01-01

    The utilisation of trilaurylamine as a solvent extractant for the purification of plutonium has entailed to perfect a set of analytical methods which involves, various techniques. The organic impurities of the solvent can be titrated by gas-liquid chromatography. The titration of the main degradation product, the di-laurylamine, can be accomplished also by spectro-colorimetry. Potentiometry is used for the analysis of the different salts of amine-nitrate-sulfate-bisulfate as also the extracted nitric acid. The determination of the nitrate in aqueous phase is carried out by constant current potentiometry. The range of application, the accuracy and the procedure of these analysis are related in the present report. (author) [fr

  18. Nuclear analytical methods for trace element studies in calcified tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, M.A.; Chaudhry, M.N.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Various nuclear analytical methods have been developed and applied to determine the elemental composition of calcified tissues (teeth and bones). Fluorine was determined by prompt gamma activation analysis through the 19 F(p,ag) 16 O reaction. Carbon was measured by activation analysis with He-3 ions, and the technique of Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was applied to simultaneously determine Ca, P, and trace elements in well-documented teeth. Dental hard tissues, enamel, dentine, cement, and their junctions, as well as different parts of the same tissue, were examined separately. Furthermore, using a Proton Microprobe, we measured the surface distribution of F and other elements on and around carious lesions on the enamel. The depth profiles of F, and other elements, were also measured right up to the amelodentin junction

  19. Laser induced uranium fluorescence as an analytical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutman, I.

    1985-01-01

    A laser induced fluorescence system was developed to measure uranium trace level amounts in aqueous solution with reliable and simple materials and electronics. A nitrogen pulsed laser was built with the storage energy capacitor directly coupled to laser tube electrodes as a transmission line device. This laser operated at 3Hz repetition rate with peak intensity around 21 Kw and temporal width of 4.5 x 10 -9 s. A sample compartment made of rigid PVC and a photomultiplier housing of aluminium were constructed and assembled forming a single integrated device. As a result of this prototype system we made several analytical measurements with U dissolved in nitric acid to obtain a calibration curve. We obtained a straight line from a plot of U concentration versus fluorescence intensity fitted by a least square method that produced a regression coefficient of 0.994. The lower limit of U determination was 30 ppb -+ 3.5%. (Author) [pt

  20. Precision profiles and analytic reliability of radioimmunologic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaneva, Z.; Popova, Yu.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate and compare some methods for creation of 'precision profiles' (PP) and to clarify their possibilities for determining the analytical reliability of RIA. Only methods without complicated mathematical calculations has been used. The reproducibility in serums with a concentration of the determinable hormone in the whole range of the calibration curve has been studied. The radioimmunoassay has been performed with TSH-RIA set (ex East Germany), and comparative evaluations - with commercial sets of HOECHST (Germany) and AMERSHAM (GB). Three methods for obtaining the relationship concentration (IU/l) -reproducibility (C.V.,%) are used and a comparison is made of their corresponding profiles: preliminary rough profile, Rodbard-PP and Ekins-PP. It is concluded that the creation of a precision profile is obligatory and the method of its construction does not influence the relationship's course. PP allows to determine concentration range giving stable results which improves the efficiency of the analitical work. 16 refs., 4 figs

  1. Study of comparison between neutron activation analysis and the other analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatsuka, Sumiko

    1986-01-01

    The neutron activation analysis (NAA) is compared with other analytical methods based on various data. It is concluded that NAA is most frequently used for the analysis of NBS environmental standard samples. NAA is suitable for the analysis of trace elements contained in environmental samples since non-destructive quantitative determination can be carried out simultaneously for different elements. NAA and XRF are the only methods which can be used for analyzing oil samples. This also indicates the usefulness of non-destructive techniques. In any standard sample, NAA can achieve a high accuracy for more than 90 % of the elements contained. On the other hand, the accuracy varies depending on the type of sample in the case of the other analytical methods examined. Regarding the prescision, NAA for any standard sample is the smallest in the proportion of the number of elements determined with C.V. (coefficient of variation) of less than 10 % to the total number of elements contained. However, the total number of elements which can be determined by NAA with C.V. of less than 10 % is greater than that by any of the other four methods examined. It should be noticed that there are some elements which can be determined only by NAA. (Nogami, K.)

  2. Fast analytical method for the addition of random variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senna, V.; Milidiu, R.L.; Fleming, P.V.; Salles, M.R.; Oliveria, L.F.S.

    1983-01-01

    Using the minimal cut sets representation of a fault tree, a new approach to the method of moments is proposed in order to estimate confidence bounds to the top event probability. The method utilizes two or three moments either to fit a distribution (the normal and lognormal families) or to evaluate bounds from standard inequalities (e.g. Markov, Tchebycheff, etc.) Examples indicate that the results obtained by the log-normal family are in good agreement with those obtained by Monte Carlo simulation

  3. Ecological Vulnerability Assessment Based on Fuzzy Analytical Method and Analytic Hierarchy Process in Yellow River Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunsheng; Liu, Gaohuan; Huang, Chong; Liu, Qingsheng; Guan, Xudong

    2018-04-25

    The Yellow River Delta (YRD), located in Yellow River estuary, is characterized by rich ecological system types, and provides habitats or migration stations for wild birds, all of which makes the delta an ecological barrier or ecotone for inland areas. Nevertheless, the abundant natural resources of YRD have brought huge challenges to the area, and frequent human activities and natural disasters have damaged the ecological systems seriously, and certain ecological functions have been threatened. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the status of the ecological environment based on scientific methods, which can provide scientifically robust data for the managers or stakeholders to adopt timely ecological protection measures. The aim of this study was to obtain the spatial distribution of the ecological vulnerability (EV) in YRD based on 21 indicators selected from underwater status, soil condition, land use, landform, vegetation cover, meteorological conditions, ocean influence, and social economy. In addition, the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) method was used to obtain the weights of the selected indicators, and a fuzzy logic model was constructed to obtain the result. The result showed that the spatial distribution of the EV grades was regular, while the fuzzy membership of EV decreased gradually from the coastline to inland area, especially around the river crossing, where it had the lowest EV. Along the coastline, the dikes had an obviously protective effect for the inner area, while the EV was higher in the area where no dikes were built. This result also showed that the soil condition and groundwater status were highly related to the EV spatially, with the correlation coefficients −0.55 and −0.74 respectively, and human activities had exerted considerable pressure on the ecological environment.

  4. CT hepatic perfusion measurement: Comparison of three analytic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, Tomonori; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Kanata, Naoki; Koyama, Hisanobu; Takenaka, Daisuke; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the efficacy of three analytic methods, maximum slope (MS), dual-input single-compartment model (CM) and deconvolution (DC), for CT measurements of hepatic perfusion and assess the effects of extra-hepatic systemic factors. Materials and methods: Eighty-eight patients who were suspected of having metastatic liver tumors underwent hepatic CT perfusion. The scans were performed at the hepatic hilum 7–77 s after administration of contrast material. Hepatic arterial and portal perfusions (HAP and HPP, ml/min/100 ml) and arterial perfusion fraction (APF, %) were calculated with the three methods, followed by correlation assessment. Partial correlation analysis was used to assess the effects on hepatic perfusion values by various factors such as age, sex, risk of cardiovascular diseases, arrival time of contrast material at abdominal aorta, transit time from abdominal aorta to hepatic parenchyma, and liver dysfunction. Results: Mean HAP of MS was significantly higher than DC. HPP of CM was significantly higher than MS and CM, and HPP of MS was significantly higher than DC. There was no significant difference in APF. HAP and APF showed significant and moderate correlations among the methods. HPP showed significant and moderate correlations between CM and DC, and poor correlation between MS and CM or DC. All methods showed weak correlations between HAP or APF and age or sex. Finally, MS showed weak correlations between HAP or HPP and arrival time or cardiovascular risks. Conclusions: Hepatic perfusion values arrived at with the three methods are not interchangeable. CM and DC are less susceptible to extra-hepatic systemic factors

  5. Analytical maximum-likelihood method to detect patterns in real networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squartini, Tiziano; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2011-01-01

    In order to detect patterns in real networks, randomized graph ensembles that preserve only part of the topology of an observed network are systematically used as fundamental null models. However, the generation of them is still problematic. Existing approaches are either computationally demanding and beyond analytic control or analytically accessible but highly approximate. Here, we propose a solution to this long-standing problem by introducing a fast method that allows one to obtain expectation values and standard deviations of any topological property analytically, for any binary, weighted, directed or undirected network. Remarkably, the time required to obtain the expectation value of any property analytically across the entire graph ensemble is as short as that required to compute the same property using the adjacency matrix of the single original network. Our method reveals that the null behavior of various correlation properties is different from what was believed previously, and is highly sensitive to the particular network considered. Moreover, our approach shows that important structural properties (such as the modularity used in community detection problems) are currently based on incorrect expressions, and provides the exact quantities that should replace them.

  6. Analytical methods associated with the recovery of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, K.

    1983-01-01

    This report summarizes various approaches made to the analysis of materials arising from the processing of Karoo deposits for uranium. These materials include head and residue samples, aqueous solutions and organic solvents and, finally, the precipitated cakes of the elements recovered, i.e. uranium, molybdenum, and arsenic. Analysis was required for these elements and also vanadium, carbon, sulphur, and carbonate in the head and residue samples. The concentration of uranium, molybdenum, and arsenic, other than in the precipitated cakes, ranges from 1 to 2000μg/g, and that of carbon, sulphur, and carbonate from 0,1 to 5 per cent. The analysis of cakes necessitates the determination of silver, arsenic, iron, copper, calcium, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, lead, tin, titanium, and vanadium within the range 1 to 1000μg/g, and of sodium and silica within the range 10 to 20 000μg/g. The methods used include combustion methods for carbon, sulphur, and carbonate, and atomic-absorption, X-ray-fluorescence, and emission methods for the other analytes. The accuracy of the analysis is within 10 per cent

  7. Moving standard deviation and moving sum of outliers as quality tools for monitoring analytical precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiakai; Tan, Chin Hon; Badrick, Tony; Loh, Tze Ping

    2018-02-01

    An increase in analytical imprecision (expressed as CV a ) can introduce additional variability (i.e. noise) to the patient results, which poses a challenge to the optimal management of patients. Relatively little work has been done to address the need for continuous monitoring of analytical imprecision. Through numerical simulations, we describe the use of moving standard deviation (movSD) and a recently described moving sum of outlier (movSO) patient results as means for detecting increased analytical imprecision, and compare their performances against internal quality control (QC) and the average of normal (AoN) approaches. The power of detecting an increase in CV a is suboptimal under routine internal QC procedures. The AoN technique almost always had the highest average number of patient results affected before error detection (ANPed), indicating that it had generally the worst capability for detecting an increased CV a . On the other hand, the movSD and movSO approaches were able to detect an increased CV a at significantly lower ANPed, particularly for measurands that displayed a relatively small ratio of biological variation to CV a. CONCLUSION: The movSD and movSO approaches are effective in detecting an increase in CV a for high-risk measurands with small biological variation. Their performance is relatively poor when the biological variation is large. However, the clinical risks of an increase in analytical imprecision is attenuated for these measurands as an increased analytical imprecision will only add marginally to the total variation and less likely to impact on the clinical care. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Groundwater Seepage Estimation into Amirkabir Tunnel Using Analytical Methods and DEM and SGR Method

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi Farhadian; Homayoon Katibeh

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, groundwater seepage into Amirkabir tunnel has been estimated using analytical and numerical methods for 14 different sections of the tunnel. Site Groundwater Rating (SGR) method also has been performed for qualitative and quantitative classification of the tunnel sections. The obtained results of above mentioned methods were compared together. The study shows reasonable accordance with results of the all methods unless for two sections of tunnel. In these t...

  9. Analytical resource assessment method for continuous (unconventional) oil and gas accumulations - The "ACCESS" Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovelli, Robert A.; revised by Charpentier, Ronald R.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) periodically assesses petroleum resources of areas within the United States and the world. The purpose of this report is to explain the development of an analytic probabilistic method and spreadsheet software system called Analytic Cell-Based Continuous Energy Spreadsheet System (ACCESS). The ACCESS method is based upon mathematical equations derived from probability theory. The ACCESS spreadsheet can be used to calculate estimates of the undeveloped oil, gas, and NGL (natural gas liquids) resources in a continuous-type assessment unit. An assessment unit is a mappable volume of rock in a total petroleum system. In this report, the geologic assessment model is defined first, the analytic probabilistic method is described second, and the spreadsheet ACCESS is described third. In this revised version of Open-File Report 00-044 , the text has been updated to reflect modifications that were made to the ACCESS program. Two versions of the program are added as appendixes.

  10. Comparation of fundamental analytical methods for quantitative determination of copper(IIion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ačanski Marijana M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper is a ductile metal with excellent electrical conductivity, and finds extensive use as an electrical conductor, heat conductor, as a building material, and as a component of various alloys. In this work accuracy of methods for quantitative determination (gravimetric and titrimetric methods of analysis of copper(II ion was studied. Gravimetric methods do not require a calibration or standardization step (as all other analytical procedures except coulometry do because the results are calculated directly from the experimental data and molar masses. Thus, when only one or two samples are to be analyzed, a gravimetric procedure may be the method of choice because it involves less time and effort than a procedure that requires preparation of standards and calibration. In this work in gravimetric analysis the concentration of copper(II ion is established through the measurement of a mass of CuSCN and CuO. Titrimetric methods is a process in which a standard reagent is added to a solution of an analyze until the reaction between the analyze and reagent is judged to be complete. In this work in titrimetric analysis the concentration of copper(II ion is established through the measurement of a volume of different standard reagents: Km, Na2S2O3 and AgNO3. Results were discussed individually and mutually with the aspect of exactility, reproductivity and rapidity. Relative error was calculated for all methods.

  11. Modern analytic methods applied to the art and archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenorio C, M. D.; Longoria G, L. C.

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of diverse areas as the analytic chemistry, the history of the art and the archaeology has allowed the development of a variety of techniques used in archaeology, in conservation and restoration. These methods have been used to date objects, to determine the origin of the old materials and to reconstruct their use and to identify the degradation processes that affect the integrity of the art works. The objective of this chapter is to offer a general vision on the researches that have been realized in the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) in the field of cultural goods. A series of researches carried out in collaboration with national investigators and of the foreigner is described shortly, as well as with the great support of degree students and master in archaeology of the National School of Anthropology and History, since one of the goals that have is to diffuse the knowledge of the existence of these techniques among the young archaeologists, so that they have a wider vision of what they could use in an in mediate future and they can check hypothesis with scientific methods. (Author)

  12. Analytic-numerical method of determining the freezing front location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Grzymkowski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of thermal processes combined with the reversible phase transitions of type: solid phase – liquid phase leads to formulation of the parabolic boundary problems with the moving boundary. Solution of such defined problem requires, most often, to use sophisticated numerical techniques and far advanced mathematical tools. Excellent illustration of the complexity of considered problems, as well as of the variety of approaches used for finding their solutions, gives the papers [1-4]. In the current paper, the authors present the, especially attractive from the engineer point of view, analytic-numerical method for finding the approximate solution of selected class of problems which can be reduced to the one-phase solidification problem of a plate with the unknown a priori, varying in time boundary of the region in which the solution is sought. Proposed method is based on the known formalism of initial expansion of the sought function describing the temperature field into the power series, some coefficients of which are determined with the aid of boundary conditions, and on the approximation of the function defining the location of freezing front with the broken line, parameters of which are numerically determined.

  13. Analytical method for determining the channel-temperature distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurbatov, I.M.

    1992-01-01

    The distribution of the predicted temperature over the volume or cross section of the active zone is important for thermal calculations of reactors taking into account random deviations. This requires a laborious calculation which includes the following steps: separation of the nominal temperature field, within the temperature range, into intervals, in each of which the temperature is set equal to its average value in the interval; determination of the number of channels whose temperature falls within each interval; construction of the channel-temperature distribution in each interval in accordance with the weighted error function; and summation of the number of channels with the same temperature over all intervals. This procedure can be greatly simplified with the help of methods which eliminate numerous variant calculations when the nominal temperature field is open-quotes refinedclose quotes up to the optimal field according to different criteria. In the present paper a universal analytical method is proposed for determining, by changing the coefficients in the channel-temperature distribution function, the form of this function that reflects all conditions of operation of the elements in the active zone. The problem is solved for the temperature of the coolant at the outlet from the reactor channels

  14. Measurement of company effectiveness using analytic network process method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Janjić

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable development of an organisation is monitored through the organisation’s performance, which beforehand incorporates all stakeholders’ requirements in its strategy. The strategic management concept enables organisations to monitor and evaluate their effectiveness along with efficiency by monitoring of the implementation of set strategic goals. In the process of monitoring and measuring effectiveness, an organisation can use multiple-criteria decision-making methods as help. This study uses the method of analytic network process (ANP to define the weight factors of the mutual influences of all the important elements of an organisation’s strategy. The calculation of an organisation’s effectiveness is based on the weight factors and the degree of fulfilment of the goal values of the strategic map measures. New business conditions influence the changes in the importance of certain elements of an organisation’s business in relation to competitive advantage on the market, and on the market, increasing emphasis is given to non-material resources in the process of selection of the organisation’s most important measures.

  15. Measurement of company effectiveness using analytic network process method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goran, Janjić; Zorana, Tanasić; Borut, Kosec

    2017-07-01

    The sustainable development of an organisation is monitored through the organisation's performance, which beforehand incorporates all stakeholders' requirements in its strategy. The strategic management concept enables organisations to monitor and evaluate their effectiveness along with efficiency by monitoring of the implementation of set strategic goals. In the process of monitoring and measuring effectiveness, an organisation can use multiple-criteria decision-making methods as help. This study uses the method of analytic network process (ANP) to define the weight factors of the mutual influences of all the important elements of an organisation's strategy. The calculation of an organisation's effectiveness is based on the weight factors and the degree of fulfilment of the goal values of the strategic map measures. New business conditions influence the changes in the importance of certain elements of an organisation's business in relation to competitive advantage on the market, and on the market, increasing emphasis is given to non-material resources in the process of selection of the organisation's most important measures.

  16. Development of analytical methods for iodine speciation in fresh water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaku, Yuichi; Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2007-01-01

    Analytical methods for physicochemical speciation of iodine in fresh water samples were developed to elucidate its behavior in the environment. The methods combined inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SEC) or capillary electrophoresis (CE). Freshwater samples were collected from Lake Towada and rivers surrounding the lake. After filtration through a 0.45 μm pore size membrane filter, iodine in the water samples was pre-concentrated with an ultra-filtration filter which had a cut-off size of 10 kDa. The fraction with molecular size over 10 kDa was concentrated to 100 times in the original water, and then introduced into the SEC-ICP-MS. Molecular size chromatograms of all river and lake water samples showed two peaks for iodine concentrations: 40 kDa and 20 kDa. The method for separately determining two valence states of inorganic iodine, I - and IO 3 - , was also developed using the CE-ICP-MS system and it was successfully applied to the fresh water samples. Analysis results of surface water samples in Lake Towada and rivers surrounding the lake indicated that the chemical form of inorganic iodine in all samples was IO 3 - . Additional lake water samples were collected from Lake O-ike-higashi in the Juni-ko area at Shirakami-Sanchi, which is a UNESCO natural world heritage. The lake has a strong thermocline during all seasons; its bottom layer is in a highly reductive state. Depth profiles of I - and IO 3 - clearly showed that I - was not detected in the surface layer, but it was predominant in the bottom layer, and vice versa for IO 3 - . As this separation method is rapid and sensitive, it will be widely used in the future. (author)

  17. Comparison of the acetyl bromide spectrophotometric method with other analytical lignin methods for determining lignin concentration in forage samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Romualdo S; Hatfield, Ronald D

    2004-06-16

    Present analytical methods to quantify lignin in herbaceous plants are not totally satisfactory. A spectrophotometric method, acetyl bromide soluble lignin (ABSL), has been employed to determine lignin concentration in a range of plant materials. In this work, lignin extracted with acidic dioxane was used to develop standard curves and to calculate the derived linear regression equation (slope equals absorptivity value or extinction coefficient) for determining the lignin concentration of respective cell wall samples. This procedure yielded lignin values that were different from those obtained with Klason lignin, acid detergent acid insoluble lignin, or permanganate lignin procedures. Correlations with in vitro dry matter or cell wall digestibility of samples were highest with data from the spectrophotometric technique. The ABSL method employing as standard lignin extracted with acidic dioxane has the potential to be employed as an analytical method to determine lignin concentration in a range of forage materials. It may be useful in developing a quick and easy method to predict in vitro digestibility on the basis of the total lignin content of a sample.

  18. Analytical one parameter method for PID motion controller settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Johannes; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper analytical expressions for PID-controllers settings for electromechanical motion systems are presented. It will be shown that by an adequate frequency domain oriented parametrization, the parameters of a PID-controller are analytically dependent on one variable only, the cross-over

  19. Propulsion and launching analysis of variable-mass rockets by analytical methods

    OpenAIRE

    D.D. Ganji; M. Gorji; M. Hatami; A. Hasanpour; N. Khademzadeh

    2013-01-01

    In this study, applications of some analytical methods on nonlinear equation of the launching of a rocket with variable mass are investigated. Differential transformation method (DTM), homotopy perturbation method (HPM) and least square method (LSM) were applied and their results are compared with numerical solution. An excellent agreement with analytical methods and numerical ones is observed in the results and this reveals that analytical methods are effective and convenient. Also a paramet...

  20. The analytic regularization ζ function method and the cut-off method in Casimir effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svaiter, N.F.; Svaiter, B.F.

    1990-01-01

    The zero point energy associated to a hermitian massless scalar field in the presence of perfectly reflecting plates in a three dimensional flat space-time is discussed. A new technique to unify two different methods - the ζ function and a variant of the cut-off method - used to obtain the so called Casimir energy is presented, and the proof of the analytic equivalence between both methods is given. (author)

  1. Results of an interlaboratory comparison of analytical methods for contaminants of emerging concern in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderford, Brett J; Drewes, Jörg E; Eaton, Andrew; Guo, Yingbo C; Haghani, Ali; Hoppe-Jones, Christiane; Schluesener, Michael P; Snyder, Shane A; Ternes, Thomas; Wood, Curtis J

    2014-01-07

    An evaluation of existing analytical methods used to measure contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) was performed through an interlaboratory comparison involving 25 research and commercial laboratories. In total, 52 methods were used in the single-blind study to determine method accuracy and comparability for 22 target compounds, including pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and steroid hormones, all at ng/L levels in surface and drinking water. Method biases ranged from caffeine, NP, OP, and triclosan had false positive rates >15%. In addition, some methods reported false positives for 17β-estradiol and 17α-ethynylestradiol in unspiked drinking water and deionized water, respectively, at levels higher than published predicted no-effect concentrations for these compounds in the environment. False negative rates were also generally contamination, misinterpretation of background interferences, and/or inappropriate setting of detection/quantification levels for analysis at low ng/L levels. The results of both comparisons were collectively assessed to identify parameters that resulted in the best overall method performance. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with the calibration technique of isotope dilution were able to accurately quantify most compounds with an average bias of <10% for both matrixes. These findings suggest that this method of analysis is suitable at environmentally relevant levels for most of the compounds studied. This work underscores the need for robust, standardized analytical methods for CECs to improve data quality, increase comparability between studies, and help reduce false positive and false negative rates.

  2. Oxcarbazepine: validation and application of an analytical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Rezende Enéas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxcarbazepine (OXC is an important anticonvulsant and mood stabilizing drug. A pharmacopoeial monograph for OXC is not yet available and therefore the development and validation of a new analytical method for quantification of this drug is essential. In the present study, a UV spectrophotometric method for the determination of OXC was developed. The various parameters, such as linearity, precision, accuracy and specificity, were studied according to International Conference on Harmonization Guidelines. Batches of 150 mg OXC capsules were prepared and analyzed using the validated UV method. The formulations were also evaluated for parameters including drug-excipient compatibility, flowability, uniformity of weight, disintegration time, assay, uniformity of content and the amount of drug dissolved during the first hour.Oxcarbazepina (OXC é um fármaco anticonvulsivante e estabilizante do humor. O desenvolvimento e validação de método analítico para quantificação da OXC são de fundamental importância devido à ausência de monografias farmacopéicas oficiais para esse fármaco. Nesse trabalho, um método espectrofotométrico UV para determinação da OXC foi desenvolvido. O método proposto foi validado seguindo os parâmetros de linearidade, precisão, exatidão e especificidade de acordo com as normas da Conferência Internacional de Harmonização. Cápsulas de OXC 150 mg foram preparadas e analisadas utilizando-se o método analítico validado. As formulações foram avaliadas com relação à compatibilidade fármaco-excipientes, fluidez, determinação de peso, tempo de desintegração, doseamento, uniformidade de conteúdo e quantidade do fármaco dissolvido após 60 minutos.

  3. A new robust method for the treatment of analytical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearton, D.C.G.

    1982-01-01

    A new robust method is proposed for the calculation of the median and the relative standard deviation for a set of data containing unsymmetrically placed outliers. Examples of the advantages of the new method are given, the findings being confirmed by Monte Carlo tests. At Mintek mass-spectrometric data are often unsymmetrical, and all outliers are often at one of the extremities, either all high or all low. In some instances the outliers can be seen visually, and would therefore be rejected on sight. However, when large sets of results are processed, such as those from mass-spectrometric, X-ray fluorescence, and neutron-activation analyses, or in fields such as the assignment of values to reference materials, the sets of results are often too large for visual inspection and are processed within the computer

  4. Analytical methods for waste minimisation in the convenience food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, R; Staikos, T; Rahimifard, S

    2009-04-01

    Waste creation in some sectors of the food industry is substantial, and while much of the used material is non-hazardous and biodegradable, it is often poorly dealt with and simply sent to landfill mixed with other types of waste. In this context, overproduction wastes were found in a number of cases to account for 20-40% of the material wastes generated by convenience food manufacturers (such as ready-meals and sandwiches), often simply just to meet the challenging demands placed on the manufacturer due to the short order reaction time provided by the supermarkets. Identifying specific classes of waste helps to minimise their creation, through consideration of what the materials constitute and why they were generated. This paper aims to provide means by which food industry wastes can be identified, and demonstrate these mechanisms through a practical example. The research reported in this paper investigated the various categories of waste and generated three analytical methods for the support of waste minimisation activities by food manufacturers. The waste classifications and analyses are intended to complement existing waste minimisation approaches and are described through consideration of a case study convenience food manufacturer that realised significant financial savings through waste measurement, analysis and reduction.

  5. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (third edition). Fourth supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-15

    The NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods, 3rd edition, was updated for the following chemicals: allyl-glycidyl-ether, 2-aminopyridine, aspartame, bromine, chlorine, n-butylamine, n-butyl-glycidyl-ether, carbon-dioxide, carbon-monoxide, chlorinated-camphene, chloroacetaldehyde, p-chlorophenol, crotonaldehyde, 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, dinitro-o-cresol, ethyl-acetate, ethyl-formate, ethylenimine, sodium-fluoride, hydrogen-fluoride, cryolite, sodium-hexafluoroaluminate, formic-acid, hexachlorobutadiene, hydrogen-cyanide, hydrogen-sulfide, isopropyl-acetate, isopropyl-ether, isopropyl-glycidyl-ether, lead, lead-oxide, maleic-anhydride, methyl-acetate, methyl-acrylate, methyl-tert-butyl ether, methyl-cellosolve-acetate, methylcyclohexanol, 4,4'-methylenedianiline, monomethylaniline, monomethylhydrazine, nitric-oxide, p-nitroaniline, phenyl-ether, phenyl-ether-biphenyl mixture, phenyl-glycidyl-ether, phenylhydrazine, phosphine, ronnel, sulfuryl-fluoride, talc, tributyl-phosphate, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, trimellitic-anhydride, triorthocresyl-phosphate, triphenyl-phosphate, and vinyl-acetate.

  6. An analytical method for optimal design of MR valve structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Q H; Choi, S B; Lee, Y S; Han, M S

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an analytical methodology for the optimal design of a magnetorheological (MR) valve structure. The MR valve structure is constrained in a specific volume and the optimization problem identifies geometric dimensions of the valve structure that maximize the yield stress pressure drop of a MR valve or the yield stress damping force of a MR damper. In this paper, the single-coil and two-coil annular MR valve structures are considered. After describing the schematic configuration and operating principle of a typical MR valve and damper, a quasi-static model is derived based on the Bingham model of a MR fluid. The magnetic circuit of the valve and damper is then analyzed by applying Kirchoff's law and the magnetic flux conservation rule. Based on quasi-static modeling and magnetic circuit analysis, the optimization problem of the MR valve and damper is built. In order to reduce the computation load, the optimization problem is simplified and a procedure to obtain the optimal solution of the simplified optimization problem is presented. The optimal solution of the simplified optimization problem of the MR valve structure constrained in a specific volume is then obtained and compared with the solution of the original optimization problem and the optimal solution obtained from the finite element method

  7. AN ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR CHEMICAL SPECIATION OF SELENIUM IN SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Luca

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is an essential microelement, sometimes redoubtable, through its beneficial role - risk depending on its concentration in the food chain, at low dose is an important nutrient in the life of humans and animals, contrary at high doses, it becomes toxic. Selenium may be find itself in the environment (soil, sediment, water in many forms (oxidized, reduced, organometallic which determine their mobility and toxicity. Determination of chemical speciation (identification of different chemical forms provides much more complete information for a better understanding of the behavior and the potential impact on the environment. In this work we present the results of methodological research on the extraction of sequential forms of selenium in the soil and the coupling of analytical methods capable of identifying very small amounts of selenium in soils An efficient scheme of sequential extractions forms of selenium (SES consisting in atomic absorption spectrometry coupled with hydride generation (HGAAS has been developed into five experimental steps, detailed in the paper. This operational scheme has been applied to the analysis of chemical speciation in the following areas: the Bărăgan Plain and Central Dobrogea of Romania.

  8. Standard-Setting Methods as Measurement Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Paul; Twing, Jon; Mueller, Canda D.; O'Malley, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Some writers in the measurement literature have been skeptical of the meaningfulness of achievement standards and described the standard-setting process as blatantly arbitrary. We argue that standard setting is more appropriately conceived of as a measurement process similar to student assessment. The construct being measured is the panelists'…

  9. Laser-induced Breakdown spectroscopy quantitative analysis method via adaptive analytical line selection and relevance vector machine regression model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jianhong; Yi, Cancan; Xu, Jinwu; Ma, Xianghong

    2015-01-01

    A new LIBS quantitative analysis method based on analytical line adaptive selection and Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) regression model is proposed. First, a scheme of adaptively selecting analytical line is put forward in order to overcome the drawback of high dependency on a priori knowledge. The candidate analytical lines are automatically selected based on the built-in characteristics of spectral lines, such as spectral intensity, wavelength and width at half height. The analytical lines which will be used as input variables of regression model are determined adaptively according to the samples for both training and testing. Second, an LIBS quantitative analysis method based on RVM is presented. The intensities of analytical lines and the elemental concentrations of certified standard samples are used to train the RVM regression model. The predicted elemental concentration analysis results will be given with a form of confidence interval of probabilistic distribution, which is helpful for evaluating the uncertainness contained in the measured spectra. Chromium concentration analysis experiments of 23 certified standard high-alloy steel samples have been carried out. The multiple correlation coefficient of the prediction was up to 98.85%, and the average relative error of the prediction was 4.01%. The experiment results showed that the proposed LIBS quantitative analysis method achieved better prediction accuracy and better modeling robustness compared with the methods based on partial least squares regression, artificial neural network and standard support vector machine. - Highlights: • Both training and testing samples are considered for analytical lines selection. • The analytical lines are auto-selected based on the built-in characteristics of spectral lines. • The new method can achieve better prediction accuracy and modeling robustness. • Model predictions are given with confidence interval of probabilistic distribution

  10. Intercalibration of analytical methods on marine environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    The pollution of the seas by various chemical substances constitutes nowadays one of the principal concerns of mankind. The International Atomic Energy Agency has organized in past years several intercomparison exercises in the framework of its Analytical Quality Control Service. The present intercomparison had a double aim: first, to give laboratories participating in this intercomparison an opportunity for checking their analytical performance. Secondly, to produce on the basis of the results of this intercomparison a reference material made of fish tissue which would be accurately certified with respect to many trace elements. Such a material could be used by analytical chemists to check the validity of new analytical procedures. In total, 53 laboratories from 29 countries reported results (585 laboratory means for 48 elements). 5 refs, 52 tabs

  11. Estimating Fuel Cycle Externalities: Analytical Methods and Issues, Report 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1994-07-01

    of complex issues that also have not been fully addressed. This document contains two types of papers that seek to fill part of this void. Some of the papers describe analytical methods that can be applied to one of the five steps of the damage function approach. The other papers discuss some of the complex issues that arise in trying to estimate externalities. This report, the second in a series of eight reports, is part of a joint study by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commission of the European Communities (EC)* on the externalities of fuel cycles. Most of the papers in this report were originally written as working papers during the initial phases of this study. The papers provide descriptions of the (non-radiological) atmospheric dispersion modeling that the study uses; reviews much of the relevant literature on ecological and health effects, and on the economic valuation of those impacts; contains several papers on some of the more complex and contentious issues in estimating externalities; and describes a method for depicting the quality of scientific information that a study uses. The analytical methods and issues that this report discusses generally pertain to more than one of the fuel cycles, though not necessarily to all of them. The report is divided into six parts, each one focusing on a different subject area.

