WorldWideScience

Sample records for standard analysis methods

  1. Cleanup standards and pathways analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    Remediation of a radioactively contaminated site requires that certain regulatory criteria be met before the site can be released for unrestricted future use. Since the ultimate objective of remediation is to protect the public health and safety, residual radioactivity levels remaining at a site after cleanup must be below certain preset limits or meet acceptable dose or risk criteria. Release of a decontaminated site requires proof that the radiological data obtained from the site meet the regulatory criteria for such a release. Typically release criteria consist of a composite of acceptance limits that depend on the radionuclides, the media in which they are present, and federal and local regulations. In recent years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a pathways analysis model to determine site-specific soil activity concentration guidelines for radionuclides that do not have established generic acceptance limits. The DOE pathways analysis computer code (developed by Argonne National Laboratory for the DOE) is called RESRAD (Gilbert et al. 1989). Similar efforts have been initiated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop and use dose-related criteria based on genetic pathways analyses rather than simplistic numerical limits on residual radioactivity. The focus of this paper is radionuclide contaminated soil. Cleanup standards are reviewed, pathways analysis methods are described, and an example is presented in which RESRAD was used to derive cleanup guidelines

  2. Standard methods for analysis of phosphorus-32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Methods are described for the determination of the radiochemical purity and the absolute disintegration rate of 32 P radioisotope preparations. The 32 P activity is determined by β counting, and other low-energy β radioactive contaminants are determined by aluminum-absorption curve data. Any γ-radioactive contaminants are determined by γ counting. Routine chemical testing is used to establish the chemical characteristics. The presence or absence of heavy metals is established by spot tests; free acid is determined by use of a pH meter; total solids are determined gravimetrically by evaporation and ignition at a temperature sufficient to evaporate the mineral acids, HCl and HNO 3 ; and nonvolatile matter, defined as that material which does not evaporate or ignite at a temperature sufficient to convert C to CO or CO 2 , is determined gravimetrically after such ignition

  3. Development of an analysis rule of diagnosis error for standard method of human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, W. D.; Kang, D. I.; Jeong, K. S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the status of development of Korea standard method for Human Reliability Analysis (HRA), and proposed a standard procedure and rules for the evaluation of diagnosis error probability. The quality of KSNP HRA was evaluated using the requirement of ASME PRA standard guideline, and the design requirement for the standard HRA method was defined. Analysis procedure and rules, developed so far, to analyze diagnosis error probability was suggested as a part of the standard method. And also a study of comprehensive application was performed to evaluate the suitability of the proposed rules

  4. Standard test method for isotopic analysis of uranium hexafluoride by double standard single-collector gas mass spectrometer method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This is a quantitative test method applicable to determining the mass percent of uranium isotopes in uranium hexafluoride (UF6) samples with 235U concentrations between 0.1 and 5.0 mass %. 1.2 This test method may be applicable for the entire range of 235U concentrations for which adequate standards are available. 1.3 This test method is for analysis by a gas magnetic sector mass spectrometer with a single collector using interpolation to determine the isotopic concentration of an unknown sample between two characterized UF6 standards. 1.4 This test method is to replace the existing test method currently published in Test Methods C761 and is used in the nuclear fuel cycle for UF6 isotopic analyses. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro...

  5. Rare earths analysis of rock samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis, internal standard method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silachyov, I.

    2016-01-01

    The application of instrumental neutron activation analysis for the determination of long-lived rare earth elements (REE) in rock samples is considered in this work. Two different methods are statistically compared: the well established external standard method carried out using standard reference materials, and the internal standard method (ISM), using Fe, determined through X-ray fluorescence analysis, as an element-comparator. The ISM proved to be the more precise method for a wide range of REE contents and can be recommended for routine practice. (author)

  6. Photon and proton activation analysis of iron and steel standards using the internal standard method coupled with the standard addition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masumoto, K.; Hara, M.; Hasegawa, D.; Iino, E.; Yagi, M.

    1997-01-01

    The internal standard method coupled with the standard addition method has been applied to photon activation analysis and proton activation analysis of minor elements and trace impurities in various types of iron and steel samples issued by the Iron and Steel Institute of Japan (ISIJ). Samples and standard addition samples were once dissolved to mix homogeneously, an internal standard and elements to be determined and solidified as a silica-gel to make a similar matrix composition and geometry. Cerium and yttrium were used as an internal standard in photon and proton activation, respectively. In photon activation, 20 MeV electron beam was used for bremsstrahlung irradiation to reduce matrix activity and nuclear interference reactions, and the results were compared with those of 30 MeV irradiation. In proton activation, iron was removed by the MIBK extraction method after dissolving samples to reduce the radioactivity of 56 Co from iron via 56 Fe(p, n) 56 Co reaction. The results of proton and photon activation analysis were in good agreement with the standard values of ISIJ. (author)

  7. Neutron activation analysis of reference materials by the k sub 0 standardization and relative methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, M C; Martinho, E [LNETI/ICEN, Sacavem (Portugal)

    1989-04-15

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis with the k{sub o}-standardization method was applied to eight geological, environmental and biological reference materials, including leaves, blood, fish, sediments, soils and limestone. To a first approximation, the results were normally distributed around the certified values with a standard deviation of 10%. Results obtained by using the relative method based on well characterized multi-element standards for IAEA CRM Soil-7 are reported.

  8. Development of A Standard Method for Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dae Il; Jung, Won Dea; Kim, Jae Whan

    2005-12-01

    According as the demand of risk-informed regulation and applications increase, the quality and reliability of a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has been more important. KAERI started a study to standardize the process and the rules of HRA (Human Reliability Analysis) which was known as a major contributor to the uncertainty of PSA. The study made progress as follows; assessing the level of quality of the HRAs in Korea and identifying the weaknesses of the HRAs, determining the requirements for developing a standard HRA method, developing the process and rules for quantifying human error probability. Since the risk-informed applications use the ASME and ANS PSA standard to ensure PSA quality, the standard HRA method was developed to meet the ASME and ANS HRA requirements with level of category II. The standard method was based on THERP and ASEP HRA that are widely used for conventional HRA. However, the method focuses on standardizing and specifying the analysis process, quantification rules and criteria to minimize the deviation of the analysis results caused by different analysts. Several HRA experts from different organizations in Korea participated in developing the standard method. Several case studies were interactively undertaken to verify the usability and applicability of the standard method

  9. Development of A Standard Method for Human Reliability Analysis of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Won Dea; Kang, Dae Il; Kim, Jae Whan

    2005-12-01

    According as the demand of risk-informed regulation and applications increase, the quality and reliability of a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has been more important. KAERI started a study to standardize the process and the rules of HRA (Human Reliability Analysis) which was known as a major contributor to the uncertainty of PSA. The study made progress as follows; assessing the level of quality of the HRAs in Korea and identifying the weaknesses of the HRAs, determining the requirements for developing a standard HRA method, developing the process and rules for quantifying human error probability. Since the risk-informed applications use the ASME PSA standard to ensure PSA quality, the standard HRA method was developed to meet the ASME HRA requirements with level of category II. The standard method was based on THERP and ASEP HRA that are widely used for conventional HRA. However, the method focuses on standardizing and specifying the analysis process, quantification rules and criteria to minimize the deviation of the analysis results caused by different analysts. Several HRA experts from different organizations in Korea participated in developing the standard method. Several case studies were interactively undertaken to verify the usability and applicability of the standard method

  10. Development of A Standard Method for Human Reliability Analysis of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Won Dea; Kang, Dae Il; Kim, Jae Whan

    2005-12-15

    According as the demand of risk-informed regulation and applications increase, the quality and reliability of a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has been more important. KAERI started a study to standardize the process and the rules of HRA (Human Reliability Analysis) which was known as a major contributor to the uncertainty of PSA. The study made progress as follows; assessing the level of quality of the HRAs in Korea and identifying the weaknesses of the HRAs, determining the requirements for developing a standard HRA method, developing the process and rules for quantifying human error probability. Since the risk-informed applications use the ASME PSA standard to ensure PSA quality, the standard HRA method was developed to meet the ASME HRA requirements with level of category II. The standard method was based on THERP and ASEP HRA that are widely used for conventional HRA. However, the method focuses on standardizing and specifying the analysis process, quantification rules and criteria to minimize the deviation of the analysis results caused by different analysts. Several HRA experts from different organizations in Korea participated in developing the standard method. Several case studies were interactively undertaken to verify the usability and applicability of the standard method.

  11. Development of A Standard Method for Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dae Il; Jung, Won Dea; Kim, Jae Whan

    2005-12-15

    According as the demand of risk-informed regulation and applications increase, the quality and reliability of a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has been more important. KAERI started a study to standardize the process and the rules of HRA (Human Reliability Analysis) which was known as a major contributor to the uncertainty of PSA. The study made progress as follows; assessing the level of quality of the HRAs in Korea and identifying the weaknesses of the HRAs, determining the requirements for developing a standard HRA method, developing the process and rules for quantifying human error probability. Since the risk-informed applications use the ASME and ANS PSA standard to ensure PSA quality, the standard HRA method was developed to meet the ASME and ANS HRA requirements with level of category II. The standard method was based on THERP and ASEP HRA that are widely used for conventional HRA. However, the method focuses on standardizing and specifying the analysis process, quantification rules and criteria to minimize the deviation of the analysis results caused by different analysts. Several HRA experts from different organizations in Korea participated in developing the standard method. Several case studies were interactively undertaken to verify the usability and applicability of the standard method.

  12. Improvement of precision method of spectrophotometry with inner standardization and its use in plutonium solutions analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, A.V.; Stepanov, D.A.; Nikitina, S.A.; Gogoleva, T.D.; Grigor'eva, M.G.; Bulyanitsa, L.S.; Panteleev, Yu.A.; Pevtsova, E.V.; Domkin, V.D.; Pen'kin, M.V.

    2006-01-01

    Precision method of spectrophotometry with inner standardization is used for analysis of pure Pu solutions. Improvement of the spectrophotometer and spectrophotometric method of analysis is done to decrease accidental constituent of relative error of the method. Influence of U, Np impurities and corrosion products on systematic constituent of error of the method, and effect of fluoride-ion on completeness of Pu oxidation in sample preparation are studied [ru

  13. Canonical integration and analysis of periodic maps using non-standard analysis and life methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forest, E.; Berz, M.

    1988-06-01

    We describe a method and a way of thinking which is ideally suited for the study of systems represented by canonical integrators. Starting with the continuous description provided by the Hamiltonians, we replace it by a succession of preferably canonical maps. The power series representation of these maps can be extracted with a computer implementation of the tools of Non-Standard Analysis and analyzed by the same tools. For a nearly integrable system, we can define a Floquet ring in a way consistent with our needs. Using the finite time maps, the Floquet ring is defined only at the locations s/sub i/ where one perturbs or observes the phase space. At most the total number of locations is equal to the total number of steps of our integrator. We can also produce pseudo-Hamiltonians which describe the motion induced by these maps. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of uranium hexafluoride

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for subsampling and for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of uranium hexafluoride UF6. Most of these test methods are in routine use to determine conformance to UF6 specifications in the Enrichment and Conversion Facilities. 1.2 The analytical procedures in this document appear in the following order: Note 1—Subcommittee C26.05 will confer with C26.02 concerning the renumbered section in Test Methods C761 to determine how concerns with renumbering these sections, as analytical methods are replaced with stand-alone analytical methods, are best addressed in subsequent publications. Sections Subsampling of Uranium Hexafluoride 7 - 10 Gravimetric Determination of Uranium 11 - 19 Titrimetric Determination of Uranium 20 Preparation of High-Purity U3O 8 21 Isotopic Analysis 22 Isotopic Analysis by Double-Standard Mass-Spectrometer Method 23 - 29 Determination of Hydrocarbons, Chlorocarbons, and Partially Substitut...

  15. Validation of the k0 standardization method in neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubesova, Marie

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this work was to validate the k 0 standardization method in neutron activation analysis for use by the Nuclear Physics Institute's NAA Laboratory. The precision and accuracy of the method were examined by using two types of reference materials: the one type comprised a set of synthetic materials and served to check the implementation of k 0 standardization, the other type consisted of matrix NIST SRMs comprising various different matrices. In general, a good agreement was obtained between the results of this work and the certified values, giving evidence of the accuracy of our results. In addition, the limits were evaluated for 61 elements

  16. Standard Method for Analyzing Gases in Titanium and Titanium Alloys. Standard Method for the Chemical Analysis of Titanium Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-28

    form a non- soluble complex. After filtering and burning the non-pure molybdenum trioxide is weighed. Ammonia water is used to dissolve the molybdenum...niobium and tantalum should use the methyl alcohol distillation - curcumin absorption luminosity 66 method for determination. II. The Methyl Alcohol...Distillation - Curcumin Absorption Luminosity Method 1. Summary of Method In a phosphorus sulfate medium, boron and methyl alcohol produce methyl borate

  17. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of river habitants by the k(0)-standardization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momoshima, N.; Toyoshima, T.; Matsushita, R.; Fukuda, A.; Hibino, K.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of metal concentrations in samples use reference materials for determination, which means elements out of the references are not possible to be determined. The instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) with k(O)-standardization method makes possible to determine metals without use of reference materials, which is very attractive for environmental sample analysis, River habitants would be available as a bio-indicator from which river water quality or metal contamination level could be evaluated. We analyzed river fishes and river insects by INAA with k(O)-standardization to examine the possibility of these habitants as a bio-indicator of water system. Small fishes, Oryzias latipes and Gambusia affinis were collected at 3 different rivers every month and river insects, families of Heptageniidae, Baetidae, Perlidae, Hydropsychidae, Psephenidae were collected at a fixed point of the river. The dried samples were irradiated at the research reactor, JRR-4 (3.5MW), JAERI for 10 min and 3 h. 17 elements (Na, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba, Ce and Sm) were determined by the NAA-k(0) method, showing effectiveness of the present method for environmental sample analysis. The metals observed in the fishes were the highest in Ca and the lowest in Sc, ranging from 10 5 mg/kg-dry weigh in Ca to 10 -2 mg/kg-dry weight in Sc. The differences in metal concentrations were examined by statistical analysis with t-test. Ca, Na and Br concentrations differ between species, Oryzias latipes and Gambusia, and Fe, Sc, Co, Zn and Se concentrations differ among rivers. No difference was observed on K, Rb and Sr concentrations.

  18. Standard methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    All methods described for subsampling and analysis of UF 6 are in routine use at United States Atomic Energy Commission installations. A gravimetric method is included for U and titrimetric methods, for Cl 2 and U. Mass spectrometric methods are given for both double and single standard procedures for U-isotopic content and for semiquantitative determination of hydrocarbons, chlorocarbons, and partially substituted halohydrocarbons. Spectroscopic methods are described for 232 U, fission products, Pu, and Np. In some instances an ion exchange- or extraction-separation is specified prior to the spectroscopic determination. Mass spectroscopic procedures for 31 trace elements are included, as are spectrophotometric methods for Br 2 , Si, P, Ti, V, W, Th, and Mo. Following a preliminary separation for some elements, emission spectroscopic procedures are described for B, Si, Ru, Hf, Mo, Nb, Ta, Ti, W, Zr, V, Th, rare earths, and other elements. Procedures for the determination of Sb, Ru, Al, Cd, Co, Ca, Cr, Fe, Pb, Mg, Mn, Ni, K, Na, and Zn by atomic absorption methods are included. The preparation of high-purity U 3 O 8 by the hydrolysis of UF 6 to UO 2 F 2 which upon drying and pyrohydrolysis yields U 3 O 8 is described

  19. Analysis and Comparison of Thickness and Bending Measurements from Fabric Touch Tester (FTT and Standard Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Atiyyah Binti Haji

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fabric Touch Tester (FTT is a relatively new device from SDL Atlas to determine touch properties of fabrics. It simultaneously measures 13 touch-related fabric physical properties in four modules that include bending and thickness measurements. This study aims to comparatively analyze the thickness and bending measurements made by the FTT and the common standard methods used in the textile industry. The results obtained with the FTT for 11 different fabrics were compared with that of standard methods. Despite the different measurement principle, a good correlation was found between the two methods used for the assessment of thickness and bending. As FTT is a new tool for textile comfort measurement and no standard yet exists, these findings are essential to determine the reliability of the measurements and how they relate to the well-established standard methods.

  20. Standard test method for uranium analysis in natural and waste water by X-ray fluorescence

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 This test method applies for the determination of trace uranium content in waste water. It covers concentrations of U between 0.05 mg/L and 2 mg/L. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  1. The standard deviation method: data analysis by classical means and by neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugmann, G.; Stockar, U. von; Lister, J.B.

    1989-08-01

    The Standard Deviation Method is a method for determining particle size which can be used, for instance, to determine air-bubble sizes in a fermentation bio-reactor. The transmission coefficient of an ultrasound beam through a gassy liquid is measured repetitively. Due to the displacements and random positions of the bubbles, the measurements show a scatter whose standard deviation is dependent on the bubble-size. The precise relationship between the measured standard deviation, the transmission and the particle size has been obtained from a set of computer-simulated data. (author) 9 figs., 5 refs

  2. Methods for preparing comparative standards and field samples for neutron activation analysis of soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasgow, D.C.; Dyer, F.F.; Robinson, L.

    1994-01-01

    One of the more difficult problems associated with comparative neutron activation analysis (CNAA) is the preparation of standards which are tailor-made to the desired irradiation and counting conditions. Frequently, there simply is not a suitable standard available commercially, or the resulting gamma spectrum is convoluted with interferences. In a recent soil analysis project, the need arose for standards which contained about 35 elements. In response, a computer spreadsheet was developed to calculate the appropriate amount of each element so that the resulting gamma spectrum is relatively free of interferences. Incorporated in the program are options for calculating all of the irradiation and counting parameters including activity produced, necessary flux/bombardment time, counting time, and appropriate source-to-detector distance. The result is multi-element standards for CNAA which have optimal concentrations. The program retains ease of use without sacrificing capability. In addition to optimized standard production, a novel soil homogenization technique was developed which is a low cost, highly efficient alternative to commercially available homogenization systems. Comparative neutron activation analysis for large scale projects has been made easier through these advancements. This paper contains details of the design and function of the NAA spreadsheet and innovative sample handling techniques

  3. Methods for preparing comparative standards and field samples for neutron activation analysis of soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasgow, D.C.; Dyer, F.F.; Robinson, L.

    1995-01-01

    One of the more difficult problems associated with comparative neutron activation analysis (CNAA) is the preparation of standards which are tailor-made to the desired irradiation and counting conditions. Frequently, there simply is not a suitable standard available commercially, or the resulting gamma spectrum is convoluted with interferences. In a recent soil analysis project, the need arose for standards which contained about 35 elements. In response, a computer spreadsheet was developed to calculate the appropriate amount of each element so that the resulting gamma spectrum is relatively free of interferences. Incorporated in the program are options for calculating all of the irradiation and counting parameters including activity produced, necessary flux/bombardment time, counting time, and appropriate source-to-detector distance. The result is multi-element standards for CNAA which have optimal concentrations. The program retains ease of use without sacrificing capability. In addition to optimized standard production, a novel soil homogenization technique was developed which is a low cost, highly efficient alternative to commercially available homogenization systems. Comparative neutron activation analysis for large scale projects has been made easier through these advancements. This paper contains details of the design and function of the NAA spreadsheet and innovative sample handling techniques. (author) 7 refs.; 5 tabs

  4. Multielement analysis of human hair and kidney stones by instrumental neutron activation analysis with the k0-standardization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abugassa, I.; Sarmani, S.B.; Samat, S.B.

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the evaluation of the k 0 method of instrumental neutron activation analysis in biological materials. The method has been applied in multielement analysis of human hair standard reference materials from IAEA, No. 085, No. 086 and from NIES (National Institute for Environmental Sciences) No. 5. Hair samples from people resident in different parts of Malaysia, in addition to a sample from Japan, were analyzed. In addition, human kidney stones from members of the Malaysian population have been analyzed for minor and trace elements. More than 25 elements have been determined. The samples were irradiated in the rotary rack (Lazy Susan) at the TRIGA Mark II reactor of the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology and Research (MINT). The accuracy of the method was ascertained by analysis of other reference materials, including 1573 tomato leaves and 1572 citrus leaves. In this method the deviation of the 1/E 1+α epithermal neutron flux distribution from the 1/E law (P/T ratio) for true coincidence effects of the γ-ray cascade and the HPGe detector efficiency were determined and corrected for

  5. Standard test method for determining nodularity and nodule count in ductile iron using image analysis

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method is used to determine the percent nodularity and the nodule count per unit area (that is, number of nodules per mm2) using a light microscopical image of graphite in nodular cast iron. Images generated by other devices, such as a scanning electron microscope, are not specifically addressed, but can be utilized if the system is calibrated in both x and y directions. 1.2 Measurement of secondary or temper carbon in other types of cast iron, for example, malleable cast iron or in graphitic tool steels, is not specifically included in this standard because of the different graphite shapes and sizes inherent to such grades 1.3 This standard deals only with the recommended test method and nothing in it should be construed as defining or establishing limits of acceptability or fitness for purpose of the material tested. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address al...

  6. Internal standard method for determination of gallium and some trace elements in bauxite by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.G.; Tsai, H.T.

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of gallium and other trace elements such as Ce, Cr, Hf, Lu and Th in bauxite by the technique of neutron activation analysis using gold as internal standard. Isopropyl ether was used as organic extractant radioactive gallium from the sample. This method yields very good accuracy with a relative error of +-3%. (author)

  7. Analysis of Indonesian educational system standard with KSIM cross-impact method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arridjal, F.; Aldila, D.; Bustamam, A.

    2017-07-01

    The Result of The Programme of International Student Assessment (PISA) on 2012 shows that Indonesia is on 64'th position from 65 countries in Mathematics Mean Score. The 2013 Learning Curve Mapping, Indonesia is included in the 10th category of countries with the lowest performance on cognitive skills aspect, i.e. 37'th position from 40 countries. Competency is built by 3 aspects, one of them is cognitive aspect. The low result of mapping on cognitive aspect, describe the low of graduate competences as an output of Indonesia National Education System (INES). INES adopting a concept Eight Educational System Standards (EESS), one of them is graduate competency standard which connected directly with Indonesia's students. This research aims is to model INES by using KSIM cross-impact. Linear regression models of EESS constructed using the accreditation national data of Senior High Schools in Indonesia. The results then interpreted as impact value on the construction of KSIM cross-impact INES. The construction is used to analyze the interaction of EESS and doing numerical simulation for possible public policy in the education sector, i.e. stimulate the growth of education staff standard, content, process and infrastructure. All simulations of public policy has been done with 2 methods i.e with a multiplier impact method and with constant intervention method. From numerical simulation result, it is shown that stimulate the growth standard of content in the construction KSIM cross-impact EESS is the best option for public policy to maximize the growth of graduate competency standard.

  8. Standard test methods for analysis of sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the analysis of sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Section Carbon (Total) by Direct CombustionThermal Conductivity Method C1408 Test Method for Carbon (Total) in Uranium Oxide Powders and Pellets By Direct Combustion-Infrared Detection Method Chlorine and Fluorine by Pyrohydrolysis Ion-Selective Electrode Method C1502 Test Method for Determination of Total Chlorine and Fluorine in Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinium Oxide Gadolinia Content by Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry C1456 Test Method for Determination of Uranium or Gadolinium, or Both, in Gadolinium Oxide-Uranium Oxide Pellets or by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Hydrogen by Inert Gas Fusion C1457 Test Method for Determination of Total Hydrogen Content of Uranium Oxide Powders and Pellets by Carrier Gas Extraction Isotopic Uranium Composition by Multiple-Filament Surface-Ioni...

  9. Accurate determination of arsenic in arsenobetaine standard solutions of BCR-626 and NMIJ CRM 7901-a by neutron activation analysis coupled with internal standard method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Tsutomu; Chiba, Koichi; Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Narukawa, Tomohiro; Hioki, Akiharu; Matsue, Hideaki

    2010-09-15

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) coupled with an internal standard method was applied for the determination of As in the certified reference material (CRM) of arsenobetaine (AB) standard solutions to verify their certified values. Gold was used as an internal standard to compensate for the difference of the neutron exposure in an irradiation capsule and to improve the sample-to-sample repeatability. Application of the internal standard method significantly improved linearity of the calibration curve up to 1 microg of As, too. The analytical reliability of the proposed method was evaluated by k(0)-standardization NAA. The analytical results of As in AB standard solutions of BCR-626 and NMIJ CRM 7901-a were (499+/-55)mgkg(-1) (k=2) and (10.16+/-0.15)mgkg(-1) (k=2), respectively. These values were found to be 15-20% higher than the certified values. The between-bottle variation of BCR-626 was much larger than the expanded uncertainty of the certified value, although that of NMIJ CRM 7901-a was almost negligible. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Error analysis of isotope dilution mass spectrometry method with internal standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizhinskii, M.W.; Vitinskii, M.Y.

    1989-02-01

    The computation algorithms of the normalized isotopic ratios and element concentration by isotope dilution mass spectrometry with internal standard are presented. A procedure based on the Monte-Carlo calculation is proposed for predicting the magnitude of the errors to be expected. The estimation of systematic and random errors is carried out in the case of the certification of uranium and plutonium reference materials as well as for the use of those reference materials in the analysis of irradiated nuclear fuels. 4 refs, 11 figs, 2 tabs

  11. Instrumental charged-particle activation analysis of several selected elements in biological materials using the internal standard method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, M.; Masumoto, K.

    1987-01-01

    In order to study instrumental charged-particle activation analysis using the internal standard method, simultaneous determinations of several selected elements such as Ca, Ti, V, Fe, Zn, As, Sr, Zr and Mo, in oyster tissue, brewer's yeast and mussel were carried out by using the respective (p, n) reactions and a personal computer-based gamma-ray spectrometer equipped with a micro-robot for sample changing. In the determination constant amounts of Y and La were added to the sample and comparative standard as exotic internal standards. As a result, it was demonstrated that concentrations of the above elements could be determined accurately and precisely. (author)

  12. Analysis of Power Transfer Efficiency of Standard Integrated Circuit Immunity Test Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Au Huynh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct power injection (DPI and bulk current injection (BCI methods are defined in IEC 62132-3 and IEC 62132-4 as the electromagnetic immunity test method of integrated circuits (IC. The forward power measured at the RF noise generator when the IC malfunctions is used as the measure of immunity level of the IC. However, the actual power that causes failure in ICs is different from forward power measured at the noise source. Power transfer efficiency is used as a measure of power loss of the noise injection path. In this paper, the power transfer efficiencies of DPI and BCI methods are derived and validated experimentally with immunity test setup of a clock divider IC. Power transfer efficiency varies significantly over the frequency range as a function of the test method used and the IC input impedance. For the frequency range of 15 kHz to 1 GHz, power transfer efficiency of the BCI test was constantly higher than that of the DPI test. In the DPI test, power transfer efficiency is particularly low in the lower test frequency range up to 10 MHz. When performing the IC immunity tests following the standards, these characteristics of the test methods need to be considered.

  13. Standardization of sample collection, isolation and analysis methods in extracellular vesicle research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth W. Witwer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of publications on extracellular RNA (exRNA and extracellular vesicles (EV has highlighted the potential of these molecules and vehicles as biomarkers of disease and therapeutic targets. These findings have created a paradigm shift, most prominently in the field of oncology, prompting expanded interest in the field and dedication of funds for EV research. At the same time, understanding of EV subtypes, biogenesis, cargo and mechanisms of shuttling remains incomplete. The techniques that can be harnessed to address the many gaps in our current knowledge were the subject of a special workshop of the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV in New York City in October 2012. As part of the “ISEV Research Seminar: Analysis and Function of RNA in Extracellular Vesicles (evRNA”, 6 round-table discussions were held to provide an evidence-based framework for isolation and analysis of EV, purification and analysis of associated RNA molecules, and molecular engineering of EV for therapeutic intervention. This article arises from the discussion of EV isolation and analysis at that meeting. The conclusions of the round table are supplemented with a review of published materials and our experience. Controversies and outstanding questions are identified that may inform future research and funding priorities. While we emphasize the need for standardization of specimen handling, appropriate normative controls, and isolation and analysis techniques to facilitate comparison of results, we also recognize that continual development and evaluation of techniques will be necessary as new knowledge is amassed. On many points, consensus has not yet been achieved and must be built through the reporting of well-controlled experiments.

  14. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade boron carbide

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade boron carbide powder and pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Total Carbon by Combustion and Gravimetry 7-17 Total Boron by Titrimetry 18-28 Isotopic Composition by Mass Spectrometry 29-38 Chloride and Fluoride Separation by Pyrohydrolysis 39-45 Chloride by Constant-Current Coulometry 46-54 Fluoride by Ion-Selective Electrode 55-63 Water by Constant-Voltage Coulometry 64-72 Impurities by Spectrochemical Analysis 73-81 Soluble Boron by Titrimetry 82-95 Soluble Carbon by a Manometric Measurement 96-105 Metallic Impurities by a Direct Reader Spectrometric Method 106-114

  15. A standard analysis method (SAM) for the automated analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soils using the chemical analysis automation (CAA) paradigm: validation and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzeszutko, C.; Johnson, C.R.; Monagle, M.; Klatt, L.N.

    1997-10-01

    The Chemical Analysis Automation (CAA) program is developing a standardized modular automation strategy for chemical analysis. In this automation concept, analytical chemistry is performed with modular building blocks that correspond to individual elements of the steps in the analytical process. With a standardized set of behaviors and interactions, these blocks can be assembled in a 'plug and play' manner into a complete analysis system. These building blocks, which are referred to as Standard Laboratory Modules (SLM), interface to a host control system that orchestrates the entire analytical process, from sample preparation through data interpretation. The integrated system is called a Standard Analysis Method (SAME). A SAME for the automated determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) in soils, assembled in a mobile laboratory, is undergoing extensive testing and validation. The SAME consists of the following SLMs: a four channel Soxhlet extractor, a High Volume Concentrator, column clean up, a gas chromatograph, a PCB data interpretation module, a robot, and a human- computer interface. The SAME is configured to meet the requirements specified in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) SW-846 Methods 3541/3620A/8082 for the analysis of pcbs in soils. The PCB SAME will be described along with the developmental test plan. Performance data obtained during developmental testing will also be discussed

  16. Analysis of standard and innovative methods for allocating upstream and refinery GHG emissions to oil products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretti, Christian; Moro, Alberto; Edwards, Robert; Rocco, Matteo Vincenzo; Colombo, Emanuela

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Traditional and innovative methods for allocating emissions at refinery level are reviewed. •Added value has been introduced as a novel allocation method. •Hydrogen-based consistency test has been introduced to validate the allocation methods. •Consistent allocation methods assign negative refinery emissions to heavy products. -- Abstract: Alternative fuel policies need accurate and transparent methods to find the embedded carbon intensity of individual refinery products. This study investigates different ways of allocating greenhouse gases emissions deriving from refining and upstream crude oil supply. Allocation methods based on mass, energy content, economic value and, innovatively, added-value, are compared with the marginal refining emissions calculated by CONCAWE’s linear-programming model to the average EU refinery, which has been adopted as reference in EU legislation. Beside the most important transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, kerosene/jet fuel and heavy fuel oil), the analysis extends to petroleum coke and refinery hydrogen. Moreover, novel criteria, based on the implications due to hydrogen usage by each fuel pathway, have been introduced to test the consistency of the analyzed approaches. It is found that only two economic-based allocation methods are consistent with the introduced criteria. These two methods also give negative refinery emissions for heavy products, which is coherent with the marginal emissions calculated through the CONCAWE refinery model. The recommended allocation methods are transparent and use only publicly available statistical data, so they may be useful not only for future EU legislation, but also in jurisdictions where a representative refinery model is not available.

  17. Evaluation and standardization of neutron activation analysis according to the K0 method in the RP-10 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya R, E.

    1995-01-01

    It has been characterized and standardized an irradiation of the RP-10 Research Nuclear Reactor for use of the K 0 method of neutron activation analysis using the Hoegdahl convention; also it has been evaluate the behaviour of such method in regard to the accuracy and precision of the results obtained in the quantitative multi elemental analysis of several certified materials of reference. In order to prove that the analytical method is totally under statistical control, it has been used the Heydorn method. It has been verified that the method is exact, precise and reliable to determine the aluminium, antimuonium, arsenic, bromine, calcium, chloride, copper, magnesium, manganese, sodium, titanium, vanadium, zinc and other elements. Also, they are discussed, in regard to the use of K 0 constants, the different formalisms employed to calculate the integral of the reaction rate by nucleus in the activation. (author). 58 refs., 18 tabs., 6 figs

  18. Standard Test Method for Application and Analysis of Helium Accumulation Fluence Monitors for Reactor Vessel Surveillance, E706 (IIIC)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the concept and use of helium accumulation for neutron fluence dosimetry for reactor vessel surveillance. Although this test method is directed toward applications in vessel surveillance, the concepts and techniques are equally applicable to the general field of neutron dosimetry. The various applications of this test method for reactor vessel surveillance are as follows: 1.1.1 Helium accumulation fluence monitor (HAFM) capsules, 1.1.2 Unencapsulated, or cadmium or gadolinium covered, radiometric monitors (RM) and HAFM wires for helium analysis, 1.1.3 Charpy test block samples for helium accumulation, and 1.1.4 Reactor vessel (RV) wall samples for helium accumulation. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  19. Application of a spectrum standardization method for carbon analysis in coal using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiongwei; Wang, Zhe; Fu, Yangting; Li, Zheng; Liu, Jianmin; Ni, Weidou

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of coal carbon content using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is limited by its low precision and accuracy. A modified spectrum standardization method was proposed to achieve both reproducible and accurate results for the quantitative analysis of carbon content in coal using LIBS. The proposed method used the molecular emissions of diatomic carbon (C2) and cyanide (CN) to compensate for the diminution of atomic carbon emissions in high volatile content coal samples caused by matrix effect. The compensated carbon line intensities were further converted into an assumed standard state with standard plasma temperature, electron number density, and total number density of carbon, under which the carbon line intensity is proportional to its concentration in the coal samples. To obtain better compensation for fluctuations of total carbon number density, the segmental spectral area was used and an iterative algorithm was applied that is different from our previous spectrum standardization calculations. The modified spectrum standardization model was applied to the measurement of carbon content in 24 bituminous coal samples. The results demonstrate that the proposed method has superior performance over the generally applied normalization methods. The average relative standard deviation was 3.21%, the coefficient of determination was 0.90, the root mean square error of prediction was 2.24%, and the average maximum relative error for the modified model was 12.18%, showing an overall improvement over the corresponding values for the normalization with segmental spectrum area, 6.00%, 0.75, 3.77%, and 15.40%, respectively.

  20. Evaluation of the H-point standard additions method (HPSAM) and the generalized H-point standard additions method (GHPSAM) for the UV-analysis of two-component mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, E; Massart, D L; Smeyers-Verbeke, J

    1999-10-01

    The H-point standard additions method (HPSAM) and two versions of the generalized H-point standard additions method (GHPSAM) are evaluated for the UV-analysis of two-component mixtures. Synthetic mixtures of anhydrous caffeine and phenazone as well as of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride were used. Furthermore, the method was applied to pharmaceutical formulations that contain these compounds as active drug substances. This paper shows both the difficulties that are related to the methods and the conditions by which acceptable results can be obtained.

  1. Classification of Magnetic Nanoparticle Systems—Synthesis, Standardization and Analysis Methods in the NanoMag Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Bogren

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents classification of different magnetic single- and multi-core particle systems using their measured dynamic magnetic properties together with their nanocrystal and particle sizes. The dynamic magnetic properties are measured with AC (dynamical susceptometry and magnetorelaxometry and the size parameters are determined from electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Using these methods, we also show that the nanocrystal size and particle morphology determines the dynamic magnetic properties for both single- and multi-core particles. The presented results are obtained from the four year EU NMP FP7 project, NanoMag, which is focused on standardization of analysis methods for magnetic nanoparticles.

  2. Identification of Water Quality Significant Parameter with Two Transformation/Standardization Methods on Principal Component Analysis and Scilab Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Putranda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Water quality monitoring is prone to encounter error on its recording or measuring process. The monitoring on river water quality not only aims to recognize the water quality dynamic, but also to evaluate the data to create river management policy and water pollution in order to maintain the continuity of human health or sanitation requirement, and biodiversity preservation. Evaluation on water quality monitoring needs to be started by identifying the important water quality parameter. This research objected to identify the significant parameters by using two transformation or standardization methods on water quality data, which are the river Water Quality Index, WQI (Indeks Kualitas Air, Sungai, IKAs transformation or standardization method and transformation or standardization method with mean 0 and variance 1; so that the variability of water quality parameters could be aggregated with one another. Both of the methods were applied on the water quality monitoring data which its validity and reliability have been tested. The PCA, Principal Component Analysis (Analisa Komponen Utama, AKU, with the help of Scilab software, has been used to process the secondary data on water quality parameters of Gadjah Wong river in 2004-2013, with its validity and reliability has been tested. The Scilab result was cross examined with the result from the Excel-based Biplot Add In software. The research result showed that only 18 from total 35 water quality parameters that have passable data quality. The two transformation or standardization data methods gave different significant parameter type and amount result. On the transformation or standardization mean 0 variances 1, there were water quality significant parameter dynamic to mean concentration of each water quality parameters, which are TDS, SO4, EC, TSS, NO3N, COD, BOD5, Grease Oil and NH3N. On the river WQI transformation or standardization, the water quality significant parameter showed the level of

  3. Investigation of two slag samples using k0 neutron activation analysis through different standardization methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abd El-Samad

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to determine concentrations of several major and trace elements in two slag samples. One slag supplied by one of Steel factory and the other one by an Aluminum factory of Egypt. The aim of the present work is to study the accuracy and precision of Internal Comparator k0 and external comparator k0 methods in industrial application. The two slag samples together with an international reference material Soil-7 and two thin gold foils samples (one bare and the other covered with cadmium were irradiated at the core of the Second Research Egyptian Reactor ET-RR-2 of about 13x10 13n/(cm s. The elemental concentration of 46Sc, 51Cr, 60Co, 65Zn, 74As, 82Br, 85Sr, 86Zr, 110mAg, 122Sb, 134Cs, 131Ba, 140La, 141Ce, 147Nd, 153Sm, 152Eu, 153Gd, 166Ho, 169Yb, 175Hf, 182Ta, 198Au and 233Pa (232Th-series were calculated.

  4. Standard test methods for chemical and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-Grade silver-indium-cadmium alloys

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1990-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear grade silver-indium-cadmium (Ag-In-Cd) alloys to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Silver, Indium, and Cadmium by a Titration Method 7-15 Trace Impurities by Carrier-Distillation Spectro- chemical Method 16-22 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific hazard and precautionary statements, see Section 5 and Practices E50. 7.1 This test method is applicable to the determination of silver, indium, and cadmium in alloys of approximately 80 % silver, 15 % indium, and 5 % cadmium used in nuclear reactor control r...

  5. A standards-based method for compositional analysis by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry using multivariate statistical analysis: application to multicomponent alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Monika; Ahrenkiel, S P; Carapella, J J; Wanlass, M W

    2013-02-01

    Given an unknown multicomponent alloy, and a set of standard compounds or alloys of known composition, can one improve upon popular standards-based methods for energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometry to quantify the elemental composition of the unknown specimen? A method is presented here for determining elemental composition of alloys using transmission electron microscopy-based EDX with appropriate standards. The method begins with a discrete set of related reference standards of known composition, applies multivariate statistical analysis to those spectra, and evaluates the compositions with a linear matrix algebra method to relate the spectra to elemental composition. By using associated standards, only limited assumptions about the physical origins of the EDX spectra are needed. Spectral absorption corrections can be performed by providing an estimate of the foil thickness of one or more reference standards. The technique was applied to III-V multicomponent alloy thin films: composition and foil thickness were determined for various III-V alloys. The results were then validated by comparing with X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence analysis, demonstrating accuracy of approximately 1% in atomic fraction.

  6. Standard Test Method for Measuring Reaction Rates by Analysis of Barium-140 From Fission Dosimeters

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes two procedures for the measurement of reaction rates by determining the amount of the fission product 140Ba produced by the non-threshold reactions 235U(n,f), 241Am(n,f), and 239Pu(n,f), and by the threshold reactions 238U(n,f), 237Np(n,f), and 232Th(n,f). 1.2 These reactions produce many fission products, among which is 140Ba, having a half-life of 12.752 days. 140Ba emits gamma rays of several energies; however, these are not easily detected in the presence of other fission products. Competing activity from other fission products requires that a chemical separation be employed or that the 140Ba activity be determined indirectly by counting its daughter product 140La. This test method describes both procedure (a), the nondestructive determination of 140Ba by the direct counting of 140La several days after irradiation, and procedure (b), the chemical separation of 140Ba and the subsequent counting of 140Ba or its daughter 140La. 1.3 With suitable techniques, fission neutron fl...

  7. Standard test method for analysis of uranium and thorium in soils by energy dispersive X-Ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrochemical analysis of trace levels of uranium and thorium in soils. Any sample matrix that differs from the general ground soil composition used for calibration (that is, fertilizer or a sample of mostly rock) would have to be calibrated separately to determine the effect of the different matrix composition. 1.2 The analysis is performed after an initial drying and grinding of the sample, and the results are reported on a dry basis. The sample preparation technique used incorporates into the sample any rocks and organic material present in the soil. This test method of sample preparation differs from other techniques that involve tumbling and sieving the sample. 1.3 Linear calibration is performed over a concentration range from 20 to 1000 μg per gram for uranium and thorium. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound units in parentheses are for information only. 1.5 This standard...

  8. Standard Methods of Analysis of Sulfochromate Etch Solution Used in Surface Preparation of Aluminum

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2012-01-01

    1.1 These methods offer a means for controlling the effectiveness of the etchant which is normally used for preparing the surface of aluminum alloys for subsequent adhesive bonding. As the etchant reacts with the aluminum, hexavalent chromium is converted to trivalent chromium; a measure of the two and the difference can be used to determine the amount of dichromate used. 1.2 The sulfochromate solution can be replenished by restoring the sodium dichromate and the sulfuric acid to the original formulation levels. The lower limit of usefulness will vary depending upon solution storage, adhesives used, critical nature of bond capability, variety of metals processed, etc. and should be determined. Replenishment will be limited to the number of times the chemical ingredients can be restored and maintained to the required levels and should be determined by the user. Sludge collecting in the bottom of a tank should be minimized by periodic removal of sludge. For some applications, the hexavalent chromium should not ...

  9. Evaluation methods for neutron cross section standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    Methods used to evaluate the neutron cross section standards are reviewed and their relative merits, assessed. These include phase-shift analysis, R-matrix fit, and a number of other methods by Poenitz, Bhat, Kon'shin and the Bayesian or generalized least-squares procedures. The problems involved in adopting these methods for future cross section standards evaluations are considered, and the prospects for their use, discussed. 115 references, 5 figures, 3 tables

  10. Standard test methods for chemical analysis of ceramic whiteware materials using wavelength dispersive X-Ray fluorescence spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the determination of ten major elements (SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O, TiO2, P2O5, MnO, and LOI in ceramic whitewares clays and minerals using wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (WDXRF). The sample is first ignited, then fused with lithium tetraborate and the resultant glass disc is introduced into a wavelength dispersive X-ray spectrometer. The disc is irradiated with X-rays from an X-ray tube. X-ray photons emitted by the elements in the samples are counted and concentrations determined using previously prepared calibration standards. (1) In addition to 10 major elements, the method provides a gravimetric loss-on-ignition. Note 1—Much of the text of this test method is derived directly from Major element analysis by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, included in Ref (1). 1.2 Interferences, with analysis by WDXRF, may result from mineralogical or other structural effects, line overlaps, and matrix effects. The structure of the...

  11. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of geochemical samples by k{sub 0} standardization method using short lived nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oura, Yasuji; Kanzaki, Chinatsu; Ebihara, Mitsuru [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Graduate School of Science, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    Mg, Al, Ca, Ti, V, and Mn contents in geochemical and cosmochemical samples were analyzed by both k{sub 0} standardization INAA and conventional INAA by a comparison method. The contents of Mg, Al, and Mn by k{sub 0} method were consistent with recommended values and ones by comparison methods. For Ti and V their values are slightly higher than recommended ones. The values by k{sub 0} method were reliable within {+-}10%. (author)

  12. Standardized waste form test methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slate, S.C.

    1984-11-01

    The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) is developing standard tests to characterize nuclear waste forms. Development of the first thirteen tests was originally initiated to provide data to compare different high-level waste (HLW) forms and to characterize their basic performance. The current status of the first thirteen MCC tests and some sample test results is presented: The radiation stability tests (MCC-6 and 12) and the tensile-strength test (MCC-11) are approved; the static leach tests (MCC-1, 2, and 3) are being reviewed for full approval; the thermal stability (MCC-7) and microstructure evaluation (MCC-13) methods are being considered for the first time; and the flowing leach tests methods (MCC-4 and 5), the gas generation methods (MCC-8 and 9), and the brittle fracture method (MCC-10) are indefinitely delayed. Sample static leach test data on the ARM-1 approved reference material are presented. Established tests and proposed new tests will be used to meet new testing needs. For waste form production, tests on stability and composition measurement are needed to provide data to ensure waste form quality. In transportation, data are needed to evaluate the effects of accidents on canisterized waste forms. The new MCC-15 accident test method and some data are presented. Compliance testing needs required by the recent draft repository waste acceptance specifications are described. These specifications will control waste form contents, processing, and performance. 2 references, 2 figures

  13. Standardized waste form test methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slate, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) is developing standard tests to characterize nuclear waste forms. Development of the first thirteen tests was originally initiated to provide data to compare different high-level waste (HLW) forms and to characterize their basic performance. The current status of the first thirteen MCC tests and some sample test results are presented: the radiation stability tests (MCC-6 and 12) and the tensile-strength test (MCC-11) are approved; the static leach tests (MCC-1, 2, and 3) are being reviewed for full approval; the thermal stability (MCC-7) and microstructure evaluation (MCC-13) methods are being considered for the first time; and the flowing leach test methods (MCC-4 and 5), the gas generation methods (MCC-8 and 9), and the brittle fracture method (MCC-10) are indefinitely delayed. Sample static leach test data on the ARM-1 approved reference material are presented. Established tests and proposed new tests will be used to meet new testing needs. For waste form production, tests on stability and composition measurement are needed to provide data to ensure waste form quality. In transporation, data are needed to evaluate the effects of accidents on canisterized waste forms. The new MCC-15 accident test method and some data are presented. Compliance testing needs required by the recent draft repository waste acceptance specifications are described. These specifications will control waste form contents, processing, and performance

  14. New internal standard method for activation analysis and its application. Determination of Co, Ni, Rb, Sr in pepperbush by means of photon activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, M.; Masumoto, K. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Lab. of Nuclear Science)

    1984-08-01

    A new internal standard method for activation analysis has been developed. In this method a suitable element present originally in the sample is used as an internal standard and the comparative standard is prepared by applying the standard addition method to the duplicated sample. The present method has the great advantages that the comparative standard spiked with the element of interest has the same matrix as the sample, and then the amount of the element to be determined in the sample can be evaluated easily by using a very simple equation even though the sample and comparative standard are irradiated separately by particles with different flux. Neither correction of the inhomogeneities of flux between the sample and comparative standard, nor that of the self-shielding effects are necessary for the present method. The usefulness of the method was examined through the determination of Co, Ni, Rb and Sr in pepperbush by means of photon activation, and the precision and accuracy of the method were proved to be valid. 29 refs.

  15. Standard test method for isotopic analysis of hydrolyzed uranium hexafluoride and uranyl nitrate solutions by thermal ionization mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This method applies to the determination of isotopic composition in hydrolyzed nuclear grade uranium hexafluoride. It covers isotopic abundance of 235U between 0.1 and 5.0 % mass fraction, abundance of 234U between 0.0055 and 0.05 % mass fraction, and abundance of 236U between 0.0003 and 0.5 % mass fraction. This test method may be applicable to other isotopic abundance providing that corresponding standards are available. 1.2 This test method can apply to uranyl nitrate solutions. This can be achieved either by transforming the uranyl nitrate solution to a uranyl fluoride solution prior to the deposition on the filaments or directly by depositing the uranyl nitrate solution on the filaments. In the latter case, a calibration with uranyl nitrate standards must be performed. 1.3 This test method can also apply to other nuclear grade matrices (for example, uranium oxides) by providing a chemical transformation to uranyl fluoride or uranyl nitrate solution. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address al...

  16. Standard test methods for chemical and mass spectrometric analysis of nuclear-grade gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) powder

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical and mass spectrometric analysis of nuclear-grade gadolinium oxide powders to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Carbon by Direct CombustionThermal Conductivity C1408 Test Method for Carbon (Total) in Uranium Oxide Powders and Pellets By Direct Combustion-Infrared Detection Method Total Chlorine and Fluorine by Pyrohydrolysis Ion Selective Electrode C1502 Test Method for Determination of Total Chlorine and Fluorine in Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinium Oxide Loss of Weight on Ignition 7-13 Sulfur by CombustionIodometric Titration Impurity Elements by a Spark-Source Mass Spectrographic C761 Test Methods for Chemical, Mass Spectrometric, Spectrochemical,Nuclear, and Radiochemical Analysis of Uranium Hexafluoride C1287 Test Method for Determination of Impurities In Uranium Dioxide By Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Gadolinium Content in Gadolinium Oxid...

