This transcript of and guide to a two-cassette course designed to assist Irish immigrants in erasure of their foreign accents can be used for either individual or group study. Narrative and taped demonstrations of American English that pinpoint typical phonological barriers and pronunciation difficulties are outlined. The author's own system of…
This transcript of and guide to a two-cassette course designed to assist Chinese immigrants in erasure of their foreign accents can be used for either individual or group study. Narrative and taped demonstrations of American English that pinpoint typical phonological barriers and pronunciation difficulties are outlined. The author's own system of…
This transcript of and guide to a two-cassette course designed to assist immigrants in erasure of their foreign accents can be used for either individual or group study. Narrative and taped demonstrations of American English that pinpoint typical phonological barriers and pronunciation difficulties are outlined. The author's own system of…
This transcript of and guide to a two-cassette course designed to assist Japanese immigrants in erasure of their foreign accents can be used for either individual or group study. Narrative and taped demonstrations of American English that pinpoint typical phonological barriers and pronunciation difficulties are outlined. The author's own system of…
This transcript of and guide to a two-cassette course designed to assist Italian immigrants in erasure of their foreign accents can be used for either individual or group study. Narrative and taped demonstrations of American English that pinpoint typical phonological barriers and pronunciation difficulties are outlined. The author's own system of…
This transcript of and guide to a two-cassette course designed to assist Swedish and Norwegian immigrants in erasure of their foreign accents can be used for either individual or group study. Narrative and taped demonstrations of American English that pinpoint typical phonological barriers and pronunciation difficulties are outlined. The author's…
This transcript of and guide to a two-cassette course designed to assist Korean immigrants in erasure of their foreign accents can be used for either individual or group study. Narrative and taped demonstrations of American English that pinpoint typical phonological barriers and pronunciation difficulties are outlined. The author's own system of…
Farrell, Thomas S. C.; Martin, Sonia
This article suggests that English language teachers should consider all varieties of English, not just British Standard English or American Standard English. In order to better prepare students for the global world, and to show them that their own English is valued, teachers can implement a balanced approach that incorporates the teaching and…
Replies critically to the article by D. K. Stevenson and R. J. Brunt, "Living English: Seeing the Forest in Spite of the Trees -- On Differences between American English and British English," in this journal, issue 1979/2. A reply by Stevenson and Brunt continues the controversy. (IFS/WGA)
This paper investigates the attitudes and opinions surrounding Standard English (SE) within the United Kingdom. The definition of SE, for the purposes of this study, is standard grammar and standard pronunciation of southern English, commonly referred to as 'BBC English'. The subject of SE and attitudes towards different accents and dialects of British English is emotive and attracts strong opinions. The main issues discussed here are the place of language in society, the social implications ...
Educational programs for teachers of English as a Second Language must devote more attention to differences between the standard varieties of American and British English, with instruction focusing on the major orthographic, morphological, syntactic, collocational, and lexical differences. (CB)
Mindt, Dieter; Weber, Christel
Compares the distribution of prepositions in American and British English. Two machine-readable one million word Corpora, the Brown Corpus of American English and the Lob Corpus of British are used as a basis of comparison. (Author/OD)
This study investigated contemporary Japanese college students' attitudes towards Japan English (JE) and American English (AE) through a verbal guise test (VGT) as well as a questionnaire. Forty-four Japanese college students listened to four Japanese and four North Americans reading a text in English, rated them in terms of solidarity-related…
CRAIG, MYRTLE C.
THE PROBLEM OF HOW TO TEACH PUPILS IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS TO READ AND WRITE STANDARD ENGLISH IS DISCUSSED. THE VALUE OF ORAL LANGUAGE AS A MEANS OF ATTAINING READING AND WRITING PROFICIENCY IS SUGGESTED. SUCCESS IN THESE AREAS CAN BE ATTAINED IF (1) THE HOME LANGUAGE OF THE CHILD IS ACCEPTED, (2) THE CHILD IS OFFERED MATERIALS ON HIS LEVEL OF…
Examines the debate initiated by Thomas J. Farrell's 1983 article, "IQ and Standard English." Suggests the importance of social class in assessing the situation of basic writers coming to college from predominately oral cultures, who are generally unprepared to write critically, follow complex lines of argument, or handle new vocabulary…
Escudero, P.; Chládková, K.
L2 studies demonstrate that learners differ in their speech perception patterns. Recent explanations attribute this variation to the different initial stages with which learners start their L2 development. Spanish listeners' categorization of Standard Southern British English and American English
Kamimura, Taeko; Oi, Kyoko
A study examined differences in argumentative strategies in Japanese and American English by analyzing English essays on capital punishment written by 22 American high school seniors and 30 Japanese college sophomores. Differences were found in the organizational patterns, content and use of rational appeals, preference for type of diction, and…
Cate, Hardie; Hussain, Zeshan
We outline a bidirectional translation system that converts sentences from American Sign Language (ASL) to English, and vice versa. To perform machine translation between ASL and English, we utilize a generative approach. Specifically, we employ an adjustment to the IBM word-alignment model 1 (IBM WAM1), where we define language models for English and ASL, as well as a translation model, and attempt to generate a translation that maximizes the posterior distribution defined by these models. T...
A discussion of the differences between the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), an American test battery, and the Cambridge English Examinations (Cambridge), a British battery, focuses on the different approaches to language test development embodied in the tests as the source of difficulty in translating between them for individual…
Llamzon, Teodoro A.
"Standard Filipino English" is defined in this monograph as "that type of English which educated Filipinos speak, and which is acceptable in educated Filipino circles." (This term should not be confused with the so-called "mix-mix" or "halo-halo" type of speech, which is fairly common in the Manila area, and…
Kertas karya ini berjudul “Some Differences Between British and American English”. Kertas karya ini memaparkan secara singkat tentang perbedaan antara British and American English baik dalam speling, grammar, maupun vocabulary sehingga akan diketahui secara jelas perbedaan diantara keduanya. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode kepustakaan dengan membaca beberapa buku bahasa Inggris sebagai bahan referensi yang dapat mendukung topik. Dari pemaparan diatas ada beberapa hasi...
Love, Jessica; Walker, Abby
Can the topic of a conversation, when heavily associated with a particular dialect region, influence how a speaker realizes a linguistic variable? We interviewed fans of English Premier League soccer at a pub in Columbus, Ohio. Nine speakers of British English and eleven speakers of American English were interviewed about their favorite American football and English soccer teams. We present evidence that the soccer fans in this speech community produce variants more consistent with Standard American English when talking about American football than English soccer. Specifically, speakers were overall more /r/-ful (F3 values were lower in rhotic environments) when talking about their favorite American football team. Numeric trends in the data also suggest that exposure to both American and British English, being a fan of both sports, and task may mediate these effects.
Presents a comprehensive analysis of lexical-stress variation in British and American English. A comparison of the pronunciations of all 75,000 entries in a dictionary by John Wells (1990) yields 932 stress-divergent words. The list of words is appended. (Author/VWL)
Holt, Yolanda Feimster
Purpose: This research explored mechanisms of vowel variation in African American English by comparing 2 geographically distant groups of African American and White American English speakers for participation in the African American Shift and the Southern Vowel Shift. Method: Thirty-two male (African American: n = 16, White American controls: n =…
The Standard Road Plans contained within this manual have been developed : to show standardized design features, construction methods and approved : materials to be used in design plans for Interstate, Primary, and Secondary : road construction in th...
This paper is a general study of one of varieties of English--China English and its influence on English Language Teaching (ELT) for English majors. The status of English as an International language breaks the situation in which British English or American English is the sole standard. English becomes World Englishes, taking on a plural form,…
Holt, Yolanda Feimster
This research explored mechanisms of vowel variation in African American English by comparing 2 geographically distant groups of African American and White American English speakers for participation in the African American Shift and the Southern Vowel Shift. Thirty-two male (African American: n = 16, White American controls: n = 16) lifelong residents of cities in eastern and western North Carolina produced heed,hid,heyd,head,had,hod,hawed,whod,hood,hoed,hide,howed,hoyd, and heard 3 times each in random order. Formant frequency, duration, and acoustic analyses were completed for the vowels /i, ɪ, e, ɛ, æ, ɑ, ɔ, u, ʊ, o, aɪ, aʊ, oɪ, ɝ/ produced in the listed words. African American English speakers show vowel variation. In the west, the African American English speakers are participating in the Southern Vowel Shift and hod fronting of the African American Shift. In the east, neither the African American English speakers nor their White peers are participating in the Southern Vowel Shift. The African American English speakers show limited participation in the African American Shift. The results provide evidence of regional and socio-ethnic variation in African American English in North Carolina.