  12. Fuel Cycle Externalities: Analytical Methods and Issues, Report 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1994-01-01

    that also have not been fully addressed. This document contains two types of papers that seek to fill part of this void. Some of the papers describe analytical methods that can be applied to one of the five steps of the damage function approach. The other papers discuss some of the complex issues that arise in trying to estimate externalities. This report, the second in a series of eight reports, is part of a joint study by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commission of the European Communities (EC)* on the externalities of fuel cycles. Most of the papers in this report were originally written as working papers during the initial phases of this study. The papers provide descriptions of the (non-radiological) atmospheric dispersion modeling that the study uses; reviews much of the relevant literature on ecological and health effects, and on the economic valuation of those impacts; contains several papers on some of the more complex and contentious issues in estimating externalities; and describes a method for depicting the quality of scientific information that a study uses. The analytical methods and issues that this report discusses generally pertain to more than one of the fuel cycles, though not necessarily to all of them. The report is divided into six parts, each one focusing on a different subject area

  13. Studies on analytical method and nondestructive measuring method on the sensitization of austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onimura, Kichiro; Arioka, Koji; Horai, Manabu; Noguchi, Shigeru.

    1982-03-01

    Austenitic stainless steels are widely used as structural materials for the machine and equipment of various kinds of plants, such as thermal power, nuclear power, and chemical plants. The machines and equipment using this kind of material, however, have the possibility of suffering corrosion damage while in service, and these damages are considered to be largely due to the sensitization of the material in sometimes. So, it is necessary to develop an analytical method for grasping the sensitization of the material more in detail and a quantitative nondestructive measuring method which is applicable to various kinds of structures in order to prevent the corrosion damage. From the above viewpoint, studies have been made on the analytical method based on the theory of diffusion of chromium in austenitic stainless steels and on Electro-Potentiokinetics Reactivation Method (EPR Method) as a nondestructive measuring method, using 304 and 316 austenitic stainless steels having different carbon contents in base metals. This paper introduces the results of EPR test on the sensitization of austenitic stainless steels and the correlation between analytical and experimental results. (author)

  14. Analytical method of waste allocation in waste management systems: Concept, method and case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, Francis C.

    2017-01-01

    Waste is not a rejected item to dispose anymore but increasingly a secondary resource to exploit, influencing waste allocation among treatment operations in a waste management (WM) system. The aim of this methodological paper is to present a new method for the assessment of the WM system, the “analytical method of the waste allocation process” (AMWAP), based on the concept of the “waste allocation process” defined as the aggregation of all processes of apportioning waste among alternative waste treatment operations inside or outside the spatial borders of a WM system. AMWAP contains a conceptual framework and an analytical approach. The conceptual framework includes, firstly, a descriptive model that focuses on the description and classification of the WM system. It includes, secondly, an explanatory model that serves to explain and to predict the operation of the WM system. The analytical approach consists of a step-by-step analysis for the empirical implementation of the conceptual framework. With its multiple purposes, AMWAP provides an innovative and objective modular method to analyse a WM system which may be integrated in the framework of impact assessment methods and environmental systems analysis tools. Its originality comes from the interdisciplinary analysis of the WAP and to develop the conceptual framework. AMWAP is applied in the framework of an illustrative case study on the household WM system of Geneva (Switzerland). It demonstrates that this method provides an in-depth and contextual knowledge of WM. - Highlights: • The study presents a new analytical method based on the waste allocation process. • The method provides an in-depth and contextual knowledge of the waste management system. • The paper provides a reproducible procedure for professionals, experts and academics. • It may be integrated into impact assessment or environmental system analysis tools. • An illustrative case study is provided based on household waste

  15. Analytical method of waste allocation in waste management systems: Concept, method and case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, Francis C., E-mail: francis.b.c@videotron.ca

    2017-01-15

    Waste is not a rejected item to dispose anymore but increasingly a secondary resource to exploit, influencing waste allocation among treatment operations in a waste management (WM) system. The aim of this methodological paper is to present a new method for the assessment of the WM system, the “analytical method of the waste allocation process” (AMWAP), based on the concept of the “waste allocation process” defined as the aggregation of all processes of apportioning waste among alternative waste treatment operations inside or outside the spatial borders of a WM system. AMWAP contains a conceptual framework and an analytical approach. The conceptual framework includes, firstly, a descriptive model that focuses on the description and classification of the WM system. It includes, secondly, an explanatory model that serves to explain and to predict the operation of the WM system. The analytical approach consists of a step-by-step analysis for the empirical implementation of the conceptual framework. With its multiple purposes, AMWAP provides an innovative and objective modular method to analyse a WM system which may be integrated in the framework of impact assessment methods and environmental systems analysis tools. Its originality comes from the interdisciplinary analysis of the WAP and to develop the conceptual framework. AMWAP is applied in the framework of an illustrative case study on the household WM system of Geneva (Switzerland). It demonstrates that this method provides an in-depth and contextual knowledge of WM. - Highlights: • The study presents a new analytical method based on the waste allocation process. • The method provides an in-depth and contextual knowledge of the waste management system. • The paper provides a reproducible procedure for professionals, experts and academics. • It may be integrated into impact assessment or environmental system analysis tools. • An illustrative case study is provided based on household waste

  16. The fitness for purpose of analytical methods applied to fluorimetric uranium determination in water matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinman, Ana; Giustina, Daniel; Mondini, Julia; Diodat, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This paper describes the steps which should be followed by a laboratory in order to validate the fluorimetric method for natural uranium in water matrix. The validation of an analytical method is a necessary requirement prior accreditation under Standard norm ISO/IEC 17025, of a non normalized method. Different analytical techniques differ in a sort of variables to be validated. Depending on the chemical process, measurement technique, matrix type, data fitting and measurement efficiency, a laboratory must set up experiments to verify reliability of data, through the application of several statistical tests and by participating in Quality Programs (QP) organized by reference laboratories such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), National Physics Laboratory (NPL), or Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML). However, the participation in QP not only involves international reference laboratories, but also, the national ones which are able to prove proficiency to the Argentinean Accreditation Board. The parameters that the ARN laboratory had to validate in the fluorimetric method to fit in accordance with Eurachem guide and IUPAC definitions, are: Detection Limit, Quantification Limit, Precision, Intra laboratory Precision, Reproducibility Limit, Repeatability Limit, Linear Range and Robustness. Assays to fit the above parameters were designed on the bases of statistics requirements, and a detailed data treatment is presented together with the respective tests in order to show the parameters validated. As a final conclusion, the uranium determination by fluorimetry is a reliable method for direct measurement to meet radioprotection requirements in water matrix, within its linear range which is fixed every time a calibration is carried out at the beginning of the analysis. The detection limit ( depending on blank standard deviation and slope) varies between 3 ug U and 5 ug U which yields minimum detectable concentrations (MDC) of

  17. Analytical method of polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) in transformer oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, S.K. [National Institute of Environmental Research, Incheon (Korea); Kim, H.J.; Chung, D.; Kim, K.S.; Kim, J.K.; Chung, Y.H.; Chung, I.R.

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is a chlorinated biphenyl compound with the general formula C{sub 12}H{sub 10-n}/Cl{sub n}. PCBs generally occur as mixtures, where n can vary from 1 to 10. The 10 sites available for possible chlorine substitution result in 209 possible PCB congeners. There is now considerable concern regarding; the presence of PCB congeners in insulating oils used within large-scale electrical supply systems. Due to its outstanding chemical and thermal stabilities and electrical insulation properties, the commercial and industrial products of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), such as Aroclors, Kaneclors, Clophens, Phenaclors etc., had been widely used as thermal oil and transformer oil from 1930s until the 1970s. PCBs from a group of persistent organic pollutants of the environment, especially dangerous to living organisms due to high toxicity, persistency, and bio-concentration in adipose tissue. Despite of this fact, PCB-contaminated oils are still commonly encountered partly because PCBs used as dielectric liquids in transformer and condenser. The source of PCBs in environments can range from used transformer oils or dielectric liquids to liquid wastes, and some PCBs contamination is occurred due to the re-use of incompletely reconditioned oil. The current action plan of Republic of Korea dictates that organizations with electrical equipment contaminated with more than 2 mg/L PCBs will need to treat as PCBs-containing wastes, and 50mg/L of PCBs or PCBs equivalent to be treated as a pure PCB preparation. In this study, transformer oils analyzed based on guideline for PCBs analytical method of transformer oil in Korea.

  18. Transport methods: general. 1. The Analytical Monte Carlo Method for Radiation Transport Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, William R.; Brown, Forrest B.

    2001-01-01

    We present an alternative Monte Carlo method for solving the coupled equations of radiation transport and material energy. This method is based on incorporating the analytical solution to the material energy equation directly into the Monte Carlo simulation for the radiation intensity. This method, which we call the Analytical Monte Carlo (AMC) method, differs from the well known Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) method of Fleck and Cummings because there is no discretization of the material energy equation since it is solved as a by-product of the Monte Carlo simulation of the transport equation. Our method also differs from the method recently proposed by Ahrens and Larsen since they use Monte Carlo to solve both equations, while we are solving only the radiation transport equation with Monte Carlo, albeit with effective sources and cross sections to represent the emission sources. Our method bears some similarity to a method developed and implemented by Carter and Forest nearly three decades ago, but there are substantive differences. We have implemented our method in a simple zero-dimensional Monte Carlo code to test the feasibility of the method, and the preliminary results are very promising, justifying further extension to more realistic geometries. (authors)

  19. Cleanup standards and pathways analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    Remediation of a radioactively contaminated site requires that certain regulatory criteria be met before the site can be released for unrestricted future use. Since the ultimate objective of remediation is to protect the public health and safety, residual radioactivity levels remaining at a site after cleanup must be below certain preset limits or meet acceptable dose or risk criteria. Release of a decontaminated site requires proof that the radiological data obtained from the site meet the regulatory criteria for such a release. Typically release criteria consist of a composite of acceptance limits that depend on the radionuclides, the media in which they are present, and federal and local regulations. In recent years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a pathways analysis model to determine site-specific soil activity concentration guidelines for radionuclides that do not have established generic acceptance limits. The DOE pathways analysis computer code (developed by Argonne National Laboratory for the DOE) is called RESRAD (Gilbert et al. 1989). Similar efforts have been initiated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop and use dose-related criteria based on genetic pathways analyses rather than simplistic numerical limits on residual radioactivity. The focus of this paper is radionuclide contaminated soil. Cleanup standards are reviewed, pathways analysis methods are described, and an example is presented in which RESRAD was used to derive cleanup guidelines

  20. A standards-based ontology and support for Big Data Analytics in the insurance industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios A. Koutsomitropoulos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Standardization efforts have led to the emergence of conceptual models in the insurance industry. Simultaneously, the proliferation of digital information poses new challenges for the efficient management and analysis of available data. Based on the property and casualty data model, we propose an OWL ontology to represent insurance processes and to map large data volumes collected in traditional data stores. By the virtue of reasoning, we demonstrate a set of semantic queries using the ontology vocabulary that can simplify analytics and deduce implicit facts from these data. We compare this mapping approach to data in native RDF format, as in a triple store. As proof-of-concept, we use a large anonymized dataset for car policies from an actual insurance company.

  1. The chemical speciation and analysis of trace elements in sediment with Neutron Activation Analytical method(NAA) and atomic mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Sang-Ho; Kim, Jae-Jin; Chung, Yong-Sam; Kim, Sun-Ha

    2003-01-01

    In this research, first of all, the analytical methods for the determination of major elements in sediment have been developed with ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry). The analytical results of major elements (Al, Ca, K, Fe, Mg) with Cool ICP-MS were much better than those with normal ICP-MS. The analytical results were compared with those of NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis). NAA were a little superior to ICP-MS for the determination of major elements in sediment as a non-destructive trace analytical trace analytical method. The analytical methods for the determination of minor elements (Cr, Ce, U, Co, Pb, As, Se) have been also developed with ICP-MS. The analytical results by standard calibration curve with ICP-MS were not accurate due to the matrix interferences. Thus, the internal standard method was applied, then the analytical results for minor elements with ICP-MS were greatly improved. The analytical results obtained by ICP-MS were compared with those obtained by NAA. It showed that the two analytical methods have great capabilities for the determination of minor elements in sediments. Accordingly, the NAA will plan an important role in analysis of environment sample with complex matrix. ICP-MS also will play an important role because it has a great capability for the determination of Pb that could not be determined by NAA

  2. Characterization of Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Oils: The Importance of Solvent Selection for Analytical Method Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, Jack R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ware, Anne E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-25

    Two catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) oils (bottom/heavy fraction) were analyzed in various solvents that are used in common analytical methods (nuclear magnetic resonance - NMR, gas chromatography - GC, gel permeation chromatography - GPC, thermogravimetric analysis - TGA) for oil characterization and speciation. A more accurate analysis of the CFP oils can be obtained by identification and exploitation of solvent miscibility characteristics. Acetone and tetrahydrofuran can be used to completely solubilize CFP oils for analysis by GC and tetrahydrofuran can be used for traditional organic GPC analysis of the oils. DMSO-d6 can be used to solubilize CFP oils for analysis by 13C NMR. The fractionation of oils into solvents that did not completely solubilize the whole oils showed that miscibility can be related to the oil properties. This allows for solvent selection based on physico-chemical properties of the oils. However, based on semi-quantitative comparisons of the GC chromatograms, the organic solvent fractionation schemes did not speciate the oils based on specific analyte type. On the other hand, chlorinated solvents did fractionate the oils based on analyte size to a certain degree. Unfortunately, like raw pyrolysis oil, the matrix of the CFP oils is complicated and is not amenable to simple liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) or solvent fractionation to separate the oils based on the chemical and/or physical properties of individual components. For reliable analyses, for each analytical method used, it is critical that the bio-oil sample is both completely soluble and also not likely to react with the chosen solvent. The adoption of the standardized solvent selection protocols presented here will allow for greater reproducibility of analysis across different users and facilities.

  3. 40 CFR 136.6 - Method modifications and analytical requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... modifications and analytical requirements. (a) Definitions of terms used in this section. (1) Analyst means the..., oil and grease, total suspended solids, total phenolics, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand, and.... Except as set forth in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, an analyst may modify an approved test procedure...

  4. 77 FR 56176 - Analytical Methods Used in Periodic Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... informal rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in analytical principles (Proposals Six and Seven) used... (Proposals Six and Seven), September 4, 2012 (Petition). Proposal Six: Use of Foreign Postal Settlement System as Sole Source for Reporting of Inbound International Revenue, Pieces, and Weights. The Postal...

  5. Laser: a Tool for Optimization and Enhancement of Analytical Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preisler, Jan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    In this work, we use lasers to enhance possibilities of laser desorption methods and to optimize coating procedure for capillary electrophoresis (CE). We use several different instrumental arrangements to characterize matrix-assisted laser desorption (MALD) at atmospheric pressure and in vacuum. In imaging mode, 488-nm argon-ion laser beam is deflected by two acousto-optic deflectors to scan plumes desorbed at atmospheric pressure via absorption. All absorbing species, including neutral molecules, are monitored. Interesting features, e.g. differences between the initial plume and subsequent plumes desorbed from the same spot, or the formation of two plumes from one laser shot are observed. Total plume absorbance can be correlated with the acoustic signal generated by the desorption event. A model equation for the plume velocity as a function of time is proposed. Alternatively, the use of a static laser beam for observation enables reliable determination of plume velocities even when they are very high. Static scattering detection reveals negative influence of particle spallation on MS signal. Ion formation during MALD was monitored using 193-nm light to photodissociate a portion of insulin ion plume. These results define the optimal conditions for desorbing analytes from matrices, as opposed to achieving a compromise between efficient desorption and efficient ionization as is practiced in mass spectrometry. In CE experiment, we examined changes in a poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) coating by continuously monitoring the electroosmotic flow (EOF) in a fused-silica capillary during electrophoresis. An imaging CCD camera was used to follow the motion of a fluorescent neutral marker zone along the length of the capillary excited by 488-nm Ar-ion laser. The PEO coating was shown to reduce the velocity of EOF by more than an order of magnitude compared to a bare capillary at pH 7.0. The coating protocol was important, especially at an intermediate pH of 7.7. The increase of p

  6. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of uranium hexafluoride

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for subsampling and for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of uranium hexafluoride UF6. Most of these test methods are in routine use to determine conformance to UF6 specifications in the Enrichment and Conversion Facilities. 1.2 The analytical procedures in this document appear in the following order: Note 1—Subcommittee C26.05 will confer with C26.02 concerning the renumbered section in Test Methods C761 to determine how concerns with renumbering these sections, as analytical methods are replaced with stand-alone analytical methods, are best addressed in subsequent publications. Sections Subsampling of Uranium Hexafluoride 7 - 10 Gravimetric Determination of Uranium 11 - 19 Titrimetric Determination of Uranium 20 Preparation of High-Purity U3O 8 21 Isotopic Analysis 22 Isotopic Analysis by Double-Standard Mass-Spectrometer Method 23 - 29 Determination of Hydrocarbons, Chlorocarbons, and Partially Substitut...

  7. A Review of Extraction and Analytical Methods for the Determination of Tartrazine (E 102) in Foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovina, Kobun; Siddiquee, Shafiquzzaman; Shaarani, Sharifudin Md

    2017-07-04

    Tartrazine is an azo food dye, which is orange-colored and water soluble. It is usually used in foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and textiles. Tartrazine has the potential to cause an adverse health effect on humans, such as hyperactivity in children, allergy, and asthma. Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additive and EU Scientific Committee for Food have standardized the acceptable daily intake for tartrazine that is 7.5 mg kg -1 body weight. Many researchers have detected the presence of tartrazine for monitoring the quality and safety of food products. In this review paper, we highlighted various tartrazine detection and extraction methods. Some of the analytical methods are available such as high-performance liquid chromatography, electrochemical sensor, thin-layer chromatography, spectrophotometry, capillary electrophoresis, and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Also, we discuss following extraction steps: liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, membrane filtration, cloud point extraction, and other extraction method. In addition, a brief overview is presented explaining the synthesis process and metabolism of tartrazine and the maximum permitted level in different countries. This review paper will give an insight into different extraction and analytical methods for the determination of tartrazine in healthy foods, which will attract the attention of public toward food safety and quality, and also the interest of food industry and government bodies.

  8. Analytical method for heavy metal determination in algae and turtle eggs from Guanahacabibes Protected Sea Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel I. Balbín Tamayo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A standard digestion method coupled to electrochemical detection for the monitoring of heavy metals in biological samples has been used for the simultaneous analysis of the target analytes. Square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV coupled to disposable screen-printed electrodes (SPEs was employed as a fast and sensitive electroanalytical method for the detection of heavy metals. The aim of our study was to determine Cd, Pb and Cu by SWASV in brown algae (Sargasum natan and green turtle eggs (Chelonia mydas using screen-printed electrodes. The method proved useful for the simultaneous analysis of these metals by comparison between two different procedures for preparing the samples. Two different approaches in digestion protocols were assessed. The study was focused on Guanahacabibes brown algae and green turtle eggs because the metal concentrations recorded in this area may be used for intraspecific comparison within the Guanahacabibes Protected Sea Park area, a body of water for which information is still very scarce. The best results were obtained by digesting biological samples with the EPA 3050B method. This treatment allowed the fast and quantitative extraction from brown algae and green turtle eggs of the target analytes, with high sensitivity and avoiding organic residues, eventually affecting electrochemical measurements.

  9. A rapid and sensitive analytical method for the determination of 14 pyrethroids in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feo, M L; Eljarrat, E; Barceló, D

    2010-04-09

    A simple, efficient and environmentally friendly analytical methodology is proposed for extracting and preconcentrating pyrethroids from water samples prior to gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS) analysis. Fourteen pyrethroids were selected for this work: bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, fenvalerate, fenpropathrin, tau-fluvalinate, permethrin, phenothrin, resmethrin, tetramethrin and tralomethrin. The method is based on ultrasound-assisted emulsification-extraction (UAEE) of a water-immiscible solvent in an aqueous medium. Chloroform was used as extraction solvent in the UAEE technique. Target analytes were quantitatively extracted achieving an enrichment factor of 200 when 20 mL aliquot of pure water spiked with pyrethroid standards was extracted. The method was also evaluated with tap water and river water samples. Method detection limits (MDLs) ranged from 0.03 to 35.8 ng L(-1) with RSDs values or =0.998. Recovery values were in the range of 45-106%, showing satisfactory robustness of the method for analyzing pyrethroids in water samples. The proposed methodology was applied for the analysis of river water samples. Cypermethrin was detected at concentration levels ranging from 4.94 to 30.5 ng L(-1). Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hanford environmental analytical methods: Methods as of March 1990. Volume 3, Appendix A2-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M.; Daniel, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    This paper from the analytical laboratories at Hanford describes the method used to measure pH of single-shell tank core samples. Sludge or solid samples are mixed with deionized water. The pH electrode used combines both a sensor and reference electrode in one unit. The meter amplifies the input signal from the electrode and displays the pH visually.

  11. Chemical characterization of materials relevant to nuclear technology using neutron and proton based nuclear analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, R.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear analytical techniques (NATs), utilizing neutron and proton based nuclear reactions and subsequent measurement of gamma rays, are capable of chemical characterization of various materials at major to trace concentration levels. The present article deals with the recent developments and applications of conventional and k0-based internal monostandard (i) neutron activation analysis (NAA) and (ii) prompt gamma ray NAA (PGNAA) methods as well as (iii) in situ current normalized particle induced gamma ray emission (PIGE). The materials that have been analyzed by NAA and PGNAA include (i) nuclear reactor structural materials like zircaloys, stainless steels, Ni alloys, high purity aluminium and graphite and (ii) uranium oxide, U-Th mixed oxides, uranium ores and minerals. Internal monostandard NAA (IM-NAA) method with in situ detection efficiency was used to analyze large and non-standard geometry samples and standard-less compositional characterization was carried out for zircaloys and stainless steels. PIGE methods using proton beams were standardized for quantification of low Z elements (Li to Ti) and applied for compositional analysis of borosilicate glass and lithium titanate (Li 2 TiO 3 ) samples and quantification of total B and its isotopic composition of B ( 10 B/ 11 B) in boron based neutron absorbers like B 4 C. (author)

  12. Analytical methods of heat transfer compared with numerical methods as related to nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada-Gasca, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Analytical methods were applied to the prediction of the far-field thermal impact of a nuclear waste repository. Specifically, the transformation of coordinates and the Kirchhoff transformation were used to solve one-dimensional nonlinear heat conduction problems. Calculations for the HLW and TRU nuclear waste with initial areal thermal loadings of 12 kW/acre and 0.7 kW/acre, respectively, are carried out for various models. Also, finite difference and finite element methods are applied. The last method is used to solve two-dimensional linear and nonlinear heat conduction problems. Results of the analysis are temperature distributions and temperature histories. Explicit analytical expressions of the maximum temperature rise as a function of the system parameters are presented. The theoretical approaches predict maximum temperature increases in the overburden with an error of 10%. When the finite solid one-dimensional NWR thermal problem is solved with generic salt and HLW thermal load as parameters, the maximum temperature rises predicted by the finite difference and finite element methods had maximum errors of 2.6 and 6.7%, respectively. In all the other cases the finite difference method also gave a smaller error than the finite element method

  13. INTEGRATING DATA ANALYTICS AND SIMULATION METHODS TO SUPPORT MANUFACTURING DECISION MAKING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibira, Deogratias; Hatim, Qais; Kumara, Soundar; Shao, Guodong

    2017-01-01

    Modern manufacturing systems are installed with smart devices such as sensors that monitor system performance and collect data to manage uncertainties in their operations. However, multiple parameters and variables affect system performance, making it impossible for a human to make informed decisions without systematic methodologies and tools. Further, the large volume and variety of streaming data collected is beyond simulation analysis alone. Simulation models are run with well-prepared data. Novel approaches, combining different methods, are needed to use this data for making guided decisions. This paper proposes a methodology whereby parameters that most affect system performance are extracted from the data using data analytics methods. These parameters are used to develop scenarios for simulation inputs; system optimizations are performed on simulation data outputs. A case study of a machine shop demonstrates the proposed methodology. This paper also reviews candidate standards for data collection, simulation, and systems interfaces. PMID:28690363

  14. Methods used by Elsam for monitoring precision and accuracy of analytical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinnerskov Jensen, J [Soenderjyllands Hoejspaendingsvaerk, Faelleskemikerne, Aabenraa (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    Performing round robins at regular intervals is the primary method used by ELsam for monitoring precision and accuracy of analytical results. The firs round robin was started in 1974, and today 5 round robins are running. These are focused on: boiler water and steam, lubricating oils, coal, ion chromatography and dissolved gases in transformer oils. Besides the power plant laboratories in Elsam, the participants are power plant laboratories from the rest of Denmark, industrial and commercial laboratories in Denmark, and finally foreign laboratories. The calculated standard deviations or reproducibilities are compared with acceptable values. These values originate from ISO, ASTM and the like, or from own experiences. Besides providing the laboratories with a tool to check their momentary performance, the round robins are vary suitable for evaluating systematic developments on a long term basis. By splitting up the uncertainty according to methods, sample preparation/analysis, etc., knowledge can be extracted from the round robins for use in many other situations. (au)

  15. Standardization of methods of maxillofacial roentgenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabukhina, N.A.; Arzhantsev, A.P.; Chikirdin, Eh.G.; Tombak, M.I.; Stavitskij, R.V.; Vasil'ev, Yu.D.

    1989-01-01

    Typical errors in teeth roentgenography reproduced in experiment, indicate that considerable disproportional distortions of images of anatomical structures which are decisive for radiodiagnosis, may occur in these cases. Standardization of intraoral roentgenography is based on a strict position of the patient's head, angle of inclination and alignment of a tube. Specialized R3-1 film should be used

  16. Assessing the service quality of Iran military hospitals: Joint Commission International standards and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ravangard, Ramin; Yaghoubi, Maryam; Alimohammadzadeh, Khalil

    2014-01-01

    Background: Military hospitals are responsible for preserving, restoring and improving the health of not only armed forces, but also other people. According to the military organizations strategy, which is being a leader and pioneer in all areas, providing quality health services is one of the main goals of the military health care organizations. This study was aimed to evaluate the service quality of selected military hospitals in Iran based on the Joint Commission International (JCI) standards and comparing these hospitals with each other and ranking them using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) technique in 2013. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional and descriptive study conducted on five military hospitals, selected using the purposive sampling method, in 2013. Required data collected using checklists of accreditation standards and nominal group technique. AHP technique was used for prioritizing. Furthermore, Expert Choice 11.0 was used to analyze the collected data. Results: Among JCI standards, the standards of access to care and continuity of care (weight = 0.122), quality improvement and patient safety (weight = 0.121) and leadership and management (weight = 0.117) had the greatest importance, respectively. Furthermore, in the overall ranking, BGT (weight = 0.369), IHM (0.238), SAU (0.202), IHK (weight = 0.125) and SAB (weight = 0.066) ranked first to fifth, respectively. Conclusion: AHP is an appropriate technique for measuring the overall performance of hospitals and their quality of services. It is a holistic approach that takes all hospital processes into consideration. The results of the present study can be used to improve hospitals performance through identifying areas, which are in need of focus for quality improvement and selecting strategies to improve service quality. PMID:25250364

  17. Antibody reactions methods in safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubik, V.M.; Sirasdinov, V.G.; Zasedatelev, A.A.; Kal'nitskij, S.A.; Livshits, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    Results of determinations are presented of autoantibodies in white rats to which the radionuclides 137 Cs, 226 Ra, and 90 Sr that show different distribution patterns in the body, have been administered chronically. Autoantiboby production is found to increase when the absorbed doses are close to or exceeding seven- to tenfold the maximum permissible values. The results obtained point to the desirability of autoantibody determination in studies aimed at setting hygienic standards for the absorption of radioactive substances

  18. An isotope-dilution standard GC/MS/MS method for steroid hormones in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, William T.; Gray, James L.; ReVello, Rhiannon C.; Lindley, Chris E.; Losche, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    An isotope-dilution quantification method was developed for 20 natural and synthetic steroid hormones and additional compounds in filtered and unfiltered water. Deuterium- or carbon-13-labeled isotope-dilution standards (IDSs) are added to the water sample, which is passed through an octadecylsilyl solid-phase extraction (SPE) disk. Following extract cleanup using Florisil SPE, method compounds are converted to trimethylsilyl derivatives and analyzed by gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Validation matrices included reagent water, wastewater-affected surface water, and primary (no biological treatment) and secondary wastewater effluent. Overall method recovery for all analytes in these matrices averaged 100%; with overall relative standard deviation of 28%. Mean recoveries of the 20 individual analytes for spiked reagent-water samples prepared along with field samples analyzed in 2009–2010 ranged from 84–104%, with relative standard deviations of 6–36%. Detection levels estimated using ASTM International’s D6091–07 procedure range from 0.4 to 4 ng/L for 17 analytes. Higher censoring levels of 100 ng/L for bisphenol A and 200 ng/L for cholesterol and 3-beta-coprostanol are used to prevent bias and false positives associated with the presence of these analytes in blanks. Absolute method recoveries of the IDSs provide sample-specific performance information and guide data reporting. Careful selection of labeled compounds for use as IDSs is important because both inexact IDS-analyte matches and deuterium label loss affect an IDS’s ability to emulate analyte performance. Six IDS compounds initially tested and applied in this method exhibited deuterium loss and are not used in the final method.

  19. Miscellaneous standard methods for Apis mellifera research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Human, Hannelie; Brodschneider, Robert; Dietemann, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    A variety of methods are used in honey bee research and differ depending on the level at which the research is conducted. On an individual level, the handling of individual honey bees, including the queen, larvae and pupae are required. There are different methods for the immobilising, killing an...

  20. No Impact of the Analytical Method Used for Determining Cystatin C on Estimating Glomerular Filtration Rate in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberer, Martin; Hoefele, Julia; Benz, Marcus R; Bökenkamp, Arend; Weber, Lutz T

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of inulin clearance is considered to be the gold standard for determining kidney function in children, but this method is time consuming and expensive. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is on the other hand easier to calculate by using various creatinine- and/or cystatin C (Cys C)-based formulas. However, for the determination of serum creatinine (Scr) and Cys C, different and non-interchangeable analytical methods exist. Given the fact that different analytical methods for the determination of creatinine and Cys C were used in order to validate existing GFR formulas, clinicians should be aware of the type used in their local laboratory. In this study, we compared GFR results calculated on the basis of different GFR formulas and either used Scr and Cys C values as determined by the analytical method originally employed for validation or values obtained by an alternative analytical method to evaluate any possible effects on the performance. Cys C values determined by means of an immunoturbidimetric assay were used for calculating the GFR using equations in which this analytical method had originally been used for validation. Additionally, these same values were then used in other GFR formulas that had originally been validated using a nephelometric immunoassay for determining Cys C. The effect of using either the compatible or the possibly incompatible analytical method for determining Cys C in the calculation of GFR was assessed in comparison with the GFR measured by creatinine clearance (CrCl). Unexpectedly, using GFR equations that employed Cys C values derived from a possibly incompatible analytical method did not result in a significant difference concerning the classification of patients as having normal or reduced GFR compared to the classification obtained on the basis of CrCl. Sensitivity and specificity were adequate. On the other hand, formulas using Cys C values derived from a compatible analytical method partly showed insufficient

  1. Multicriteria evaluation of power plants impact on the living standard using the analytic hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatzimouratidis, Athanasios I.; Pilavachi, Petros A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate 10 types of power plants available at present including fossil fuel, nuclear as well as renewable-energy-based power plants, with regard to their overall impact on the living standard of local communities. Both positive and negative impacts of power plant operation are considered using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The current study covers the set of criteria weights considered typical for many local communities in many developed countries. The results presented here are illustrative only and user-defined weighting is required to make this study valuable for a specific group of users. A sensitivity analysis examines the most important weight variations, thus giving an overall view of the problem evaluation to every decision maker. Regardless of criteria weight variations, the five types of renewable energy power plant rank in the first five positions. Nuclear plants are in the sixth position when priority is given to quality of life and last when socioeconomic aspects are valued more important. Natural gas, oil and coal/lignite power plants rank between sixth and tenth position having slightly better ranking under priority to socioeconomic aspects

  2. A manual of analytical methods used at MINTEK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoch, H.; Dixon, K.

    1983-01-01

    The manual deals with various methods for a wide range of elemental analysis. Some of the methods that are used, include atomic absorption spectroscopy, optical emission spectroscopy and x-ray fluoresence spectroscopy. The basic charateristics of the method are given and the procedures are recorded step by step. One of the sections deals with methods associated with the recovery of uranium

  3. Survey of Technetium Analytical Production Methods Supporting Hanford Nuclear Materials Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TROYER, G.L.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides a historical survey of analytical methods used for measuring 99 Tc in nuclear fuel reprocessing materials and wastes at Hanford. Method challenges including special sludge matrices tested are discussed. Special problems and recommendations are presented

  4. Assessing the service quality of Iran military hospitals: Joint Commission International standards and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ravangard, Ramin; Yaghoubi, Maryam; Alimohammadzadeh, Khalil

    2014-01-01

    Military hospitals are responsible for preserving, restoring and improving the health of not only armed forces, but also other people. According to the military organizations strategy, which is being a leader and pioneer in all areas, providing quality health services is one of the main goals of the military health care organizations. This study was aimed to evaluate the service quality of selected military hospitals in Iran based on the Joint Commission International (JCI) standards and comparing these hospitals with each other and ranking them using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) technique in 2013. This was a cross-sectional and descriptive study conducted on five military hospitals, selected using the purposive sampling method, in 2013. Required data collected using checklists of accreditation standards and nominal group technique. AHP technique was used for prioritizing. Furthermore, Expert Choice 11.0 was used to analyze the collected data. Among JCI standards, the standards of access to care and continuity of care (weight = 0.122), quality improvement and patient safety (weight = 0.121) and leadership and management (weight = 0.117) had the greatest importance, respectively. Furthermore, in the overall ranking, BGT (weight = 0.369), IHM (0.238), SAU (0.202), IHK (weight = 0.125) and SAB (weight = 0.066) ranked first to fifth, respectively. AHP is an appropriate technique for measuring the overall performance of hospitals and their quality of services. It is a holistic approach that takes all hospital processes into consideration. The results of the present study can be used to improve hospitals performance through identifying areas, which are in need of focus for quality improvement and selecting strategies to improve service quality.