  17. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium nitrate solutions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium nitrate solutions to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Plutonium by Controlled-Potential Coulometry Plutonium by Amperometric Titration with Iron(II) Plutonium by Diode Array Spectrophotometry Free Acid by Titration in an Oxalate Solution 8 to 15 Free Acid by Iodate Precipitation-Potentiometric Titration Test Method 16 to 22 Uranium by Arsenazo I Spectrophotometric Test Method 23 to 33 Thorium by Thorin Spectrophotometric Test Method 34 to 42 Iron by 1,10-Phenanthroline Spectrophotometric Test Method 43 to 50 Impurities by ICP-AES Chloride by Thiocyanate Spectrophotometric Test Method 51 to 58 Fluoride by Distillation-Spectrophotometric Test Method 59 to 66 Sulfate by Barium Sulfate Turbidimetric Test Method 67 to 74 Isotopic Composition by Mass Spectrom...

  18. Electromagnetic Scattering Analysis of Coated Conductors With Edges Using the Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS) in Conjunction With the Standard Impedance Boundary Condition (SIBC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anastassiu, H.T.; D.I.Kaklamani, H.T.; Economou, D.P.

    2002-01-01

    A novel combination of the method of auxiliary sources (MAS) and the standard impedance boundary condition (SIBC) is employed in the analysis of transverse magnetic (TM) plane wave scattering from infinite, coated, perfectly conducting cylinders with square cross sections. The scatterer is initia......A novel combination of the method of auxiliary sources (MAS) and the standard impedance boundary condition (SIBC) is employed in the analysis of transverse magnetic (TM) plane wave scattering from infinite, coated, perfectly conducting cylinders with square cross sections. The scatterer...

  19. Standard test method for isotopic abundance analysis of uranium hexafluoride and uranyl nitrate solutions by multi-collector, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2014-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the isotopic abundance analysis of 234U, 235U, 236U and 238U in samples of hydrolysed uranium hexafluoride (UF6) by inductively coupled plasma source, multicollector, mass spectrometry (ICP-MC-MS). The method applies to material with 235U abundance in the range of 0.2 to 6 % mass. This test method is also described in ASTM STP 1344. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  20. Standards for backscattering analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, I.V.; Eschbach, H.L.

    1978-01-01

    The need for backscattering standards appears to be twofold and depends on the uses and requirements of the users. The first is as a calibrated reference by which samples of a similar nature to the standard may be absolutely compared. The second is as a means of intercomparing the relative results obtained by different laboratories using, as near as possible, identical samples. This type of comparison is of a relative nature and the absolute values are not necessarily required. In the present work the authors try to satisfy both needs by providing identical samples which have been absolutely calibrated to a high accuracy. Very thin copper and vanadium layers were evaporated onto bismuth implanted silicon crystals and on glass plates under carefully controlled conditions. The mass of the deposits was determined in situ using a sensitive UHV microbalance. In addition, two quartz oscillator monitors were used. The samples have been analysed by Rutherford backscattering and the absolute quantity of bismuth determined by a comparison with the known amounts of deposited material. (Auth.)

  1. A critical analysis of one standard and five methods to monitor surface wetness and time-of-wetness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camuffo, Dario; della Valle, Antonio; Becherini, Francesca

    2018-05-01

    Surface wetness is a synergistic factor to determine atmospheric corrosion, monument weathering, mould growth, sick buildings, etc. However, its detection and monitoring are neither easy nor homogeneous, for a number of factors that may affect readings. Various types of methods and sensors, either commercial or prototypes built in the lab, have been investigated and compared, i.e. the international standard ISO 9223 to evaluate corrosivity after wetness and time-of-wetness; indirect evaluation of wetness, based on the dew point calculated after the output of temperature and relative humidity sensors and direct measurements by means of capacitive wetness sensors, safety sensors, rain sensors (also known as leaf wetness sensors), infrared reflection sensors and fibre optic sensors. A comparison between the different methods is presented, specifying physical principles, forms of wetting to which they are respondent (i.e. condensation, ice melting, splashing drops, percolation and capillary rise), critical factors, use and cost.

  2. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solutions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solution to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Determination of Uranium 7 Specific Gravity by Pycnometry 15-20 Free Acid by Oxalate Complexation 21-27 Determination of Thorium 28 Determination of Chromium 29 Determination of Molybdenum 30 Halogens Separation by Steam Distillation 31-35 Fluoride by Specific Ion Electrode 36-42 Halogen Distillate Analysis: Chloride, Bromide, and Iodide by Amperometric Microtitrimetry 43 Determination of Chloride and Bromide 44 Determination of Sulfur by X-Ray Fluorescence 45 Sulfate Sulfur by (Photometric) Turbidimetry 46 Phosphorus by the Molybdenum Blue (Photometric) Method 54-61 Silicon by the Molybdenum Blue (Photometric) Method 62-69 Carbon by Persulfate Oxidation-Acid Titrimetry 70 Conversion to U3O8 71-74 Boron by ...

  3. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranium dioxide powders and pellets

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranium dioxide powders and pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 This test method covers the determination of uranium and the oxygen to uranium atomic ratio in nuclear-grade uranium dioxide powder and pellets. 1.4 This test method covers the determination of chlorine and fluorine in nuclear-grade uranium dioxide. With a 1 to 10-g sample, concentrations of 5 to 200 g/g of chlorine and 1 to 200 μg/g of fluorine are determined without interference. 1.5 This test method covers the determination of moisture in uranium dioxide samples. Detection limits are as low as 10 μg. 1.6 This test method covers the determination of nitride nitrogen in uranium dioxide in the range from 10 to 250 μg. 1.7 This test method covers the spectrographic analysis of nuclear-grade UO2 for the 26 elements in the ranges indicated in Table 2. 1.8 For simultaneous determination of trace ele...

  4. Standard Test Method for Application and Analysis of Solid State Track Recorder (SSTR) Monitors for Reactor Surveillance, E706(IIIB)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the use of solid-state track recorders (SSTRs) for neutron dosimetry in light-water reactor (LWR) applications. These applications extend from low neutron fluence to high neutron fluence, including high power pressure vessel surveillance and test reactor irradiations as well as low power benchmark field measurement. (1) This test method replaces Method E 418. This test method is more detailed and special attention is given to the use of state-of-the-art manual and automated track counting methods to attain high absolute accuracies. In-situ dosimetry in actual high fluence-high temperature LWR applications is emphasized. 1.2 This test method includes SSTR analysis by both manual and automated methods. To attain a desired accuracy, the track scanning method selected places limits on the allowable track density. Typically good results are obtained in the range of 5 to 800 000 tracks/cm2 and accurate results at higher track densities have been demonstrated for some cases. (2) Trac...

  5. Comparison of Boolean analysis and standard phylogenetic methods using artificially evolved and natural mt-tRNA sequences from great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ari, Eszter; Ittzés, Péter; Podani, János; Thi, Quynh Chi Le; Jakó, Eena

    2012-04-01

    Boolean analysis (or BOOL-AN; Jakó et al., 2009. BOOL-AN: A method for comparative sequence analysis and phylogenetic reconstruction. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 52, 887-97.), a recently developed method for sequence comparison uses the Iterative Canonical Form of Boolean functions. It considers sequence information in a way entirely different from standard phylogenetic methods (i.e. Maximum Parsimony, Maximum-Likelihood, Neighbor-Joining, and Bayesian analysis). The performance and reliability of Boolean analysis were tested and compared with the standard phylogenetic methods, using artificially evolved - simulated - nucleotide sequences and the 22 mitochondrial tRNA genes of the great apes. At the outset, we assumed that the phylogeny of Hominidae is generally well established, and the guide tree of artificial sequence evolution can also be used as a benchmark. These offer a possibility to compare and test the performance of different phylogenetic methods. Trees were reconstructed by each method from 2500 simulated sequences and 22 mitochondrial tRNA sequences. We also introduced a special re-sampling method for Boolean analysis on permuted sequence sites, the P-BOOL-AN procedure. Considering the reliability values (branch support values of consensus trees and Robinson-Foulds distances) we used for simulated sequence trees produced by different phylogenetic methods, BOOL-AN appeared as the most reliable method. Although the mitochondrial tRNA sequences of great apes are relatively short (59-75 bases long) and the ratio of their constant characters is about 75%, BOOL-AN, P-BOOL-AN and the Bayesian approach produced the same tree-topology as the established phylogeny, while the outcomes of Maximum Parsimony, Maximum-Likelihood and Neighbor-Joining methods were equivocal. We conclude that Boolean analysis is a promising alternative to existing methods of sequence comparison for phylogenetic reconstruction and congruence analysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All

  6. Standardization of a sulfur quantitative analysis method by X ray fluorescence in a leaching solution for bio-available sulfates in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales S, E.; Aguilar S, E.

    1989-11-01

    A method for bio-available sulfate analysis in soils is described. A Ca(H2PO4) leaching solution was used for soil samples treatment. A standard NaSO4 solution was used for preparing a calibration curve and also the fundamental parameters method approach was employed. An Am-241 (100 mCi) source and a Si-Li detector were employed. Analysis could be done in 5 minutes; good reproducibility, 5 and accuracy, 5 were obtained. The method is very competitive with conventional nephelometry where good and reproducible suspensions are difficult to obtain. (author)

  7. Development testing of the chemical analysis automation polychlorinated biphenyl standard analysis method during surface soils sampling at the David Witherspoon 1630 site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, M.A.; Klatt, L.N.; Thompson, D.H.

    1998-02-01

    The Chemical Analysis Automation (CAA) project is developing standardized, software-driven, site-deployable robotic laboratory systems with the objective of lowering the per-sample analysis cost, decreasing sample turnaround time, and minimizing human exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials associated with DOE remediation projects. The first integrated system developed by the CAA project is designed to determine polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) content in soil matrices. A demonstration and development testing of this system was conducted in conjuction with surface soil characterization activities at the David Witherspoon 1630 Site in Knoxville, Tennessee. The PCB system consists of five hardware standard laboratory modules (SLMs), one software SLM, the task sequence controller (TSC), and the human-computer interface (HCI). Four of the hardware SLMs included a four-channel Soxhlet extractor, a high-volume concentrator, a column cleanup, and a gas chromatograph. These SLMs performed the sample preparation and measurement steps within the total analysis protocol. The fifth hardware module was a robot that transports samples between the SLMs and the required consumable supplies to the SLMs. The software SLM is an automated data interpretation module that receives raw data from the gas chromatograph SLM and analyzes the data to yield the analyte information. The TSC is a software system that provides the scheduling, management of system resources, and the coordination of all SLM activities. The HCI is a graphical user interface that presents the automated laboratory to the analyst in terms of the analytical procedures and methods. Human control of the automated laboratory is accomplished via the HCI. Sample information required for processing by the automated laboratory is entered through the HCI. Information related to the sample and the system status is presented to the analyst via graphical icons

  8. The evaluation of accuracy of NAA method used by P2TRR laboratory with food standard reference material analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rina M, Th.; Sri-Wardhani; Sunarko

    2003-01-01

    The NAA method is the analysis method with high precision and accuracy level. The precision and accuracy of NAA laboratory in P2TRR had been evaluated with SRM 1573a Tomato Leaf and CRM No.9 Sargasso. Samples were irradiated in RSG-GAS's rabbit system and counted with gamma spectrometry. The results obtained from this research are for the SRM 1573a sample the test could analyze 17 elements of the 40 certified elements, and for CRM No.9 sample the test could analyze 16 elements of the 30 certified elements. The result of quantitative analysis indicate the different deviation of each element between 2 -10.5 % compared to the certificate data. This deviation value <15%, this value shows that the precision and accuracy level is good enough

  9. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium dioxide powders and pellets

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium dioxide powders and pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Plutonium Sample Handling 8 to 10 Plutonium by Controlled-Potential Coulometry Plutonium by Ceric Sulfate Titration Plutonium by Amperometric Titration with Iron(II) Plutonium by Diode Array Spectrophotometry Nitrogen by Distillation Spectrophotometry Using Nessler Reagent 11 to 18 Carbon (Total) by Direct Combustion–Thermal Conductivity 19 to 30 Total Chlorine and Fluorine by Pyrohydrolysis 31 to 38 Sulfur by Distillation Spectrophotometry 39 to 47 Plutonium Isotopic Analysis by Mass Spectrometry Rare Earth Elements by Spectroscopy 48 to 55 Trace Elements by Carrier–Distillation Spectroscopy 56 to 63 Impurities by ICP-AES Impurity Elements by Spark-Source Mass Spectrography 64 to 70 Moisture by the Coulomet...

  10. Internal-standard method for the determination of uranium, thorium, lanthanum and europium in carbonaceous shale and monazite by epithermal neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shuenn-Gang; Tsai, Hui-Tuh; Wu, Shaw-Chii [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Lung-Tan (Taiwan, Republic of China)

    1981-10-03

    An internal-standard method was applied for the determination of uranium, thorium, lanthanum and europium is carbonaceous shale samples and monazite sand by epithermal neutron activation analysis using gold as an internal standard element. The samples were irradiated in a zero-power reactor at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research and measured with a high-resolution Ge(Li) detector. The detection limit is 0.1 ppm for uranium and europium, 1 ppm for thorium, 5 ppm for lanthanum, and the realative error of all elements is within +-2.6%.

  11. Water-soluble vitamin homeostasis in fasting northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) measured by metabolomics analysis and standard methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaz, Segal M; Champagne, Cory D; Fowler, Melinda A; Houser, Dorian H; Crocker, Daniel E

    2012-02-01

    Despite the importance of water-soluble vitamins to metabolism, there is limited knowledge of their serum availability in fasting wildlife. We evaluated changes in water-soluble vitamins in northern elephant seals, a species with an exceptional ability to withstand nutrient deprivation. We used a metabolomics approach to measure vitamins and associated metabolites under extended natural fasts for up to 7 weeks in free-ranging lactating or developing seals. Water-soluble vitamins were not detected with this metabolomics platform, but could be measured with standard assays. Concentrations of measured vitamins varied independently, but all were maintained at detectable levels over extended fasts, suggesting that defense of vitamin levels is a component of fasting adaptation in the seals. Metabolomics was not ideal for generating complete vitamin profiles in this species, but gave novel insights into vitamin metabolism by detecting key related metabolites. For example, niacin level reductions in lactating females were associated with significant reductions in precursors suggesting downregulation of the niacin synthetic pathway. The ability to detect individual vitamins using metabolomics may be impacted by the large number of novel compounds detected. Modifications to the analysis platforms and compound detection algorithms used in this study may be required for improving water-soluble vitamin detection in this and other novel wildlife systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Water-soluble vitamin homeostasis in fasting northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) measured by metabolomics analysis and standard methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaz, Segal M.; Champagne, Cory D.; Fowler, Melinda A.; Houser, Dorian H.; Crocker, Daniel E.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the importance of water-soluble vitamins to metabolism, there is limited knowledge of their serum availability in fasting wildlife. We evaluated changes in water-soluble vitamins in northern elephant seals, a species with an exceptional ability to withstand nutrient deprivation. We used a metabolomics approach to measure vitamins and associated metabolites under extended natural fasts for up to seven weeks in free-ranging lactating or developing seals. Water-soluble vitamins were not detected with this metabolomics platform, but could be measured with standard assays. Concentrations of measured vitamins varied independently, but all were maintained at detectable levels over extended fasts, suggesting that defense of vitamin levels is a component of fasting adaptation in the seals. Metabolomics was not ideal for generating complete vitamin profiles in this species, but gave novel insights into vitamin metabolism by detecting key related metabolites. For example, niacin level reductions in lactating females were associated with significant reductions in precursors suggesting downregulation of the niacin synthetic pathway. The ability to detect individual vitamins using metabolomics may be impacted by the large number of novel compounds detected. Modifications to the analysis platforms and compound detection algorithms used in this study may be required for improving water-soluble vitamin detection in this and other novel wildlife systems. PMID:21983145

  13. Review: Helmut Kromrey (2006. Empirische Sozialforschung. Modelle und Methoden der standardisierten Datenerhebung und Datenauswertung [Social Research Methods. Models and Methods of Standardized Data Collection and Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Kuckartz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the new edition of his textbook, KROMREY outlines the basic principles of "traditional" empirical social research. The 650 pages of the book address the foundations of scientific theory and methods within empirical research. There are also extensive explanations of the most important methods of data collection (content analysis, observation, survey and of statistical analyses of data. This book would be a very suitable textbook for introductory university courses in the methods of empirical social research. The text includes many examples and is written in a very understandable style. Qualitative research methods are only mentioned marginally in the "Alternative Research Paradigms" section. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0801240

  14. Current situation on regulations for mycotoxins. Overview of tolerances and status of standard methods of sampling and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Egmond, H P

    1989-01-01

    A worldwide enquiry was undertaken in 1986-1987 to obtain up-to-date information about mycotoxin legislation in as many countries of the world as possible. Together with some additional data collected in 1981, information is now available about planned, proposed, existing or absence of legislation in 66 countries. Details about tolerances, legal bases, responsible authorities, prescribed methods of sampling and analysis and disposition of commodities containing inadmissible amounts of mycotoxins, are given. The information concerns aflatoxins in foodstuffs, aflatoxin M1 in dairy products, aflatoxins in animal feedstuffs, and other mycotoxins in food- and feedstuffs. In comparison with the situation in 1981, limits and regulations for mycotoxins have been expanded in 1987 with more countries having legislation (proposed or passed) on the subject, more products, and more mycotoxins covered by this legislation. The differences between tolerances in the various countries are sometimes quite large, which makes harmonization of mycotoxin regulations highly desirable.

  15. Determination of metal impurities in MOX powder by direct current arc atomic emission spectroscopy. Application of standard addition method for direct analysis of powder sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuse, Takahiro; Taguchi, Shigeo; Kuno, Takehiko; Surugaya, Naoki

    2016-12-01

    Metal impurities in MOX powder obtained from uranium and plutonium recovered from reprocessing process of spent nuclear fuel have to be determined for its characterization. Direct current arc atomic emission spectroscopy (DCA-AES) is one of the useful methods for direct analysis of powder sample without dissolving the analyte into aqueous solution. However, the selection of standard material, which can overcome concerns such as matrix matching, is quite important to create adequate calibration curves for DCA-AES. In this study, we apply standard addition method using the certified U_3O_8 containing known amounts of metal impurities to avoid the matrix problems. The proposed method provides good results for determination of Fe, Cr and Ni contained in MOX samples at a significant quantity level. (author)

  16. ANALYSIS OF SEA WATER POLLUTION IN COASTAL MARINE DISTRICT TUBAN TO THE QUALITY STANDARDS OF SEA WATER WITH USING STORET METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perdana Ixbal Spanton

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The sea water is a component that interacts with the terrestrial environment, where sewage from the land will lead to the sea. Waste containing these pollutants will enter into coastal waters and marine ecosystems. Partially soluble in water, partially sinks to the bottom and was concentrated sediment, and partly into the body tissues of marine organisms. This study was conducted to determine the level of pollution of sea water on the coast in the district of Tuban. This research was conducted in the Coastal Water Tuban, East Java. The main material used in research on Analysis of Water Pollution in Coastal Sea on Tuban. The method used in this research is using storet method and compared to the quality standards of the Environment Decree No. 51 in 2004. Based on the analysis of testing at five sampling point’s seawater around Bodies Tuban, obtained by sea water quality measurement results either in physics, chemistry, and microbiology varied. The level of pollution of sea water around Coastal Tuban obtained by using Storet Method average value of analysis is -4.2 included in class B are lightly blackened, while using values obtained Pollution Index average pollution index of 3.60 is included in the category lightly blackened. Keywords: Analysis of the pollution level of seawater on the coast in Tuban, Quality Standards of Sea Water, Storet Method.

  17. A method for quantitative analysis of standard and high-throughput qPCR expression data based on input sample quantity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz G Adamski

    Full Text Available Over the past decade rapid advances have occurred in the understanding of RNA expression and its regulation. Quantitative polymerase chain reactions (qPCR have become the gold standard for quantifying gene expression. Microfluidic next generation, high throughput qPCR now permits the detection of transcript copy number in thousands of reactions simultaneously, dramatically increasing the sensitivity over standard qPCR. Here we present a gene expression analysis method applicable to both standard polymerase chain reactions (qPCR and high throughput qPCR. This technique is adjusted to the input sample quantity (e.g., the number of cells and is independent of control gene expression. It is efficiency-corrected and with the use of a universal reference sample (commercial complementary DNA (cDNA permits the normalization of results between different batches and between different instruments--regardless of potential differences in transcript amplification efficiency. Modifications of the input quantity method include (1 the achievement of absolute quantification and (2 a non-efficiency corrected analysis. When compared to other commonly used algorithms the input quantity method proved to be valid. This method is of particular value for clinical studies of whole blood and circulating leukocytes where cell counts are readily available.

  18. A novel baseline-correction method for standard addition based derivative spectra and its application to quantitative analysis of benzo(a)pyrene in vegetable oil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Li, Xiu-Ying; Zou, Zhe-Xiang; Lin, Li-Rong; Li, Yao-Qun

    2011-07-07

    In the present work, a baseline-correction method based on peak-to-derivative baseline measurement was proposed for the elimination of complex matrix interference that was mainly caused by unknown components and/or background in the analysis of derivative spectra. This novel method was applicable particularly when the matrix interfering components showed a broad spectral band, which was common in practical analysis. The derivative baseline was established by connecting two crossing points of the spectral curves obtained with a standard addition method (SAM). The applicability and reliability of the proposed method was demonstrated through both theoretical simulation and practical application. Firstly, Gaussian bands were used to simulate 'interfering' and 'analyte' bands to investigate the effect of different parameters of interfering band on the derivative baseline. This simulation analysis verified that the accuracy of the proposed method was remarkably better than other conventional methods such as peak-to-zero, tangent, and peak-to-peak measurements. Then the above proposed baseline-correction method was applied to the determination of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in vegetable oil samples by second-derivative synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. The satisfactory results were obtained by using this new method to analyze a certified reference material (coconut oil, BCR(®)-458) with a relative error of -3.2% from the certified BaP concentration. Potentially, the proposed method can be applied to various types of derivative spectra in different fields such as UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy.

  19. Quantitative analysis of active compounds in pharmaceutical preparations by use of attenuated total-reflection Fourier transform mid-infrared spectrophotometry and the internal standard method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre Toraño, J; van Hattum, S H

    2001-10-01

    A new method is presented for the quantitative analysis of compounds in pharmaceutical preparations Fourier transform (FT) mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy with an attenuated total reflection (ATR) module. Reduction of the quantity of overlapping absorption bands, by interaction of the compound of interest with an appropriate solvent, and the employment of an internal standard (IS), makes MIR suitable for quantitative analysis. Vigabatrin, as active compound in vigabatrin 100-mg capsules, was used as a model compound for the development of the method. Vigabatrin was extracted from the capsule content with water after addition of a sodium thiosulfate IS solution. The extract was concentrated by volume reduction and applied to the FTMIR-ATR module. Concentrations of unknown samples were calculated from the ratio of the vigabatrin band area (1321-1610 cm(-1)) and the IS band area (883-1215 cm(-1)) using a calibration standard. The ratio of the area of the vigabatrin peak to that of the IS was linear with the concentration in the range of interest (90-110 mg, in twofold; n=2). The accuracy of the method in this range was 99.7-100.5% (n=5) with a variability of 0.4-1.3% (n=5). The comparison of the presented method with an HPLC assay showed similar results; the analysis of five vigabatrin 100-mg capsules resulted in a mean concentration of 102 mg with a variation of 2% with both methods.

  20. Agreement between gastrointestinal panel testing and standard microbiology methods for detecting pathogens in suspected infectious gastroenteritis: Test evaluation and meta-analysis in the absence of a reference standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Karoline; Tsertsvadze, Alexander; Taylor-Phillips, Sian; McCarthy, Noel; Mistry, Hema; Manuel, Rohini; Mason, James

    2017-01-01

    Multiplex gastrointestinal pathogen panel (GPP) tests simultaneously identify bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens from the stool samples of patients with suspected infectious gastroenteritis presenting in hospital or the community. We undertook a systematic review to compare the accuracy of GPP tests with standard microbiology techniques. Searches in Medline, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane library were undertaken from inception to January 2016. Eligible studies compared GPP tests with standard microbiology techniques in patients with suspected gastroenteritis. Quality assessment of included studies used tailored QUADAS-2. In the absence of a reference standard we analysed test performance taking GPP tests and standard microbiology techniques in turn as the benchmark test, using random effects meta-analysis of proportions. No study provided an adequate reference standard with which to compare the test accuracy of GPP and conventional tests. Ten studies informed a meta-analysis of positive and negative agreement. Positive agreement across all pathogens was 0.93 (95% CI 0.90 to 0.96) when conventional methods were the benchmark and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.58 to 0.77) when GPP provided the benchmark. Negative agreement was high in both instances due to the high proportion of negative cases. GPP testing produced a greater number of pathogen-positive findings than conventional testing. It is unclear whether these additional 'positives' are clinically important. GPP testing has the potential to simplify testing and accelerate reporting when compared to conventional microbiology methods. However the impact of GPP testing upon the management, treatment and outcome of patients is poorly understood and further studies are needed to evaluate the health economic impact of GPP testing compared with standard methods. The review protocol is registered with PROSPERO as CRD42016033320.

  1. Standard test method for analysis of total and isotopic uranium and total thorium in soils by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of total uranium (U) and thorium (Th) concentrations in soils, as well as the determination of the isotopic weight percentages of 234U, 235U, 236U, and 238U, thereby allowing for the calculation of individual isotopic uranium activity or total uranium activity. This inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) method is intended as an alternative analysis to methods such as alpha spectroscopy or thermal ionization mass spectroscopy (TIMS). Also, while this test method covers only those isotopes listed above, the instrumental technique may be expanded to cover other long-lived radioisotopes since the preparation technique includes the preconcentration of the actinide series of elements. The resultant sample volume can be further reduced for introduction into the ICP-MS via an electrothermal vaporization (ETV) unit or other sample introduction device, even though the standard peristaltic pump introduction is applied for this test method. The sample preparatio...

  2. Chemical Separation Technique of Strontium-90 in the Soil Water as theStandard Methods for Environmental Radioactivity Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngasifudin-Hamdani; Suratman; Djoko-Sardjono, Ign; Winduanto-Wahyu SP

    2000-01-01

    Research about separation technique of strontium-90 from its materialmatrix using chemical precipitation method has been done. That technique wasapplied on the detection of radionuclide strontium-90 containing in the soilwater of near nuclear reactor facility P3TM BATAN in three location. The twoimportant parameters used in this technique were growth time of Y-90 andstirring time. The result shown that activity of strontium-90 in the pos-01was between 1.801x10 -19 - 9.616x10 -17 μCi/cm 3 , pos-02 was8.448x10 -19 - 1.003x X 10 -16 μCi/cm 3 and pos-03 was 6.719x10 -19 - 11.644x10 -16 μCi/cm 3 . From those data shown that activity of Sr-90in the soil water of near nuclear reactor facility P3TM BATAN was still belowthe limit value of maximum concentration permitted i.e. 4.0x10 -7 -3.5x10 -6 μCi/cm 3 . The statistic test using analysis of varian twofactorial with random block design shown that the activity of Sr-90 in thesoil water was influenced by the interaction which take place between growthlong time of Y-90 and stirring long time. (author)

  3. Development of a detailed BWR core thermal-hydraulic analysis method based on the Japanese post-BT standard using a best-estimate code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, H.; Mototani, A.; Kawamura, S.; Abe, N.; Takeuchi, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The post-BT standard is a new fuel integrity standard or the Atomic Energy Society of Japan that allows temporary boiling transition condition in the evaluation for BWR anticipated operational occurrences. For application of the post-BT standard to BWR anticipated operational occurrences evaluation, it is important to identify which fuel assemblies and which axial, radial positions of fuel rods have temporarily experienced the post-BT condition and to evaluates how high the fuel cladding temperature rise was and how long the dryout duration continued. Therefore, whole bundle simulation, in which each fuel assembly is simulated independently by one thermal-hydraulic component, is considered to be an effective analytical method. In the present study, a best-estimate thermal-hydraulic code, TRACG02, has been modified to extend it predictive capability by implementing the post-BT evaluation model such as the post-BT heat transfer correlation and rewetting correlation and enlarging the number of components used for BWR plant simulation. Based on new evaluation methods, BWR core thermal-hydraulic behavior has been analyzed for typical anticipated operational occurrence conditions. The location where boiling transition occurs and the severity of fuel assembly in the case of boiling transition conditions such as fuel cladding temperature, which are important factors in determining whether the reuse of the fuel assembly can be permitted, were well predicted by the proposed evaluation method. In summary, a new evaluation method for a detailed BWR core thermal-hydraulic analysis based on the post-BT standard of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan has been developed and applied to the evaluation of the post-BT standard during the actual BWR plant anticipated operational occurrences. (author)

  4. Standard setting: Comparison of two methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyebode Femi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The outcome of assessments is determined by the standard-setting method used. There is a wide range of standard – setting methods and the two used most extensively in undergraduate medical education in the UK are the norm-reference and the criterion-reference methods. The aims of the study were to compare these two standard-setting methods for a multiple-choice question examination and to estimate the test-retest and inter-rater reliability of the modified Angoff method. Methods The norm – reference method of standard -setting (mean minus 1 SD was applied to the 'raw' scores of 78 4th-year medical students on a multiple-choice examination (MCQ. Two panels of raters also set the standard using the modified Angoff method for the same multiple-choice question paper on two occasions (6 months apart. We compared the pass/fail rates derived from the norm reference and the Angoff methods and also assessed the test-retest and inter-rater reliability of the modified Angoff method. Results The pass rate with the norm-reference method was 85% (66/78 and that by the Angoff method was 100% (78 out of 78. The percentage agreement between Angoff method and norm-reference was 78% (95% CI 69% – 87%. The modified Angoff method had an inter-rater reliability of 0.81 – 0.82 and a test-retest reliability of 0.59–0.74. Conclusion There were significant differences in the outcomes of these two standard-setting methods, as shown by the difference in the proportion of candidates that passed and failed the assessment. The modified Angoff method was found to have good inter-rater reliability and moderate test-retest reliability.

  5. Standard setting: comparison of two methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sanju; Haque, M Sayeed; Oyebode, Femi

    2006-09-14

    The outcome of assessments is determined by the standard-setting method used. There is a wide range of standard-setting methods and the two used most extensively in undergraduate medical education in the UK are the norm-reference and the criterion-reference methods. The aims of the study were to compare these two standard-setting methods for a multiple-choice question examination and to estimate the test-retest and inter-rater reliability of the modified Angoff method. The norm-reference method of standard-setting (mean minus 1 SD) was applied to the 'raw' scores of 78 4th-year medical students on a multiple-choice examination (MCQ). Two panels of raters also set the standard using the modified Angoff method for the same multiple-choice question paper on two occasions (6 months apart). We compared the pass/fail rates derived from the norm reference and the Angoff methods and also assessed the test-retest and inter-rater reliability of the modified Angoff method. The pass rate with the norm-reference method was 85% (66/78) and that by the Angoff method was 100% (78 out of 78). The percentage agreement between Angoff method and norm-reference was 78% (95% CI 69% - 87%). The modified Angoff method had an inter-rater reliability of 0.81-0.82 and a test-retest reliability of 0.59-0.74. There were significant differences in the outcomes of these two standard-setting methods, as shown by the difference in the proportion of candidates that passed and failed the assessment. The modified Angoff method was found to have good inter-rater reliability and moderate test-retest reliability.

  6. Surface Area Analysis Using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) Method: Standard Operating Procedure Series: SOP-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    provide a foundational understanding of the steps involved, how to per- form them in a repeatable and reliable manner , and to provide the theory behind...how to perform them in a repeatable and reliable manner , and to provide the theory behind the analysis. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Surface area, BET

  7. Reactor Section standard analytical methods. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowden, D.

    1954-07-01

    the Standard Analytical Methods manual was prepared for the purpose of consolidating and standardizing all current analytical methods and procedures used in the Reactor Section for routine chemical analyses. All procedures are established in accordance with accepted practice and the general analytical methods specified by the Engineering Department. These procedures are specifically adapted to the requirements of the water treatment process and related operations. The methods included in this manual are organized alphabetically within the following five sections which correspond to the various phases of the analytical control program in which these analyses are to be used: water analyses, essential material analyses, cotton plug analyses boiler water analyses, and miscellaneous control analyses.

  8. Analytical chemistry methods for boron carbide absorber material. [Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DELVIN WL

    1977-07-01

    This standard provides analytical chemistry methods for the analysis of boron carbide powder and pellets for the following: total C and B, B isotopic composition, soluble C and B, fluoride, chloride, metallic impurities, gas content, water, nitrogen, and oxygen. (DLC)

  9. Implementation of the k0-standardization Method for an Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis: Use-k0-IAEA Software as a Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Kim, Hark Rho; Ho, Manh Dung

    2006-03-01

    Under the RCA post-doctoral program, from May 2005 through February 2006, it was an opportunity to review the present work being carried out in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory, HANARO Center, KAERI. The scope of this research included: a calibration of the counting system, a characterization of the irradiation facility ,a validation of the established k o -NAA procedure.The k o -standardization method for an Neutron Activation Analysis(k o -NAA), which is becoming increasingly popular and widespread,is an absolute calibration technique where the nuclear data are replaced by compound nuclear constants which are experimentally determined. The k o -IAEA software distributed by the IAEA in 2005 was used as a demonstration for this work. The NAA no. 3 irradiation hole in the HANARO research reactor and the gamma-ray spectrometers No. 1 and 5 in the NAA Laboratory were used

  10. Implementation of the k{sub 0}-standardization Method for an Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis: Use-k{sub 0}-IAEA Software as a Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Kim, Hark Rho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Ho, Manh Dung [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    2006-03-15

    Under the RCA post-doctoral program, from May 2005 through February 2006, it was an opportunity to review the present work being carried out in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory, HANARO Center, KAERI. The scope of this research included: a calibration of the counting system, a characterization of the irradiation facility ,a validation of the established k{sub o}-NAA procedure.The k{sub o}-standardization method for an Neutron Activation Analysis(k{sub o}-NAA), which is becoming increasingly popular and widespread,is an absolute calibration technique where the nuclear data are replaced by compound nuclear constants which are experimentally determined. The k{sub o}-IAEA software distributed by the IAEA in 2005 was used as a demonstration for this work. The NAA no. 3 irradiation hole in the HANARO research reactor and the gamma-ray spectrometers No. 1 and 5 in the NAA Laboratory were used.

  11. Texture Analysis using The Neutron Diffraction Method on The Non Standardized Austenitic Steel Process by Machining,Annealing, and Rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Hardi Priyanto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Austenitic steel is one type of stainless steel which is widely used in the industry. Many studies on  austenitic stainless steel have been performed to determine the physicalproperties using various types of equipment and methods. In this study, the neutron diffraction method is used to characterize the materials which have been made from  minerals extracted from the mines in Indonesia. The materials consist of a granular ferro-scrap, nickel, ferro-chrome, ferro-manganese, and ferro-silicon added with a little titanium. Characterization of the materials was carried out in threeprocesses, namely: machining, annealing, and rolling. Experimental results obtained from the machining process generally produces a texture in the 〈100〉direction. From the machining to annealing process, the texture index decreases from 3.0164 to 2.434.Texture strength in the machining process (BA2N sample is  8.13 mrd and it then decreases to 6.99 in the annealing process (A2DO sample. In the annealing process the three-component texture appears, cube-on-edge type texture{110}〈001〉, cube-type texture {001}〈100〉, and brass-type {110}〈112〉. The texture is very strong leading to the direction of orientation {100}〈001〉, while the {011}〈100〉is weaker than that of the {001}, and texture withorientation {110}〈112〉is weak. In the annealing process stress release occurred, and this was shown by more randomly pole compared to stress release by the machining process. In the rolling process a brass-type texture{110}〈112〉with a spread towards the goss-type texture {110}〈001〉 appeared,  and  the  brass  component  is markedly  reinforced  compared  to  the undeformed state (before rolling. Moreover, the presence of an additional {110} component was observed at the center of the (110 pole figure. The pole density of three components increases withthe increasing degree of thickness reduction. By increasing degrees

  12. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade aluminum oxide and aluminum oxide-boron carbide composite pellets

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1994-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade aluminum oxide and aluminum oxide-boron carbide composite pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Boron by Titrimetry 7 to 13 Separation of Boron for Mass Spectrometry 14 to 19 Isotopic Composition by Mass Spectrometry 20 to 23 Separation of Halides by Pyrohydrolysis 24 to 27 Fluoride by Ion-Selective Electrode 28 to 30 Chloride, Bromide, and Iodide by Amperometric Microtitrimetry 31 to 33 Trace Elements by Emission Spectroscopy 34 to 46 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. (F...

  13. Standard Test Method for Sandwich Corrosion Test

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method defines the procedure for evaluating the corrosivity of aircraft maintenance chemicals, when present between faying surfaces (sandwich) of aluminum alloys commonly used for aircraft structures. This test method is intended to be used in the qualification and approval of compounds employed in aircraft maintenance operations. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information. 1.3 This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific hazard statements appear in Section 9.

  14. Standardizing the practice of human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallbert, B.P.

    1993-01-01

    The practice of human reliability analysis (HRA) within the nuclear industry varies greatly in terms of posited mechanisms that shape human performance, methods of characterizing and analytically modeling human behavior, and the techniques that are employed to estimate the frequency with which human error occurs. This variation has been a source of contention among HRA practitioners regarding the validity of results obtained from different HRA methods. It has also resulted in attempts to develop standard methods and procedures for conducting HRAs. For many of the same reasons, the practice of HRA has not been standardized or has been standardized only to the extent that individual analysts have developed heuristics and consistent approaches in their practice of HRA. From the standpoint of consumers and regulators, this has resulted in a lack of clear acceptance criteria for the assumptions, modeling, and quantification of human errors in probabilistic risk assessments

  15. Determination of trace elements in standard reference materials by the ko-standardization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smodis, B.; Jacimovic, R.; Stegnar, P.; Jovanovic, S.

    1990-01-01

    The k o -standardization method is suitable for routine multielement determinations by reactor neutron activation analysis (NAA). Investigation of NIST standard reference materials SRM 1571 Orchard Leaves, SRM 1572 Citrus leaves, and SRM 1573 Tomato Leaves showed the systematic error of 12 certified elements determined to be less than 8%. Thirty-four elements were determined in NIST proposed SRM 1515 Apple Leaves

  16. Mixed gamma emitting gas standard and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, R.C.; McFarland, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The invention in one aspect pertains to a method of calibrating gamma spectroscopy systems for gas counting in a variety of counting containers comprising withdrawing a precision volume of a mixed gamma-emitting gas standard from a precision volume vial and delivering the withdrawn precision volume of the gas standard to the interior of a gas counting container. Another aspect of the invention pertains to a mixed gamma-emitting gas standard, comprising a precision spherical vial of predetermined volume, multiple mixed emitting gas components enclosed within the vial, and means for withdrawing from the vial a predetermined amount of the components wherein the gas standard is used to calibrate a gamma spectrometer system for gas counting over a wide energy range without the use of additional standards. A third aspect comprehends a gamma spectrometer calibration system for gas counting, comprising a precision volume spherical glass vial for receiving mixed multiisotope gas components, and two tubular arms extending from the vial. A ground glass stopcock is positioned on each arm, and the outer end of one arm is provided with a rubber septum port

  17. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Part 23: Water; Atmospheric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA.

    Standards for water and atmospheric analysis are compiled in this segment, Part 23, of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) annual book of standards. It contains all current formally approved ASTM standard and tentative test methods, definitions, recommended practices, proposed methods, classifications, and specifications. One…

  18. Use of the Neutron Activation Analysis, k0-standardized method, in the evaluation of the air quality in critical points of Belo Horizonte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Igor Felipe S.; Cruz, Ananda B.; Cesar, Raisa H.S.; Oliveira, Aline F.G. de; Barreto, Alberto A.; Menezes, Maria Ângela de B.C.; Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear

    2017-01-01

    Belo Horizonte, the capital of Minas Gerais, is one of the largest cities in Brazil. It is geographically centered on a region with intense mining and industrial activity and a fleet of more than 1.5 million vehicles. The numerous sources of atmospheric emissions of particulate matter in this capital and its vicinity offer a considerable risk to the degradation of air quality. In order to contribute with elemental composition of particulate matter, the Nuclear Technology Development Center / Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy, and the Department of Nuclear Engineering of the Federal University of Minas Gerais has developed a research based on environmental samples. This work aims to present the sampling methodology, the concentration values of sampled particulate matter, the methodology of analysis of elemental concentration using the nuclear technique of neutron activation analysis, k_0-standardized method, and interpreted through statistical techniques and values of the elemental concentrations more representative of the samplings carried out. The results pointed out the vehicle emissions as the major source that contributes to airborne particulate matter followed by soil resuspension. (author)

  19. Use of the Neutron Activation Analysis, k0-standardized method, in the evaluation of the air quality in critical points of Belo Horizonte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Igor Felipe S.; Cruz, Ananda B.; Cesar, Raisa H.S.; Oliveira, Aline F.G. de; Barreto, Alberto A.; Menezes, Maria Ângela de B.C., E-mail: igorfelipedx@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: abc@cdtn.br, E-mail: raisa.santana@hotmail.com, E-mail: afgo@cdtn.br, E-mail: aab@cdtn.br, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Divisão de Meio Ambiente

    2017-07-01

    Belo Horizonte, the capital of Minas Gerais, is one of the largest cities in Brazil. It is geographically centered on a region with intense mining and industrial activity and a fleet of more than 1.5 million vehicles. The numerous sources of atmospheric emissions of particulate matter in this capital and its vicinity offer a considerable risk to the degradation of air quality. In order to contribute with elemental composition of particulate matter, the Nuclear Technology Development Center / Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy, and the Department of Nuclear Engineering of the Federal University of Minas Gerais has developed a research based on environmental samples. This work aims to present the sampling methodology, the concentration values of sampled particulate matter, the methodology of analysis of elemental concentration using the nuclear technique of neutron activation analysis, k{sub 0}-standardized method, and interpreted through statistical techniques and values of the elemental concentrations more representative of the samplings carried out. The results pointed out the vehicle emissions as the major source that contributes to airborne particulate matter followed by soil resuspension. (author)

  20. Determination of concentrations of minor and micro elements in ancient bronze drums artifacts samples by KO-standardization method of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Tac Anh; Ho Manh Dung; Diep Dinh Hoa; Cao Dong Vu

    2000-01-01

    The study aims to get a lot information about manufacturers of ancient bronze artifacts and ancient civilization. By KO-standardization method of neutron activation analysis developed in the Nuclear Research Institute, the concentrations of Au, Ag, As, Zn, Sb, Sn elements in ancient bronze alloy samples of 99 bronze artifacts from many excavated archaeological sites at the provinces in Vietnam were determined with uncertainties about ±10%. These elemental concentrations have been utilized in a statistical analysis procedure in order to determine similarities and correlation between the various samples. Th abnormal high of concentrations of noble metals as Au, Ag in ancient bronze indicates that the ancient metallurgists had been interested in role of these metals on sound quality of bronze artifacts. Especially, the concentrations of As in many samples are very high even at about 10%. This gives an evidence that in ancient time the humankind could use bronze As alloy in order to improve quality when they had produced bronze artifacts. (author)

  1. Trace element analysis of water using radioisotope induced X-ray fluorescence (Cd-109) and a preconcentration-internal standard method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, M.; Cano, W.

    1986-10-01

    Radioisotope induced X-ray fluorescence using Cd-109 was used for the determination of iron, nickel, copper, zinc, lead and mercury in water. These metals were concentrated by precipitation with the chelating agent APDC. The precipitated formed was filtered using a membrane filter. Cobalt was added as an internal standard. Minimum detection limit, sensitivities and calibration curves linearities have been obtained to find the limits of the method. The usefulness of the method is illustrated analysing synthetic standard solutions. As an application analytical results are given for water of a highly polluted river area. (Author)

  2. National Green Building Standard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-07-01

    DOE's Building America Program is a research and development program to improve the energy performance of new and existing homes. The ultimate goal of the Building America Program is to achieve examples of cost-effective, energy efficient solutions for all U.S. climate zones. Periodic maintenance of an ANSI standard by review of the entire document and action to revise or reaffirm it on a schedule not to exceed five years is required by ANSI. In compliance, a consensus group has once again been formed and the National Green Building Standard is currently being reviewed to comply with the periodic maintenance requirement of an ANSI standard.

  3. The use of hogdahl convention k0 neutron activation analysis (NAA) standardization method and atomic absortion spectroscopy (ASS) for determination of toxic elements in foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahiamadie, H.

    2008-06-01

    Copper, cadmium, tin, chromium, arsenic, antimony, vanadium and mercury contents were determined in various foodstuffs (Mussa paradisiaca (plantains), Manihot esculentus (cassavas), Vantosoma sagittifolium (cocoyam). Vantosoma sagittifolium leaves (kontomire), Lycopersicum esculentus (tomatoes), Capsicum species (peppers), Solanum melongena (garden eggs), Nbelmoschus esculentus (okro), and Colocasia esculenta (kooko or taro)) produced in the Wassa West District, Ghana. These plants are the basis of human nutrition in the study area. These elements were determined using Hogdahl convention k 0 Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Standardization Method and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The elements in the various foodstuffs and their concentration ranges were Cu (16.87-180.06) mg/kg, As (2.68-9.84) µg/g, Cd (0.63-5.64) µg/g, Hg (0.01-67) ng/g, Cr (0.03-3.66) µg/g, Sb (1.1- 18.6) ng/g, Sn (3.4-58.4) ng/g, and V (12-99) ng/g. The study showed that there are high levels of toxic elements in the foodstuffs grown in the mining areas as compared to that of the non-mining area (i.e., control area). This could be attributed to gold mines pollution. Compared to the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible levels of toxic elements in foods, Cu, Cr and Hg were above the permissible levels whereas the concentrations of As, Cd. Sb, Sn and V fall within the permissible levels. (au)

  4. 1998 Annual Study Report. Standards development of chemical analysis and non destructive inspection methods for pure titanium metals; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Jun chitan no shiken hyoka hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This study was conducted to standardize the chemical analysis and non-destructive inspection methods for pure titanium metals of industrial grade. These methods are among those serving bases for international standardization of products. The chemical analysis is aimed at quantitative analysis of trace impurities, in particular, present in pure titanium metals of industrial grade by developing and standardizing the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, known for its low detectable limit, and, at the same time, spark and glow discharged atomic emission spectrometry as the improved routine analysis methods. These methods, although being used by, e.g., steel makers, have not been standardized because the effects of titanium-peculiar matrix are not elucidated. The non-destructive testing is aimed at standardization of the techniques useful for automatic production lines. More concretely, these include optical methods aided by a laser or CCD camera for plate surface defect inspection, ultrasonic methods for plate internal defect inspection, and pressure differential methods for air-tightness of welded pipes. They have not been used yet for automatic production lines. (NEDO)

  5. STOCHASTIC METHODS IN RISK ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimíra OSADSKÁ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we review basic stochastic methods which can be used to extend state-of-the-art deterministic analytical methods for risk analysis. We can conclude that the standard deterministic analytical methods highly depend on the practical experience and knowledge of the evaluator and therefore, the stochastic methods should be introduced. The new risk analysis methods should consider the uncertainties in input values. We present how large is the impact on the results of the analysis solving practical example of FMECA with uncertainties modelled using Monte Carlo sampling.

  6. Toward a standard method for determination of waterborne radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitz, E.

    1990-01-01

    When the USEPA specifies the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for any contaminant, a standard method for analysis must be simultaneously stipulated. Promulgation of the proposed MCL and standard method for radon in drinking water is expected by early next year, but a six-month comment period and revision will precede final enactment. The standard method for radon in drinking water will probably specify that either the Lucas cell technique or liquid scintillation spectrometry be used. This paper reports results which support a standard method with the following features: samples should be collected by an explicitly stated technique to control degassing, in glass vials with or without scintillation cocktail, and possibly in duplicate; samples should be measured by liquid scintillation spectroscopy in a specified energy window', in a glass vial with particular types of cocktails; radium standards should be prepared with controlled quench levels and specified levels of carriers, but radium-free controls prepared by a specified method should be used in interlaboratory comparison studies

  7. Standard-Setting Methods as Measurement Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Paul; Twing, Jon; Mueller, Canda D.; O'Malley, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Some writers in the measurement literature have been skeptical of the meaningfulness of achievement standards and described the standard-setting process as blatantly arbitrary. We argue that standard setting is more appropriately conceived of as a measurement process similar to student assessment. The construct being measured is the panelists'…

  8. Standard test method for analysis of urine for uranium-235 and uranium-238 isotopes by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the concentration of uranium-235 and uranium-238 in urine using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. This test method can be used to support uranium facility bioassay programs. 1.2 This method detection limits for 235U and 238U are 6 ng/L. To meet the requirements of ANSI N13.30, the minimum detectable activity (MDA) of each radionuclide measured must be at least 0.1 pCi/L (0.0037 Bq/L). The MDA translates to 47 ng/L for 235U and 300 ng/L for 238U. Uranium– 234 cannot be determined at the MDA with this test method because of its low mass concentration level equivalent to 0.1 pCi/L. 1.3 The digestion and anion separation of urine may not be necessary when uranium concentrations of more than 100 ng/L are present. 1.4 Units—The values stated in picoCurie per liter units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1....

  9. Acid Rain Analysis by Standard Addition Titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ophardt, Charles E.

    1985-01-01

    The standard addition titration is a precise and rapid method for the determination of the acidity in rain or snow samples. The method requires use of a standard buret, a pH meter, and Gran's plot to determine the equivalence point. Experimental procedures used and typical results obtained are presented. (JN)

  10. Substoichiometric method in the simple radiometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, N.; Noguchi, K.