Peters, Pam; Fee, Margery
Discusses the relationship of Canadian and Australian English to that of British and American English. Variation and similarities in spelling, punctuation, pronuciation, and vocabulary are discussed. (Contains 19 references.) (JL)
English language proficiency or English language development (ELP/D) standards guide how content-specific instruction and assessment is practiced by teachers and how English learners (ELs) at varying levels of English proficiency can perform grade-level-specific academic standards in K-12 US schools. With the transition from the state-developed…
Louisiana Department of Education, 2016
The Louisiana English language arts student standards were created by over one hundred Louisiana educators with input by thousands of parents and teachers from across the state. Educators envisioned what proficient students should know and be able to do to compete in society and focused their efforts on creating standards that would allow them to…
Examines the acquisition of two colloquial English features: word medial /t/ flapping and discourse-marker use. These features are characteristic of North American English and are not taught explicitly through formal instruction. Subjects were ethnic Korean speakers stratified according to English education and sex. (Author/VWL)
Coates, Jennifer; Leech, Geoffrey
Some results are reported of an investigation into the meanings of the English modal auxiliary verbs. The corpus consisted of the one million word Brown University corpus of American English and a matching Lancaster University corpus of British English. The three factors operative in the study were: (1) contextual features, that is, co-occurring…
This study explored the discrimination of synthesized English vowel pairs by 27 American and Korean, male and female listeners. The average formant values of nine monophthongs produced by ten American English male speakers were employed to synthesize the vowels. Then, subjects were instructed explicitly to respond to AX discrimination tasks in which the standard vowel was followed by another one with the increment or decrement of the original formant values. The highest and lowest formant values of the same vowel quality were collected and compared to examine patterns of vowel discrimination. Results showed that the American and Korean groups discriminated the vowel pairs almost identically and their center formant frequency values of the high and low boundary fell almost exactly on those of the standards. In addition, the acceptable range of the same vowel quality was similar among the language and gender groups. The acceptable thresholds of each vowel formed an oval to maintain perceptual contrast from adjacent vowels. Pedagogical implications of those findings are discussed.
This study uses the Corpus of Contemporary American English and the British National Corpus as data and Biber, Johansson, Leech, Conrad, and Finegan's (1999) and Gardner and Davies' (2007) informative studies as a starting point and reference. The study offers a cross-English variety and cross-register examination of the use of English phrasal…
Eaton, Sarah Elaine
An applied research paper on how Canadian English differs from British and American English. Highlights ways for teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) to demonstrate these differences to their students. The notion of Canadian identity is also explored. A 3-item bibliography is included. (Contains 15 footnotes.)
Lee, Eun Jeong
This study investigated international and American students' perceptions of structured but informal English conversations with each other. American and international students perceived the effects of these conversations differently. While the international students claimed increased linguistic and cultural competence, the Americans identified…
Comparisons of British English and American English in the past have concentrated on similarities and differences at the phonetic, semantic, and syntactic level, while overlooking variation at the socio-cultural level. This paper examines how cultural differences are reflected in five speech acts: requesting, thanking, apologizing, complimenting,…
Marton, Waldemar; Preston, Dennis R.
This article attempts to assess the validity of dividing Polish students of English into British and American groups. The tests of the various hypotheses regarding linguistic and non-linguistic results of such divisions are described. (AM)
NASONOVA OLGA OLEGOVNA; SMIRNOV KIRILL ALEXANDROVICH
In this article we made a review of the main differences between American and British English. We describe in details the using differences of the both variation in six important aspects: speaking, pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, punctuation, phrasing.
Commercial publishers have shaped reading and writing instruction in American schools through their interpretations of state-developed reading and writing standards and standards-aligned materials, which teachers then implement in English classes, including those serving multilingual learners. This paper uses microethnographic discourse analysis…
Over the decades, efforts have been made to incorporate diverse perspectives on World Englishes into English Language Teaching (ELT) practice and teaching materials. To date, the majority of ELT learners and teachers have not yet been exposed to materials which use and explore non-standard forms of English. This paper examines the attitudes of…
Lee, JongHwa; Han, Min Wha; McKerrow, Raymie E.
This paper discusses the positionality of English in South Korea as a form of symbolic capital that represents the discursive power of Americanism and East Asian Social Darwinism. By employing Bourdieu's and Foucault's theoretical orientations, this paper traces how South Korean linguistic policies to incorporate English loan words coincide with…
British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.
This bibliography consists of a select list of books and articles pertaining to a comparison of American and British English. Entries include studies of linguistic contrasts, sociolinguistic comparisons, differences in language usage, some diachronic topics, and reference materials such as dictionaries. Entries include both American and European…
Instructors in 5 American Sign Language--English Interpreter Programs and 4 Deaf Studies Programs in Canada were interviewed and asked to discuss their experiences as educators. Within a qualitative research paradigm, their comments were grouped into a number of categories tied to the social construction of American Sign Language--English…
Tang, Hao; Shimizu, Robin; Chen, Moon S
The authors documented California's tobacco control initiatives for Asian Americans and the current tobacco use status among Asian subgroups and provide a discussion of the challenges ahead. The California Tobacco Control Program has employed a comprehensive approach to decrease tobacco use in Asian Americans, including ethnic-specific media campaigns, culturally competent interventions, and technical assistance and training networks. Surveillance of tobacco use among Asian Americans and the interpretation of the results have always been a challenge. Data from the 2001 The California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) were analyzed to provide smoking prevalence estimates for all Asian Americans and Asian-American subgroups, including Korean, Filipino, Japanese, South Asian, Chinese, and Vietnamese. Current smoking prevalence was analyzed by gender and by English proficiency level. Cigarette smoking prevalence among Asian males in general was almost three times of that among Asian females. Korean and Vietnamese males had higher cigarette smoking prevalence rates than males in other subgroups. Although Asian females in general had low smoking prevalence rates, significant differences were found among Asian subgroups, from 1.1% (Vietnamese) to 12.7% (Japanese). Asian men who had high English proficiency were less likely to be smokers than men with lower English proficiency. Asian women with high English proficiency were more likely to be smokers than women with lower English proficiency. Smoking prevalence rates among Asian Americans in California differed significantly on the basis of ethnicity, gender, and English proficiency. English proficiency seemed to have the effect of reducing smoking prevalence rates among Asian males but had just the opposite effect among Asian females. Cancer 2005. (c) 2005 American Cancer Society.
The catalogue contains a list of all currently available English translations of DIN standards, and of English translations of DIN handbooks, a numerical index, an alphabetical index, and an index of DIN EN, DIN IEC, DIN ISO standards, LN and VG standards. Some useful information on standards work in Germany and on the activities of DIN Deutsches Institut fuer Normung e.V. is given. (orig./HP)
Salinas, Jennifer J; Sheffield, Kristin M
The purpose of this study is to determine if English language use is associated with smoking, diabetes, hypertension, limitations in Activities of Daily Living (ADL), and 12-year mortality in older Mexican Americans. Using data from a cohort of 3,050 Mexican Americans aged 65 years and older, we examined prevalence of 4 health indicators and survival over 12 years of follow-up by English language use. English language use is associated with increased odds of hypertension in men, independent of nativity and sociodemographic control variables. Among women, English language use is associated with lower odds of ADL limitations and increased odds of smoking. The associations for women were partially explained by occupational status and nativity. After adjusting for health conditions, sociodemographics, and nativity, English language use was associated with increased mortality among men. Interaction terms revealed that for both men and women, higher English language use was associated with mortality for respondents with the highest level of income only. English language use is a predictor of health and mortality in older Mexican Americans separate from country of birth.
江中, 八郎; Hachiro, Enaka
Both English and Filipino are official languages in the Philippines. However, if we take a walk in downtown Manila, we notice that Radio and Television broadcasting, newspapers and journals are in English, their expression and the accents of trained Filipino announcers are indeed very American. At present, radio signals are received in 95% of the whole archipelago, with more than 70% of the total Philippine households owning radios. On the other hand, only about 35% of all households own TV s...
Bousquet, Robert J.