  5. Nuclear analytical methods in quality control of microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Weizhi

    2004-01-01

    Quantitative calibration and quality control have been a major bottleneck in microanalysis due to the lack of natural-matrix CRMs certified at sample sizes compatible with those of unknown samples. A solution is described to characterize sampling behavior for individual elements, so as to identify elements homogeneous enough at stated sample size levels in given CRMs/RMs. By using a combination of several nuclear analytical techniques, INAA-EDXRF-μPIXE, sampling behavior for individual elements can be characterized at sample size levels from grams down to pg. Natural-matrix CRMs specifically for QC of microanalysis may thus be created. Additional information in certificates of these new generation CRMs is imagined. (author)

  6. Does leaf chemistry differentially affect breakdown in tropical versus temperate streams? Importance of standardized analytical techniques to measure leaf chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelo Ardon; Catherine M. Pringle; Susan L. Eggert

    2009-01-01

    Comparisons of the effects of leaf litter chemistry on leaf breakdown rates in tropical vs temperate streams are hindered by incompatibility among studies and across sites of analytical methods used to...

  7. Establishing the analytical procedure for acetate in water by ion chromatography method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thi Hong Thinh; Ha Lan Anh; Vo Thi Anh

    2015-01-01

    In recent studies of contamination sources of arsenic, ammonium, iron, organic carbon in groundwater, acetate is measured a lot because it is the main decomposition product of organic compounds from sediment into groundwater. In order to better support for the study of the origin and mobilization mechanism of the pollutants, acetate was studied analysis method in Isotopes Hydrology Laboratory using ion chromatography technique. Project Researchers used Ion Chromatography system - DX-600 including IonPac ICE-AS1 column for separating acetate and conductivity detector CD 25 to quantify acetate in water samples. The study results showed that project team has successfully developed analytical procedures of acetate in water with acetate’s retention time is 12 minutes, limit of detection (LOD) of the method was 0.01 ppm. The accuracy of the method was established by calculating the precision and bias of 10 analysis times of a standard sample at content levels 1 ppm and 8 ppm. The results of the 10 measurements are satisfiable about precision and bias with repeated standard deviation coefficient CVR were 1.3% and 0.2% and the recoveries R were 99.92% and 101.72%. (author)

  8. Standardized Methods for Detection of Poliovirus Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, William C; Oberste, M Steven; Pallansch, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Testing for neutralizing antibodies against polioviruses has been an established gold standard for assessing individual protection from disease, population immunity, vaccine efficacy studies, and other vaccine clinical trials. Detecting poliovirus specific IgM and IgA in sera and mucosal specimens has been proposed for evaluating the status of population mucosal immunity. More recently, there has been a renewed interest in using dried blood spot cards as a medium for sample collection to enhance surveillance of poliovirus immunity. Here, we describe the modified poliovirus microneutralization assay, poliovirus capture IgM and IgA ELISA assays, and dried blood spot polio serology procedures for the detection of antibodies against poliovirus serotypes 1, 2, and 3.

  9. 77 FR 41336 - Analytical Methods Used in Periodic Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... IOCS Reporting Codes. The Postal Service proposes to make changes to In-Office Cost System activity... comments electronically via the Commission's Filing Online system at http://www.prc.gov . Commenters who... Postal Service proposes to eliminate the separate, shape-based reporting of unit costs within Standard...

  10. Five-point Element Scheme of Finite Analytic Method for Unsteady Groundwater Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Bo; Mi Xiao; Ji Changming; Luo Qingsong

    2007-01-01

    In order to improve the finite analytic method's adaptability for irregular unit, by using coordinates rotation technique this paper establishes a five-point element scheme of finite analytic method. It not only solves unsteady groundwater flow equation but also gives the boundary condition. This method can be used to calculate the three typical questions of groundwater. By compared with predecessor's computed result, the result of this method is more satisfactory.

  11. Analytical Energy Gradients for Excited-State Coupled-Cluster Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wladyslawski, Mark; Nooijen, Marcel

    The equation-of-motion coupled-cluster (EOM-CC) and similarity transformed equation-of-motion coupled-cluster (STEOM-CC) methods have been firmly established as accurate and routinely applicable extensions of single-reference coupled-cluster theory to describe electronically excited states. An overview of these methods is provided, with emphasis on the many-body similarity transform concept that is the key to a rationalization of their accuracy. The main topic of the paper is the derivation of analytical energy gradients for such non-variational electronic structure approaches, with an ultimate focus on obtaining their detailed algebraic working equations. A general theoretical framework using Lagrange's method of undetermined multipliers is presented, and the method is applied to formulate the EOM-CC and STEOM-CC gradients in abstract operator terms, following the previous work in [P.G. Szalay, Int. J. Quantum Chem. 55 (1995) 151] and [S.R. Gwaltney, R.J. Bartlett, M. Nooijen, J. Chem. Phys. 111 (1999) 58]. Moreover, the systematics of the Lagrange multiplier approach is suitable for automation by computer, enabling the derivation of the detailed derivative equations through a standardized and direct procedure. To this end, we have developed the SMART (Symbolic Manipulation and Regrouping of Tensors) package of automated symbolic algebra routines, written in the Mathematica programming language. The SMART toolkit provides the means to expand, differentiate, and simplify equations by manipulation of the detailed algebraic tensor expressions directly. The Lagrangian multiplier formulation establishes a uniform strategy to perform the automated derivation in a standardized manner: A Lagrange multiplier functional is constructed from the explicit algebraic equations that define the energy in the electronic method; the energy functional is then made fully variational with respect to all of its parameters, and the symbolic differentiations directly yield the explicit

  12. The development and standardization of testing methods for genetically modified organisms and their derived products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dabing; Guo, Jinchao

    2011-07-01

    As the worldwide commercialization of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) increases and consumers concern the safety of GMOs, many countries and regions are issuing labeling regulations on GMOs and their products. Analytical methods and their standardization for GM ingredients in foods and feed are essential for the implementation of labeling regulations. To date, the GMO testing methods are mainly based on the inserted DNA sequences and newly produced proteins in GMOs. This paper presents an overview of GMO testing methods as well as their standardization. © 2011 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. Investigation by perturbative and analytical method of electronic properties of square quantum well under electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kemal BAHAR

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of applied electric field on the isolated square quantum well was investigated by analytic and perturbative method. The energy eigen values and wave functions in quantum well were found by perturbative method. Later, the electric field effects were investigated by analytic method, the results of perturbative and analytic method were compared. As well as both of results fit with each other, it was observed that externally applied electric field changed importantly electronic properties of the system.

  14. A handbook of decomposition methods in analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bok, R.

    1984-01-01

    Decomposition methods of metals, alloys, fluxes, slags, calcine, inorganic salts, oxides, nitrides, carbides, borides, sulfides, ores, minerals, rocks, concentrates, glasses, ceramics, organic substances, polymers, phyto- and biological materials from the viewpoint of sample preparation for analysis have been described. The methods are systemitized according to decomposition principle: thermal with the use of electricity, irradiation, dissolution with participation of chemical reactions and without it. Special equipment for different decomposition methods is described. Bibliography contains 3420 references

  15. Critical assessment of three high performance liquid chromatography analytical methods for food carotenoid quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, M Graça; Oliveira, Luísa; Camões, M Filomena G F C; Nunes, Baltazar; Versloot, Pieter; Hulshof, Paul J M

    2010-05-21

    Three sets of extraction/saponification/HPLC conditions for food carotenoid quantification were technically and economically compared. Samples were analysed for carotenoids alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene, and zeaxanthin. All methods demonstrated good performance in the analysis of a composite food standard reference material for the analytes they are applicable to. Methods using two serial connected C(18) columns and a mobile phase based on acetonitrile, achieved a better carotenoid separation than the method using a mobile phase based on methanol and one C(18)-column. Carotenoids from leafy green vegetable matrices appeared to be better extracted with a mixture of methanol and tetrahydrofuran than with tetrahydrofuran alone. Costs of carotenoid determination in foods were lower for the method with mobile phase based on methanol. However for some food matrices and in the case of E-Z isomer separations, this was not technically satisfactory. Food extraction with methanol and tetrahydrofuran with direct evaporation of these solvents, and saponification (when needed) using pyrogallol as antioxidant, combined with a HPLC system using a slight gradient mobile phase based on acetonitrile and a stationary phase composed by two serial connected C(18) columns was the most technically and economically favourable method. 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Application of an analytical method for solution of thermal hydraulic conservation equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakory, M.R. [Simulation, Systems & Services Technologies Company (S3 Technologies), Columbia, MD (United States)

    1995-09-01

    An analytical method has been developed and applied for solution of two-phase flow conservation equations. The test results for application of the model for simulation of BWR transients are presented and compared with the results obtained from application of the explicit method for integration of conservation equations. The test results show that with application of the analytical method for integration of conservation equations, the Courant limitation associated with explicit Euler method of integration was eliminated. The results obtained from application of the analytical method (with large time steps) agreed well with the results obtained from application of explicit method of integration (with time steps smaller than the size imposed by Courant limitation). The results demonstrate that application of the analytical approach significantly improves the numerical stability and computational efficiency.

  17. An Analytical Method for Measuring Competence in Project Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Marcos, Ana; Alba-Elías, Fernando; Ordieres-Meré, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a competence assessment method in project management that is based on participants' performance and value creation. It seeks to close an existing gap in competence assessment in higher education. The proposed method relies on information and communication technology (ICT) tools and combines Project Management…

  18. Tank 48H Waste Composition and Results of Investigation of Analytical Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker , D.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-04-02

    This report serves two purposes. First, it documents the analytical results of Tank 48H samples taken between April and August 1996. Second, it describes investigations of the precision of the sampling and analytical methods used on the Tank 48H samples.

  19. A sample preparation method for recovering suppressed analyte ions in MALDI TOF MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou, X.; Waal, de B.F.M.; Milroy, L.G.; Dongen, van J.L.J.

    2015-01-01

    In matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS), analyte signals can be substantially suppressed by other compounds in the sample. In this technical note, we describe a modified thin-layer sample preparation method that significantly reduces the analyte

  20. Application of multi attribute failure mode analysis of milk production using analytical hierarchy process method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucitra, A. L.

    2018-03-01

    Pusat Koperasi Induk Susu (PKIS) Sekar Tanjung, East Java is one of the modern dairy industries producing Ultra High Temperature (UHT) milk. A problem that often occurs in the production process in PKIS Sekar Tanjung is a mismatch between the production process and the predetermined standard. The purpose of applying Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was to identify the most potential cause of failure in the milk production process. Multi Attribute Failure Mode Analysis (MAFMA) method was used to eliminate or reduce the possibility of failure when viewed from the failure causes. This method integrates the severity, occurrence, detection, and expected cost criteria obtained from depth interview with the head of the production department as an expert. The AHP approach was used to formulate the priority ranking of the cause of failure in the milk production process. At level 1, the severity has the highest weight of 0.41 or 41% compared to other criteria. While at level 2, identifying failure in the UHT milk production process, the most potential cause was the average mixing temperature of more than 70 °C which was higher than the standard temperature (≤70 ° C). This failure cause has a contributes weight of 0.47 or 47% of all criteria Therefore, this study suggested the company to control the mixing temperature to minimise or eliminate the failure in this process.

  1. Standardization of 57Co using different methods of LNMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezende, E.A.; Lopes, R.T.; Silva, C.J. da; Poledna, R.; Silva, R.L. da; Tauhata, L.

    2015-01-01

    The activity of a 57 Co solution was determined using four LNMRI different measurement methods. The solution was standardized by live-timed anti-coincidence method and sum-peak method. The efficiency curve and standard-sample comparison methods were also used in this comparison. The results and their measurement uncertainties demonstrating the equivalence of these methods. As an additional contribution, the gamma emission probabilities of 57 Co were also determined. (author)

  2. Downstream processing and chromatography based analytical methods for production of vaccines, gene therapy vectors, and bacteriophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramberger, Petra; Urbas, Lidija; Štrancar, Aleš

    2015-01-01

    Downstream processing of nanoplexes (viruses, virus-like particles, bacteriophages) is characterized by complexity of the starting material, number of purification methods to choose from, regulations that are setting the frame for the final product and analytical methods for upstream and downstream monitoring. This review gives an overview on the nanoplex downstream challenges and chromatography based analytical methods for efficient monitoring of the nanoplex production. PMID:25751122

  3. Standard methods for analysis of phosphorus-32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Methods are described for the determination of the radiochemical purity and the absolute disintegration rate of 32 P radioisotope preparations. The 32 P activity is determined by β counting, and other low-energy β radioactive contaminants are determined by aluminum-absorption curve data. Any γ-radioactive contaminants are determined by γ counting. Routine chemical testing is used to establish the chemical characteristics. The presence or absence of heavy metals is established by spot tests; free acid is determined by use of a pH meter; total solids are determined gravimetrically by evaporation and ignition at a temperature sufficient to evaporate the mineral acids, HCl and HNO 3 ; and nonvolatile matter, defined as that material which does not evaporate or ignite at a temperature sufficient to convert C to CO or CO 2 , is determined gravimetrically after such ignition

  4. EVALUATION OF ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR DETERMINING PESTICIDES IN BABY FOOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three extraction methods and two detection techniques for determining pesticides in baby food were evaluated. The extraction techniques examined were supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), enhanced solvent extraction (ESE), and solid phase extraction (SPE). The detection techni...

  5. Development of Analytical Method for Detection of Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All rights reserved. ... 3Centre for Water Research and Analysis (ALIR), Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan (UKM), ... Purpose: To develop and validate a simple method using solid – phase extraction along with liquid.

  6. Analytical methods for measuring 10Be in marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, I.J.; Ditchburn, R.G.; Sparks, R.J.; Whitehead, N.E.

    1995-01-01

    A suite of marine sediments from the Wanganui Basin (Graham et al. 1995) has provided excellent material to further develop methods for 10 Be analysis at the Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences AMS facility. Chemical methods for Be extraction have been streamlined and there has been some reduction of backgrounds and contamination peaks for 1 0Be isotopic analysis. (authors) 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  7. A Generalized Pivotal Quantity Approach to Analytical Method Validation Based on Total Error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Harry; Zhang, Jianchun

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of method validation is to demonstrate that the method is fit for its intended use. Traditionally, an analytical method is deemed valid if its performance characteristics such as accuracy and precision are shown to meet prespecified acceptance criteria. However, these acceptance criteria are not directly related to the method's intended purpose, which is usually a gurantee that a high percentage of the test results of future samples will be close to their true values. Alternate "fit for purpose" acceptance criteria based on the concept of total error have been increasingly used. Such criteria allow for assessing method validity, taking into account the relationship between accuracy and precision. Although several statistical test methods have been proposed in literature to test the "fit for purpose" hypothesis, the majority of the methods are not designed to protect the risk of accepting unsuitable methods, thus having the potential to cause uncontrolled consumer's risk. In this paper, we propose a test method based on generalized pivotal quantity inference. Through simulation studies, the performance of the method is compared to five existing approaches. The results show that both the new method and the method based on β-content tolerance interval with a confidence level of 90%, hereafter referred to as the β-content (0.9) method, control Type I error and thus consumer's risk, while the other existing methods do not. It is further demonstrated that the generalized pivotal quantity method is less conservative than the β-content (0.9) method when the analytical methods are biased, whereas it is more conservative when the analytical methods are unbiased. Therefore, selection of either the generalized pivotal quantity or β-content (0.9) method for an analytical method validation depends on the accuracy of the analytical method. It is also shown that the generalized pivotal quantity method has better asymptotic properties than all of the current

  8. Spiked sample standards; their uses and disadvantages in analytical quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, V.T.; Volchok, H.L

    1980-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of spiked standards are discussed and contrasted with those of natural matrix standards. The preparation of the former class of standards and the evidence supporting recommendation of caution in their use are considered. (author)

  9. Analytical and diagnostic performance of a qPCR assay for Ichthyophonus spp. compared to the tissue culture 'gold standard'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Vanessa C; Hershberger, Paul K; Friedman, Carolyn S

    2018-06-04

    Parasites of the genus Ichthyophonus infect many fish species and have a non-uniform distribution within host tissues. Due in part to this uneven distribution, the comparative sensitivity and accuracy of using molecular-based detection methods versus culture to estimate parasite prevalence is under debate. We evaluated the analytical and diagnostic performance of an existing qPCR assay in comparison to the 'gold standard' culture method using Pacific herring Clupea pallasii with known exposure history. We determined that the assay is suitable for use in this host, and diagnostic specificity was consistently high (>98%) in both heart and liver tissues. Diagnostic sensitivity could not be fully assessed due to low infection rates, but our results suggest that qPCR is not as sensitive as culture under all circumstances. Diagnostic sensitivity of qPCR relative to culture is likely affected by the amount of sample processed. The prevalence values estimated by the 2 methods were not significantly different when sample amounts were equal (heart tissue), but when the assayed sample amounts were unequal (liver tissue), the culture method detected a significantly higher prevalence of the parasite than qPCR. Further, culture of liver also detected significantly more Ichthyophonus infections than culture of heart, suggesting that the density and distribution of parasites in tissues also plays a role in assay sensitivity. This sensitivity issue would be most problematic for fish with light infections. Although qPCR does not detect the presence of a live organism, DNA-based pathogen detection methods provide the opportunity for alternate testing strategies when culture is not possible.

  10. The contribution of analytical detection methods to the enforcement of good irradiation practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlermann, D.A.E.

    1996-01-01

    Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) is a generally accepted principle combining several features in order to achieve the optimal quality. In other words, GMP is observed if every possible measure is taken to contribute to the best possible quality of the end product. In this sense, Good Irradiation Practice (GIP) may be understood as one of the many elements of GMP dealing especially with aspects of processing food using ionising radiation. On the contrary the operator of an irradiation facility may consider GIP as the central idea including that GMP - in this case excluding the radiation aspects - is observed in addition to GIP standards. Regardless of this theoretical dispute, it is obvious that food irradiation requires classical GMP to be applied without exception and that good practice is also applied in radiation processing. The main interest in analytical methods for the identification of radiation processed food arose from the need to enforce the ban on this process, to verify correct labelling, or to ensure that it is used only for the very limited number of application which are permitted. In this field, identification methods already introduced into the official food inspection systems have contributed considerably towards making evident several cases of the fraudulent application of radiation processing. At present, as radiation processing of food is becoming more and more accepted, the number of national clearances is increasing and the European Community is preparing for a Directive to harmonise the food laws of the member states with regard to food irradiation. Therefore, it should be considered how the analytical detection methods which have been developed could contribute to enforcing good manufacturing practices, once the main goal ceases to be the suppression of this process. (author)

  11. Optimal analytic method for the nonlinear Hasegawa-Mima equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Mathew; Van Gorder, Robert A.; Vajravelu, Kuppalapalle

    2014-05-01

    The Hasegawa-Mima equation is a nonlinear partial differential equation that describes the electric potential due to a drift wave in a plasma. In the present paper, we apply the method of homotopy analysis to a slightly more general Hasegawa-Mima equation, which accounts for hyper-viscous damping or viscous dissipation. First, we outline the method for the general initial/boundary value problem over a compact rectangular spatial domain. We use a two-stage method, where both the convergence control parameter and the auxiliary linear operator are optimally selected to minimize the residual error due to the approximation. To do the latter, we consider a family of operators parameterized by a constant which gives the decay rate of the solutions. After outlining the general method, we consider a number of concrete examples in order to demonstrate the utility of this approach. The results enable us to study properties of the initial/boundary value problem for the generalized Hasegawa-Mima equation. In several cases considered, we are able to obtain solutions with extremely small residual errors after relatively few iterations are computed (residual errors on the order of 10-15 are found in multiple cases after only three iterations). The results demonstrate that selecting a parameterized auxiliary linear operator can be extremely useful for minimizing residual errors when used concurrently with the optimal homotopy analysis method, suggesting that this approach can prove useful for a number of nonlinear partial differential equations arising in physics and nonlinear mechanics.

  12. Analytical method by high resolution liquid chromatography for the determination of carbamazepine in human plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez Aleman, Narda M; Calero Carbonell, Jorge E; Padron Yaquis, Alejandro S; Izquierdo Lozano, Julio C

    2007-01-01

    One of the requirements to develop the studies of bioavailability and bioequivalence is to have analytic methodologies validated for the work with samples in biological fluids. A method was developed by high resolution liquid chromatography for the determination of carbamazepine in human plasma. A mixture of hydrogen phosphate of sodium: acetonitrile (65:35) adjusted to pH= 3.3 with phosphoric acid, flow of 1.2 mL/min and ultraviolet detection at 210 nm, was used as mobile phase. Propylparabene was used as an internal standard. According to the established regulations for the validation of the methods in biological fluids, the following parameters were studied: stability of the samples, lineality, specificity, precision, accuracy and limit of detection and quantification. The method proved to be specific and sensitive with a detection and quantification limit of 0.9 and 1.0 ng, respectively. The method was lineal, precise and exact in the range of concentrations of 1. 07 at 12.67 μg/mL. The mean recovery was not statistically different from 100.0 %. The analito in the proposed biological matrix remained in the studied period. The methodology described in this work is applied in our case to the study that evaluates the bioavailability and bioequivalence of a Cuban formulation of carbamazepine in healthy volunteers. (Author)

  13. Comparison of analytical methods used to measure petroleum hydrocarbons in soils and their application to bioremediation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, G.S.; Wong, W.M.; Rigatti, M.J.; McMillen, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    Chemical measurements provide a means to evaluate crude oil and refined product bioremediation effectiveness in field and laboratory studies. These measurements are used to determine the net decrease in product or target compound concentrations in complex soil systems. The analytical methods used to evaluate these constituents will have a direct impact on the ability of the investigator to; (1) detect losses due to biodegradation, (2) understand the processes responsible for the hydrocarbon degradation and, (3) determine the rates of hydrocarbon degradation. This understanding is critical for the testing and design of bioremediation programs. While standard EPA methods are useful for measuring a wide variety of industrial and agrochemicals, they were not designed for the detection and accurate measurement of petroleum compounds. The chemical data generated with these standard methods are usually of limited utility because they lack the chemical specificity required to evaluate hydrocarbon compositional changes in the oil contamination required to evaluate biodegradation. The applications and limitations of standard EPA methodologies (EPA Methods 418.1, 8270, and modified 8015) will be evaluated and compared to several new analytical methods currently being used by the petroleum industry (e.g., gross compositional analysis, TLC-FID analysis, and enhanced EPA Method 8270) to evaluate bioremediation effectiveness in soils

  14. Analytical methods for quantitative evaluation of the radiocardiagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolberg, J R [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa; Freedman, G S [Yale Univ., New Haven, Conn. (USA). School of Medicine; Dwyer, A [St. Raphael Hospital, New Haven, Conn., U.S.A.

    1975-01-01

    Radiocardiagrams are obtained by monitoring a radioisotope after injection as it passes through the heart and lungs. The purpose of this paper is to discuss several methods used to evaluate cardiac performance from radiocardiagram data. Mathematical models are developed for extracting two parameters of interest to cardiologists: cardiac chamber flow to volume ratio (F/V) and left ventricle ejection fraction (E.F.). The model used to characterize F/V is continuous and provides good agreement with data obtained by other physiological methods for the right heart. A discrete model is used to characterize the left heart and obtain E.F. Comparison has been made with other methods for obtaining E.F. for twelve patients with various types of cardiac disease. An important aspect of the E.F. model is that background interference is taken into consideration. The analyses include calculations of the statistical uncertainties associated with the computed values of both parameters.

  15. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The division for Analytical Chemistry continued to try and develope an accurate method for the separation of trace amounts from mixtures which, contain various other elements. Ion exchange chromatography is of special importance in this regard. New separation techniques were tried on certain trace amounts in South African standard rock materials and special ceramics. Methods were also tested for the separation of carrier-free radioisotopes from irradiated cyclotron discs

  16. Development of standard testing methods for nuclear-waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, J.E.; Nelson, R.D.

    1981-11-01

    Standard test methods for waste package component development and design, safety analyses, and licensing are being developed for the Nuclear Waste Materials Handbook. This paper describes mainly the testing methods for obtaining waste form materials data

  17. Standard methods for sampling North American freshwater fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Scott A.; Hubert, Wayne A.; Willis, David W.

    2009-01-01

    This important reference book provides standard sampling methods recommended by the American Fisheries Society for assessing and monitoring freshwater fish populations in North America. Methods apply to ponds, reservoirs, natural lakes, and streams and rivers containing cold and warmwater fishes. Range-wide and eco-regional averages for indices of abundance, population structure, and condition for individual species are supplied to facilitate comparisons of standard data among populations. Provides information on converting nonstandard to standard data, statistical and database procedures for analyzing and storing standard data, and methods to prevent transfer of invasive species while sampling.

  18. An Analytical framework of social learning facilitated by participatory methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholz, G.; Dewulf, A.; Pahl-Wostl, C.

    2014-01-01

    Social learning among different stakeholders is often a goal in problem solving contexts such as environmental management. Participatory methods (e.g., group model-building and role playing games) are frequently assumed to stimulate social learning. Yet understanding if and why this assumption is

  19. Analytic Method for Pressure Recovery in Truncated Diffusers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prediction method is presented for the static pressure recovery in subsonic axisymmetric truncated conical diffusers. In the analysis, a turbulent boundary layer is assumed at the diffuser inlet and a potential core exists throughout the flow. When flow separation occurs, this approach cannot be used to predict the maximum ...

  20. Analytic method for solitary solutions of some partial differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugurlu, Yavuz [Firat University, Department of Mathematics, 23119 Elazig (Turkey); Kaya, Dogan [Firat University, Department of Mathematics, 23119 Elazig (Turkey)], E-mail: dkaya@firat.edu.tr

    2007-10-22

    In this Letter by considering an improved tanh function method, we found some exact solutions of the clannish random walker's parabolic equation, the modified Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, and the Sharma-Tasso-Olver (STO) equation with its fission and fusion, the Jaulent-Miodek equation.

  1. Analytic method for solitary solutions of some partial differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugurlu, Yavuz; Kaya, Dogan

    2007-01-01

    In this Letter by considering an improved tanh function method, we found some exact solutions of the clannish random walker's parabolic equation, the modified Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, and the Sharma-Tasso-Olver (STO) equation with its fission and fusion, the Jaulent-Miodek equation

  2. Primary activity standardization of {sup 57}Co by sum-peak method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwahara, A. [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI)/Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD)/Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende, s/no. Recreio dos Bandeirantes - CEP 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: iwahara@ird.gov.br; Poledna, R.; Silva, C.J. da; Tauhata, L. [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI)/Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD)/Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende, s/no. Recreio dos Bandeirantes - CEP 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2009-10-15

    The sum-peak method was applied to standardize a {sup 57}Co solution within the framework of an international comparison organized by International Atomic Energy Agency, in 2008, aimed toward international traceability of activity measurements. A planar germanium detector was used with the sources placed on top of the detector for activity determination measurements. An analytical expression for accidental summing correction was derived and the effect of the germanium characteristic KX-ray escape peak of 112 keV was taken into account. The standard uncertainty associated to the activity concentration value was 0.37% and the result was compared with other measurement methods.

  3. Approximate Analytic Solutions for the Two-Phase Stefan Problem Using the Adomian Decomposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ying Qin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An Adomian decomposition method (ADM is applied to solve a two-phase Stefan problem that describes the pure metal solidification process. In contrast to traditional analytical methods, ADM avoids complex mathematical derivations and does not require coordinate transformation for elimination of the unknown moving boundary. Based on polynomial approximations for some known and unknown boundary functions, approximate analytic solutions for the model with undetermined coefficients are obtained using ADM. Substitution of these expressions into other equations and boundary conditions of the model generates some function identities with the undetermined coefficients. By determining these coefficients, approximate analytic solutions for the model are obtained. A concrete example of the solution shows that this method can easily be implemented in MATLAB and has a fast convergence rate. This is an efficient method for finding approximate analytic solutions for the Stefan and the inverse Stefan problems.

  4. Assessment of Two Analytical Methods in Solving the Linear and Nonlinear Elastic Beam Deformation Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin; Ganjavi, B.; Jeloudar, M. Ghanbari

    2010-01-01

    and fluid mechanics. Design/methodology/approach – Two new but powerful analytical methods, namely, He's VIM and HPM, are introduced to solve some boundary value problems in structural engineering and fluid mechanics. Findings – Analytical solutions often fit under classical perturbation methods. However......, as with other analytical techniques, certain limitations restrict the wide application of perturbation methods, most important of which is the dependence of these methods on the existence of a small parameter in the equation. Disappointingly, the majority of nonlinear problems have no small parameter at all......Purpose – In the last two decades with the rapid development of nonlinear science, there has appeared ever-increasing interest of scientists and engineers in the analytical techniques for nonlinear problems. This paper considers linear and nonlinear systems that are not only regarded as general...

  5. The analytic method for calculating the control rod worth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Han Gon; Lee, Byeong Ho; Chang, Soon Heung

    1989-01-01

    We calculated the control rod worth in this paper. To avoid complexity, we did not consider burnable poisons and soluble boron. The system was localized within one assembly. The control rod was treated as not an absorber but an another boundary. Thus all of the group constants were unchanged before and after control rod insertion. And we discussed the method for calculation of the reactivity of the whole core

  6. Analytical methods applied to diverse types of Brazilian propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcucci Maria

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Propolis is a bee product, composed mainly of plant resins and beeswax, therefore its chemical composition varies due to the geographic and plant origins of these resins, as well as the species of bee. Brazil is an important supplier of propolis on the world market and, although green colored propolis from the southeast is the most known and studied, several other types of propolis from Apis mellifera and native stingless bees (also called cerumen can be found. Propolis is usually consumed as an extract, so the type of solvent and extractive procedures employed further affect its composition. Methods used for the extraction; analysis the percentage of resins, wax and insoluble material in crude propolis; determination of phenolic, flavonoid, amino acid and heavy metal contents are reviewed herein. Different chromatographic methods applied to the separation, identification and quantification of Brazilian propolis components and their relative strengths are discussed; as well as direct insertion mass spectrometry fingerprinting. Propolis has been used as a popular remedy for several centuries for a wide array of ailments. Its antimicrobial properties, present in propolis from different origins, have been extensively studied. But, more recently, anti-parasitic, anti-viral/immune stimulating, healing, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and analgesic activities of diverse types of Brazilian propolis have been evaluated. The most common methods employed and overviews of their relative results are presented.

  7. Survey of analytical methods for environmental monitoring of krypton-85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaquish, R.E.; Moghissi, A.A.