    1979-01-01

    The substoichiometric method is applied to simple radiometric analysis. Two methods - the standard reagent method and the standard sample method - are proposed. The validity of the principle of the methods is verified experimentally in the determination of silver by the precipitation method, or of zinc by the ion-exchange or solvent-extraction method. The proposed methods are simple and rapid compared with the conventional superstoichiometric method. (author)

  11. Reducing matrix effect error in EDXRF: Comparative study of using standard and standard less methods for stainless steel samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meor Yusoff Meor Sulaiman; Masliana Muhammad; Wilfred, P.

    2013-01-01

    Even though EDXRF analysis has major advantages in the analysis of stainless steel samples such as simultaneous determination of the minor elements, analysis can be done without sample preparation and non-destructive analysis, the matrix issue arise from the inter element interaction can make the the final quantitative result to be in accurate. The paper relates a comparative quantitative analysis using standard and standard less methods in the determination of these elements. Standard method was done by plotting regression calibration graphs of the interested elements using BCS certified stainless steel standards. Different calibration plots were developed based on the available certified standards and these stainless steel grades include low alloy steel, austenitic, ferritic and high speed. The standard less method on the other hand uses a mathematical modelling with matrix effect correction derived from Lucas-Tooth and Price model. Further improvement on the accuracy of the standard less method was done by inclusion of pure elements into the development of the model. Discrepancy tests were then carried out for these quantitative methods on different certified samples and the results show that the high speed method is most reliable for determining of Ni and the standard less method for Mn. (Author)

  12. Analysis of standard substance human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Shuyun; Zhang Yongbao

    2005-01-01

    The human hair samples as standard substances were analyzed by the neutron activation analysis (NAA) on the miniature neutron source reactor. 19 elements, i.e. Al, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, Mg, Mn, Na, S, Se, V and Zn, were measured. The average content, standard deviation, relative standard deviation and the detection limit under the present research conditions were given for each element, and the results showed that the measured values of the samples were in agreement with the recommended values, which indicated that NAA can be used to analyze standard substance human hair with a relatively high accuracy. (authors)

  13. Validation of a method to the addition the multiple standard in the analysis of Pb in reservoir waters for atomic absorption spectrometric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayari, R.; Espinosa, M.C.; Vazques, J.

    2003-01-01

    The evaluation of a method is presented for the analysis of Pb in reservoir waters for atomic spectrometric with direct aspiration. For the validation of the analytic method a level of concentration of 0.05 mg/L was evaluated. The precision of the method was of 9.97% and the bias was 0.6% 8 samples of surface waters they were collected and of bottom of the tributaries of the reservoir Scorpions and the stocking of the concentrations in the tributaries was from 0,052 + - 0.026 inferior mg/L to the established one in the Cuban norm of evaluation of the hydirc objects of fishing use

  14. Standardization of methods of maxillofacial roentgenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabukhina, N.A.; Arzhantsev, A.P.; Chikirdin, Eh.G.; Tombak, M.I.; Stavitskij, R.V.; Vasil'ev, Yu.D.

    1989-01-01

    Typical errors in teeth roentgenography reproduced in experiment, indicate that considerable disproportional distortions of images of anatomical structures which are decisive for radiodiagnosis, may occur in these cases. Standardization of intraoral roentgenography is based on a strict position of the patient's head, angle of inclination and alignment of a tube. Specialized R3-1 film should be used

  15. Standard test method for analysis of isotopic composition of uranium in nuclear-grade fuel material by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This test method is applicable to the determination of the isotopic composition of uranium (U) in nuclear-grade fuel material. The following isotopic weight percentages are determined using a quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (Q-ICP-MS): 233U, 234U, 235U, 236U, and 238U. The analysis can be performed on various material matrices after acid dissolution and sample dilution into water or dilute nitric (HNO3) acid. These materials include: fuel product, uranium oxide, uranium oxide alloys, uranyl nitrate (UNH) crystals, and solutions. The sample preparation discussed in this test method focuses on fuel product material but may be used for uranium oxide or a uranium oxide alloy. Other preparation techniques may be used and some references are given. Purification of the uranium by anion-exchange extraction is not required for this test method, as it is required by other test methods such as radiochemistry and thermal ionization mass spectroscopy (TIMS). This test method is also described i...

  16. Incorporating Experience Curves in Appliance Standards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbesi, Karina; Chan, Peter; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Kantner, Colleen; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Stephen; Rosenquist, Gregory; Buskirk, Robert Van; Yang, Hung-Chia; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2011-10-31

    The technical analyses in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have typically assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. There is, however, considerable evidence that this assumption does not reflect real market prices. Costs and prices generally fall in relation to cumulative production, a phenomenon known as experience and modeled by a fairly robust empirical experience curve. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and shipment data obtained as part of the standards analysis process, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These allow us to develop more representative appliance price projections than the assumption-based approach of constant prices. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards for these products. The impact on the national modeling can be significant, often increasing the net present value of potential standard levels in the analysis. In some cases a previously cost-negative potential standard level demonstrates a benefit when incorporating experience. These results imply that past energy conservation standards analyses may have undervalued the economic benefits of potential standard levels.

  17. Standard test method for liquid impingement erosion using rotating apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers tests in which solid specimens are eroded or otherwise damaged by repeated discrete impacts of liquid drops or jets. Among the collateral forms of damage considered are degradation of optical properties of window materials, and penetration, separation, or destruction of coatings. The objective of the tests may be to determine the resistance to erosion or other damage of the materials or coatings under test, or to investigate the damage mechanisms and the effect of test variables. Because of the specialized nature of these tests and the desire in many cases to simulate to some degree the expected service environment, the specification of a standard apparatus is not deemed practicable. This test method gives guidance in setting up a test, and specifies test and analysis procedures and reporting requirements that can be followed even with quite widely differing materials, test facilities, and test conditions. It also provides a standardized scale of erosion resistance numbers applicab...

  18. Antibody reactions methods in safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubik, V.M.; Sirasdinov, V.G.; Zasedatelev, A.A.; Kal'nitskij, S.A.; Livshits, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    Results of determinations are presented of autoantibodies in white rats to which the radionuclides 137 Cs, 226 Ra, and 90 Sr that show different distribution patterns in the body, have been administered chronically. Autoantiboby production is found to increase when the absorbed doses are close to or exceeding seven- to tenfold the maximum permissible values. The results obtained point to the desirability of autoantibody determination in studies aimed at setting hygienic standards for the absorption of radioactive substances

  19. Incorporating experience curves in appliance standards analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Garbesi, Karina; Kantner, Colleen; Van Buskirk, Robert; Yang, Hung-Chia

    2013-01-01

    There exists considerable evidence that manufacturing costs and consumer prices of residential appliances have decreased in real terms over the last several decades. This phenomenon is generally attributable to manufacturing efficiency gained with cumulative experience producing a certain good, and is modeled by an empirical experience curve. The technical analyses conducted in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have, until recently, assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. This assumption does not reflect real market price dynamics. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards analyses for these products. Including experience curves increases the national consumer net present value of potential standard levels. In some cases a potential standard level exhibits a net benefit when considering experience, whereas without experience it exhibits a net cost. These results highlight the importance of modeling more representative market prices. - Highlights: ► Past appliance standards analyses have assumed constant equipment prices. ► There is considerable evidence of consistent real price declines. ► We incorporate experience curves for several large appliances into the analysis. ► The revised analyses demonstrate larger net present values of potential standards. ► The results imply that past standards analyses may have undervalued benefits.

  20. Miscellaneous standard methods for Apis mellifera research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Human, Hannelie; Brodschneider, Robert; Dietemann, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    A variety of methods are used in honey bee research and differ depending on the level at which the research is conducted. On an individual level, the handling of individual honey bees, including the queen, larvae and pupae are required. There are different methods for the immobilising, killing an...

  1. Uncertainty determination of analysis of Ti, V, Cl, Ce, Cr, Cs, Sc, Co, Fe and Ca in solid samples by INAA method using standard addition according to ISO - guide 17025

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumining; Agus Taftazani

    2003-01-01

    Uncertainty of analysis of Ti, V, Cl, Ce, Cr, Cs, Sc, Co, Fe and Ca in solid samples by INAA (/instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis) method using comparative technique and standard addition have been carried out at INAA laboratory of P3TM BATAN. The calculation of Ti have been presented as the example. Uncertainty sources of INAA are sampling, sample and standard preparation, irradiation and counting. Sample were come from IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) which had ready for analyzed therefore only for sample and standard preparation, irradiation and counting factors were determined. Analysis were done by relative technique, that sample and standard were irradiated together in same capsule therefore irradiation time, neutron flux, irradiation geometry and isotopic properties. will be eliminated. Uncertainty of counting factors were covering radioactivity decay during the counting, pulse losses caused by random counting, counting geometry, and counting rate. Relative technique makes the uncertainty come from counting time for sample and standard that was settled by same counting equipment can be neglected. Uncertainty of counting geometry and thickness of uranium was not detected so there is no contribution come from The fission product. Variation of fuel target nuclides number didn't occurred because the combustion was not occurred during irradiation, and analytical results were not influenced by the chemical status. (author)

  2. A label-free internal standard method for the differential analysis of bioactive lupin proteins using nano HPLC-Chip coupled with Ion Trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Francesca; Resta, Donatella; Isak, Ilena; Zanotti, Marco; Arnoldi, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative proteomics based on MS is useful for pointing out the differences in some food proteomes relevant to human nutrition. Stable isotope label-free (SIF) techniques are suitable for comparing an unlimited number of samples by the use of relatively simple experimental workflows. We have developed an internal standard label-free method based on the intensities of peptide precursor ions from MS/MS spectra, collected in data dependent runs, for the simultaneous qualitative characterization and relative quantification of storage proteins of Lupinus albus seeds in protein extracts of four lupin cultivars (cv Adam, Arés, Lucky, Multitalia). The use of an innovative microfluidic system, the HPLC-Chip, coupled with a classical IT mass spectrometer, has allowed a complete qualitative characterization of all proteins. In particular, the homology search mode has permitted to identify single amino acid substitutions in the sequences of vicilins (beta-conglutin precursor and vicilin-like protein). The MS/MS sequencing of substituted peptides confirms the high heterogeneity of vicilins according to the peculiar characteristics of the vicilin-encoding gene family. Two suitable bioinformatics parameters were optimized for the differential analyses of the main bioactive proteins: the "normalized protein average of common reproducible peptides" (N-ACRP) for gamma-conglutin, which is a homogeneous protein, and the "normalized protein mean peptide spectral intensity" (N-MEAN) for the highly heterogenous class of the vicilins.

  3. The surface analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deville, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Nowadays, there are a lot of surfaces analysis methods, each having its specificity, its qualities, its constraints (for instance vacuum) and its limits. Expensive in time and in investment, these methods have to be used deliberately. This article appeals to non specialists. It gives some elements of choice according to the studied information, the sensitivity, the use constraints or the answer to a precise question. After having recalled the fundamental principles which govern these analysis methods, based on the interaction between radiations (ultraviolet, X) or particles (ions, electrons) with matter, two methods will be more particularly described: the Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and x-rays photoemission spectroscopy (ESCA or XPS). Indeed, they are the most widespread methods in laboratories, the easier for use and probably the most productive for the analysis of surface of industrial materials or samples submitted to treatments in aggressive media. (O.M.)

  4. Establishing working standards of chromosome aberrations analysis for biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui Thi Kim Luyen; Tran Que; Pham Ngoc Duy; Nguyen Thi Kim Anh; Ha Thi Ngoc Lien

    2015-01-01

    Biological dosimetry is an dose assessment method using specify bio markers of radiation. IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) and ISO (International Organization for Standardization) defined that dicentric chromosome is specify for radiation, it is a gold standard for biodosimetry. Along with the documents published by IAEA, WHO, ISO and OECD, our results of study on the chromosome aberrations induced by radiation were organized systematically in nine standards that dealing with chromosome aberration test and micronucleus test in human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro. This standard addresses: the reference dose-effect for dose estimation, the minimum detection levels, cell culture, slide preparation, scoring procedure for chromosome aberrations use for biodosimetry, the criteria for converting aberration frequency into absorbed dose, reporting of results. Following these standards, the automatic analysis devices were calibrated for improving biological dosimetry method. This standard will be used to acquire and maintain accreditation of the Biological Dosimetry laboratory in Nuclear Research Institute. (author)

  5. Standardized Methods for Detection of Poliovirus Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, William C; Oberste, M Steven; Pallansch, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Testing for neutralizing antibodies against polioviruses has been an established gold standard for assessing individual protection from disease, population immunity, vaccine efficacy studies, and other vaccine clinical trials. Detecting poliovirus specific IgM and IgA in sera and mucosal specimens has been proposed for evaluating the status of population mucosal immunity. More recently, there has been a renewed interest in using dried blood spot cards as a medium for sample collection to enhance surveillance of poliovirus immunity. Here, we describe the modified poliovirus microneutralization assay, poliovirus capture IgM and IgA ELISA assays, and dried blood spot polio serology procedures for the detection of antibodies against poliovirus serotypes 1, 2, and 3.

  6. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade mixed oxides ((U, Pu)O2)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade mixed oxides, (U, Pu)O2, powders and pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Uranium in the Presence of Pu by Potentiometric Titration Plutonium by Controlled-Potential Coulometry Plutonium by Amperometric Titration with Iron (II) Nitrogen by Distillation Spectrophotometry Using Nessler Reagent 7 to 14 Carbon (Total) by Direct Combustion-Thermal Conductivity 15 to 26 Total Chlorine and Fluorine by Pyrohydrolysis 27 to 34 Sulfur by Distillation-Spectrophotometry 35 to 43 Moisture by the Coulometric, Electrolytic Moisture Analyzer 44 to 51 Isotopic Composition by Mass Spectrometry Rare Earths by Copper Spark Spectroscopy 52 to 59 Trace Impurities by Carrier Distillation Spectroscopy 60 to 69 Impurities by Spark-Source Mass Spectrography 70 to 76 Total Gas in Reactor-Grade Mixed Dioxide P...

  7. Methods of Multivariate Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rencher, Alvin C

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book is a systematic, well-written, well-organized text on multivariate analysis packed with intuition and insight . . . There is much practical wisdom in this book that is hard to find elsewhere."-IIE Transactions Filled with new and timely content, Methods of Multivariate Analysis, Third Edition provides examples and exercises based on more than sixty real data sets from a wide variety of scientific fields. It takes a "methods" approach to the subject, placing an emphasis on how students and practitioners can employ multivariate analysis in real-life sit

  8. FY 1999 project on the development of new industry support type international standards. Standards development of chemical analysis and non-destructive inspection methods for pure titanium metals; 1999 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Junchitan no shiken hyoka hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    To propose it to ISOTC79 and ISOTC135, study was conducted for standardization of chemical analysis method and non-destructive inspection method for industrial use pure titanium. As the chemical analysis method, the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry which has good detection limit was developed, and at the same time, the standardization of spark and/or glow discharged atomic emission spectrometry was developed. As the non-destructive inspection method, developmental study on the following was carried out: surface defect inspection method of pure titanium metals by laser scanning inspection system or CCD camera; internal defect inspection of pure titanium sheet and coil by plate wave ultrasonic inspection method; internal defect inspection of pure titanium bar by eddy current method; inspection of very small leakage of pressurized fluid through defects in pure titanium pipe and tube by pressure differential testing method. As a result of the study, standards of system performance and tolerance were determined in analysis of Pd, Si, Al, Cu, Mo, Zr, Nb, Ta and Y. Further, analytical conditions and application ranges of the spark discharged atomic emission spectrometry were made definite in terms of 19 elements including Mn, Fe, Ni, Cr, Sn, Pb, Si, Al, V, Cu, Mo, Zr, Nb, Ta, Co, B, Y, C and W. (NEDO)

  9. Extended standard vector analysis for plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wimmel, H.K.

    1982-02-01

    Standard vector analysis in 3-dimensional space, as found in most tables and textbooks, is complemented by a number of basic formulas that seem to be largely unknown, but are important in themselves and for some plasma physics applications, as is shown by several examples. (orig.)

  10. Standardization of 57Co using different methods of LNMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezende, E.A.; Lopes, R.T.; Silva, C.J. da; Poledna, R.; Silva, R.L. da; Tauhata, L.

    2015-01-01

    The activity of a 57 Co solution was determined using four LNMRI different measurement methods. The solution was standardized by live-timed anti-coincidence method and sum-peak method. The efficiency curve and standard-sample comparison methods were also used in this comparison. The results and their measurement uncertainties demonstrating the equivalence of these methods. As an additional contribution, the gamma emission probabilities of 57 Co were also determined. (author)

  11. Methods for RNA Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Signe

    of the transcriptome, 5’ end capture of RNA is combined with next-generation sequencing for high-throughput quantitative assessment of transcription start sites by two different methods. The methods presented here allow for functional investigation of coding as well as noncoding RNA and contribute to future...... RNAs rely on interactions with proteins, the establishment of protein-binding profiles is essential for the characterization of RNAs. Aiming to facilitate RNA analysis, this thesis introduces proteomics- as well as transcriptomics-based methods for the functional characterization of RNA. First, RNA...

  12. Development of standard testing methods for nuclear-waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, J.E.; Nelson, R.D.

    1981-11-01

    Standard test methods for waste package component development and design, safety analyses, and licensing are being developed for the Nuclear Waste Materials Handbook. This paper describes mainly the testing methods for obtaining waste form materials data

  13. Standard methods for sampling North American freshwater fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Scott A.; Hubert, Wayne A.; Willis, David W.

    2009-01-01

    This important reference book provides standard sampling methods recommended by the American Fisheries Society for assessing and monitoring freshwater fish populations in North America. Methods apply to ponds, reservoirs, natural lakes, and streams and rivers containing cold and warmwater fishes. Range-wide and eco-regional averages for indices of abundance, population structure, and condition for individual species are supplied to facilitate comparisons of standard data among populations. Provides information on converting nonstandard to standard data, statistical and database procedures for analyzing and storing standard data, and methods to prevent transfer of invasive species while sampling.

  14. Analysis of numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Isaacson, Eugene

    1994-01-01

    This excellent text for advanced undergraduates and graduate students covers norms, numerical solution of linear systems and matrix factoring, iterative solutions of nonlinear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, polynomial approximation, and other topics. It offers a careful analysis and stresses techniques for developing new methods, plus many examples and problems. 1966 edition.

  15. Newly developed standard reference materials for organic contaminant analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poster, D.; Kucklick, J.; Schantz, M.; Porter, B.; Wise, S. [National Inst. of Stand. and Technol., Gaithersburg, MD (USA). Center for Anal. Chem.

    2004-09-15

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has issued a number of Standard Reference Materials (SRM) for specified analytes. The SRMs are biota and biological related materials, sediments and particle related SRMs. The certified compounds for analysis are polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their nitro-analogues, chlorinated pesticides, methylmercury, organic tin compounds, fatty acids, polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDE). The authors report on origin of materials and analytic methods. (uke)

  16. Standardized Method for High-throughput Sterilization of Arabidopsis Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Benson E; Rivero, Luz; Calhoun, Chistopher S; Grotewold, Erich; Brkljacic, Jelena

    2017-10-17

    Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) seedlings often need to be grown on sterile media. This requires prior seed sterilization to prevent the growth of microbial contaminants present on the seed surface. Currently, Arabidopsis seeds are sterilized using two distinct sterilization techniques in conditions that differ slightly between labs and have not been standardized, often resulting in only partially effective sterilization or in excessive seed mortality. Most of these methods are also not easily scalable to a large number of seed lines of diverse genotypes. As technologies for high-throughput analysis of Arabidopsis continue to proliferate, standardized techniques for sterilizing large numbers of seeds of different genotypes are becoming essential for conducting these types of experiments. The response of a number of Arabidopsis lines to two different sterilization techniques was evaluated based on seed germination rate and the level of seed contamination with microbes and other pathogens. The treatments included different concentrations of sterilizing agents and times of exposure, combined to determine optimal conditions for Arabidopsis seed sterilization. Optimized protocols have been developed for two different sterilization methods: bleach (liquid-phase) and chlorine (Cl2) gas (vapor-phase), both resulting in high seed germination rates and minimal microbial contamination. The utility of these protocols was illustrated through the testing of both wild type and mutant seeds with a range of germination potentials. Our results show that seeds can be effectively sterilized using either method without excessive seed mortality, although detrimental effects of sterilization were observed for seeds with lower than optimal germination potential. In addition, an equation was developed to enable researchers to apply the standardized chlorine gas sterilization conditions to airtight containers of different sizes. The protocols described here allow easy, efficient, and

  17. Standard methods for sampling freshwater fishes: Opportunities for international collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Scott A.; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Hubert, Wayne A.; Beard, Douglas; Dave, Göran; Kubečka, Jan; Graeb, Brian D. S.; Lester, Nigel P.; Porath, Mark T.; Winfield, Ian J.

    2017-01-01

    With publication of Standard Methods for Sampling North American Freshwater Fishes in 2009, the American Fisheries Society (AFS) recommended standard procedures for North America. To explore interest in standardizing at intercontinental scales, a symposium attended by international specialists in freshwater fish sampling was convened at the 145th Annual AFS Meeting in Portland, Oregon, in August 2015. Participants represented all continents except Australia and Antarctica and were employed by state and federal agencies, universities, nongovernmental organizations, and consulting businesses. Currently, standardization is practiced mostly in North America and Europe. Participants described how standardization has been important for management of long-term data sets, promoting fundamental scientific understanding, and assessing efficacy of large spatial scale management strategies. Academics indicated that standardization has been useful in fisheries education because time previously used to teach how sampling methods are developed is now more devoted to diagnosis and treatment of problem fish communities. Researchers reported that standardization allowed increased sample size for method validation and calibration. Group consensus was to retain continental standards where they currently exist but to further explore international and intercontinental standardization, specifically identifying where synergies and bridges exist, and identify means to collaborate with scientists where standardization is limited but interest and need occur.

  18. Methods for Risk Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alverbro, Karin

    2010-01-01

    Many decision-making situations today affect humans and the environment. In practice, many such decisions are made without an overall view and prioritise one or other of the two areas. Now and then these two areas of regulation come into conflict, e.g. the best alternative as regards environmental considerations is not always the best from a human safety perspective and vice versa. This report was prepared within a major project with the aim of developing a framework in which both the environmental aspects and the human safety aspects are integrated, and decisions can be made taking both fields into consideration. The safety risks have to be analysed in order to be successfully avoided and one way of doing this is to use different kinds of risk analysis methods. There is an abundance of existing methods to choose from and new methods are constantly being developed. This report describes some of the risk analysis methods currently available for analysing safety and examines the relationships between them. The focus here is mainly on human safety aspects

  19. Standard test methods for rockwell hardness of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the Rockwell hardness and the Rockwell superficial hardness of metallic materials by the Rockwell indentation hardness principle. This standard provides the requirements for Rockwell hardness machines and the procedures for performing Rockwell hardness tests. 1.2 This standard includes additional requirements in annexes: Verification of Rockwell Hardness Testing Machines Annex A1 Rockwell Hardness Standardizing Machines Annex A2 Standardization of Rockwell Indenters Annex A3 Standardization of Rockwell Hardness Test Blocks Annex A4 Guidelines for Determining the Minimum Thickness of a Test Piece Annex A5 Hardness Value Corrections When Testing on Convex Cylindrical Surfaces Annex A6 1.3 This standard includes nonmandatory information in appendixes which relates to the Rockwell hardness test. List of ASTM Standards Giving Hardness Values Corresponding to Tensile Strength Appendix X1 Examples of Procedures for Determining Rockwell Hardness Uncertainty Appendix X...

  20. Standard test methods for rockwell hardness of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the Rockwell hardness and the Rockwell superficial hardness of metallic materials by the Rockwell indentation hardness principle. This standard provides the requirements for Rockwell hardness machines and the procedures for performing Rockwell hardness tests. 1.2 This standard includes additional requirements in annexes: Verification of Rockwell Hardness Testing Machines Annex A1 Rockwell Hardness Standardizing Machines Annex A2 Standardization of Rockwell Indenters Annex A3 Standardization of Rockwell Hardness Test Blocks Annex A4 Guidelines for Determining the Minimum Thickness of a Test Piece Annex A5 Hardness Value Corrections When Testing on Convex Cylindrical Surfaces Annex A6 1.3 This standard includes nonmandatory information in appendixes which relates to the Rockwell hardness test. List of ASTM Standards Giving Hardness Values Corresponding to Tensile Strength Appendix X1 Examples of Procedures for Determining Rockwell Hardness Uncertainty Appendix X...

  1. Standard methods for sampling freshwater fishes: opportunities for international collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Bonar, Scott A.; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Hubert, Wayne A.; Beard, T. Douglas; Dave, Göran; Kubečka, Jan; Graeb, Brian D.S.; Lester, Nigel P.; Porath, Mark; Winfield, Ian J.

    2017-01-01

    With publication of Standard Methods for Sampling North American Freshwater Fishes in 2009, the American Fisheries Society (AFS) recommended standard procedures for North America. To explore interest in standardizing at intercontinental scales, a symposium attended by international specialists in freshwater fish sampling was convened at the 145th Annual AFS Meeting in Portland, Oregon, in August 2015. Participants represented all continents except Australia and Antarctica and were employed by...

  2. Non standard analysis, polymer models, quantum fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albeverio, S.

    1984-01-01

    We give an elementary introduction to non standard analysis and its applications to the theory of stochastic processes. This is based on a joint book with J.E. Fenstad, R. Hoeegh-Krohn and T. Lindstroeem. In particular we give a discussion of an hyperfinite theory of Dirichlet forms with applications to the study of the Hamiltonian for a quantum mechanical particle in the potential created by a polymer. We also discuss new results on the existence of attractive polymer measures in dimension d 1 2 phi 2 2 )sub(d)-model of interacting quantum fields. (orig.)

  3. Local properties of analytic functions and non-standard analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brian, N.R.

    1976-01-01

    This is an expository account which shows how the methods of non-standard analysis can be applied to prove the Nullstellensatz for germs of analytic functions. This method of proof was discovered originally by Abraham Robinson. The necessary concepts from model theory are described in some detail and the Nullstellensatz is proved by investigating the relation between the set of infinitesimal elements in the complex n-plane and the spectrum of the ring of germs of analytic functions. (author)

  4. Standard test method for galling resistance of material couples

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a laboratory test that ranks the galling resistance of material couples using a quantitative measure. Bare metals, alloys, nonmetallic materials, coatings, and surface modified materials may be evaluated by this test method. 1.2 This test method is not designed for evaluating the galling resistance of material couples sliding under lubricated conditions, because galling usually will not occur under lubricated sliding conditions using this test method. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  5. Method of signal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthomier, Charles

    1975-01-01

    A method capable of handling the amplitude and the frequency time laws of a certain kind of geophysical signals is described here. This method is based upon the analytical signal idea of Gabor and Ville, which is constructed either in the time domain by adding an imaginary part to the real signal (in-quadrature signal), or in the frequency domain by suppressing negative frequency components. The instantaneous frequency of the initial signal is then defined as the time derivative of the phase of the analytical signal, and his amplitude, or envelope, as the modulus of this complex signal. The method is applied to three types of magnetospheric signals: chorus, whistlers and pearls. The results obtained by analog and numerical calculations are compared to results obtained by classical systems using filters, i.e. based upon a different definition of the concept of frequency. The precision with which the frequency-time laws are determined leads then to the examination of the principle of the method and to a definition of instantaneous power density spectrum attached to the signal, and to the first consequences of this definition. In this way, a two-dimensional representation of the signal is introduced which is less deformed by the analysis system properties than the usual representation, and which moreover has the advantage of being obtainable practically in real time [fr

  6. Standard test method for determination of impurities in plutonium: acid dissolution, ion exchange matrix separation, and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopic (ICP/AES) analysis

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers blended uranium trioxide (UO3), U3O8, or mixtures of the two, powders that are intended for conversion into a sinterable uranium dioxide (UO2) powder by means of a direct reduction process. The UO2 powder product of the reduction process must meet the requirements of Specification C 753 and be suitable for subsequent UO2 pellet fabrication by pressing and sintering methods. This specification applies to uranium oxides with a 235U enrichment less than 5 %. 1.2 This specification includes chemical, physical, and test method requirements for uranium oxide powders as they relate to the suitability of the powder for storage, transportation, and direct reduction to UO2 powder. This specification is applicable to uranium oxide powders for such use from any source. 1.3 The scope of this specification does not comprehensively cover all provisions for preventing criticality accidents, for health and safety, or for shipping. Observance of this specification does not relieve the user of th...

  7. Hepatic fat quantification: a prospective comparison of magnetic resonance spectroscopy and analysis methods for chemical-shift gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging with histologic assessment as the reference standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bo-Kyeong; Yu, Eun Sil; Lee, Seung Soo; Lee, Youngjoo; Kim, Namkug; Sirlin, Claude B; Cho, Eun Yoon; Yeom, Suk Keu; Byun, Jae Ho; Park, Seong Ho; Lee, Moon-Gyu

    2012-06-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the confounding effects of hepatic iron deposition, inflammation, and fibrosis on hepatic steatosis (HS) evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and to assess the accuracies of MRI and MRS for HS evaluation, using histology as the reference standard. In this institutional review board-approved prospective study, 56 patients gave informed consents and underwent chemical-shift MRI and MRS of the liver on a 1.5-T magnetic resonance scanner. To estimate MRI fat fraction (FF), 4 analysis methods were used (dual-echo, triple-echo, multiecho, and multi-interference), and MRS FF was calculated with T2 correction. Degrees of HS, iron deposition, inflammation, and fibrosis were analyzed in liver resection (n = 37) and biopsy (n = 19) specimens. The confounding effects of histology on fat quantification were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis. Using the histologic degree of HS as the reference standard, the accuracies of each method in estimating HS and diagnosing an HS of 5% or greater were determined by linear regression and receiver operating characteristic analyses. Iron deposition significantly confounded estimations of FF by the dual-echo (P hepatic fat, with coexisting histologic abnormalities having no confounding effects.

  8. Spatio-temporal earthquake risk assessment for the Lisbon Metropolitan Area - A contribution to improving standard methods of population exposure and vulnerability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Sérgio; Aubrecht, Christoph

    2010-05-01

    The recent 7.0 M earthquake that caused severe damage and destruction in parts of Haiti struck close to 5 PM (local time), at a moment when many people were not in their residences, instead being in their workplaces, schools, or churches. Community vulnerability assessment to seismic hazard relying solely on the location and density of resident-based census population, as is commonly the case, would grossly misrepresent the real situation. In particular in the context of global (climate) change, risk analysis is a research field increasingly gaining in importance whereas risk is usually defined as a function of hazard probability and vulnerability. Assessment and mapping of human vulnerability has however generally been lagging behind hazard analysis efforts. Central to the concept of vulnerability is the issue of human exposure. Analysis of exposure is often spatially tied to administrative units or reference objects such as buildings, spanning scales from the regional level to local studies for small areas. Due to human activities and mobility, the spatial distribution of population is time-dependent, especially in metropolitan areas. Accurately estimating population exposure is a key component of catastrophe loss modeling, one element of effective risk analysis and emergency management. Therefore, accounting for the spatio-temporal dynamics of human vulnerability correlates with recent recommendations to improve vulnerability analyses. Earthquakes are the prototype for a major disaster, being low-probability, rapid-onset, high-consequence events. Lisbon, Portugal, is subject to a high risk of earthquake, which can strike at any day and time, as confirmed by modern history (e.g. December 2009). The recently-approved Special Emergency and Civil Protection Plan (PEERS) is based on a Seismic Intensity map, and only contemplates resident population from the census as proxy for human exposure. In the present work we map and analyze the spatio-temporal distribution of

  9. Neutron Activation Analysis with k0 Standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomme, S.

    1998-01-01

    SCK-CEN's programme on Neutron Activation Analysis with k 0 -standardisation aims to: (1) develop and implement k 0 -standardisation method for NAA; (2) to exploit the inherent qualities of NAA such as accuracy, traceability, and multi-element capability; (3) to acquire technical spin-off for nuclear measurements services. Main achievements in 1997 are reported

  10. Standard test methods for characterizing duplex grain sizes

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 These test methods provide simple guidelines for deciding whether a duplex grain size exists. The test methods separate duplex grain sizes into one of two distinct classes, then into specific types within those classes, and provide systems for grain size characterization of each type. 1.2 Units—The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to consult appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to its use.

  11. Methods for geochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baedecker, Philip A.

    1987-01-01

    The laboratories for analytical chemistry within the Geologic Division of the U.S. Geological Survey are administered by the Office of Mineral Resources. The laboratory analysts provide analytical support to those programs of the Geologic Division that require chemical information and conduct basic research in analytical and geochemical areas vital to the furtherance of Division program goals. Laboratories for research and geochemical analysis are maintained at the three major centers in Reston, Virginia, Denver, Colorado, and Menlo Park, California. The Division has an expertise in a broad spectrum of analytical techniques, and the analytical research is designed to advance the state of the art of existing techniques and to develop new methods of analysis in response to special problems in geochemical analysis. The geochemical research and analytical results are applied to the solution of fundamental geochemical problems relating to the origin of mineral deposits and fossil fuels, as well as to studies relating to the distribution of elements in varied geologic systems, the mechanisms by which they are transported, and their impact on the environment.

  12. Proposed minimum reporting standards for chemical analysis Chemical Analysis Working Group (CAWG) Metabolomics Standards Initiative (MSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amberg, Alexander; Barrett, Dave; Beale, Michael H.; Beger, Richard; Daykin, Clare A.; Fan, Teresa W.-M.; Fiehn, Oliver; Goodacre, Royston; Griffin, Julian L.; Hankemeier, Thomas; Hardy, Nigel; Harnly, James; Higashi, Richard; Kopka, Joachim; Lane, Andrew N.; Lindon, John C.; Marriott, Philip; Nicholls, Andrew W.; Reily, Michael D.; Thaden, John J.; Viant, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    There is a general consensus that supports the need for standardized reporting of metadata or information describing large-scale metabolomics and other functional genomics data sets. Reporting of standard metadata provides a biological and empirical context for the data, facilitates experimental replication, and enables the re-interrogation and comparison of data by others. Accordingly, the Metabolomics Standards Initiative is building a general consensus concerning the minimum reporting standards for metabolomics experiments of which the Chemical Analysis Working Group (CAWG) is a member of this community effort. This article proposes the minimum reporting standards related to the chemical analysis aspects of metabolomics experiments including: sample preparation, experimental analysis, quality control, metabolite identification, and data pre-processing. These minimum standards currently focus mostly upon mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy due to the popularity of these techniques in metabolomics. However, additional input concerning other techniques is welcomed and can be provided via the CAWG on-line discussion forum at http://msi-workgroups.sourceforge.net/ or http://Msi-workgroups-feedback@lists.sourceforge.net. Further, community input related to this document can also be provided via this electronic forum. PMID:24039616

  13. STANDARDIZATION AND VALIDATION OF METHODS FOR ENUMERATION OF FECAL COLIFORM AND SALMONELLA IN BIOSOLIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current federal regulations require monitoring for fecal coliforms or Salmonella in biosolids destined for land application. Methods used for analysis of fecal coliforms and Salmonella were reviewed and a standard protocol was developed. The protocols were then evaluated by testi...

  14. COMPUTER METHODS OF GENETIC ANALYSIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Osipov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The basic statistical methods used in conducting the genetic analysis of human traits. We studied by segregation analysis, linkage analysis and allelic associations. Developed software for the implementation of these methods support.

  15. Quantitative standard-less XRF analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulitzka, S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: For most analytical tasks in the mining and associated industries matrix-matched calibrations are used for the monitoring of ore grades and process control. In general, such calibrations are product specific (iron ore, bauxite, alumina, mineral sands, cement etc.) and apply to a relatively narrow concentration range but give the best precision and accuracy for those materials. A wide range of CRMs is available and for less common materials synthetic standards can be made up from 'pure' chemicals. At times, analysis of materials with varying matrices (powders, scales, fly ash, alloys, polymers, liquors, etc.) and diverse physical shapes (non-flat, metal drillings, thin layers on substrates etc.) is required that could also contain elements which are not part of a specific calibration. A qualitative analysis can provide information about the presence of certain elements and the relative intensities of element peaks in a scan can give a rough idea about their concentrations. More often however, quantitative values are required. The paper will look into the basics of quantitative standardless analysis and show results for some well-defined CRMs. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  16. Method of making stepped photographic density standards of radiographic photographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovin, I.V.; Kondina, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    In industrial radiography practice the need often arises for a prompt evaluation of the photographic density of an x-ray film. A method of making stepped photographic density standards for industrial radiography by contact printing from a negative is described. The method is intended for industrial radiation flaw detection laboratories not having specialized sensitometric equipment

  17. Soil texture analysis by laser diffraction - standardization needed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Ingeborg; Palviainen, M.; Kjønaas, O. Janne

    2017-01-01

    Soil texture is a central soil quality property. Laser diffraction (LD) for determination of particle size distribution (PSD) is now widespread due to easy analysis and low cost. However, pretreatment methods and interpretation of the resulting soil PSD’s are not standardized. Comparison of LD data...... with sedimentation and sieving data may cause misinterpretation and confusion. In literature that reports PSD’s based on LD, pretreatment methods, operating procedures and data methods are often underreported or not reported, although literature stressing the importance exists (e.g. Konert and Vandenberghe, 1997...... and many newer; ISO 13320:2009). PSD uncertainty caused by pretreatments and PSD bias caused by plate-shaped clay particles still calls for more method standardization work. If LD is used more generally, new pedotransfer functions for other soil properties (e.g water retention) based on sieving...

  18. [Modified Delphi method in the constitution of school sanitation standard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xunqiang; Liang, Ying; Tan, Hongzhuan; Gong, Wenjie; Deng, Jing; Luo, Jiayou; Di, Xiaokang; Wu, Yue

    2012-11-01

    To constitute school sanitation standard using modified Delphi method, and to explore the feasibility and the predominance of Delphi method in the constitution of school sanitation standard. Two rounds of expert consultations were adopted in this study. The data were analyzed with SPSS15.0 to screen indices of school sanitation standard. Thirty-two experts accomplished the 2 rounds of consultations. The average length of expert service was (24.69 ±8.53) years. The authority coefficient was 0.729 ±0.172. The expert positive coefficient was 94.12% (32/34) in the first round and 100% (32/32) in the second round. The harmonious coefficients of importance, feasibility and rationality in the second round were 0.493 (PDelphi method is a rapid, effective and feasible method in this field.

  19. Statistical methods for evaluating the attainment of cleanup standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, R.O.; Simpson, J.C.

    1992-12-01

    This document is the third volume in a series of volumes sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Statistical Policy Branch, that provide statistical methods for evaluating the attainment of cleanup Standards at Superfund sites. Volume 1 (USEPA 1989a) provides sampling designs and tests for evaluating attainment of risk-based standards for soils and solid media. Volume 2 (USEPA 1992) provides designs and tests for evaluating attainment of risk-based standards for groundwater. The purpose of this third volume is to provide statistical procedures for designing sampling programs and conducting statistical tests to determine whether pollution parameters in remediated soils and solid media at Superfund sites attain site-specific reference-based standards. This.document is written for individuals who may not have extensive training or experience with statistical methods. The intended audience includes EPA regional remedial project managers, Superfund-site potentially responsible parties, state environmental protection agencies, and contractors for these groups.

  20. Standardized methods for photography in procedural dermatology using simple equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexsel, Doris; Hexsel, Camile L; Dal'Forno, Taciana; Schilling de Souza, Juliana; Silva, Aline F; Siega, Carolina

    2017-04-01

    Photography is an important tool in dermatology. Reproducing the settings of before photos after interventions allows more accurate evaluation of treatment outcomes. In this article, we describe standardized methods and tips to obtain photographs, both for clinical practice and research procedural dermatology, using common equipment. Standards for the studio, cameras, photographer, patients, and framing are presented in this article. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  1. Standard Test Method for Abrasive Wear Resistance of Cemented

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of abrasive wear resistance of cemented carbides. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The SI equivalents of inch-pound units are in parentheses and may be approximate. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  2. Multielement analysis of biological standards by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadkarni, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Up to 28 elements were determined in two IAEA standards: Animal Muscle H4 and Fish Soluble A 6/74, and three NBS standards: Spinach: SRM-1570, Tomato Leaves: SRM-1573 and Pine Needles: SRM-1575 by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. Seven noble metals were determined in two NBS standards: Coal: SRM-1632 and Coal Fly Ash: SRM-1633 by radiochemical procedure while 11 rare earth elements were determined in NBS standard Orchard Leaves: SRM-1571 by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. The results are in good agreement with the certified and/or literature data where available. The irradiations were performed at the Cornell TRIGA Mark II nuclear reactor at a thermal neutron flux of 1-3x10 12 ncm -2 sec -1 . The short-lived species were determined after a 2-minute irradiation in the pneumatic rabbit tube, and the longer-lived species after an 8-hour irradiation in the central thimble facility. The standards and samples were counted on coaxial 56-cm 3 Ge(Li) detector. The system resolution was 1.96 keV (FWHM) with a peak to Compton ratio of 37:1 and counting efficiency of 13%, all compared to the 1.332 MeV photopeak of Co-60. (T.I.)

  3. Statistical benchmarking in utility regulation: Role, standards and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton Lowry, Mark; Getachew, Lullit

    2009-01-01

    Statistical benchmarking is being used with increasing frequency around the world in utility rate regulation. We discuss how and where benchmarking is in use for this purpose and the pros and cons of regulatory benchmarking. We then discuss alternative performance standards and benchmarking methods in regulatory applications. We use these to propose guidelines for the appropriate use of benchmarking in the rate setting process. The standards, which we term the competitive market and frontier paradigms, have a bearing on method selection. These along with regulatory experience suggest that benchmarking can either be used for prudence review in regulation or to establish rates or rate setting mechanisms directly

  4. The delayed neutron method of uranium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, T.

    1989-01-01

    The technique of delayed neutron analysis (DNA) is discussed. The DNA rig installed on the MOATA reactor, the assay standards and the types of samples which have been assayed are described. Of the total sample throughput of about 55,000 units since the uranium analysis service began, some 78% has been concerned with analysis of uranium ore samples derived from mining and exploration. Delayed neutron analysis provides a high sensitivity, low cost uranium analysis method for both uranium exploration and other applications. It is particularly suitable for analysis of large batch samples and for non-destructive analysis over a wide range of matrices. 8 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Methods of nonlinear analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bellman, Richard Ernest

    1970-01-01

    In this book, we study theoretical and practical aspects of computing methods for mathematical modelling of nonlinear systems. A number of computing techniques are considered, such as methods of operator approximation with any given accuracy; operator interpolation techniques including a non-Lagrange interpolation; methods of system representation subject to constraints associated with concepts of causality, memory and stationarity; methods of system representation with an accuracy that is the best within a given class of models; methods of covariance matrix estimation;methods for low-rank mat

  6. Standard Test Method for Thermal Oxidative Resistance of Carbon Fibers

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1982-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the apparatus and procedure for the determination of the weight loss of carbon fibers, exposed to ambient hot air, as a means of characterizing their oxidative resistance. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to inch-pound units which are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific hazard information, see Section 8.

  7. Standardization of Tc-99 by three liquid scintillation counting methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyngaardt, W.M. van; Staden, M.J. van; Lubbe, J.; Simpson, B.R.S.

    2014-01-01

    The NMISA participated in the international key comparison of the pure beta-emitter Technetium-99, CCRI(II)-K2.Tc-99. The comparison solution was standardized using three methods, namely the TDCR efficiency calculation method, the CIEMAT/NIST efficiency tracing method and the 4π(LS)β–γ coincidence tracing method with Co-60 as tracer. Excellent agreement between results obtained with the three methods confirmed the applicability of the beta spectral shape given by the latest (2011) DDEP evaluation of Tc-99 decay data, rather than the earlier (2004) evaluation. - Highlights: • Activity concentration of Tc-99 solution measured using three LSC methods. • Methods used are TDCR, CNET and 4π(LS)β–γ coincidence tracing. • Beta spectral shape confirmed by agreement between three methods

  8. Standardizing Activation Analysis: New Software for Photon Activation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Z. J.; Wells, D.; Segebade, C.; Green, J.

    2011-06-01

    Photon Activation Analysis (PAA) of environmental, archaeological and industrial samples requires extensive data analysis that is susceptible to error. For the purpose of saving time, manpower and minimizing error, a computer program was designed, built and implemented using SQL, Access 2007 and asp.net technology to automate this process. Based on the peak information of the spectrum and assisted by its PAA library, the program automatically identifies elements in the samples and calculates their concentrations and respective uncertainties. The software also could be operated in browser/server mode, which gives the possibility to use it anywhere the internet is accessible. By switching the nuclide library and the related formula behind, the new software can be easily expanded to neutron activation analysis (NAA), charged particle activation analysis (CPAA) or proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Implementation of this would standardize the analysis of nuclear activation data. Results from this software were compared to standard PAA analysis with excellent agreement. With minimum input from the user, the software has proven to be fast, user-friendly and reliable.

  9. Standardizing Activation Analysis: New Software for Photon Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Z. J.; Wells, D.; Green, J.; Segebade, C.

    2011-01-01

    Photon Activation Analysis (PAA) of environmental, archaeological and industrial samples requires extensive data analysis that is susceptible to error. For the purpose of saving time, manpower and minimizing error, a computer program was designed, built and implemented using SQL, Access 2007 and asp.net technology to automate this process. Based on the peak information of the spectrum and assisted by its PAA library, the program automatically identifies elements in the samples and calculates their concentrations and respective uncertainties. The software also could be operated in browser/server mode, which gives the possibility to use it anywhere the internet is accessible. By switching the nuclide library and the related formula behind, the new software can be easily expanded to neutron activation analysis (NAA), charged particle activation analysis (CPAA) or proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Implementation of this would standardize the analysis of nuclear activation data. Results from this software were compared to standard PAA analysis with excellent agreement. With minimum input from the user, the software has proven to be fast, user-friendly and reliable.

  10. Standard Procedure for Grid Interaction Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Bertil; Lindahl, Sture; Karlsson, Daniel; Joensson, Jonas; Heyman, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    Grid events, simultaneously affecting all safety related auxiliary systems in a nuclear power plant, are critical and must be carefully addressed in the design, upgrading and operational processes. Up to now, the connecting grid has often been treated as either fully available or totally unavailable, and too little attention has been paid to specify the grid performance criteria. This paper deals with standard procedures for grid interaction analysis, to derive tools and criteria to handle grid events challenging the safety systems of the plant. Critical external power system events are investigated and characterised, with respect to severity and rate of occurrence. These critical events are then grouped with respect to impact on the safety systems, when a disturbance propagates into the plant. It is then important to make sure that 1) the impact of the disturbance will never reach any critical system, 2) the impact of the disturbance will be eliminated before it will hurt any critical system, or 3) the critical systems will be proven to be designed in such a way that they can withstand the impact of the disturbance, and the associated control and protection systems can withstand voltage and frequency transients associated with the disturbances. A number of representative disturbance profiles, reflecting connecting grid conditions, are therefore derived, to be used for equipment testing. (authors)

  11. Recommendations for a proposed standard for performing systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaChance, J.; Whitehead, D.; Drouin, M.

    1998-01-01

    In August 1995, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued a policy statement proposing improved regulatory decisionmaking by increasing the use of PRA [probabilistic risk assessment] in all regulatory matters to the extent supported by the state-of-the-art in PRA methods and data. A key aspect in using PRA in risk-informed regulatory activities is establishing the appropriate scope and attributes of the PRA. In this regard, ASME decided to develop a consensus PRA Standard. The objective is to develop a PRA Standard such that the technical quality of nuclear plant PRAs will be sufficient to support risk-informed regulatory applications. This paper presents examples recommendations for the systems analysis element of a PRA for incorporation into the ASME PRA Standard

  12. Robust steganographic method utilizing properties of MJPEG compression standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Oravec

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents design of steganographic method, which uses video container as cover data. Video track was recorded by webcam and was further encoded by compression standard MJPEG. Proposed method also takes in account effects of lossy compression. The embedding process is realized by switching places of transform coefficients, which are computed by Discrete Cosine Transform. The article contains possibilities, used techniques, advantages and drawbacks of chosen solution. The results are presented at the end of the article.

  13. Standard methods for rearing and selection of Apis mellifera queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Büchler, Ralph; Andonov, Sreten; Bienefeld, Kaspar

    2013-01-01

    Here we cover a wide range of methods currently in use and recommended in modern queen rearing, selection and breeding. The recommendations are meant to equally serve as standards for both scientific and practical beekeeping purposes. The basic conditions and different management techniques for q...