Many black students speak a nonprestige dialect called black English, which places them at a disadvantage academically and socially. This monograph describes the features of black English, defines its use, discusses several theories of its origin, and offers some methods for teaching black students standard spoken usage as another style of speech.…
This article explains the use of the origins of American English and the dictionary to teach multiculturalism to elementary school students. It suggests classroom activities that help students explore the cultural roots behind words and appreciate the ways words have been created. Esperanto and the development of an international language are also…
The characteristics, structure, and content of American English business negotiations are described. A course taught in the Harvard University Summer Program for Foreign Students, developed to eliminate the linguistic and cultural component of potential misunderstandings in cross-cultural negotiations, is outlined and illustrated with an example…
O' Malley, Kathleen [SRA International, Inc., Colorado Springs, CO (United States); Lopez, Hugo [UL LLC, Chicago, IL (United States); Cairns, Julie [CSA Group, Cleveland, OH (United States); Wichert, Richard [Professional Engineering, Inc.. Citrus Heights, CA (United States); Rivkin, Carl [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burgess, Robert [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Buttner, William [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
An overview of the main North American codes and standards associated with hydrogen safety sensors is provided. The distinction between a code and a standard is defined, and the relationship between standards and codes is clarified, especially for those circumstances where a standard or a certification requirement is explicitly referenced within a code. The report identifies three main types of standards commonly applied to hydrogen sensors (interface and controls standards, shock and hazard standards, and performance-based standards). The certification process and a list and description of the main standards and model codes associated with the use of hydrogen safety sensors in hydrogen infrastructure are presented.
The Standard Road Plans contained within this manual have been developed to show standardized design features, construction methods and approved materials to be used in design plans for Interstate, Primary, and Secondary road construction in the Stat...
Increasing numbers of Hispanic immigrants are entering the US (US Census Bureau, 2011) and are learning American English (AE) as a second language (L2). Many may experience difficulty in understanding AE. Accurate perception of AE vowels is important because vowels carry a large part of the speech signal (Kewley-Port, Burkle, & Lee, 2007). The…
English sentences from the Bamford-Kowal-Bench Standard Sentence Lists (Revised in American English) were measured and compared, revealing the most significant differences. Then, in a psycholinguistic word-recognition-in-noise experiment, these sentences were mixed with white noise at a +5 dB signal......-to-noise ratio and presented as stimuli to American and Korean listeners, who transcribed the sentences they heard. Intelligibility was determined by comparing the three to four key words in each stimulus sentence to the listeners’ written transcriptions. Since all listeners were graduate students in the U.......S. who were certified to teach at the university level, and the key words were highly familiar to native speakers of English, those words which matched exactly were scored as accurate, while those which did not were marked as inaccurate. In addition, the listeners rated their familiarity with known key...
Rawlings, Melody; Sue, Edna
What Chinese students learn about American culture and the English language in the classrooms of China does not adequately prepare them for the reality of American culture and communication in English. In this study, the constructs of American culture and models of English language taught in Chinese classrooms are compared with the reality of…
Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Luetke, Barbara; McLean, Meigan; Stryker, Deborah
Research suggests that English-language proficiency is critical if students who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) are to read as their hearing peers. One explanation for the traditionally reported reading achievement plateau when students are D/HH is the inability to hear insalient English morphology. Signing Exact English can provide visual access to these features. The authors investigated the English morphological and syntactic abilities and reading achievement of elementary and middle school students at a school using simultaneously spoken and signed Standard American English facilitated by intentional listening, speech, and language strategies. A developmental trend (and no plateau) in language and reading achievement was detected; most participants demonstrated average or above-average English. Morphological awareness was prerequisite to high test scores; speech was not significantly correlated with achievement; language proficiency, measured by the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-4 (Semel, Wiig, & Secord, 2003), predicted reading achievement.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The Rating Scale for Countertransference (RSCT - originally, Escala para Avaliação de Contratransferência (EACT - is a self-administered instrument comprising questions that assess 23 feelings (divided into three blocs, closeness, distance, and indifference that access conscious countertransferential emotions and sentiments. This paper describes the process of translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the RSCT into American English. Methods: This study employed the guidelines proposed by the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR Task Force for Translation and Cultural Adaptation which define 10 steps for translation and cross-cultural adaptation of self-report instruments. Additionally, semantic equivalence tools were employed to select the final versions of terms used. The author of the RSCT gave permission for translation and took part in the process. The instrument is available for use free of charge. Results: Analysis of the back-translation showed that just seven of the 23 terms needed to be adjusted to arrive at the final version in American English. Conclusions: This study applied rigorous standards to construct a version of the RSCT in American English. This version of the RSCT translated and adapted into American English should be of great use for accessing and researching countertransferential feelings that are part of psychodynamic treatment.
I Wayan Dirgeyasa
Full Text Available There are a number of varieties of English all over the world such as American, British, Australian, Indian, Singaporean, Philippine English, etc. However, there are only two varieties of English which are most widely and dominantly taught, learned, and used both spoken and printed around the world namely British English (BrE and American English (AmE. In real sense, the two are often confusing for the non-native learners because they have some differences and uniqueness in some aspects such as spelling, pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar. Therefore, it is really important for students, teachers and speakers as well to be aware of the major differences between the two. This paper is trying to review some striking unique and different features of grammar of British English (BrE and American English (AmE.
Mahalingappa, Laura J.; Polat, Nihat
This qualitative study examines curriculum frameworks in English language teacher education (ELTE) programs in Turkey in light of current second language (L2) teaching standards and research vs Turkey's Higher Education Council (HEC) mandates. It also investigates program directors' perceptions about the current situations of their programs with…
Full Text Available the need for diphthongs in a Standard South African English (SSAE) ASR system by replacing them with selected variants and analysing the system results. We define a systematic process to identify and evaluate replacement options for diphthongs and find...
Monitoring the standard of a Grade 12 English First Additional Language Reading, Comprehension, Summary and Grammar Paper. ... In this article these monitoring mechanisms, especially item analysis, are investigated. It is our ... recommendations regarding strategies that may remedy these problems in future.
Full Text Available One outcome of the globalization process is the growing influence and dominance of American popular culture. The speed with which American music, films, and goods have flooded the markets worldwide is remarkably high, thanks to the advancement of telecommunication technologies and the Internet. Increased cultural transfer or, more precisely, internationalization of American culture has posed both fear and fascination to other cultures. How do people in the academia respond to this conundrum of cross-cultural contacts? What do we teach when we teach popular culture? What viable research in American popular culture is encouraged so as to result in impartially beneficial impacts for society at large? This paper is to argue that one can become an avid learner or critic of a certain culture when s/he finds meaningful connections between that culture and life itself. The teaching of American popular culture in the English Department, for instance, has to be locally contextualized, learner-participant oriented, and socially self-actualized. In this way, American Studies outside the U. S. may in turn become less centralized as the interchange of cross-cultural understanding takes place concurrently.
Beneke, Margaret; Cheatham, Gregory A.
A large percentage of young children entering preschool are English speakers who speak a language variety that often differs from the English dialect expected by educators within early childhood programs. While African American English (AAE) is one of the most widely recognized English dialects in the United States, the use of AAE in schools and…
Full Text Available Cet article propose une étude de plusieurs éditions américaines et britanniques de romans du vingtième siècle sous l'angle de la traduction intralinguale. On analysera comment les éditions américaines rendent le texte plus compréhensible pour leurs lecteurs, choisissant soit d'enlever toute référence culturelle jugée trop difficile, soit d'ajouter des explications. Cette pratique modifie sensiblement la voix du narrateur et celles des personnages. On montrera que la traduction intralinguale de ces textes britanniques, où s'entremêlent divers registres, voix et dialectes, introduit d'autres voix qui sont souvent en conflit avec les voix d'origine.This article proposes a study of American English editions of British English novels published in the twentieth century from the point of view of intralingual translation. It demonstrates how the American English editions transform the text to make it more easily accessible for their readers either by removing any cultural references that are deemed to be too difficult, or by adding explanations to the text itself. Such a practice inevitably modifies the voice of the narrator and those of the characters. By comparing the two versions of the same text, it will be shown that translating texts where different voices, registers and dialects are present, inevitably introduces other voices which often conflict with those of the original text.
Rose, Heath; Galloway, Nicola
In this article, we describe and evaluate an innovative pedagogical task designed to raise awareness of Global Englishes and to challenge standard language ideology in an English language classroom. The task encouraged the learning and debate of the controversial Speak Good English Movement, which campaigns for Singaporeans to use a…
Latterman, Caroline Kennelly
This experiment measured teachers' attitudes towards African American English and Academic English. Participants were graduate students of Education at a college in New York City. They completed a paper-and-pencil questionnaire that assessed their explicit attitudes towards the two varieties, as well as a Psycholinguistic Experiment that was…
Conway, Courtney J.
Little is known about the population status of many marsh-dependent birds in North America but recent efforts have focused on collecting more reliable information and estimates of population trends. As part of that effort, a standardized survey protocol was developed in 1999 that provided guidance for conducting marsh bird surveys throughout North America such that data would be consistent among locations. The original survey protocol has been revised to provide greater clarification on many issues as the number of individuals using the protocol has grown. The Standardized North American Marsh Bird Monitoring Protocol instructs surveyors to conduct an initial 5-minute passive point-count survey followed by a series of 1-minute segments during which marsh bird calls are broadcast into the marsh following a standardized approach. Surveyors are instructed to record each individual bird from the suite of 26 focal species that are present in their local area on separate lines of a datasheet and estimate the distance to each bird. Also, surveyors are required to record whether each individual bird was detected within each 1-minute subsegment of the survey. These data allow analysts to use several different approaches for estimating detection probability. The Standardized North American Marsh Bird Monitoring Protocol provides detailed instructions that explain the field methods used to monitor marsh birds in North America.