    1973-01-01

    Numerous methods have been developed for measuring krypton-85 in air as krypton ultimately accumulates in air once it is released into the environment. However, krypton-85 can be present in other media such as natural gas from wells stimulated with nuclear devices or in water when krypton-85 is used for aeration studies. Methods for the measurement of ambient levels of krypton-85 require a concentration of krypton from a large air sample of one m 3 or more. If elevated levels are to be measured, carrier krypton may be used provided the contamination of atmospheric krypton with krypton-85 does not interfere with the measurement. In certain cases, such as in the vicinity of nuclear fuel processing plants, direct measurement techniques may be used. A variety of techniques are employed for krypton-85 counting. At low levels, internal gas counting or organic scintillation is used to measure the beta emission of this radionuclide. At higher levels the gamma emission of krypton-85 may be measured using scintillation or solid state gamma spectroscopic methods. Techniques for collection of the sample, concentration of krypton, and radioactivity measurement of krypton-85 are discussed and various processes are critically evaluated and compared

  8. Analytical models approximating individual processes: a validation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favier, C; Degallier, N; Menkès, C E

    2010-12-01

    Upscaling population models from fine to coarse resolutions, in space, time and/or level of description, allows the derivation of fast and tractable models based on a thorough knowledge of individual processes. The validity of such approximations is generally tested only on a limited range of parameter sets. A more general validation test, over a range of parameters, is proposed; this would estimate the error induced by the approximation, using the original model's stochastic variability as a reference. This method is illustrated by three examples taken from the field of epidemics transmitted by vectors that bite in a temporally cyclical pattern, that illustrate the use of the method: to estimate if an approximation over- or under-fits the original model; to invalidate an approximation; to rank possible approximations for their qualities. As a result, the application of the validation method to this field emphasizes the need to account for the vectors' biology in epidemic prediction models and to validate these against finer scale models. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Analytical method for optimization of maintenance policy based on available system failure data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coria, V.H.; Maximov, S.; Rivas-Dávalos, F.; Melchor, C.L.; Guardado, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    An analytical optimization method for preventive maintenance (PM) policy with minimal repair at failure, periodic maintenance, and replacement is proposed for systems with historical failure time data influenced by a current PM policy. The method includes a new imperfect PM model based on Weibull distribution and incorporates the current maintenance interval T 0 and the optimal maintenance interval T to be found. The Weibull parameters are analytically estimated using maximum likelihood estimation. Based on this model, the optimal number of PM and the optimal maintenance interval for minimizing the expected cost over an infinite time horizon are also analytically determined. A number of examples are presented involving different failure time data and current maintenance intervals to analyze how the proposed analytical optimization method for periodic PM policy performances in response to changes in the distribution of the failure data and the current maintenance interval. - Highlights: • An analytical optimization method for preventive maintenance (PM) policy is proposed. • A new imperfect PM model is developed. • The Weibull parameters are analytically estimated using maximum likelihood. • The optimal maintenance interval and number of PM are also analytically determined. • The model is validated by several numerical examples

  10. [Progress in sample preparation and analytical methods for trace polar small molecules in complex samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianchun; Luo, Xialin; Li, Gongke; Xiao, Xiaohua

    2015-09-01

    Small polar molecules such as nucleosides, amines, amino acids are important analytes in biological, food, environmental, and other fields. It is necessary to develop efficient sample preparation and sensitive analytical methods for rapid analysis of these polar small molecules in complex matrices. Some typical materials in sample preparation, including silica, polymer, carbon, boric acid and so on, are introduced in this paper. Meanwhile, the applications and developments of analytical methods of polar small molecules, such as reversed-phase liquid chromatography, hydrophilic interaction chromatography, etc., are also reviewed.

  11. Review and evaluation of spark source mass spectrometry as an analytical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beske, H.E.

    1981-01-01

    The analytical features and most important fields of application of spark source mass spectrometry are described with respect to the trace analysis of high-purity materials and the multielement analysis of technical alloys, geochemical and cosmochemical, biological and radioactive materials, as well as in environmental analysis. Comparisons are made to other analytical methods. The distribution of the method as well as opportunities for contract analysis are indicated and developmental tendencies discussed. (orig.) [de

  12. Critical node treatment in the analytic function expansion method for Pin Power Reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Z.; Xu, Y.; Downar, T.

    2013-01-01

    Pin Power Reconstruction (PPR) was implemented in PARCS using the eight term analytic function expansion method (AFEN). This method has been demonstrated to be both accurate and efficient. However, similar to all the methods involving analytic functions, such as the analytic node method (ANM) and AFEN for nodal solution, the use of AFEN for PPR also has potential numerical issue with critical nodes. The conventional analytic functions are trigonometric or hyperbolic sine or cosine functions with an angular frequency proportional to buckling. For a critic al node the buckling is zero and the sine functions becomes zero, and the cosine function become unity. In this case, the eight terms of the analytic functions are no longer distinguishable from ea ch other which makes their corresponding coefficients can no longer be determined uniquely. The mode flux distribution of critical node can be linear while the conventional analytic functions can only express a uniform distribution. If there is critical or near critical node in a plane, the reconstructed pin power distribution is often be shown negative or very large values using the conventional method. In this paper, we propose a new method to avoid the numerical problem wit h critical nodes which uses modified trigonometric or hyperbolic sine functions which are the ratio of trigonometric or hyperbolic sine and its angular frequency. If there are no critical or near critical nodes present, the new pin power reconstruction method with modified analytic functions are equivalent to the conventional analytic functions. The new method is demonstrated using the L336C5 benchmark problem. (authors)

  13. Critical node treatment in the analytic function expansion method for Pin Power Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Z. [Rice University, MS 318, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Xu, Y. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Case Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Downar, T. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel blvd., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Pin Power Reconstruction (PPR) was implemented in PARCS using the eight term analytic function expansion method (AFEN). This method has been demonstrated to be both accurate and efficient. However, similar to all the methods involving analytic functions, such as the analytic node method (ANM) and AFEN for nodal solution, the use of AFEN for PPR also has potential numerical issue with critical nodes. The conventional analytic functions are trigonometric or hyperbolic sine or cosine functions with an angular frequency proportional to buckling. For a critic al node the buckling is zero and the sine functions becomes zero, and the cosine function become unity. In this case, the eight terms of the analytic functions are no longer distinguishable from ea ch other which makes their corresponding coefficients can no longer be determined uniquely. The mode flux distribution of critical node can be linear while the conventional analytic functions can only express a uniform distribution. If there is critical or near critical node in a plane, the reconstructed pin power distribution is often be shown negative or very large values using the conventional method. In this paper, we propose a new method to avoid the numerical problem wit h critical nodes which uses modified trigonometric or hyperbolic sine functions which are the ratio of trigonometric or hyperbolic sine and its angular frequency. If there are no critical or near critical nodes present, the new pin power reconstruction method with modified analytic functions are equivalent to the conventional analytic functions. The new method is demonstrated using the L336C5 benchmark problem. (authors)

  14. Analytical Expressions of the Efficiency of Standard and High Contact Ratio Involute Spur Gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Pleguezuelos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple, traditional methods for computation of the efficiency of spur gears are based on the hypotheses of constant friction coefficient and uniform load sharing along the path of contact. However, none of them is accurate. The friction coefficient is variable along the path of contact, though average values can be often considered for preliminary calculations. Nevertheless, the nonuniform load sharing produced by the changing rigidity of the pair of teeth has significant influence on the friction losses, due to the different relative sliding at any contact point. In previous works, the authors obtained a nonuniform model of load distribution based on the minimum elastic potential criterion, which was applied to compute the efficiency of standard gears. In this work, this model of load sharing is applied to study the efficiency of both standard and high contact ratio involute spur gears (with contact ratio between 1 and 2 and greater than 2, resp.. Approximate expressions for the friction power losses and for the efficiency are presented assuming the friction coefficient to be constant along the path of contact. A study of the influence of some transmission parameters (as the gear ratio, pressure angle, etc. on the efficiency is also presented.

  15. A Vocal-Based Analytical Method for Goose Behaviour Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Karstoft

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Since human-wildlife conflicts are increasing, the development of cost-effective methods for reducing damage or conflict levels is important in wildlife management. A wide range of devices to detect and deter animals causing conflict are used for this purpose, although their effectiveness is often highly variable, due to habituation to disruptive or disturbing stimuli. Automated recognition of behaviours could form a critical component of a system capable of altering the disruptive stimuli to avoid this. In this paper we present a novel method to automatically recognise goose behaviour based on vocalisations from flocks of free-living barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis. The geese were observed and recorded in a natural environment, using a shielded shotgun microphone. The classification used Support Vector Machines (SVMs, which had been trained with labeled data. Greenwood Function Cepstral Coefficients (GFCC were used as features for the pattern recognition algorithm, as they can be adjusted to the hearing capabilities of different species. Three behaviours are classified based in this approach, and the method achieves a good recognition of foraging behaviour (86–97% sensitivity, 89–98% precision and a reasonable recognition of flushing (79–86%, 66–80% and landing behaviour(73–91%, 79–92%. The Support Vector Machine has proven to be a robust classifier for this kind of classification, as generality and non-linearcapabilities are important. We conclude that vocalisations can be used to automatically detect behaviour of conflict wildlife species, and as such, may be used as an integrated part of awildlife management system.

  16. [Analytic methods for seed models with genotype x environment interactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J

    1996-01-01

    Genetic models with genotype effect (G) and genotype x environment interaction effect (GE) are proposed for analyzing generation means of seed quantitative traits in crops. The total genetic effect (G) is partitioned into seed direct genetic effect (G0), cytoplasm genetic of effect (C), and maternal plant genetic effect (Gm). Seed direct genetic effect (G0) can be further partitioned into direct additive (A) and direct dominance (D) genetic components. Maternal genetic effect (Gm) can also be partitioned into maternal additive (Am) and maternal dominance (Dm) genetic components. The total genotype x environment interaction effect (GE) can also be partitioned into direct genetic by environment interaction effect (G0E), cytoplasm genetic by environment interaction effect (CE), and maternal genetic by environment interaction effect (GmE). G0E can be partitioned into direct additive by environment interaction (AE) and direct dominance by environment interaction (DE) genetic components. GmE can also be partitioned into maternal additive by environment interaction (AmE) and maternal dominance by environment interaction (DmE) genetic components. Partitions of genetic components are listed for parent, F1, F2 and backcrosses. A set of parents, their reciprocal F1 and F2 seeds is applicable for efficient analysis of seed quantitative traits. MINQUE(0/1) method can be used for estimating variance and covariance components. Unbiased estimation for covariance components between two traits can also be obtained by the MINQUE(0/1) method. Random genetic effects in seed models are predictable by the Adjusted Unbiased Prediction (AUP) approach with MINQUE(0/1) method. The jackknife procedure is suggested for estimation of sampling variances of estimated variance and covariance components and of predicted genetic effects, which can be further used in a t-test for parameter. Unbiasedness and efficiency for estimating variance components and predicting genetic effects are tested by

  17. Selected methods of waste monitoring using modern analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlavacek, I.; Hlavackova, I.

    1993-11-01

    Issues of the inspection and control of bituminized and cemented waste are discussed, and some methods of their nondestructive testing are described. Attention is paid to the inspection techniques, non-nuclear spectral techniques in particular, as employed for quality control of the wastes, waste concentrates, spent waste leaching solutions, as well as for the examination of environmental samples (waters and soils) from the surroundings of nuclear power plants. Some leaching tests used abroad for this purpose and practical analyses by the ICP-AES technique are given by way of example. The ICP-MS technique, which is unavailable in the Czech Republic, is routinely employed abroad for alpha nuclide measurements; examples of such analyses are also given. The next topic discussed includes the monitoring of organic acids and complexants to determine the degree of their thermal decomposition during the bituminization of wastes on an industrial line. All of the methods and procedures highlighted can be used as technical support during the monitoring of radioactive waste properties in industrial conditions, in the chemical and radiochemical analyses of wastes and related matter, in the calibration of nondestructive testing instrumentation, in the monitoring of contamination of the surroundings of nuclear facilities, and in trace analysis. (author). 10 tabs., 1 fig., 14 refs

  18. Applications of Nuclear Analytical Methods for High Tech Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, T.

    2013-01-01

    Silicon based semiconductor chip manufacturing is a worldwide high technology industry with numerous measurement issues. One of the major concerns in the semiconductor manufacturing is contamination such as the trace metal impurities. This concern is vividly illustrated by the fact that the manufacturing in this industry is done in ultra clean environment where the entire manufacturing facility or “Fab” is a clean room facility or each and every manufacturing tool is enclosed in a mini-environment Although semiconductor devices are fabricated on the surface of the Si wafers contamination in the bulk material is a major concern. Nuclear methods of analysis are uniquely suited for the contamination analysis in such a matrix. Many opportunities in the semiconductor manufacturing field exist for the nuclear methods to provide support services. Contamination analysis by NAA, depth profiles by NDP and prompt gamma analysis of H in thin films are a few examples. These needs are on-going and require commitment from the lab so that a manufacturing operation can rely on the delivery of these services when required

  19. Using an analytical geometry method to improve tiltmeter data presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, W.-J.

    2000-01-01

    The tiltmeter is a useful tool for geologic and geotechnical applications. To obtain full benefit from the tiltmeter, easy and accurate data presentations should be used. Unfortunately, the most commonly used method for tilt data reduction now may yield inaccurate and low-resolution results. This article describes a simple, accurate, and high-resolution approach developed at the Illinois State Geological Survey for data reduction and presentation. The orientation of tiltplates is determined first by using a trigonometric relationship, followed by a matrix transformation, to obtain the true amount of rotation change of the tiltplate at any given time. The mathematical derivations used for the determination and transformation are then coded into an integrated PC application by adapting the capabilities of commercial spreadsheet, database, and graphics software. Examples of data presentation from tiltmeter applications in studies of landfill covers, characterizations of mine subsidence, and investigations of slope stability are also discussed.

  20. Manual of analytical methods for the Environmental Health Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, C.E.

    1975-06-01

    The manual contains four sections: absorption spectrophotometry; general radiochemical procedures; instrumental analysis; and calibration of field instruments. Included in the individual analyses using absorption spectrophotometry is one for total iodine in oil. Radiochemical procedures are given for: actinides in urine and water; 137 Cs in soil and vegetation; 137 Cs in soil, urine, vegetation, and water; enriched uranium in urine; gross beta activity in soil, urine, vegetation, and water; plutonium in urine and soil; 210 Po in urine and water; 24 Na in air, blood, urine, and water; 90 Sr in soil, vegetation, and water; tritium in urine, water, and on swipes; and total uranium on fallout trays and in soil, urine, and water. Among the individual instrumental analyses is a spectrographic method for determining beryllium in air samples and swipes. (U.S.)

  1. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) procedure compendium. Volume 4, Organic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    This interim notice covers the following: extractable organic halides in solids, total organic halides, analysis by gas chromatography/Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, hexadecane extracts for volatile organic compounds, GC/MS analysis of VOCs, GC/MS analysis of methanol extracts of cryogenic vapor samples, screening of semivolatile organic extracts, GPC cleanup for semivolatiles, sample preparation for GC/MS for semi-VOCs, analysis for pesticides/PCBs by GC with electron capture detection, sample preparation for pesticides/PCBs in water and soil sediment, report preparation, Florisil column cleanup for pesticide/PCBs, silica gel and acid-base partition cleanup of samples for semi-VOCs, concentrate acid wash cleanup, carbon determination in solids using Coulometrics` CO{sub 2} coulometer, determination of total carbon/total organic carbon/total inorganic carbon in radioactive liquids/soils/sludges by hot persulfate method, analysis of solids for carbonates using Coulometrics` Model 5011 coulometer, and soxhlet extraction.

  2. An analytical method of estimating Value-at-Risk on the Belgrade Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obadović Milica D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents market risk evaluation for a portfolio consisting of shares that are continuously traded on the Belgrade Stock Exchange, by applying the Value-at-Risk model - the analytical method. It describes the manner of analytical method application and compares the results obtained by implementing this method at different confidence levels. Method verification was carried out on the basis of the failure rate that demonstrated the confidence level for which this method was acceptable in view of the given conditions.

  3. Determination of 237Np in environmental and nuclear samples: A review of the analytical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, P.; Mulholland, G.P.

    2012-01-01

    A number of analytical methods has been developed and used for the determination of neptunium in environmental and nuclear fuel samples using alpha, ICP–MS spectrometry, and other analytical techniques. This review summarizes and discusses development of the radiochemical procedures for separation of neptunium (Np), since the beginning of the nuclear industry, followed by a more detailed discussion on recent trends in the separation of neptunium. This article also highlights the progress in analytical methods and issues associated with the determination of neptunium in environmental samples. - Highlights: ► Determination of Np in environmental and nuclear samples is reviewed. ► Various analytical methods used for the determination of Np are listed. ► Progress and issues associated with the determination of Np are discussed.

  4. Development, validation and evaluation of an analytical method for the determination of monomeric and oligomeric procyanidins in apple extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollands, Wendy J; Voorspoels, Stefan; Jacobs, Griet; Aaby, Kjersti; Meisland, Ane; Garcia-Villalba, Rocio; Tomas-Barberan, Francisco; Piskula, Mariusz K; Mawson, Deborah; Vovk, Irena; Needs, Paul W; Kroon, Paul A

    2017-04-28

    There is a lack of data for individual oligomeric procyanidins in apples and apple extracts. Our aim was to develop, validate and evaluate an analytical method for the separation, identification and quantification of monomeric and oligomeric flavanols in apple extracts. To achieve this, we prepared two types of flavanol extracts from freeze-dried apples; one was an epicatechin-rich extract containing ∼30% (w/w) monomeric (-)-epicatechin which also contained oligomeric procyanidins (Extract A), the second was an oligomeric procyanidin-rich extract depleted of epicatechin (Extract B). The parameters considered for method optimisation were HPLC columns and conditions, sample heating, mass of extract and dilution volumes. The performance characteristics considered for method validation included standard linearity, method sensitivity, precision and trueness. Eight laboratories participated in the method evaluation. Chromatographic separation of the analytes was best achieved utilizing a Hilic column with a binary mobile phase consisting of acidic acetonitrile and acidic aqueous methanol. The final method showed linearity for epicatechin in the range 5-100μg/mL with a correlation co-efficient >0.999. Intra-day and inter-day precision of the analytes ranged from 2 to 6% and 2 to 13% respectively. Up to dp3, trueness of the method was >95% but decreased with increasing dp. Within laboratory precision showed RSD values <5 and 10% for monomers and oligomers, respectively. Between laboratory precision was 4 and 15% (Extract A) and 7 and 30% (Extract B) for monomers and oligomers, respectively. An analytical method for the separation, identification and quantification of procyanidins in an apple extract was developed, validated and assessed. The results of the inter-laboratory evaluation indicate that the method is reliable and reproducible. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Analytical methods for 2,4-D (Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez G, M.S.M.

    1999-01-01

    The 2,4-D herbicide is one of the main pesticides for controlling the bad grass in crops such as the water undergrowth. In Mexico the allowed bound of this pesticide is 0.05 mg/l in water of 2,4-D so it is required to have methods trusts and exacts, which can used in order to detected low concentration of it. In this work we show some for the conventional techniques and for establishing the 2,4-D concentrations. The UV-Vis spectrometer and liquids chromatography due that they are the most common used nowadays. Beside, we introduce a now developed technique, which is based on the neutronic activation analysis. Though use of the UV-Vis spectrometer technique it was possible target the concentrations interval between 1 and 200 mg/l. In the liquids chromatography interval was between 0.1 and 0.9, and by the neutronic activation analysis the interval was between 0.01 and 200 mg/l. (Author)

  6. JRC Guidelines for 1 - Selecting and/or validating analytical methods for cosmetics 2 - Recommending standardization steps of analytical methods

    OpenAIRE

    VINCENT Ursula

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of cosmetics constitutes a challenge mainly due to the large variety of ingredients and formulations, and to the complexity of cosmetic products, in particular due to huge matrix variability. In 2009, the European Commission issued a Regulation (Regulation (EC) N° 1223/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council) establishing the requisites for cosmetic products and the responsibilities of the stakeholders. While the manufacturers' are responsible to ensure the safety of t...

  7. VALIDATION OF ANALYTICAL METHODS AND INSTRUMENTATION FOR BERYLLIUM MEASUREMENT: REVIEW AND SUMMARY OF AVAILABLE GUIDES, PROCEDURES, AND PROTOCOLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekechukwu, A

    2009-05-27

    Method validation is the process of evaluating whether an analytical method is acceptable for its intended purpose. For pharmaceutical methods, guidelines from the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH), and the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) provide a framework for performing such valications. In general, methods for regulatory compliance must include studies on specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, range, detection limit, quantitation limit, and robustness. Elements of these guidelines are readily adapted to the issue of validation for beryllium sampling and analysis. This document provides a listing of available sources which can be used to validate analytical methods and/or instrumentation for beryllium determination. A literature review was conducted of available standard methods and publications used for method validation and/or quality control. A comprehensive listing of the articles, papers and books reviewed is given in the Appendix. Available validation documents and guides are listed therein; each has a brief description of application and use. In the referenced sources, there are varying approches to validation and varying descriptions of the valication process at different stages in method development. This discussion focuses on valication and verification of fully developed methods and instrumentation that have been offered up for use or approval by other laboratories or official consensus bodies such as ASTM International, the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). This review was conducted as part of a collaborative effort to investigate and improve the state of validation for measuring beryllium in the workplace and the environment. Documents and publications from the United States and Europe are included. Unless otherwise specified, all referenced documents were published in English.

  8. Standard methods for sampling freshwater fishes: Opportunities for international collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Scott A.; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Hubert, Wayne A.; Beard, Douglas; Dave, Göran; Kubečka, Jan; Graeb, Brian D. S.; Lester, Nigel P.; Porath, Mark T.; Winfield, Ian J.

    2017-01-01

    With publication of Standard Methods for Sampling North American Freshwater Fishes in 2009, the American Fisheries Society (AFS) recommended standard procedures for North America. To explore interest in standardizing at intercontinental scales, a symposium attended by international specialists in freshwater fish sampling was convened at the 145th Annual AFS Meeting in Portland, Oregon, in August 2015. Participants represented all continents except Australia and Antarctica and were employed by state and federal agencies, universities, nongovernmental organizations, and consulting businesses. Currently, standardization is practiced mostly in North America and Europe. Participants described how standardization has been important for management of long-term data sets, promoting fundamental scientific understanding, and assessing efficacy of large spatial scale management strategies. Academics indicated that standardization has been useful in fisheries education because time previously used to teach how sampling methods are developed is now more devoted to diagnosis and treatment of problem fish communities. Researchers reported that standardization allowed increased sample size for method validation and calibration. Group consensus was to retain continental standards where they currently exist but to further explore international and intercontinental standardization, specifically identifying where synergies and bridges exist, and identify means to collaborate with scientists where standardization is limited but interest and need occur.

  9. Propulsion and launching analysis of variable-mass rockets by analytical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Ganji

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, applications of some analytical methods on nonlinear equation of the launching of a rocket with variable mass are investigated. Differential transformation method (DTM, homotopy perturbation method (HPM and least square method (LSM were applied and their results are compared with numerical solution. An excellent agreement with analytical methods and numerical ones is observed in the results and this reveals that analytical methods are effective and convenient. Also a parametric study is performed here which includes the effect of exhaust velocity (Ce, burn rate (BR of fuel and diameter of cylindrical rocket (d on the motion of a sample rocket, and contours for showing the sensitivity of these parameters are plotted. The main results indicate that the rocket velocity and altitude are increased with increasing the Ce and BR and decreased with increasing the rocket diameter and drag coefficient.

  10. An introduction to clinical microeconomic analysis: purposes and analytic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, W S; Mauldin, P D; Becker, E R

    1994-06-01

    The recent concern with health care economics has fostered the development of a new discipline that is generally called clinical microeconomics. This is a discipline in which microeconomic methods are used to study the economics of specific medical therapies. It is possible to perform stand alone cost analyses, but more profound insight into the medical decision making process may be accomplished by combining cost studies with measures of outcome. This is most often accomplished with cost-effectiveness or cost-utility studies. In cost-effectiveness studies there is one measure of outcome, often death. In cost-utility studies there are multiple measures of outcome, which must be grouped together to give an overall picture of outcome or utility. There are theoretical limitations to the determination of utility that must be accepted to perform this type of analysis. A summary statement of outcome is quality adjusted life years (QALYs), which is utility time socially discounted survival. Discounting is used because people value a year of future life less than a year of present life. Costs are made up of in-hospital direct, professional, follow-up direct, and follow-up indirect costs. Direct costs are for medical services. Indirect costs reflect opportunity costs such as lost time at work. Cost estimates are often based on marginal costs, or the cost for one additional procedure of the same type. Finally an overall statistic may be generated as cost per unit increase in effectiveness, such as dollars per QALY.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. AmO2 Analysis for Analytical Method Testing and Assessment: Analysis Support for AmO2 Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Kevin John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bland, Galey Jean [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fulwyler, James Brent [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Garduno, Katherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Keller, Russell C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Klundt, Dylan James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lujan, Elmer J. W [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mark, Zoe Francoise Elise [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mathew, Kattathu Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ortega, Laura Claire [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ottenfeld, Chelsea Faith [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Porterfield, Donivan R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rearick, Michael Sean [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rim, Jung Ho [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schake, Ann Rene [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schappert, Michael Francis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stanley, Floyd E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Thomas, Mariam R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wylie, Ernest Miller II [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Xu, Ning [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tandon, Lav [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-08

    Americium oxide samples will be measured for various analytes to support AmO2 production. The key analytes that are currently requested by the Am production customer at LANL include total Am content, Am isotopics, Pu assay, Pu isotopics, and trace element content including 237Np content. Multiple analytical methods will be utilized depending on the sensitivity, accuracy and precision needs of the Am matrix. Traceability to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) will be achieved, where applicable, by running NIST traceable quality control materials. This given that there are no suitable AmO2 reference materials currently available for requested analytes. The primary objective is to demonstrate the suitability of actinide analytical chemistry methods to support AmO2 production operations.

  12. A SIMPLE ANALYTICAL METHOD TO DETERMINE SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES' MEAN FREE PATH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, H.-Q.; Qin, G.

    2011-01-01

    To obtain the mean free path of solar energetic particles (SEPs) for a solar event, one usually has to fit time profiles of both flux and anisotropy from spacecraft observations to numerical simulations of SEPs' transport processes. This method can be called a simulation method. But a reasonably good fitting needs a lot of simulations, which demand a large amount of calculation resources. Sometimes, it is necessary to find an easy way to obtain the mean free path of SEPs quickly, for example, in space weather practice. Recently, Shalchi et al. provided an approximate analytical formula of SEPs' anisotropy time profile as a function of particles' mean free path for impulsive events. In this paper, we determine SEPs' mean free path by fitting the anisotropy time profiles from Shalchi et al.'s analytical formula to spacecraft observations. This new method can be called an analytical method. In addition, we obtain SEPs' mean free path with the traditional simulation methods. Finally, we compare the mean free path obtained with the simulation method to that of the analytical method to show that the analytical method, with some minor modifications, can give us a good, quick approximation of SEPs' mean free path for impulsive events.

  13. Integrative Mixed Methods Data Analytic Strategies in Research on School Success in Challenging Circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eunice E.; McDougall, Douglas E.; Pollon, Dawn; Herbert, Monique; Russell, Pia

    2008-01-01

    There are both conceptual and practical challenges in dealing with data from mixed methods research studies. There is a need for discussion about various integrative strategies for mixed methods data analyses. This article illustrates integrative analytic strategies for a mixed methods study focusing on improving urban schools facing challenging…

  14. A comparison of two analytical evaluation methods for educational computer games for young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, M.M.; Baauw, E.; Barendregt, W.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we describe a comparison of two analytical methods for educational computer games for young children. The methods compared in the study are the Structured Expert Evaluation Method (SEEM) and the Combined Heuristic Evaluation (HE) (based on a combination of Nielsen’s HE and the

  15. Methods, software and datasets to verify DVH calculations against analytical values: Twenty years late(r)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelms, Benjamin [Canis Lupus LLC, Merrimac, Wisconsin 53561 (United States); Stambaugh, Cassandra [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Hunt, Dylan; Tonner, Brian; Zhang, Geoffrey; Feygelman, Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir.feygelman@moffitt.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: The authors designed data, methods, and metrics that can serve as a standard, independent of any software package, to evaluate dose-volume histogram (DVH) calculation accuracy and detect limitations. The authors use simple geometrical objects at different orientations combined with dose grids of varying spatial resolution with linear 1D dose gradients; when combined, ground truth DVH curves can be calculated analytically in closed form to serve as the absolute standards. Methods: DICOM RT structure sets containing a small sphere, cylinder, and cone were created programmatically with axial plane spacing varying from 0.2 to 3 mm. Cylinders and cones were modeled in two different orientations with respect to the IEC 1217 Y axis. The contours were designed to stringently but methodically test voxelation methods required for DVH. Synthetic RT dose files were generated with 1D linear dose gradient and with grid resolution varying from 0.4 to 3 mm. Two commercial DVH algorithms—PINNACLE (Philips Radiation Oncology Systems) and PlanIQ (Sun Nuclear Corp.)—were tested against analytical values using custom, noncommercial analysis software. In Test 1, axial contour spacing was constant at 0.2 mm while dose grid resolution varied. In Tests 2 and 3, the dose grid resolution was matched to varying subsampled axial contours with spacing of 1, 2, and 3 mm, and difference analysis and metrics were employed: (1) histograms of the accuracy of various DVH parameters (total volume, D{sub max}, D{sub min}, and doses to % volume: D99, D95, D5, D1, D0.03 cm{sup 3}) and (2) volume errors extracted along the DVH curves were generated and summarized in tabular and graphical forms. Results: In Test 1, PINNACLE produced 52 deviations (15%) while PlanIQ produced 5 (1.5%). In Test 2, PINNACLE and PlanIQ differed from analytical by >3% in 93 (36%) and 18 (7%) times, respectively. Excluding D{sub min} and D{sub max} as least clinically relevant would result in 32 (15%) vs 5 (2

  16. Ernst Equation and Riemann Surfaces: Analytical and Numerical Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, Frederick J

    2007-01-01

    metric tensor components. The first two chapters of this book are devoted to some basic ideas: in the introductory chapter 1 the authors discuss the concept of integrability, comparing the integrability of the vacuum Ernst equation with the integrability of nonlinear equations of Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) type, while in chapter 2 they describe various circumstances in which the vacuum Ernst equation has been determined to be relevant, not only in connection with gravitation but also, for example, in the construction of solutions of the self-dual Yang-Mills equations. It is also in this chapter that one of several equivalent linear systems for the Ernst equation is described. The next two chapters are devoted to Dmitry Korotkin's concept of algebro-geometric solutions of a linear system: in chapter 3 the structure of such solutions of the vacuum Ernst equation, which involve Riemann theta functions of hyperelliptic algebraic curves of any genus, is contrasted with the periodic structure of such solutions of the KdV equation. How such solutions can be obtained, for example, by solving a matrix Riemann-Hilbert problem and how the metric tensor of the associated spacetime can be evaluated is described in detail. In chapter 4 the asymptotic behaviour and the similarity structure of the general algebro-geometric solutions of the Ernst equation are described, and the relationship of such solutions to the perhaps more familiar multi-soliton solutions is discussed. The next three chapters are based upon the authors' own published research: in chapter 5 it is shown that a problem involving counter-rotating infinitely thin disks of matter can be solved in terms of genus two Riemann theta functions, while in chapter 6 the authors describe numerical methods that facilitate the construction of such solutions, and in chapter 7 three-dimensional graphs are displayed that depict all metrical fields of the associated spacetime. Finally, in chapter 8, the difficulties associated with

  17. Waste Tank Organic Safety Program: Analytical methods development. Progress report, FY 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.A.; Clauss, S.A.; Grant, K.E.

    1994-09-01

    The objectives of this task are to develop and document extraction and analysis methods for organics in waste tanks, and to extend these methods to the analysis of actual core samples to support the Waste Tank organic Safety Program. This report documents progress at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (a) during FY 1994 on methods development, the analysis of waste from Tank 241-C-103 (Tank C-103) and T-111, and the transfer of documented, developed analytical methods to personnel in the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) and 222-S laboratory. This report is intended as an annual report, not a completed work

  18. Standard test methods for rockwell hardness of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the Rockwell hardness and the Rockwell superficial hardness of metallic materials by the Rockwell indentation hardness principle. This standard provides the requirements for Rockwell hardness machines and the procedures for performing Rockwell hardness tests. 1.2 This standard includes additional requirements in annexes: Verification of Rockwell Hardness Testing Machines Annex A1 Rockwell Hardness Standardizing Machines Annex A2 Standardization of Rockwell Indenters Annex A3 Standardization of Rockwell Hardness Test Blocks Annex A4 Guidelines for Determining the Minimum Thickness of a Test Piece Annex A5 Hardness Value Corrections When Testing on Convex Cylindrical Surfaces Annex A6 1.3 This standard includes nonmandatory information in appendixes which relates to the Rockwell hardness test. List of ASTM Standards Giving Hardness Values Corresponding to Tensile Strength Appendix X1 Examples of Procedures for Determining Rockwell Hardness Uncertainty Appendix X...