  14. Standard test method for dynamic tear testing of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1983-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the dynamic tear (DT) test using specimens that are 3/16 in. to 5/8 in. (5 mm to 16 mm) inclusive in thickness. 1.2 This test method is applicable to materials with a minimum thickness of 3/16 in. (5 mm). 1.3 The pressed-knife procedure described for sharpening the notch tip generally limits this test method to materials with a hardness level less than 36 HRC. Note 1—The designation 36 HRC is a Rockwell hardness number of 36 on Rockwell C scale as defined in Test Methods E 18. 1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  15. Evaluating the Capacity of Standard Investment Appraisal Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Akalu

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe survey findings indicate the existence of gap between theory and practice of capital budgeting. Standard appraisal methods have shown a wider project value discrepancy, which is beyond and above the contingency limit. In addition, the research has found the growing trend in the use

  16. Neutron activation analysis for certification of standard reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capote Rodriguez, G.; Perez Zayas, G.; Hernandez Rivero, A.; Ribeiro Guevara, S.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis is used extensively as one of the analytical techniques in the certification of standard reference materials. Characteristics of neutron activation analysis which make it valuable in this role are: accuracy multielemental capability to asses homogeneity, high sensitivity for many elements, and essentially non-destructive method. This paper report the concentrations of 30 elements (major, minor and trace elements) in four Cuban samples. The samples were irradiated in a thermal neutron flux of 10 12- 10 13 n.cm 2. s -1. The gamma ray spectra were measured by HPGe detectors and were analyzed using ACTAN program development in Center of Applied Studies for Nuclear Development

  17. The development of a standard format for accelerator data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of specifying a standard file format is to facilitate the analysis of data sampled by accelerator beam diagnostic instrumentation. The format's design needs to be flexible enough to allow storage of information from disparate diagnostic devices placed in the beam line. The goal of this project was to establish a standard file layout and syntax that can be generated and ''understood'' by a large set of applications running on the control and data-analysis computers at LAMPF as well as applications on personal computers. Only one file-parsing algorithm is needed for all computing systems. It is a straightforward process to code a parser for both the control computer and pc's once a consensus on the file syntax has been established. This paper describes the file format and the methods used to integrate the format into existing diagnostic and control software

  18. The development of a standard format for accelerator data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, S [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of specifying a standard file format is to facilitate the analysis of data sampled by accelerator beam-diagnostic instrumentation. The format's design needs to be flexible enough to allow storage of information from disparate diagnostic devices placed in the beam line. The goal of this project was to establish a standard file layout and syntax that can be generated and 'understood' by a large set of applications running on the control and data-analysis computers at LAMPF, as well as applications on personal computers. Only one file-parsing algorithm is needed for all computing systems. Once a consensus on the file syntax has been established, it is a straightforward process to code a parser for both the control computer and PCs. This paper describes the file format and the method used to integrate the format into existing diagnostic and control software. (orig.).

  19. Radioactive standards and calibration methods for contamination monitoring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Makoto [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-06-01

    Contamination monitoring in the facilities for handling unsealed radioactive materials is one of the most important procedures for radiation protection as well as radiation dose monitoring. For implementation of the proper contamination monitoring, radiation measuring instruments should not only be suitable to the purpose of monitoring, but also be well calibrated for the objective qualities of measurement. In the calibration of contamination monitoring instruments, quality reference activities need to be used. They are supplied in different such as extended sources, radioactive solutions or radioactive gases. These reference activities must be traceable to the national standards or equivalent standards. On the other hand, the appropriate calibration methods must be applied for each type of contamination monitoring instruments. In this paper, the concepts of calibration for contamination monitoring instruments, reference sources, determination methods of reference quantities and practical calibration methods of contamination monitoring instruments, including the procedures carried out in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and some relevant experimental data. (G.K.)

  20. The new fabrication method of standard surface sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yasushi E-mail: yss.sato@aist.go.jp; Hino, Yoshio; Yamada, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Mikio

    2004-04-01

    We developed a new fabrication method for standard surface sources by using an inkjet printer with inks in which a radioactive material is mixed to print on a sheet of paper. Three printed test patterns have been prepared: (1) 100 mmx100 mm uniformity-test patterns, (2) positional-resolution test patterns with different widths and intervals of straight lines, and (3) logarithmic intensity test patterns with different radioactive intensities. The results revealed that the fabricated standard surface sources had high uniformity, high positional resolution, arbitrary shapes and a broad intensity range.

  1. Economic analysis of alternative LLW disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foutes, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has evaluated the costs and benefits of alternative disposal technologies as part of its program to develop generally applicable environmental standards for the land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Costs, population health effects and Critical Population Group (CPG) exposures resulting from alternative waste treatment and disposal methods were developed and input into the analysis. The cost-effectiveness analysis took into account a number of waste streams, hydrogeologic and climatic region settings, and waste treatment and disposal methods. Total costs of each level of a standard included costs for packaging, processing, transportation, and burial of waste. Benefits are defined in terms of reductions in the general population health risk (expected fatal cancers and genetic effects) evaluated over 10,000 years. A cost-effectiveness ratio, was calculated for each alternative standard. This paper describes the alternatives considered and preliminary results of the cost-effectiveness analysis

  2. COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE ANALYSIS - SCENARIOS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Valeriu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Keeping a company in the top performing players in the relevant market depends not only on its ability to develop continually, sustainably and balanced, to the standards set by the customer and competition, but also on the ability to protect its strategic information and to know in advance the strategic information of the competition. In addition, given that economic markets, regardless of their profile, enable interconnection not only among domestic companies, but also between domestic companies and foreign companies, the issue of economic competition moves from the national economies to the field of interest of regional and international economic organizations. The stakes for each economic player is to keep ahead of the competition and to be always prepared to face market challenges. Therefore, it needs to know as early as possible, how to react to others’ strategy in terms of research, production and sales. If a competitor is planning to produce more and cheaper, then it must be prepared to counteract quickly this movement. Competitive intelligence helps to evaluate the capabilities of competitors in the market, legally and ethically, and to develop response strategies. One of the main goals of the competitive intelligence is to acknowledge the role of early warning and prevention of surprises that could have a major impact on the market share, reputation, turnover and profitability in the medium and long term of a company. This paper presents some aspects of competitive intelligence, mainly in terms of information analysis and intelligence generation. Presentation is theoretical and addresses a structured method of information analysis - scenarios method – in a version that combines several types of analysis in order to reveal some interconnecting aspects of the factors governing the activity of a company.

  3. Nuclear microprobe analysis of the standard reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaksic, M.; Fazinic, S.; Bogdanovic, I.; Tadic, T.

    2002-01-01

    Most of the presently existing Standard Reference Materials (SRM) for nuclear analytical methods are certified for the analyzed mass of the order of few hundred mg. Typical mass of sample which is analyzed by PIXE or XRF methods is very often below 1 mg. By the development of focused proton or x-ray beams, masses which can be typically analyzed go down to μg or even ng level. It is difficult to make biological or environmental SRMs which can give desired homogeneity at such low scale. However, use of fundamental parameter quantitative evaluation procedures (absolute method), minimize needs for SRMs. In PIXE and micro PIXE setup at our Institute, fundamental parameter approach is used. For exact calibration of the quantitative analysis procedure just one standard sample is needed. In our case glass standards which showed homogeneity down to micron scale were used. Of course, it is desirable to use SRMs for quality assurance, and therefore need for homogenous materials can be justified even for micro PIXE method. In this presentation, brief overview of PIXE setup calibration is given, along with some recent results of tests of several SRMs

  4. Another Look at the Method of Y-Standardization in Logit and Probit Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2015-01-01

    This paper takes another look at the derivation of the method of Y-standardization used in sociological analysis involving comparisons of coefficients across logit or probit models. It shows that the method can be derived under less restrictive assumptions than hitherto suggested. Rather than...

  5. Multivariate analysis: models and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz Perucha, J.

    1990-01-01

    Data treatment techniques are increasingly used since computer methods result of wider access. Multivariate analysis consists of a group of statistic methods that are applied to study objects or samples characterized by multiple values. A final goal is decision making. The paper describes the models and methods of multivariate analysis

  6. Multivariate analysis methods in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolter, M.

    2007-01-01

    A review of multivariate methods based on statistical training is given. Several multivariate methods useful in high-energy physics analysis are discussed. Selected examples from current research in particle physics are discussed, both from the on-line trigger selection and from the off-line analysis. Also statistical training methods are presented and some new application are suggested [ru

  7. Methods in algorithmic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Dobrushkin, Vladimir A

    2009-01-01

    …helpful to any mathematics student who wishes to acquire a background in classical probability and analysis … This is a remarkably beautiful book that would be a pleasure for a student to read, or for a teacher to make into a year's course.-Harvey Cohn, Computing Reviews, May 2010

  8. Communication Network Analysis Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Richard V.; Mabee, Timothy

    This paper reviews a variety of analytic procedures that can be applied to network data, discussing the assumptions and usefulness of each procedure when applied to the complexity of human communication. Special attention is paid to the network properties measured or implied by each procedure. Factor analysis and multidimensional scaling are among…

  9. Complementing Gender Analysis Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anant

    2016-01-01

    The existing gender analysis frameworks start with a premise that men and women are equal and should be treated equally. These frameworks give emphasis on equal distribution of resources between men and women and believe that this will bring equality which is not always true. Despite equal distribution of resources, women tend to suffer and experience discrimination in many areas of their lives such as the power to control resources within social relationships, and the need for emotional security and reproductive rights within interpersonal relationships. These frameworks believe that patriarchy as an institution plays an important role in women's oppression, exploitation, and it is a barrier in their empowerment and rights. Thus, some think that by ensuring equal distribution of resources and empowering women economically, institutions like patriarchy can be challenged. These frameworks are based on proposed equality principle which puts men and women in competing roles. Thus, the real equality will never be achieved. Contrary to the existing gender analysis frameworks, the Complementing Gender Analysis framework proposed by the author provides a new approach toward gender analysis which not only recognizes the role of economic empowerment and equal distribution of resources but suggests to incorporate the concept and role of social capital, equity, and doing gender in gender analysis which is based on perceived equity principle, putting men and women in complementing roles that may lead to equality. In this article the author reviews the mainstream gender theories in development from the viewpoint of the complementary roles of gender. This alternative view is argued based on existing literature and an anecdote of observations made by the author. While criticizing the equality theory, the author offers equity theory in resolving the gender conflict by using the concept of social and psychological capital.

  10. Legislation, standards and methods for mercury emissions control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-15

    Mercury is an element of growing global concern. The United Nations Environment Programme plans to finalise and ratify a new global legally-binding convention on mercury by 2013. Canada already has legislation on mercury emissions from coal-fired utilities and the USA has recently released the new Mercury and Air Toxics Standard. Although other countries may not have mercury-specific legislation as such, many have legislation which results in significant co-benefit mercury reduction due to the installation of effective flue-gas cleaning technologies. This report reviews the current situation and trends in mercury emission legislation and, where possible, discusses the actions that will be taken under proposed or impending standards globally and regionally. The report also reviews the methods currently applied for mercury control and for mercury emission measurement with emphasis on the methodologies most appropriate for compliance. Examples of the methods of mercury control currently deployed in the USA, Canada and elsewhere are included.

  11. Gas measuring apparatus with standardization means, and method therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typpo, P.M.

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus and a method for standardizing a gas measuring device has a source capable of emitting a beam of radiation aligned to impinge a detector. A housing means encloses the beam. The housing means has a plurality of apertures permitting the gas to enter the housing means, to intercept the beam, and to exit from the housing means. The device further comprises means for closing the apertures and a means for purging said gas from the housing means

  12. Comparison of Standard and Fast Charging Methods for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Chlebis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a comparison of standard and fast charging methods used in the field of electric vehicles and also comparison of their efficiency in terms of electrical energy consumption. The comparison was performed on three-phase buck converter, which was designed for EV’s fast charging station. The results were obtained by both mathematical and simulation methods. The laboratory model of entire physical application, which will be further used for simulation results verification, is being built in these days.

  13. An endogenous standard, radioisotopic ratio method in NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, A.R.; Dermelj, M.

    1997-01-01

    A derivative form of NAA is proposed which is based on the use of an endogenous internal standard of already known concentration in the sample. If a comparator with a known ratio of the determinand and endogenous standard are co-irradiated with the sample, the determinand concentration is derived in terms of the endogenous standard concentration and the activity ratios of the two induced nuclides in the sample and comparator. As well as eliminating the sample mass and greatly reducing errors caused by pulse pile-up and geometrical differences, it was shown that in the radiochemical mode, if the endogenous standard is chosen so that the induced activity is radioisotopic with that from the determinand, the radiochemical yield is also eliminated and the risk non-achievement of isotopic exchange greatly reduced. The method is demonstrated with good results on reference materials for the determination of I, Mn and Ni. The advantages and disadvantages of this approach are discussed. It is suggested that it may be of application in quality control and in extending the range of certified elements in reference materials. (author)

  14. Certification of standard reference materials employing neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capote Rodriguez, G.; Hernandez Rivero, A.; Molina Insfran, J.; Ribeiro Guevara, S.; Santana Encinosa, C.; Perez Zayas, G.

    1997-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (Naa) is used extensively as one of the analytical techniques in the certification of standard reference materials (Srm). Characteristics of Naa which make it valuable in this role are: accuracy; multielemental capability; ability to assess homogeneity; high sensitivity for many elements, and essentially non-destructive method. This paper reports the concentrations of thirty elements (major, minor and trace elements) in four Cuban Srm's. The samples were irradiated in a thermal neutron flux of 10 12 -10 13 neutrons.cm -2 .s -1 . The gamma-ray spectra were measured by HPGe detectors and were analysed using ACTAN program, developed in CEADEN. (author) [es

  15. Standard Test Method for Normal Spectral Emittance at Elevated Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1972-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes a highly accurate technique for measuring the normal spectral emittance of electrically conducting materials or materials with electrically conducting substrates, in the temperature range from 600 to 1400 K, and at wavelengths from 1 to 35 μm. 1.2 The test method requires expensive equipment and rather elaborate precautions, but produces data that are accurate to within a few percent. It is suitable for research laboratories where the highest precision and accuracy are desired, but is not recommended for routine production or acceptance testing. However, because of its high accuracy this test method can be used as a referee method to be applied to production and acceptance testing in cases of dispute. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values in parentheses are for information only. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this stan...

  16. Standardization method for alpha and beta surface sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahagia, M; Grigorescu, E L; Razdolescu, A C; Ivan, C [Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Institute of Atomic Physics, PO Box MG-6, R-76900 Bucharest, (Romania)

    1994-01-01

    The installation and method of standardization of large surface alpha and beta sources are presented. A multiwire, flow-type proportional counter and the associated electronics is used. The counter is placed in a lead-shield. The response of the system in (s[sup -1]/Bq) or (s[sup -1]/(particle x s[sup -1])) was determined for [sup 241] Am, [sup 239] Pu, [sup 147] Pm, [sup 204] Tl, [sup 90](Sr+Y) and [sup 137] Cs using standard sources with different dimensions, from some mm[sup 2] to 180 x 220 mm[sup 2]. The system was legally attested for expanded uncertainties of +7%. (Author).

  17. Analysis of cryptocurrencies as standard financial instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Bartoš, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes cryptocurrencies as financial instruments. Firstly, we introduced the main features of cryptocurrencies and summarized the brief history. We found out that price of the most famous cryptocurrency Bitcoin follows the hypothesis of efficient markets and it immediately react on publicly announce information. Furthermore, Bitcoin can be seen as standard economic good that is priced by interaction of supply and demand on the market. These factors can be driven by macro financia...

  18. Gold-standard for computer-assisted morphological sperm analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Violeta; Garcia, Alejandra; Hitschfeld, Nancy; Härtel, Steffen

    2017-04-01

    Published algorithms for classification of human sperm heads are based on relatively small image databases that are not open to the public, and thus no direct comparison is available for competing methods. We describe a gold-standard for morphological sperm analysis (SCIAN-MorphoSpermGS), a dataset of sperm head images with expert-classification labels in one of the following classes: normal, tapered, pyriform, small or amorphous. This gold-standard is for evaluating and comparing known techniques and future improvements to present approaches for classification of human sperm heads for semen analysis. Although this paper does not provide a computational tool for morphological sperm analysis, we present a set of experiments for comparing sperm head description and classification common techniques. This classification base-line is aimed to be used as a reference for future improvements to present approaches for human sperm head classification. The gold-standard provides a label for each sperm head, which is achieved by majority voting among experts. The classification base-line compares four supervised learning methods (1- Nearest Neighbor, naive Bayes, decision trees and Support Vector Machine (SVM)) and three shape-based descriptors (Hu moments, Zernike moments and Fourier descriptors), reporting the accuracy and the true positive rate for each experiment. We used Fleiss' Kappa Coefficient to evaluate the inter-expert agreement and Fisher's exact test for inter-expert variability and statistical significant differences between descriptors and learning techniques. Our results confirm the high degree of inter-expert variability in the morphological sperm analysis. Regarding the classification base line, we show that none of the standard descriptors or classification approaches is best suitable for tackling the problem of sperm head classification. We discovered that the correct classification rate was highly variable when trying to discriminate among non-normal sperm

  19. Basic methods of isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochkin, A.V.; Rozenkevich, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    The bases of the most applied methods of the isotope analysis are briefly presented. The possibilities and analytical characteristics of the mass-spectrometric, spectral, radiochemical and special methods of the isotope analysis, including application of the magnetic resonance, chromatography and refractometry, are considered [ru

  20. Standard CMMIsm Appraisal Method for Process Improvement (SCAMPIsm), Version 1.1: Method Definition Document

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    The Standard CMMI Appraisal Method for Process Improvement (SCAMPI(Service Mark)) is designed to provide benchmark quality ratings relative to Capability Maturity Model(registered) Integration (CMMI(Service Mark)) models...

  1. Cutibacterium acnes molecular typing: time to standardize the method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnelie, M-A; Khammari, A; Dréno, B; Corvec, S

    2018-03-12

    The Gram-positive, anaerobic/aerotolerant bacterium Cutibacterium acnes is a commensal of healthy human skin; it is subdivided into six main phylogenetic groups or phylotypes: IA1, IA2, IB, IC, II and III. To decipher how far specific subgroups of C. acnes are involved in disease physiopathology, different molecular typing methods have been developed to identify these subgroups: i.e. phylotypes, clonal complexes, and types defined by single-locus sequence typing (SLST). However, as several molecular typing methods have been developed over the last decade, it has become a difficult task to compare the results from one article to another. Based on the scientific literature, the aim of this narrative review is to propose a standardized method to perform molecular typing of C. acnes, according to the degree of resolution needed (phylotypes, clonal complexes, or SLST types). We discuss the existing different typing methods from a critical point of view, emphasizing their advantages and drawbacks, and we identify the most frequently used methods. We propose a consensus algorithm according to the needed phylogeny resolution level. We first propose to use multiplex PCR for phylotype identification, MLST9 for clonal complex determination, and SLST for phylogeny investigation including numerous isolates. There is an obvious need to create a consensus about molecular typing methods for C. acnes. This standardization will facilitate the comparison of results between one article and another, and also the interpretation of clinical data. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A standardized method for beam design in neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storr, G.J.: Harrington, B.V.

    1993-01-01

    A desirable end point for a given beam design for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) should be quantitative description of tumour control probability and normal tissue damage. Achieving this goal will ultimately rely on data from NCT human clinical trials. Traditional descriptions of beam designs have used a variety of assessment methods to quantify proposed or installed beam designs. These methods include measurement and calculation of open-quotes free fieldclose quotes parameters, such as neutron and gamma flux intensities and energy spectra, and figures-of-merit in tissue equivalent phantoms. The authors propose here a standardized method for beam design in NCT. This method would allow all proposed and existing NCT beam facilities to be compared equally. The traditional approach to determining a quantitative description of tumour control probability and normal tissue damage in NCT research may be described by the following path: Beam design → dosimetry → macroscopic effects → microscopic effects. Methods exist that allow neutron and gamma fluxes and energy dependence to be calculated and measured to good accuracy. By using this information and intermediate dosimetric quantities such as kerma factors for neutrons and gammas, macroscopic effect (absorbed dose) in geometries of tissue or tissue-equivalent materials can be calculated. After this stage, for NCT the data begins to become more sparse and in some areas ambiguous. Uncertainties in the Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) of some NCT dose components means that beam designs based on assumptions considered valid a few years ago may have to be reassessed. A standard method is therefore useful for comparing different NCT facilities

  3. Phosphorus analysis in milk samples by neutron activation analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R.M. de; Cunha, I.I.L.

    1991-01-01

    The determination of phosphorus in milk samples by instrumental thermal neutron activation analysis is described. The procedure involves a short irradiation in a nuclear reactor and measurement of the beta radiation emitted by phosphorus - 32 after a suitable decay period. The sources of error were studied and the established method was applied to standard reference materials of known phosphorus content. (author)

  4. Standardization of 18F by coincidence and LSC methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roteta, Miguel; Garcia-Torano, Eduardo; Rodriguez Barquero, Leonor

    2006-01-01

    The nuclide 18 F disintegrates to 18 O by β + emission (96.86%) and electron capture (3.14%) with a half-life of 1.8288 h. It is widely used in nuclear medicine for positron emission tomography (PET). A radioactive solution of this nuclide has been standardized by two techniques: coincidence measurements with a pressurized proportional counter and liquid scintillation counting using the CIEMAT/NIST method. One ampoule containing a solution calibrated in activity was sent for measurement at the International Reference System maintained by the BIPM. Results are in excellent agreement with SIR values

  5. Wavelength selection method with standard deviation: application to pulse oximetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Jaccaud, Camille; Paez, Gonzalo; Strojnik, Marija

    2011-07-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy provides useful biological information after the radiation has penetrated through the tissue, within the therapeutic window. One of the significant shortcomings of the current applications of spectroscopic techniques to a live subject is that the subject may be uncooperative and the sample undergoes significant temporal variations, due to his health status that, from radiometric point of view, introduce measurement noise. We describe a novel wavelength selection method for monitoring, based on a standard deviation map, that allows low-noise sensitivity. It may be used with spectral transillumination, transmission, or reflection signals, including those corrupted by noise and unavoidable temporal effects. We apply it to the selection of two wavelengths for the case of pulse oximetry. Using spectroscopic data, we generate a map of standard deviation that we propose as a figure-of-merit in the presence of the noise introduced by the living subject. Even in the presence of diverse sources of noise, we identify four wavelength domains with standard deviation, minimally sensitive to temporal noise, and two wavelengths domains with low sensitivity to temporal noise.

  6. Risk Analysis as Regulatory Science: Toward The Establishment of Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Michio

    2016-09-01

    Understanding how to establish standards is essential for risk communication and also provides perspectives for further study. In this paper, the concept of risk analysis as regulatory science for the establishment of standards is demonstrated through examples of standards for evacuation and provisional regulation values in foods and drinking water. Moreover, academic needs for further studies related to standards are extracted. The concepts of the traditional 'Standard I', which has a paternalistic orientation, and 'Standard II', established through stakeholder consensus, are then systemized by introducing the current status of the new standards-related movement that developed after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, and the perspectives of the standards are discussed. Preparation of standards on the basis of stakeholder consensus through intensive risk dialogue before a potential nuclear power plant accident is suggested to be a promising approach to ensure a safe society and enhance subjective well-being. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. Standard Test Method for Measuring Binocular Disparity in Transparent Parts

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the amount of binocular disparity that is induced by transparent parts such as aircraft windscreens, canopies, HUD combining glasses, visors, or goggles. This test method may be applied to parts of any size, shape, or thickness, individually or in combination, so as to determine the contribution of each transparent part to the overall binocular disparity present in the total “viewing system” being used by a human operator. 1.2 This test method represents one of several techniques that are available for measuring binocular disparity, but is the only technique that yields a quantitative figure of merit that can be related to operator visual performance. 1.3 This test method employs apparatus currently being used in the measurement of optical angular deviation under Method F 801. 1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not con...

  8. TL glow ratios at different temperature intervals of integration in thermoluminescence method. Comparison of Japanese standard (MHLW notified) method with CEN standard methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todoriki, Setsuko; Saito, Kimie; Tsujimoto, Yuka

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the integration temperature intervals of TL intensities on the TL glow ratio was examined in comparison of the notified method of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW method) with EN1788. Two kinds of un-irradiated geological standard rock and three kinds of spices (black pepper, turmeric, and oregano) irradiated at 0.3 kGy or 1.0 kGy were subjected to TL analysis. Although the TL glow ratio exceeded 0.1 in the andesite according to the calculation of the MHLW notified method (integration interval; 70-490degC), the maximum of the first glow were observed at 300degC or more, attributed the influence of the natural radioactivity and distinguished from food irradiation. When the integration interval was set to 166-227degC according to EN1788, the TL glow ratios became remarkably smaller than 0.1, and the evaluation of the un-irradiated sample became more clear. For spices, the TL glow ratios by the MHLW notified method fell below 0.1 in un-irradiated samples and exceeded 0.1 in irradiated ones. Moreover, Glow1 maximum temperatures of the irradiated samples were observed at the range of 168-196degC, and those of un-irradiated samples were 258degC or more. Therefore, all samples were correctly judged by the criteria of the MHLW method. However, based on the temperature range of integration defined by EN1788, the TL glow ratio of un-irradiated samples remarkably became small compared with that of the MHLW method, and the discrimination of the irradiated sample from non-irradiation sample became clearer. (author)

  9. Probabilistic methods for rotordynamics analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.-T.; Torng, T. Y.; Millwater, H. R.; Fossum, A. F.; Rheinfurth, M. H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development of the methods and a computer program to compute the probability of instability of dynamic systems that can be represented by a system of second-order ordinary linear differential equations. Two instability criteria based upon the eigenvalues or Routh-Hurwitz test functions are investigated. Computational methods based on a fast probability integration concept and an efficient adaptive importance sampling method are proposed to perform efficient probabilistic analysis. A numerical example is provided to demonstrate the methods.

  10. Dependability Analysis Methods For Configurable Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahll, Gustav; Pulkkinen, Urho

    1996-01-01

    Configurable software systems are systems which are built up by standard software components in the same way as a hardware system is built up by standard hardware components. Such systems are often used in the control of NPPs, also in safety related applications. A reliability analysis of such systems is therefore necessary. This report discusses what configurable software is, and what is particular with respect to reliability assessment of such software. Two very commonly used techniques in traditional reliability analysis, viz. failure mode, effect and criticality analysis (FMECA) and fault tree analysis are investigated. A real example is used to illustrate the discussed methods. Various aspects relevant to the assessment of the software reliability in such systems are discussed. Finally some models for quantitative software reliability assessment applicable on configurable software systems are described. (author)

  11. Fiscal 1999 technical research report. Research and development project on prompt-effect international standards creation (Standardization of gene amplification and analysis methods for genetic screening); 1999 nendo shinki sangyo ikusei sokkogata kokusai hyojunka kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Idenshi kensayo idenshi zofuku kaiseki hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the promotion of Japan's proposition for international standardization, PCR (polymerase chain reaction) Comprehensive Research Committee, Technical Promotion Committee, and Japan Bioindustry Association organized a 5-member overseas research team and dispatched the team to Europe and America where they held research interviews at government organizations and business corporations engaged in standardization promotion. The aims were to disclose trends of PCR method standardization and standardization in general in biotechnology. The team visited British Standards Institution, Association Francaise de Normalisation, German Institute for Standardization, Food and Drug Administration of America, American Society for Testing and Materials, PE Biosystem, Bio-Rad Laboratories, and Roche Molecular Systems. The objects of standardization at issue included techniques, tools, devices, and reagents to be used. It is found that in Europe and America there are standardization plans under deliberation for PCR-aided techniques, not for PCR itself, and that some are now approaching completion as national or local standards. It is also learned that in every standardizing organization there is a person responsible for each TC (technical committee) of CEN (Committee European pour Normalisation). (NEDO)

  12. Fiscal 1999 technical research report. Research and development project on prompt-effect international standards creation (Standardization of gene amplification and analysis methods for genetic screening); 1999 nendo shinki sangyo ikusei sokkogata kokusai hyojunka kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Idenshi kensayo idenshi zofuku kaiseki hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the promotion of Japan's proposition for international standardization, PCR (polymerase chain reaction) Comprehensive Research Committee, Technical Promotion Committee, and Japan Bioindustry Association organized a 5-member overseas research team and dispatched the team to Europe and America where they held research interviews at government organizations and business corporations engaged in standardization promotion. The aims were to disclose trends of PCR method standardization and standardization in general in biotechnology. The team visited British Standards Institution, Association Francaise de Normalisation, German Institute for Standardization, Food and Drug Administration of America, American Society for Testing and Materials, PE Biosystem, Bio-Rad Laboratories, and Roche Molecular Systems. The objects of standardization at issue included techniques, tools, devices, and reagents to be used. It is found that in Europe and America there are standardization plans under deliberation for PCR-aided techniques, not for PCR itself, and that some are now approaching completion as national or local standards. It is also learned that in every standardizing organization there is a person responsible for each TC (technical committee) of CEN (Committee European pour Normalisation). (NEDO)

  13. Analysis of Precision of Activation Analysis Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Nørgaard, K.

    1973-01-01

    The precision of an activation-analysis method prescribes the estimation of the precision of a single analytical result. The adequacy of these estimates to account for the observed variation between duplicate results from the analysis of different samples and materials, is tested by the statistic T...

  14. Manual of Standard Operating Procedures for Veterinary Drug Residue Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Laboratories are crucial to national veterinary drug residue monitoring programmes. However, one of the main challenges laboratories encounter is obtaining access to relevant methods of analysis. Thus, in addition to training, providing technical advice and transferring technology, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has resolved to develop clear and practical manuals to support Member State laboratories. The Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development of Radiometric and Allied Analytical Methods to Strengthen Residue Control Programs for Antibiotic and Anthelmintic Veterinary Drug Residues has developed a number of analytical methods as standard operating procedures (SOPs), which are now compiled here. This publication contains SOPs on chromatographic and spectrometric techniques, as well as radioimmunoassay and associated screening techniques, for various anthelmintic and antimicrobial veterinary drug residue analysis. Some analytical method validation protocols are also included. The publication is primarily aimed at food and environmental safety laboratories involved in testing veterinary drug residues, including under organized national residue monitoring programmes. It is expected to enhance laboratory capacity building and competence through the use of radiometric and complementary tools and techniques. The publication is also relevant for applied research on residues of veterinary drugs in food and environmental samples

  15. Analysis apparatus and method of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A continuous streaming method developed for the excution of immunoassays is described in this patent. In addition, a suitable apparatus for the method was developed whereby magnetic particles are automatically employed for the consecutive analysis of a series of liquid samples via the RIA technique

  16. Standard test method for creep-fatigue testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of mechanical properties pertaining to creep-fatigue deformation or crack formation in nominally homogeneous materials, or both by the use of test specimens subjected to uniaxial forces under isothermal conditions. It concerns fatigue testing at strain rates or with cycles involving sufficiently long hold times to be responsible for the cyclic deformation response and cycles to crack formation to be affected by creep (and oxidation). It is intended as a test method for fatigue testing performed in support of such activities as materials research and development, mechanical design, process and quality control, product performance, and failure analysis. The cyclic conditions responsible for creep-fatigue deformation and cracking vary with material and with temperature for a given material. 1.2 The use of this test method is limited to specimens and does not cover testing of full-scale components, structures, or consumer products. 1.3 This test method is primarily ...

  17. Nonlinear programming analysis and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avriel, Mordecai

    2012-01-01

    This text provides an excellent bridge between principal theories and concepts and their practical implementation. Topics include convex programming, duality, generalized convexity, analysis of selected nonlinear programs, techniques for numerical solutions, and unconstrained optimization methods.

  18. Chemical methods of rock analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeffery, P. G; Hutchison, D

    1981-01-01

    A practical guide to the methods in general use for the complete analysis of silicate rock material and for the determination of all those elements present in major, minor or trace amounts in silicate...

  19. CrowdMapping: A Crowdsourcing-Based Terminology Mapping Method for Medical Data Standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Huajian; Chi, Chenyang; Huang, Boyu; Meng, Haibin; Yu, Jinghui; Zhao, Dongsheng

    2017-01-01

    Standardized terminology is the prerequisite of data exchange in analysis of clinical processes. However, data from different electronic health record systems are based on idiosyncratic terminology systems, especially when the data is from different hospitals and healthcare organizations. Terminology standardization is necessary for the medical data analysis. We propose a crowdsourcing-based terminology mapping method, CrowdMapping, to standardize the terminology in medical data. CrowdMapping uses a confidential model to determine how terminologies are mapped to a standard system, like ICD-10. The model uses mappings from different health care organizations and evaluates the diversity of the mapping to determine a more sophisticated mapping rule. Further, the CrowdMapping model enables users to rate the mapping result and interact with the model evaluation. CrowdMapping is a work-in-progress system, we present initial results mapping terminologies.

  20. Numerical methods in software and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, John R

    1992-01-01

    Numerical Methods, Software, and Analysis, Second Edition introduces science and engineering students to the methods, tools, and ideas of numerical computation. Introductory courses in numerical methods face a fundamental problem-there is too little time to learn too much. This text solves that problem by using high-quality mathematical software. In fact, the objective of the text is to present scientific problem solving using standard mathematical software. This book discusses numerous programs and software packages focusing on the IMSL library (including the PROTRAN system) and ACM Algorithm

  1. A strategy for evaluating pathway analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chenggang; Woo, Hyung Jun; Yu, Xueping; Oyama, Tatsuya; Wallqvist, Anders; Reifman, Jaques

    2017-10-13

    Researchers have previously developed a multitude of methods designed to identify biological pathways associated with specific clinical or experimental conditions of interest, with the aim of facilitating biological interpretation of high-throughput data. Before practically applying such pathway analysis (PA) methods, we must first evaluate their performance and reliability, using datasets where the pathways perturbed by the conditions of interest have been well characterized in advance. However, such 'ground truths' (or gold standards) are often unavailable. Furthermore, previous evaluation strategies that have focused on defining 'true answers' are unable to systematically and objectively assess PA methods under a wide range of conditions. In this work, we propose a novel strategy for evaluating PA methods independently of any gold standard, either established or assumed. The strategy involves the use of two mutually complementary metrics, recall and discrimination. Recall measures the consistency of the perturbed pathways identified by applying a particular analysis method to an original large dataset and those identified by the same method to a sub-dataset of the original dataset. In contrast, discrimination measures specificity-the degree to which the perturbed pathways identified by a particular method to a dataset from one experiment differ from those identifying by the same method to a dataset from a different experiment. We used these metrics and 24 datasets to evaluate six widely used PA methods. The results highlighted the common challenge in reliably identifying significant pathways from small datasets. Importantly, we confirmed the effectiveness of our proposed dual-metric strategy by showing that previous comparative studies corroborate the performance evaluations of the six methods obtained by our strategy. Unlike any previously proposed strategy for evaluating the performance of PA methods, our dual-metric strategy does not rely on any ground truth

  2. 41Ca standardization by the CIEMAT/NIST LSC method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Barquero, L.; Los Arcos, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    A procedure for the liquid scintillation counting standardization of the electron-capture nuclide 41 Ca has been successfully developed and applied with 41 CaCl 2 and 41 Ca-(HDEHP) n samples synthesized in the laboratory from 41 CaCO 3 supplied by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Six scintillators were tested: the organic samples were stable in toluene-alcohol, Ultima-Gold TM and HiSafe III TM for 30 d, whereas the inorganic samples were only stable in toluene-alcohol and HiSafe III TM for the same period of time. Despite of the low counting efficiencies (1%-13%) due to the very low-energy of less than 3.6 keV of the X-rays and Auger electrons of 41 Ca, the stable samples were standardized by the CIEMAT/NIST method to a combined uncertainty of 2.4% over a range of figures of merit of 1.75 to 7.25 ( 3 H equivalent efficiency of 40% to 7%). (orig.)

  3. METHODOLOGY COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF PROFESSIONAL STANDARDS AND EDUCATION STANDARDS WITH THE USE OF NON-NUMERIC DATA PROCESSING METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady V. Abramov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the development of a technique that allows for a comparative assessment of the requirements of the professional standard and the federal state educational standards. The results can be used by universities to adjust the learning process for the analysis of their curricula to better compliance with professional standards

  4. Standardized methods for Grand Canyon fisheries research 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persons, William R.; Ward, David L.; Avery, Luke A.

    2013-01-01

    This document presents protocols and guidelines to persons sampling fishes in the Grand Canyon, to help ensure consistency in fish handling, fish tagging, and data collection among different projects and organizations. Most such research and monitoring projects are conducted under the general umbrella of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program and include studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), National Park Service (NPS), the Arizona Game and Fish Department (AGFD), various universities, and private contractors. This document is intended to provide guidance to fieldworkers regarding protocols that may vary from year to year depending on specific projects and objectives. We also provide herein documentation of standard methods used in the Grand Canyon that can be cited in scientific publications, as well as a summary of changes in protocols since the document was first created in 2002.

  5. Standard test method for measurement of soil resistivity using the two-electrode soil box method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the equipment and a procedure for the measurement of soil resistivity, for samples removed from the ground, for use in the control of corrosion of buried structures. 1.2 Procedures allow for this test method to be used n the field or in the laboratory. 1.3 The test method procedures are for the resistivity measurement of soil samples in the saturated condition and in the as-received condition. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. Soil resistivity values are reported in ohm-centimeter. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  6. Evaluation of a Method for Nitrotyrosine Site Identification and Relative Quantitation Using a Stable Isotope-Labeled Nitrated Spike-In Standard and High Resolution Fourier Transform MS and MS/MS Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent W. Seeley

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS can have deleterious effects in the cell, including structural and possible activity-altering modifications to proteins. Peroxynitrite is one such RNS that can result in a specific protein modification, nitration of tyrosine residues to form nitrotyrosine, and to date, the identification of nitrotyrosine sites in proteins continues to be a major analytical challenge. We have developed a method by which 15N-labeled nitrotyrosine groups are generated on peptide or protein standards using stable isotope-labeled peroxynitrite (O15NOO−, and the resulting standard is mixed with representative samples in which nitrotyrosine formation is to be measured by mass spectrometry (MS. Nitropeptide MS/MS spectra are filtered using high mass accuracy Fourier transform MS (FTMS detection of the nitrotyrosine immonium ion. Given that the nitropeptide pair is co-isolated for MS/MS fragmentation, the nitrotyrosine immonium ions (at m/z = 181 or 182 can be used for relative quantitation with negligible isotopic interference at a mass resolution of greater than 50,000 (FWHM, full width at half-maximum. Furthermore, the standard potentially allows for the increased signal of nitrotyrosine-containing peptides, thus facilitating selection for MS/MS in a data-dependent mode of acquisition. We have evaluated the methodology in terms of nitrotyrosine site identification and relative quantitation using nitrated peptide and protein standards.

  7. Machine Learning Methods for Production Cases Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrova, Nataliya V.; Mokrov, Alexander M.; Safonova, Alexandra V.; Vishnyakov, Igor V.

    2018-03-01

    Approach to analysis of events occurring during the production process were proposed. Described machine learning system is able to solve classification tasks related to production control and hazard identification at an early stage. Descriptors of the internal production network data were used for training and testing of applied models. k-Nearest Neighbors and Random forest methods were used to illustrate and analyze proposed solution. The quality of the developed classifiers was estimated using standard statistical metrics, such as precision, recall and accuracy.

  8. Method for matching customer and manufacturer positions for metal product parameters standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakova, Marina; Rubin, Gennadij; Danilova, Yulija

    2018-04-01

    Decision making is the main stage of regulation the relations between customer and manufacturer during the design the demands of norms in standards. It is necessary to match the positions of the negotiating sides in order to gain the consensus. In order to take into consideration the differences of customer and manufacturer estimation of the object under standardization process it is obvious to use special methods of analysis. It is proposed to establish relationships between product properties and its functions using functional-target analysis. The special feature of this type of functional analysis is the consideration of the research object functions and properties. It is shown on the example of hexagonal head crew the possibility to establish links between its functions and properties. Such approach allows obtaining a quantitative assessment of the closeness the positions of customer and manufacturer at decision making during the standard norms establishment.

  9. Seismic design and analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varpasuo, P.

    1993-01-01

    Seismic load is in many areas of the world the most important loading situation from the point of view of structural strength. Taking this into account it is understandable, that there has been a strong allocation of resources in the seismic analysis during the past ten years. In this study there are three areas of the center of gravity: (1) Random vibrations; (2) Soil-structure interaction and (3) The methods for determining structural response. The solution of random vibration problems is clarified with the aid of applications in this study and from the point of view of mathematical treatment and mathematical formulations it is deemed sufficient to give the relevant sources. In the soil-structure interaction analysis the focus has been the significance of frequency dependent impedance functions. As a result it was obtained, that the description of the soil with the aid of frequency dependent impedance functions decreases the structural response and it is thus always the preferred method when compared to more conservative analysis types. From the methods to determine the C structural response the following four were tested: (1) The time history method; (2) The complex frequency-response method; (3) Response spectrum method and (4) The equivalent static force method. The time history appeared to be the most accurate method and the complex frequency-response method did have the widest area of application. (orig.). (14 refs., 35 figs.)

  10. Synthetic multielement standards used for instrumental neutron activation analysis as rock imitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leypunskaya, D.I.; Drynkin, V.I.; Belenky, B.V.; Kolomijtsev, M.A.; Dundera, V.Yu.; Pachulia, N.V.

    1975-01-01

    Complex (multielemental) standards representing microelement composition of standard rocks such as trap ST-1 (USSR), gabbrodiorite SGD-1 (USSR), albitized granite SG-1 (USSR), basalt BCR-1 (USA) and granodiorite GSP-1 (USA) have been synthesized. It has been shown that the concentration of each microelement in the synthetic standards can be given with a high precision. Comparative investigation has been carried out of the synthetic imitations and the above natural standard rocks. It has been found that the result of the instrumental neutron activation analysis using the synthetic standards is as good as in the case when natural standard rocks are used. The results obtained have been also used for substantiation of the versatility of the method used for standard preparation, i.e. a generalization has been made of a possibility of using this method for the preparation of synthetic standards representing the microelement composition of any natural rocks with various compositions and concentrations of microelements. (T.G.)

  11. Standard guide for three methods of assessing buried steel tanks

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1998-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers procedures to be implemented prior to the application of cathodic protection for evaluating the suitability of a tank for upgrading by cathodic protection alone. 1.2 Three procedures are described and identified as Methods A, B, and C. 1.2.1 Method A—Noninvasive with primary emphasis on statistical and electrochemical analysis of external site environment corrosion data. 1.2.2 Method B—Invasive ultrasonic thickness testing with external corrosion evaluation. 1.2.3 Method C—Invasive permanently recorded visual inspection and evaluation including external corrosion assessment. 1.3 This guide presents the methodology and the procedures utilizing site and tank specific data for determining a tank's condition and the suitability for such tanks to be upgraded with cathodic protection. 1.4 The tank's condition shall be assessed using Method A, B, or C. Prior to assessing the tank, a preliminary site survey shall be performed pursuant to Section 8 and the tank shall be tightness test...

  12. Method of using a nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Leonard D.; Bennett, Dennis W.; Davis, Jon F.

    1985-01-01

    (CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiNSO is produced by the reaction of ((CH.sub.3).sub.3 Si).sub.2 NH with SO.sub.2. Also produced in the reaction are ((CH.sub.3).sub.3 Si).sub.2 O and a new solid compound [NH.sub.4 ][(CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiOSO.sub.2 ]. Both (CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiNSO and [NH.sub.4 ][(CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiOSO.sub.2 ] have fluorescent properties. The reaction of the subject invention is used in a method of measuring the concentration of SO.sub.2 pollutants in gases. By the method, a sample of gas is bubbled through a solution of ((CH.sub.3).sub.3 Si).sub.2 NH, whereby any SO.sub.2 present in the gas will react to produce the two fluorescent products. The measured fluorescence of these products can then be used to calculate the concentration of SO.sub.2 in the original gas sample. The solid product [NH.sub.4 ][(CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiOSO.sub.2 ] may be used as a standard in solid state NMR spectroscopy, wherein the resonance peaks of either .sup.1 H, .sup.13 C, .sup.15 N, or .sup.29 Si may be used as a reference.

  13. Tooth contact analysis of spur gears. Part 1-SAM analysis of standard gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Creţu Spiridon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The involute gears are sensitive to the misalignment of their axes which determines transmission errors and perturbations of pressures distributions along the tooth flank. The concentrated contacts in gears are no longer as Hertz type. A semi-analytical method was developed to find the contact area, pressures distribution and depth stresses state. The matrix of initial separations is found analytically for standard and non-standard spur gears. The presence of misalignment as well as the flank crowning and flank end relief are included in the numerical analysis process.

  14. Least squares analysis of fission neutron standard fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, P.J.; Williams, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    A least squares analysis of fission neutron standard fields has been performed using the latest dosimetry cross sections. Discrepant nuclear data are identified and adjusted spectra for 252 Cf spontaneous fission and 235 U thermal fission fields are presented

  15. Standard methods for sampling and sample preparation for gamma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taskaeva, M.; Taskaev, E.; Nikolov, P.

    1993-01-01

    The strategy for sampling and sample preparation is outlined: necessary number of samples; analysis and treatment of the results received; quantity of the analysed material according to the radionuclide concentrations and analytical methods; the minimal quantity and kind of the data needed for making final conclusions and decisions on the base of the results received. This strategy was tested in gamma spectroscopic analysis of radionuclide contamination of the region of Eleshnitsa Uranium Mines. The water samples was taken and stored according to the ASTM D 3370-82. The general sampling procedures were in conformity with the recommendations of ISO 5667. The radionuclides was concentrated by coprecipitation with iron hydroxide and ion exchange. The sampling of soil samples complied with the rules of ASTM C 998, and their sample preparation - with ASTM C 999. After preparation the samples were sealed hermetically and measured. (author)

  16. Standardization: using comparative maintenance costs in an economic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Roger Nelson

    1987-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis investigates the use of comparative maintenance costs of functionally interchangeable equipments in similar U.S. Navy shipboard applications in an economic analysis of standardization. The economics of standardization, life-cycle costing, and the Navy 3-M System are discussed in general. An analysis of 3-M System maintenance costs for a selected equipment, diesel engines, is conducted. The potential use of comparative ma...

  17. ASTM standards for fire debris analysis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Eric; Lentini, John J

    2003-03-12

    The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) recently updated its standards E 1387 and E 1618 for the analysis of fire debris. The changes in the classification of ignitable liquids are presented in this review. Furthermore, a new standard on extraction of fire debris with solid phase microextraction (SPME) was released. Advantages and drawbacks of this technique are presented and discussed. Also, the standard on cleanup by acid stripping has not been reapproved. Fire debris analysts that use the standards should be aware of these changes.

  18. Standard test method for measurement of oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of soil

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure and related test equipment for measuring oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of soil samples removed from the ground. 1.2 The procedure in Section 9 is appropriate for field and laboratory measurements. 1.3 Accurate measurement of oxidation-reduction potential aids in the analysis of soil corrosivity and its impact on buried metallic structure corrosion rates. 1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  19. Standard practice for digital imaging and communication in nondestructive evaluation (DICONDE) for ultrasonic test methods

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This practice facilitates the interoperability of ultrasonic imaging equipment by specifying image data transfer and archival storage methods in commonly accepted terms. This document is intended to be used in conjunction with Practice E 2339 on Digital Imaging and Communication in Nondestructive Evaluation (DICONDE). Practice E 2339 defines an industrial adaptation of the NEMA Standards Publication titled Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM, see http://medical.nema.org), an international standard for image data acquisition, review, transfer and archival storage. The goal of Practice E 2339, commonly referred to as DICONDE, is to provide a standard that facilitates the display and analysis of NDE test results on any system conforming to the DICONDE standard. Toward that end, Practice E 2339 provides a data dictionary and set of information modules that are applicable to all NDE modalities. This practice supplements Practice E 2339 by providing information object definitions, information ...

  20. Standard practice for digital imaging and communication nondestructive evaluation (DICONDE) for computed radiography (CR) test methods

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice facilitates the interoperability of computed radiography (CR) imaging and data acquisition equipment by specifying image data transfer and archival storage methods in commonly accepted terms. This practice is intended to be used in conjunction with Practice E2339 on Digital Imaging and Communication in Nondestructive Evaluation (DICONDE). Practice E2339 defines an industrial adaptation of the NEMA Standards Publication titled Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM, see http://medical.nema.org), an international standard for image data acquisition, review, storage and archival storage. The goal of Practice E2339, commonly referred to as DICONDE, is to provide a standard that facilitates the display and analysis of NDE results on any system conforming to the DICONDE standard. Toward that end, Practice E2339 provides a data dictionary and a set of information modules that are applicable to all NDE modalities. This practice supplements Practice E2339 by providing information objec...

  1. A Method for Developing Standard Patient Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lura, Carolina Bryne; Hauch, Sophie Misser Pallesgaard; Gøeg, Kirstine Rosenbeck; Pape-Haugaard, Louise

    2018-01-01

    In Denmark, patients being treated on Haematology Outpatients Departments get instructed to self-manage their blood sample collection from Central Venous Catheter (CVC). However, this is a complex and risky procedure, which can jeopardize patient safety. The aim of the study was to suggest a method for developing standard digital patient education programs for patients in self-administration of blood samples drawn from CVC. The Design Science Research Paradigm was used to develop a digital patient education program, called PAVIOSY, to increase patient safety during execution of the blood sample collection procedure by using videos for teaching as well as procedural support. A step-by-step guide was developed and used as basis for making the videos. Quality assurance through evaluation with a nurse was conducted on both the step-by-step guide and the videos. The quality assurance evaluation of the videos showed; 1) Errors due to the order of the procedure can be determined by reviewing the videos despite that the guide was followed. 2) Videos can be used to identify errors - important for patient safety - in the procedure, which are not identifiable in a written script. To ensure correct clinical content of the educational patient system, health professionals must be engaged early in the development of content and design phase.

  2. Standard Compliant Hazard and Threat Analysis for the Automotive Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Beckers

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The automotive industry has successfully collaborated to release the ISO 26262 standard for developing safe software for cars. The standard describes in detail how to conduct hazard analysis and risk assessments to determine the necessary safety measures for each feature. However, the standard does not concern threat analysis for malicious attackers or how to select appropriate security countermeasures. We propose the application of ISO 27001 for this purpose and show how it can be applied together with ISO 26262. We show how ISO 26262 documentation can be re-used and enhanced to satisfy the analysis and documentation demands of the ISO 27001 standard. We illustrate our approach based on an electronic steering column lock system.

  3. The preparation of synthetic standards for use in instrumental neutron-activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, B.T.; Watterson, J.I.W.; Erasmus, C.S.