Shafiro, Valeriy; Levy, Erika S.; Khamis-Dakwar, Reem; Kharkhurin, Anatoliy
This study investigated the perception of American-English (AE) vowels and consonants by young adults who were either (a) early Arabic-English bilinguals whose native language was Arabic or (b) native speakers of the English dialects spoken in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), where both groups were studying. In a closed-set format, participants…
Terry, Nicole Patton; Connor, Carol McDonald
Purpose: This study had 2 principal aims: (a) to examine whether children who spoke Nonmainstream American English (NMAE) frequently in school at the end of kindergarten increased their production of Mainstream American English (MAE) forms by the end of first grade, and (b) to examine concurrent and predictive relations between children's NMAE use…
Reviews the current state of World English. Subjects addressed include standard accents and dialects, prejudicial attitudes toward nonstandard "local" usages, the use of English as the language of diplomacy, American influences on the language, and the fracturing of English in non-English-speaking countries around the world. (17 references) (JL)
August, Diane; Artzi, Lauren; Barr, Christopher
The Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Science Standards require students to understand and produce academic language that appears in informational text. Vocabulary is a critical domain of academic language, but English language learners (ELLs) come to the English Language Arts classroom with more limited English vocabulary than…
The conciseness and "ease of use" often attributed to North American English relative to French in standard contemporary usage is explained in terms of English morpho-syntactic structure and of the values of the classical norm and rhetoric affecting French. (Author/MSE)
This article examines the treatment of racial labels in monolingual English dictionaries of South Africa. Considering past controversies regarding racist language in Afrikaans dictionaries and considering the changing role of English in democratic South Africa, we can expect that English dictionaries will be more carefully ...
Horton-Ikard, RaMonda; Pittman, Ramona T.
This article describes the use of African American English (AAE) in the written and oral language of African American adolescents who struggle with writing. Written and oral language samples of 22 African American 10th-grade students were transcribed, analyzed, and coded for AAE, grammatical errors, spelling errors, and punctuation errors. Four…
This article extends the debate concerning whether TESOL teachers should be encouraged to promote their religious beliefs in context with English language teaching. The controversy is ongoing and has generated a dialogue that addresses the perspective of the TESOL instructor, while neglecting to explore the actual responses of those English Language Learners who have come into contact with evangelical English language teachers. The question is explored in a remote area of the Russian Federati...
The variety of English spoken and written by Filipino natives is examined, and its particular usages or "perduring features" are reviewed. Filipino English is shown to be influenced by the structures of native Filipino language(s), and by the historical and cultural contexts in which it is learned. It is argued that Philippine English,…
English and Kiswahili are the two key languages in Kenya. While Kiswahili is a national language, English is an official language and is actually the medium of instruction in Kenyan schools. The model of English used in Kenyan schools, even at the primary tier is claimed to be the British standard, particularly Received
While the emergence of the plural forms of English widely acknowledges the sociolinguistic realities in many countries and regions, it might also have an equally profound impact on English teaching and learning in those areas. The trend is for pedagogical models no longer to privilege so-called Standard English based on native varieties but to be…
Mounty, Judith L.; Pucci, Concetta T.; Harmon, Kristen C.
A primary tenet underlying American Sign Language/English bilingual education for deaf students is that early access to a visual language, developed in conjunction with language planning principles, provides a foundation for literacy in English. The goal of this study is to obtain an emic perspective on bilingual deaf readers transitioning from…
Marckwardt, Albert H.; Quirk, Randolph
This transcription of radio conversations on the English language between Albert H. Marckwardt and Randolph Quirk, jointly produced by The British Broadcasting Corporation and The Voice of America, indicates that American and British English have never been so different as people have imagined and that the dominant tendency has been toward…
Saito, Kazuya; Shintani, Natsuko
The current study examined the extent to which native speakers of North American and Singapore English differentially perceive the comprehensibility (ease of understanding) of second language (L2) speech. Spontaneous speech samples elicited from 50 Japanese learners of English with various proficiency levels were first rated by 10 Canadian and 10…
Knowlton, Marie; Wetzel, Robin
This study compared the length of text in English Braille American Edition, the Nemeth code, and the computer braille code with the Unified English Braille Code (UEBC)--also known as Unified English Braille (UEB). The findings indicate that differences in the length of text are dependent on the type of material that is transcribed and the grade…
Deyo, Richard A.
A test found responses to the Sickness Impact Profile highly reliable, whether administered in Spanish or English. However, construct validity of responses by Mexican Americans using the Spanish version, non-Hispanics using the English version, and Mexican Americans using the English version was weak. (CMG)
Mirtz Timothy A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The subluxation construct has been a divisive term in the chiropractic profession. There is a paucity of evidence to document the subluxation. Some authors have questioned the propriety of continuing to use the term. Aim The purpose of this study is to examine current North American English language chiropractic college academic catalogs and determine the prevalence of the term subluxation in the respective chiropractic program curricula. Methods Sixteen current English-language North American chiropractic college academic catalogs were studied. The term subluxation was searched for in each of the catalogs. Categories were developed for the usage of the term. These included "total times mentioned", "subluxation mentioned in a course description", "subluxation mentioned in a course title", "subluxation mentioned in a technique course description", and "subluxation mentioned in a philosophy course description." The prevalence of the "subluxation mentioned in a course description" was compared to the total programmatic curriculum. Results Palmer College in Florida devoted 22.72% of its curriculum to courses mentioning the subluxation followed by Life University (Marietta, GA and Sherman College with 16.44% and 12.80% respectively. As per specific coursework or subjects, an average of 5.22 courses or subjects have descriptions mentioning the term subluxation. Three schools made no mention of the term subluxation in their academic catalogs; they were National University of Health Sciences, Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College, and Southern California University of Health Sciences. Conclusion Despite the controversies and paucity of evidence the term subluxation is still found often within the chiropractic curricula of most North American chiropractic programs. Future research should determine if changes in accreditation standards and research on evidence based practice will affect this prevalence.
Ienneke Indra Dewi
Full Text Available Article intends to investigate whether there is the possibility of having English as a global language used all over the world with one variety only. One variety of English will reduce the miscommunication among people speaking English. The research was conducted by library research by looking at the requirements of a global language, its spread in the world, and the related problems. The results show that English has fulfilled the requirements of a global language looking from its history and the spread of its speakers. However, it has a lot of varieties in either English speaking countries or in the developing countries where English functions as a second and foreign language. The varieties are found not only in the pronunciation, but in the vocabulary and grammar as well. Usually the native languages play an important role in these varieties. All these facts indicate that English might become a global language. However, having one variety of English still needs a long time to go.
Cellini, Alva V.
As Latin American literature progressively enters into the English curriculum, two writers deserve special commentary for their representative contribution to the literary world. Through their works, the Columbian author, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, and the Peruvian author, Mario Vargas Llosa clearly convey the Latin American writer's desire to be…
Patton-Terry, Nicole; Connor, Carol
This study explored the spelling skills of African American second graders who produced African American English (AAE) features in speech. The children (N = 92), who varied in spoken AAE use and word reading skills, were asked to spell words that contained phonological and morphological dialect-sensitive (DS) features that can vary between AAE and…
Mechanics play as essential a role as language presentation is the English writing of an andrological paper, and directly influence its quality and publication. They, however, frequently fail to receive due attention. In view of the typical problems among Chinese authors in English writing, and with a wide range of SCI included medical journals for reference, the author draws on his experience as an English editor for medical journals and introduces some most important and practical English writing mechanics, aiming to contribute to further standardization and improvement of Chinese authors'English writing of andrological as well as other medical papers.
Bent, Tessa; Holt, Rachael Frush
Children's ability to understand speakers with a wide range of dialects and accents is essential for efficient language development and communication in a global society. Here, the impact of regional dialect and foreign-accent variability on children's speech understanding was evaluated in both quiet and noisy conditions. Five- to seven-year-old children ( n = 90) and adults ( n = 96) repeated sentences produced by three speakers with different accents-American English, British English, and Japanese-accented English-in quiet or noisy conditions. Adults had no difficulty understanding any speaker in quiet conditions. Their performance declined for the nonnative speaker with a moderate amount of noise; their performance only substantially declined for the British English speaker (i.e., below 93% correct) when their understanding of the American English speaker was also impeded. In contrast, although children showed accurate word recognition for the American and British English speakers in quiet conditions, they had difficulty understanding the nonnative speaker even under ideal listening conditions. With a moderate amount of noise, their perception of British English speech declined substantially and their ability to understand the nonnative speaker was particularly poor. These results suggest that although school-aged children can understand unfamiliar native dialects under ideal listening conditions, their ability to recognize words in these dialects may be highly susceptible to the influence of environmental degradation. Fully adult-like word identification for speakers with unfamiliar accents and dialects may exhibit a protracted developmental trajectory.