  19. Standard test methods for rockwell hardness of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the Rockwell hardness and the Rockwell superficial hardness of metallic materials by the Rockwell indentation hardness principle. This standard provides the requirements for Rockwell hardness machines and the procedures for performing Rockwell hardness tests. 1.2 This standard includes additional requirements in annexes: Verification of Rockwell Hardness Testing Machines Annex A1 Rockwell Hardness Standardizing Machines Annex A2 Standardization of Rockwell Indenters Annex A3 Standardization of Rockwell Hardness Test Blocks Annex A4 Guidelines for Determining the Minimum Thickness of a Test Piece Annex A5 Hardness Value Corrections When Testing on Convex Cylindrical Surfaces Annex A6 1.3 This standard includes nonmandatory information in appendixes which relates to the Rockwell hardness test. List of ASTM Standards Giving Hardness Values Corresponding to Tensile Strength Appendix X1 Examples of Procedures for Determining Rockwell Hardness Uncertainty Appendix X...

  20. Standard methods for sampling freshwater fishes: opportunities for international collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Bonar, Scott A.; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Hubert, Wayne A.; Beard, T. Douglas; Dave, Göran; Kubečka, Jan; Graeb, Brian D.S.; Lester, Nigel P.; Porath, Mark; Winfield, Ian J.

    2017-01-01

    With publication of Standard Methods for Sampling North American Freshwater Fishes in 2009, the American Fisheries Society (AFS) recommended standard procedures for North America. To explore interest in standardizing at intercontinental scales, a symposium attended by international specialists in freshwater fish sampling was convened at the 145th Annual AFS Meeting in Portland, Oregon, in August 2015. Participants represented all continents except Australia and Antarctica and were employed by...

  1. Application of capability indices and control charts in the analytical method control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Alexis; Llabres Martinez, Matías

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we assessed the usefulness of control charts in combination with the process capability indices, C pm and C pk , in the control strategy of an analytical method. The traditional X-chart and moving range chart were used to monitor the analytical method over a 2-year period. The results confirmed that the analytical method is in-control and stable. Different criteria were used to establish the specifications limits (i.e. analyst requirements) for fixed method performance (i.e. method requirements). If the specification limits and control limits are equal in breadth, the method can be considered "capable" (C pm  = 1), but it does not satisfy the minimum method capability requirements proposed by Pearn and Shu (2003). Similar results were obtained using the C pk index. The method capability was also assessed as a function of method performance for fixed analyst requirements. The results indicate that the method does not meet the requirements of the analytical target approach. A real-example data of a SEC with light-scattering detection method was used as a model whereas previously published data were used to illustrate the applicability of the proposed approach. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Determination of trace elements in standard reference materials by the ko-standardization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smodis, B.; Jacimovic, R.; Stegnar, P.; Jovanovic, S.

    1990-01-01

    The k o -standardization method is suitable for routine multielement determinations by reactor neutron activation analysis (NAA). Investigation of NIST standard reference materials SRM 1571 Orchard Leaves, SRM 1572 Citrus leaves, and SRM 1573 Tomato Leaves showed the systematic error of 12 certified elements determined to be less than 8%. Thirty-four elements were determined in NIST proposed SRM 1515 Apple Leaves

  3. Normalization method for metabolomics data using optimal selection of multiple internal standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yetukuri Laxman

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Success of metabolomics as the phenotyping platform largely depends on its ability to detect various sources of biological variability. Removal of platform-specific sources of variability such as systematic error is therefore one of the foremost priorities in data preprocessing. However, chemical diversity of molecular species included in typical metabolic profiling experiments leads to different responses to variations in experimental conditions, making normalization a very demanding task. Results With the aim to remove unwanted systematic variation, we present an approach that utilizes variability information from multiple internal standard compounds to find optimal normalization factor for each individual molecular species detected by metabolomics approach (NOMIS. We demonstrate the method on mouse liver lipidomic profiles using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry, and compare its performance to two commonly utilized normalization methods: normalization by l2 norm and by retention time region specific standard compound profiles. The NOMIS method proved superior in its ability to reduce the effect of systematic error across the full spectrum of metabolite peaks. We also demonstrate that the method can be used to select best combinations of standard compounds for normalization. Conclusion Depending on experiment design and biological matrix, the NOMIS method is applicable either as a one-step normalization method or as a two-step method where the normalization parameters, influenced by variabilities of internal standard compounds and their correlation to metabolites, are first calculated from a study conducted in repeatability conditions. The method can also be used in analytical development of metabolomics methods by helping to select best combinations of standard compounds for a particular biological matrix and analytical platform.

  4. Optimization of offshore wind turbine support structures using analytical gradient-based method

    OpenAIRE

    Chew, Kok Hon; Tai, Kang; Ng, E.Y.K.; Muskulus, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Design optimization of the offshore wind turbine support structure is an expensive task; due to the highly-constrained, non-convex and non-linear nature of the design problem. This report presents an analytical gradient-based method to solve this problem in an efficient and effective way. The design sensitivities of the objective and constraint functions are evaluated analytically while the optimization of the structure is performed, subject to sizing, eigenfrequency, extreme load an...

  5. Evaluation and selection of in-situ leaching mining method using analytic hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Heyong; Tan Kaixuan; Liu Huizhen

    2007-01-01

    According to the complicated conditions and main influence factors of in-situ leaching min- ing, a model and processes of analytic hierarchy are established for evaluation and selection of in-situ leaching mining methods based on analytic hierarchy process. Taking a uranium mine in Xinjiang of China for example, the application of this model is presented. The results of analyses and calculation indicate that the acid leaching is the optimum project. (authors)

  6. Methods, software and datasets to verify DVH calculations against analytical values: Twenty years late(r).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, Benjamin; Stambaugh, Cassandra; Hunt, Dylan; Tonner, Brian; Zhang, Geoffrey; Feygelman, Vladimir

    2015-08-01

    The authors designed data, methods, and metrics that can serve as a standard, independent of any software package, to evaluate dose-volume histogram (DVH) calculation accuracy and detect limitations. The authors use simple geometrical objects at different orientations combined with dose grids of varying spatial resolution with linear 1D dose gradients; when combined, ground truth DVH curves can be calculated analytically in closed form to serve as the absolute standards. dicom RT structure sets containing a small sphere, cylinder, and cone were created programmatically with axial plane spacing varying from 0.2 to 3 mm. Cylinders and cones were modeled in two different orientations with respect to the IEC 1217 Y axis. The contours were designed to stringently but methodically test voxelation methods required for DVH. Synthetic RT dose files were generated with 1D linear dose gradient and with grid resolution varying from 0.4 to 3 mm. Two commercial DVH algorithms-pinnacle (Philips Radiation Oncology Systems) and PlanIQ (Sun Nuclear Corp.)-were tested against analytical values using custom, noncommercial analysis software. In Test 1, axial contour spacing was constant at 0.2 mm while dose grid resolution varied. In Tests 2 and 3, the dose grid resolution was matched to varying subsampled axial contours with spacing of 1, 2, and 3 mm, and difference analysis and metrics were employed: (1) histograms of the accuracy of various DVH parameters (total volume, Dmax, Dmin, and doses to % volume: D99, D95, D5, D1, D0.03 cm(3)) and (2) volume errors extracted along the DVH curves were generated and summarized in tabular and graphical forms. In Test 1, pinnacle produced 52 deviations (15%) while PlanIQ produced 5 (1.5%). In Test 2, pinnacle and PlanIQ differed from analytical by >3% in 93 (36%) and 18 (7%) times, respectively. Excluding Dmin and Dmax as least clinically relevant would result in 32 (15%) vs 5 (2%) scored deviations for pinnacle vs PlanIQ in Test 1, while Test 2

  7. Standard test method for galling resistance of material couples

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a laboratory test that ranks the galling resistance of material couples using a quantitative measure. Bare metals, alloys, nonmetallic materials, coatings, and surface modified materials may be evaluated by this test method. 1.2 This test method is not designed for evaluating the galling resistance of material couples sliding under lubricated conditions, because galling usually will not occur under lubricated sliding conditions using this test method. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  8. Selenium contaminated waters: An overview of analytical methods, treatment options and recent advances in sorption methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sílvia; Ungureanu, Gabriela; Boaventura, Rui; Botelho, Cidália

    2015-07-15

    Selenium is an essential trace element for many organisms, including humans, but it is bioaccumulative and toxic at higher than homeostatic levels. Both selenium deficiency and toxicity are problems around the world. Mines, coal-fired power plants, oil refineries and agriculture are important examples of anthropogenic sources, generating contaminated waters and wastewaters. For reasons of human health and ecotoxicity, selenium concentration has to be controlled in drinking-water and in wastewater, as it is a potential pollutant of water bodies. This review article provides firstly a general overview about selenium distribution, sources, chemistry, toxicity and environmental impact. Analytical techniques used for Se determination and speciation and water and wastewater treatment options are reviewed. In particular, published works on adsorption as a treatment method for Se removal from aqueous solutions are critically analyzed. Recent published literature has given particular attention to the development and search for effective adsorbents, including low-cost alternative materials. Published works mostly consist in exploratory findings and laboratory-scale experiments. Binary metal oxides and LDHs (layered double hydroxides) have presented excellent adsorption capacities for selenium species. Unconventional sorbents (algae, agricultural wastes and other biomaterials), in raw or modified forms, have also led to very interesting results with the advantage of their availability and low-cost. Some directions to be considered in future works are also suggested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Standardization of Nanoparticle Characterization: Methods for Testing Properties, Stability, and Functionality of Edible Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClements, Jake; McClements, David Julian

    2016-06-10

    There has been a rapid increase in the fabrication of various kinds of edible nanoparticles for oral delivery of bioactive agents, such as those constructed from proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and/or minerals. It is currently difficult to compare the relative advantages and disadvantages of different kinds of nanoparticle-based delivery systems because researchers use different analytical instruments and protocols to characterize them. In this paper, we briefly review the various analytical methods available for characterizing the properties of edible nanoparticles, such as composition, morphology, size, charge, physical state, and stability. This information is then used to propose a number of standardized protocols for characterizing nanoparticle properties, for evaluating their stability to environmental stresses, and for predicting their biological fate. Implementation of these protocols would facilitate comparison of the performance of nanoparticles under standardized conditions, which would facilitate the rational selection of nanoparticle-based delivery systems for different applications in the food, health care, and pharmaceutical industries.

  10. MULTIPLE CRITERA METHODS WITH FOCUS ON ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS AND GROUP DECISION MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Zadnik-Stirn

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Managing natural resources is a group multiple criteria decision making problem. In this paper the analytic hierarchy process is the chosen method for handling the natural resource problems. The one decision maker problem is discussed and, three methods: the eigenvector method, data envelopment analysis method, and logarithmic least squares method are presented for the derivation of the priority vector. Further, the group analytic hierarchy process is discussed and six methods for the aggregation of individual judgments or priorities: weighted arithmetic mean method, weighted geometric mean method, and four methods based on data envelopment analysis are compared. The case study on land use in Slovenia is applied. The conclusions review consistency, sensitivity analyses, and some future directions of research.

  11. VALIDATION OF ANALYTICAL METHODS AND INSTRUMENTATION FOR BERYLLIUM MEASUREMENT: REVIEW AND SUMMARY OF AVAILABLE GUIDES, PROCEDURES, AND PROTOCOLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekechukwu, A.

    2008-12-17

    This document proposes to provide a listing of available sources which can be used to validate analytical methods and/or instrumentation for beryllium determination. A literature review was conducted of available standard methods and publications used for method validation and/or quality control. A comprehensive listing of the articles, papers, and books reviewed is given in Appendix 1. Available validation documents and guides are listed in the appendix; each has a brief description of application and use. In the referenced sources, there are varying approaches to validation and varying descriptions of validation at different stages in method development. This discussion focuses on validation and verification of fully developed methods and instrumentation that have been offered up for use or approval by other laboratories or official consensus bodies such as ASTM International, the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). This review was conducted as part of a collaborative effort to investigate and improve the state of validation for measuring beryllium in the workplace and the environment. Documents and publications from the United States and Europe are included. Unless otherwise specified, all documents were published in English.

  12. Standard guide for establishing a quality assurance program for analytical chemistry laboratories within the nuclear industry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers the establishment of a quality assurance (QA) program for analytical chemistry laboratories within the nuclear industry. Reference to key elements of ANSI/ISO/ASQC Q9001, Quality Systems, provides guidance to the functional aspects of analytical laboratory operation. When implemented as recommended, the practices presented in this guide will provide a comprehensive QA program for the laboratory. The practices are grouped by functions, which constitute the basic elements of a laboratory QA program. 1.2 The essential, basic elements of a laboratory QA program appear in the following order: Section Organization 5 Quality Assurance Program 6 Training and Qualification 7 Procedures 8 Laboratory Records 9 Control of Records 10 Control of Procurement 11 Control of Measuring Equipment and Materials 12 Control of Measurements 13 Deficiencies and Corrective Actions 14

  13. Analytical method for reconstruction pin to pin of the nuclear power density distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Paulo O.; Silva, Fernando C.; Martinez, Aquilino S., E-mail: ppessoa@con.ufrj.br, E-mail: fernando@con.ufrj.br, E-mail: aquilino@imp.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    An accurate and efficient method for reconstructing pin to pin of the nuclear power density distribution, involving the analytical solution of the diffusion equation for two-dimensional neutron energy groups in homogeneous nodes, is presented. The boundary conditions used for analytic as solution are the four currents or fluxes on the surface of the node, which are obtained by Nodal Expansion Method (known as NEM) and four fluxes at the vertices of a node calculated using the finite difference method. The analytical solution found is the homogeneous distribution of neutron flux. Detailed distributions pin to pin inside a fuel assembly are estimated by the product of homogeneous flux distribution by local heterogeneous form function. Furthermore, the form functions of flux and power are used. The results obtained with this method have a good accuracy when compared with reference values. (author)

  14. Analytical method for reconstruction pin to pin of the nuclear power density distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessoa, Paulo O.; Silva, Fernando C.; Martinez, Aquilino S.

    2013-01-01

    An accurate and efficient method for reconstructing pin to pin of the nuclear power density distribution, involving the analytical solution of the diffusion equation for two-dimensional neutron energy groups in homogeneous nodes, is presented. The boundary conditions used for analytic as solution are the four currents or fluxes on the surface of the node, which are obtained by Nodal Expansion Method (known as NEM) and four fluxes at the vertices of a node calculated using the finite difference method. The analytical solution found is the homogeneous distribution of neutron flux. Detailed distributions pin to pin inside a fuel assembly are estimated by the product of homogeneous flux distribution by local heterogeneous form function. Furthermore, the form functions of flux and power are used. The results obtained with this method have a good accuracy when compared with reference values. (author)

  15. Origin Determination and Differentiation of Gelatin Species of Bovine, Porcine, and Piscine through Analytical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Saadiye Eryılmaz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin origin determination has been a crucial issue with respect to religion and health concerns. It is necessary to analyze the origin of gelatin with reliable methods to ensure not only consumer choices but also safety and legal requirements such as labeling. There are many analytical methods developed for detection and/or quantification of gelatin from different sources including bovine, porcine and piscine. These analytical methods can be divided into physicochemical, chromatographic, immunochemical, spectroscopic and molecular methods. Moreover, computational methods have been used in some cases consecutively to ensure sensitivity of the analytical methods. Every method has different advantages and limitations due to their own principles, applied food matrix and process conditions of material. The present review intends to give insight into novel analytical methods and perspectives that have been developed to differentiate porcine, bovine and piscine gelatins and to establish their authenticity. Almost every method can be succeeded in origin determination; however, it is a matter of sensitivity in that some researches fail to ensure sufficient differentiation.

  16. H-Point Standard Addition Method for Simultaneous Determination of Eosin and Erytrosine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandeep Kaur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new, simple, sensitive and selective H-point standard addition method (HPSAM has been developed for resolving binary mixture of food colorants eosin and erythrosine, which show overlapped spectra. The method is based on the complexation of food dyes eosin and erythrosine with Fe(III complexing reagent at pH 5.5 and solubilizing complexes in triton x-100 micellar media. Absorbances at the two pairs of wavelengths, 540 and 550 nm (when eosin acts as analyte or 518 and 542 nm (when erythrosine act as analyte were monitored. This method has satisfactorily been applied for the determination of eosin and erythrosine dyes in synthetic mixtures and commercial products.

  17. Analytical method comparisons for the accurate determination of PCBs in sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numata, M.; Yarita, T.; Aoyagi, Y.; Yamazaki, M.; Takatsu, A. [National Metrology Institute of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    National Metrology Institute of Japan in National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST) has been developing several matrix reference materials, for example, sediments, water and biological tissues, for the determinations of heavy metals and organometallic compounds. The matrix compositions of those certified reference materials (CRMs) are similar to compositions of actual samples, and those are useful for validating analytical procedures. ''Primary methods of measurements'' are essential to obtain accurate and SI-traceable certified values in the reference materials, because the methods have the highest quality of measurement. However, inappropriate analytical operations, such as incomplete extraction of analytes or crosscontamination during analytical procedures, will cause error of analytical results, even if one of the primary methods, isotope-dilution, is utilized. To avoid possible procedural bias for the certification of reference materials, we employ more than two analytical methods which have been optimized beforehand. Because the accurate determination of trace POPs in the environment is important to evaluate their risk, reliable CRMs are required by environmental chemists. Therefore, we have also been preparing matrix CRMs for the determination of POPs. To establish accurate analytical procedures for the certification of POPs, extraction is one of the critical steps as described above. In general, conventional extraction techniques for the determination of POPs, such as Soxhlet extraction (SOX) and saponification (SAP), have been characterized well, and introduced as official methods for environmental analysis. On the other hand, emerging techniques, such as microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), pressurized fluid extraction (PFE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), give higher recovery yields of analytes with relatively short extraction time and small amount of solvent, by reasons of the high

  18. The auxiliary field method and approximate analytical solutions of the Schroedinger equation with exponential potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestre-Brac, Bernard [LPSC Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, Avenue des Martyrs 53, F-38026 Grenoble-Cedex (France); Semay, Claude; Buisseret, Fabien [Groupe de Physique Nucleaire Theorique, Universite de Mons-Hainaut, Academie universitaire Wallonie-Bruxelles, Place du Parc 20, B-7000 Mons (Belgium)], E-mail: silvestre@lpsc.in2p3.fr, E-mail: claude.semay@umh.ac.be, E-mail: fabien.buisseret@umh.ac.be

    2009-06-19

    The auxiliary field method is a new and efficient way to compute approximate analytical eigenenergies of the Schroedinger equation. This method has already been successfully applied to the case of central potentials of power-law and logarithmic forms. In the present work, we show that the Schroedinger equation with exponential potentials of the form -{alpha}r{sup {lambda}}exp(-{beta}r) can also be analytically solved by using the auxiliary field method. Closed formulae giving the critical heights and the energy levels of these potentials are presented. Special attention is drawn to the Yukawa potential and the pure exponential potential.

  19. The auxiliary field method and approximate analytical solutions of the Schroedinger equation with exponential potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestre-Brac, Bernard; Semay, Claude; Buisseret, Fabien

    2009-01-01

    The auxiliary field method is a new and efficient way to compute approximate analytical eigenenergies of the Schroedinger equation. This method has already been successfully applied to the case of central potentials of power-law and logarithmic forms. In the present work, we show that the Schroedinger equation with exponential potentials of the form -αr λ exp(-βr) can also be analytically solved by using the auxiliary field method. Closed formulae giving the critical heights and the energy levels of these potentials are presented. Special attention is drawn to the Yukawa potential and the pure exponential potential

  20. Analytical method for determining colour intensities based on Cherenkov radiation colour quenching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Gomez, C; Lopez-Gonzalez, J deD; Ferro-Garcia, M A [Univ. of Granada, Granada (Spain). Faculty of Sciences, Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry. Radiochemistry Section; Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Granada (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Research Coordinated Centre)

    1983-01-01

    A study was made for determining color intensities using as luminous non-monochromatic source produced by the Cherenkov emission in the walls of a glass capillary which acts as luminous source itself inside the colored solution to be evaluated. The reproducibility of this method has been compared with the spectrophotometric assay; the relative errors of both analytical methods have been calculated for different concentrations of congo red solution in the range of minimal error, according to Ringbom's criterion. The sensitivity of this analytical method has been studied for the two ..beta..-emitters employed: /sup 90/Sr//sup 90/Y and /sup 204/Tl.

  1. Standard test methods for characterizing duplex grain sizes

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 These test methods provide simple guidelines for deciding whether a duplex grain size exists. The test methods separate duplex grain sizes into one of two distinct classes, then into specific types within those classes, and provide systems for grain size characterization of each type. 1.2 Units—The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to consult appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to its use.

  2. The reasonable woman standard: a meta-analytic review of gender differences in perceptions of sexual harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, J A

    1998-02-01

    Courts and legislatures have begun to develop the "reasonable woman standard" (RWS) as a criterion for deciding sexual harassment trials. This standard rests on assumptions of a "wide divergence" between the perceptions of men and women when viewing social-sexual behavior that may be considered harassing. Narrative reviews of the literature on such perceptions have suggested that these assumptions are only minimally supported. To test these assumptions quantitatively, a meta-analytic review was conducted that assessed the size, stability, and moderators of gender differences in perceptions of sexual harassment. The effect of the actor's status relative to the target also was evaluated meta-analytically, as one alternative to the importance of gender effects. Results supported the claims of narrative reviews for a relatively small gender effect, and draw attention to the status effect. In discussing legal implications of the present findings, earlier claims are echoed suggesting caution in establishing the reasonable woman standard, and one alternative to the RWS, the "reasonable victim standard," is discussed.

  3. Method of analytic continuation by duality in QCD: Beyond QCD sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer, M.; Nasrallah, N.F.; Papadopoulos, N.A.; Schilcher, K.

    1986-01-01

    We present the method of analytic continuation by duality which allows the approximate continuation of QCD amplitudes to small values of the momentum variables where direct perturbative calculations are not possible. This allows a substantial extension of the domain of applications of hadronic QCD phenomenology. The method is illustrated by a simple example which shows its essential features

  4. Flammable gas safety program. Analytical methods development: FY 1994 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.A.; Clauss, S.; Grant, K.; Hoopes, V.; Lerner, B.; Lucke, R.; Mong, G.; Rau, J.; Wahl, K.; Steele, R.

    1994-09-01

    This report describes the status of developing analytical methods to account for the organic components in Hanford waste tanks, with particular focus on tanks assigned to the Flammable Gas Watch List. The methods that have been developed are illustrated by their application to samples obtained from Tank 241-SY-101 (Tank 101-SY)

  5. Analytical method for high resolution liquid chromatography for quality control French Macaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Penna, Caridad M; Torres Amaro, Leonid; Menendez Castillo, Rosa; Sanchez, Esther; Martinez Espinosa, Vivian; Gonzalez, Maria Lidia; Rodriguez, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Was developed and validated an analytical method for high resolution liquid chromatography applicable to quality control of drugs dry French Macaw (Senna alata L. Roxb.) With ultraviolet detection at 340 nm. The method for high resolution liquid chromatography used to quantify the sennosides A and B, main components, was validated and proved to be specific, linear, precise and accurate. (Author)

  6. Approximate Analytic and Numerical Solutions to Lane-Emden Equation via Fuzzy Modeling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Gang Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel algorithm, called variable weight fuzzy marginal linearization (VWFML method, is proposed. This method can supply approximate analytic and numerical solutions to Lane-Emden equations. And it is easy to be implemented and extended for solving other nonlinear differential equations. Numerical examples are included to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the developed technique.

  7. Contextual and Analytic Qualities of Research Methods Exemplified in Research on Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Lennart; Doumas, Kyriaki

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present article is to discuss contextual and analytic qualities of research methods. The arguments are specified in relation to research on teaching. A specific investigation is used as an example to illustrate the general methodological approach. It is argued that research methods should be carefully grounded in an understanding of…

  8. An analytical nodal method for time-dependent one-dimensional discrete ordinates problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, R.C. de

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, relatively little work has been done in developing time-dependent discrete ordinates (S N ) computer codes. Therefore, the topic of time integration methods certainly deserves further attention. In this paper, we describe a new coarse-mesh method for time-dependent monoenergetic S N transport problesm in slab geometry. This numerical method preserves the analytic solution of the transverse-integrated S N nodal equations by constants, so we call our method the analytical constant nodal (ACN) method. For time-independent S N problems in finite slab geometry and for time-dependent infinite-medium S N problems, the ACN method generates numerical solutions that are completely free of truncation errors. Bsed on this positive feature, we expect the ACN method to be more accurate than conventional numerical methods for S N transport calculations on coarse space-time grids

  9. System and Method for Providing a Climate Data Analytic Services Application Programming Interface Distribution Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnase, John L. (Inventor); Duffy, Daniel Q. (Inventor); Tamkin, Glenn S. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A system, method and computer-readable storage devices for providing a climate data analytic services application programming interface distribution package. The example system can provide various components. The system provides a climate data analytic services application programming interface library that enables software applications running on a client device to invoke the capabilities of a climate data analytic service. The system provides a command-line interface that provides a means of interacting with a climate data analytic service by issuing commands directly to the system's server interface. The system provides sample programs that call on the capabilities of the application programming interface library and can be used as templates for the construction of new client applications. The system can also provide test utilities, build utilities, service integration utilities, and documentation.

  10. Analytical method of CIM to PIM transformation in Model Driven Architecture (MDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kardos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Information system’s models on higher level of abstraction have become a daily routine in many software companies. The concept of Model Driven Architecture (MDA published by standardization body OMG1 since 2001 has become a concept for creation of software applications and information systems. MDA specifies four levels of abstraction: top three levels are created as graphical models and the last one as implementation code model. Many research works of MDA are focusing on the lower levels and transformations between each other. The top level of abstraction, called Computation Independent Model (CIM and its transformation to the lower level called Platform Independent Model (PIM is not so extensive research topic. Considering to a great importance and usability of this level in practice of IS2Keywords: transformation, MDA, CIM, PIM, UML, DFD. development now our research activity is focused to this highest level of abstraction – CIM and its possible transformation to the lower PIM level. In this article we are presenting a possible solution of CIM modeling and its analytic method of transformation to PIM.

  11. Development and validation of analytical method for Naftopidil in human plasma by LC–MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritam S. Jain

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A highly sensitive and simple high-performance liquid chromatographic–tandem mass spectrometric (LC–MS-MS assay is developed and validated for the quantification of Naftopidil in human plasma. Naftopidil is extracted from human plasma by methyl tertiary butyl ether and analyzed using a reversed-phase gradient elution on a discovery C 18 5 μ (50 × 4.6 column. A methanol: 2 mM ammonium formate (90:10 as mobile phase, is used and detection was performed by MS using electrospray ionization in positive mode. Propranolol is used as the internal standard. The lower limits of quantification are 0.495 ng/mL. The calibration curves are linear over the concentration range of 0.495–200.577 ng/mL of plasma for each analyte. This novel LC–MS-MS method shows satisfactory accuracy and precision and is sufficiently sensitive for the performance of pharmacokinetic studies in humans.

  12. 237 Np analytical method using 239 Np tracers and application to a contaminated nuclear disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, Mathew S.; Morrison, Samuel S.; Clark, Sue B.; Olson, John E.; Watrous, Matthew G.

    2017-06-01

    Environmental 237Np analyses are challenged by low 237Np concentrations and lack of an available yield tracer; we report a rapid, inexpensive 237Np analytical approach employing the short lived 239Np (t1/2 = 2.3 days) as a chemical yield tracer followed by 237Np quantification using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. 239Np tracer is obtained via separation from a 243Am stock solution and standardized using gamma spectrometry immediately prior to sample processing. Rapid digestions using a commercial, 900 watt “Walmart” microwave and Parr microwave vessels result in 99.8 ± 0.1% digestion yields, while chromatographic separations enable Np/U separation factors on the order of 106 and total Np yields of 95 ± 4% (2σ). Application of this method to legacy soil samples surrounding a radioactive disposal facility (the Subsurface Disposal Area at Idaho National Laboratory) reveal the presence of low level 237Np contamination within 600 meters of this site, with maximum 237Np concentrations on the order of 103 times greater than nuclear weapons testing fallout levels.

  13. 237Np analytical method using 239Np tracers and application to a contaminated nuclear disposal facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Mathew S; Morrison, Samuel S; Clark, Sue B; Olson, John E; Watrous, Matthew G

    2017-06-01

    Environmental 237 Np analyses are challenged by low 237 Np concentrations and lack of an available yield tracer; we report a rapid, inexpensive 237 Np analytical approach employing the short lived 239 Np (t 1/2  = 2.3 days) as a chemical yield tracer followed by 237 Np quantification using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. 239 Np tracer is obtained via separation from a 243 Am stock solution and standardized using gamma spectrometry immediately prior to sample processing. Rapid digestions using a commercial, 900 W "Walmart" microwave and Parr microwave vessels result in 99.8 ± 0.1% digestion yields, while chromatographic separations enable Np/U separation factors on the order of 10 6 and total Np yields of 95 ± 4% (2σ). Application of this method to legacy soil samples surrounding a radioactive disposal facility (the Subsurface Disposal Area at Idaho National Laboratory) reveal the presence of low level 237 Np contamination within 600 m of this site, with maximum 237 Np concentrations on the order of 10 3 times greater than nuclear weapons testing fallout levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Standard Test Method for Gravimetric Determination of Nonvolatile Residue From Cleanroom Wipers

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of solvent extractable nonvolatile residue (NVR) from wipers used in assembly, cleaning, or testing of spacecraft, but not from those used for analytical surface sampling of hardware. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 The NVR of interest is that which can be extracted from cleanroom wipers using a specified solvent that has been selected for its extractive qualities. Alternative solvents may be selected, but since their use may result in different values being generated, they must be identified in the procedure data sheet. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  15. A new analytical method to solve the heat equation for a multi-dimensional composite slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, X; Tervola, P; Viljanen, M

    2005-01-01

    A novel analytical approach has been developed for heat conduction in a multi-dimensional composite slab subject to time-dependent boundary changes of the first kind. Boundary temperatures are represented as Fourier series. Taking advantage of the periodic properties of boundary changes, the analytical solution is obtained and expressed explicitly. Nearly all the published works necessitate searching for associated eigenvalues in solving such a problem even for a one-dimensional composite slab. In this paper, the proposed method involves no iterative computation such as numerically searching for eigenvalues and no residue evaluation. The adopted method is simple which represents an extension of the novel analytical approach derived for the one-dimensional composite slab. Moreover, the method of 'separation of variables' employed in this paper is new. The mathematical formula for solutions is concise and straightforward. The physical parameters are clearly shown in the formula. Further comparison with numerical calculations is presented

  16. A Table Lookup Method for Exact Analytical Solutions of Nonlinear Fractional Partial Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Juan-Juan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A table lookup method for solving nonlinear fractional partial differential equations (fPDEs is proposed in this paper. Looking up the corresponding tables, we can quickly obtain the exact analytical solutions of fPDEs by using this method. To illustrate the validity of the method, we apply it to construct the exact analytical solutions of four nonlinear fPDEs, namely, the time fractional simplified MCH equation, the space-time fractional combined KdV-mKdV equation, the (2+1-dimensional time fractional Zoomeron equation, and the space-time fractional ZKBBM equation. As a result, many new types of exact analytical solutions are obtained including triangular periodic solution, hyperbolic function solution, singular solution, multiple solitary wave solution, and Jacobi elliptic function solution.

  17. Simplified Analytical Methods to Analyze Lock Gates Submitted to Ship Collisions and Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buldgen Loic

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two simplified analytical methods to analyze lock gates submitted to two different accidental loads. The case of an impact involving a vessel is first investigated. In this situation, the resistance of the struck gate is evaluated by assuming a local and a global deforming mode. The super-element method is used in the first case, while an equivalent beam model is simultaneously introduced to capture the overall bending motion of the structure. The second accidental load considered in this paper is the seismic action, for which an analytical method is presented to evaluate the total hydrodynamic pressure applied on a lock gate during an earthquake, due account being taken of the fluid-structure interaction. For each of these two actions, numerical validations are presented and the analytical results are compared to finite-element solutions.