    1979-01-01

    An account is given of the formulation and preparation of synthetic standards suitable for the routine analysis of minerals, ores, and ore concentrates by instrumental neutron activation. Fifteen standards were prepared, each containing from one to seven elements. The standards contain forty-four elements that produce isotopes with half-lives longer than 12 hours. An evaluation of the accuracy and precision of the method of preparation is given

  4. [Precautions of physical performance requirements and test methods during product standard drafting process of medical devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jin-Zi; Wan, Min; Xu, Hui; Yao, Xiu-Jun; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Jin-Hong

    2009-09-01

    The major idea of this article is to discuss standardization and normalization for the product standard of medical devices. Analyze the problem related to the physical performance requirements and test methods during product standard drafting process and make corresponding suggestions.

  5. Concrete blocks. Analysis of UNE, ISO en standards and comparison with other international standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez Alonso, Marina

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to describe the recently approved UNE standards through a systematic analysis of the main specifications therein contained and the values considered for each of them, as well as the drafts for ISO and EN concrete block standards. Furthermore, the study tries to place the set of ISO standards in the international environment through a comparative analysis against a representative sample of the standards prevailing in various geographical regions of the globe to determine the analogies and differences among them. PALABRAS CLAVE: albañilería, análisis de sistemas, bloque de hormigón, muros de fábrica, normativa KEY WORDS: masonry, system analysis, concrete blocks, masonry walls, standards

    En este trabajo se pretende describir la reciente aprobada normativa UNE, analizando sistemáticamente las principales prescripciones contempladas y los valores considerados para cada una de ellas, así como los proyectos de Norma ISO, y EN sobre bloques de hormigón. Asimismo se intenta situar la normativa UNE en al ámbito internacional, haciendo un análisis comparativo con una representación de Normas de distintas regiones geográficas del mundo, determinando sus analogías y diferencias.

  6. A standard curve based method for relative real time PCR data processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krause Andreas

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently real time PCR is the most precise method by which to measure gene expression. The method generates a large amount of raw numerical data and processing may notably influence final results. The data processing is based either on standard curves or on PCR efficiency assessment. At the moment, the PCR efficiency approach is preferred in relative PCR whilst the standard curve is often used for absolute PCR. However, there are no barriers to employ standard curves for relative PCR. This article provides an implementation of the standard curve method and discusses its advantages and limitations in relative real time PCR. Results We designed a procedure for data processing in relative real time PCR. The procedure completely avoids PCR efficiency assessment, minimizes operator involvement and provides a statistical assessment of intra-assay variation. The procedure includes the following steps. (I Noise is filtered from raw fluorescence readings by smoothing, baseline subtraction and amplitude normalization. (II The optimal threshold is selected automatically from regression parameters of the standard curve. (III Crossing points (CPs are derived directly from coordinates of points where the threshold line crosses fluorescence plots obtained after the noise filtering. (IV The means and their variances are calculated for CPs in PCR replicas. (V The final results are derived from the CPs' means. The CPs' variances are traced to results by the law of error propagation. A detailed description and analysis of this data processing is provided. The limitations associated with the use of parametric statistical methods and amplitude normalization are specifically analyzed and found fit to the routine laboratory practice. Different options are discussed for aggregation of data obtained from multiple reference genes. Conclusion A standard curve based procedure for PCR data processing has been compiled and validated. It illustrates that

  7. Colombeau's generalized functions and non-standard analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, T.D.

    1987-10-01

    Using some methods of the Non-Standard Analysis we modify one of Colombeau's classes of generalized functions. As a result we define a class ε-circumflex of the so-called meta-functions which possesses all good properties of Colombeau's generalized functions, i.e. (i) ε-circumflex is an associative and commutative algebra over the system of the so-called complex meta-numbers C-circumflex; (ii) Every meta-function has partial derivatives of any order (which are meta-functions again); (iii) Every meta-function is integrable on any compact set of R n and the integral is a number from C-circumflex; (iv) ε-circumflex contains all tempered distributions S', i.e. S' is contained in ε' isomorphically with respect to all linear operations (including the differentiation). Thus, within the class ε-circumflex the problem of multiplication of the tempered distributions is satisfactorily solved (every two distributions in S' have a well-defined product in ε-circumflex). The crucial point is that C-circumflex is a field in contrast to the system of Colombeau's generalized numbers C-bar which is a ring only (C-bar is the counterpart of C-circumflex in Colombeau's theory). In this way we simplify and improve slightly the properties of the integral and notion of ''values of the meta-functions'' as well as the properties of the whole class ε-circumflex itself if compared with the original Colombeau theory. And, what is maybe more important, we clarify the connection between the Non-Standard Analysis and Colombeau's theory of new generalized functions in the framework of which the problem of multiplication of distributions was recently solved. (author). 14 refs

  8. SWOT ANALYSIS ON SAMPLING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIS ANCA OANA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Audit sampling involves the application of audit procedures to less than 100% of items within an account balance or class of transactions. Our article aims to study audit sampling in audit of financial statements. As an audit technique largely used, in both its statistical and nonstatistical form, the method is very important for auditors. It should be applied correctly for a fair view of financial statements, to satisfy the needs of all financial users. In order to be applied correctly the method must be understood by all its users and mainly by auditors. Otherwise the risk of not applying it correctly would cause loose of reputation and discredit, litigations and even prison. Since there is not a unitary practice and methodology for applying the technique, the risk of incorrectly applying it is pretty high. The SWOT analysis is a technique used that shows the advantages, disadvantages, threats and opportunities. We applied SWOT analysis in studying the sampling method, from the perspective of three players: the audit company, the audited entity and users of financial statements. The study shows that by applying the sampling method the audit company and the audited entity both save time, effort and money. The disadvantages of the method are difficulty in applying and understanding its insight. Being largely used as an audit method and being a factor of a correct audit opinion, the sampling method’s advantages, disadvantages, threats and opportunities must be understood by auditors.

  9. Evaluation Standard for Safety Coefficient of Roller Compacted Concrete Dam Based on Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of evaluation standard for safety coefficient based on finite element method (FEM limits the wide application of FEM in roller compacted concrete dam (RCCD. In this paper, the strength reserve factor (SRF method is adopted to simulate gradual failure and possible unstable modes of RCCD system. The entropy theory and catastrophe theory are used to obtain the ultimate bearing resistance and failure criterion of the RCCD. The most dangerous sliding plane for RCCD failure is found using the Latin hypercube sampling (LHS and auxiliary analysis of partial least squares regression (PLSR. Finally a method for determining the evaluation standard of RCCD safety coefficient based on FEM is put forward using least squares support vector machines (LSSVM and particle swarm optimization (PSO. The proposed method is applied to safety coefficient analysis of the Longtan RCCD in China. The calculation shows that RCCD failure is closely related to RCCD interface strength, and the Longtan RCCD is safe in the design condition. Considering RCCD failure characteristic and combining the advantages of several excellent algorithms, the proposed method determines the evaluation standard for safety coefficient of RCCD based on FEM for the first time and can be popularized to any RCCD.

  10. Quantitative analysis method for ship construction quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FU Senzong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The excellent performance of a ship is assured by the accurate evaluation of its construction quality. For a long time, research into the construction quality of ships has mainly focused on qualitative analysis due to a shortage of process data, which results from limited samples, varied process types and non-standardized processes. Aiming at predicting and controlling the influence of the construction process on the construction quality of ships, this article proposes a reliability quantitative analysis flow path for the ship construction process and fuzzy calculation method. Based on the process-quality factor model proposed by the Function-Oriented Quality Control (FOQC method, we combine fuzzy mathematics with the expert grading method to deduce formulations calculating the fuzzy process reliability of the ordinal connection model, series connection model and mixed connection model. The quantitative analysis method is applied in analyzing the process reliability of a ship's shaft gear box installation, which proves the applicability and effectiveness of the method. The analysis results can be a useful reference for setting key quality inspection points and optimizing key processes.

  11. The History of Infant Formula: Quality, Safety, and Standard Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Wayne F

    2016-01-01

    Food-related laws and regulations have existed since ancient times. Egyptian scrolls prescribed the labeling needed for certain foods. In ancient Athens, beer and wines were inspected for purity and soundness, and the Romans had a well-organized state food control system to protect consumers from fraud or bad produce. In Europe during the Middle Ages, individual countries passed laws concerning the quality and safety of eggs, sausages, cheese, beer, wine, and bread; some of these laws still exist today. But more modern dietary guidelines and food regulations have their origins in the latter half of the 19th century when the first general food laws were adopted and basic food control systems were implemented to monitor compliance. Around this time, science and food chemistry began to provide the tools to determine "purity" of food based primarily on chemical composition and to determine whether it had been adulterated in any way. Since the key chemical components of mammalian milk were first understood, infant formulas have steadily advanced in complexity as manufacturers attempt to close the compositional gap with human breast milk. To verify these compositional innovations and ensure product quality and safety, infant formula has become one of the most regulated foods in the world. The present paper examines the historical development of nutritional alternatives to breastfeeding, focusing on efforts undertaken to ensure the quality and safety from antiquity to present day. The impact of commercial infant formulas on global regulations is addressed, along with the resulting need for harmonized, fit-for-purpose, voluntary consensus standard methods.

  12. Standardized method for reproducing the sequential X-rays flap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenes, Alejandra; Molina, Katherine; Gudino, Sylvia

    2009-01-01

    A method is validated to estandardize in the taking, developing and analysis of bite-wing radiographs taken in sequential way, in order to compare and evaluate detectable changes in the evolution of the interproximal lesions through time. A radiographic positioner called XCP® is modified by means of a rigid acrylic guide, to achieve proper of the X ray equipment core positioning relative to the XCP® ring and the reorientation during the sequential x-rays process. 16 subjects of 4 to 40 years old are studied for a total number of 32 registries. Two x-rays of the same block of teeth of each subject have been taken in sequential way, with a minimal difference of 30 minutes between each one, before the placement of radiographic attachment. The images have been digitized with a Super Cam® scanner and imported to a software. The measurements in X and Y-axis for both x-rays were performed to proceed to compare. The intraclass correlation index (ICI) has shown that the proposed method is statistically related to measurement (mm) obtained in the X and Y-axis for both sequential series of x-rays (p=0.01). The measures of central tendency and dispersion have shown that the usual occurrence is indifferent between the two measurements (Mode 0.000 and S = 0083 and 0.109) and that the probability of occurrence of different values is lower than expected. (author) [es

  13. Standard test method for creep-fatigue crack growth testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of creep-fatigue crack growth properties of nominally homogeneous materials by use of pre-cracked compact type, C(T), test specimens subjected to uniaxial cyclic forces. It concerns fatigue cycling with sufficiently long loading/unloading rates or hold-times, or both, to cause creep deformation at the crack tip and the creep deformation be responsible for enhanced crack growth per loading cycle. It is intended as a guide for creep-fatigue testing performed in support of such activities as materials research and development, mechanical design, process and quality control, product performance, and failure analysis. Therefore, this method requires testing of at least two specimens that yield overlapping crack growth rate data. The cyclic conditions responsible for creep-fatigue deformation and enhanced crack growth vary with material and with temperature for a given material. The effects of environment such as time-dependent oxidation in enhancing the crack growth ra...

  14. The evaluation of accuracy of NAA method used by P2TRR laboratory with food standard reference material analysis; Evaluasi akurasi lab. AAN P2TRR dengan analisis cuplikan standar acuan bahan makanan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rina M, Th; Sri-Wardhani,; Sunarko, [Center for Development of Research Reactor Technology (Indonesia)

    2003-05-15

    The NAA method is the analysis method with high precision and accuracy level. The precision and accuracy of NAA laboratory in P2TRR had been evaluated with SRM 1573a Tomato Leaf and CRM No.9 Sargasso. Samples were irradiated in RSG-GAS's rabbit system and counted with gamma spectrometry. The results obtained from this research are for the SRM 1573a sample the test could analyze 17 elements of the 40 certified elements, and for CRM No.9 sample the test could analyze 16 elements of the 30 certified elements. The result of quantitative analysis indicate the different deviation of each element between 2 -10.5 % compared to the certificate data. This deviation value <15%, this value shows that the precision and accuracy level is good enough.

  15. Economic analysis of alternative LLW disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foutes, C.E.; Queenan, C.J. III

    1987-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has evaluated the costs and benefits of alternative disposal technologies as part of its program to develop generally applicable environmental standards for the land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Costs, population health effects and Critical Population Group (CPG) exposures resulting from alternative waste treatment and disposal methods were evaluated both in absolute terms and also relative to a base case (current practice). Incremental costs of the standard included costs for packaging, processing, transportation, and burial of waste. Benefits are defined in terms of reductions in the general population health risk (expected fatal cancers and genetic effects) evaluated over 10,000 years. A cost-effectiveness ratio, defined as the incremental cost per avoided health effect, was calculated for each alternative standard. The cost-effectiveness analysis took into account a number of waste streams, hydrogeologic and climatic region settings, and waste treatment and disposal methods. This paper describes the alternatives considered and preliminary results of the cost-effectiveness analysis. 15 references, 7 figures, 3 tables

  16. Measurement of Henry's Law Constants Using Internal Standards: A Quantitative GC Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis or Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chang; Boisvert, Susanne M.; Arida, Ann-Marie C.; Day, Shannon E.

    2008-01-01

    An internal standard method applicable to undergraduate instrumental analysis or environmental chemistry laboratory has been designed and tested to determine the Henry's law constants for a series of alkyl nitriles. In this method, a mixture of the analytes and an internal standard is prepared and used to make a standard solution (organic solvent)…

  17. Stability and non-standard finite difference method of the generalized Chua's circuit

    KAUST Repository

    Radwan, Ahmed G.

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we develop a framework to obtain approximate numerical solutions of the fractional-order Chua\\'s circuit with Memristor using a non-standard finite difference method. Chaotic response is obtained with fractional-order elements as well as integer-order elements. Stability analysis and the condition of oscillation for the integer-order system are discussed. In addition, the stability analyses for different fractional-order cases are investigated showing a great sensitivity to small order changes indicating the poles\\' locations inside the physical s-plane. The GrnwaldLetnikov method is used to approximate the fractional derivatives. Numerical results are presented graphically and reveal that the non-standard finite difference scheme is an effective and convenient method to solve fractional-order chaotic systems, and to validate their stability. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Initial testing of a neutron activation analysis system by analysing standard reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhaimi Hamzah; Roslan Idris; Abdul Khalik Haji Wood; Che Seman Mahmood; Abdul Rahim Mohamad Noor.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the data acquisition and processing system in our laboratories (ND6600), the methods of activation analysis and the results obtained from our analysis of IAEA standard reference material (SL-l lake sediments and NBS coal ash 1632a). These standards were analysed in order to check the capability of the system, which was designed in such a way as to enable the user to independently collect and process data from multiple radiation detectors. (author)

  19. Flows method in global analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong Minh Duc.

    1994-12-01

    We study the gradient flows method for W r,p (M,N) where M and N are Riemannian manifold and r may be less than m/p. We localize some global analysis problem by constructing gradient flows which only change the value of any u in W r,p (M,N) in a local chart of M. (author). 24 refs

  20. Determination of Impurities in Aluminum Alloy by INAA Single Comparator Method (K0-Standardization Method)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarheel, A.; Khamis, I.; Somel, N.

    2007-01-01

    Multielement determination by the k0 based INAA using k0-IAEA program has been performed at Syrian Atomic Energy Commission using alloys. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Fe, Ni, Sn and Ti in addition to aluminum element were determined in an aluminum alloy and Ni, Cr, Mo were determined in dental alloys using INAA k0-standardization method. Al-0.1%Au, Ni and Zn certified reference materials were analyzed to assess the suitability and accuracy of the method. Elements were determined in reference materials and samples after short and long irradiations, according to element half-lives.

  1. Development of the H-point standard additions method for coupled liquid-chromatography and UV-visible spectrophotometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campins-Falco, Pilar; Bosch-Reig, Francisco; Herraez-Hernandez, Rosa; Sevillano-Cabeza, Adela (Universidad de Valencia (Spain). Facultad de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Analitica)

    1992-02-10

    This work establishes the fundamentals of the H-point standard additions method for liquid chromatography for the simultaneous analysis of binary mixtures with overlapped chromatographic peaks. The method was compared with the deconvolution method of peak suppression and the second derivative of elution profiles. Different mixtures of diuretics were satisfactorily resolved. (author). 21 refs.; 9 figs.; 2 tabs.

  2. Standard test method for distribution coefficients of inorganic species by the batch method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of distribution coefficients of chemical species to quantify uptake onto solid materials by a batch sorption technique. It is a laboratory method primarily intended to assess sorption of dissolved ionic species subject to migration through pores and interstices of site specific geomedia. It may also be applied to other materials such as manufactured adsorption media and construction materials. Application of the results to long-term field behavior is not addressed in this method. Distribution coefficients for radionuclides in selected geomedia are commonly determined for the purpose of assessing potential migratory behavior of contaminants in the subsurface of contaminated sites and waste disposal facilities. This test method is also applicable to studies for parametric studies of the variables and mechanisms which contribute to the measured distribution coefficient. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement a...

  3. Determine equilibrium dissociation constant of drug-membrane receptor affinity using the cell membrane chromatography relative standard method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weina; Yang, Liu; Lv, Yanni; Fu, Jia; Zhang, Yanmin; He, Langchong

    2017-06-23

    The equilibrium dissociation constant (K D ) of drug-membrane receptor affinity is the basic parameter that reflects the strength of interaction. The cell membrane chromatography (CMC) method is an effective technique to study the characteristics of drug-membrane receptor affinity. In this study, the K D value of CMC relative standard method for the determination of drug-membrane receptor affinity was established to analyze the relative K D values of drugs binding to the membrane receptors (Epidermal growth factor receptor and angiotensin II receptor). The K D values obtained by the CMC relative standard method had a strong correlation with those obtained by the frontal analysis method. Additionally, the K D values obtained by CMC relative standard method correlated with pharmacological activity of the drug being evaluated. The CMC relative standard method is a convenient and effective method to evaluate drug-membrane receptor affinity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 29 CFR 1630.7 - Standards, criteria, or methods of administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards, criteria, or methods of administration. It is unlawful for a covered entity to use standards, criteria, or methods of administration, which are not job-related and consistent with business necessity... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards, criteria, or methods of administration. 1630.7...

  5. Methods of charged-particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhri, M. Anwar; Chaudhri, M. Nasir; Jabbar, Q.; Nadeem, Q.

    2006-01-01

    The accuracy of Chaudhri's method for charged-particle activation analysis published in J. Radioanal. Chem. (1977) v. 37 p. 243 has been further demonstrated by extensive calculations. The nuclear reactions 12 C(d,n) 13 N, 63 Cu( 3 He,p) 65 Zn, 107 Ag(α,n) 110 In and 208 Pb(d,p) 209 Pb, the cross sections of which were easily available, have been examined for the detection of 12 C, 63 Cu, 107 Ag and 208 Pb, respectively, in matrices of Cu, Zr and Pb, at the bombarding energies of 4 - 22 MeV. The 'standard' is assumed to be in a carbon matrix. It has been clearly demonstrated that Chaudhri's method, which makes the charged particle activation analysis as simple as neutron activation analysis, provides results which are almost identical to, or only about 1-2 % different, from the results obtained using the full 'Activity Equation' involving solving complex integrals. It is valid even when the difference in the average atomic weights of matrices of the standard and the sample is large. (author)

  6. Standard test method for the analysis of refrigerant 114, plus other carbon-containing and fluorine-containing compounds in uranium hexafluoride via fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers determining the concentrations of refrigerant-114, other carbon-containing and fluorine-containing compounds, hydrocarbons, and partially or completely substituted halohydrocarbons that may be impurities in uranium hexafluoride. The two options are outlined for this test method. They are designated as Part A and Part B. 1.1.1 To provide instructions for performing Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis for the possible presence of Refrigerant-114 impurity in a gaseous sample of uranium hexafluoride, collected in a "2S" container or equivalent at room temperature. The all gas procedure applies to the analysis of possible Refrigerant-114 impurity in uranium hexafluoride, and to the gas manifold system used for FTIR applications. The pressure and temperatures must be controlled to maintain a gaseous sample. The concentration units are in mole percent. This is Part A. 1.2 Part B involves a high pressure liquid sample of uranium hexafluoride. This method can be appli...

  7. Comparison of PCR with Standard Method (MPN for detection of bacterial contamination in drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Dehghan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Detection of bacterial contamination in drinking water by culture method is a time and cost consuming method and spends a few days depending on contamination degree. However, the people use the tap water during that time. Molecular methods are rapid and sensitive. In this study a rapid Multiplex PCR method was used for rapid analysis both coliform bacteria and E.coli, and probable detection of VBNC bacteria in drinking water, the experiments were performed in bacteriological lab of water and Wastewater Corporation in Markazi province. Material and Methods:Amplification of a fragment from each of lacZ and uidA genes in a Multiplex PCR was used for detection of coliforms. Eight samples was taken from Arak drinking water system including 36 samples of wells, 41 samples of water distribution network and 3 samples from water storages were examined by amplification of lacZ and uidA genes in a Multiplex PCR. Equivalently, the MPN test was applied as a standard method for all samples for comparison of results. Standard bacteria, pure bacteria isolated from positive MPN and CRM were examined by PCR and MPN method. Results: The result of most samples water network, water storages, and water well were same in both MPN and PCR method .The results of standard bacteria and pure cultures of bacteria isolated from positive MPN and CRM confirmed the PCR method. Five samples were positive in PCR but negative in MPN method. Duration time of PCR was decreased about 105 min by changing the PCR program and electrophoreses factors. Conclusion: The Multiplex PCR can detect coliform bacteria and E.coli synchronous in drinking water.

  8. Standard test method for determining atmospheric chloride deposition rate by wet candle method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a wet candle device and its use in measuring atmospheric chloride deposition (amount of chloride salts deposited from the atmosphere on a given area per unit time). 1.2 Data on atmospheric chloride deposition can be useful in classifying the corrosivity of a specific area, such as an atmospheric test site. Caution must be exercised, however, to take into consideration the season because airborne chlorides vary widely between seasons. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  9. Commercial Discount Rate Estimation for Efficiency Standards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, K. Sydny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-04-13

    Underlying each of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) federal appliance and equipment standards are a set of complex analyses of the projected costs and benefits of regulation. Any new or amended standard must be designed to achieve significant additional energy conservation, provided that it is technologically feasible and economically justified (42 U.S.C. 6295(o)(2)(A)). A proposed standard is considered economically justified when its benefits exceed its burdens, as represented by the projected net present value of costs and benefits. DOE performs multiple analyses to evaluate the balance of costs and benefits of commercial appliance and equipment e efficiency standards, at the national and individual building or business level, each framed to capture different nuances of the complex impact of standards on the commercial end user population. The Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis models the combined impact of appliance first cost and operating cost changes on a representative commercial building sample in order to identify the fraction of customers achieving LCC savings or incurring net cost at the considered efficiency levels.1 Thus, the choice of commercial discount rate value(s) used to calculate the present value of energy cost savings within the Life-Cycle Cost model implicitly plays a key role in estimating the economic impact of potential standard levels.2 This report is intended to provide a more in-depth discussion of the commercial discount rate estimation process than can be readily included in standard rulemaking Technical Support Documents (TSDs).

  10. Standard Guide for Wet Sieve Analysis of Ceramic Whiteware Clays

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers the wet sieve analysis of ceramic whiteware clays. This guide is intended for use in testing shipments of clay as well as for plant control tests. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  11. Quantitative chemical analysis for the standardization of copaiba oil by high resolution gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tappin, Marcelo R.R.; Pereira, Jislaine F.G.; Lima, Lucilene A.; Siani, Antonio C.; Mazzei, Jose L.; Ramos, Monica F.S.

    2004-01-01

    Quantitative GC-FID was evaluated for analysis of methylated copaiba oils, using trans-(-)-caryophyllene or methyl copalate as external standards. Analytical curves showed good linearity and reproducibility in terms of correlation coefficients (0.9992 and 0.996, respectively) and relative standard deviation (< 3%). Quantification of sesquiterpenes and diterpenic acids were performed with each standard, separately. When compared with the integrator response normalization, the standardization was statistically similar for the case of methyl copalate, but the response of trans-(-)-caryophyllene was statistically (P < 0.05) different. This method showed to be suitable for classification and quality control of commercial samples of the oils. (author)

  12. Standard Test Method for Sizing and Counting Particulate Contaminant In and On Clean Room Garments

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of detachable particulate contaminant 5 m or larger, in and on the fabric of clean room garments. 1.2 This test method does not apply to nonporous fabrics such as Tyvek or Gortex. It only applies to fabrics that are porous such as cotton or polyester. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.4 This test method provides not only the traditional optical microscopic analysis but also a size distribution and surface obscuration analysis for particles on a fine-textured membrane filter or in a tape lift sample. It utilizes transmitted illumination to render all particles darker than the background for gray level detection. Particles collected on opaque plates must be transferred to a suitable membrane filter. This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associat...

  13. Method and platform standardization in MRM-based quantitative plasma proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, Andrew J; Chambers, Andrew G; Yang, Juncong; Jackson, Angela M; Domanski, Dominik; Burkhart, Julia; Sickmann, Albert; Borchers, Christoph H

    2013-12-16

    There exists a growing demand in the proteomics community to standardize experimental methods and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) platforms in order to enable the acquisition of more precise and accurate quantitative data. This necessity is heightened by the evolving trend of verifying and validating candidate disease biomarkers in complex biofluids, such as blood plasma, through targeted multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-based approaches with stable isotope-labeled standards (SIS). Considering the lack of performance standards for quantitative plasma proteomics, we previously developed two reference kits to evaluate the MRM with SIS peptide approach using undepleted and non-enriched human plasma. The first kit tests the effectiveness of the LC/MRM-MS platform (kit #1), while the second evaluates the performance of an entire analytical workflow (kit #2). Here, these kits have been refined for practical use and then evaluated through intra- and inter-laboratory testing on 6 common LC/MS platforms. For an identical panel of 22 plasma proteins, similar concentrations were determined, regardless of the kit, instrument platform, and laboratory of analysis. These results demonstrate the value of the kit and reinforce the utility of standardized methods and protocols. The proteomics community needs standardized experimental protocols and quality control methods in order to improve the reproducibility of MS-based quantitative data. This need is heightened by the evolving trend for MRM-based validation of proposed disease biomarkers in complex biofluids such as blood plasma. We have developed two kits to assist in the inter- and intra-laboratory quality control of MRM experiments: the first kit tests the effectiveness of the LC/MRM-MS platform (kit #1), while the second evaluates the performance of an entire analytical workflow (kit #2). In this paper, we report the use of these kits in intra- and inter-laboratory testing on 6 common LC/MS platforms. This

  14. Statistical learning methods in high-energy and astrophysics analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, J. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Zentrallabor fuer Elektronik, 52425 Juelich (Germany) and Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany)]. E-mail: zimmerm@mppmu.mpg.de; Kiesling, C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany)

    2004-11-21

    We discuss several popular statistical learning methods used in high-energy- and astro-physics analysis. After a short motivation for statistical learning we present the most popular algorithms and discuss several examples from current research in particle- and astro-physics. The statistical learning methods are compared with each other and with standard methods for the respective application.

  15. Statistical learning methods in high-energy and astrophysics analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, J.; Kiesling, C.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss several popular statistical learning methods used in high-energy- and astro-physics analysis. After a short motivation for statistical learning we present the most popular algorithms and discuss several examples from current research in particle- and astro-physics. The statistical learning methods are compared with each other and with standard methods for the respective application

  16. Data Analysis Methods for Paleogenomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen

    (Danmarks Grundforskningfond) 'Centre of Excellence in GeoGenetics' grant, with additional funding provided by the Danish Council for Independent Research 'Sapere Aude' programme. The thesis comprises five chapters, all of which represent different projects that involved the analysis of massive amounts......, thanks to the introduction of NGS and the implementation of data analysis methods specific for each project. Chapters 1 to 3 have been published in peer-reviewed journals and Chapter 4 is currently in review. Chapter 5 consists of a manuscript describing initial results of an ongoing research project......The work presented in this thesis is the result of research carried out during a three-year PhD at the Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, under supervision of Professor Tom Gilbert. The PhD was funded by the Danish National Research Foundation...

  17. A New Boron Analysis Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitman, J; Daaverhoeg, N; Farvolden, S

    1970-07-01

    In connection with fast neutron (n, {alpha}) cross section measurements a novel boron analysis method has been developed. The boron concentration is inferred from the mass spectrometrically determined number of helium atoms produced in the thermal and epithermal B-10 (n, {alpha}) reaction. The relation between helium amount and boron concentration is given, including corrections for self shielding effects and background levels. Direct and diffusion losses of helium are calculated and losses due to gettering, adsorption and HF-ionization in the release stage are discussed. A series of boron determinations is described and the results are compared with those obtained by other methods, showing excellent agreement. The lower limit of boron concentration which can be measured varies with type of sample. In e.g. steel, concentrations below 10-5 % boron in samples of 0.1-1 gram may be determined.

  18. Standardization of method to determine 241Pu in urine samples by liquid scintillation analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raveendran, Nanda; Rao, D.D.; Yadav, J.R.; Baburajan, A.

    2015-01-01

    As a part of radiation protection programme, occupational workers of fuel reprocessing plant are checked for internal contamination by analyzing urine samples periodically. Urine samples are analyzed to determine 239+240 Pu and 238 Pu by using standard conventional method and are counted by alpha spectrometry. 241 Pu is also one of the contaminant present in the urine sample of radiation workers. It is a low beta emitter with E max 21 keV. A methodology for the determination of this nuclide was standardized by using radiochemical analysis followed by Liquid Scintillation Counting. The method was tested and found suitable for the determination of 241 Pu in urine sample for the assessment of Committed Effective Dose (CED). (author)

  19. Thermal safety analysis of a dry storage cask for the Korean standard spent fuel - 16159

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Jeonghun; Kim, S.N.; Choi, K.W.

    2009-01-01

    A conceptual dry storage facility, which is based on a commercial dry storage facility, was designed for the Korea standard spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and preliminary thermal safety analysis was performed in this study. To perform the preliminary thermal analysis, a thermal analysis method was proposed. The thermal analysis method consists of 2 parts. By using the method, the surface temperature of the storage canister corresponding to the SNF clad temperature was calculated and the adequate air duct area was decided using the calculation result. The initial temperature of the facility was calculated and the fire condition and half air duct blockage were analyzed. (authors)

  20. Standard model for safety analysis report of fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    A standard model for a safety analysis report of fuel fabrication plants is established. This model shows the presentation format, the origin, and the details of the minimal information required by CNEN (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear) aiming to evaluate the requests of construction permits and operation licenses made according to the legislation in force. (E.G.) [pt

  1. Standard model for safety analysis report of fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    A standard model for a safety analysis report of fuel reprocessing plants is established. This model shows the presentation format, the origin, and the details of the minimal information required by CNEN (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear) aiming to evaluate the requests of construction permits and operation licenses made according to the legislation in force. (E.G.) [pt

  2. Evaluation and standardization of neutron activation analysis according to the K{sub 0} method in the RP-10 reactor; Evaluacion y estandarizacion del analisis por activacion neutronica segun el metodo del K{sub 0} en el reactor nuclear RP-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya R, E

    1995-06-01

    It has been characterized and standardized an irradiation of the RP-10 Research Nuclear Reactor for use of the K{sub 0} method of neutron activation analysis using the Hoegdahl convention; also it has been evaluate the behaviour of such method in regard to the accuracy and precision of the results obtained in the quantitative multi elemental analysis of several certified materials of reference. In order to prove that the analytical method is totally under statistical control, it has been used the Heydorn method. It has been verified that the method is exact, precise and reliable to determine the aluminium, antimuonium, arsenic, bromine, calcium, chloride, copper, magnesium, manganese, sodium, titanium, vanadium, zinc and other elements. Also, they are discussed, in regard to the use of K{sub 0} constants, the different formalisms employed to calculate the integral of the reaction rate by nucleus in the activation. (author). 58 refs., 18 tabs., 6 figs.

  3. Reproducibility Between Brain Uptake Ratio Using Anatomic Standardization and Patlak-Plot Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibutani, Takayuki; Onoguchi, Masahisa; Noguchi, Atsushi; Yamada, Tomoki; Tsuchihashi, Hiroko; Nakajima, Tadashi; Kinuya, Seigo

    2015-12-01

    The Patlak-plot and conventional methods of determining brain uptake ratio (BUR) have some problems with reproducibility. We formulated a method of determining BUR using anatomic standardization (BUR-AS) in a statistical parametric mapping algorithm to improve reproducibility. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the inter- and intraoperator reproducibility of mean cerebral blood flow as determined using BUR-AS in comparison to the conventional-BUR (BUR-C) and Patlak-plot methods. The images of 30 patients who underwent brain perfusion SPECT were retrospectively used in this study. The images were reconstructed using ordered-subset expectation maximization and processed using an automatic quantitative analysis for cerebral blood flow of ECD tool. The mean SPECT count was calculated from axial basal ganglia slices of the normal side (slices 31-40) drawn using a 3-dimensional stereotactic region-of-interest template after anatomic standardization. The mean cerebral blood flow was calculated from the mean SPECT count. Reproducibility was evaluated using coefficient of variation and Bland-Altman plotting. For both inter- and intraoperator reproducibility, the BUR-AS method had the lowest coefficient of variation and smallest error range about the Bland-Altman plot. Mean CBF obtained using the BUR-AS method had the highest reproducibility. Compared with the Patlak-plot and BUR-C methods, the BUR-AS method provides greater inter- and intraoperator reproducibility of cerebral blood flow measurement. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  4. Determination of gold and silver in geological standard samples MGI by instrument neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Huijiuan; Zhou; Yunlu

    1987-01-01

    Gold and silver in geological standard samples MGI were determined by instrument neutron activation analysis. The various interferences of nuclides were considered. Corrected factors of the geometry in different positions have been determined. Using the geological standard sample MGM and radiochemical separation neutron activation method as reference, the reliability of this method is proved. Gold content in samples is 0.4-0.009 g/t, silver content is 9-0.3 g/t. Standard deviation is less than 3.5%, the precision of the measurement is 4.8-11.6%

  5. Classification of analysis methods for characterization of magnetic nanoparticle properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posth, O.; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Steinhoff, U.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a roadmap for the standardization of magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) characterization. We have assessed common MNP analysis techniques under various criteria in order to define the methods that can be used as either standard techniques for magnetic particle...... characterization or those that can be used to obtain a comprehensive picture of a MNP system. This classification is the first step on the way to develop standards for nanoparticle characterization....

  6. Comparative evaluation of different methods of setting hygienic standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramzaev, P.V.; Rodionova, L.F.; Mashneva, N.I.

    1978-01-01

    Long-term experiments were carried out on white mice and rats to study the relative importance of various procedures used in setting hygienic standards for exposure to adverse factors. A variety of radionuclides and chemical substances were tested and the sensitivities to them of various indices of the bodily state were determined. For each index, statistically significant minimal effective concentrations of substances were established

  7. A method for developing standard patient education program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lura, Carolina Bryne; Hauch, Sophie Misser Pallesgaard; Gøeg, Kirstine Rosenbeck

    2018-01-01

    for developing standard digital patient education programs for patients in self-administration of blood samples drawn from CVC. The Design Science Research Paradigm was used to develop a digital patient education program, called PAVIOSY, to increase patient safety during execution of the blood sample collection...... of the educational patient system, health professionals must be engaged early in the development of content and design phase....

  8. Standard test methods for arsenic in uranium hexafluoride

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 These test methods are applicable to the determination of total arsenic in uranium hexafluoride (UF6) by atomic absorption spectrometry. Two test methods are given: Test Method A—Arsine Generation-Atomic Absorption (Sections 5-10), and Test Method B—Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption (Appendix X1). 1.2 The test methods are equivalent. The limit of detection for each test method is 0.1 μg As/g U when using a sample containing 0.5 to 1.0 g U. Test Method B does not have the complete collection details for precision and bias data thus the method appears as an appendix. 1.3 Test Method A covers the measurement of arsenic in uranyl fluoride (UO2F2) solutions by converting arsenic to arsine and measuring the arsine vapor by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. 1.4 Test Method B utilizes a solvent extraction to remove the uranium from the UO2F2 solution prior to measurement of the arsenic by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. 1.5 Both insoluble and soluble arsenic are measured when UF6 is...

  9. [Ecological compensation standard in Dongting Lake region of returning cropland to lake based on emergy analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, De-Hua; Hu, Guang-Wei; Liu, Hui-Jie; Li, Zheng-Zui; Li, Zhi-Long; Tan, Zi-Fang

    2014-02-01

    The annual emergy and currency value of the main ecological service value of returning cropland to lake in Dongting Lake region from 1999 to 2010 was calculated based on emergy analysis. The calculation method of ecological compensation standard was established by calculating annual total emergy of ecological service function increment since the starting year of returning cropland to lake, and the annual ecological compensation standard and compensation area were analyzed from 1999 to 2010. The results indicated that ecological compensation standard from 1999 to 2010 was 40.31-86.48 yuan x m(-2) with the mean of 57.33 yuan x m(-2). The ecological compensation standard presented an increase trend year by year due to the effect of eco-recovery of returning cropland to lake. The ecological compensation standard in the research area presented a swift and steady growth trend after 2005 mainly due to the intensive economy development of Hunan Province, suggesting the value of natural ecological resources would increase along with the development of society and economy. Appling the emergy analysis to research the ecological compensation standard could reveal the dynamics of annual ecological compensation standard, solve the abutment problem of matter flow, energy flow and economic flow, and overcome the subjective and arbitrary of environment economic methods. The empirical research of ecological compensation standard in Dongting Lake region showed that the emergy analysis was feasible and advanced.

  10. Searching for beyond the Standard Model physics using direct and indirect methods at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Samuel C P; Golutvin, Andrey

    It is known that the Standard Model of particle physics is incomplete in its description of nature at a fundamental level. For example, the Standard Model can neither incorporate dark matter nor explain the matter dominated nature of the Universe. This thesis presents three analyses undertaken using data collected by the LHCb detector. Each analysis searches for indications of physics beyond the Standard Model in dierent decays of B mesons, using dierent techniques. Notably, two analyses look for indications of new physics using indirect methods, and one uses a direct approach. The rst analysis shows evidence for the rare decay $B^{+} \\rightarrow D^{+}_{s}\\phi$ with greater than 3 $\\sigma$ signicance; this also constitutes the rst evidence for a fullyhadronic annihilation-type decay of a $B^{+}$ meson. A measurement of the branching fraction of the decay $B^{+} \\rightarrow D^{+}_{s}\\phi$ is seen to be higher than, but still compatible with, Standard Model predictions. The CP-asymmetry of the decay is also ...

  11. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program - Statistical Analysis of RDX Standard Data Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstrom, Mary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Geoffrey W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Daniel N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pollard, Colin J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Warner, Kirstin F. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Sorensen, Daniel N. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Remmers, Daniel L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Phillips, Jason J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shelley, Timothy J. [Air Force Research Lab. (AFRL), Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Reyes, Jose A. [Applied Research Associates, Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-30

    The Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program is conducting a Proficiency Test for Small- Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here are statistical analyses of the results for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis of the RDX Type II Class 5 standard. The material was tested as a well-characterized standard several times during the proficiency study to assess differences among participants and the range of results that may arise for well-behaved explosive materials. The analyses show that there are detectable differences among the results from IDCA participants. While these differences are statistically significant, most of them can be disregarded for comparison purposes to assess potential variability when laboratories attempt to measure identical samples using methods assumed to be nominally the same. The results presented in this report include the average sensitivity results for the IDCA participants and the ranges of values obtained. The ranges represent variation about the mean values of the tests of between 26% and 42%. The magnitude of this variation is attributed to differences in operator, method, and environment as well as the use of different instruments that are also of varying age. The results appear to be a good representation of the broader safety testing community based on the range of methods, instruments, and environments included in the IDCA Proficiency Test.

  12. On criteria for examining analysis quality with standard reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Huating

    1997-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages and applicability of some criteria for examining analysis quality with standard reference material are discussed. The combination of the uncertainties of the instrument examined and the reference material should be determined on the basis of specific situations. Without the data of the instrument's uncertainty, it would be applicable to substitute the standard deviation multiplied by certain times for the uncertainty. The result of the examining should not result in more error reported in routine measurements than it really is. Over strict examining should also be avoided

  13. Standards for deuterium analysis requirements of heavy water plants (Preprint No. CA-1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathi, B N; Gopalakrishnan, V T; Alphonse, K P; Pawar, P L; Sadhukhan, H K [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Heavy Water Div.

    1989-04-01

    Accurate analysis of deuterium, covering the entire range, is of great importance in production of heavy water. Most of the methods for determination of deuterium in gas or liquid samples require appropriate standards. Since density of pure protium oxide and pure deuterium oxide has been determined very accurately by a large number of workers and density of mixtures of H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O follows a linear relation, it is possible to use accurate density determination for measurement of deuterium content. Float method for density measurements was improved further and used for the preparation of primary heavy water standards in high and low deuterium ranges. Heavy water plant laboratories require gas standards (ammonia synthesis gas matrix), in addition to low deuterium water standards, for calibration of mass spectrometers. SLAP (Standard Light Antarctic Precipitation, D/D+H = 89.02+-0.05ppm) and SMOW (Standard Mean Ocean Water, D/D+H =155.76+-0.05ppm) available from IAEA, Vienna, along with water practically free from deuterium, were used as standards to prepare secondary liquid standards. These secondary standards were subsequently reduced and mixed with pure nitrogen to obtain D/D+H standards in syngas matrix. (author). 8 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Provenience studies using neutron activation analysis: the role of standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbottle, G.

    1980-01-01

    This paper covers the historical background of chemical analysis of archaeological artifacts which dates back to 1790 to the first application of neutron activation analysis to archaeological ceramics and goes on to elaborate on the present day status of neutron activation analysis in provenience studies, and the role of standardization. In principle, the concentrations of elements in a neutron-activated specimen can be calculated from an exact knowledge of neutron flux, its intensity, duration and spectral (energy) distribution, plus an exact gamma ray count calibrated for efficiency, corrected for branching rates, etc. However, in practice it is far easier to compare one's unknown to a standard of known or assumed composition. The practice has been for different laboratories to use different standards. With analyses being run in the thousands throughout the world, a great benefit would be derived if analyses could be exchanged among all users and/or generators of data. The emphasis of this paper is on interlaboratory comparability of ceramic data; how far are we from it, what has been proposed in the past to achieve this goal, and what is being proposed. All of this may be summarized under the general heading of Analytical Quality Control - i.e., how to achieve precise and accurate analysis. The author proposes that anyone wishing to analyze archaeological ceramics should simply use his own standard, but attempt to calibrate that standard as nearly as possible to absolute (i.e., accurate) concentration values. The relationship of Analytical Quality Control to provenience location is also examined

  15. The k0-NAA Standardization Method Using an Am-Be Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, N.F.; Mohamed, G.Y.; Hassan, M.F.; Ali, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis is a well established technique for the analysis of trace elements in different samples. Precise elemental concentrations of Al, Mn, Mg and Na in two unknown geological samples were determined by using the k 0 -standardization method. For such measurements two sets of standard monitors of Gold (Au), Indium (In), Tungsten (W) and Titanium (Ta) were used. One set is bare and the other is cadmium covered. These monitors were used for measuring the irradiation position factors f and α and using the cadmium ratios of the 115 In(n,γ) 116 In and 182 Ta(n,γ) 183 Ta interactions. Neutrons were obtained from CNIF 2 facility that uses an Am-Be radio-isotopic neutron source with a modification to have thermal and epi-thermal neutrons. Measurements were carried out using a gamma-ray spectrometer consisting of a hyper pure germanium detector and necessary associated electronics. The k 0 -standardization method can be used for quality control tests.

  16. Gravimetric and titrimetric methods of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rives, R.D.; Bruks, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    Gravimetric and titrimetric methods of analysis are considered. Methods of complexometric titration are mentioned, as well as methods of increasing sensitivity in titrimetry. Gravimetry and titrimetry are applied during analysis for traces of geological materials

  17. Standard Test Methods for Constituent Content of Composite Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 These test methods determine the constituent content of composite materials by one of two approaches. Method I physically removes the matrix by digestion or ignition by one of seven procedures, leaving the reinforcement essentially unaffected and thus allowing calculation of reinforcement or matrix content (by weight or volume) as well as percent void volume. Method II, applicable only to laminate materials of known fiber areal weight, calculates reinforcement or matrix content (by weight or volume), and the cured ply thickness, based on the measured thickness of the laminate. Method II is not applicable to the measurement of void volume. 1.1.1 These test methods are primarily intended for two-part composite material systems. However, special provisions can be made to extend these test methods to filled material systems with more than two constituents, though not all test results can be determined in every case. 1.1.2 The procedures contained within have been designed to be particularly effective for ce...

  18. The k0-based neutron activation analysis: a mono standard to standardless approach of NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, R.; Nair, A.G.C.; Sudarshan, K.; Goswami, A.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2006-01-01

    The k 0 -based neutron activation analysis (k 0 -NAA) uses neutron flux parameters, detection efficiency and nuclear constants namely k 0 and Q 0 for the determination of concentration of elements. Gold ( 197 Au) or any other element having suitable nuclear properties is used as external or internal single comparator. This article describes the principle of k 0 -NAA and standardization of method by characterization of reactor irradiation sites and calibration of efficiency of the detector and applications. The method was validated using CRMs obtained from USGS, IAEA and NIST. The applications of method includes samples like gemstones (ruby, beryl and emerald), sediments, manganese nodules and encrustations, cereals, and medicinal and edible leaves. Recently, a k-o-based internal mono standard INAA (IM-NAA) method using in-situ relative efficiency has been standardized by us for the analysis of small and large samples of different shapes and sizes. The method was applied to a new meteorite sample and large size wheat samples. Non-standard size and shape samples of nuclear cladding materials namely zircaloy 2 and 4, stainless steels (SS 316M and D9) and 1S aluminium were analysed. Standard-less analysis of these cladding materials was possible by mass balance approach since all the major and minor elements were amenable to NAA. (author)

  19. A catalog of automated analysis methods for enterprise models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez, Hector; Sánchez, Mario; Villalobos, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Enterprise models are created for documenting and communicating the structure and state of Business and Information Technologies elements of an enterprise. After models are completed, they are mainly used to support analysis. Model analysis is an activity typically based on human skills and due to the size and complexity of the models, this process can be complicated and omissions or miscalculations are very likely. This situation has fostered the research of automated analysis methods, for supporting analysts in enterprise analysis processes. By reviewing the literature, we found several analysis methods; nevertheless, they are based on specific situations and different metamodels; then, some analysis methods might not be applicable to all enterprise models. This paper presents the work of compilation (literature review), classification, structuring, and characterization of automated analysis methods for enterprise models, expressing them in a standardized modeling language. In addition, we have implemented the analysis methods in our modeling tool.

  20. Measuring fuel moisture content in Alaska: standard methods and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney A. Norum; Melanie. Miller

    1984-01-01

    Methods and procedures are given for collecting and processing living and dead plant materials for the purpose of determining their water content. Wild-land fuels in Alaska are emphasized, but the methodology is applicable elsewhere. Guides are given for determining the number of samples needed to attain a chosen precision. Detailed procedures are presented for...

  1. Deformation of two-phase aggregates using standard numerical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duretz, Thibault; Yamato, Philippe; Schmalholz, Stefan M.

    2013-04-01

    Geodynamic problems often involve the large deformation of material encompassing material boundaries. In geophysical fluids, such boundaries often coincide with a discontinuity in the viscosity (or effective viscosity) field and subsequently in the pressure field. Here, we employ popular implementations of the finite difference and finite element methods for solving viscous flow problems. On one hand, we implemented finite difference method coupled with a Lagrangian marker-in-cell technique to represent the deforming fluid. Thanks to it Eulerian nature, this method has a limited geometric flexibility but is characterized by a light and stable discretization. On the other hand, we employ the Lagrangian finite element method which offers full geometric flexibility at the cost of relatively heavier discretization. In order to test the accuracy of the finite difference scheme, we ran large strain simple shear deformation of aggregates containing either weak of strong circular inclusion (1e6 viscosity ratio). The results, obtained for different grid resolutions, are compared to Lagrangian finite element results which are considered as reference solution. The comparison is then used to establish up to which strain can finite difference simulations be run given the nature of the inclusions (dimensions, viscosity) and the resolution of the Eulerian mesh.

  2. Standard Test Method for Contamination Outgassing Characteristics of Spacecraft Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a technique for generating data to characterize the kinetics of the release of outgassing products from materials. This technique will determine both the total mass flux evolved by a material when exposed to a vacuum environment and the deposition of this flux on surfaces held at various specified temperatures. 1.2 This test method describes the test apparatus and related operating procedures for evaluating the total mass flux that is evolved from a material being subjected to temperatures that are between 298 and 398 K. Pressures external to the sample effusion cell are less than 7 × 10−3 Pa (5 × 10−5 torr). Deposition rates are measured during material outgassing tests. A test procedure for collecting data and a test method for processing and presenting the collected data are included. 1.3 This test method can be used to produce the data necessary to support mathematical models used for the prediction of molecular contaminant generation, migration, and deposition. 1.4 Al...

  3. Standard methods for research on apis mellifera gut symbionts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut microbes can play an important role in digestion, disease resistance, and the general health of animals, but little is known about the biology of gut symbionts in Apis mellifera. This paper is part of a series on honey bee research methods, providing protocols for studying gut symbionts. We desc...