This research aims at knowing and describing on the utilization of mind mapping strategy in summarizing English text under the theme American Culture. It is conducted to the third semester of English Department students at STKIP PGRI Banjarmasin batch 2016 who take Reading III course. The instruments used in this research are observation sheet and documentation of students’ mind map products. The observation sheet is analyzed qualitatively by describing the important result of observation pro...
Recognizing the importance of English in (re)negotiating culture and identity in U.S. society, numerous contemporary American authors have explored the issue of cultural and linguistic competence and performance in their writing. Supported with examples from literary texts by Sandra Cisneros, Julia Alvarez, Junot Díaz, Amy Tan, and Kiran Desai, this paper discusses the complex role of the English language in the characters’ struggle for economic and emotional survival. Frequently based on the...
Jin, Su-Hyun; Liu, Chang
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to examine the intelligibility of English consonants and vowels produced by Chinese-native (CN), and Korean-native (KN) students enrolled in American universities. METHOD 16 English-native (EN), 32 CN, and 32 KN speakers participated in this study. The intelligibility of 16 American English consonants and 16 vowels spoken by native and nonnative speakers of English was evaluated by EN listeners. All nonnative speakers also completed a survey of their language backgrounds. RESULTS Although the intelligibility of consonants and diphthongs for nonnative speakers was comparable to that of native speakers, the intelligibility of monophthongs was significantly lower for CN and KN speakers than for EN speakers. Sociolinguistic factors such as the age of arrival in the United States and daily use of English, as well as a linguistic factor, difference in vowel space between native (L1) and nonnative (L2) language, partially contributed to vowel intelligibility for CN and KN groups. There was no significant correlation between the length of U.S. residency and phoneme intelligibility. CONCLUSION Results indicated that the major difficulty in phonemic production in English for Chinese and Korean speakers is with vowels rather than consonants. This might be useful for developing training methods to improve English intelligibility for foreign students in the United States.
Richards, Wade J.
The American Nuclear Society (ANS) established the research reactor standards group in 1968. The standards group, known as ANS-15, was established for the purpose of developing, preparing, and maintaining standards for the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning of nuclear reactors intended for research and training
This article explores issues relating to the development of the Standards for Teachers of English Language and Literacy in Australia (STELLA). STELLA is the product of work by members of the Australian Association for the Teaching of English (AATE) and the Australian Literacy Educators' Association (ALEA), the two key professional bodies in…
In Japan, recognition of the concept of "world Englishes" has gradually penetrated the thinking of college English teachers, but American Standard English or British Standard English is still the only model that Japanese high school students have to learn. Therefore, students enrolled in the Department of World Englishes of Chukyo…
Schierloh, Jane McCabe
In a Cleveland (Ohio) program, writing instruction for adults who speak nonstandard English is based on respect for students' spoken language as a dialect. Adapting foreign language instructional techniques such as translation, teachers avoided formal grammar terms and used extensive oral practice. (SK)
Weick, Cynthia W.; Costigan, Samuel J.; Cunningham, Lindsey J.; Zeiser, Shelly R.; Camp-Bell, Jackson A.; Feliz, Michael C.; Iversen, Jennifer. M.; Kobayashi, Alison L.; Matej, Madelaine A.; Motoyasu, Colleen T.; Teague, Kathryn E.; Wong, Sarah A.
Travelling from Hong Kong to Dimen, China, requires a full day. Creating and implementing an original course to teach English as a foreign language in rural China offered to some of the university's most talented undergraduates the opportunity to integrate hands-on learning with scholarship, cross-cultural understanding, and community service. At…
This paper analyses some of the passable, albeit unacceptable, uses of English in academia and draws attention to the need to be conscious of the deviances. Some recurrent words and phrases have been picked from utterances of teachers, articles by journalists and essays of students for the study. The point is also made ...
James, Eric G; Conatser, Phillip; Karabulut, Murat; Leveille, Suzanne G; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Cote, Sarah; Tucker, Katherine L; Barton, Bruce; Bean, Jonathan F; Al Snih, Soham; Markides, Kyriakos S
To determine whether older Mexican-Americans who cannot speak and/or understand spoken English have higher rates of mobility limitations or fear of falling than their English-speaking counterparts. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 1169 community-dwelling Mexican-Americans aged 72-96 years from the 2000-2001 wave of the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly. Mobility limitations were defined as having a Short Physical Performance Battery score ≤9, and fear of falling by participant report of being somewhat, fairly, or very afraid of falling. We determined the rates and odds ratios, for having mobility limitations and fear of falling as a function of English ability in those who were 72-96, mobility limitations and 61.6% were afraid of falling, compared to 77.6% and 57.5%, respectively, of English speakers. Before adjusting for covariates, participants who did not speak and/or understand spoken English were more likely to have mobility limitations (odds ratio: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3-2.4) but not fear of falling, compared to English speakers. Among those aged ≥80 years, but not those mobility limitations (odds ratio: 4.8; 95% CI:2.0-11.5) and fear of falling (odds ratio: 2.0; 95% CI:1.3-3.1). Older Mexican-Americans who do not speak or understand spoken English have a higher rate of mobility limitations and fear of falling than their English-speaking counterparts.
Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2016
The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on English Learners (ELs) Who Are American Indian and/or Alaska Native (AI/AN) include: (1) States With the Highest Percentage of ELs Who Were AI/AN:…
This study aims to find out the extent to which students attending the English Language Teaching Programme (ELT) at Ondokuz Mayis University are aware of the major spelling, vocabulary, and pronunciation differences between American and British English which constitute the most commonly used varieties of English. To this end, 42 randomly selected…
Borrie, Stephanie A; Delfino, Christine R
Conversational entrainment, the natural tendency for people to modify their behaviors to more closely match their communication partner, is examined as one possible mechanism modulating the prevalence of vocal fry in the speech of young American women engaged in spoken dialogue. Twenty young adult female American English speakers engaged in two spoken dialogue tasks-one with a young adult female American English conversational partner who exhibited substantial vocal fry and one with a young adult female American English conversational partner who exhibited quantifiably less vocal fry. Dialogues were analyzed for proportion of vocal fry, by speaker, and two measures of communicative success (efficiency and enjoyment). Participants employed significantly more vocal fry when conversing with the partner who exhibited substantial vocal fry than when conversing with the partner who exhibited quantifiably less vocal fry. Further, greater similarity between communication partners in their use of vocal fry tracked with higher scores of communicative efficiency and communicative enjoyment. Conversational entrainment offers a mechanistic framework that may be used to explain, to some degree, the frequency with which vocal fry is employed by young American women engaged in spoken dialogue. Further, young American women who modulated their vocal patterns during dialogue to match those of their conversational partner gained more efficiency and enjoyment from their interactions, demonstrating the cognitive and social benefits of entrainment. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The article puts forward arguments why American short stories should be used to teach English as a foreign language. It also describes the method which might help to teach literature in secondary schools. Additionally, it presents the results of the research conducted among students in Lomza, Poland, which aimed at examining the pedagogical potential of applying ethnic American short stories in teaching English as a foreign language. This was done by comparing the literary critical analysis of Orbiting – a short story written by Bharati Mukherjee with its intuitive interpretations by young Polish adults. Finally, the article is supplemented with the passage from the said text as well as lexical and reading comprehension exercises based on its contents, which can be used in the English classroom.
Clopper, Cynthia G.; Pisoni, David B.; de Jong, Kenneth
Previous research by speech scientists on the acoustic characteristics of American English vowel systems has typically focused on a single regional variety, despite decades of sociolinguistic research demonstrating the extent of regional phonological variation in the United States. In the present study, acoustic measures of duration and first and second formant frequencies were obtained from five repetitions of 11 different vowels produced by 48 talkers representing both genders and six regional varieties of American English. Results revealed consistent variation due to region of origin, particularly with respect to the production of low vowels and high back vowels. The Northern talkers produced shifted low vowels consistent with the Northern Cities Chain Shift, the Southern talkers produced fronted back vowels consistent with the Southern Vowel Shift, and the New England, Midland, and Western talkers produced the low back vowel merger. These findings indicate that the vowel systems of American English are better characterized in terms of the region of origin of the talkers than in terms of a single set of idealized acoustic-phonetic baselines of ``General'' American English and provide benchmark data for six regional varieties.