  18. Development of CAD implementing the algorithm of boundary elements’ numerical analytical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia V. Korniyenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Up to recent days the algorithms for numerical-analytical boundary elements method had been implemented with programs written in MATLAB environment language. Each program had a local character, i.e. used to solve a particular problem: calculation of beam, frame, arch, etc. Constructing matrices in these programs was carried out “manually” therefore being time-consuming. The research was purposed onto a reasoned choice of programming language for new CAD development, allows to implement algorithm of numerical analytical boundary elements method and to create visualization tools for initial objects and calculation results. Research conducted shows that among wide variety of programming languages the most efficient one for CAD development, employing the numerical analytical boundary elements method algorithm, is the Java language. This language provides tools not only for development of calculating CAD part, but also to build the graphic interface for geometrical models construction and calculated results interpretation.

  19. Standard test method for isotopic analysis of uranium hexafluoride by double standard single-collector gas mass spectrometer method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This is a quantitative test method applicable to determining the mass percent of uranium isotopes in uranium hexafluoride (UF6) samples with 235U concentrations between 0.1 and 5.0 mass %. 1.2 This test method may be applicable for the entire range of 235U concentrations for which adequate standards are available. 1.3 This test method is for analysis by a gas magnetic sector mass spectrometer with a single collector using interpolation to determine the isotopic concentration of an unknown sample between two characterized UF6 standards. 1.4 This test method is to replace the existing test method currently published in Test Methods C761 and is used in the nuclear fuel cycle for UF6 isotopic analyses. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro...

  20. Standard guide for qualification of measurement methods by a laboratory within the nuclear industry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides guidance for selecting, validating, and qualifying measurement methods when qualification is required for a specific program. The recommended practices presented in this guide provide a major part of a quality assurance program for the laboratory data (see Fig. 1). Qualification helps to assure that the data produced will meet established requirements. 1.2 The activities intended to assure the quality of analytical laboratory measurement data are diagrammed in Fig. 1. Discussion and guidance related to some of these activities appear in the following sections: Section Selection of Measurement Methods 5 Validation of Measurement Methods 6 Qualification of Measurement Methods 7 Control 8 Personnel Qualification 9 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitati...

  1. Method of making stepped photographic density standards of radiographic photographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovin, I.V.; Kondina, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    In industrial radiography practice the need often arises for a prompt evaluation of the photographic density of an x-ray film. A method of making stepped photographic density standards for industrial radiography by contact printing from a negative is described. The method is intended for industrial radiation flaw detection laboratories not having specialized sensitometric equipment

  2. [Modified Delphi method in the constitution of school sanitation standard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xunqiang; Liang, Ying; Tan, Hongzhuan; Gong, Wenjie; Deng, Jing; Luo, Jiayou; Di, Xiaokang; Wu, Yue

    2012-11-01

    To constitute school sanitation standard using modified Delphi method, and to explore the feasibility and the predominance of Delphi method in the constitution of school sanitation standard. Two rounds of expert consultations were adopted in this study. The data were analyzed with SPSS15.0 to screen indices of school sanitation standard. Thirty-two experts accomplished the 2 rounds of consultations. The average length of expert service was (24.69 ±8.53) years. The authority coefficient was 0.729 ±0.172. The expert positive coefficient was 94.12% (32/34) in the first round and 100% (32/32) in the second round. The harmonious coefficients of importance, feasibility and rationality in the second round were 0.493 (PDelphi method is a rapid, effective and feasible method in this field.

  3. Progress in analytical methods for the detection of geographical origin and authenticity of tea (Camellia sinensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yuwei; Hu Guixian; Shao Shengzhi; Zhang Yongzhi; Zhang Yu; Zhu Jiahong; Yang Guiling; Zhang Zhiheng

    2013-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) is one of the important agricultural products with obvious regional characteristics. Analytical methods are very important for the protection of geographical origin and authenticity of tea. The developments of analytical methods including stable isotope determination, multi-elements determination, near infrared reflectance spectroscopy, chemical fingerprint and others were reviewed. Major problems on tea origin and authenticity detection were discussed in this study, and some suggestions were also proposed which would be useful for the protection of geographical origin of tea in China. (authors)

  4. Possibilities of Utilizing the Method of Analytical Hierarchy Process Within the Strategy of Corporate Social Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drieniková, Katarína; Hrdinová, Gabriela; Naňo, Tomáš; Sakál, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the analysis of the theory of corporate social responsibility, risk management and the exact method of analytic hierarchic process that is used in the decision-making processes. The Chapters 2 and 3 focus on presentation of the experience with the application of the method in formulating the stakeholders' strategic goals within the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and simultaneously its utilization in minimizing the environmental risks. The major benefit of this paper is the application of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP).

  5. Analytical method and result of radiation exposure for depressurization accident of HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawa, K.; Shiozawa, S.; Mikami, H.

    1990-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is now proceeding with the construction design of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). Since the HTTR has some characteristics different from LWRs, analytical method of radiation exposure in accidents provided for LWRs can not be applied directly. This paper describes the analytical method of radiation exposure developed by JAERI for the depressurization accident, which is the severest accident in respect to radiation exposure among the design basis accidents of the HTTR. The result is also described in this paper

  6. Advantages of Analytical Transformations in Monte Carlo Methods for Radiation Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, M S; Brooks III, E D; Daffin, F

    2004-01-01

    Monte Carlo methods for radiation transport typically attempt to solve an integral by directly sampling analog or weighted particles, which are treated as physical entities. Improvements to the methods involve better sampling, probability games or physical intuition about the problem. We show that significant improvements can be achieved by recasting the equations with an analytical transform to solve for new, non-physical entities or fields. This paper looks at one such transform, the difference formulation for thermal photon transport, showing a significant advantage for Monte Carlo solution of the equations for time dependent transport. Other related areas are discussed that may also realize significant benefits from similar analytical transformations

  7. Statistical methods for evaluating the attainment of cleanup standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, R.O.; Simpson, J.C.

    1992-12-01

    This document is the third volume in a series of volumes sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Statistical Policy Branch, that provide statistical methods for evaluating the attainment of cleanup Standards at Superfund sites. Volume 1 (USEPA 1989a) provides sampling designs and tests for evaluating attainment of risk-based standards for soils and solid media. Volume 2 (USEPA 1992) provides designs and tests for evaluating attainment of risk-based standards for groundwater. The purpose of this third volume is to provide statistical procedures for designing sampling programs and conducting statistical tests to determine whether pollution parameters in remediated soils and solid media at Superfund sites attain site-specific reference-based standards. This.document is written for individuals who may not have extensive training or experience with statistical methods. The intended audience includes EPA regional remedial project managers, Superfund-site potentially responsible parties, state environmental protection agencies, and contractors for these groups.

  8. Toward a standard method for determination of waterborne radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitz, E.

    1990-01-01

    When the USEPA specifies the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for any contaminant, a standard method for analysis must be simultaneously stipulated. Promulgation of the proposed MCL and standard method for radon in drinking water is expected by early next year, but a six-month comment period and revision will precede final enactment. The standard method for radon in drinking water will probably specify that either the Lucas cell technique or liquid scintillation spectrometry be used. This paper reports results which support a standard method with the following features: samples should be collected by an explicitly stated technique to control degassing, in glass vials with or without scintillation cocktail, and possibly in duplicate; samples should be measured by liquid scintillation spectroscopy in a specified energy window', in a glass vial with particular types of cocktails; radium standards should be prepared with controlled quench levels and specified levels of carriers, but radium-free controls prepared by a specified method should be used in interlaboratory comparison studies

  9. An analytical-numerical comprehensive method for optimizing the fringing magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Meiqin; Mao Naifeng

    1991-01-01

    The criterion of optimizing the fringing magnetic field is discussed, and an analytical-numerical comprehensive method for realizing the optimization is introduced. The method mentioned above consists of two parts, the analytical part calculates the field of the shims, which corrects the fringing magnetic field by using uniform magnetizing method; the numerical part fulfils the whole calculation of the field distribution by solving the equation of magnetic vector potential A within the region covered by arbitrary triangular meshes with the aid of finite difference method and successive over relaxation method. On the basis of the method, the optimization of the fringing magnetic field for a large-scale electromagnetic isotope separator is finished

  10. Standardized methods for photography in procedural dermatology using simple equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexsel, Doris; Hexsel, Camile L; Dal'Forno, Taciana; Schilling de Souza, Juliana; Silva, Aline F; Siega, Carolina

    2017-04-01

    Photography is an important tool in dermatology. Reproducing the settings of before photos after interventions allows more accurate evaluation of treatment outcomes. In this article, we describe standardized methods and tips to obtain photographs, both for clinical practice and research procedural dermatology, using common equipment. Standards for the studio, cameras, photographer, patients, and framing are presented in this article. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  11. Standard Test Method for Abrasive Wear Resistance of Cemented

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of abrasive wear resistance of cemented carbides. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The SI equivalents of inch-pound units are in parentheses and may be approximate. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  12. Experimental design and multiple response optimization. Using the desirability function in analytical methods development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candioti, Luciana Vera; De Zan, María M; Cámara, María S; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2014-06-01

    A review about the application of response surface methodology (RSM) when several responses have to be simultaneously optimized in the field of analytical methods development is presented. Several critical issues like response transformation, multiple response optimization and modeling with least squares and artificial neural networks are discussed. Most recent analytical applications are presented in the context of analytLaboratorio de Control de Calidad de Medicamentos (LCCM), Facultad de Bioquímica y Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, C.C. 242, S3000ZAA Santa Fe, ArgentinaLaboratorio de Control de Calidad de Medicamentos (LCCM), Facultad de Bioquímica y Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, C.C. 242, S3000ZAA Santa Fe, Argentinaical methods development, especially in multiple response optimization procedures using the desirability function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative analysis of methods for real-time analytical control of chemotherapies preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazin, Christophe; Cassard, Bruno; Caudron, Eric; Prognon, Patrice; Havard, Laurent

    2015-10-15

    Control of chemotherapies preparations are now an obligation in France, though analytical control is compulsory. Several methods are available and none of them is presumed as ideal. We wanted to compare them so as to determine which one could be the best choice. We compared non analytical (visual and video-assisted, gravimetric) and analytical (HPLC/FIA, UV/FT-IR, UV/Raman, Raman) methods thanks to our experience and a SWOT analysis. The results of the analysis show great differences between the techniques, but as expected none us them is without defects. However they can probably be used in synergy. Overall for the pharmacist willing to get involved, the implementation of the control for chemotherapies preparations must be widely anticipated, with the listing of every parameter, and remains according to us an analyst's job. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [The analytical reliability of clinical laboratory information and role of the standards in its support].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men'shikov, V V

    2012-12-01

    The article deals with the factors impacting the reliability of clinical laboratory information. The differences of qualities of laboratory analysis tools produced by various manufacturers are discussed. These characteristics are the causes of discrepancy of the results of laboratory analyses of the same analite. The role of the reference system in supporting the comparability of laboratory analysis results is demonstrated. The project of national standard is presented to regulate the requirements to standards and calibrators for analysis of qualitative and non-metrical characteristics of components of biomaterials.

  15. Analytical methods used at IPR (Instituto de Pesquisas Radioativas - Minas Gerais, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murta, C.C.

    The analytical methods available at IPR (MG-Brazil) for the routine determination of uranium are described. These methods are: gravimetric analysis; fluorescence spectroscopy, voltametry, polarography, absorption spectroscopy, beta-and gamma-radiometric analysis, gamma spectroscopy, activation analysis, X-rays fluorescence analysis and delayed neutron analysis. Some additional methods for the study of mineral ores, such as X-rays diffractometry, emmission spectroscopy, thermal analysis, etc, are also discussed [pt

  16. The use of nuclear analytical methods in the investigation of objects of art and historical monuments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janovsky, I.

    2006-01-01

    Special nuclear analytical methods contribute significantly to the identification of the origin, manufacturing technology and/or authenticity of objects of art and historical monuments, Such methods primarily include variants of X-ray fluorescence analysis and activation analysis. The former enables non/destructive testing of materials, the latter features a high sensitivity. The article presents numerous examples of use of such methods especially in the Czech Republic (or former Czechoslovakia). (author)

  17. Analytical Method Development for the Determination of Α-Endosulfan and Bifenthrin Pesticide Residues in Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Styarini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of analytical method for the determination of α-endosulfan and bifenthrin residues in tea has been done. The complex matrices and also the pigment were the challenge in doing quantification of the pesticide residues in tea matrices. In order to get appropriate analysis method for the determination of pesticide residues in tea, the modification was done in the analytical method for the determination of organochlorine multiresidue in non fat matrices: seasoning and spicy that is published by Directorate General of Food Crops, Directorate of Food Plant Protection. The modification was done particularly in clean-up step to remove the interferences from the extract of tea matrices such as the pigment that usually interfere the measurement with Gas Chromatography (GC. The result showed that the MDL value for both analytes were 0.5 ng/g that were much lower than MRLs. The percent recovery obtained from the method was 78.58 and 90.19% for α-endosulfan and bifenthrin, respectively. The precision of the analysis method for both analytes were good since the % RSD values were below than the Horwitz’s value that was 19.18% at spiking level concentration of 300 ng/g.

  18. An analytical method for calculating stresses and strains of ATF cladding based on thick walled theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Hak Sung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyo Chan; Yang, Yong Sik; In, Wang kee [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, an analytical method based on thick walled theory has been studied to calculate stress and strain of ATF cladding. In order to prescribe boundary conditions of the analytical method, two algorithms were employed which are called subroutine 'Cladf' and 'Couple' of FRACAS, respectively. To evaluate the developed method, equivalent model using finite element method was established and stress components of the method were compared with those of equivalent FE model. One of promising ATF concepts is the coated cladding, which take advantages such as high melting point, a high neutron economy, and low tritium permeation rate. To evaluate the mechanical behavior and performance of the coated cladding, we need to develop the specified model to simulate the ATF behaviors in the reactor. In particular, the model for simulation of stress and strain for the coated cladding should be developed because the previous model, which is 'FRACAS', is for one body model. The FRACAS module employs the analytical method based on thin walled theory. According to thin-walled theory, radial stress is defined as zero but this assumption is not suitable for ATF cladding because value of the radial stress is not negligible in the case of ATF cladding. Recently, a structural model for multi-layered ceramic cylinders based on thick-walled theory was developed. Also, FE-based numerical simulation such as BISON has been developed to evaluate fuel performance. An analytical method that calculates stress components of ATF cladding was developed in this study. Thick-walled theory was used to derive equations for calculating stress and strain. To solve for these equations, boundary and loading conditions were obtained by subroutine 'Cladf' and 'Couple' and applied to the analytical method. To evaluate the developed method, equivalent FE model was established and its results were compared to those of analytical model. Based on the

  19. Multielement trace determination in SiC powders: assessment of interlaboratory comparisons aimed at the validation and standardization of analytical procedures with direct solid sampling based on ETV ICP OES and DC arc OES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matschat, Ralf; Hassler, Jürgen; Traub, Heike; Dette, Angelika

    2005-12-01

    The members of the committee NMP 264 "Chemical analysis of non-oxidic raw and basic materials" of the German Standards Institute (DIN) have organized two interlaboratory comparisons for multielement determination of trace elements in silicon carbide (SiC) powders via direct solid sampling methods. One of the interlaboratory comparisons was based on the application of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry with electrothermal vaporization (ETV ICP OES), and the other on the application of optical emission spectrometry with direct current arc (DC arc OES). The interlaboratory comparisons were organized and performed in the framework of the development of two standards related to "the determination of mass fractions of metallic impurities in powders and grain sizes of ceramic raw and basic materials" by both methods. SiC powders were used as typical examples of this category of material. The aim of the interlaboratory comparisons was to determine the repeatability and reproducibility of both analytical methods to be standardized. This was an important contribution to the practical applicability of both draft standards. Eight laboratories participated in the interlaboratory comparison with ETV ICP OES and nine in the interlaboratory comparison with DC arc OES. Ten analytes were investigated by ETV ICP OES and eleven by DC arc OES. Six different SiC powders were used for the calibration. The mass fractions of their relevant trace elements were determined after wet chemical digestion. All participants followed the analytical requirements described in the draft standards. In the calculation process, three of the calibration materials were used successively as analytical samples. This was managed in the following manner: the material that had just been used as the analytical sample was excluded from the calibration, so the five other materials were used to establish the calibration plot. The results from the interlaboratory comparisons were summarized and

  20. Development of an analytical method for the simultaneous analysis of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in oil-based foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermacora, Alessia; Hrnčiřík, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Substantial progress has been recently made in the development and optimisation of analytical methods for the quantification of 2-MCPD, 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters in oils and fats, and there are a few methods currently available that allow a reliable quantification of these contaminants in bulk oils and fats. On the other hand, no standard method for the analysis of foodstuffs has yet been established. The aim of this study was the development and validation of a new method for the simultaneous quantification of 2-MCPD, 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters in oil-based food products. The developed protocol includes a first step of liquid-liquid extraction and purification of the lipophilic substances of the sample, followed by the application of a previously developed procedure based on acid transesterification, for the indirect quantification of these contaminants in oils and fats. The method validation was carried out on food products (fat-based spreads, creams, margarine, mayonnaise) manufactured in-house, in order to control the manufacturing process and account for any food matrix-analyte interactions (the sample spiking was carried out on the single components used for the formulations rather than the final products). The method showed good accuracy (the recoveries ranged from 97% to 106% for bound 3-MCPD and 2-MCPD and from 88% to 115% for bound glycidol) and sensitivity (the LOD was 0.04 and 0.05 mg kg(-1) for bound MCPD and glycidol, respectively). Repeatability and reproducibility were satisfactory (RSD below 2% and 5%, respectively) for all analytes. The levels of salts and surface-active compounds in the formulation were found to have no impact on the accuracy and the other parameters of the method.

  1. Solution of the isotopic depletion equation using decomposition method and analytical solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prata, Fabiano S.; Silva, Fernando C.; Martinez, Aquilino S., E-mail: fprata@con.ufrj.br, E-mail: fernando@con.ufrj.br, E-mail: aquilino@lmp.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    In this paper an analytical calculation of the isotopic depletion equations is proposed, featuring a chain of major isotopes found in a typical PWR reactor. Part of this chain allows feedback reactions of (n,2n) type. The method is based on decoupling the equations describing feedback from the rest of the chain by using the decomposition method, with analytical solutions for the other isotopes present in the chain. The method was implemented in a PWR reactor simulation code, that makes use of the nodal expansion method (NEM) to solve the neutron diffusion equation, describing the spatial distribution of neutron flux inside the reactor core. Because isotopic depletion calculation module is the most computationally intensive process within simulation systems of nuclear reactor core, it is justified to look for a method that is both efficient and fast, with the objective of evaluating a larger number of core configurations in a short amount of time. (author)

  2. Solution of the isotopic depletion equation using decomposition method and analytical solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prata, Fabiano S.; Silva, Fernando C.; Martinez, Aquilino S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper an analytical calculation of the isotopic depletion equations is proposed, featuring a chain of major isotopes found in a typical PWR reactor. Part of this chain allows feedback reactions of (n,2n) type. The method is based on decoupling the equations describing feedback from the rest of the chain by using the decomposition method, with analytical solutions for the other isotopes present in the chain. The method was implemented in a PWR reactor simulation code, that makes use of the nodal expansion method (NEM) to solve the neutron diffusion equation, describing the spatial distribution of neutron flux inside the reactor core. Because isotopic depletion calculation module is the most computationally intensive process within simulation systems of nuclear reactor core, it is justified to look for a method that is both efficient and fast, with the objective of evaluating a larger number of core configurations in a short amount of time. (author)

  3. Accurate determination of arsenic in arsenobetaine standard solutions of BCR-626 and NMIJ CRM 7901-a by neutron activation analysis coupled with internal standard method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Tsutomu; Chiba, Koichi; Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Narukawa, Tomohiro; Hioki, Akiharu; Matsue, Hideaki

    2010-09-15

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) coupled with an internal standard method was applied for the determination of As in the certified reference material (CRM) of arsenobetaine (AB) standard solutions to verify their certified values. Gold was used as an internal standard to compensate for the difference of the neutron exposure in an irradiation capsule and to improve the sample-to-sample repeatability. Application of the internal standard method significantly improved linearity of the calibration curve up to 1 microg of As, too. The analytical reliability of the proposed method was evaluated by k(0)-standardization NAA. The analytical results of As in AB standard solutions of BCR-626 and NMIJ CRM 7901-a were (499+/-55)mgkg(-1) (k=2) and (10.16+/-0.15)mgkg(-1) (k=2), respectively. These values were found to be 15-20% higher than the certified values. The between-bottle variation of BCR-626 was much larger than the expanded uncertainty of the certified value, although that of NMIJ CRM 7901-a was almost negligible. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Method and platform standardization in MRM-based quantitative plasma proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, Andrew J; Chambers, Andrew G; Yang, Juncong; Jackson, Angela M; Domanski, Dominik; Burkhart, Julia; Sickmann, Albert; Borchers, Christoph H

    2013-12-16

    There exists a growing demand in the proteomics community to standardize experimental methods and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) platforms in order to enable the acquisition of more precise and accurate quantitative data. This necessity is heightened by the evolving trend of verifying and validating candidate disease biomarkers in complex biofluids, such as blood plasma, through targeted multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-based approaches with stable isotope-labeled standards (SIS). Considering the lack of performance standards for quantitative plasma proteomics, we previously developed two reference kits to evaluate the MRM with SIS peptide approach using undepleted and non-enriched human plasma. The first kit tests the effectiveness of the LC/MRM-MS platform (kit #1), while the second evaluates the performance of an entire analytical workflow (kit #2). Here, these kits have been refined for practical use and then evaluated through intra- and inter-laboratory testing on 6 common LC/MS platforms. For an identical panel of 22 plasma proteins, similar concentrations were determined, regardless of the kit, instrument platform, and laboratory of analysis. These results demonstrate the value of the kit and reinforce the utility of standardized methods and protocols. The proteomics community needs standardized experimental protocols and quality control methods in order to improve the reproducibility of MS-based quantitative data. This need is heightened by the evolving trend for MRM-based validation of proposed disease biomarkers in complex biofluids such as blood plasma. We have developed two kits to assist in the inter- and intra-laboratory quality control of MRM experiments: the first kit tests the effectiveness of the LC/MRM-MS platform (kit #1), while the second evaluates the performance of an entire analytical workflow (kit #2). In this paper, we report the use of these kits in intra- and inter-laboratory testing on 6 common LC/MS platforms. This

  5. Heme Iron Content in Lamb Meat Is Differentially Altered upon Boiling, Grilling, or Frying as Assessed by Four Distinct Analytical Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Pourkhalili, Azin; Mirlohi, Maryam; Rahimi, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Lamb meat is regarded as an important source of highly bioavailable iron (heme iron) in the Iranians diet. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of traditional cooking methods on the iron changes in lamb meat. Four published experimental methods for the determination of heme iron were assessed analytically and statistically. Samples were selected from lambs' loin. Standard methods (AOAC) were used for proximate analysis. For measuring heme iron, the results of four experi...

  6. Statistical benchmarking in utility regulation: Role, standards and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton Lowry, Mark; Getachew, Lullit

    2009-01-01

    Statistical benchmarking is being used with increasing frequency around the world in utility rate regulation. We discuss how and where benchmarking is in use for this purpose and the pros and cons of regulatory benchmarking. We then discuss alternative performance standards and benchmarking methods in regulatory applications. We use these to propose guidelines for the appropriate use of benchmarking in the rate setting process. The standards, which we term the competitive market and frontier paradigms, have a bearing on method selection. These along with regulatory experience suggest that benchmarking can either be used for prudence review in regulation or to establish rates or rate setting mechanisms directly

  7. Aspects of investigating scrambling in the synthesis of porphyrins Different analytical methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C.B.; Krebs, Frederik C

    2005-01-01

    Herein, we discuss the analyses and quantification of the different components in porphyrin mixtures, prepared from p-anisaidehyde, p-tolualdehyde, and 5-(4-bromophenyl)-dipyrromethane with acid catalysis, using NMR and HPLC. The advantages and disadvantages of these analytical methods are emphas...

  8. Functional analytic methods in complex analysis and applications to partial differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mshimba, A.S.A.; Tutschke, W.

    1990-01-01

    The volume contains 24 lectures given at the Workshop on Functional Analytic Methods in Complex Analysis and Applications to Partial Differential Equations held in Trieste, Italy, between 8-19 February 1988, at the ICTP. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these lectures. Refs and figs

  9. New neutron-based isotopic analytical methods; An explorative study of resonance capture and incoherent scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perego, R.C.

    2004-01-01

    Two novel neutron-based analytical techniques have been treated in this thesis, Neutron Resonance Capture Analysis (NRCA), employing a pulsed neutron source, and Neutron Incoherent Scattering (NIS), making use of a cold neutron source. With the NRCA method isotopes are identified by the

  10. Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities for Entry-Level Business Analytics Positions: A Multi-Method Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegielski, Casey G.; Jones-Farmer, L. Allison

    2016-01-01

    It is impossible to deny the significant impact from the emergence of big data and business analytics on the fields of Information Technology, Quantitative Methods, and the Decision Sciences. Both industry and academia seek to hire talent in these areas with the hope of developing organizational competencies. This article describes a multi-method…

  11. Nuclear analytical methods in teaching and research at the university of Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberger, S.

    1994-01-01

    An overview of the nuclear analytical methods opportunities at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign are given. Undergraduate and graduate level teaching and research are highlighted. The TRIGA reactor and neutron activation analysis facilities are described in the context of this role within an inter-disciplinary environment. (author)

  12. Materials of the Second Sumy-Cracow-Muenster Symposium on Nuclear Analytical Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The applications of nuclear analytical methods in physico-chemical, biological and medical studies have been presented in large number of applications. Environmental, geological and biological materials have been analysed by means of neutron activation analysis, proton microprobe, x-ray diffraction, synchrotron radiation X-ray spectrum analysis, ESR and others

  13. En introduktion til CARM: The Conversation Analytic Role-Play Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Simon Bierring

    2014-01-01

    Dette working paper er en introduktion til og kort diskussion af workshopmetoden Conversation Analytic Role-Play Method (CARM), som er en metode udviklet til at afholde workshops på baggrund af resultater fra interaktionsanalyser. Artiklen er den første introduktion til CARM-metoden på dansk, og...

  14. Verification of the analytical fracture assessments methods by a large scale pressure vessel test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keinanen, H; Oberg, T; Rintamaa, R; Wallin, K

    1988-12-31

    This document deals with the use of fracture mechanics for the assessment of reactor pressure vessel. Tests have been carried out to verify the analytical fracture assessment methods. The analysis is focused on flaw dimensions and the scatter band of material characteristics. Results are provided and are compared to experimental ones. (TEC).

  15. Analytic methods for field induced tunneling in quantum wells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Analytic methods for field induced tunneling in quantum wells with arbitrary potential profiles ... Electric field induced tunneling is studied in three different types of quantum wells by solving time-independent effective mass ... Current Issue : Vol.

  16. Elasto-plastic strain analysis by a semi-analytical method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    deformation problems following a semi-analytical method, incorporating the com- ..... The set of equations in (8) are non-linear in nature, which is solved by direct ...... Here, [K] and [M] are stiffness matrix and mass matrix which are of the form ...

  17. 75 FR 49930 - Stakeholder Meeting Regarding Re-Evaluation of Currently Approved Total Coliform Analytical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9190-2] Stakeholder Meeting Regarding Re-Evaluation of... conferences during which the Agency will have a technical dialogue with stakeholders regarding re-evaluation of currently approved Total Coliform Rule (TCR) analytical methods. At these meetings, stakeholders...

  18. Vertical equilibrium with sub-scale analytical methods for geological CO2 sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    Gasda, S. E.

    2009-04-23

    Large-scale implementation of geological CO2 sequestration requires quantification of risk and leakage potential. One potentially important leakage pathway for the injected CO2 involves existing oil and gas wells. Wells are particularly important in North America, where more than a century of drilling has created millions of oil and gas wells. Models of CO 2 injection and leakage will involve large uncertainties in parameters associated with wells, and therefore a probabilistic framework is required. These models must be able to capture both the large-scale CO 2 plume associated with the injection and the small-scale leakage problem associated with localized flow along wells. Within a typical simulation domain, many hundreds of wells may exist. One effective modeling strategy combines both numerical and analytical models with a specific set of simplifying assumptions to produce an efficient numerical-analytical hybrid model. The model solves a set of governing equations derived by vertical averaging with assumptions of a macroscopic sharp interface and vertical equilibrium. These equations are solved numerically on a relatively coarse grid, with an analytical model embedded to solve for wellbore flow occurring at the sub-gridblock scale. This vertical equilibrium with sub-scale analytical method (VESA) combines the flexibility of a numerical method, allowing for heterogeneous and geologically complex systems, with the efficiency and accuracy of an analytical method, thereby eliminating expensive grid refinement for sub-scale features. Through a series of benchmark problems, we show that VESA compares well with traditional numerical simulations and to a semi-analytical model which applies to appropriately simple systems. We believe that the VESA model provides the necessary accuracy and efficiency for applications of risk analysis in many CO2 sequestration problems. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  19. Standard Test Method for Thermal Oxidative Resistance of Carbon Fibers

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1982-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the apparatus and procedure for the determination of the weight loss of carbon fibers, exposed to ambient hot air, as a means of characterizing their oxidative resistance. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to inch-pound units which are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific hazard information, see Section 8.

  20. The riddle of Siegfried: exploring methods and psychological perspectives in analytical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Marco Heleno

    2016-02-01

    Jung's dream of the killing of Siegfried poses a riddle: why did the unconscious choose precisely Siegfried as the hero to be murdered? Jung himself declares that he does not know. This paper attempts to decipher this riddle using three distinct methodological approaches accepted by Jung, two of them in fact grounded in his theories of dream interpretation. Besides presenting some possible answers to the riddle of Siegfried, this interpretative reflection brings to light the discrepancy of the psychological perspectives created by the heterogeneity of methods within analytical psychology. © 2016, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  1. Analytical free energy gradient for the molecular Ornstein-Zernike self-consistent-field method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Yoshida

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available An analytical free energy gradient for the molecular Ornstein-Zernike self-consistent-field (MOZ-SCF method is presented. MOZ-SCF theory is one of the theories to considering the solvent effects on the solute electronic structure in solution. [Yoshida N. et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2000, 113, 4974] Molecular geometries of water, formaldehyde, acetonitrile and acetone in water are optimized by analytical energy gradient formula. The results are compared with those from the polarizable continuum model (PCM, the reference interaction site model (RISM-SCF and the three dimensional (3D RISM-SCF.

  2. Standardization of Tc-99 by three liquid scintillation counting methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyngaardt, W.M. van; Staden, M.J. van; Lubbe, J.; Simpson, B.R.S.

    2014-01-01

    The NMISA participated in the international key comparison of the pure beta-emitter Technetium-99, CCRI(II)-K2.Tc-99. The comparison solution was standardized using three methods, namely the TDCR efficiency calculation method, the CIEMAT/NIST efficiency tracing method and the 4π(LS)β–γ coincidence tracing method with Co-60 as tracer. Excellent agreement between results obtained with the three methods confirmed the applicability of the beta spectral shape given by the latest (2011) DDEP evaluation of Tc-99 decay data, rather than the earlier (2004) evaluation. - Highlights: • Activity concentration of Tc-99 solution measured using three LSC methods. • Methods used are TDCR, CNET and 4π(LS)β–γ coincidence tracing. • Beta spectral shape confirmed by agreement between three methods

  3. Evaluation of the effect of coal cleaning of fugitive elements. Part II. Analytical methods. Final report, Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosshart, R.E.; Price, A.A.; Ford, C.T.

    1980-03-01

    This report contains the analytical and test methods which were used routinely at Bituminous Coal Research, Inc. during the project. The procedures contained herein should aid coal industry laboratories and others, including commercial laboratories, who might be required to determine trace elements in coal. Some of the procedures have been presented in previous BCR reports; however, this report includes additional procedures which are described in greater detail. Also presented are many as the more basic coal methods which have been in use at BCR for many years, or which have been adapted or refined from other standard reference sources for coal and water. The basis for choosing specific analytical procedures for trace elements in coal is somewhat complex. At BCR, atomic absorption was selected as the basic method in the development of these procedures. The choice was based on sensitivity, selectivity, accuracy, precision, practicability, and economy. Whenever possible, the methods developed had to be both adequate and amenable for use by coal industry laboratories by virtue of relative simplicity and cost. This is not to imply that the methods described are simple or inexpensive; however, atomic abosrption techniques do meet these criteria in relation to more complex and costly methods such as neutron activation, mass spectrometry, and x-ray fluorescence, some of which require highly specialized personnel as well as access to sophisticated nuclear and computational facilities. Many of the analytical procedures for trace elements in coal have been developed or adapted specifically for the BCR studies. Their presentation is the principal purpose of this report.