  4. Standard methods for virus research in Apis mellifera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda, J.R.; Bailey, L.; Ball, B.V.; Blanchard, P.; Budge, G.E.; Chejanovsky, N.; Chen, Y.P.; Gauthier, L.; Genersch, E.; Graaf, de D.C.; Ribiere, M.; Ryabov, E.; Smet, de L.; Steen, van der J.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Honey bee virus research is an enormously broad area, ranging from subcellular molecular biology through physiology and behaviour, to individual and colony-level symptoms, transmission and epidemiology. The research methods used in virology are therefore equally diverse. This article covers those

  5. Establishment of analysis method for methane detection by gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyuan; Yang, Jie; Ye, Tianyi; Han, Zeyu

    2018-02-01

    The study focused on the establishment of analysis method for methane determination by gas chromatography. Methane was detected by hydrogen flame ionization detector, and the quantitative relationship was determined by working curve of y=2041.2x+2187 with correlation coefficient of 0.9979. The relative standard deviation of 2.60-6.33% and the recovery rate of 96.36%∼105.89% were obtained during the parallel determination of standard gas. This method was not quite suitable for biogas content analysis because methane content in biogas would be over the measurement range in this method.

  6. Ratio of slopes method for quantitative analysis in ceramic bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainal Arifin Ahmad; Ahmad Fauzi Mohd Noor; Radzali Othman; Messer, P.F.

    1996-01-01

    A quantitative x-ray diffraction analysis technique developed at University of Sheffield was adopted, rather than the previously widely used internal standard method, to determine the amount of the phases present in a reformulated whiteware porcelain and a BaTiO sub 3 electrochemical material. This method, although still employs an internal standard, was found to be very easy and accurate. The required weight fraction of a phase in the mixture to be analysed is determined from the ratio of slopes of two linear plots, designated as the analysis and reference lines, passing through their origins using the least squares method

  7. Setting Standards for Medically-Based Running Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Heather K.; Herman, Daniel C.; Lear-Barnes, Leslie; Barnes, Robert; Chen, Cong; Greenberg, Scott; Vincent, Kevin R.

    2015-01-01

    Setting standards for medically based running analyses is necessary to ensure that runners receive a high-quality service from practitioners. Medical and training history, physical and functional tests, and motion analysis of running at self-selected and faster speeds are key features of a comprehensive analysis. Self-reported history and movement symmetry are critical factors that require follow-up therapy or long-term management. Pain or injury is typically the result of a functional deficit above or below the site along the kinematic chain. PMID:25014394

  8. A Comparative Analysis of Three Proposed Federal Renewable Electricity Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Logan, Jeffrey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Short, Walter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-05-01

    This paper analyzes potential impacts of proposed national renewable electricity standard (RES) legislation. An RES is a mandate requiring certain electricity retailers to provide a minimum share of their electricity sales from qualifying renewable power generation. The analysis focuses on draft bills introduced individually by Senator Jeff Bingaman and Representative Edward Markey, and jointly by Representative Henry Waxman and Markey. The analysis uses NREL's Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model to evaluate the impacts of the proposed RES requirements on the U.S. energy sector in four scenarios.

  9. Comparative Analysis of Three Proposed Federal Renewable Electricity Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, P.; Logan, J.; Bird, L.; Short, W.

    2009-05-01

    This paper analyzes potential impacts of proposed national renewable electricity standard (RES) legislation. An RES is a mandate requiring certain electricity retailers to provide a minimum share of their electricity sales from qualifying renewable power generation. The analysis focuses on draft bills introduced individually by Senator Jeff Bingaman and Representative Edward Markey, and jointly by Representative Henry Waxman and Markey. The analysis uses NREL's Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model to evaluate the impacts of the proposed RES requirements on the U.S. energy sector in four scenarios.

  10. Standard epidemiological methods to understand and improve Apis mellifera health

    OpenAIRE

    Lengerich, Eugene; Spleen, Angela; Dainat, Benjamin; Cresswell, James; Baylis , Kathy; Nguyen, Bach Kim; Soroker, Victoria; Underwood, Robyn; Human, Hannelie; Le Conte, Yves; Saegerman, Claude

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the use of epidemiological methods to understand and reduce honey bee morbidity and mortality. Essential terms are presented and defined and we also give examples for their use. Defining such terms as disease, population, sensitivity, and specificity, provides a framework for epidemiological comparisons. The term population, in particular, is quite complex for an organism like the honey bee because one can view “epidemiological unit” as individual bees, colonies, ap...

  11. Standard Test Methods for Determining Mechanical Integrity of Photovoltaic Modules

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for determining the ability of photovoltaic modules to withstand the mechanical loads, stresses and deflections used to simulate, on an accelerated basis, high wind conditions, heavy snow and ice accumulation, and non-planar installation effects. 1.1.1 A static load test to 2400 Pa is used to simulate wind loads on both module surfaces 1.1.2 A static load test to 5400 Pa is used to simulate heavy snow and ice accumulation on the module front surface. 1.1.3 A twist test is used to simulate the non-planar mounting of a photovoltaic module by subjecting it to a twist angle of 1.2°. 1.1.4 A cyclic load test of 10 000 cycles duration and peak loading to 1440 Pa is used to simulate dynamic wind or other flexural loading. Such loading might occur during shipment or after installation at a particular location. 1.2 These test methods define photovoltaic test specimens and mounting methods, and specify parameters that must be recorded and reported. 1.3 Any individual mech...

  12. Applications of Automation Methods for Nonlinear Fracture Test Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Phillip A.; Wells, Douglas N.

    2013-01-01

    Using automated and standardized computer tools to calculate the pertinent test result values has several advantages such as: 1. allowing high-fidelity solutions to complex nonlinear phenomena that would be impractical to express in written equation form, 2. eliminating errors associated with the interpretation and programing of analysis procedures from the text of test standards, 3. lessening the need for expertise in the areas of solid mechanics, fracture mechanics, numerical methods, and/or finite element modeling, to achieve sound results, 4. and providing one computer tool and/or one set of solutions for all users for a more "standardized" answer. In summary, this approach allows a non-expert with rudimentary training to get the best practical solution based on the latest understanding with minimum difficulty.Other existing ASTM standards that cover complicated phenomena use standard computer programs: 1. ASTM C1340/C1340M-10- Standard Practice for Estimation of Heat Gain or Loss Through Ceilings Under Attics Containing Radiant Barriers by Use of a Computer Program 2. ASTM F 2815 - Standard Practice for Chemical Permeation through Protective Clothing Materials: Testing Data Analysis by Use of a Computer Program 3. ASTM E2807 - Standard Specification for 3D Imaging Data Exchange, Version 1.0 The verification, validation, and round-robin processes required of a computer tool closely parallel the methods that are used to ensure the solution validity for equations included in test standard. The use of automated analysis tools allows the creation and practical implementation of advanced fracture mechanics test standards that capture the physics of a nonlinear fracture mechanics problem without adding undue burden or expense to the user. The presented approach forms a bridge between the equation-based fracture testing standards of today and the next generation of standards solving complex problems through analysis automation.

  13. Standardization of domestic human reliability analysis and experience of human reliability analysis in probabilistic safety assessment for NPPs under design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, D. I.; Jung, W. D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces the background and development activities of domestic standardization of procedure and method for Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) to avoid the intervention of subjectivity by HRA analyst in Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) as possible, and the review of the HRA results for domestic nuclear power plants under design studied by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. We identify the HRA methods used for PSA for domestic NPPs and discuss the subjectivity of HRA analyst shown in performing a HRA. Also, we introduce the PSA guidelines published in USA and review the HRA results based on them. We propose the system of a standard procedure and method for HRA to be developed

  14. Probability of Failure Analysis Standards and Guidelines for Expendable Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Paul D.; Morse, Elisabeth L.; Rosati, Paul; Cather, Corey

    2013-09-01

    Recognizing the central importance of probability of failure estimates to ensuring public safety for launches, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and U.S. Air Force (USAF), through the Common Standards Working Group (CSWG), developed a guide for conducting valid probability of failure (POF) analyses for expendable launch vehicles (ELV), with an emphasis on POF analysis for new ELVs. A probability of failure analysis for an ELV produces estimates of the likelihood of occurrence of potentially hazardous events, which are critical inputs to launch risk analysis of debris, toxic, or explosive hazards. This guide is intended to document a framework for POF analyses commonly accepted in the US, and should be useful to anyone who performs or evaluates launch risk analyses for new ELVs. The CSWG guidelines provide performance standards and definitions of key terms, and are being revised to address allocation to flight times and vehicle response modes. The POF performance standard allows a launch operator to employ alternative, potentially innovative methodologies so long as the results satisfy the performance standard. Current POF analysis practice at US ranges includes multiple methodologies described in the guidelines as accepted methods, but not necessarily the only methods available to demonstrate compliance with the performance standard. The guidelines include illustrative examples for each POF analysis method, which are intended to illustrate an acceptable level of fidelity for ELV POF analyses used to ensure public safety. The focus is on providing guiding principles rather than "recipe lists." Independent reviews of these guidelines were performed to assess their logic, completeness, accuracy, self- consistency, consistency with risk analysis practices, use of available information, and ease of applicability. The independent reviews confirmed the

  15. Business transactions and standards. Towards a system of concepts and a method for early problem identification in standard implementation projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rukanova, B.D.

    2005-01-01

    To summarize, with respect to research question one we constructed a system of concepts, while in answer to research question two we proposed a method of how to apply this system of concepts in practice in order to identify potential problems in early stages of standard implementation projects.

  16. The application of the k0-standardization method at the TRIGA Mark II reactor, Ljubljana, Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacimovic, Radojko; Benedik, Ljudmila; Stegnar, Peter; Smodis, Borut

    2002-01-01

    The k 0 -standardization method of neutron activation analysis (k 0 -NAA) was launched in the 1970s and since then continuously developed. Nowadays, k 0 -NAA became widespread as a practical analytical tool used to analyse different sample matrices. At the Jozef Stefan Institute (IJS), the KAYZERO/SOLCOI software package has been introduced for data processing after extensive testing and comparison with other available programs. In the process of validation of the software a suite of natural matrix reference materials (RMs) were used. Five certified reference materials (CRMs) from the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), two standard reference materials (SRMs) from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), three RMs from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and one RM from IJS were analysed. Altogether, results for ten elements in inorganic matrices and twenty-one elements in organic matrices, obtained by k 0 -instrumental neutron activation analysis (k 0 -INAA), were compared to certified values. The results obtained show good agreement with certified or assigned values except for Fe and U in inorganic matrices, and Al and Cr in organic matrices. (author)

  17. Standard test method for measurement of fatigue crack growth rates

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2015-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of fatigue crack growth rates from near-threshold to Kmax controlled instability. Results are expressed in terms of the crack-tip stress-intensity factor range (ΔK), defined by the theory of linear elasticity. 1.2 Several different test procedures are provided, the optimum test procedure being primarily dependent on the magnitude of the fatigue crack growth rate to be measured. 1.3 Materials that can be tested by this test method are not limited by thickness or by strength so long as specimens are of sufficient thickness to preclude buckling and of sufficient planar size to remain predominantly elastic during testing. 1.4 A range of specimen sizes with proportional planar dimensions is provided, but size is variable to be adjusted for yield strength and applied force. Specimen thickness may be varied independent of planar size. 1.5 The details of the various specimens and test configurations are shown in Annex A1-Annex A3. Specimen configurations other than t...

  18. A Study on the Improvement of Safety Testing Standards and Methods for Mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seon Hyeong; Jung, Ah Young; Yong, Hwan Seok; Kim, Do Wan; Jang, Gi Won; Cha, Sang Hoon; Jo, Sang Won; Park, Ji Koon

    2012-01-01

    To establish the improved national safety testing standards and methods for mammography. We investigated and compared the current status of mammographic equipment installation with the national and international safety and quality control programs and methods. We established and verified the draft for safety testing standards and methods. We propose that the investigations of the conductor system, hardware leakage radiation profile, illumination intensity test, comparison between X-ray and light photon exposure, X-ray dose exposure on the chest wall, compression equipment size, timing equipment, and the average effective radiation dose, should all be maintained as they are in the present state without any changes. However, the exposure radiation dose reproducibility, kVp and mAs, and the half value layer tests should be reconsidered and revised. Moreover, compression pressure and autonomic exposure control system (AEC) tests should be included as new criteria. Other parameter controls included in the phantom image analysis which overlap with total quality assurance should be excluded. We recommend that AEC and compression pressure tests should be included as new criteria and the methods for the exposure radiation dose reproducibility, kVp, and mAs, and half value layer tests should be reconsidered and revised.

  19. Analysis methods (from 301 to 351)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis methods of materials used in the nuclear field (uranium, plutonium and their compounds, zirconium, magnesium, water...) and determination of impurities. Only reliable methods are selected [fr

  20. Standard method of test for atom percent fission in uranium fuel - radiochemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    The determination of the U at. % fission that has occurred in U fuel from an analysis of the 137 Cs ratio to U ratio after irradiation is described. The method is applicable to high-density, clad U fuels (metal, alloys, or ceramic compounds) in which no separation of U and Cs has occurred. The fuels are best aged for several months after irradiation in order to reduce the 13-day 136 Cs activity. The fuel is dissolved and diluted to produce a solution containing a final concentration of U of 100 to 1000 mg U/l. The 137 Cs concentration is determined by ASTM method E 320, for Radiochemical Determination of Cesium-137 in Nuclear Fuel Solutions, and the U concentration is determined by ASTM method E 267, for Determination of Uranium and Plutonium Concentrations and Isotopic Abundances, ASTM method E 318, for Colorimetric Determination of Uranium by Controlled-Potential Coulometry. Calculations are given for correcting the 137 Cs concentration for decay during and after irradiation. The accuracy of this method is limited, not only by the experimental errors with which the fission yield and the half-life of 137 Cs are known

  1. Retinoblastoma: Achieving new standards with methods of chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swathi Kaliki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of retinoblastoma (RB has dramatically changed over the past two decades from previous radiotherapy methods to current chemotherapy strategies. RB is a remarkably chemotherapy-sensitive tumor. Chemotherapy is currently used as a first-line approach for children with this malignancy and can be delivered by intravenous, intra-arterial, periocular, and intravitreal routes. The choice of route for chemotherapy administration depends upon the tumor laterality and tumor staging. Intravenous chemotherapy (IVC is used most often in bilateral cases, orbital RB, and as an adjuvant treatment in high-risk RB. Intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC is used in cases with group C or D RB and selected cases of group E tumor. Periocular chemotherapy is used as an adjunct treatment in eyes with group D and E RB and those with persistent/recurrent vitreous seeds. Intravitreal chemotherapy is reserved for eyes with persistent/recurrent vitreous seeds. In this review, we describe the various forms of chemotherapy used in the management of RB. A database search was performed on PubMed, using the terms "RB," and "treatment," "chemotherapy," "systemic chemotherapy," "IVC," "IAC," "periocular chemotherapy," or "intravitreal chemotherapy." Relevant English language articles were extracted, reviewed, and referenced appropriately.

  2. Standard test methods for bend testing of material for ductility

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover bend testing for ductility of materials. Included in the procedures are four conditions of constraint on the bent portion of the specimen; a guided-bend test using a mandrel or plunger of defined dimensions to force the mid-length of the specimen between two supports separated by a defined space; a semi-guided bend test in which the specimen is bent, while in contact with a mandrel, through a specified angle or to a specified inside radius (r) of curvature, measured while under the bending force; a free-bend test in which the ends of the specimen are brought toward each other, but in which no transverse force is applied to the bend itself and there is no contact of the concave inside surface of the bend with other material; a bend and flatten test, in which a transverse force is applied to the bend such that the legs make contact with each other over the length of the specimen. 1.2 After bending, the convex surface of the bend is examined for evidence of a crack or surface irregu...

  3. Using SWE Standards for Ubiquitous Environmental Sensing: A Performance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Huerta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Although smartphone applications represent the most typical data consumer tool from the citizen perspective in environmental applications, they can also be used for in-situ data collection and production in varied scenarios, such as geological sciences and biodiversity. The use of standard protocols, such as SWE, to exchange information between smartphones and sensor infrastructures brings benefits such as interoperability and scalability, but their reliance on XML is a potential problem when large volumes of data are transferred, due to limited bandwidth and processing capabilities on mobile phones. In this article we present a performance analysis about the use of SWE standards in smartphone applications to consume and produce environmental sensor data, analysing to what extent the performance problems related to XML can be alleviated by using alternative uncompressed and compressed formats.

  4. DTI analysis methods : Voxel-based analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hecke, Wim; Leemans, Alexander; Emsell, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Voxel-based analysis (VBA) of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data permits the investigation of voxel-wise differences or changes in DTI metrics in every voxel of a brain dataset. It is applied primarily in the exploratory analysis of hypothesized group-level alterations in DTI parameters, as it does

  5. Bayesian methods for data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Carlin, Bradley P.

    2009-01-01

    Approaches for statistical inference Introduction Motivating Vignettes Defining the Approaches The Bayes-Frequentist Controversy Some Basic Bayesian Models The Bayes approach Introduction Prior Distributions Bayesian Inference Hierarchical Modeling Model Assessment Nonparametric Methods Bayesian computation Introduction Asymptotic Methods Noniterative Monte Carlo Methods Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods Model criticism and selection Bayesian Modeling Bayesian Robustness Model Assessment Bayes Factors via Marginal Density Estimation Bayes Factors

  6. Standardization of Laser Methods and Techniques for Vibration Measurements and Calibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, Hans-Juergen von

    2010-01-01

    The realization and dissemination of the SI units of motion quantities (vibration and shock) have been based on laser interferometer methods specified in international documentary standards. New and refined laser methods and techniques developed by national metrology institutes and by leading manufacturers in the past two decades have been swiftly specified as standard methods for inclusion into in the series ISO 16063 of international documentary standards. A survey of ISO Standards for the calibration of vibration and shock transducers demonstrates the extended ranges and improved accuracy (measurement uncertainty) of laser methods and techniques for vibration and shock measurements and calibrations. The first standard for the calibration of laser vibrometers by laser interferometry or by a reference accelerometer calibrated by laser interferometry (ISO 16063-41) is on the stage of a Draft International Standard (DIS) and may be issued by the end of 2010. The standard methods with refined techniques proved to achieve wider measurement ranges and smaller measurement uncertainties than that specified in the ISO Standards. The applicability of different standardized interferometer methods to vibrations at high frequencies was recently demonstrated up to 347 kHz (acceleration amplitudes up to 350 km/s 2 ). The relative deviations between the amplitude measurement results of the different interferometer methods that were applied simultaneously, differed by less than 1% in all cases.

  7. Comparison of two standardized methods of methacholine inhalation challenge in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersted, H C; Walker, C M; O'Shaughnessy, A D

    2000-01-01

    In the European Community Respiratory Health Study (ECRHS), airway responsiveness to methacholine was determined using the Mefar dosimeter protocol. Elsewhere, the 2-min tidal breathing method has become the preferred standardized method. The relationship between measurements of responsiveness by...

  8. Status of sennosides content in various Indian herbal formulations: Method standardization by HPTLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md.Wasim Aktar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Several poly-herbal formulations containing senna (Cassia angustifolia leaves are available in the Indian market for the treatment of constipation. The purgative effect of senna is due to the presence of two unique hydroxy anthracene glycosides sennosides A and B. A HPTLC method for the quantitative analysis of sennosides A and B present in the formulation has been developed. Methanol extract of the formulations was analyzed on a silica gel 60 GF254 HPTLC plates with spot visualization under UV and scanning at 350 nm in absorption/ reflection mode. Calibration curves were found to be linear in the range 200-1000 ηg. The correlation coefficients were found to be 0.991 for sennoside A and 0.997 for sennoside B. The average recovery rate was 95% for sennoside A and 97% for sennoside B showing the reliability and reproducibility of the method. Limit of detection and quantification were determined as 0.05 and 0.25 μg/g respectively. The validity of the method with respect to analysis was confirmed by comparing the UV spectra of the herbal formulations with that of the standard within the same Rf window. The analysis revealed a significant variation in sennosides content.

  9. Status of sennosides content in various Indian herbal formulations: Method standardization by HPTLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Wasim Aktar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Several poly-herbal formulations containing senna (Cassia angustifolia leaves are available in the Indian market for the treatment of constipation. The purgative effect of senna is due to the presence of two unique hydroxy anthracene glycosides sennosides A and B. A HPTLC method for the quantitative analysis of sennosides A and B present in the formulation has been developed. Methanol extract of the formulations was analyzed on a silica gel 60 GF254 HPTLCplates with spot visualization under UV and scanning at 350 nm in absorption/ reflection mode. Calibration curves were found to be linear in the range 200-1000 ηg. The correlation coefficients were found to be 0.991 for sennoside A and 0.997 for sennoside B. The average recovery rate was 95% for sennoside A and 97% for sennoside B showing the reliability and reproducibility of the method. Limit of detection and quantification were determined as 0.05 and 0.25 μg/g respectively. The validity of the method with respect to analysis was confirmed by comparing the UV spectra of the herbal formulations with that of the standard within the same Rf window. The analysis revealed a significant variation in sennosides content.

  10. Standardization of a method to study angiogenesis in a mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVID FEDER

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the adult organism, angiogenesis is restricted to a few physiological conditions. On the other hand, uncontrolled angiogenesis have often been associated to angiogenesis-dependent pathologies. A variety of animal models have been described to provide more quantitative analysis of in vivo angiogenesis and to characterize pro- and antiangiogenic molecules. However, it is still necessary to establish a quantitative, reproducible and specific method for studies of angiogenesis factors and inhibitors. This work aimed to standardize a method for the study of angiogenesis and to investigate the effects of thalidomide on angiogenesis. Sponges of 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 cm were implanted in the back of mice groups, control and experimental (thalidomide 200 mg/K/day by gavage. After seven days, the sponges were removed. The dosage of hemoglobin in sponge and in circulation was performed and the ratio between the values was tested using nonparametric Mann-Whitney test. Results have shown that sponge-induced angiogenesis quantitated by ratio between hemoglobin content in serum and in sponge is a helpful model for in vivo studies on angiogenesis. Moreover, it was observed that sponge-induced angiogenesis can be suppressed by thalidomide, corroborating to the validity of the standardized method.

  11. Improvement of Cost Calculation in Constructions – Application of the Standard Cost Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Breuer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Grace to the analysis of several commercial companies effectively performed “on the field”, we could remark the necessity to change the method of cost calculation, our motivation being related to the simplification of calculations and the reduction of the labour volume, but especially the necessity to know in due time the deviations occurred as well as the causes having led to their apparition. The importance of knowing the deviations in due time results from the very basic characteristics of the constructions execution, i.e. the performance of works during several budgetary years, which leads to the modifications of prices and materials, the introduction of new technologies, and to the performance of open air activities, making the execution of constructions works be influenced by the atmospheric condition. But the most important aspect of knowing the deviations is the correct determination of expenses and their inscribing in the corresponding period, in view of determining the result of the budgetary year. Our proposal for the enhancement of the method of cost calculation in constructions is the application of the standard cost method in the variant “single standard cost”.

  12. Multimodal nonlinear microscopy: A powerful label-free method for supporting standard diagnostics on biological tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Cicchi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The large use of nonlinear laser scanning microscopy in the past decade paved the way for potential clinical application of this imaging technique. Modern nonlinear microscopy techniques offer promising label-free solutions to improve diagnostic performances on tissues. In particular, the combination of multiple nonlinear imaging techniques in the same microscope allows integrating morphological with functional information in a morpho-functional scheme. Such approach provides a high-resolution label-free alternative to both histological and immunohistochemical examination of tissues and is becoming increasingly popular among the clinical community. Nevertheless, several technical improvements, including automatic scanning and image analysis, are required before the technique represents a standard diagnostic method. In this review paper, we highlight the capabilities of multimodal nonlinear microscopy for tissue imaging, by providing various examples on colon, arterial and skin tissues. The comparison between images acquired using multimodal nonlinear microscopy and histology shows a good agreement between the two methods. The results demonstrate that multimodal nonlinear microscopy is a powerful label-free alternative to standard histopathological methods and has the potential to find a stable place in the clinical setting in the near future.

  13. The Optimal Design Method and Standardized Mathematical Model of Tooth Profile Modification of Spur Gear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Mei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports a tooth profile modification method of spur gear. After establishing a standardized mathematical model for optimized tooth profile and simulating meshing process with ANSYS finite element analysis, we obtained 625 groups of gear models with different modification parameters. The group with minimum transmission errors owns the optimal parameters. Genetic algorithm was adopted in the entire process for the purpose of reducing the variation of transmission errors in meshing process. The arc and parabolic modification were doing the same processing. After comparing the transmission errors fluctuation produced by the meshing process of gear of nonmodification with arc modification and parabolic modification, we found that the best modification effects of arc modification and parabolic modification were both reduced by 90%. The modification method makes the gear drive process more stable and efficient, and it is also promising in general application for gear drive.

  14. Accident analysis for aircraft crash into hazardous facilities: DOE standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This standard provides the user with sufficient information to evaluate and assess the significance of aircraft crash risk on facility safety without expending excessive effort where it is not required. It establishes an approach for performing a conservative analysis of the risk posed by a release of hazardous radioactive or chemical material resulting from an aircraft crash into a facility containing significant quantities of such material. This can establish whether a facility has a significant potential for an aircraft impact and whether this has the potential for producing significant offsite or onsite consequences. General implementation guidance, screening and evaluation guidelines, and methodologies for the evaluations are included

  15. 42 CFR 440.260 - Methods and standards to assure quality of services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methods and standards to assure quality of services. 440.260 Section 440.260 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... and Limits Applicable to All Services § 440.260 Methods and standards to assure quality of services...

  16. 40 CFR 1043.50 - Approval of methods to meet Tier 1 retrofit NOX standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... retrofit NOX standards. 1043.50 Section 1043.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... SUBJECT TO THE MARPOL PROTOCOL § 1043.50 Approval of methods to meet Tier 1 retrofit NOX standards. Regulation 13 of Annex VI provides for certification of Approved Methods, which are retrofit procedures that...

  17. Multiplex cDNA quantification method that facilitates the standardization of gene expression data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Osamu; Murakami, Yasufumi; Suyama, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Microarray-based gene expression measurement is one of the major methods for transcriptome analysis. However, current microarray data are substantially affected by microarray platforms and RNA references because of the microarray method can provide merely the relative amounts of gene expression levels. Therefore, valid comparisons of the microarray data require standardized platforms, internal and/or external controls and complicated normalizations. These requirements impose limitations on the extensive comparison of gene expression data. Here, we report an effective approach to removing the unfavorable limitations by measuring the absolute amounts of gene expression levels on common DNA microarrays. We have developed a multiplex cDNA quantification method called GEP-DEAN (Gene expression profiling by DCN-encoding-based analysis). The method was validated by using chemically synthesized DNA strands of known quantities and cDNA samples prepared from mouse liver, demonstrating that the absolute amounts of cDNA strands were successfully measured with a sensitivity of 18 zmol in a highly multiplexed manner in 7 h. PMID:21415008

  18. Phytochemical analysis and standardization of Strychnos nux-vomica extract through HPTLC techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar Patel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective is to develop a noval qualitative and quantitative method by which we can determine different phytoconstituents of Strychnos nux-vomica L. Methods: To profile the phyconstituents of Strychnos nux-vomica, in the present study hydroalcoholic extract of Strychnos nux-vomica was subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial activities against certain pathogenic microorganisms, solubility test, loss on drying and pH value. Extract was also subjected to the quantitative analysis including total phenol, flavonoid and heavy metal analysis. Quantitative analysis was performed through HPTLC methods using strychnine and brucine as a standard marker. Results: Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloid, carbohydrate, tannin, steroid, triterpenoid and glycoside in the extract. Total flavonoid and phenol content of Strychnos nux-vomica L extract was found to be 0.40 % and 0.43%. Result showed that the level of heavy metal (lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium complie the standard level. Total bacterial count, yeast and moulds contents were found to be under the limit whereas E. coli and salmonella was found to be absent in the extract. Content of strychnine and brucine were found to be 4.75% and 3.91%. Conclusions: These studies provide valluable information for correct identification and selection of the drug from various adulterations. In future this study will be helpful for the quantitative analysis as well as standardization of the Strychnos nux-vomica L.

  19. Chemical methods of rock analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeffery, P. G; Hutchison, D

    1981-01-01

    .... Such methods include those based upon spectrophotometry, flame emission spectrometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy, as well as gravimetry, titrimetry and the use of ion-selective electrodes...

  20. Radiological error: analysis, standard setting, targeted instruction and teamworking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FitzGerald, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Diagnostic radiology does not have objective benchmarks for acceptable levels of missed diagnoses [1]. Until now, data collection of radiological discrepancies has been very time consuming. The culture within the specialty did not encourage it. However, public concern about patient safety is increasing. There have been recent innovations in compiling radiological interpretive discrepancy rates which may facilitate radiological standard setting. However standard setting alone will not optimise radiologists' performance or patient safety. We must use these new techniques in radiological discrepancy detection to stimulate greater knowledge sharing, targeted instruction and teamworking among radiologists. Not all radiological discrepancies are errors. Radiological discrepancy programmes must not be abused as an instrument for discrediting individual radiologists. Discrepancy rates must not be distorted as a weapon in turf battles. Radiological errors may be due to many causes and are often multifactorial. A systems approach to radiological error is required. Meaningful analysis of radiological discrepancies and errors is challenging. Valid standard setting will take time. Meanwhile, we need to develop top-up training, mentoring and rehabilitation programmes. (orig.)

  1. Standardization of Image Quality Analysis – ISO 19264

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüller, Dietmar; Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad

    2016-01-01

    There are a variety of image quality analysis tools available for the archiving world, which are based on different test charts and analysis algorithms. ISO has formed a working group in 2012 to harmonize these approaches and create a standard way of analyzing the image quality for archiving...... systems. This has resulted in three documents that have been or are going to be published soon. ISO 19262 defines the terms used in the area of image capture to unify the language. ISO 19263 describes the workflow issues and provides detailed information on how the measurements are done. Last...... but not least ISO 19264 describes the measurements in detail and provides aims and tolerance levels for the different aspects. This paper will present the new ISO 19264 technical specification to analyze image quality based on a single capture of a multi-pattern test chart, and discuss the reasoning behind its...

  2. Comparing Sustainable Forest Management Certifications Standards: A Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rawson. Clark

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To solve problems caused by conventional forest management, forest certification has emerged as a driver of sustainable forest management. Several sustainable forest management certification systems exist, including the Forest Stewardship Council and those endorsed by the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification, such as the Canadian Standards Association - Sustainable Forestry Management Standard CAN/CSA - Z809 and Sustainable Forestry Initiative. For consumers to use certified products to meet their own sustainability goals, they must have an understanding of the effectiveness of different certification systems. To understand the relative performance of three systems, we determined: (1 the criteria used to compare the Forest Stewardship Council, Canadian Standards Association - Sustainable Forestry Management, and Sustainable Forestry Initiative, (2 if consensus exists regarding their ability to achieve sustainability goals, and (3 what research gaps must be filled to improve our understanding of how forest certification systems affect sustainable forest management. We conducted a qualitative meta-analysis of 26 grey literature references (books, industry and nongovernmental organization publications and 9 primary literature references (articles in peer-reviewed academic journals that compared at least two of the aforementioned certification systems. The Forest Stewardship Council was the highest performer for ecological health and social sustainable forest management criteria. The Canadian Standards Association - Sustainable Forestry Management and Sustainable Forestry Initiative performed best under sustainable forest management criteria of forest productivity and economic longevity of a firm. Sixty-two percent of analyses were comparisons of the wording of certification system principles or criteria; 34% were surveys of foresters or consumers. An important caveat to these results is that only one comparison was based on

  3. Preparation of uranium standard solutions for x-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.M.; Cate, J.L.; Pickles, W.L.

    1978-03-01

    A method has been developed for gravimetrically preparing uranium nitrate standards with an estimated mean error of 0.1% (1 sigma) and a maximum error of 0.2% (1 sigma) for the total uranium weight. Two source materials, depleted uranium dioxide powder and NBS Standard Reference Material 960 uranium metal, were used to prepare stock solutions. The NBS metal proved to be superior because of the small but inherent uncertainty in the stoichiometry of the uranium oxide. These solutions were used to prepare standards in a freeze-dried configuration suitable for x-ray fluorescence analysis. Both gravimetric and freeze-drying techniques are presented. Volumetric preparation was found to be unsatisfactory for 0.1% precision for the sample size of interest. One of the primary considerations in preparing uranium standards for x-ray fluorescence analysis is the development of a technique for dispensing a 50-μl aliquot of a standard solution with a precision of 0.1% and an accuracy of 0.1%. The method developed corrects for variation in aliquoting and for evaporation loss during weighing. Two sets, each containing 50 standards have been produced. One set has been retained by LLL and one set retained by the Savannah River project

  4. International cooperative analysis of standard substance, IAEA-0390

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Keizo; Takada, Jitsuya; Moriyama, Hirotake; Akaboshi, Mitsuhiko

    1999-01-01

    Three kinds of algae (IAEA-0391, IAEA-0392 and IAEA-0393) were defined as the biological standard substance to monitor environmental pollution by Analytical Quality Control Service of IAEA (IAEA-AQCS). In this study, analysis of these standard substances were made using ICP-MS to compare with the results of simultaneously conducted radioactivation analysis (INAA). The respective cultures of the three algae were cooperatively prepared by IAEA-AQCS and microbial Institute of Czechoslovakia. After drying and sterilizing by Co-60 exposure, these samples were sent to KURRI. When the results from the experiment in KURRI were compared with the values recommended through statistical treatment of the data obtained by IAEA, these values of 5 elements, Fe, Cr, Mg, Mn and Na were well coincident for either of IAEA-0391, IAEA-0392 and IAEA-0393 and the values of As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, K and Zn were nearly coincident between them. Regarding Hg and La, the data from INAA and ICP-MS were very different from the recommended values of IAEA for either of samples. (M.N.)

  5. Probabilistic methods in combinatorial analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sachkov, Vladimir N

    2014-01-01

    This 1997 work explores the role of probabilistic methods for solving combinatorial problems. These methods not only provide the means of efficiently using such notions as characteristic and generating functions, the moment method and so on but also let us use the powerful technique of limit theorems. The basic objects under investigation are nonnegative matrices, partitions and mappings of finite sets, with special emphasis on permutations and graphs, and equivalence classes specified on sequences of finite length consisting of elements of partially ordered sets; these specify the probabilist

  6. Methods in quantitative image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberholzer, M; Ostreicher, M; Christen, H; Brühlmann, M

    1996-05-01

    The main steps of image analysis are image capturing, image storage (compression), correcting imaging defects (e.g. non-uniform illumination, electronic-noise, glare effect), image enhancement, segmentation of objects in the image and image measurements. Digitisation is made by a camera. The most modern types include a frame-grabber, converting the analog-to-digital signal into digital (numerical) information. The numerical information consists of the grey values describing the brightness of every point within the image, named a pixel. The information is stored in bits. Eight bits are summarised in one byte. Therefore, grey values can have a value between 0 and 256 (2(8)). The human eye seems to be quite content with a display of 5-bit images (corresponding to 64 different grey values). In a digitised image, the pixel grey values can vary within regions that are uniform in the original scene: the image is noisy. The noise is mainly manifested in the background of the image. For an optimal discrimination between different objects or features in an image, uniformity of illumination in the whole image is required. These defects can be minimised by shading correction [subtraction of a background (white) image from the original image, pixel per pixel, or division of the original image by the background image]. The brightness of an image represented by its grey values can be analysed for every single pixel or for a group of pixels. The most frequently used pixel-based image descriptors are optical density, integrated optical density, the histogram of the grey values, mean grey value and entropy. The distribution of the grey values existing within an image is one of the most important characteristics of the image. However, the histogram gives no information about the texture of the image. The simplest way to improve the contrast of an image is to expand the brightness scale by spreading the histogram out to the full available range. Rules for transforming the grey value

  7. Standardization of Cassia spectabilis with Respect to Authenticity, Assay and Chemical Constituent Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeline Torey

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Quality control standardizations of the various medicinal plants used in traditional medicine is becoming more important today in view of the commercialization of formulations based on these plants. An attempt at standardization of Cassia spectabilis leaf has been carried out with respect to authenticity, assay and chemical constituent analysis. The authentication involved many parameters, including gross morphology, microscopy of the leaves and functional group analysis by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. The assay part of standardization involved determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the extract which could help assess the chemical effects and establish curative values. The MIC of the C. spectabilis leaf extracts was investigated using the Broth Dilution Method. The extracts showed a MIC value of 6.25 mg/mL, independent of the extraction time. The chemical constituent aspect of standardization involves quantification of the main chemical components in C. spectabilis. The GCMS method used for quantification of 2,4-(1H,3H-pyrimidinedione in the extract was rapid, accurate, precise, linear (R2 = 0.8685, rugged and robust. Hence this method was suitable for quantification of this component in C. spectabilis. The standardization of C. spectabilis is needed to facilitate marketing of medicinal plants, with a view to promoting the export of valuable Malaysian Traditional Medicinal plants such as C. spectabilis.

  8. Standardization of Cassia spectabilis with respect to authenticity, assay and chemical constituent analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torey, Angeline; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Yeng, Chen; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga

    2010-05-10

    Quality control standardizations of the various medicinal plants used in traditional medicine is becoming more important today in view of the commercialization of formulations based on these plants. An attempt at standardization of Cassia spectabilis leaf has been carried out with respect to authenticity, assay and chemical constituent analysis. The authentication involved many parameters, including gross morphology, microscopy of the leaves and functional group analysis by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The assay part of standardization involved determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract which could help assess the chemical effects and establish curative values. The MIC of the C. spectabilis leaf extracts was investigated using the Broth Dilution Method. The extracts showed a MIC value of 6.25 mg/mL, independent of the extraction time. The chemical constituent aspect of standardization involves quantification of the main chemical components in C. spectabilis. The GCMS method used for quantification of 2,4-(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione in the extract was rapid, accurate, precise, linear (R(2) = 0.8685), rugged and robust. Hence this method was suitable for quantification of this component in C. spectabilis. The standardization of C. spectabilis is needed to facilitate marketing of medicinal plants, with a view to promoting the export of valuable Malaysian Traditional Medicinal plants such as C. spectabilis.

  9. A METHOD FOR EXERGY ANALYSIS OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE BOILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORTEZ L.A.B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a method to conduct a thermodynamic analysis of sugarcane bagasse boilers. The method is based on the standard and actual reactions which allows the calculation of the enthalpies of each process subequation and the exergies of each of the main flowrates participating in the combustion. The method is presented using an example with real data from a sugarcane bagasse boiler. A summary of the results obtained is also presented together based on the 1st Law of Thermodynamics analysis, the exergetic efficiencies, and the irreversibility rates. The method presented is very rigorous with respect to data consistency, particularly for the flue gas composition.

  10. Moyer's method of mixed dentition analysis: a meta-analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The applicability of tables derived from the data Moyer used to other ethnic groups has ... This implies that Moyer's method of prediction may have population variations. ... Key Words: meta-analysis, mixed dentition analysis, Moyer's method

  11. Usage of Latent Class Analysis in Diagnostic Microbiology in the Absence of Gold Standard Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Bayram Abiha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of performance of various tests diagnostic tests in the absence of gold standard is an important problem. Latent class analysis (LCA is a statistical analysis method known for many years, especially in the absence of a gold standard for evaluation of diagnostic tests so that LCA has found its wide application area. During the last decade, LCA method has widely used in for determining sensivity and specifity of different microbiological tests. It has investigated in the diagnosis of mycobacterium tuberculosis, mycobacterium bovis, human papilloma virus, bordetella pertussis, influenza viruses, hepatitis E virus (HEV, hepatitis C virus (HCV and other various viral infections. Researchers have compared several diagnostic tests for the diagnosis of different pathogens with LCA. We aimed to evaluate performance of latent class analysis method used microbiological diagnosis in various diseases in several researches. When we took into account all of these tests' results, we suppose that LCA is a good statistical analysis method to assess different test performances in the absence of gold standard. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(4.000: 467-488

  12. Experimental verification for standard analysis procedure of 241Am in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qingfen; Zhu Hongda; Liu Shutian; Pan Jingshun; Yang Dating

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The briefly experimental verification for 'determination of 241 Am in food' has been described. Methods: The overall recovery, the MDL of method and decontamination experiment has been done by standard analysis procedure. Results: The overall recovery is 76.26 ± 4.1%. The MDL is 3.4 x 10 -5 Bq/g ash, decontamination factor is higher than 10 3 for Po, 10 2 for U, Th, Pu and 60 for 237 Np. Conclusion: The results showed that the overall recovery is quite high and reliable, the MDL of method is able to meet examining 241 Am limited values in foods. the obtained decontamination factors of recommended procedure can meet analysis of 241 Am in food examination. Venifying results of the procedure are satisfied by using 243 Am spike and 241 Am standard reference material. (authors)

  13. Applying critical analysis - main methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Araujo Alonso

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available What is the usefulness of critical appraisal of literature? Critical analysis is a fundamental condition for the correct interpretation of any study that is subject to review. In epidemiology, in order to learn how to read a publication, we must be able to analyze it critically. Critical analysis allows us to check whether a study fulfills certain previously established methodological inclusion and exclusion criteria. This is frequently used in conducting systematic reviews although eligibility criteria are generally limited to the study design. Critical analysis of literature and be done implicitly while reading an article, as in reading for personal interest, or can be conducted in a structured manner, using explicit and previously established criteria. The latter is done when formally reviewing a topic.

  14. Standardized 15N tracer method for the determination of parameters of the whole-body protein metabolism in clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junghans, P.; Jung, K.; Matkowitz, R.

    1984-01-01

    A standardized 15 N tracer method is described for the assessment of nitrogen and protein metabolism in healthy and pathological changed organisms. The method represents an isotope technical procedure for the application in clinical research and practice. The clinical preparation of the patient/proband by means of a standardized nutritional regime, the tracer administration (single dose) and the sampling (urine, blood), the 15 N tracer technique (sample chemistry, emissionsspectrometric isotope analysis) and the mathematical evaluation of 15 N tracer data are described. (author)

  15. Trial Sequential Methods for Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinskaya, Elena; Wood, John

    2014-01-01

    Statistical methods for sequential meta-analysis have applications also for the design of new trials. Existing methods are based on group sequential methods developed for single trials and start with the calculation of a required information size. This works satisfactorily within the framework of fixed effects meta-analysis, but conceptual…

  16. Hybrid methods for cybersecurity analysis :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Warren Leon,; Dunlavy, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Early 2010 saw a signi cant change in adversarial techniques aimed at network intrusion: a shift from malware delivered via email attachments toward the use of hidden, embedded hyperlinks to initiate sequences of downloads and interactions with web sites and network servers containing malicious software. Enterprise security groups were well poised and experienced in defending the former attacks, but the new types of attacks were larger in number, more challenging to detect, dynamic in nature, and required the development of new technologies and analytic capabilities. The Hybrid LDRD project was aimed at delivering new capabilities in large-scale data modeling and analysis to enterprise security operators and analysts and understanding the challenges of detection and prevention of emerging cybersecurity threats. Leveraging previous LDRD research e orts and capabilities in large-scale relational data analysis, large-scale discrete data analysis and visualization, and streaming data analysis, new modeling and analysis capabilities were quickly brought to bear on the problems in email phishing and spear phishing attacks in the Sandia enterprise security operational groups at the onset of the Hybrid project. As part of this project, a software development and deployment framework was created within the security analyst work ow tool sets to facilitate the delivery and testing of new capabilities as they became available, and machine learning algorithms were developed to address the challenge of dynamic threats. Furthermore, researchers from the Hybrid project were embedded in the security analyst groups for almost a full year, engaged in daily operational activities and routines, creating an atmosphere of trust and collaboration between the researchers and security personnel. The Hybrid project has altered the way that research ideas can be incorporated into the production environments of Sandias enterprise security groups, reducing time to deployment from months and

  17. IMPROVING MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING AND COST CALCULATION IN DAIRY INDUSTRY USING STANDARD COST METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdănoiu Cristiana-Luminiţa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss issues related to the improvement of management accounting in the dairy industry by implementing standard cost method. The methods used today do not provide informational satisfaction to managers in order to conduct effectively production activities, which is why we attempted the standard cost method, it responding to the managers needs to obtain the efficiency of production, and all economic entities. The method allows an operative control of how they consume manpower and material resources by pursuing distinct, permanent and complete deviations during the activity and not at the end of the reporting period. Successful implementation of the standard method depends on the accuracy by which standards are developed and promotes consistently anticipated calculation of production costs as well as determination, tracking and controlling deviations from them, leads to increased practical value of accounting information and business improvement.

  18. Standard hazard analysis, critical control point and hotel management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujačić Vesna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is a dynamic category which is continuously evolving in the world. Specificities that have to be respected in the execution in relation to the food industry are connected with the fact that the main differences which exist regarding the food serving procedure in catering, numerous complex recipes and production technologies, staff fluctuation, old equipment. For an effective and permanent implementation, the HACCP concept is very important for building a serious base. In this case, the base is represented by the people handling the food. This paper presents international ISO standards, the concept of HACCP and the importance of its application in the tourism and hospitality industry. The concept of HACCP is a food safety management system through the analysis and control of biological, chemical and physical hazards in the entire process, from raw material production, procurement, handling, to manufacturing, distribution and consumption of the finished product. The aim of this paper is to present the importance of the application of HACCP concept in tourism and hotel management as a recognizable international standard.

  19. Method for Estimating Evaporative Potential (IM/CLO) from ASTM Standard Single Wind Velocity Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-10

    IM/CLO) FROM ASTM STANDARD SINGLE WIND VELOCITY MEASURES DISCLAIMER The opinions or assertions contained herein are the private views of the...USARIEM TECHNICAL REPORT T16-14 METHOD FOR ESTIMATING EVAPORATIVE POTENTIAL (IM/CLO) FROM ASTM STANDARD SINGLE WIND VELOCITY... ASTM STANDARD SINGLE WIND VELOCITY MEASURES Adam W. Potter Biophysics and Biomedical Modeling Division U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental

  20. Microparticle analysis system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A device for analyzing microparticles is provided which includes a chamber with an inlet and an outlet for respectively introducing and dispensing a flowing fluid comprising microparticles, a light source for providing light through the chamber and a photometer for measuring the intensity of light transmitted through individual microparticles. The device further includes an imaging system for acquiring images of the fluid. In some cases, the device may be configured to identify and determine a quantity of the microparticles within the fluid. Consequently, a method for identifying and tracking microparticles in motion is contemplated herein. The method involves flowing a fluid comprising microparticles in laminar motion through a chamber, transmitting light through the fluid, measuring the intensities of the light transmitted through the microparticles, imaging the fluid a plurality of times and comparing at least some of the intensities of light between different images of the fluid.

  1. Quality of Standard Reference Materials for Short Time Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, S.S.; Oberleitner, W.

    2003-01-01

    Some environmental reference materials (CFA-1633 b, IAEA-SL-1, SARM-1,BCR-176, Coal-1635, IAEA-SL-3, BCR-146, and SRAM-5) were analysed by short-time activation analysis. The results show that these materials can be classified in three groups, according to their activities after irradiation. The obtained results were compared in order to create a quality index for determination of short-lived nuclides at high count rates. It was found that Cfta is not a suitable standard for determining very short-lived nuclides (half-lives<1 min) because the activity it produces is 15-fold higher than that SL-3. Biological reference materials, such as SRM-1571, SRM-1573, SRM-1575, SRM-1577, IAEA-392, and IAEA-393, were also investigated by a higher counting efficiency system. The quality of this system and its well-type detector for investigating short-lived nuclides was discussed

  2. Standardization of waste acceptance test methods by the Materials Characterization Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slate, S.C.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the role of standardized test methods in demonstrating the acceptability of high-level waste (HLW) forms for disposal. Key waste acceptance tests are standardized by the Materials Characterization Center (MCC), which the US Department of Energy (DOE) has established as the central agency in the United States for the standardization of test methods for nuclear waste materials. This paper describes the basic three-step process that is used to show that waste is acceptable for disposal and discusses how standardized tests are used in this process. Several of the key test methods and their areas of application are described. Finally, future plans are discussed for using standardized tests to show waste acceptance. 9 refs., 1 tab

  3. Standard Guide for Application of Neutron Transport Methods for Reactor Vessel Surveillance, E706 (IID)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 Need for Neutronics Calculations—An accurate calculation of the neutron fluence and fluence rate at several locations is essential for the analysis of integral dosimetry measurements and for predicting irradiation damage exposure parameter values in the pressure vessel. Exposure parameter values may be obtained directly from calculations or indirectly from calculations that are adjusted with dosimetry measurements; Guide E944 and Practice E853 define appropriate computational procedures. 1.2 Methodology—Neutronics calculations for application to reactor vessel surveillance encompass three essential areas: (1) validation of methods by comparison of calculations with dosimetry measurements in a benchmark experiment, (2) determination of the neutron source distribution in the reactor core, and (3) calculation of neutron fluence rate at the surveillance position and in the pressure vessel. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is th...

  4. A standardized method to determine the concentration of extracellular vesicles using tunable resistive pulse sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Vogel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding the pathogenic role of extracellular vesicles (EVs in disease and their potential diagnostic and therapeutic utility is extremely reliant on in-depth quantification, measurement and identification of EV sub-populations. Quantification of EVs has presented several challenges, predominantly due to the small size of vesicles such as exosomes and the availability of various technologies to measure nanosized particles, each technology having its own limitations. Materials and Methods: A standardized methodology to measure the concentration of extracellular vesicles (EVs has been developed and tested. The method is based on measuring the EV concentration as a function of a defined size range. Blood plasma EVs are isolated and purified using size exclusion columns (qEV and consecutively measured with tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS. Six independent research groups measured liposome and EV samples with the aim to evaluate the developed methodology. Each group measured identical samples using up to 5 nanopores with 3 repeat measurements per pore. Descriptive statistics and unsupervised multivariate data analysis with principal component analysis (PCA were used to evaluate reproducibility across the groups and to explore and visualise possible patterns and outliers in EV and liposome data sets. Results: PCA revealed good reproducibility within and between laboratories, with few minor outlying samples. Measured mean liposome (not filtered with qEV and EV (filtered with qEV concentrations had coefficients of variance of 23.9% and 52.5%, respectively. The increased variance of the EV concentration measurements could be attributed to the use of qEVs and the polydisperse nature of EVs. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of this standardized methodology to facilitate comparable and reproducible EV concentration measurements.