Shaw, Emily P.
This dissertation is an examination of gesture in two game nights: one in spoken English between four hearing friends and another in American Sign Language between four Deaf friends. Analyses of gesture have shown there exists a complex integration of manual gestures with speech. Analyses of sign language have implicated the body as a medium…
Cargile, Aaron Castelan; Takai, Jiro; Rodriguez, Jose I.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine attitudes towards African-American vernacular English (AAVE) in a setting outside of the USA. Because foreign attitudes toward AAVE can serve as an indirect assessment of a society's racial prejudice, we decided to explore these attitudes in Japan: a country with an intriguing mix of…
Like Mookie in Spike Lee's Do the Right Thing, translators are at the nexus between cultures, making difficult decisions with sometimes dramatic consequences. Drawing on the fields of translation studies, sociolinguistics and film studies, this book analyses the French subtitling of African American English in films from the USA.
Rusher, Melissa Ausbrooks
This study provides a contemporary definition of American Sign Language/English bilingual education (AEBE) and outlines an essential theoretical framework. Included is a history and evolution of the methodology. The author also summarizes the general findings of twenty-six (26) empirical studies conducted in the United States that directly or…
Wolbers, Kimberly A.; Bowers, Lisa M.; Dostal, Hannah M.; Graham, Shannon C.
Language transfer theory elucidates how first language (L1) knowledge and grammatical features are applied in second language (L2) writing. Deaf and hard of hearing (d/hh) students who use or are developing American Sign Language (ASL) as their L1 may demonstrate the use of ASL linguistic features in their writing of English. In this study, we…
Behrman, Alison; Akhund, Ali
Purpose: In this article, the authors examine (a) the effect of semantic context on accentedness, comprehensibility, and intelligibility of Spanish-accented American English (AE) as judged by monolingual AE listeners and (b) the interaction of semantic context and accentedness on comprehensibility and intelligibility. Method: Twenty adult native…
Wang, H.; Heuven, van V.J.J.P.; Doel, van den R.; Rupp, L.
We determined the mutual intelligibility Mandarin Chinese, Dutch and American speakers of English in all nine logically possible combinations of speaker and listener native language backgrounds. Designated speakers (one male, one female per language group) were selected from larger sets of 20
Carrie, Erin; McKenzie, Robert M.
Recent language attitude research has attended to the processes involved in identifying and evaluating spoken language varieties. This article investigates the ability of second-language learners of English in Spain (N = 71) to identify Received Pronunciation (RP) and General American (GenAm) speech and their perceptions of linguistic variation…
Peters, F. J. J.
Discusses two basic areas of difference between British and American English, namely the complementation of certain participles and the complementation of certain verbs. Complementation after "concerned" and "interested" is illustrated by several examples taken from speech and from newspaper advertisements. (AMH)
In a sociohistorical variation analysis of verb inflection in Early Modern British and American English, corpus-based comparisons focus on several extralinguistic and linguistic factors that have influenced the choice of forms over successive periods of time. Contrary to customary theories of "colonial lag," the rate of change was faster…
A small-scale survey of adult native speakers of British and North American English found that a majority of speakers of the latter prefer the simple past tense in (what the author calls) the category of "past with current relevance." (five references) (CNP)
Clopper, Cynthia G; Pisoni, David B
Recent studies have found that naïve listeners perform poorly in forced-choice dialect categorization tasks. However, the listeners' error patterns in these tasks reveal systematic confusions between phonologically similar dialects. In the present study, a free classification procedure was used to measure the perceptual similarity structure of regional dialect variation in the United States. In two experiments, participants listened to a set of short English sentences produced by male talkers only (Experiment 1) and by male and female talkers (Experiment 2). The listeners were instructed to group the talkers by regional dialect into as many groups as they wanted with as many talkers in each group as they wished. Multidimensional scaling analyses of the data revealed three primary dimensions of perceptual similarity (linguistic markedness, geography, and gender). In addition, a comparison of the results obtained from the free classification task to previous results using the same stimulus materials in six-alternative forced-choice categorization tasks revealed that response biases in the six-alternative task were reduced or eliminated in the free classification task. Thus, the results obtained with the free classification task in the current study provided further evidence that the underlying structure of perceptual dialect category representations reflects important linguistic and sociolinguistic factors.
Clopper, Cynthia G.; Pisoni, David B.
Recent studies have found that naïve listeners perform poorly in forced-choice dialect categorization tasks. However, the listeners' error patterns in these tasks reveal systematic confusions between phonologically similar dialects. In the present study, a free classification procedure was used to measure the perceptual similarity structure of regional dialect variation in the United States. In two experiments, participants listened to a set of short English sentences produced by male talkers only (Experiment 1) and by male and female talkers (Experiment 2). The listeners were instructed to group the talkers by regional dialect into as many groups as they wanted with as many talkers in each group as they wished. Multidimensional scaling analyses of the data revealed three primary dimensions of perceptual similarity (linguistic markedness, geography, and gender). In addition, a comparison of the results obtained from the free classification task to previous results using the same stimulus materials in six-alternative forced-choice categorization tasks revealed that response biases in the six-alternative task were reduced or eliminated in the free classification task. Thus, the results obtained with the free classification task in the current study provided further evidence that the underlying structure of perceptual dialect category representations reflects important linguistic and sociolinguistic factors. PMID:21423862
Bernardo, Alejandro S.
Because it has been established that there is a local variety of English that has blossomed in the Philippines, there are crucial debates specifically on what pedagogical standard must be used in teaching English in Philippine schools. In spite of the growing number of researches on Philippine English (PE) and the publication of its own…
Bhatt, Rakesh M.
Critiques the idea that standard British or American English is the only model for second language instruction, arguing that successful English language teaching in nonnative contexts, such as in India, must address the relationship between the forms that English manifests and its speakers' perception of reality and the nature of their cultural…
O'Neill, Thomas R; Tannenbaum, Richard J; Tiffen, Jennifer
When nurses who are educated internationally immigrate to the United States, they are expected to have English language proficiency in order to function as a competent nurse. The purpose of this research was to provide sufficient information to the National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN) to make a defensible recommended passing standard for English proficiency. This standard was based upon the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). A large panel of nurses and nurse regulators (N = 25) was convened to determine how much English proficiency is required to be minimally competent as an entry-level nurse. Two standard setting procedures, the Simulated Minimally Competent Candidate (SMCC) procedure and the Examinee Paper Selection Method, were combined to produce recommendations for each panelist. In conjunction with collateral information, these recommendations were reviewed by the NCSBN Examination Committee, which decided upon an NCSBN recommended standard, a TOEFL score of 220. Because the adoption of this standard rests entirely with the individual state, NCSBN has little more to do with implementing the standard, other than answering questions and providing documentation about the standard.
Mounty, Judith L; Pucci, Concetta T; Harmon, Kristen C
A primary tenet underlying American Sign Language/English bilingual education for deaf students is that early access to a visual language, developed in conjunction with language planning principles, provides a foundation for literacy in English. The goal of this study is to obtain an emic perspective on bilingual deaf readers transitioning from learning to read to reading to learn. Analysis of 12 interactive, semi-structured interviews identified informal and formal teaching and learning practices in ASL/English bilingual homes and classrooms. These practices value, reinforce, and support the bidirectional acquisition of both languages and provide a strong foundation for literacy. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Pearson, Barbara Zurer; Conner, Tracy; Jackson, Janice E
Language difference among speakers of African American English (AAE) has often been considered language deficit, based on a lack of understanding about the AAE variety. Following Labov (1972), Wolfram (1969), Green (2002, 2011), and others, we define AAE as a complex rule-governed linguistic system and briefly discuss language structures that it shares with general American English (GAE) and others that are unique to AAE. We suggest ways in which mistaken ideas about the language variety add to children's difficulties in learning the mainstream dialect and, in effect, deny them the benefits of their educational programs. We propose that a linguistically informed approach that highlights correspondences between AAE and the mainstream dialect and trains students and teachers to understand language varieties at a metalinguistic level creates environments that support the academic achievement of AAE-speaking students. Finally, we present 3 program types that are recommended for helping students achieve the skills they need to be successful in multiple linguistic environments.
A Case Study of the Process of Learning Standard Written English: An Interactive Classroom-Based Action Research of the Influences of Students' Language Background on Their Ability to Learn Standard Written English
Mathis-Wisseh, Ruth D.