  4. Analytical and Numerical Tooth Contact Analysis (TCA of Standard and Modified Involute Profile Spur Gear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassear Rasheid Hmoad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Among all the common mechanical transmission elements, gears still playing the most dominant role especially in the heavy duty works offering extraordinary performance under extreme conditions and that the cause behind the extensive researches concentrating on the enhancement of its durability to do its job as well as possible. Contact stress distribution within the teeth domain is considered as one of the most effective parameters characterizing gear life, performance, efficiency, and application so that it has been well sought for formal gear profiles and paid a lot of attention for moderate tooth shapes. The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of pressure angle, speed ratio, and correction factor on the maximum contact and bending stress value and principal stresses distribution for symmetric and asymmetric spur gear. The analytical investigation adopted Hertz equations to find the contact stress value, distribution, and the contact zone width while the numerical part depends on Ansys software version 15, as a FE solver with Lagrange and penalty contact algorithm. The most fruitful points to be noticed are that the increasing of pressure angle and speed ratio trends to minimize all the induced stresses for the classical gears and the altered teeth shape with larger loaded side pressure angle than the unloaded side one behave better than the symmetric teeth concerning the stress reduction.

  5. Comparison of potential method in analytic hierarchy process for multi-attribute of catering service companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Siti Salwana; Ahmad, Tahir; Awang, Siti Rahmah

    2017-08-01

    Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is a method used in structuring, measuring and synthesizing criteria, in particular ranking of multiple criteria in decision making problems. On the other hand, Potential Method is a ranking procedure in which utilizes preference graph ς (V, A). Two nodes are adjacent if they are compared in a pairwise comparison whereby the assigned arc is oriented towards the more preferred node. In this paper Potential Method is used to solve problem on a catering service selection. The comparison of result by using Potential method is made with Extent Analysis. The Potential Method is found to produce the same rank as Extent Analysis in AHP.

  6. Analytical synthetic methods of solution of neutron transport equation with diffusion theory approaches energy multigroup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Pedro Gabriel B.; Leite, Michel C.A.; Barros, Ricardo C.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we developed a software to model and generate results in tables and graphs of one-dimensional neutron transport problems in multi-group formulation of energy. The numerical method we use to solve the problem of neutron diffusion is analytic, thus eliminating the truncation errors that appear in classical numerical methods, e.g., the method of finite differences. This numerical analytical method increases the computational efficiency, since they are not refined spatial discretization necessary because for any spatial discretization grids used, the numerical result generated for the same point of the domain remains unchanged unless the rounding errors of computational finite arithmetic. We chose to develop a computational application in MatLab platform for numerical computation and program interface is simple and easy with knobs. We consider important to model this neutron transport problem with a fixed source in the context of shielding calculations of radiation that protects the biosphere, and could be sensitive to ionizing radiation

  7. Application of an analytical method for the field calculation in superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinelli, G.; Morini, A.

    1983-01-01

    Superconducting magnets are taking on ever-growing importance due to their increasing prospects of utilization in electrical machines, nuclear fusion, MHD conversion and high-energy physics. These magnets are generally composed of cylindrical or saddle coils, while a ferromagnetic shield is generally situated outside them. This paper uses an analytical method for calculating the magnetic field at every point in a superconducting magnet composed of cylindrical or saddle coils. The method takes into account the real lengths and finite thickness of the coils as well as their radial and axial ferromagnetic shields, if present. The values and distribution of the flux density for some superconducting magnets of high dimensions and high magnetic field, composed of cylindrical or saddle coils, are also given. The results obtained with analytical method are compared with those obtained using numerical methods

  8. Development and validation of an analytical method for quality control and the stability of the eyedrops 10 % Phenylephrine and the 1 % Tropicamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Penna, Caridad Margarita; Botet Garcia, Martha; Troche Concepcion, Yenilen

    2011-01-01

    An analytical high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated applicable to quality control and to stability study of 10 % phenylephrine plus eyedrops 1 % tropicamide. To quantify simultaneously both active principles in the finished product, separation was carried out through a Lichrosorb RP-18 (15 μm) (260 x 4 mm) column chromatography, with ultraviolet detection at 253 nm using the mobile phase composed of methanol: distilled water (1:1), with 1.1 g of sodium 1-octasulfanate by litre and pH fitted to 3.0 with phosphoric acid and the quantification of this front to a reference sample using the external standard method. The analytical method developed was linear, precise, specific and accurate in the rank of study concentrations, established for the quality control and stability study of the finished product since there were not analytical methods designed for these aims

  9. Predictive ability of the feeding system in Iberian pig by means of several analytical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, E.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of several analytical methods proposed to predict the feeding system received by Iberian pigs during the fattening period has been contrasted. Samples of subcutaneous adipose tissue were analyzed from 38 batches of pigs fattened in three seasons of montanera (acorn and pastures feeding. They corresponded to the four categories described in the Quality Standard for Iberian pig products: 251 samples of bellota, 164 of recebo, 197 of cebo de campo and 137 of cebo. To perform the study, the following analytical methods were used: fatty acid quantification, NIR, alpha and gamma tocopherol, chemical sensor, triacilglycerides, stable isotopes and neophytadiene. The laboratories received the samples without any information about the fattening system to which they belonged and remitted their predictions with respect to the above categories. The results showed a high percentage of accurate predictions of the methods when the fattening type corresponds to the extreme categories (bellota and cebo, however, the methods had difficulty in discerning between samples from a mixed feeding regime with acorn and feed (recebo and problems when pigs are fattened with compound feeds including vegetable fats with high levels of oleic acid. Although a simplification into only two categories (cebo/campo and recebo/bellota results in a success rate higher than 90% for some methods, the combination of two or three techniques with problematic samples allows for differentiating among the four categories with the same accuracy.Se ha contrastado la fiabilidad de varios métodos analíticos para determinar el tipo de alimentación recibida durante el cebo por cerdos Ibéricos a partir de muestras de tejido adiposo subcutáneo, procedentes de 38 partidas de cerdos de tres campañas de montanera. Las muestras correspondieron con las categorías de alimentación contempladas en la Norma de Calidad: 251 fueron de bellota, 164 de recebo, 197 de campo y 137 de cebo

  10. On the nonlinear dynamics of trolling-mode AFM: Analytical solution using multiple time scales method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjadi, Mohammadreza; Pishkenari, Hossein Nejat; Vossoughi, Gholamreza

    2018-06-01

    Trolling mode atomic force microscopy (TR-AFM) has resolved many imaging problems by a considerable reduction of the liquid-resonator interaction forces in liquid environments. The present study develops a nonlinear model of the meniscus force exerted to the nanoneedle of TR-AFM and presents an analytical solution to the distributed-parameter model of TR-AFM resonator utilizing multiple time scales (MTS) method. Based on the developed analytical solution, the frequency-response curves of the resonator operation in air and liquid (for different penetration length of the nanoneedle) are obtained. The closed-form analytical solution and the frequency-response curves are validated by the comparison with both the finite element solution of the main partial differential equations and the experimental observations. The effect of excitation angle of the resonator on horizontal oscillation of the probe tip and the effect of different parameters on the frequency-response of the system are investigated.

  11. Comprehension of complex biological processes by analytical methods: how far can we go using mass spectrometry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerner, C.

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive understanding of complex biological processes is the basis for many biomedical issues of great relevance for modern society including risk assessment, drug development, quality control of industrial products and many more. Screening methods provide means for investigating biological samples without research hypothesis. However, the first boom of analytical screening efforts has passed and we again need to ask whether and how to apply screening methods. Mass spectrometry is a modern tool with unrivalled analytical capacities. This applies to all relevant characteristics of analytical methods such as specificity, sensitivity, accuracy, multiplicity and diversity of applications. Indeed, mass spectrometry qualifies to deal with complexity. Chronic inflammation is a common feature of almost all relevant diseases challenging our modern society; these diseases are apparently highly diverse and include arteriosclerosis, cancer, back pain, neurodegenerative diseases, depression and other. The complexity of mechanisms regulating chronic inflammation is the reason for the practical challenge to deal with it. The presentation shall give an overview of capabilities and limitations of the application of this analytical tool to solve critical questions with great relevance for our society. (author)

  12. Analytical methods and laboratory facility for the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.J.; Dewberry, R.A.; Lethco, A.J.; Denard, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the analytical methods, instruments, and laboratory that will support vitrification of defense waste. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is now being constructed at Savannah River Plant (SRP). Beginning in 1989, SRP high-level defense waste will be immobilized in borosilicate glass for disposal in a federal repository. The DWPF will contain an analytical laboratory for performing process control analyses. Additional analyses will be performed for process history and process diagnostics. The DWPF analytical facility will consist of a large shielded sampling cell, three shielded analytical cells, a laboratory for instrumental analysis and chemical separations, and a counting room. Special instrumentation is being designed for use in the analytical cells, including microwave drying/dissolution apparatus, and remote pipetting devices. The instrumentation laboratory will contain inductively coupled plasma, atomic absorption, Moessbauer spectrometers, a carbon analyzer, and ion chromatography equipment. Counting equipment will include intrinsic germanium detectors, scintillation counters, Phoswich alpha, beta, gamma detectors, and a low-energy photon detector

  13. Robust steganographic method utilizing properties of MJPEG compression standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Oravec

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents design of steganographic method, which uses video container as cover data. Video track was recorded by webcam and was further encoded by compression standard MJPEG. Proposed method also takes in account effects of lossy compression. The embedding process is realized by switching places of transform coefficients, which are computed by Discrete Cosine Transform. The article contains possibilities, used techniques, advantages and drawbacks of chosen solution. The results are presented at the end of the article.

  14. Analytical methods for drinking water; Metodi di analisi per le acque destinate al consumo umano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottaviani, Massimo; Bonadonna, Lucia [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale

    1997-03-01

    These analytical methods for drinking water were elaborated by the second Sub-commission of the Permanent study committee ex-article 9 of Italian Ministerial Decree (DM) of March 26, 1991, established at the Ministry of Health. The methods concern the chemical and microbiological parameters included in the C1, C2 and C3 controls of the Annex II of the Decree of the President of the Republic (DPR) 236/88.

  15. A functional-analytic method for the study of difference equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siafarikas Panayiotis D

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We will give the generalization of a recently developed functional-analytic method for studying linear and nonlinear, ordinary and partial, difference equations in the and spaces, p∈ℕ, . The method will be illustrated by use of two examples concerning a nonlinear ordinary difference equation known as the Putnam equation, and a linear partial difference equation of three variables describing the discrete Newton law of cooling in three dimensions.

  16. A Novel Method for Analytical Solutions of Fractional Partial Differential Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Ali Akinlar; Muhammet Kurulay

    2013-01-01

    A new solution technique for analytical solutions of fractional partial differential equations (FPDEs) is presented. The solutions are expressed as a finite sum of a vector type functional. By employing MAPLE software, it is shown that the solutions might be extended to an arbitrary degree which makes the present method not only different from the others in the literature but also quite efficient. The method is applied to special Bagley-Torvik and Diethelm fractional differential equations as...

  17. Analytical method for estimating the thermal expansion coefficient of metals at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamoto, S; Izumi, S; Nakata, T; Sakai, S; Oinuma, S; Nakatani, Y

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an analytical method for estimating the thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of metals at high-temperature ranges. Although the conventional method based on quasiharmonic approximation (QHA) shows good results at low temperatures, anharmonic effects caused by large-amplitude thermal vibrations reduces its accuracy at high temperatures. Molecular dynamics (MD) naturally includes the anharmonic effect. However, since the computational cost of MD is relatively high, in order to make an interatomic potential capable of reproducing TEC, an analytical method is essential. In our method, analytical formulation of the radial distribution function (RDF) at finite temperature realizes the estimation of the TEC. Each peak of the RDF is approximated by the Gaussian distribution. The average and variance of the Gaussian distribution are formulated by decomposing the fluctuation of interatomic distance into independent elastic waves. We incorporated two significant anharmonic effects into the method. One is the increase in the averaged interatomic distance caused by large amplitude vibration. The second is the variation in the frequency of elastic waves. As a result, the TECs of fcc and bcc crystals estimated by our method show good agreement with those of MD. Our method enables us to make an interatomic potential that reproduces the TEC at high temperature. We developed the GEAM potential for nickel. The TEC of the fitted potential showed good agreement with experimental data from room temperature to 1000 K. As compared with the original potential, it was found that the third derivative of the wide-range curve was modified, while the zeroth, first and second derivatives were unchanged. This result supports the conventional theory of solid state physics. We believe our analytical method and developed interatomic potential will contribute to future high-temperature material development. (paper)

  18. Illustration of an analytical method for quantification of the safety of technical appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegel, M.

    1981-01-01

    The safety analysis of technical products will in future be required more and more also for simple technical systems. The fault-tree analysis is a method for safety judgement used in particular in aviation and space engineering as well as in energy engineering. This analytical method can also be applied to simple technical constructions, as the article shows, using as example an acially rotatable load hook. (orig.) [de

  19. Standard methods for rearing and selection of Apis mellifera queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Büchler, Ralph; Andonov, Sreten; Bienefeld, Kaspar

    2013-01-01

    Here we cover a wide range of methods currently in use and recommended in modern queen rearing, selection and breeding. The recommendations are meant to equally serve as standards for both scientific and practical beekeeping purposes. The basic conditions and different management techniques for q...

  20. Standard test method for dynamic tear testing of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1983-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the dynamic tear (DT) test using specimens that are 3/16 in. to 5/8 in. (5 mm to 16 mm) inclusive in thickness. 1.2 This test method is applicable to materials with a minimum thickness of 3/16 in. (5 mm). 1.3 The pressed-knife procedure described for sharpening the notch tip generally limits this test method to materials with a hardness level less than 36 HRC. Note 1—The designation 36 HRC is a Rockwell hardness number of 36 on Rockwell C scale as defined in Test Methods E 18. 1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  1. Evaluating the Capacity of Standard Investment Appraisal Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Akalu

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe survey findings indicate the existence of gap between theory and practice of capital budgeting. Standard appraisal methods have shown a wider project value discrepancy, which is beyond and above the contingency limit. In addition, the research has found the growing trend in the use

  2. Fault feature analysis of cracked gear based on LOD and analytical-FE method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiateng; Yang, Yu; Yang, Xingkai; Cheng, Junsheng

    2018-01-01

    At present, there are two main ideas for gear fault diagnosis. One is the model-based gear dynamic analysis; the other is signal-based gear vibration diagnosis. In this paper, a method for fault feature analysis of gear crack is presented, which combines the advantages of dynamic modeling and signal processing. Firstly, a new time-frequency analysis method called local oscillatory-characteristic decomposition (LOD) is proposed, which has the attractive feature of extracting fault characteristic efficiently and accurately. Secondly, an analytical-finite element (analytical-FE) method which is called assist-stress intensity factor (assist-SIF) gear contact model, is put forward to calculate the time-varying mesh stiffness (TVMS) under different crack states. Based on the dynamic model of the gear system with 6 degrees of freedom, the dynamic simulation response was obtained for different tooth crack depths. For the dynamic model, the corresponding relation between the characteristic parameters and the degree of the tooth crack is established under a specific condition. On the basis of the methods mentioned above, a novel gear tooth root crack diagnosis method which combines the LOD with the analytical-FE is proposed. Furthermore, empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) are contrasted with the LOD by gear crack fault vibration signals. The analysis results indicate that the proposed method performs effectively and feasibility for the tooth crack stiffness calculation and the gear tooth crack fault diagnosis.

  3. EPA Science Matters Newsletter: Chemical Warfare Agent Analytical Standards Facilitate Lab Testing (Published November 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the EPA chemists' efforts to develop methods for detecting extremely low concentrations of nerve agents, such as sarin, VX, soman and cyclohexyl sarin, and the blister agent sulfur mustard.

  4. More recent robust methods for the estimation of mean and standard deviation of data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanisch, G.

    2003-01-01

    Outliers in a data set result in biased values of mean and standard deviation. One way to improve the estimation of a mean is to apply tests to identify outliers and to exclude them from the calculations. Tests according to Grubbs or to Dixon, which are frequently used in practice, especially within laboratory intercomparisons, are not very efficient in identifying outliers. Since more than ten years now so-called robust methods are used more and more, which determine mean and standard deviation by iteration and down-weighting values far from the mean, thereby diminishing the impact of outliers. In 1989 the Analytical Methods Committee of the British Royal Chemical Society published such a robust method. Since 1993 the US Environmental Protection Agency published a more efficient and quite versatile method. Mean and standard deviation are calculated by iteration and application of a special weight function for down-weighting outlier candidates. In 2000, W. Cofino et al. published a very efficient robust method which works quite different from the others. It applies methods taken from the basics of quantum mechanics, such as ''wave functions'' associated with each laboratory mean value and matrix algebra (solving eigenvalue problems). In contrast to the other ones, this method includes the individual measurement uncertainties. (orig.)

  5. Characterization of Some Real Mixed Plastics from WEEE: A Focus on Chlorine and Bromine Determination by Different Analytical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Beccagutti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bromine and chlorine are almost ubiquitous in waste of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE and the knowledge of their content in the plastic fraction is an essential step for proper end of life management. The aim of this study is to compare the following analytical methods: energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (ED-XRF, ion chromatography (IC, ion-selective electrodes (ISEs, and elemental analysis for the quantitative determination of chlorine and bromine in four real samples taken from different WEEE treatment plants, identifying the best analytical technique for waste management workers. Home-made plastic standard materials with known concentrations of chlorine or bromine have been used for calibration of ED-XRF and to test the techniques before the sample analysis. Results showed that IC and ISEs, based upon dissolution of the products of the sample combustion, have not always achieved a quantitative absorption of the analytes in the basic solutions and that bromine could be underestimated since several oxidation states occur after combustion. Elemental analysis designed for chlorine determination is subjected to strong interference from bromine and required frequent regeneration and recalibration of the measurement cell. The most reliable method seemed to be the non-destructive ED-XRF. Calibration with home-made standards, having a similar plastic matrix of the samples, enabled us to carry out quantitative determinations, which have been revealed to be satisfactorily accurate and precise. In all the analyzed samples a total concentration of chlorine and/or bromine between 0.6 and 4 w/w% was detected, compromising the feasibility of a mechanical recycling and suggesting the exploration of an alternative route for managing these plastic wastes.

  6. Adequacy and validation of an analytical method for the quantification of lead in chamomile tisanes produced in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Barrantes, Jeimy

    2014-01-01

    An analytical methodology is developed and validated to quantify lead in chamomile tisanes. Lead is quantified by utilizing the technique of flame atomic absorption spectroscopy in three brands of chamomile tisanes sold in Costa Rica to determine its safety and quality based on international standards. A method of sample preparation is established through a comparison of different forms of extraction. The acid digestion extraction method has been the procedure utilized, reaching an average recovery percentage of 97,1%, with a standard deviation of 2,3%. The optimization of the chosen analytical procedure and complete validation is performed. The results obtained in the validation of the analytical procedure have shown that the interval where is generated the best calibration curve in terms of the correlation coefficient and the value of the statistically significant intercept equal to zero, have been the comprised between (0,2-3,2) μg/mL (r 2 =0,9996), corresponding to a range between 20% to 320% of the maximum allowed limit. In addition, the procedure has been adequate in terms of accuracy (average recovery percentage 101,1%) and precision under repeatability and intermediate precision (RSD max. 9,3%) and limit of quantification (0,2551 μg/mL). The safety criterion of World Health Organization (WHO) is determined with respect to the concentration of lead in the analyzed products. The 9 analyzed samples of products to prepare chamomile tisanes have stayed without evidencing concentrations of lead above the limit value of 10 μg/g suggested for medicinal herbs by WHO [es

  7. Study on bird's & insect's wing aerodynamics and comparison of its analytical value with standard airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Md. Nesar; Alam, Mahbubul; Hossain, Md. Abed; Ahmed, Md. Imteaz

    2017-06-01

    by several species of birds. Hovering, which is generating only lift through flapping alone rather than as a product of thrust, demands a lot of energy. On the other hand, for practical knowledge we also fabricate the various bird's, insect's & fighter jet wing by using random value of parameter & test those airfoil in wind tunnel. Finally for comparison & achieving analytical knowledge we also test those airfoil model in various simulation software.

  8. Validation of analytical method for quality control of B12 Vitamin-10 000 injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botet Garcia, Martha; Garcia Penna, Caridad Margarita; Troche Concepcion, Yenilen; Cannizares Arencibia, Yanara; Moreno Correoso, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Analytical method reported by USA Pharmacopeia was validated for quality control of injectable B 1 2 Vitamin (10 000 U) by UV spectrophotometry because this is a simpler and low-cost method allowing quality control of finished product. Calibration curve was graphed at 60 to 140% interval, where it was linear with a correlation coefficient similar to 0, 9999; statistical test for interception and slope was considered non-significant. There was a recovery of 99.7 % in study concentrations interval where the Cochran (G) and Student(t) test were not significant too. Variation coefficient in repetition study was similar to 0.59 % for the 6 assayed replies, whereas in intermediate precision analysis, the Fisher and Student tests were not significant. Analytical method was linear, precise, specific and exact in study concentrations interval

  9. An analytical method for the inverse Cauchy problem of Lame equation in a rectangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor’ev, Yu

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we present an analytical computational method for the inverse Cauchy problem of Lame equation in the elasticity theory. A rectangular domain is frequently used in engineering structures and we only consider the analytical solution in a two-dimensional rectangle, wherein a missing boundary condition is recovered from the full measurement of stresses and displacements on an accessible boundary. The essence of the method consists in solving three independent Cauchy problems for the Laplace and Poisson equations. For each of them, the Fourier series is used to formulate a first-kind Fredholm integral equation for the unknown function of data. Then, we use a Lavrentiev regularization method, and the termwise separable property of kernel function allows us to obtain a closed-form regularized solution. As a result, for the displacement components, we obtain solutions in the form of a sum of series with three regularization parameters. The uniform convergence and error estimation of the regularized solutions are proved.

  10. Analytical method validation for quality control and the study of the 50 mg Propylthiouracil stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdes Bendoyro, Maria Olga; Garcia Penna, Caridad Margarita; Fernandez, Juan Lugones; Garcia Borges, Lisandra; Martinez Espinosa, Vivian

    2010-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography analytical method was developed and validated for the quality control and stability studies of 50 mg Propylthiouracil tablets. Method is based in active principle separation through a 100 RP-18 RP-18 (5 μm) (250 x 4 mm) Lichrospher chromatography with UV detection to 272 nm, using a mobile phase composed by a ungaseous mixture of a 0.025 M buffer solution-monobasic potassium phosphate to pH= 4,6 ad acetonitrile in a 80:20 ratio with a flux speed of 0,5 mL/min. Analytical method was linear, precise, specific and exact in the study concentrations interval

  11. Analytical techniques and method validation for the measurement of selected semivolatile and nonvolatile organofluorochemicals in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagen, William K; Lindstrom, Kent R; Thompson, Kathy L; Flaherty, John M

    2004-09-01

    The widespread use of semi- and nonvolatile organofluorochemicals in industrial facilities, concern about their persistence, and relatively recent advancements in liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) technology have led to the development of new analytical methods to assess potential worker exposure to airborne organofluorochemicals. Techniques were evaluated for the determination of 19 organofluorochemicals and for total fluorine in ambient air samples. Due to the potential biphasic nature of most of these fluorochemicals when airborne, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) versatile sampler (OVS) tubes were used to simultaneously trap fluorochemical particulates and vapors from workplace air. Analytical methods were developed for OVS air samples to quantitatively analyze for total fluorine using oxygen bomb combustion/ion selective electrode and for 17 organofluorochemicals using LC/MS and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The experimental design for this validation was based on the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Guidelines for Air Sampling and Analytical Method Development and Evaluation, with some revisions of the experimental design. The study design incorporated experiments to determine analytical recovery and stability, sampler capacity, the effect of some environmental parameters on recoveries, storage stability, limits of detection, precision, and accuracy. Fluorochemical mixtures were spiked onto each OVS tube over a range of 0.06-6 microg for each of 12 compounds analyzed by LC/MS and 0.3-30 microg for 5 compounds analyzed by GC/MS. These ranges allowed reliable quantitation at 0.001-0.1 mg/m3 in general for LC/MS analytes and 0.005-0.5 mg/m3 for GC/MS analytes when 60 L of air are sampled. The organofluorochemical exposure guideline (EG) is currently 0.1 mg/m3 for many analytes, with one exception being ammonium perfluorooctanoate (EG is 0.01 mg/m3). Total fluorine results may be used

  12. Radioactive standards and calibration methods for contamination monitoring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Makoto [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-06-01

    Contamination monitoring in the facilities for handling unsealed radioactive materials is one of the most important procedures for radiation protection as well as radiation dose monitoring. For implementation of the proper contamination monitoring, radiation measuring instruments should not only be suitable to the purpose of monitoring, but also be well calibrated for the objective qualities of measurement. In the calibration of contamination monitoring instruments, quality reference activities need to be used. They are supplied in different such as extended sources, radioactive solutions or radioactive gases. These reference activities must be traceable to the national standards or equivalent standards. On the other hand, the appropriate calibration methods must be applied for each type of contamination monitoring instruments. In this paper, the concepts of calibration for contamination monitoring instruments, reference sources, determination methods of reference quantities and practical calibration methods of contamination monitoring instruments, including the procedures carried out in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and some relevant experimental data. (G.K.)

  13. The new fabrication method of standard surface sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yasushi E-mail: yss.sato@aist.go.jp; Hino, Yoshio; Yamada, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Mikio

    2004-04-01

    We developed a new fabrication method for standard surface sources by using an inkjet printer with inks in which a radioactive material is mixed to print on a sheet of paper. Three printed test patterns have been prepared: (1) 100 mmx100 mm uniformity-test patterns, (2) positional-resolution test patterns with different widths and intervals of straight lines, and (3) logarithmic intensity test patterns with different radioactive intensities. The results revealed that the fabricated standard surface sources had high uniformity, high positional resolution, arbitrary shapes and a broad intensity range.

  14. Analytical methods manual for the Mineral Resource Surveys Program, U.S. Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Belinda F.

    1996-01-01

    The analytical methods validated by the Mineral Resource Surveys Program, Geologic Division, is the subject of this manual. This edition replaces the methods portion of Open-File Report 90-668 published in 1990. Newer methods may be used which have been approved by the quality assurance (QA) project and are on file with the QA coordinator.This manual is intended primarily for use by laboratory scientists; this manual can also assist laboratory users to evaluate the data they receive. The analytical methods are written in a step by step approach so that they may be used as a training tool and provide detailed documentation of the procedures for quality assurance. A "Catalog of Services" is available for customer (submitter) use with brief listings of:the element(s)/species determined,method of determination,reference to cite,contact person,summary of the technique,and analyte concentration range.For a copy please contact the Branch office at (303) 236-1800 or fax (303) 236-3200.

  15. An analytically based numerical method for computing view factors in real urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Doo-Il; Woo, Ju-Wan; Lee, Sang-Hyun

    2018-01-01

    A view factor is an important morphological parameter used in parameterizing in-canyon radiative energy exchange process as well as in characterizing local climate over urban environments. For realistic representation of the in-canyon radiative processes, a complete set of view factors at the horizontal and vertical surfaces of urban facets is required. Various analytical and numerical methods have been suggested to determine the view factors for urban environments, but most of the methods provide only sky-view factor at the ground level of a specific location or assume simplified morphology of complex urban environments. In this study, a numerical method that can determine the sky-view factors ( ψ ga and ψ wa ) and wall-view factors ( ψ gw and ψ ww ) at the horizontal and vertical surfaces is presented for application to real urban morphology, which are derived from an analytical formulation of the view factor between two blackbody surfaces of arbitrary geometry. The established numerical method is validated against the analytical sky-view factor estimation for ideal street canyon geometries, showing a consolidate confidence in accuracy with errors of less than 0.2 %. Using a three-dimensional building database, the numerical method is also demonstrated to be applicable in determining the sky-view factors at the horizontal (roofs and roads) and vertical (walls) surfaces in real urban environments. The results suggest that the analytically based numerical method can be used for the radiative process parameterization of urban numerical models as well as for the characterization of local urban climate.

  16. Status of photonuclear method of analysis among other nuclear analytical methods and main fields of its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burmistenko, Yu.N.

    1986-01-01

    Technical, organizational and economical aspects as applied to the field of application of photonuclear methods of analysis of substance composition are considered. As for the technical aspect, the most important factors are nuclear-physical characteristics of the elements under determination and the elements composing the sample matrix. As for the organizational aspect, the governing factor in a number of cases is the availability of an irradiation device in the close vicinity of the analytical laboratory. Studying the technical and organizational aspects while choosing the proper method one can obtain the main source data to perform feasibility studies of a nuclear analytical complex with this or that activation source. Therefore, the economical aspect is governing for the choice of the method

  17. Development and validation of a multi-analyte method for the regulatory control of carotenoids used as feed additives in fish and poultry feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Ursula; Serano, Federica; von Holst, Christoph

    2017-08-01

    Carotenoids are used in animal nutrition mainly as sensory additives that favourably affect the colour of fish, birds and food of animal origin. Various analytical methods exist for their quantification in compound feed, reflecting the different physico-chemical characteristics of the carotenoid and the corresponding feed additives. They may be natural products or specific formulations containing the target carotenoids produced by chemical synthesis. In this study a multi-analyte method was developed that can be applied to the determination of all 10 carotenoids currently authorised within the European Union for compound feedingstuffs. The method functions regardless of whether the carotenoids have been added to the compound feed via natural products or specific formulations. It is comprised of three steps: (1) digestion of the feed sample with an enzyme; (2) pressurised liquid extraction; and (3) quantification of the analytes by reversed-phase HPLC coupled to a photodiode array detector in the visible range. The method was single-laboratory validated for poultry and fish feed covering a mass fraction range of the target analyte from 2.5 to 300 mg kg - 1 . The following method performance characteristics were obtained: the recovery rate varied from 82% to 129% and precision expressed as the relative standard deviation of intermediate precision varied from 1.6% to 15%. Based on the acceptable performance obtained in the validation study, the multi-analyte method is considered fit for the intended purpose.

  18. Analytical standards for the measurement of nutrients in infant formula : macronutrients, minerals, carnitine, taurine and nucleotides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capuano, E.; Alewijn, M.; Ruth, van S.M.; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J.

    2012-01-01

    Adequate methods with known performance characteristics for the assessment of the concentration of nutrients in infant and follow-on formula (referred to as "formula") are essential in the evaluation whether the composition deviates from the compositional provisions as laid down by law. Many

  19. Biodiesel: parâmetros de qualidade e métodos analíticos Biodiesel: quality parameters and analytical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivon Pinheiro Lôbo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of quality standards for biodiesel was a key step to win the confidence of the market and the automotive industry, thus ensuring the success of the new fuel. In this review are presented standard methods and other analytical methods suggested for analysis of biodiesel. The methods of analysis were divided into groups according to information that may be provided on the contaminants from the raw material of the production process, the molecular structures of biodiesel and its degradation during storage.

  20. A finite volume method for cylindrical heat conduction problems based on local analytical solution

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Wang

    2012-10-01

    A new finite volume method for cylindrical heat conduction problems based on local analytical solution is proposed in this paper with detailed derivation. The calculation results of this new method are compared with the traditional second-order finite volume method. The newly proposed method is more accurate than conventional ones, even though the discretized expression of this proposed method is slightly more complex than the second-order central finite volume method, making it cost more calculation time on the same grids. Numerical result shows that the total CPU time of the new method is significantly less than conventional methods for achieving the same level of accuracy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A finite volume method for cylindrical heat conduction problems based on local analytical solution

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Wang; Yu, Bo; Wang, Xinran; Wang, Peng; Sun, Shuyu

    2012-01-01

    A new finite volume method for cylindrical heat conduction problems based on local analytical solution is proposed in this paper with detailed derivation. The calculation results of this new method are compared with the traditional second-order finite volume method. The newly proposed method is more accurate than conventional ones, even though the discretized expression of this proposed method is slightly more complex than the second-order central finite volume method, making it cost more calculation time on the same grids. Numerical result shows that the total CPU time of the new method is significantly less than conventional methods for achieving the same level of accuracy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Semi-Analytical Method for the PDFs of A Ship Rolling in Random Oblique Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-qin; Liu, Ya-liu; Xu, Wan-hai; Li, Yan; Tang, You-gang

    2018-03-01

    The PDFs (probability density functions) and probability of a ship rolling under the random parametric and forced excitations were studied by a semi-analytical method. The rolling motion equation of the ship in random oblique waves was established. The righting arm obtained by the numerical simulation was approximately fitted by an analytical function. The irregular waves were decomposed into two Gauss stationary random processes, and the CARMA (2, 1) model was used to fit the spectral density function of parametric and forced excitations. The stochastic energy envelope averaging method was used to solve the PDFs and the probability. The validity of the semi-analytical method was verified by the Monte Carlo method. The C11 ship was taken as an example, and the influences of the system parameters on the PDFs and probability were analyzed. The results show that the probability of ship rolling is affected by the characteristic wave height, wave length, and the heading angle. In order to provide proper advice for the ship's manoeuvring, the parametric excitations should be considered appropriately when the ship navigates in the oblique seas.