  5. A Framework for Establishing Standard Reference Scale of Texture by Multivariate Statistical Analysis Based on Instrumental Measurement and Sensory Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Ruicong; Zhao, Lei; Xie, Nan; Wang, Houyin; Shi, Bolin; Shi, Jingye

    2016-01-13

    A framework of establishing standard reference scale (texture) is proposed by multivariate statistical analysis according to instrumental measurement and sensory evaluation. Multivariate statistical analysis is conducted to rapidly select typical reference samples with characteristics of universality, representativeness, stability, substitutability, and traceability. The reasonableness of the framework method is verified by establishing standard reference scale of texture attribute (hardness) with Chinese well-known food. More than 100 food products in 16 categories were tested using instrumental measurement (TPA test), and the result was analyzed with clustering analysis, principal component analysis, relative standard deviation, and analysis of variance. As a result, nine kinds of foods were determined to construct the hardness standard reference scale. The results indicate that the regression coefficient between the estimated sensory value and the instrumentally measured value is significant (R(2) = 0.9765), which fits well with Stevens's theory. The research provides reliable a theoretical basis and practical guide for quantitative standard reference scale establishment on food texture characteristics.

  6. Developing content standards for teaching research skills using a delphi method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, M.F. van der; Stokking, K.M.; Verloop, N.

    2005-01-01

    The increased attention for teacher assessment and current educational reforms ask for procedures to develop adequate content standards. For the development of content standards on teaching research skills, a Delphi method based on stakeholders’ judgments has been designed and tested. In three

  7. Infinitesimal methods of mathematical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Pinto, J S

    2004-01-01

    This modern introduction to infinitesimal methods is a translation of the book Métodos Infinitesimais de Análise Matemática by José Sousa Pinto of the University of Aveiro, Portugal and is aimed at final year or graduate level students with a background in calculus. Surveying modern reformulations of the infinitesimal concept with a thoroughly comprehensive exposition of important and influential hyperreal numbers, the book includes previously unpublished material on the development of hyperfinite theory of Schwartz distributions and its application to generalised Fourier transforms and harmon

  8. Development of advanced MCR task analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, J. C.; Park, J. H.; Lee, S. K.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, E. S.; Cho, S. B.; Kang, J. S.

    2008-07-01

    This report describes task analysis methodology for advanced HSI designs. Task analyses was performed by using procedure-based hierarchical task analysis and task decomposition methods. The results from the task analysis were recorded in a database. Using the TA results, we developed static prototype of advanced HSI and human factors engineering verification and validation methods for an evaluation of the prototype. In addition to the procedure-based task analysis methods, workload estimation based on the analysis of task performance time and analyses for the design of information structure and interaction structures will be necessary

  9. Current status of methods for shielding analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engle, W.W.

    1980-01-01

    Current methods used in shielding analysis and recent improvements in those methods are discussed. The status of methods development is discussed based on needs cited at the 1977 International Conference on Reactor Shielding. Additional areas where methods development is needed are discussed

  10. Evaluation of diagnostic tests when there is no gold standard. A review of methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutjes, A. W. S.; Reitsma, J. B.; Coomarasamy, A.; Khan, K. S.; Bossuyt, P. M. M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To generate a classification of methods to evaluate medical tests when there is no gold standard. METHODS: Multiple search strategies were employed to obtain an overview of the different methods described in the literature, including searches of electronic databases, contacting experts

  11. Endurance time method for Seismic analysis and design of structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estekanchi, H.E.; Vafai, A.; Sadeghazar, M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a new method for performance based earthquake analysis and design has been introduced. In this method, the structure is subjected to accelerograms that impose increasing dynamic demand on the structure with time. Specified damage indexes are monitored up to the collapse level or other performance limit that defines the endurance limit point for the structure. Also, a method for generating standard intensifying accelerograms has been described. Three accelerograms have been generated using this method. Furthermore, the concept of Endurance Time has been described by applying these accelerograms to single and multi degree of freedom linear systems. The application of this method for analysis of complex nonlinear systems has been explained. Endurance Time method provides a uniform approach to seismic analysis and design of complex structures that can be applied in numerical and experimental investigations

  12. Stability and non-standard finite difference method of the generalized Chua's circuit

    KAUST Repository

    Radwan, Ahmed G.; Moaddy, K.; Momani, Shaher M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a framework to obtain approximate numerical solutions of the fractional-order Chua's circuit with Memristor using a non-standard finite difference method. Chaotic response is obtained with fractional-order elements as well

  13. Standard test method for radiochemical determination of uranium isotopes in urine by alpha spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method is applicable to the determination of uranium in urine at levels of detection dependent on sample size, count time, detector background, and tracer yield. It is designed as a screening tool for detection of possible exposure of occupational workers. 1.2 This test method is designed for 50 mL of urine. This test method does not address the sampling protocol or sample preservation methods associated with its use. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  14. Stiffness analysis for the micromagnetic standard problem No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsiantos, Vassilios D.; Suess, Dieter; Schrefl, Thomas; Fidler, Josef

    2001-01-01

    In this article solutions to micromagnetic standard problem No. 4, a 500-nmx125-nm-wide NiFe film, are presented. A three-dimensional-finite element simulation based on the solution of the Gilbert equation has been used. The simulations show that two different reversal mechanisms occur for the two different applied fields. For a field at 170 degree counterclockwise from the saturation direction there is a nonuniform rotation of magnetization towards the direction of the applied field, with the magnetization at the ends rotating faster than the magnetization in the center. For a field at 190 degree counterclockwise from the saturation direction the magnetization at the ends and in the center rotate in opposite directions leading to the formation of a 360 degree wall after 0.22 ns associated with a peak in the exchange energy. Moreover, the time for the magnetization component parallel to the long axis to cross the zero is 0.136 and 0.135 ns for field 1 and field 2, respectively. The stiffness of the problem has been investigated solving the system of ordinary differential equations with a nonstiff method (Adams) and a stiff one (backward differentiation formula, BDF). For the measure of stiffness the ratio of the total number of time steps (nst) taken by the two solvers, that is nst(Adams)/nst(BDF), has been used. This ratio is 0.784 for field 1 and 0.593 for field 2, which means that the nonstiff method (Adams) uses larger time steps than the stiff method (BDF) and consequently the systems are not stiff. The average time step for the Adams method was 0.2 ps for both fields. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  15. A Standardized Method for 4D Ultrasound-Guided Peripheral Nerve Blockade and Catheter Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Clendenen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a standardized method for using four-dimensional ultrasound (4D US guidance for peripheral nerve blocks. 4D US allows for needle tracking in multiple planes simultaneously and accurate measurement of the local anesthetic volume surrounding the nerve following injection. Additionally, the morphology and proximity of local anesthetic spread around the target nerve is clearly seen with the described technique. This method provides additional spatial information in real time compared to standard two-dimensional ultrasound.

  16. Choose of standard materials in the method of β-testing new materials' mass thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhong

    2007-01-01

    To make sure of the standard mass thickness in beta radials testing mass thickness, this paper calculate using M. C. method and get the result of the relations between the beta radials' transmission rate of different energies and mass thickness in different materials. This result prove that in method of beta test mass thickness choosing materials whose elements are close as standard materials are viable. (authors)

  17. Standard test method for drop-weight tear tests of ferritic steels

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers drop-weight tear tests (DWTT) on ferritic steels with thicknesses between 3.18 and 19.1 mm. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  18. Standard Test Method for Measuring Heat Flux Using a Water-Cooled Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of a steady heat flux to a given water-cooled surface by means of a system energy balance. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  19. Centrally Determined Standardization of Flow Cytometry Methods Reduces Interlaboratory Variation in a Prospective Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westera, Liset; van Viegen, Tanja; Jeyarajah, Jenny; Azad, Azar; Bilsborough, Janine; van den Brink, Gijs R; Cremer, Jonathan; Danese, Silvio; D'Haens, Geert; Eckmann, Lars; Faubion, William; Filice, Melissa; Korf, Hannelie; McGovern, Dermot; Panes, Julian; Salas, Azucena; Sandborn, William J; Silverberg, Mark S; Smith, Michelle I; Vermeire, Severine; Vetrano, Stefania; Shackelton, Lisa M; Stitt, Larry; Jairath, Vipul; Levesque, Barrett G; Spencer, David M; Feagan, Brian G; Vande Casteele, Niels

    2017-11-02

    Flow cytometry (FC) aids in characterization of cellular and molecular factors involved in pathologic immune responses. Although FC has potential to facilitate early drug development in inflammatory bowel disease, interlaboratory variability limits its use in multicenter trials. Standardization of methods may address this limitation. We compared variability in FC-aided quantitation of T-cell responses across international laboratories using three analytical strategies. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from three healthy donors, stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin at a central laboratory, fixed, frozen, and shipped to seven international laboratories. Permeabilization and staining was performed in triplicate at each laboratory using a common protocol and centrally provided reagents. Gating was performed using local gating with a local strategy (LGLS), local gating with a central strategy (LGCS), and central gating (CG). Median cell percentages were calculated across triplicates and donors, and reported for each condition and strategy. The coefficient of variation (CV) was calculated across laboratories. Between-strategy comparisons were made using a two-way analysis of variance adjusting for donor. Mean interlaboratory CV ranged from 1.8 to 102.1% depending on cell population and gating strategy (LGLS, 4.4-102.1%; LGCS, 10.9-65.6%; CG, 1.8-20.9%). Mean interlaboratory CV differed significantly across strategies and was consistently lower with CG. Central gating was the only strategy with mean CVs consistently lower than 25%, which is a proposed standard for pharmacodynamic and exploratory biomarker assays.

  20. Development of international standards for surface analysis by ISO technical committee 201 on surface chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, C.J.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) established Technical Committee 201 on Surface Chemical Analysis in 1991 to develop documentary standards for surface analysis. ISO/TC 201 met first in 1992 and has met annually since. This committee now has eight subcommittees (Terminology, General Procedures, Data Management and Treatment, Depth Profiling, AES, SIMS, XPS, and Glow Discharge Spectroscopy (GDS)) and one working group (Total X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy). Each subcommittee has one or more working groups to develop standards on particular topics. Australia has observer-member status on ISO/TC 201 and on all ISO/TC 201 subcommittees except GDS where it has participator-member status. I will outline the organization of ISO/TC 201 and summarize the standards that have been or are being developed. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  1. Quantitative determination and validation of octreotide acetate using 1 H-NMR spectroscopy with internal standard method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chen; Zhang, Qian; Xu, Peng-Yao; Bai, Yin; Shen, Wen-Bin; Di, Bin; Su, Meng-Xiang

    2018-01-01

    Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) is a well-established technique in quantitative analysis. We presented a validated 1 H-qNMR method for assay of octreotide acetate, a kind of cyclic octopeptide. Deuterium oxide was used to remove the undesired exchangeable peaks, which was referred to as proton exchange, in order to make the quantitative signals isolated in the crowded spectrum of the peptide and ensure precise quantitative analysis. Gemcitabine hydrochloride was chosen as the suitable internal standard. Experimental conditions, including relaxation delay time, the numbers of scans, and pulse angle, were optimized first. Then method validation was carried out in terms of selectivity, stability, linearity, precision, and robustness. The assay result was compared with that by means of high performance liquid chromatography, which is provided by Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The statistical F test, Student's t test, and nonparametric test at 95% confidence level indicate that there was no significant difference between these two methods. qNMR is a simple and accurate quantitative tool with no need for specific corresponding reference standards. It has the potential of the quantitative analysis of other peptide drugs and standardization of the corresponding reference standards. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Review of clinically accessible methods to determine lean body mass for normalization of standardized uptake values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DEVRIESE, Joke; POTTEL, Hans; BEELS, Laurence; MAES, Alex; VAN DE WIELE, Christophe; GHEYSENS, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    With the routine use of 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F]-fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans, metabolic activity of tumors can be quantitatively assessed through calculation of SUVs. One possible normalization parameter for the standardized uptake value (SUV) is lean body mass (LBM), which is generally calculated through predictive equations based on height and body weight. (Semi-)direct measurements of LBM could provide more accurate results in cancer populations than predictive equations based on healthy populations. In this context, four methods to determine LBM are reviewed: bioelectrical impedance analysis, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. CT, and magnetic resonance imaging. These methods were selected based on clinical accessibility and are compared in terms of methodology, precision and accuracy. By assessing each method’s specific advantages and limitations, a well-considered choice of method can hopefully lead to more accurate SUVLBM values, hence more accurate quantitative assessment of 18F-FDG PET images.

  3. An ecological method to understand agricultural standardization in peach orchard ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Nian-Feng; Zhang, Ming-Yi; Jiang, Jie-Xian; Ji, Xiang-Yun; Hao-Zhang

    2016-02-22

    While the worldwide standardization of agricultural production has been advocated and recommended, relatively little research has focused on the ecological significance of such a shift. The ecological concerns stemming from the standardization of agricultural production may require new methodology. In this study, we concentrated on how ecological two-sidedness and ecological processes affect the standardization of agricultural production which was divided into three phrases (pre-, mid- and post-production), considering both the positive and negative effects of agricultural processes. We constructed evaluation indicator systems for the pre-, mid- and post-production phases and here we presented a Standardization of Green Production Index (SGPI) based on the Full Permutation Polygon Synthetic Indicator (FPPSI) method which we used to assess the superiority of three methods of standardized production for peaches. The values of SGPI for pre-, mid- and post-production were 0.121 (Level IV, "Excellent" standard), 0.379 (Level III, "Good" standard), and 0.769 × 10(-2) (Level IV, "Excellent" standard), respectively. Here we aimed to explore the integrated application of ecological two-sidedness and ecological process in agricultural production. Our results are of use to decision-makers and ecologists focusing on eco-agriculture and those farmers who hope to implement standardized agricultural production practices.

  4. The Standardization Method of Address Information for POIs from Internet Based on Positional Relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As points of interest (POIon the internet, exists widely incomplete addresses and inconsistent literal expressions, a fast standardization processing method of network POIs address information based on spatial constraints was proposed. Based on the model of the extensible address expression, first of all, address information of POI was segmented and extracted. Address elements are updated by means of matching with the address tree layer by layer. Then, by defining four types of positional relations, corresponding set are selected from standard POI library as candidate for enrichment and amendment of non-standard address. At last, the fast standardized processing of POI address information was achieved with the help of backtracking address elements with minimum granularity. Experiments in this paper proved that the standardization processing of an address can be realized by means of this method with higher accuracy in order to build the address database.

  5. Validation of uncertainty of weighing in the preparation of radionuclide standards by Monte Carlo Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacais, F.L.; Delgado, J.U.; Loayza, V.M.

    2016-01-01

    In preparing solutions for the production of radionuclide metrology standards is necessary measuring the quantity Activity by mass. The gravimetric method by elimination is applied to perform weighing with smaller uncertainties. At this work is carried out the validation, by the Monte Carlo method, of the uncertainty calculation approach implemented by Lourenco and Bobin according to ISO GUM for the method by elimination. The results obtained by both uncertainty calculation methods were consistent indicating that were fulfilled the conditions for the application of ISO GUM in the preparation of radioactive standards. (author)

  6. Complete analysis of a nuclear building to nuclear safety standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, T A

    1975-01-01

    The nuclear standards impose on the designer the necessity of examining the loads, stresses, and strains in a nuclear building even under extreme loading conditions, both due to plant malfunctions and environmental accidents. It is necessary then to generate, combine, and examine a tremendous amount of data; really the lack of symmetry and general complication of the structures and the large number of loading combinations make an automatic analysis quite necessary. A largely automated procedure is presented in view of solving the problem by a series of computer programs linked together. After the seismic analysis has been performed by (SADE CODE) these data together with the data coming from thermal specifications, weight, accident descriptions etc. are fed into a finite element computer code (SAP4) for analysis. They are processed and combined by a computer code (COMBIN) according to the loading conditions (the usual list in Italy is given and briefly discussed), so that for each point (or each selected zone) under each loading condition the applied loads are listed. These data are fed to another computer code (DTP), which determines the amount of reinforcing bars necessary to accommodate the most severe of the loading conditions. The Aci 318/71 and Italian regulation procedures are followed; the characteristics of the program are briefly described and discussed. Some particular problems are discussed, e.g. the thermal stresses due to normal and accident conditions, the inelastic behavior of some frame elements (due to concrete cracking) is considered by means of an 'ad hoc' code. Typical examples are presented and the results are discussed showing a relatively large benefit in considering this inelastic effect.

  7. Standard Test Method for Gel Time of Carbon Fiber-Epoxy Prepreg

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of gel time of carbon fiber-epoxy tape and sheet. The test method is suitable for the measurement of gel time of resin systems having either high or low viscosity. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values in parentheses are for reference only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  8. Standard test method for linear thermal expansion of glaze frits and ceramic whiteware materials by the interferometric method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1995-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the interferometric determination of linear thermal expansion of premelted glaze frits and fired ceramic whiteware materials at temperatures lower than 1000°C (1830°F). 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  9. Earth analysis methods, subsurface feature detection methods, earth analysis devices, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Phillip B [Idaho Falls, ID; Novascone, Stephen R [Idaho Falls, ID; Wright, Jerry P [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-09-27

    Earth analysis methods, subsurface feature detection methods, earth analysis devices, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one embodiment, an earth analysis method includes engaging a device with the earth, analyzing the earth in a single substantially lineal direction using the device during the engaging, and providing information regarding a subsurface feature of the earth using the analysis.

  10. Parametric Methods for Order Tracking Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm

    2017-01-01

    Order tracking analysis is often used to find the critical speeds at which structural resonances are excited by a rotating machine. Typically, order tracking analysis is performed via non-parametric methods. In this report, however, we demonstrate some of the advantages of using a parametric method...

  11. Standard practice for digital imaging and communication in nondestructive evaluation (DICONDE) for X-ray computed tomography (CT) test methods

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice facilitates the interoperability of X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging equipment by specifying image data transfer and archival storage methods in commonly accepted terms. This document is intended to be used in conjunction with Practice E2339 on Digital Imaging and Communication in Nondestructive Evaluation (DICONDE). Practice E2339 defines an industrial adaptation of the NEMA Standards Publication titled Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM, see http://medical.nema.org), an international standard for image data acquisition, review, storage and archival storage. The goal of Practice E2339, commonly referred to as DICONDE, is to provide a standard that facilitates the display and analysis of NDE test results on any system conforming to the DICONDE standard. Toward that end, Practice E2339 provides a data dictionary and a set of information modules that are applicable to all NDE modalities. This practice supplements Practice E2339 by providing information object definitio...

  12. Standard practice for digital imaging and communication in nondestructive evaluation (DICONDE) for digital radiographic (DR) test methods

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice facilitates the interoperability of digital X-ray imaging equipment by specifying image data transfer and archival methods in commonly accepted terms. This document is intended to be used in conjunction with Practice E2339 on Digital Imaging and Communication in Nondestructive Evaluation (DICONDE). Practice E2339 defines an industrial adaptation of the NEMA Standards Publication titled Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM, see http://medical.nema.org), an international standard for image data acquisition, review, storage and archival storage. The goal of Practice E2339, commonly referred to as DICONDE, is to provide a standard that facilitates the display and analysis of NDE results on any system conforming to the DICONDE standard. Toward that end, Practice E2339 provides a data dictionary and a set of information modules that are applicable to all NDE modalities. This practice supplements Practice E2339 by providing information object definitions, information modules and a ...

  13. Stress measurement by neutron diffraction method. Standard method using angular dispersion method and trial of using neutron IP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Toshihiko; Takago, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    This paper outlined a stress measurement method using neutrons, and introduced the application examples to stress measurement for metal-based composite materials. In the angular dispersion type measurement using a steady-state reactor type neutron source, the white beams taken out from a nuclear reactor are monochromatized (wavelength λ is a constant value) with a single crystal monochromator and utilized. As an example of measurement, there was the case as follows: the stress of a sintered material which has been put to practical use as valve seat part for automobiles was measured by the neutron method, and the deformation behavior during load was studied. This study performed neutron diffraction measurement using a residual stress analyzer (RESA: Diffractometer for Residual Stress Analysis) installed at JAEA's experimental reactor JRR-3. As a result, it was found that the stress state of the sintered composite material of Fe-Cr and TiN can be predicted with a micromechanics model. A neutron diffraction ring can be obtained using a neutron image plate (IP), where fine powder of gadolinium (Gd) was incorporated into IP for X-rays, and it can be used as an IP reader in the same way as the case of X-rays. A report has been introduced on the examination results of the highly accurate stress measurement by applying the cos α method devised for X-ray stress measurement to neutron diffraction ring. (A.O.)

  14. Toward the Standardization of Biochar Analysis: The COST Action TD1107 Interlaboratory Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Hans Jörg; Bucheli, Thomas D; Dieguez-Alonso, Alba; Fabbri, Daniele; Knicker, Heike; Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Ulbricht, Axel; Becker, Roland; Buscaroli, Alessandro; Buerge, Diane; Cross, Andrew; Dickinson, Dane; Enders, Akio; Esteves, Valdemar I; Evangelou, Michael W H; Fellet, Guido; Friedrich, Kevin; Gasco Guerrero, Gabriel; Glaser, Bruno; Hanke, Ulrich M; Hanley, Kelly; Hilber, Isabel; Kalderis, Dimitrios; Leifeld, Jens; Masek, Ondrej; Mumme, Jan; Carmona, Marina Paneque; Calvelo Pereira, Roberto; Rees, Frederic; Rombolà, Alessandro G; de la Rosa, José Maria; Sakrabani, Ruben; Sohi, Saran; Soja, Gerhard; Valagussa, Massimo; Verheijen, Frank; Zehetner, Franz

    2016-01-20

    Biochar produced by pyrolysis of organic residues is increasingly used for soil amendment and many other applications. However, analytical methods for its physical and chemical characterization are yet far from being specifically adapted, optimized, and standardized. Therefore, COST Action TD1107 conducted an interlaboratory comparison in which 22 laboratories from 12 countries analyzed three different types of biochar for 38 physical-chemical parameters (macro- and microelements, heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pH, electrical conductivity, and specific surface area) with their preferential methods. The data were evaluated in detail using professional interlaboratory testing software. Whereas intralaboratory repeatability was generally good or at least acceptable, interlaboratory reproducibility was mostly not (20% < mean reproducibility standard deviation < 460%). This paper contributes to better comparability of biochar data published already and provides recommendations to improve and harmonize specific methods for biochar analysis in the future.

  15. When is hub gene selection better than standard meta-analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langfelder, Peter; Mischel, Paul S; Horvath, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Since hub nodes have been found to play important roles in many networks, highly connected hub genes are expected to play an important role in biology as well. However, the empirical evidence remains ambiguous. An open question is whether (or when) hub gene selection leads to more meaningful gene lists than a standard statistical analysis based on significance testing when analyzing genomic data sets (e.g., gene expression or DNA methylation data). Here we address this question for the special case when multiple genomic data sets are available. This is of great practical importance since for many research questions multiple data sets are publicly available. In this case, the data analyst can decide between a standard statistical approach (e.g., based on meta-analysis) and a co-expression network analysis approach that selects intramodular hubs in consensus modules. We assess the performance of these two types of approaches according to two criteria. The first criterion evaluates the biological insights gained and is relevant in basic research. The second criterion evaluates the validation success (reproducibility) in independent data sets and often applies in clinical diagnostic or prognostic applications. We compare meta-analysis with consensus network analysis based on weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA) in three comprehensive and unbiased empirical studies: (1) Finding genes predictive of lung cancer survival, (2) finding methylation markers related to age, and (3) finding mouse genes related to total cholesterol. The results demonstrate that intramodular hub gene status with respect to consensus modules is more useful than a meta-analysis p-value when identifying biologically meaningful gene lists (reflecting criterion 1). However, standard meta-analysis methods perform as good as (if not better than) a consensus network approach in terms of validation success (criterion 2). The article also reports a comparison of meta-analysis techniques applied to

  16. When Is Hub Gene Selection Better than Standard Meta-Analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langfelder, Peter; Mischel, Paul S.; Horvath, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Since hub nodes have been found to play important roles in many networks, highly connected hub genes are expected to play an important role in biology as well. However, the empirical evidence remains ambiguous. An open question is whether (or when) hub gene selection leads to more meaningful gene lists than a standard statistical analysis based on significance testing when analyzing genomic data sets (e.g., gene expression or DNA methylation data). Here we address this question for the special case when multiple genomic data sets are available. This is of great practical importance since for many research questions multiple data sets are publicly available. In this case, the data analyst can decide between a standard statistical approach (e.g., based on meta-analysis) and a co-expression network analysis approach that selects intramodular hubs in consensus modules. We assess the performance of these two types of approaches according to two criteria. The first criterion evaluates the biological insights gained and is relevant in basic research. The second criterion evaluates the validation success (reproducibility) in independent data sets and often applies in clinical diagnostic or prognostic applications. We compare meta-analysis with consensus network analysis based on weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA) in three comprehensive and unbiased empirical studies: (1) Finding genes predictive of lung cancer survival, (2) finding methylation markers related to age, and (3) finding mouse genes related to total cholesterol. The results demonstrate that intramodular hub gene status with respect to consensus modules is more useful than a meta-analysis p-value when identifying biologically meaningful gene lists (reflecting criterion 1). However, standard meta-analysis methods perform as good as (if not better than) a consensus network approach in terms of validation success (criterion 2). The article also reports a comparison of meta-analysis techniques applied to

  17. When is hub gene selection better than standard meta-analysis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Langfelder

    Full Text Available Since hub nodes have been found to play important roles in many networks, highly connected hub genes are expected to play an important role in biology as well. However, the empirical evidence remains ambiguous. An open question is whether (or when hub gene selection leads to more meaningful gene lists than a standard statistical analysis based on significance testing when analyzing genomic data sets (e.g., gene expression or DNA methylation data. Here we address this question for the special case when multiple genomic data sets are available. This is of great practical importance since for many research questions multiple data sets are publicly available. In this case, the data analyst can decide between a standard statistical approach (e.g., based on meta-analysis and a co-expression network analysis approach that selects intramodular hubs in consensus modules. We assess the performance of these two types of approaches according to two criteria. The first criterion evaluates the biological insights gained and is relevant in basic research. The second criterion evaluates the validation success (reproducibility in independent data sets and often applies in clinical diagnostic or prognostic applications. We compare meta-analysis with consensus network analysis based on weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA in three comprehensive and unbiased empirical studies: (1 Finding genes predictive of lung cancer survival, (2 finding methylation markers related to age, and (3 finding mouse genes related to total cholesterol. The results demonstrate that intramodular hub gene status with respect to consensus modules is more useful than a meta-analysis p-value when identifying biologically meaningful gene lists (reflecting criterion 1. However, standard meta-analysis methods perform as good as (if not better than a consensus network approach in terms of validation success (criterion 2. The article also reports a comparison of meta-analysis techniques

  18. Standard Test Method for Wet Insulation Integrity Testing of Photovoltaic Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure to determine the insulation resistance of a photovoltaic (PV) array (or its component strings), that is, the electrical resistance between the array's internal electrical components and is exposed, electrically conductive, non-current carrying parts and surfaces of the array. 1.2 This test method does not establish pass or fail levels. The determination of acceptable or unacceptable results is beyond the scope of this test method. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  19. A standardized method for sampling and extraction methods for quantifying microplastics in beach sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besley, Aiken; Vijver, Martina G; Behrens, Paul; Bosker, Thijs

    2017-01-15

    Microplastics are ubiquitous in the environment, are frequently ingested by organisms, and may potentially cause harm. A range of studies have found significant levels of microplastics in beach sand. However, there is a considerable amount of methodological variability among these studies. Methodological variation currently limits comparisons as there is no standard procedure for sampling or extraction of microplastics. We identify key sampling and extraction procedures across the literature through a detailed review. We find that sampling depth, sampling location, number of repeat extractions, and settling times are the critical parameters of variation. Next, using a case-study we determine whether and to what extent these differences impact study outcomes. By investigating the common practices identified in the literature with the case-study, we provide a standard operating procedure for sampling and extracting microplastics from beach sand. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. General method of quantitative spectrographic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capdevila, C.; Roca, M.

    1966-01-01

    A spectrographic method was developed to determine 23 elements in a wide range of concentrations; the method can be applied to metallic or refractory samples. Previous melting with lithium tetraborate and germanium oxide is done in order to avoid the influence of matrix composition and crystalline structure. Germanium oxide is also employed as internal standard. The resulting beads ar mixed with graphite powder (1:1) and excited in a 10 amperes direct current arc. (Author) 12 refs

  1. Determinations of silicon and phosphorus in Pepperbush standard reference material by neutron activation and x-ray fluorescence methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, Yoshihiko; Nishio, Hirofumi; Hayashi, Takeshi; Kusakabe, Toshio; Iwata, Shiro.

    1987-01-01

    Silicon and phosphorus contents in Pepperbush standard reference material were determined by neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence methods. In neutron activation analysis, β-ray spectra of 32 P produced by 31 P(n,γ) 32 P reaction on Pepperbush and standard samples were measured by a low background β-ray spectrometer. In X-ray fluorescence analysis, the standard samples were prepared by mixing the Pepperbush powder with silicon dioxide and diammonium hydrogenphosphate. Characteristic X-rays from the samples were analyzed by a wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. From the β and X-ray intensities, silicon and phosphorus contents in Pepperbush were determined to be 1840 ± 80 and 1200 ± 50 μg g -1 , respectively. (author)

  2. Fiscal 1999 technical achievement report. Development project on prompt-effect international standards for developing new industry (Standardization of gene amplification and analysis methods for genetic screening); 1999 nendo shinki sangyo ikusei sokkogata kokusai hyojunka kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Idenshi kensayo idenshi zofuku kaiseki hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    There is a move in Europe and America to establish their own standards for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique although it is a technique essential to biotechnology, and it is feared that such will restrain Japan's activities. In its effort to counter the move, Japan is exerting its own endeavors, hoping that it will profit from international standardization of criteria for the PCR technique. The Japanese effort aims at establishing international standards by unifying measuring procedures in the PCR technique and by enhancing the general-purpose feature of the data involved. In concrete terms, items available on the market, such as test and research equipment, reagents, and electronic instruments for use in measurement, are compared with each other in terms of performance, and basic specifications necessary for standardization and basic data on quality are collected. The effort involves, in more concrete terms, the measurement of thermal cycler temperature distribution, the evaluation of heat-resistant DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) polymerase temperature sensitivity and accuracy, and the evaluation of performance of CCD (charge coupled device) camera systems and Polaroid camera systems to be used for the evaluation of PCR products. (NEDO)

  3. Fiscal 1999 technical achievement report. Development project on prompt-effect international standards for developing new industry (Standardization of gene amplification and analysis methods for genetic screening); 1999 nendo shinki sangyo ikusei sokkogata kokusai hyojunka kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Idenshi kensayo idenshi zofuku kaiseki hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    There is a move in Europe and America to establish their own standards for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique although it is a technique essential to biotechnology, and it is feared that such will restrain Japan's activities. In its effort to counter the move, Japan is exerting its own endeavors, hoping that it will profit from international standardization of criteria for the PCR technique. The Japanese effort aims at establishing international standards by unifying measuring procedures in the PCR technique and by enhancing the general-purpose feature of the data involved. In concrete terms, items available on the market, such as test and research equipment, reagents, and electronic instruments for use in measurement, are compared with each other in terms of performance, and basic specifications necessary for standardization and basic data on quality are collected. The effort involves, in more concrete terms, the measurement of thermal cycler temperature distribution, the evaluation of heat-resistant DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) polymerase temperature sensitivity and accuracy, and the evaluation of performance of CCD (charge coupled device) camera systems and Polaroid camera systems to be used for the evaluation of PCR products. (NEDO)

  4. Radiochemistry and nuclear methods of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehmann, W.D.; Vance, D.

    1991-01-01

    This book provides both the fundamentals of radiochemistry as well as specific applications of nuclear techniques to analytical chemistry. It includes such areas of application as radioimmunoassay and activation techniques using very short-lined indicator radionuclides. It emphasizes the current nuclear methods of analysis such as neutron activation PIXE, nuclear reaction analysis, Rutherford backscattering, isotope dilution analysis and others

  5. Water quality - Determination of tritium activity concentration - Liquid scintillation counting method (International Standard Publication ISO 9698:1989)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanik, J.

    1999-01-01

    This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of tritiated water ([ 3 H]H 2 O) activity concentration in water by liquid scintillation counting. The method is applicable to all types of water including seawater with tritium activity concentrations of up to 10 6 Bq/m 3 when using 20 ml counting vials. Below tritium activity concentrations of about 5 x 10 4 Bq/m 3[ 8], a prior enrichment step and/or the measurement of larger sample volumes can significantly improve the accuracy of the determination and lower the limit of detection. Tritium activity concentrations higher than 10 6 Bq/m 3 may be determined after appropriate dilution with distilled water of proven low tritium content. An alternative method for the determination of these higher activities involves increasing the tritium activity concentrations of the internal standard solution. The method is not applicable to the analysis of organically bound tritium; its determination requires an oxidative digestion

  6. Development of liquid chromatographic methods for the determination of phytosterols in Standard Reference Materials containing saw palmetto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedner, Mary; Schantz, Michele M; Sander, Lane C; Sharpless, Katherine E

    2008-05-23

    Liquid chromatographic (LC) methods using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometric (APCI-MS) detection were developed for the separation and analysis of the phytosterols campesterol, cycloartenol, lupenone, lupeol, beta-sitosterol, and stigmasterol. Brassicasterol and cholesterol were also included for investigation as internal standards. The methods were used to identify and quantify the phytosterols in each of two Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Values obtained by LC-MS were compared to those obtained using the more traditional approach of gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. This is the first reported use of LC-MS to determine phytosterols in saw palmetto dietary supplement materials.

  7. Computational methods in power system analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Idema, Reijer

    2014-01-01

    This book treats state-of-the-art computational methods for power flow studies and contingency analysis. In the first part the authors present the relevant computational methods and mathematical concepts. In the second part, power flow and contingency analysis are treated. Furthermore, traditional methods to solve such problems are compared to modern solvers, developed using the knowledge of the first part of the book. Finally, these solvers are analyzed both theoretically and experimentally, clearly showing the benefits of the modern approach.

  8. Constructing an Intelligent Patent Network Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Chan Wu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Patent network analysis, an advanced method of patent analysis, is a useful tool for technology management. This method visually displays all the relationships among the patents and enables the analysts to intuitively comprehend the overview of a set of patents in the field of the technology being studied. Although patent network analysis possesses relative advantages different from traditional methods of patent analysis, it is subject to several crucial limitations. To overcome the drawbacks of the current method, this study proposes a novel patent analysis method, called the intelligent patent network analysis method, to make a visual network with great precision. Based on artificial intelligence techniques, the proposed method provides an automated procedure for searching patent documents, extracting patent keywords, and determining the weight of each patent keyword in order to generate a sophisticated visualization of the patent network. This study proposes a detailed procedure for generating an intelligent patent network that is helpful for improving the efficiency and quality of patent analysis. Furthermore, patents in the field of Carbon Nanotube Backlight Unit (CNT-BLU were analyzed to verify the utility of the proposed method.

  9. Centrally Determined Standardization of Flow Cytometry Methods Reduces Interlaboratory Variation in a Prospective Multicenter Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westera, Liset; van Viegen, Tanja; Jeyarajah, Jenny; Azad, Azar; Bilsborough, Janine; van den Brink, Gijs R; Cremer, Jonathan; Danese, Silvio; D'Haens, Geert; Eckmann, Lars; Faubion, William; Filice, Melissa; Korf, Hannelie; McGovern, Dermot; Panes, Julian; Salas, Azucena; Sandborn, William J; Silverberg, Mark S; Smith, Michelle I; Vermeire, Severine; Vetrano, Stefania; Shackelton, Lisa M; Stitt, Larry; Jairath, Vipul; Levesque, Barrett G; Spencer, David M; Feagan, Brian G; Vande Casteele, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Flow cytometry (FC) aids in characterization of cellular and molecular factors involved in pathologic immune responses. Although FC has potential to facilitate early drug development in inflammatory bowel disease, interlaboratory variability limits its use in multicenter trials. Standardization of methods may address this limitation. We compared variability in FC-aided quantitation of T-cell responses across international laboratories using three analytical strategies. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from three healthy donors, stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin at a central laboratory, fixed, frozen, and shipped to seven international laboratories. Permeabilization and staining was performed in triplicate at each laboratory using a common protocol and centrally provided reagents. Gating was performed using local gating with a local strategy (LGLS), local gating with a central strategy (LGCS), and central gating (CG). Median cell percentages were calculated across triplicates and donors, and reported for each condition and strategy. The coefficient of variation (CV) was calculated across laboratories. Between-strategy comparisons were made using a two-way analysis of variance adjusting for donor. Results: Mean interlaboratory CV ranged from 1.8 to 102.1% depending on cell population and gating strategy (LGLS, 4.4–102.1% LGCS, 10.9–65.6% CG, 1.8–20.9%). Mean interlaboratory CV differed significantly across strategies and was consistently lower with CG. Conclusions: Central gating was the only strategy with mean CVs consistently lower than 25%, which is a proposed standard for pharmacodynamic and exploratory biomarker assays. PMID:29095427

  10. The Trends and Prospects of Health Information Standards : Standardization Analysis and Suggestions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Soo

    2008-01-01

    Ubiquitous health care system, which is one of the developing solution technologies of IT, BT and NT, could give us new medical environments in future. Implementing health information systems can be complex, expensive and frustrating. Healthcare professionals seeking to acquire or upgrade systems do not have a convenient, reliable way of specifying a level of adherence to communication standards sufficient to achieve truly efficient interoperability. Great progress has been made in establishing such standards-DICOM, IHE and HL7, notably, are now highly advanced. IHE has defined a common framework to deliver the basic interoperability needed for local and regional health information networks. It has developed a foundational set of standards-based integration profiles for information exchange with three interrelated efforts. HL7 is one of several ANSI-accredited Standards Developing Organizations operating in the healthcare arena. Most SDOs produce standards (protocols) for a particular healthcare domain such as pharmacy, medical devices, imaging or insurance transactions. HL7's domain is clinical and administrative data. HL7 is an international community of healthcare subject matter experts and information scientists collaborating to create standards for the exchange, management and integration of electronic healthcare information. The ASTM specification for Continuity of Care Record was developed by subcommittee E31.28 on electronic health records, which includes clinicians, provider institutions, administrators, patient advocates, vendors, and health industry. In this paper, there are suggestions that provide a test bed, demonstration and specification of how standards such a IHE, HL7, ASTM can be used to provide an integrated environment.

  11. The Trends and Prospects of Health Information Standards : Standardization Analysis and Suggestions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Soo [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Catholic University of Pusan, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    Ubiquitous health care system, which is one of the developing solution technologies of IT, BT and NT, could give us new medical environments in future. Implementing health information systems can be complex, expensive and frustrating. Healthcare professionals seeking to acquire or upgrade systems do not have a convenient, reliable way of specifying a level of adherence to communication standards sufficient to achieve truly efficient interoperability. Great progress has been made in establishing such standards-DICOM, IHE and HL7, notably, are now highly advanced. IHE has defined a common framework to deliver the basic interoperability needed for local and regional health information networks. It has developed a foundational set of standards-based integration profiles for information exchange with three interrelated efforts. HL7 is one of several ANSI-accredited Standards Developing Organizations operating in the healthcare arena. Most SDOs produce standards (protocols) for a particular healthcare domain such as pharmacy, medical devices, imaging or insurance transactions. HL7's domain is clinical and administrative data. HL7 is an international community of healthcare subject matter experts and information scientists collaborating to create standards for the exchange, management and integration of electronic healthcare information. The ASTM specification for Continuity of Care Record was developed by subcommittee E31.28 on electronic health records, which includes clinicians, provider institutions, administrators, patient advocates, vendors, and health industry. In this paper, there are suggestions that provide a test bed, demonstration and specification of how standards such a IHE, HL7, ASTM can be used to provide an integrated environment.

  12. Sustainable development induction in organizations: a convergence analysis of ISO standards management tools' parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Fabrício Kurman; Pereira, Vera Lúciaduarte do Valle; Pacheco, Waldemar

    2012-01-01

    Organizations are part of an environment in which they are pressured to meet society's demands and acting in a sustainable way. In an attempt to meet such demands, organizations make use of various management tools, among which, ISO standards are used. Although there are evidences of contributions provided by these standards, it is questionable whether its parameters converge for a possible induction for sustainable development in organizations. This work presents a theoretical study, designed on structuralism world view, descriptive and deductive method, which aims to analyze the convergence of management tools' parameters in ISO standards. In order to support the analysis, a generic framework for possible convergence was developed, based on systems approach, linking five ISO standards (ISO 9001, ISO 14001, OHSAS 18001, ISO 31000 and ISO 26000) with sustainable development and positioning them according to organization levels (strategic, tactical and operational). The structure was designed based on Brundtland report concept. The analysis was performed exploring the generic framework for possible convergence based on Nadler and Tushman model. The results found the standards can contribute to a possible sustainable development induction in organizations, as long as they meet certain minimum conditions related to its strategic alignment.

  13. Preliminary results of standard quantitative analysis by ED-XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara, Alessandro L. de; Franca, Alana C.; Neto, Manoel R.M.; Paschuk, Sergei A., E-mail: alellara@hotmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Denyak, Valeriy, E-mail: denyak@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe (IPPP), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A comparison between the results of elemental concentration proposed by XRS-FP software , using data obtained by EDXRF technique with those obtained by stoichiometric calculation was performed. For this purpose, five standard samples of known compounds were produced: two lead- oxide, magnesium chloride and iodine in controlled amounts. The compounds were subsequently mixed and compressed to form tablets. The samples were irradiated in three endpoints, according to an orientation. The measurements were performed at the Laboratory for Radiological UTFPR using X-123SDD the Amptek detector and X-ray tube with silver target from the same manufacturer. The operating conditions tube were 05μA current to a 40 kV voltage. Finally, the 15 spectra analyzed with the software to determine the concentration of chlorine, iodine and lead. Data from this analysis were compared with results expected in stoichiometric calculations. The data provided by the program, a convergence of results, indicating homogeneity of the samples was found. Compared to the stoichiometric calculation, a considerable discrepancy that may be the result of a misconfiguration or contamination of the sample was found. At the end, we created a proposal for continuation of the work using an auxiliary calculation should be developed in the next step.

  14. Preliminary results of standard quantitative analysis by ED-XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, Alessandro L. de; Franca, Alana C.; Neto, Manoel R.M.; Paschuk, Sergei A.

    2013-01-01

    A comparison between the results of elemental concentration proposed by XRS-FP software , using data obtained by EDXRF technique with those obtained by stoichiometric calculation was performed. For this purpose, five standard samples of known compounds were produced: two lead- oxide, magnesium chloride and iodine in controlled amounts. The compounds were subsequently mixed and compressed to form tablets. The samples were irradiated in three endpoints, according to an orientation. The measurements were performed at the Laboratory for Radiological UTFPR using X-123SDD the Amptek detector and X-ray tube with silver target from the same manufacturer. The operating conditions tube were 05μA current to a 40 kV voltage. Finally, the 15 spectra analyzed with the software to determine the concentration of chlorine, iodine and lead. Data from this analysis were compared with results expected in stoichiometric calculations. The data provided by the program, a convergence of results, indicating homogeneity of the samples was found. Compared to the stoichiometric calculation, a considerable discrepancy that may be the result of a misconfiguration or contamination of the sample was found. At the end, we created a proposal for continuation of the work using an auxiliary calculation should be developed in the next step

  15. Standard Test Methods for Solar Energy Transmittance and Reflectance (Terrestrial) of Sheet Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1971-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the measurement of solar energy transmittance and reflectance (terrestrial) of materials in sheet form. Method A, using a spectrophotometer, is applicable for both transmittance and reflectance and is the referee method. Method B is applicable only for measurement of transmittance using a pyranometer in an enclosure and the sun as the energy source. Specimens for Method A are limited in size by the geometry of the spectrophotometer while Method B requires a specimen 0.61 m2 (2 ft2). For the materials studied by the drafting task group, both test methods give essentially equivalent results. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  16. Text analysis methods, text analysis apparatuses, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Paul D; Willse, Alan R; Lopresti, Charles A; White, Amanda M

    2014-10-28

    Text analysis methods, text analysis apparatuses, and articles of manufacture are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a text analysis method includes accessing information indicative of data content of a collection of text comprising a plurality of different topics, using a computing device, analyzing the information indicative of the data content, and using results of the analysis, identifying a presence of a new topic in the collection of text.

  17. Negative Control Outcomes and the Analysis of Standardized Mortality Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David B; Keil, Alexander P; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric; Cooper, Glinda

    2015-09-01

    In occupational cohort mortality studies, epidemiologists often compare the observed number of deaths in the cohort to the expected number obtained by multiplying person-time accrued in the study cohort by the mortality rate in an external reference population. Interpretation of the result may be difficult due to noncomparability of the occupational cohort and reference population with respect to unmeasured risk factors for the outcome of interest. We describe an approach to estimate an adjusted standardized mortality ratio (aSMR) to control for such bias. The approach draws on methods developed for the use of negative control outcomes. Conditions necessary for unbiased estimation are described, as well as looser conditions necessary for bias reduction. The approach is illustrated using data on bladder cancer mortality among male Oak Ridge National Laboratory workers. The SMR for bladder cancer was elevated among hourly-paid males (SMR = 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3, 2.7) but not among monthly-paid males (SMR = 1.0; 95% CI = 0.67, 1.3). After indirect adjustment using the proposed approach, the mortality ratios were similar in magnitude among hourly- and monthly-paid men (aSMR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.5, 3.2; and, aSMR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.4, 2.8, respectively). The proposed adjusted SMR offers a complement to typical SMR analyses.

  18. Addressing Next Generation Science Standards: A Method for Supporting Classroom Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellien, Tamara; Rothenburger, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) will define science education for the foreseeable future, yet many educators struggle to see the bridge between current practice and future practices. The inquiry-based methods used by Extension professionals (Kress, 2006) can serve as a guide for classroom educators. Described herein is a method of…

  19. Establishing Upper Limits for Item Ratings for the Angoff Method: Are Resulting Standards More 'Realistic'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jerry B.

    This report investigates an area of uncertainty in using the Angoff method for setting standards, namely whether or not a judge's conceptualizations of borderline group performance are realistic. Ratings are usually made with reference to the performance of this hypothetical group, therefore the Angoff method's success is dependent on this point.…

  20. An Investigation of Undefined Cut Scores with the Hofstee Standard-Setting Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyse, Adam E.; Babcock, Ben

    2017-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the Hofstee standard-setting method and illustrates several situations where the Hofstee method will produce undefined cut scores. The situations where the cut scores will be undefined involve cases where the line segment derived from the Hofstee ratings does not intersect the score distribution curve based on…

  1. Standardization of electron-capture and complex beta-gamma radionuclides by the efficiency extrapolation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigorescu, L.

    1976-07-01

    The efficiency extrapolation method was improved by establishing ''linearity conditions'' for the discrimination on the gamma channel of the coincidence equipment. These conditions were proved to eliminate the systematic error of the method. A control procedure for the fulfilment of linearity conditions and estimation of residual systematic error was given. For law-energy gamma transitions an ''equivalent scheme principle'' was established, which allow for a correct application of the method. Solutions of Cs-134, Co-57, Ba-133 and Zn-65 were standardized with an ''effective standard deviation'' of 0.3-0.7 per cent. For Zn-65 ''special linearity conditions'' were applied. (author)

  2. The development and standardization of testing methods for genetically modified organisms and their derived products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dabing; Guo, Jinchao

    2011-07-01

    As the worldwide commercialization of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) increases and consumers concern the safety of GMOs, many countries and regions are issuing labeling regulations on GMOs and their products. Analytical methods and their standardization for GM ingredients in foods and feed are essential for the implementation of labeling regulations. To date, the GMO testing methods are mainly based on the inserted DNA sequences and newly produced proteins in GMOs. This paper presents an overview of GMO testing methods as well as their standardization. © 2011 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  3. Nuclear analysis methods. Rudiments of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, E.

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear analysis methods are generally used to analyse radioactive elements but they can be used also for chemical analysis, with fields such analysis and characterization of traces. The principles of radiation protection are explained (ALARA), the biological effects of ionizing radiations are given, elements and units used in radiation protection are reminded in tables. A part of this article is devoted to how to use radiation protection in a nuclear analysis laboratory. (N.C.)

  4. Design of a new torque standard machine based on a torque generation method using electromagnetic force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Atsuhiro; Ueda, Kazunaga; Fujii, Kenichi

    2017-01-01

    To allow the application of torque standards in various industries, we have been developing torque standard machines based on a lever deadweight system, i.e. a torque generation method using gravity. However, this method is not suitable for expanding the low end of the torque range, because of the limitations to the sizes of the weights and moment arms. In this study, the working principle of the torque generation method using an electromagnetic force was investigated by referring to watt balance experiments used for the redefinition of the kilogram. Applying this principle to a rotating coordinate system, an electromagnetic force type torque standard machine was designed and prototyped. It was experimentally demonstrated that SI-traceable torque could be generated by converting electrical power to mechanical power. Thus, for the first time, SI-traceable torque was successfully realized using a method other than that based on the force of gravity. (paper)

  5. A Mapmark method of standard setting as implemented for the National Assessment Governing Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, E Matthew; Mitzel, Howard C

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a Mapmark standard setting procedure, developed under contract with the National Assessment Governing Board (NAGB). The procedure enhances the bookmark method with spatially representative item maps, holistic feedback, and an emphasis on independent judgment. A rationale for these enhancements, and the bookmark method, is presented, followed by a detailed description of the materials and procedures used in a meeting to set standards for the 2005 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in Grade 12 mathematics. The use of difficulty-ordered content domains to provide holistic feedback is a particularly novel feature of the method. Process evaluation results comparing Mapmark to Anghoff-based methods previously used for NAEP standard setting are also presented.