This case study, conducted in the context of an interactive classroom-based action research, has examined the process by which Language 1 (L1-native speakers of English) and Language 2 (L2-non-native speakers of English) students develop the ability to acquire the standard written form of the English language. The dissertation was designed to…
This diploma thesis deals with the portrayal of child heroes in English and American literature, in works of Charles Dickens and Mark Twain. The chosen novels are Oliver Twist, David Copperfield, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. These novels are analysed in the themes of child labour and poverty, racism, religion, the view of the world by children in contrast to the adult perspective, upbringing and education. The last chapter deals with the humour of both ...
The study compares the formant frequencies of the American English vowels [i, ɛ, squflg, squflg, u, I, U] (Peterson and Barney, 1952) and [i, V, a, squflg, u, I, U] in Cantonese (Zee, 2004). Results of the comparison show that the differences in formant values for the vowels between the two languages vary according to vowel type and gender. Between male speakers of the two languages, the differences in F-values are minimal for [i] and [squflg]. For [V, u], the difference between the two groups is mainly in F2, with [V] having a larger F2 and [u] a smaller F2 for Cantonese speakers. [squflg] in American English has smaller F1 and F2 than [a] in Cantonese. [I, U] occupy the position in between the level of [i, u] and level of [V, squflg] in the F1/F2 plane for American English speakers, and there is a noticeable difference in F2 between [I] and [V] and between [U] and [squflg]. For Cantonese speakers, [I, U] are on the same level of [V, squflg], and the difference in F2 is minimal between [I] and [V] and between [U] and [squflg]. The differences between female speakers of the two languages will also be presented.
To a dubious critical salvation: Etienne Leroux and the canons of South African English criticism. This article presents a case study in cross-cultural literary reception following the act of literary translation—in this instance, of author Etienne Leroux—from Afrikaans into English. It describes the literary reception of Leroux in ...
The article exemplifies and presents the characteristics of linguistic imperialism, linguistic capital accumulation following the same pattern as capitalist economic dominance. The text summarizes the way English was established in the colonial period. Many of the mechanisms of linguistic hierarc...... of the English iceberg....
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the achievement of students in math and science subjects as the impact of using English as a medium of instruction at an international standard school. A questionnaire was used as a research instrument to 190 students at one international standard school in Jambi Province, Indonesia. A focus group discussion (FGD approach was undertaken to validate and verify the data gathered through the questionnaire and clarify some issues raised in the questionnaire. Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and Pearson Product Moment Correlation. It was found that the students’ demographic profile, attitude toward English and grades in math and science subjects were significantly related with their academic achievement. However, students’ perception on methods and techniques was not significantly related with their academic achievement in English, math, and the science subjects. The result showed that the implementation of English as a medium of instruction was not done well in the international standard school. This is perhaps due to the difficulty of learning science and math in English. This study provided information for policy makers, school leaders, researchers, and teacher educators to understand how the policy is implemented at the school level. The challenges of attempting too ambitious linguistic and academic goals in the school were discussed as were policy implications and future research.
Full Text Available In recent years, foreign language testing has gained in significance with the advent of The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (2001 (CEFR, a European language document which set comparable standards for learning, teaching and assessing foreign languages. The CEFR was used to set the research aim of this paper - testing grammar at level B2. The main aim of the research was to determine grammatical competence at level B2 and additional aims included: (a determining which particular areas of grammar need to be learned by students at level B2, (b formulating grammatical descriptors for each individual area of grammar, (c determining the test’s threshold level which would fulfil the criteria for grammatical competence at level B2, and (d determining the extent to which students have mastered the given areas. The pre-testing was followed by the main testing on the sample of 164 students in two secondary schools. The results indicated that the quantity and quality of grammatical competence was lower than expected: 47% of the population failed to fulfil the basic level of grammatical competence. The causes may be attributed to the factors of a subjective and objective nature. Level B2 is demanding qualitatively as well as quantitatively, regarding both the formal and the functional complexity and scope of language use, which requires intensive language production, high levels of motivation and sound working habits in order to master the given grammatical structures.
The English Language Arts Common Core State Standards and corresponding assessments brought about many changes for educators, their literacy instruction, and the literacy learning of their students. This study examined the day-to-day literacy instruction of two primary grade teachers during their first year of full CCSS implementation. Engestr?m's…
Hallen, D.; Sangeetha, N.
The aim of the study is to find out the effectiveness of mind mapping technique over conventional method in teaching English at high school level (VIII), in terms of Control and Experimental group. The sample of the study comprised, 60 VIII Standard students in Tiruchendur Taluk. Mind Maps and Achievement Test (Pretest & Posttest) were…
James, Alisa R.; Bullock, Kerri
Physical education teachers are expected to implement the English language arts (ELA) Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in their instruction. This has proved to be challenging for many physical educators. The purpose of this article is to provide developmentally appropriate examples of how to incorporate the ELA CCSS into physical education,…
De Costa, Peter I.
This article reports on year-long critical ethnographic study conducted in a Singapore school and examines how the standard English language educational policy is interpreted by a Secondary 3 (Grade 9) female student from China. She is a member of an exclusive group of academically able students who has been carefully recruited by the local…
, American listeners still performed better. Analyses of mistranscribed Mandarin-accented English words revealed different areas of difficulty by listener L1. While front vowels and diphthongs were problematic for all listeners, Chinese listeners found different consonants in different word positions...... accuracy and listener L1 and word familiarity. Participants included 6 male graduate students (Chinese & American) as talkers and 64 male and female graduate students (Chinese, Korean, & American) as listeners. In a counter balanced word-recognition-in-noise experiment, listeners were presented with 60...... sentences with 3 to 4 key words each which they were asked to transcribe. Intelligibility was determined by the accuracy of the key word transcriptions. Listeners then rated their familiarity with known key words on an increasing 5-point Likert scale. A series of logistic regression mixed effects models...
Aratani, Yumiko; Liu, Cindy H
This paper explores the role of English proficiency, ethnicity, and California's threshold language policy in the rates of discontinuing mental health services among Asian-American children. We used data from the 2001-2006 Client and Services Information (CSI) System, which contains county-level information about service users in public mental health systems. Our data included 59,218 service users under the age of 18. We used logistic regression to determine the likelihood of discontinuing services, while controlling for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. English-speaking Asians were 11% more likely than English-speaking Whites to discontinue mental health services. Non-English-speaking Asians were 50% significantly more likely to stay in services. The results also revealed some inter-ethnic variations in the discontinuation patterns; however, the patterns of mental health service utilization appear to be driven by the availability of mental health services in Asian-ethnic languages in county of residence. Further research is needed to understand the intake and referral processes that Asian children go through within the mental health service system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This article highlights two relationships in regards to neoliberalism and second language. First, it examines the connection between English and neoliberalism. It focuses on the idea of English as a global language and the linguistic instrumentalism (Kubota, 2011; Wee, 2003) of English as a necessary tool for economic viability in the globalized…
Full Text Available The present study investigates the extent to which lexical and grammatical collocations are used in Iranian high school English textbooks, compared with the American English File books. To achieve the purposes of this study, this study had to be carried out in two phases. In the first phase, the content of the instructional textbooks, that is, American English File book series, Book 2 and Iranian high school English Book 3, were analyzed to find the frequencies and proportions of the collocations used in the textbooks. Since the instructional textbooks used in the two teaching environments (i.e., Iranian high schools and language institutes were not equal with regard to the density of texts, from each textbook just the first 6000 words, content words as well as function words, were considered. Then, the frequencies of the collocations among the first 6000 words in high school English Book 3 and American English File Book 2 were determined.The results of the statistical analyses revealed that the two text book series differ marginally in terms of frequency and type of collocations. Major difference existed between them when it came to lexical collocations in American English File book 2.
Banks, Richard C.
Nicasio wren, mountain mockingbird, desert sparrow—these are among the many names one might find in the older North American ornithological or birding literature but not in recent field guides or check-lists. These are English common names that once were used for species, subspecies, or populations of birds but that have been supplanted by other names. Sometimes it is fairly easy to relate the old names to the present names, but often it can be difficult, especially if they are accompanied by scientific names that also have changed. In this list I equate those old names, and some not commonly found in modern writing, to the present English and scientific names of the species to which they apply.