  3. Application of model-based and knowledge-based measuring methods as analytical redundancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampel, R.; Kaestner, W.; Chaker, N.; Vandreier, B.

    1997-01-01

    The safe operation of nuclear power plants requires the application of modern and intelligent methods of signal processing for the normal operation as well as for the management of accident conditions. Such modern and intelligent methods are model-based and knowledge-based ones being founded on analytical knowledge (mathematical models) as well as experiences (fuzzy information). In addition to the existing hardware redundancies analytical redundancies will be established with the help of these modern methods. These analytical redundancies support the operating staff during the decision-making. The design of a hybrid model-based and knowledge-based measuring method will be demonstrated by the example of a fuzzy-supported observer. Within the fuzzy-supported observer a classical linear observer is connected with a fuzzy-supported adaptation of the model matrices of the observer model. This application is realized for the estimation of the non-measurable variables as steam content and mixture level within pressure vessels with water-steam mixture during accidental depressurizations. For this example the existing non-linearities will be classified and the verification of the model will be explained. The advantages of the hybrid method in comparison to the classical model-based measuring methods will be demonstrated by the results of estimation. The consideration of the parameters which have an important influence on the non-linearities requires the inclusion of high-dimensional structures of fuzzy logic within the model-based measuring methods. Therefore methods will be presented which allow the conversion of these high-dimensional structures to two-dimensional structures of fuzzy logic. As an efficient solution of this problem a method based on cascaded fuzzy controllers will be presented. (author). 2 refs, 12 figs, 5 tabs

  4. Medical ethical standards in dermatology: an analytical study of knowledge, attitudes and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, W Z; Abdel Hay, R M; El Lawindi, M I

    2015-01-01

    Dermatology practice has not been ethically justified at all times. The objective of the study was to find out dermatologists' knowledge about medical ethics, their attitudes towards regulatory measures and their practices, and to study the different factors influencing the knowledge, the attitude and the practices of dermatologists. This is a cross-sectional comparative study conducted among 214 dermatologists, from five Academic Universities and from participants in two conferences. A 54 items structured anonymous questionnaire was designed to describe the demographical characteristics of the study group as well as their knowledge, attitude and practices regarding the medical ethics standards in clinical and research settings. Five scoring indices were estimated regarding knowledge, attitude and practice. Inferential statistics were used to test differences between groups as indicated. The Student's t-test and analysis of variance were carried out for quantitative variables. The chi-squared test was conducted for qualitative variables. The results were considered statistically significant at a P > 0.05. Analysis of the possible factors having impact on the overall scores revealed that the highest knowledge scores were among dermatologists who practice in an academic setting plus an additional place; however, this difference was statistically non-significant (P = 0.060). Female dermatologists showed a higher attitude score compared to males (P = 0.028). The highest significant attitude score (P = 0.019) regarding clinical practice was recorded among those practicing cosmetic dermatology. The different studied groups of dermatologists revealed a significant impact on the attitude score (P = 0.049), and the evidence-practice score (P dermatology research. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  5. Optimization of instrumental neutron activation analysis method by means of 2k experimental design technique aiming the validation of analytical procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroni, Robson; Moreira, Edson G.

    2013-01-01

    In this study optimization of procedures and standardization of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) methods were carried out for the determination of the elements arsenic, chromium, cobalt, iron, rubidium, scandium, selenium and zinc in biological materials. The aim is to validate the analytical methods for future accreditation at the National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (INMETRO). The 2 k experimental design was applied for evaluation of the individual contribution of selected variables of the analytical procedure in the final mass fraction result. Samples of Mussel Tissue Certified Reference Material and multi-element standards were analyzed considering the following variables: sample decay time, counting time and sample distance to detector. The standard multi-element concentration (comparator standard), mass of the sample and irradiation time were maintained constant in this procedure. By means of the statistical analysis and theoretical and experimental considerations it was determined the optimized experimental conditions for the analytical methods that will be adopted for the validation procedure of INAA methods in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory (LAN) of the Research Reactor Center (CRPq) at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN - CNEN/SP). Optimized conditions were estimated based on the results of z-score tests, main effect and interaction effects. The results obtained with the different experimental configurations were evaluated for accuracy (precision and trueness) for each measurement. (author)

  6. Optimization of instrumental neutron activation analysis method by means of 2{sup k} experimental design technique aiming the validation of analytical procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petroni, Robson; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: rpetroni@ipen.br, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this study optimization of procedures and standardization of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) methods were carried out for the determination of the elements arsenic, chromium, cobalt, iron, rubidium, scandium, selenium and zinc in biological materials. The aim is to validate the analytical methods for future accreditation at the National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (INMETRO). The 2{sup k} experimental design was applied for evaluation of the individual contribution of selected variables of the analytical procedure in the final mass fraction result. Samples of Mussel Tissue Certified Reference Material and multi-element standards were analyzed considering the following variables: sample decay time, counting time and sample distance to detector. The standard multi-element concentration (comparator standard), mass of the sample and irradiation time were maintained constant in this procedure. By means of the statistical analysis and theoretical and experimental considerations it was determined the optimized experimental conditions for the analytical methods that will be adopted for the validation procedure of INAA methods in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory (LAN) of the Research Reactor Center (CRPq) at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN - CNEN/SP). Optimized conditions were estimated based on the results of z-score tests, main effect and interaction effects. The results obtained with the different experimental configurations were evaluated for accuracy (precision and trueness) for each measurement. (author)

  7. Improvement of spatial discretization error on the semi-analytic nodal method using the scattered source subtraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akio; Tatsumi, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the scattered source subtraction (SSS) method is newly proposed to improve the spatial discretization error of the semi-analytic nodal method with the flat-source approximation. In the SSS method, the scattered source is subtracted from both side of the diffusion or the transport equation to make spatial variation of the source term to be small. The same neutron balance equation is still used in the SSS method. Since the SSS method just modifies coefficients of node coupling equations (those used in evaluation for the response of partial currents), its implementation is easy. Validity of the present method is verified through test calculations that are carried out in PWR multi-assemblies configurations. The calculation results show that the SSS method can significantly improve the spatial discretization error. Since the SSS method does not have any negative impact on execution time, convergence behavior and memory requirement, it will be useful to reduce the spatial discretization error of the semi-analytic nodal method with the flat-source approximation. (author)

  8. Standard methods for sampling and sample preparation for gamma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taskaeva, M.; Taskaev, E.; Nikolov, P.

    1993-01-01

    The strategy for sampling and sample preparation is outlined: necessary number of samples; analysis and treatment of the results received; quantity of the analysed material according to the radionuclide concentrations and analytical methods; the minimal quantity and kind of the data needed for making final conclusions and decisions on the base of the results received. This strategy was tested in gamma spectroscopic analysis of radionuclide contamination of the region of Eleshnitsa Uranium Mines. The water samples was taken and stored according to the ASTM D 3370-82. The general sampling procedures were in conformity with the recommendations of ISO 5667. The radionuclides was concentrated by coprecipitation with iron hydroxide and ion exchange. The sampling of soil samples complied with the rules of ASTM C 998, and their sample preparation - with ASTM C 999. After preparation the samples were sealed hermetically and measured. (author)

  9. SRC-I demonstration plant analytical laboratory methods manual. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klusaritz, M.L.; Tewari, K.C.; Tiedge, W.F.; Skinner, R.W.; Znaimer, S.

    1983-03-01

    This manual is a compilation of analytical procedures required for operation of a Solvent-Refined Coal (SRC-I) demonstration or commercial plant. Each method reproduced in full includes a detailed procedure, a list of equipment and reagents, safety precautions, and, where possible, a precision statement. Procedures for the laboratory's environmental and industrial hygiene modules are not included. Required American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) methods are cited, and ICRC's suggested modifications to these methods for handling coal-derived products are provided.

  10. Approximate analytical solution of diffusion equation with fractional time derivative using optimal homotopy analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Das

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, optimal homotopy-analysis method is used to obtain approximate analytic solution of the time-fractional diffusion equation with a given initial condition. The fractional derivatives are considered in the Caputo sense. Unlike usual Homotopy analysis method, this method contains at the most three convergence control parameters which describe the faster convergence of the solution. Effects of parameters on the convergence of the approximate series solution by minimizing the averaged residual error with the proper choices of parameters are calculated numerically and presented through graphs and tables for different particular cases.

  11. Analytical methods for determination of terbinafine hydrochloride in pharmaceuticals and biological materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaiah Kanakapura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Terbinafine is a new powerful antifungal agent indicated for both oral and topical treatment of mycosessince. It is highly effective in the treatment of determatomycoses. The chemical and pharmaceutical analysis of the drug requires effective analytical methods for quality control and pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies. Ever since it was introduced as an effective antifungal agent, many methods have been developed and validated for its assay in pharmaceuticals and biological materials. This article reviews the various methods reported during the last 25 years.

  12. Study on the Analytical Method for Determination of P-32 in Human Hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syarbaini; Lubis, E.; Sarwani

    1996-01-01

    Neutron doses due to accident criticality can be estimated by measuring of radionuclide of neutron activation products in human hair. In this work, the analytical method for the determination of P-32 in neutron irradiated hair sample by G.A Siwabessy reactor has been studied. This analytical method consists of dissolving of human hair sample by 10 M HNO3, separation dan purification of P-32 by precipitation as ammonium molibdophosphate finally, the precipitate was measured by low backgroundα/βcounter. The minimum detectable activity of P-32 was 0,05 Bq at a background of 4,6 cpm and with a counting efficiency of 55 % for a 30 minute counting time

  13. Application of nuclear analytical methods to heavy metal pollution studies of estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, B.; Junge, W.; Knoth, J.; Michaelis, W.; Pepelnik, R.; Schwenke, H.

    1984-01-01

    Important objectives of heavy metal pollution studies of estuaries are the understanding of the transport phenomena in these complex ecosystems and the discovery of the pollution history and the geochemical background. Such studies require high precision and accuracy of the analytical methods. Moreover, pronounced spatial heterogeneities and temporal variabilities that are typical for estuaries necessitate the analysis of a great number of samples if relevant results are to be obtained. Both requirements can economically be fulfilled by a proper combination of analytical methods. Applications of energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis with total reflection of the exciting beam at the sample support and of neutron activation analysis with both thermal and fast neutrons are reported in the light of pollution studies performed in the Lower Elbe River. (orig.)

  14. Application of nuclear analytical methods to heavy metal pollution studies of estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, B.; Junge, W.; Knoth, J.; Michaelis, W.; Pepelnik, R.; Schwenke, H.

    1984-01-01

    Important objectives of heavy metal pollution studies of estuaries are the understanding of the transport phenomena in these complex ecosystems and the discovery of the pollution history and the geochemical background. Such studies require high precision and accuracy of the analytical methods. Moreover, pronounced spatial heterogeneities and temporal variabilities that are typical for estuaries necessitate the analysis of a great number of samples if relevant results are to be obtained. Both requirements can economically be fulfilled by a proper combination of analytical methods. Applications of energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis with total reflection of the exciting beam at the sample support and of neutron activation analysis with both thermal and fast neutrons are reported in the light of pollution studies performed in the Lower Elbe River. Profiles are presented for the total heavy metal content determined from particulate matter and sediment. They include V, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb, and Cd. 16 references 10 figures, 1 table

  15. Modern analytical methods for the detection of food fraud and adulteration by food category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Eunyoung; Lee, Sang Yoo; Jeong, Jae Yun; Park, Jung Min; Kim, Byung Hee; Kwon, Kisung; Chun, Hyang Sook

    2017-09-01

    This review provides current information on the analytical methods used to identify food adulteration in the six most adulterated food categories: animal origin and seafood, oils and fats, beverages, spices and sweet foods (e.g. honey), grain-based food, and others (organic food and dietary supplements). The analytical techniques (both conventional and emerging) used to identify adulteration in these six food categories involve sensory, physicochemical, DNA-based, chromatographic and spectroscopic methods, and have been combined with chemometrics, making these techniques more convenient and effective for the analysis of a broad variety of food products. Despite recent advances, the need remains for suitably sensitive and widely applicable methodologies that encompass all the various aspects of food adulteration. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Analytical Methods for the Determination of Rosuvastatin in Pharmaceutical Formulations and Biological Fluids: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ângelo, Marilene Lopes; Moreira, Fernanda de Lima; Morais Ruela, André Luís; Santos, Ana Laura Araújo; Salgado, Hérida Regina Nunes; de Araújo, Magali Benjamim

    2018-07-04

    Rosuvastatin calcium (ROS), ( Figure 1 ) belongs to the "statins" group, which is the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor. This drug is indicated for dyslipidemias treatment and can help to decrease the level of "bad cholesterol" and can consequently reduce the development of atherosclerosis and the risk of heart diseases. ROS was developed by Astra-Zeneca and it was approved in 2003 by the FDA in the United States. In 2015, under the trade name Crestor®, it was the fourth largest selling drug in the United States with sales above $5 billion. This study presents a literature review of analytical methods for the quantification of ROS in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids. The major analytical methods described in this study for ROS were spectrophotometry, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to ultraviolet (UV) detection, and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

  17. Application of FEM analytical method for hydrogen migration behaviour in Zirconium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arioka, K; Ohta, H [Takasago Research and Development Center, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd, Hyogo-ken (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    It is well recognized that the hydriding behaviours of Zirconium alloys are very significant problems as a safety issues. Also, it is well known that the diffusion of hydrogen in Zirconium alloys are affected not only by concentration but also temperature gradient. But in actual component, especially heat transfer tube such as fuel rod, we can not avoid the temperature gradient in some degree. So, it is very useful to develop the computer code which can analyze the hydrogen diffusion and precipitation behaviours under temperature gradient as a function of the structure of fuel rod. For this objective, we have developed the computer code for hydrogen migration behaviour using FEM analytical methods. So, following items are presented and discussed. Analytical method and conditions; correlation between the computed and test results; application to designing studies. (author). 8 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs.

  18. Standard operating procedures for pre-analytical handling of blood and urine for metabolomic studies and biobanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernini, Patrizia; Bertini, Ivano; Luchinat, Claudio; Nincheri, Paola; Staderini, Samuele; Turano, Paola

    2011-04-01

    (1)H NMR metabolic profiling of urine, serum and plasma has been used to monitor the impact of the pre-analytical steps on the sample quality and stability in order to propose standard operating procedures (SOPs) for deposition in biobanks. We analyzed the quality of serum and plasma samples as a function of the elapsed time (t = 0-4 h) between blood collection and processing and of the time from processing to freezing (up to 24 h). The stability of the urine metabolic profile over time (up to 24 h) at various storage temperatures was monitored as a function of the different pre-analytical treatments like pre-storage centrifugation, filtration, and addition of the bacteriostatic preservative sodium azide. Appreciable changes in the profiles, reflecting changes in the concentration of a number of metabolites, were detected and discussed in terms of chemical and enzymatic reactions for both blood and urine samples. Appropriate procedures for blood derivatives collection and urine preservation/storage that allow maintaining as much as possible the original metabolic profile of the fresh samples emerge, and are proposed as SOPs for biobanking.

  19. Standard operating procedures for pre-analytical handling of blood and urine for metabolomic studies and biobanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernini, Patrizia; Bertini, Ivano; Luchinat, Claudio; Nincheri, Paola; Staderini, Samuele; Turano, Paola

    2011-01-01

    1 H NMR metabolic profiling of urine, serum and plasma has been used to monitor the impact of the pre-analytical steps on the sample quality and stability in order to propose standard operating procedures (SOPs) for deposition in biobanks. We analyzed the quality of serum and plasma samples as a function of the elapsed time (t = 0−4 h) between blood collection and processing and of the time from processing to freezing (up to 24 h). The stability of the urine metabolic profile over time (up to 24 h) at various storage temperatures was monitored as a function of the different pre-analytical treatments like pre-storage centrifugation, filtration, and addition of the bacteriostatic preservative sodium azide. Appreciable changes in the profiles, reflecting changes in the concentration of a number of metabolites, were detected and discussed in terms of chemical and enzymatic reactions for both blood and urine samples. Appropriate procedures for blood derivatives collection and urine preservation/storage that allow maintaining as much as possible the original metabolic profile of the fresh samples emerge, and are proposed as SOPs for biobanking.

  20. Standard operating procedures for pre-analytical handling of blood and urine for metabolomic studies and biobanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernini, Patrizia; Bertini, Ivano, E-mail: bertini@cerm.unifi.it; Luchinat, Claudio [University of Florence, Magnetic Resonance Center (CERM) (Italy); Nincheri, Paola; Staderini, Samuele [FiorGen Foundation (Italy); Turano, Paola [University of Florence, Magnetic Resonance Center (CERM) (Italy)

    2011-04-15

    {sup 1}H NMR metabolic profiling of urine, serum and plasma has been used to monitor the impact of the pre-analytical steps on the sample quality and stability in order to propose standard operating procedures (SOPs) for deposition in biobanks. We analyzed the quality of serum and plasma samples as a function of the elapsed time (t = 0-4 h) between blood collection and processing and of the time from processing to freezing (up to 24 h). The stability of the urine metabolic profile over time (up to 24 h) at various storage temperatures was monitored as a function of the different pre-analytical treatments like pre-storage centrifugation, filtration, and addition of the bacteriostatic preservative sodium azide. Appreciable changes in the profiles, reflecting changes in the concentration of a number of metabolites, were detected and discussed in terms of chemical and enzymatic reactions for both blood and urine samples. Appropriate procedures for blood derivatives collection and urine preservation/storage that allow maintaining as much as possible the original metabolic profile of the fresh samples emerge, and are proposed as SOPs for biobanking.

  1. Legislation, standards and methods for mercury emissions control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-15

    Mercury is an element of growing global concern. The United Nations Environment Programme plans to finalise and ratify a new global legally-binding convention on mercury by 2013. Canada already has legislation on mercury emissions from coal-fired utilities and the USA has recently released the new Mercury and Air Toxics Standard. Although other countries may not have mercury-specific legislation as such, many have legislation which results in significant co-benefit mercury reduction due to the installation of effective flue-gas cleaning technologies. This report reviews the current situation and trends in mercury emission legislation and, where possible, discusses the actions that will be taken under proposed or impending standards globally and regionally. The report also reviews the methods currently applied for mercury control and for mercury emission measurement with emphasis on the methodologies most appropriate for compliance. Examples of the methods of mercury control currently deployed in the USA, Canada and elsewhere are included.

  2. Standard test method for liquid impingement erosion using rotating apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers tests in which solid specimens are eroded or otherwise damaged by repeated discrete impacts of liquid drops or jets. Among the collateral forms of damage considered are degradation of optical properties of window materials, and penetration, separation, or destruction of coatings. The objective of the tests may be to determine the resistance to erosion or other damage of the materials or coatings under test, or to investigate the damage mechanisms and the effect of test variables. Because of the specialized nature of these tests and the desire in many cases to simulate to some degree the expected service environment, the specification of a standard apparatus is not deemed practicable. This test method gives guidance in setting up a test, and specifies test and analysis procedures and reporting requirements that can be followed even with quite widely differing materials, test facilities, and test conditions. It also provides a standardized scale of erosion resistance numbers applicab...

  3. Determination of proline in honey: comparison between official methods, optimization and validation of the analytical methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truzzi, Cristina; Annibaldi, Anna; Illuminati, Silvia; Finale, Carolina; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    The study compares official spectrophotometric methods for the determination of proline content in honey - those of the International Honey Commission (IHC) and the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) - with the original Ough method. Results show that the extra time-consuming treatment stages added by the IHC method with respect to the Ough method are pointless. We demonstrate that the AOACs method proves to be the best in terms of accuracy and time saving. The optimized waiting time for the absorbance recording is set at 35min from the removal of reaction tubes from the boiling bath used in the sample treatment. The optimized method was validated in the matrix: linearity up to 1800mgL(-1), limit of detection 20mgL(-1), limit of quantification 61mgL(-1). The method was applied to 43 unifloral honey samples from the Marche region, Italy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Abstracts book of 4. Poznan Analytical Seminar on Modern Methods of Sample Preparation and Trace Amounts Determination of Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The 4. Poznan Analytical Seminar on Modern Methods of Sample Preparation and Trace Amounts Determination of Elements has been held in Poznan 27-28 April 1995. The new versions of analytical methods have been presented for quantitative determination of trace elements in biological, environmental and geological materials. Also the number of special techniques for sample preparation enables achievement the best precision of analytical results have been shown and discussed

  5. Developing automated analytical methods for scientific environments using LabVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Christoph; Armenta, Sergio; Lendl, Bernhard

    2010-01-15

    The development of new analytical techniques often requires the building of specially designed devices, each requiring its own dedicated control software. Especially in the research and development phase, LabVIEW has proven to be one highly useful tool for developing this software. Yet, it is still common practice to develop individual solutions for different instruments. In contrast to this, we present here a single LabVIEW-based program that can be directly applied to various analytical tasks without having to change the program code. Driven by a set of simple script commands, it can control a whole range of instruments, from valves and pumps to full-scale spectrometers. Fluid sample (pre-)treatment and separation procedures can thus be flexibly coupled to a wide range of analytical detection methods. Here, the capabilities of the program have been demonstrated by using it for the control of both a sequential injection analysis - capillary electrophoresis (SIA-CE) system with UV detection, and an analytical setup for studying the inhibition of enzymatic reactions using a SIA system with FTIR detection.

  6. Gas measuring apparatus with standardization means, and method therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typpo, P.M.

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus and a method for standardizing a gas measuring device has a source capable of emitting a beam of radiation aligned to impinge a detector. A housing means encloses the beam. The housing means has a plurality of apertures permitting the gas to enter the housing means, to intercept the beam, and to exit from the housing means. The device further comprises means for closing the apertures and a means for purging said gas from the housing means

  7. Analytical Method of Malculation of the Current and Torque a Reluctance Stepper Motor via Fourier Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Zaskalicky

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Reluctance stepper motors are becoming to be very attractive transducer to conversion of electric signal to the mechanical position. Due to its simple construction is reluctance machine considered a very reliable machine which not requiring any maintenance. Present paper proposes a mathematical method of an analytical calculus of a phase current and electromagnetic torque of the motor via Fourier series. Saturation effect and winding reluctance are neglected.

  8. Analytical Method Used to Calculate Pile Foundations with the Widening Up on a Horizontal Static Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupchikova, N. V.; Kurbatskiy, E. N.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the analytical research solutions for the work pile foundations with surface broadening and inclined side faces in the ground array, based on the properties of Fourier transform of finite functions. The comparative analysis of the calculation results using the suggested method for prismatic piles, piles with surface broadening prismatic with precast piles and end walls with precast wedges on the surface is described.

  9. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. Development of a Quick TBT Analytical Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-16

    Development of a Quick TBT Analytical Method 09/25/2000 Page 3 of 38 Executive Summary Concern about the toxic effect of tributyltin have caused the...Antifouling Paints on the Environment Tributyl tin ( TBT ) has been shown to be highly toxic to certain aquatic organisms at concentrations measured in the...paints, developed in the 1960s, contains the organotin tributyltin ( TBT ), which has been proven to cause deformations in oysters and sex changes in

  10. Optimization of hot water transport and distribution networks by analytical method: OPTAL program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreau, Alain; Caizergues, Robert; Moret-Bailly, Jean

    1977-06-01

    This report presents optimization studies of hot water transport and distribution network by minimizing operating cost. Analytical optimization is used: Lagrange's method of undetermined multipliers. Optimum diameter of each pipe is calculated for minimum network operating cost. The characteristics of the computer program used for calculations, OPTAL, are given in this report. An example of network is calculated and described: 52 branches and 27 customers. Results are discussed [fr

  11. Method and apparatus for continuous fluid leak monitoring and detection in analytical instruments and instrument systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, Karl K [Pasco, WA; Moore, Ronald J [West Richland, WA

    2010-07-13

    A method and device are disclosed that provide for detection of fluid leaks in analytical instruments and instrument systems. The leak detection device includes a collection tube, a fluid absorbing material, and a circuit that electrically couples to an indicator device. When assembled, the leak detection device detects and monitors for fluid leaks, providing a preselected response in conjunction with the indicator device when contacted by a fluid.

  12. Validation of the analytical method for sodium dichloroisocyanurate aimed at drinking water disinfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Alvarez, Luis Octavio; Alejo Cisneros, Pedro; Garcia Pereira, Reynaldo; Campos Valdez, Doraily

    2014-01-01

    Cuba has developed the first effervescent 3.5 mg sodium dichloroisocyanurate tablets as a non-therapeutic active principle. This ingredient releases certain amount of chlorine when dissolved into a litre of water and it can cause adequate disinfection of drinking water ready to be taken after 30 min. Developing and validating an analytical iodometric method applicable to the quality control of effervescent 3.5 mg sodium dichloroisocyanurate tablets

  13. An analytical method for determining the temperature dependent moisture diffusivities of pumpkin seeds during drying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Can, Ahmet [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Trakya, 22030 Edirne (Turkey)

    2007-02-15

    This paper presents an analytical method, which determines the moisture diffusion coefficients for the natural and forced convection hot air drying of pumpkin seeds and their temperature dependence. In order to obtain scientific data, the pumpkin seed drying process was investigated under both natural and forced hot air convection regimes. This paper presents the experimental results in which the drying air was heated by solar energy. (author)

  14. A field study of selected U.S. Geological Survey analytical methods for measuring pesticides in filtered stream water, June - September 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey D.; Norman, Julia E.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Rose, Claire E.

    2017-09-06

    -use settings, as well as sites on major rivers.The results of the field study identified several challenges for the analysis and interpretation of data analyzed by both old and new methods, particularly when data span the change in methods and are combined for analysis of temporal trends in water quality. The main challenges identified are large (greater than 30 percent), statistically significant differences in analytical recovery, detection capability, and (or) measured concentrations for selected pesticides. These challenges are documented and discussed, but specific guidance or statistical methods to resolve these differences in methods are beyond the scope of the report. The results of the field study indicate that the implications of the change in analytical methods must be assessed individually for each pesticide and method.Understanding the possible causes of the systematic differences in concentrations between methods that remain after recovery adjustment might be necessary to determine how to account for the differences in data analysis. Because recoveries for each method are independently determined from separate reference standards and spiking solutions, the differences might be due to an error in one of the reference standards or solutions or some other basic aspect of standard procedure in the analytical process. Further investigation of the possible causes is needed, which will lead to specific decisions on how to compensate for these differences in concentrations in data analysis. In the event that further investigations do not provide insight into the causes of systematic differences in concentrations between methods, the authors recommend continuing to collect and analyze paired environmental water samples by both old and new methods. This effort should be targeted to seasons, sites, and expected concentrations to supplement those concentrations already assessed and to compare the ongoing analytical recovery of old and new methods to those observed in the

  15. Analytic Methods for Evaluating Patterns of Multiple Congenital Anomalies in Birth Defect Registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopian, A J; Evans, Jane A; Lupo, Philip J

    2018-01-15

    It is estimated that 20 to 30% of infants with birth defects have two or more birth defects. Among these infants with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), co-occurring anomalies may represent either chance (i.e., unrelated etiologies) or pathogenically associated patterns of anomalies. While some MCA patterns have been recognized and described (e.g., known syndromes), others have not been identified or characterized. Elucidating these patterns may result in a better understanding of the etiologies of these MCAs. This article reviews the literature with regard to analytic methods that have been used to evaluate patterns of MCAs, in particular those using birth defect registry data. A popular method for MCA assessment involves a comparison of the observed to expected ratio for a given combination of MCAs, or one of several modified versions of this comparison. Other methods include use of numerical taxonomy or other clustering techniques, multiple regression analysis, and log-linear analysis. Advantages and disadvantages of these approaches, as well as specific applications, were outlined. Despite the availability of multiple analytic approaches, relatively few MCA combinations have been assessed. The availability of large birth defects registries and computing resources that allow for automated, big data strategies for prioritizing MCA patterns may provide for new avenues for better understanding co-occurrence of birth defects. Thus, the selection of an analytic approach may depend on several considerations. Birth Defects Research 110:5-11, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Simulation of an Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer Array by Using Analytical Method and FDTD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuedong Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we developed a method based on FEM and FDTD for the study of an Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer Array (EMAT. This paper presents a new analytical solution to the eddy current problem for the meander coil used in an EMAT, which is adapted from the classic Deeds and Dodd solution originally intended for circular coils. The analytical solution resulting from this novel adaptation exploits the large radius extrapolation and shows several advantages over the finite element method (FEM, especially in the higher frequency regime. The calculated Lorentz force density from the analytical EM solver is then coupled to the ultrasonic simulations, which exploit the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD method to describe the propagation of ultrasound waves, in particular for Rayleigh waves. Radiation pattern obtained with Hilbert transform on time-domain waveforms is proposed to characterise the sensor in terms of its beam directivity and field distribution along the steering angle, which can produce performance parameters for an EMAT array, facilitating the optimum design of such sensors.

  17. A first course in ordinary differential equations analytical and numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Hermann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a modern introduction to analytical and numerical techniques for solving ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Contrary to the traditional format—the theorem-and-proof format—the book is focusing on analytical and numerical methods. The book supplies a variety of problems and examples, ranging from the elementary to the advanced level, to introduce and study the mathematics of ODEs. The analytical part of the book deals with solution techniques for scalar first-order and second-order linear ODEs, and systems of linear ODEs—with a special focus on the Laplace transform, operator techniques and power series solutions. In the numerical part, theoretical and practical aspects of Runge-Kutta methods for solving initial-value problems and shooting methods for linear two-point boundary-value problems are considered. The book is intended as a primary text for courses on the theory of ODEs and numerical treatment of ODEs for advanced undergraduate and early graduate students. It is assumed t...

  18. Comparison of Standard and Fast Charging Methods for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Chlebis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a comparison of standard and fast charging methods used in the field of electric vehicles and also comparison of their efficiency in terms of electrical energy consumption. The comparison was performed on three-phase buck converter, which was designed for EV’s fast charging station. The results were obtained by both mathematical and simulation methods. The laboratory model of entire physical application, which will be further used for simulation results verification, is being built in these days.

  19. Photon and proton activation analysis of iron and steel standards using the internal standard method coupled with the standard addition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masumoto, K.; Hara, M.; Hasegawa, D.; Iino, E.; Yagi, M.

    1997-01-01

    The internal standard method coupled with the standard addition method has been applied to photon activation analysis and proton activation analysis of minor elements and trace impurities in various types of iron and steel samples issued by the Iron and Steel Institute of Japan (ISIJ). Samples and standard addition samples were once dissolved to mix homogeneously, an internal standard and elements to be determined and solidified as a silica-gel to make a similar matrix composition and geometry. Cerium and yttrium were used as an internal standard in photon and proton activation, respectively. In photon activation, 20 MeV electron beam was used for bremsstrahlung irradiation to reduce matrix activity and nuclear interference reactions, and the results were compared with those of 30 MeV irradiation. In proton activation, iron was removed by the MIBK extraction method after dissolving samples to reduce the radioactivity of 56 Co from iron via 56 Fe(p, n) 56 Co reaction. The results of proton and photon activation analysis were in good agreement with the standard values of ISIJ. (author)

  20. Analytical methods for fissionable material determinations in the nuclear fuel cycle. Progress report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterbury, G.R.

    1980-03-01

    Work continues on the development of dissolution techniques for difficult-to-dissolve nuclear materials, the development of methods and automated instruments for plutonium, uranium, and thorium determinations, and the preparation of plutonium materials for the Safeguards Analytical Laboratory Evaluation (SALE) program and distribution by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) as standard reference materials (SRMs). We are measuring the loner plutonium isotope half-lives, evaluating the isotope correlation techniques and the chemistry involved in the mass-spectrometric ion-bead techniques, and analyzing the SALE uranium materials. Completed subtasks include evaluations of various Teflon materials to recommend those acceptable for the dissolution apparatus developed at LASL, investigations of laser-enhanced dissolution of refractory materials, determinations of diverse ion effects on the microgram-sensitive method for determining uranium, fabrication of the first automated controlled-potential coulometric analyzer for determining plutonium, preparation of a 244 Pu material for distribution by NBS as a SRM, and determination of the half-life of 239 Pu. Work has been started on a spectrophotometric method for determining microgram quantities of plutonium, a microcomplexometric titration method for determining uranium, the use of new reagents for separations of plutonium, the preparation and packaging of a new lot of high-purity plutonium metal for distribution by NBS as a plutonium chemical SRM, and determination of half-lives of other plutonium isotopes