  6. A biosegmentation benchmark for evaluation of bioimage analysis methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvilekval Kristian

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present a biosegmentation benchmark that includes infrastructure, datasets with associated ground truth, and validation methods for biological image analysis. The primary motivation for creating this resource comes from the fact that it is very difficult, if not impossible, for an end-user to choose from a wide range of segmentation methods available in the literature for a particular bioimaging problem. No single algorithm is likely to be equally effective on diverse set of images and each method has its own strengths and limitations. We hope that our benchmark resource would be of considerable help to both the bioimaging researchers looking for novel image processing methods and image processing researchers exploring application of their methods to biology. Results Our benchmark consists of different classes of images and ground truth data, ranging in scale from subcellular, cellular to tissue level, each of which pose their own set of challenges to image analysis. The associated ground truth data can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of different methods, to improve methods and to compare results. Standard evaluation methods and some analysis tools are integrated into a database framework that is available online at http://bioimage.ucsb.edu/biosegmentation/. Conclusion This online benchmark will facilitate integration and comparison of image analysis methods for bioimages. While the primary focus is on biological images, we believe that the dataset and infrastructure will be of interest to researchers and developers working with biological image analysis, image segmentation and object tracking in general.

  7. Standard test method for determination of low concentrations of uranium in oils and organic liquids by X-ray fluorescence

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the steps necessary for the preparation and analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) of oils and organic solutions containing uranium. Two different preparation techniques are described. 1.2 The procedure is valid for those solutions containing 20 to 2000 μg uranium per mL as presented to the spectrometer for the solution technique and 200 to 50 000 μg uranium per g for the pellet technique. 1.3 This test method requires the use of an appropriate internal standard. Care must be taken to ascertain that samples analyzed by this test method do not contain the internal standard or that this contamination, whenever present, has been corrected for mathematically. Such corrections are not addressed in this procedure. Care must be taken that the internal standard and sample medium are compatible; that is, samples must be miscible with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and must not remove the internal standard from solution. Alternatively, a scatter line may be used as the internal standard. 1....

  8. Standardization of 32P activity determination method in soil-root cores for root distribution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.B.; Ghildyal, B.P.

    1976-01-01

    The root distribution of wheat variety UP 301 was obtained by determining the 32 P activity in soil-root cores by two methods, viz., ignition and triacid digestion. Root distribution obtained by these two methods was compared with that by standard root core washing procedure. The percent error in root distribution as determined by triacid digestion method was within +- 2.1 to +- 9.0 as against +- 5.5 to +- 21.2 by ignition method. Thus triacid digestion method proved better over the ignition method. (author)

  9. ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2016 Performance Rating Method Reference Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, Supriya [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Eley, Charles [Eley and Associates, Hobe Sound, FL (United States)

    2017-09-29

    This document is intended to be a reference manual for the Appendix G Performance Rating Method (PRM) of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2016 (Standard 90.1-2016). The PRM can be used to demonstrate compliance with the standard and to rate the energy efficiency of commercial and high-rise residential buildings with designs that exceed the requirements of Standard 90.1. Use of the PRM for demonstrating compliance with Standard 90.1 is a new feature of the 2016 edition. The procedures and processes described in this manual are designed to provide consistency and accuracy by filling in gaps and providing additional details needed by users of the PRM.

  10. Standard test method for measurement of web/roller friction characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the simulation of a roller/web transport tribosystem and the measurement of the static and kinetic coefficient of friction of the web/roller couple when sliding occurs between the two. The objective of this test method is to provide users with web/roller friction information that can be used for process control, design calculations, and for any other function where web/roller friction needs to be known. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  11. Standard Test Method for Bond Strength of Ceramic Tile to Portland Cement Paste

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the ability of glazed ceramic wall tile, ceramic mosaic tile, quarry tile, and pavers to be bonded to portland cement paste. This test method includes both face-mounted and back-mounted tile. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  12. Standard test method for the radiochemical determination of americium-241 in soil by alpha spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This method covers the determination of americium–241 in soil by means of chemical separations and alpha spectrometry. It is designed to analyze up to ten grams of soil or other sample matrices that contain up to 30 mg of combined rare earths. This method allows the determination of americium–241 concentrations from ambient levels to applicable standards. The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific precaution statements, see Section 10.

  13. Standard Test Method for Measuring Heat-Transfer Rate Using a Thermal Capacitance (Slug) Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the measurement of heat transfer rate using a thermal capacitance-type calorimeter which assumes one-dimensional heat conduction into a cylindrical piece of material (slug) with known physical properties. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. Note 1—For information see Test Methods E 285, E 422, E 458, E 459, and E 511.

  14. Comparative analysis of success of psoriasis treatment with standard therapeutic modalities and balneotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baros, Duka Ninković; Gajanin, Vesna S; Gajanin, Radoslav B; Zrnić, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory, immune-mediated skin disease. In addition to standard therapeutic modalities (antibiotics, cytostatics, phototherapy, photochemotherapy and retinoids), nonstandard methods can be used in the treatment of psoriasis. This includes balneotherapy which is most commonly used in combination with therapeutic resources. The aim of this research was to determine the length of remission of psoriasis in patients treated with standard therapeutic modalities, balneotherapy, and combined treatment (standard therapeutic modalities and balneotherapy). The study analyzed 60 adult patients, of both sexes, with different clinical forms of psoriasis, who were divided into three groups according to the applied therapeutic modalities: the first group (treated with standard therapeutic modalities), the second group (treated with balneotherapy) and the third group (treated with combined therapy-standard methods therapy and balneotherapy). The Psoriasis Area and Severity Index was determined in first, third and sixth week of treatment for all patients. The following laboratory analysis were performed and monitored: C reactive protein, iron with total iron binding capacity, unsaturated iron binding capacity and ferritin, uric acid, rheumatoid factors and antibodies to streptolysin O in the first and sixth week of treatment. The average length of remission in patients treated with standard therapeutic modalities and in those treated with balneotherapy was 1.77 +/- 0.951 months and 1.79 +/- 0.918 months, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in the duration of remission between the patients treated with combination therapy and patients treated with standard therapeutic modalities (p = 0.019) and balneotherapy (p = 0.032). The best results have been achieved when the combination therapy was administered.

  15. Standard test method for determination of breaking strength of ceramic tiles by three-point loading

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of breaking strength of ceramic tiles by three-point loading. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  16. Standard Test Method for Preparing Aircraft Cleaning Compounds, Liquid Type, Water Base, for Storage Stability Testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the stability in storage, of liquid, water-base chemical cleaning compounds, used to clean the exterior surfaces of aircraft. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  17. Standard Test Method for Resin Flow of Carbon Fiber-Epoxy Prepreg

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the amount of resin flow that will take place from prepreg tape or sheet under given conditions of temperature and pressure. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values in parentheses are for reference only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  18. Implementation of sum-peak method for standardization of positron emission radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragoso, Maria da Conceicao de Farias; Oliveira, Mercia Liane de; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is being increasingly recognized as an important quantitative imaging tool for diagnosis and assessing response to therapy. As correct dose administration plays a crucial part in nuclear medicine, it is important that the instruments used to assay the activity of the short-lived radionuclides are calibrated accurately, with traceability to the national or international standards. The sum-peak method has been widely used for radionuclide standardization. The purpose of this study was to implement the methodology for standardization of PET radiopharmaceuticals at the Regional Center for Nuclear Sciences of the Northeast (CRCN-NE). (author)

  19. A Cross-State Analysis of Renewable Portfolio Standard Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Mariel

    As of December 2016, thirty-seven states have a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). RPS require that utilities provide a certain percentage of electricity generated using renewable sources by a certain date. This thesis builds on diffusion of innovation literature to understand how factors within a state, such as its political climate and the strength of interest groups, appear to influence the adoption process and structure of the RPS in five states--Connecticut, New Jersey, Michigan, Colorado, and Washington. Each of these states has a strong RPS as measured by its renewable energy goal over its current renewable energy production, the time frame in which this goal must be met, and the percentage of the electric load that is included in the regulation. This thesis uses both within-case and cross-case analysis to understand which combinations of internal state factors potentially lead to the adoption of a strong RPS. It finds that there are a number of combinations of factors that appear to contribute to strong RPS, depending on the internal circumstances of each state. However, more important is that without the opportunity to tailor the policy to meet the needs of the state, it is likely that states with unfavorable internal factors may not choose to adopt a RPS at all, let alone a strong RPS. While the innovation factors identified through the RPS diffusion research often contribute to states adopting a strong RPS, this thesis finds that the influence of these factors depends on a combination of the internal state factors with the RPS adoption process in shaping the structure of the RPS.

  20. Normalization method for metabolomics data using optimal selection of multiple internal standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yetukuri Laxman

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Success of metabolomics as the phenotyping platform largely depends on its ability to detect various sources of biological variability. Removal of platform-specific sources of variability such as systematic error is therefore one of the foremost priorities in data preprocessing. However, chemical diversity of molecular species included in typical metabolic profiling experiments leads to different responses to variations in experimental conditions, making normalization a very demanding task. Results With the aim to remove unwanted systematic variation, we present an approach that utilizes variability information from multiple internal standard compounds to find optimal normalization factor for each individual molecular species detected by metabolomics approach (NOMIS. We demonstrate the method on mouse liver lipidomic profiles using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry, and compare its performance to two commonly utilized normalization methods: normalization by l2 norm and by retention time region specific standard compound profiles. The NOMIS method proved superior in its ability to reduce the effect of systematic error across the full spectrum of metabolite peaks. We also demonstrate that the method can be used to select best combinations of standard compounds for normalization. Conclusion Depending on experiment design and biological matrix, the NOMIS method is applicable either as a one-step normalization method or as a two-step method where the normalization parameters, influenced by variabilities of internal standard compounds and their correlation to metabolites, are first calculated from a study conducted in repeatability conditions. The method can also be used in analytical development of metabolomics methods by helping to select best combinations of standard compounds for a particular biological matrix and analytical platform.

  1. Data Mining Methods Applied to Flight Operations Quality Assurance Data: A Comparison to Standard Statistical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzer, Alan J.; Halford, Carl

    2007-01-01

    In a previous study, multiple regression techniques were applied to Flight Operations Quality Assurance-derived data to develop parsimonious model(s) for fuel consumption on the Boeing 757 airplane. The present study examined several data mining algorithms, including neural networks, on the fuel consumption problem and compared them to the multiple regression results obtained earlier. Using regression methods, parsimonious models were obtained that explained approximately 85% of the variation in fuel flow. In general data mining methods were more effective in predicting fuel consumption. Classification and Regression Tree methods reported correlation coefficients of .91 to .92, and General Linear Models and Multilayer Perceptron neural networks reported correlation coefficients of about .99. These data mining models show great promise for use in further examining large FOQA databases for operational and safety improvements.

  2. Comparation studies of uranium analysis method using spectrophotometer and voltammeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugeng Pomomo

    2013-01-01

    Comparation studies of uranium analysis method by spectrophotometer and voltammeter had been done. The objective of experiment is to examine the reliability of analysis method and instrument performance by evaluate parameters; linearity, accuracy, precision and detection limit. Uranyl nitrate hexahydrate is used as standard, and the sample is solvent mixture of tributyl phosphate and kerosene containing uranium (from phosphoric acid purification unit Petrokimia Gresik). Uranium (U) stripping in the sample use HN0 3 0,5 N and then was analyzed by using of both instrument. Analysis of standard show that both methods give a good linearity by correlation coefficient > 0,999. Spectrophotometry give accuration 99,34 - 101,05 % with ratio standard deviation (RSD) 1,03 %; detection limit (DL) 0,05 ppm. Voltammetry give accuration 95,63 -101,49 % with RSD 3,91 %; detection limit (DL) 0,509 ppm. On the analysis of sludge samples were given the significantly different in result; spectrophotometry give U concentration 4,445 ppm by RSD 6,74 % and voltammetry give U concentration 7,693 by RSD 19,53%. (author)

  3. Microlocal methods in the analysis of the boundary element method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael

    1993-01-01

    The application of the boundary element method in numerical analysis is based upon the use of boundary integral operators stemming from multiple layer potentials. The regularity properties of these operators are vital in the development of boundary integral equations and error estimates. We show...

  4. Titanium Analysis of Ilmenite Bangka by Spectrophotometric Method Using Perhidrol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusydi-S

    2004-01-01

    Determination of titanium by spectrofotometric method using perhydrol has been done. The purpose of experiment is to find out the condition of titanium analysis of ilmenite by spectrophotometric method. The experiment parameter e c. analysis condition include the Ti-perhydrol complex spectrum, acidity of complex, perhydrol concentration, linearity, influence of anion, limit detection, interfere elements, application of the method using 40 SRM Standard and analysis for ilmenite samples. Result of experiments are spectrum of Ti-perhydrol complex at 410 nm, acidity of complex is the H 2 SO 4 2 M, perhydrol concentration is 0,24 %, the curve calibration is linier at 1-80 ppm, anion of PO 4 , NO 3 , Cl, CO 3 not be influence until 2000 ppm, limit detection is 0,30 ppm and Mo, V is interfere. The method which was aplicated to 40 SRM standard, shown that the content of Ti is 1580 ppm while the standard is 1600 ppm, and the content of Ti from ilmenite high grade samples is 31,46 % and low grade is 13,55 %. (author)

  5. Statistical methods for categorical data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to methods and models for categorical data analysis and their applications in social science research. Companion website also available, at https://webspace.utexas.edu/dpowers/www/

  6. Development of Ultraviolet Spectrophotometric Method for Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Method for Analysis of Lornoxicam in Solid Dosage. Forms. Sunit Kumar Sahoo ... testing. Mean recovery was 100.82 % for tablets. Low values of % RSD indicate .... Saharty E, Refaat YS, Khateeb ME. Stability-. Indicating. Spectrophotometric.

  7. Parameter estimation for hydrogen analysis by using transport method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvi, S.; Can, N.

    1992-01-01

    A transport method is described which reduces greatly the number of calibration standards needed for hydrogen analysis by neutron induced prompt γ-rays. The counts in the photopeaks from neutron capture in hydrogen for various standard concentrations, the distribution of the source neutron rate entering the thermal group and the reaction rates in the samples are investigated theoretically using 100 energy group cross sections and experimental 252 Cf spectra for a test configuration. Comparison of theoretical results with those measured from the test configuration shows good agreement. (author)

  8. Standard Test Method for Electronic Measurement for Hydrogen Embrittlement From Cadmium-Electroplating Processes

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1996-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers an electronic hydrogen detection instrument procedure for measurement of plating permeability to hydrogen. This method measures a variable related to hydrogen absorbed by steel during plating and to the hydrogen permeability of the plate during post plate baking. A specific application of this method is controlling cadmium-plating processes in which the plate porosity relative to hydrogen is critical, such as cadmium on high-strength steel. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific hazard statement, see Section 8. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.

  9. An external standard method for quantification of human cytomegalovirus by PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rongsen, Shen; Liren, Ma; Fengqi, Zhou; Qingliang, Luo

    1997-01-01

    An external standard method for PCR quantification of HCMV was reported. [α- 32 P]dATP was used as a tracer. 32 P-labelled specific amplification product was separated by agarose gel electrophoresis. A gel piece containing the specific product band was excised and counted in a plastic scintillation counter. Distribution of [α- 32 P]dATP in the electrophoretic gel plate and effect of separation between the 32 P-labelled specific product and free [α- 32 P]dATP were observed. A standard curve for quantification of HCMV by PCR was established and detective results of quality control templets were presented. The external standard method and the electrophoresis separation effect were appraised. The results showed that the method could be used for relative quantification of HCMV. (author)

  10. An introduction to numerical methods and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Epperson, James F

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition "". . . outstandingly appealing with regard to its style, contents, considerations of requirements of practice, choice of examples, and exercises.""-Zentralblatt MATH "". . . carefully structured with many detailed worked examples.""-The Mathematical Gazette The Second Edition of the highly regarded An Introduction to Numerical Methods and Analysis provides a fully revised guide to numerical approximation. The book continues to be accessible and expertly guides readers through the many available techniques of numerical methods and analysis. An Introduction to

  11. Standard test method for determining residual stresses by the hole-drilling strain-gage method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 Residual Stress Determination: 1.1.1 This test method specifies a hole-drilling procedure for determining residual stress profiles near the surface of an isotropic linearly elastic material. The test method is applicable to residual stress profile determinations where in-plane stress gradients are small. The stresses may remain approximately constant with depth (“uniform” stresses) or they may vary significantly with depth (“non-uniform” stresses). The measured workpiece may be “thin” with thickness much less than the diameter of the drilled hole or “thick” with thickness much greater than the diameter of the drilled hole. Only uniform stress measurements are specified for thin workpieces, while both uniform and non-uniform stress measurements are specified for thick workpieces. 1.2 Stress Measurement Range: 1.2.1 The hole-drilling method can identify in-plane residual stresses near the measured surface of the workpiece material. The method gives localized measurements that indicate the...

  12. Bronchial histamine challenge. A combined interrupter-dosimeter method compared with a standard method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlovic, M; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Madsen, F

    1985-01-01

    We compared the provocative concentration (PC) values obtained by two different methods of performing bronchial histamine challenge. One test was done on an APTA, an apparatus which allows simultaneous provocation with histamine and measurement of airway resistance (Rtot) by the interrupter metho...

  13. Non-standard finite difference and Chebyshev collocation methods for solving fractional diffusion equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, P.; El-Sayed, A. A.

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, a new numerical technique for solving the fractional order diffusion equation is introduced. This technique basically depends on the Non-Standard finite difference method (NSFD) and Chebyshev collocation method, where the fractional derivatives are described in terms of the Caputo sense. The Chebyshev collocation method with the (NSFD) method is used to convert the problem into a system of algebraic equations. These equations solved numerically using Newton's iteration method. The applicability, reliability, and efficiency of the presented technique are demonstrated through some given numerical examples.

  14. Standard test method for determination of surface lubrication on flexible webs

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This test method has been used since 1988 as an ANSI/ISO standard test for determination of lubrication on processed photographic films. Its purpose was to determine the presence of process-surviving lubricants on photographic films. It is the purpose of this test method to expand the applicability of this test method to other flexible webs that may need lubrication for suitable performance. This test measures the breakaway (static) coefficient of friction of a metal rider on the web by the inclined plane method. The objectives of the test is to determine if a web surface has a lubricant present or not. It is not intended to assign a friction coefficient to a material. It is not intended to rank lubricants. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish ...

  15. Robust methods for multivariate data analysis A1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, Stina; Von Frese, J.; Bro, Rasmus

    2005-01-01

    Outliers may hamper proper classical multivariate analysis, and lead to incorrect conclusions. To remedy the problem of outliers, robust methods are developed in statistics and chemometrics. Robust methods reduce or remove the effect of outlying data points and allow the ?good? data to primarily...... determine the result. This article reviews the most commonly used robust multivariate regression and exploratory methods that have appeared since 1996 in the field of chemometrics. Special emphasis is put on the robust versions of chemometric standard tools like PCA and PLS and the corresponding robust...

  16. Standardized methods for the production of high specific-activity zirconium-89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Jason P.; Sheh, Yiauchung; Lewis, Jason S.

    2009-01-01

    Zirconium-89 is an attractive metallo-radionuclide for use in immunoPET due to the favorable decay characteristics. Standardized methods for the routine production and isolation of high purity and high specific-activity 89Zr using a small cyclotron are reported. Optimized cyclotron conditions reveal high average yields of 1.52 ± 0.11 mCi/μA·h at a proton beam energy of 15 MeV and current of 15 μA using a solid, commercially available 89Y-foil target (0.1 mm, 100% natural abundance). 89Zr was isolated in high radionuclidic and radiochemical purity (>99.99%) as [89Zr]Zr-oxalate by using a solid-phase hydroxamate resin with >99.5% recovery of the radioactivity. The effective specific-activity of 89Zr was found to be in the range 5.28 – 13.43 mCi/μg (470 – 1195 Ci/mmol) of zirconium. New methods for the facile production of [89Zr]Zr-chloride are reported. Radiolabeling studies using the trihydroxamate ligand desferrioxamine B (DFO) gave 100% radiochemical yields in 7 days. Small-animal PET imaging studies have demonstrated that free 89Zr(IV) ions administered as [89Zr]Zr-chloride accumulate in the liver whilst [89Zr]Zr-DFO is excreted rapidly via the kidneys within <20 min. These results have important implication for the analysis of immunoPET imaging of 89Zr-labeled monoclonal antibodies. The detailed methods described can be easily translated to other radiochemistry facilities and will facilitate the use of 89Zr in both basic science and clinical investigations. PMID:19720285

  17. 78 FR 45447 - Revisions to Modeling, Data, and Analysis Reliability Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ...; Order No. 782] Revisions to Modeling, Data, and Analysis Reliability Standard AGENCY: Federal Energy... Analysis (MOD) Reliability Standard MOD- 028-2, submitted to the Commission for approval by the North... Organization. The Commission finds that the proposed Reliability Standard represents an improvement over the...

  18. Hypothesis analysis methods, hypothesis analysis devices, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P [Richland, WA; Cowell, Andrew J [Kennewick, WA; Gregory, Michelle L [Richland, WA; Baddeley, Robert L [Richland, WA; Paulson, Patrick R [Pasco, WA; Tratz, Stephen C [Richland, WA; Hohimer, Ryan E [West Richland, WA

    2012-03-20

    Hypothesis analysis methods, hypothesis analysis devices, and articles of manufacture are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a hypothesis analysis method includes providing a hypothesis, providing an indicator which at least one of supports and refutes the hypothesis, using the indicator, associating evidence with the hypothesis, weighting the association of the evidence with the hypothesis, and using the weighting, providing information regarding the accuracy of the hypothesis.

  19. Evaluation of pressed powders and thin section standards for multi-elemental analysis by conventional and micro-PIXE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma-Takeda, Shino; Iso, Hiroyuki; Ito, Masaki

    2010-01-01

    For multi-elemental analysis, various standards are used to quantify the elements consists of environmental and biological samples. In this paper two different configuration standards, pressed powders and thin section standards, were assessed for their purpose as standards by conventional and micro-PIXE analysis. Homogeneity of manganese, iron, zinc (Zn), copper and yttrium added to pressed powder standard materials were validated and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the X-ray intensity of the standards was 2 area and the metal concentration was acceptable. (author)

  20. Standard Test Method for Solar Photometric Transmittance of Sheet Materials Using Sunlight

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1996-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of solar photometric transmittance of materials in sheet form. Solar photometric transmittance is measured using a photometer (illuminance meter) in an enclosure with the sun and sky as the source of radiation. The enclosure and method of test is specified in Test Method E 1175 (or Test Method E 1084). 1.2 The purpose of this test method is to specify a photometric sensor to be used with the procedure for measuring the solar photometric transmittance of sheet materials containing inhomogeneities in their optical properties. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  1. Standard Test Method for Dust Erosion Resistance of Optical and Infrared Transparent Materials and Coatings

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the resistance of transparent plastics and coatings used in aerospace windscreens, canopies, and viewports to surface erosion as a result of dust impingement. This test method simulates flight through a defined particle cloud environment by means of independent control of particle size, velocity, impact angle, mass loading, and test duration. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  2. Primary activity standardization of {sup 57}Co by sum-peak method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwahara, A. [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI)/Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD)/Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende, s/no. Recreio dos Bandeirantes - CEP 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: iwahara@ird.gov.br; Poledna, R.; Silva, C.J. da; Tauhata, L. [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI)/Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD)/Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende, s/no. Recreio dos Bandeirantes - CEP 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2009-10-15

    The sum-peak method was applied to standardize a {sup 57}Co solution within the framework of an international comparison organized by International Atomic Energy Agency, in 2008, aimed toward international traceability of activity measurements. A planar germanium detector was used with the sources placed on top of the detector for activity determination measurements. An analytical expression for accidental summing correction was derived and the effect of the germanium characteristic KX-ray escape peak of 112 keV was taken into account. The standard uncertainty associated to the activity concentration value was 0.37% and the result was compared with other measurement methods.

  3. The Potts models and flows. III, standard and subgraph break-collapse methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, A.C.N. de; Essam, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    An algorithm is developed for the exact calculation of the many spin correlation functions of Potts model clusters which is more efficient than the standard break-collapse method traditionally used in real space renormalization group calculations. The improved performance is based on a relationship which, at any stage of the calculation, allows the replacement of certain subgraphs by single effective edges. Our method avoids, as in the standard one, the time consuming summation over spin states and can be very useful in series expansions and real space renormalisation group calculations on crystal lattices. (Author) [pt

  4. Vehicle Codes and Standards: Overview and Gap Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, C.; Buttner, W.; Rivkin, C.

    2010-02-01

    This report identifies gaps in vehicle codes and standards and recommends ways to fill the gaps, focusing on six alternative fuels: biodiesel, natural gas, electricity, ethanol, hydrogen, and propane.

  5. Relating Actor Analysis Methods to Policy Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Lei, T.E.

    2009-01-01

    For a policy analyst the policy problem is the starting point for the policy analysis process. During this process the policy analyst structures the policy problem and makes a choice for an appropriate set of methods or techniques to analyze the problem (Goeller 1984). The methods of the policy

  6. Neutron activation analysis of certified samples by the absolute method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadem, F.; Belouadah, N.; Idiri, Z.

    2015-07-01

    The nuclear reactions analysis technique is mainly based on the relative method or the use of activation cross sections. In order to validate nuclear data for the calculated cross section evaluated from systematic studies, we used the neutron activation analysis technique (NAA) to determine the various constituent concentrations of certified samples for animal blood, milk and hay. In this analysis, the absolute method is used. The neutron activation technique involves irradiating the sample and subsequently performing a measurement of the activity of the sample. The fundamental equation of the activation connects several physical parameters including the cross section that is essential for the quantitative determination of the different elements composing the sample without resorting to the use of standard sample. Called the absolute method, it allows a measurement as accurate as the relative method. The results obtained by the absolute method showed that the values are as precise as the relative method requiring the use of standard sample for each element to be quantified.

  7. Nodal method for fast reactor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shober, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper, a nodal method applicable to fast reactor diffusion theory analysis has been developed. This method has been shown to be accurate and efficient in comparison to highly optimized finite difference techniques. The use of an analytic solution to the diffusion equation as a means of determining accurate coupling relationships between nodes has been shown to be highly accurate and efficient in specific two-group applications, as well as in the current multigroup method

  8. A comparative uncertainty study of the calibration of macrolide antibiotic reference standards using quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance and mass balance methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shuyu; Hu Changqin

    2007-01-01

    This study introduces the general method of quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) for the calibration of reference standards of macrolide antibiotics. Several qNMR experimental conditions were optimized including delay, which is an important parameter of quantification. Three kinds of macrolide antibiotics were used to validate the accuracy of the qNMR method by comparison with the results obtained by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The purities of five common reference standards of macrolide antibiotics were measured by the 1 H qNMR method and the mass balance method, respectively. The analysis results of the two methods were compared. The qNMR is quick and simple to use. In a new medicine research and development process, qNMR provides a new and reliable method for purity analysis of the reference standard

  9. Standard test method for plutonium assay by plutonium (III) diode array spectrophotometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the determination of total plutonium as plutonium(III) in nitrate and chloride solutions. The technique is applicable to solutions of plutonium dioxide powders and pellets (Test Methods C 697), nuclear grade mixed oxides (Test Methods C 698), plutonium metal (Test Methods C 758), and plutonium nitrate solutions (Test Methods C 759). Solid samples are dissolved using the appropriate dissolution techniques described in Practice C 1168. The use of this technique for other plutonium-bearing materials has been reported (1-5), but final determination of applicability must be made by the user. The applicable concentration range for plutonium sample solutions is 10–200 g Pu/L. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropria...

  10. Use of sum-peak and coincidence counting methods for activity standardization of {sup 22}Na

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, E.M. de, E-mail: estela@ird.gov.br [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI/IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende, s/n, Recreio, CEP 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Iwahara, A.; Poledna, R. [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI/IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende, s/n, Recreio, CEP 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Silva, M.A.L. da [Coordenacao Geral de Instalacoes Nucleares/Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, R. Gal. Severiano, 90 - Botafogo, CEP 22290-901 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Tauhata, L. [Fundacao Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ), Av. Erasmo Braga, 118-6 Degree-Sign andar, CEP 20020-000 Centro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Delgado, J.U. [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI/IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende, s/n, Recreio, CEP 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao Nuclear (LIN/PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Caixa Postal 68509, CEP 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2012-09-21

    A solution containing the positron emitter {sup 22}Na has been absolutely standardized using the 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence counting method and the sum-peak spectrometry counting method. In the 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence method two ways for the activity concentration measurements were used: gating on the 1275 keV photopeak and on the 1786 keV sum-peak where the knowledge of the {beta}{sup +}-branching ratio is required. In the sum-peak method the measurements were carried out using three experimental arrangements: the first composed by a well type 5 in. Multiplication-Sign 5 in. NaI(Tl) scintillation crystal, the second by a 3 in. Multiplication-Sign 3 in. NaI(Tl) scintillation crystal placed on the top of the first, resulting in a 4{pi} counting geometry and the third arrangement is a high purity coaxial germanium detector. The results that are obtained by these two methods are compatible within the standard uncertainty values with a coverage factor of k=2 ({approx}95% of the confidence level). This means that the sum-peak counting with its more simple experimental setup than the complex coincidence 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} counting system gives consistent results for the activity standardization of {sup 22}Na with smaller uncertainties. Besides, the time period involved to attain the result of the standardization was quite shorter than the coincidence measurements used in this work.

  11. Inelastic analysis methods for piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, J.T.; Spence, J.

    1980-01-01

    The analysis of pipework systems which operate in an environment where local inelastic strains are evident is one of the most demanding problems facing the stress analyst in the nuclear field. The spatial complexity of even the most modest system makes a detailed analysis using finite element techniques beyond the scope of current computer technology. For this reason the emphasis has been on simplified methods. It is the aim of this paper to provide a reasonably complete, state-of-the-art review of inelastic pipework analysis methods and to attempt to highlight areas where reliable information is lacking and further work is needed. (orig.)

  12. A dedicated on-line system for the preparation and validation of standard beads in XRF analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yasuyuki; Ogasawara, Noriko; Nakata, Akio; Shoji, Shizuko.

    1995-01-01

    A dedicated on-line system in X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis with glass-bead method was developed in which preparation of standard beads was automated including proper choice of reagents, assignment of bead compositions and validation of the prepared beads. This system features: a. Fundamental Parameter (FP) Method for validation of standard beads. b. An original database of high purity reagents for standards. c. Automatic calculation of suitable composition for each standard bead, by giving a range for each element and the number of standard beads. 1) The calculation is based on random numbers, and makes a random assignment of composition for each bead. 2) The calculation results are automatically stored in a computer as a condition file for quantitative analysis. 3) An amount of a material for a standard mixture is corrected if a valence or a chemical compound for an analysis element is different from that of the standard material in the database. In order to realize these features, many high purity reagents were examined for their purities and other characteristics to test a suitability to use for a standard material, and a software for on-line processings was originally developed. (author)

  13. Standard test method for wear testing with a pin-on-disk apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a laboratory procedure for determining the wear of materials during sliding using a pin-on-disk apparatus. Materials are tested in pairs under nominally non-abrasive conditions. The principal areas of experimental attention in using this type of apparatus to measure wear are described. The coefficient of friction may also be determined. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  14. Standard test methods for elevated temperature tension tests of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedure and equipment for the determination of tensile strength, yield strength, elongation, and reduction of area of metallic materials at elevated temperatures. 1.2 Determination of modulus of elasticity and proportional limit are not included. 1.3 Tension tests under conditions of rapid heating or rapid strain rates are not included. 1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  15. Standard test method for plutonium by Iron (II)/Chromium (VI) amperometric titration

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of plutonium in unirradiated nuclear-grade plutonium dioxide, uranium-plutonium mixed oxides with uranium (U)/plutonium (Pu) ratios up to 21, plutonium metal, and plutonium nitrate solutions. Optimum quantities of plutonium to measure are 7 to 15 mg. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  16. Standard Test Method for Gravimetric Determination of Nonvolatile Residue (NVR) in Environmentally Controlled Areas for Spacecraft

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of nonvolatile residue (NVR) fallout in environmentally controlled areas used for the assembly, testing, and processing of spacecraft. 1.2 The NVR of interest is that which is deposited on sampling plate surfaces at room temperature: it is left to the user to infer the relationship between the NVR found on the sampling plate surface and that found on any other surfaces. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

  17. Standard Test Method for Gravimetric Determination of Nonvolatile Residue From Cleanroom Wipers

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of solvent extractable nonvolatile residue (NVR) from wipers used in assembly, cleaning, or testing of spacecraft, but not from those used for analytical surface sampling of hardware. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 The NVR of interest is that which can be extracted from cleanroom wipers using a specified solvent that has been selected for its extractive qualities. Alternative solvents may be selected, but since their use may result in different values being generated, they must be identified in the procedure data sheet. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  18. Standard Test Method for Testing Nonmetallic Seal Materials by Immersion in a Simulated Geothermal Test Fluid

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1985-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for a laboratory test for performing an initial evaluation (screening) of nonmetallic seal materials by immersion in a simulated geothermal test fluid. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific precautionary statements, see Section 6 and 11.7.

  19. Standard test method for measurement of corrosion potentials of Aluminum alloys

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for measurement of the corrosion potential (see Note 1) of an aluminum alloy in an aqueous solution of sodium chloride with enough hydrogen peroxide added to provide an ample supply of cathodic reactant. Note 1—The corrosion potential is sometimes referred to as the open-circuit solution or rest potential. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  20. A simple web-based tool to compare freshwater fish data collected using AFS standard methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Scott A.; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Rahr, Matt; Torrey, Yuta T.; Cate, Averill

    2016-01-01

    The American Fisheries Society (AFS) recently published Standard Methods for Sampling North American Freshwater Fishes. Enlisting the expertise of 284 scientists from 107 organizations throughout Canada, Mexico, and the United States, this text was developed to facilitate comparisons of fish data across regions or time. Here we describe a user-friendly web tool that automates among-sample comparisons in individual fish condition, population length-frequency distributions, and catch per unit effort (CPUE) data collected using AFS standard methods. Currently, the web tool (1) provides instantaneous summaries of almost 4,000 data sets of condition, length frequency, and CPUE of common freshwater fishes collected using standard gears in 43 states and provinces; (2) is easily appended with new standardized field data to update subsequent queries and summaries; (3) compares fish data from a particular water body with continent, ecoregion, and state data summaries; and (4) provides additional information about AFS standard fish sampling including benefits, ongoing validation studies, and opportunities to comment on specific methods. The web tool—programmed in a PHP-based Drupal framework—was supported by several AFS Sections, agencies, and universities and is freely available from the AFS website and fisheriesstandardsampling.org. With widespread use, the online tool could become an important resource for fisheries biologists.

  1. Application of a method to measure uranium enrichment without use of standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saule, F.A.; Righetti, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The determination of uranium enrichment in the many different stages present at a gaseous diffusion enrichment plant (diffusers, cisterns, deposits in pipes, drums with rests of process), or materials of deposit (plates of fuel elements not irradiated and recipients with uranium oxide), that have several geometries and physics properties of the containers, is very important for safeguards inspections. In this work is tested a non destructive analysis technique to determine the value of uranium enrichment of different samples with uranium materials without use of standards, to apply in safeguards inspections. It was used a hyper pure germanium detector with efficiency of 20% to obtain the gamma spectrum of the samples. In each spectrum, were used the net area values corresponding to four lines of U-235 (at 143, 163, 186 and 205 keV) and three lines of U-238 (258, 766 and 1001 keV); these values were analysed with two different methods. The comparison of the calculated and declared values showed a discrepancy of about 10%. (author) [es

  2. Excitation methods for energy dispersive analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaklevic, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    The rapid development in recent years of energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis has been based primarily on improvements in semiconductor detector x-ray spectrometers. However, the whole analysis system performance is critically dependent on the availability of optimum methods of excitation for the characteristic x rays in specimens. A number of analysis facilities based on various methods of excitation have been developed over the past few years. A discussion is given of the features of various excitation methods including charged particles, monochromatic photons, and broad-energy band photons. The effects of the excitation method on background and sensitivity are discussed from both theoretical and experimental viewpoints. Recent developments such as pulsed excitation and polarized photons are also discussed

  3. More recent robust methods for the estimation of mean and standard deviation of data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanisch, G.

    2003-01-01

    Outliers in a data set result in biased values of mean and standard deviation. One way to improve the estimation of a mean is to apply tests to identify outliers and to exclude them from the calculations. Tests according to Grubbs or to Dixon, which are frequently used in practice, especially within laboratory intercomparisons, are not very efficient in identifying outliers. Since more than ten years now so-called robust methods are used more and more, which determine mean and standard deviation by iteration and down-weighting values far from the mean, thereby diminishing the impact of outliers. In 1989 the Analytical Methods Committee of the British Royal Chemical Society published such a robust method. Since 1993 the US Environmental Protection Agency published a more efficient and quite versatile method. Mean and standard deviation are calculated by iteration and application of a special weight function for down-weighting outlier candidates. In 2000, W. Cofino et al. published a very efficient robust method which works quite different from the others. It applies methods taken from the basics of quantum mechanics, such as ''wave functions'' associated with each laboratory mean value and matrix algebra (solving eigenvalue problems). In contrast to the other ones, this method includes the individual measurement uncertainties. (orig.)

  4. Standardized 15N tracer methods for the evaluation of the plasma protein turnover in clinical practice. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornhak, H.

    1984-01-01

    Methods for quantitative isolation of plasma proteins or groups of proteins (total plasma or serum proteins, fibrin, total globulines, α, β, γ-globolines, albumin) are described based on combination of chromatography with precipitation and extraction techniques. These methods are adapted to the special requirements of 15 N analysis. They can be performed in clinic-chemical standard laboratories without special apparatuses or devices. The described procedures are the biochemico-analytical basis for the quantitative evaluation of tracer kinetics data by means of mathematic modelling. (author)

  5. The energy calibration and precision of a gamma spectrometry unit - Method using the electron annihilation energy as the only standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoclet, Michel

    1971-06-01

    Spectrometry using Ge(Li) detectors is discussed. The excellent resolution of this type of detector, the mathematical analysis of the spectral lines of the pulses, and the reproducibility of the spectrometer enable highly accurate measurements of the abscises (some 10 -5 ) corresponding to the peaks. A method using the annihilation energy of the electron as the only standard was developed. The method is applied to the measurement of the gamma ray energies of the radioelements: 22 Na, 24 Na, 56 Mn, 56 Co, 59 Fe, 72 Ga, 88 Y, 122 Sb, 124 Sb and 137 Cs. (author) [fr

  6. Standardizing economic analysis in prevention will require substantial effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyll, Max

    2014-12-01

    It is exceedingly difficult to compare results of economic analyses across studies due to variations in assumptions, methodology, and outcome measures, a fact which surely decreases the impact and usefulness of prevention-related economic research. Therefore, Crowley et al. (Prevention Science, 2013) are precisely correct in their call for increased standardization and have usefully highlighted the issues that must be addressed. However, having made the need clear, the questions become what form the solution should take, and how should it be implemented. The present discussion outlines the rudiments of a comprehensive framework for promoting standardized methodology in the estimation of economic outcomes, as encouraged by Crowley et al. In short, a single, standard, reference case approach should be clearly articulated, and all economic research should be encouraged to apply that standard approach, with results from compliant analyses being reported in a central archive. Properly done, the process would increase the ability of those without specialized training to contribute to the body of economic research pertaining to prevention, and the most difficult tasks of predicting and monetizing distal outcomes would be readily completed through predetermined models. These recommendations might be viewed as somewhat forcible, insomuch as they advocate for prescribing the details of a standard methodology and establishing a means of verifying compliance. However, it is unclear that the best practices proposed by Crowley et al. will be widely adopted in the absence of a strong and determined approach.

  7. Standard test method for calibration of surface/stress measuring devices

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    Return to Contents page 1.1 This test method covers calibration or verification of calibration, or both, of surface-stress measuring devices used to measure stress in annealed and heat-strengthened or tempered glass using polariscopic or refractometry based principles. 1.2 This test method is nondestructive. 1.3 This test method uses transmitted light, and therefore, is applicable to light-transmitting glasses. 1.4 This test method is not applicable to chemically tempered glass. 1.5 Using the procedure described, surface stresses can be measured only on the “tin” side of float glass. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  8. Standard guide for qualification of measurement methods by a laboratory within the nuclear industry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides guidance for selecting, validating, and qualifying measurement methods when qualification is required for a specific program. The recommended practices presented in this guide provide a major part of a quality assurance program for the laboratory data (see Fig. 1). Qualification helps to assure that the data produced will meet established requirements. 1.2 The activities intended to assure the quality of analytical laboratory measurement data are diagrammed in Fig. 1. Discussion and guidance related to some of these activities appear in the following sections: Section Selection of Measurement Methods 5 Validation of Measurement Methods 6 Qualification of Measurement Methods 7 Control 8 Personnel Qualification 9 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitati...

  9. Standard Reference Test Method for Making Potentiostatic and Potentiodynamic Anodic Polarization Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers an experimental procedure for checking experimental technique and instrumentation. If followed, this test method will provide repeatable potentiostatic and potentiodynamic anodic polarization measurements that will reproduce data determined by others at other times and in other laboratories provided all laboratories are testing reference samples from the same lot of Type 430 stainless steel. 1.2 Values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. Inch-pound units given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  10. Standard Test Method for Water Absorption of Core Materials for Structural Sandwich Constructions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the relative amount of water absorption by various types of structural core materials when immersed or in a high relative humidity environment. This test method is intended to apply to only structural core materials; honeycomb, foam, and balsa wood. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound units given may be approximate. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  11. Standard Test Method for Measuring Optical Angular Deviation of Transparent Parts

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1996-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers measuring the angular deviation of a light ray imposed by transparent parts such as aircraft windscreens and canopies. The results are uncontaminated by the effects of lateral displacement, and the procedure may be performed in a relatively short optical path length. This is not intended as a referee standard. It is one convenient method for measuring angular deviations through transparent windows. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  12. Photon activation analysis using internal standards: some studies of the analysis of environmental materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masumoto, K; Yagi, M

    1986-01-01

    The authors report the application of the internal standard method to the simultaneous determination of trace elements in environmental reference materials. The standard soil material used was IAEA CRM Soil-5. The power plant fly ash reference used was NBS SRM-1633a. Fifteen target elements, including As, Ba and Ce, were determined. Internal standards were supplied by six elements, including Na and Mg. Although there were several interfering elements, their effect could be eliminated by utilizing more than one gamma-ray peak and carrying out appropriate corrections. The values determined for most of the target elements were well within the certified range. Measured concentrations were of the orders of 10 to 1000 ..mu..g/g. 6 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  13. Building America Guidance for Identifying and Overcoming Code, Standard, and Rating Method Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, P. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, M. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This guidance document was prepared using the input from the meeting summarized in the draft CSI Roadmap to provide Building America research teams and partners with specific information and approaches to identifying and overcoming potential barriers to Building America innovations arising in and/or stemming from codes, standards, and rating methods.

  14. Next Generation Science Standards: A National Mixed-Methods Study on Teacher Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Susan; Megowan, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) science and engineering practices are ways of eliciting the reasoning and applying foundational ideas in science. As research has revealed barriers to states and schools adopting the NGSS, this mixed-methods study attempts to identify characteristics of professional development (PD) that will support NGSS…

  15. Non-standard perturbative methods for the effective potential in λφ4 QFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okopinska, A.

    1986-07-01

    The effective potential in scalar QFT is calculated in the non-standard perturbative methods and compared with the conventional loop expansion. In the space time dimensions 0 and 1 the results are compared with the ''exact'' effective potential obtained numerically. In 4 dimensions we show that λφ 4 theory is non-interacting. (author)

  16. Construction of the World Health Organization child growth standards: Selection of methods for attained growth curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghi, E.; Onis, M. de; Garza, C.; Broeck, J. van den; Frongillo, E.A.; Grummer-Strawn, L.; Buuren, S. van; Pan, H.; Molinari, L.; Martorell, R.; Onyango, A.W.; Martines, J.C.; Pinol, A.; Siyam, A.; Victoria, C.G.; Bhan, M.K.; Araújo, C.L.; Lartey, A.; Owusu, W.B.; Bhandari, N.; Norum, K.R.; Bjoerneboe, G.-E.Aa.; Mohamed, A.J.; Dewey, K.G.; Belbase, K.; Chumlea, C.; Cole, T.; Shrimpton, R.; Albernaz, E.; Tomasi, E.; Cássia Fossati da Silveira, R. de; Nader, G.; Sagoe-Moses, I.; Gomez, V.; Sagoe-Moses, C.; Taneja, S.; Rongsen, T.; Chetia, J.; Sharma, P.; Bahl, R.; Baerug, A.; Tufte, E.; Alasfoor, D.; Prakash, N.S.; Mabry, R.M.; Al Rajab, H.J.; Helmi, S.A.; Nommsen-Rivers, L.A.; Cohen, R.J.; Heinig, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO), in collaboration with a number of research institutions worldwide, is developing new child growth standards. As part of a broad consultative process for selecting the best statistical methods, WHO convened a group of statisticians and child growth experts to

  17. Instructional Basics: Oppelt Standard Method of Therapeutic and Recreational Ice Skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppelt, Kurt

    Detailed in the booklet is the standard ice skating method and considered are the benefits of therapeutic ice skating for the handicapped and aged. Values for the mentally retarded and physically handicapped are seen to include physiological (such as increased flexibility and improved posture), psychological (including satifaction and enhanced…

  18. An improved set of standards for finding cost for cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Paul G

    2009-07-01

    Guidelines have helped standardize methods of cost-effectiveness analysis, allowing different interventions to be compared and enhancing the generalizability of study findings. There is agreement that all relevant services be valued from the societal perspective using a long-term time horizon and that more exact methods be used to cost services most affected by the study intervention. Guidelines are not specific enough with respect to costing methods, however. The literature was reviewed to identify the problems associated with the 4 principal methods of cost determination. Microcosting requires direct measurement and is ordinarily reserved to cost novel interventions. Analysts should include nonwage labor cost, person-level and institutional overhead, and the cost of development, set-up activities, supplies, space, and screening. Activity-based cost systems have promise of finding accurate costs of all services provided, but are not widely adopted. Quality must be evaluated and the generalizability of cost estimates to other settings must be considered. Administrative cost estimates, chiefly cost-adjusted charges, are widely used, but the analyst must consider items excluded from the available system. Gross costing methods determine quantity of services used and employ a unit cost. If the intervention will affect the characteristics of a service, the method should not assume that the service is homogeneous. Questions are posed for future reviews of the quality of costing methods. The analyst must avoid inappropriate assumptions, especially those that bias the analysis by exclusion of costs that are affected by the intervention under study.

  19. Customisation and Desirable Characteristics of a Standard Method of Measurement for Building Works in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study that identified andcategorised the modifications to the 5thEdition of the British Standard Method ofMeasurement (SMM5 of building works inGhana. Typical modifications involved ‘costinsignificant items’, ‘minor labour items’,‘custom units of measurement’, ‘methodrelated items’, ‘combinable items’,‘subordinate items’, and ‘items of minorinformative impact’. It was also observed thatthe desirable characteristics/ qualities ofstandard methods of measurement (SMM ofbuilding work were noteworthy, since theyprovide insight into the nature of a SMMrequired for the construction industry inGhana.The research reviewed available literature,various SMMs and bills of quantities (BQs.The relevance of the modifications andSMM characteristics identified wasconfirmed by a survey of the opinions ofprofessional quantity surveyors conductedthrough a carefully designed questionnaire.Inferences from the opinion survey formedthe basis for grouping both SMMmodifications found and the desired qualitiesof a SMM for Ghana.Survey respondents confirmed all theidentified modifications to the British SMM,except for the elimination of items of minorinformative impact. It was held that allinformation was relevant in measurement.Desirable characteristics of a SMM were ratedin decreasing order of relevance as: easylocation of items; cost significance; simplicity;thoroughness; ease of cost analysis; goodpractice; conciseness; adoptability; precision;industry practice; stakeholders’ opinion;custom classification; regional relevance; andinclusion of jargon. It was noted that therelevance of these characteristics may varyform one region to the other as a result oftechnological, cultural and legal differences.However, the desired SMM characteristicswere recommended as fundamental indeveloping an appropriate SMM for Ghana.

  20. Instrumental methods of analysis, 7th edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willard, H.H.; Merritt, L.L. Jr.; Dean, J.A.; Settle, F.A. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have prepared an organized and generally polished product. The book is fashioned to be used as a textbook for an undergraduate instrumental analysis course, a supporting textbook for graduate-level courses, and a general reference work on analytical instrumentation and techniques for professional chemists. Four major areas are emphasized: data collection and processing, spectroscopic instrumentation and methods, liquid and gas chromatographic methods, and electrochemical methods. Analytical instrumentation and methods have been updated, and a thorough citation of pertinent recent literature is included