Tran, Alisia G T T; Lee, Richard M
This study examined a specific type of racial microaggression known as an exceptionalizing stereotype, in which an action is framed as interpersonally complimentary but perpetuates negative stereotypical views of a racial/ethnic group. Asian American participants (N = 68) were assigned to 1 of 3 brief semistructured interview conditions that highlight an exceptionalizing stereotype of Asian Americans to varying degrees. In the low racially loaded condition, participants were told, "You speak English well" by a White confederate. In the high racially loaded condition, they were told, "You speak English well for an Asian." In the control condition, the confederate said, "Nice talking to you." Only participants in the high racially loaded condition rated their partner, the interaction, and future interactions less favorably than participants in the control condition. They also evaluated their partner and interaction less positively than participants in the low racial loading condition. The results suggest exceptionalizing stereotypes can be interpersonally damaging for Asian Americans. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Chis Anca Oana
Full Text Available Abstract: Sampling is widely used in market research, scientific analysis, market analysis, opinion polls and not least in the financial statement audit. We wonder what is actually sampling and how did it appear? Audit sampling involves the application of audit procedures to less than 100% of items within an account balance or class of transactions. Nowadays the technique is indispensable, the economic entities operating with sophisticated computer systems and large amounts of data. Economic globalization and complexity of capital markets has made possible not only the harmonization of international accounting standards with the national ones, but also the convergence of international accounting and auditing standards with the American regulations. International Standard on Auditing 530 and Statement on Auditing Standard 39 are the two main international and American normalized referentials referring to audit sampling. This article discusses the origin of audit sampling, mentioning a brief history of the method and different definitions from literature review. The two standards are studied using Jaccard indicators in terms of the degree of similarity and dissimilarity concerning different issues. The Jaccard coefficient measures the degree of convergence of international auditing standards (ISA 530 and U.S. auditing standards (SAS 39. International auditing standards and American auditing standards, study the sampling problem, both regulations presenting common points with regard to accepted sampling techniques, factors influencing the audit sample, treatment of identified misstatements and the circumstances in which sampling is appropriate. The study shows that both standards agree on application of statistical and non-statistical sampling in auditing, that sampling is appropriate for tests of details and controls, the factors affecting audit sampling being audit risk, audit objectives and population\\'s characteristics.
The article exemplifies and presents the characteristics of linguistic imperialism, linguistic capital accumulation following the same pattern as capitalist economic dominance. The text summarizes the way English was established in the colonial period. Many of the mechanisms of linguistic hierarchy...... to the present-day world ‘order’, as the postcolonial is subsumed under global empire, assisted by English linguistic neoimperialism. Some scholars who deny the existence of linguistic imperialism are reported on, and the complexity of language policy in European integration is demonstrated. The article...
Lang, Benjamin; Davidson, Lisa
Recent work by Chang has shown that even at the very earliest stages of second language (L2) acquisition, the phonetic implementation of speakers' native English phoneme categories is slightly modified by contact with L2 Korean, which is referred to as "phonetic drift." This study investigates whether rapid phonetic drift generalizes to another pairing of languages. We examined naïve American English learners of French, who were recorded producing both American English and French vowels after one and six weeks of a study abroad program in Paris. In addition, the Study Abroad group is compared with proficient American English L1 speakers of French who have been residents of Paris for at least five years, to investigate the impact of long-term use of an L2 on the vowel categories of L1. Whereas the Study Abroad group showed no evidence of phonetic drift after six weeks, the Paris Residents' American English vowel space shifted along F1 and several English vowels demonstrated clear movement toward French monolingual norms. A closer look at the high vowels provides insight into how phonetic categories are influenced both by drift and by a pressure to keep vowel categories distinct between the languages. The results are also discussed with respect to potential effects of the size of the vowel inventory and the amount of input required to cause phonetic drift.
Discusses English words of Sanskrit origin in categories including standard English, Indian religion and philosophy, gods and goddesses, castes, trees, coins and weights, titles, and miscellaneous words referring to Indian culture. All derivations are from the American Heritage Dictionary. (BK)
Gibbons, Laura E.; McCurry, Susan; Rhoads, Kristoffer; Masaki, Kamal; White, Lon; Borenstein, Amy R.; Larson, Eric B.; Crane, Paul K.
Background The Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI) was designed for use in cross-cultural studies of Japanese and Japanese-American elderly in Japan and the United States. The measurement equivalence in Japanese and English has not been confirmed in prior studies. Methods We analyzed the 40 CASI items for differential item functioning (DIF) related to test language, as well as self-reported proficiency with written Japanese, age, and educational attainment in two large epidemiologic studies of Japanese-American elderly: the Kame Project (n=1,708) and the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study (HAAS; n=3,148). DIF was present if the demographic groups differed in the probability of success on an item, controlling for their underlying cognitive functioning ability. Results While 7 CASI items had DIF related to language of testing in Kame (registration of one item; recall of one item; similes; judgment; repeating a phrase; reading and performing a command; and following a 3-step instruction), the impact of DIF on participants’ scores was minimal. Mean scores for Japanese and English speakers in Kame changed by language. In HAAS, there were not enough participants tested in Japanese to assess DIF related to test language. In both studies, DIF related to written Japanese proficiency, age, and educational attainment had minimal impact. Conclusions To the extent that DIF could be assessed, the CASI appeared to meet the goal of measuring cognitive function equivalently in Japanese and English. Stratified data collection would be needed to confirm this conclusion. DIF assessment should be used in other studies with multiple language groups to confirm that measures function equivalently or if not, to form scores that account for DIF. PMID:18947456
Huang, Keng-Yen; Calzada, Esther; Cheng, Sabrina; Barajas-Gonzalez, R Gabriela; Brotman, Laurie Miller
Contrary to the "model minority" myth, Asian American children, especially those from low-income immigrant families, are at risk for both behavioral and emotional problems early in life. Little is known, however, about the underlying developmental mechanisms placing Asian American children at risk, including the role of cultural adaptation and parenting. This study examined cultural adaptation, parenting practices and culture related parenting values and child mental health in a sample of 157 English speaking Asian American immigrant families of children enrolled in early childhood education programs in low-income, urban neighborhoods. Overall, cultural adaptation and parenting cultural values and behaviors were related to aspects of child mental health in meaningful ways. Parents' cultural value of independence appears to be especially salient (e.g., negatively related to behavior problems and positively related to adaptive behavior) and significantly mediates the link between cultural adaptation and adaptive behavior. Study findings have implications for supporting Asian American immigrant families to promote their young children's mental health.
...) The percentage of ELs served by the program who are making progress in learning English as measured by... English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement for Limited English... grants for eligible entities to develop high levels of academic attainment in English among English...
Banks, James; Kumari, Meena; Smith, James P; Zaninotto, Paola
Middle-aged and older American men and women have almost twice the rate of diabetes of men and women in England. This differential was not explained by conventional risk factors including age, smoking, social position and body mass index (BMI). This study used large and representative samples of non-minority adults aged 52-85 years taken from the 1999-2006 American National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the 2004 English Longitudinal Study of Aging. The surveys contain self-reported and objective biological disease markers of diabetes as well as indicators of major risk factors for diabetes including anthropometric measures of BMI, height and waist circumference. The older American population has much higher rates of diabetes than the English population-a differential not yet explained, but this population also has higher waist circumference at each level of BMI than does the equivalent group in England. By controlling for such waist circumference differences and allowing for different effects of waist on diabetes in each country, approximately three-quarters of the country differences for women and 38% among men can be explained. Higher rates of diabetes in the US old-age population than in England were largely accounted for by raised waist circumference and not BMI differences, especially among women. In addition, elevated diabetes risk associated with higher waist circumference in the USA as opposed to England could arise as a result of a number of different mechanisms. Investigation of the relative importance of such mechanisms is an important topic for further study.
Research on shared reading has shown positive results on children's literacy development in general and for deaf children specifically; however, reading techniques might differ between these two populations. Families with deaf children, especially those with deaf parents, often capitalize on their children's visual attributes rather than primarily auditory cues. These techniques are believed to provide a foundation for their deaf children's literacy skills. This study examined 10 deaf mother/deaf child dyads with children between 3 and 5 years of age. Dyads were videotaped in their homes on at least two occasions reading books that were provided by the researcher. Descriptive analysis showed specifically how deaf mothers mediate between the two languages, American Sign Language (ASL) and English, while reading. These techniques can be replicated and taught to all parents of deaf children so that they can engage in more effective shared reading activities. Research has shown that shared reading, or the interaction of a parent and child with a book, is an effective way to promote language and literacy, vocabulary, grammatical knowledge, and metalinguistic awareness (Snow, 1983), making it critical for educators to promote shared reading activities at home between parent and child. Not all parents read to their children in the same way. For example, parents of deaf children may present the information in the book differently due to the fact that signed languages are visual rather than spoken. In this vein, we can learn more about what specific connections deaf parents make to the English print. Exploring strategies deaf mothers may use to link the English print through the use of ASL will provide educators with additional tools when working with all parents of deaf children. This article will include a review of the literature on the benefits of shared reading activities for all children, the relationship between ASL and English skill development, and the techniques
Strange, Winifred; Bohn, Ocke-Schwen; Nishi, Kanae; Trent, Sonja A.
Strange et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115, 1791-1807 (2004)] reported that North German (NG) front-rounded vowels in hVp syllables were acoustically intermediate between front and back American English (AE) vowels. However, AE listeners perceptually assimilated them as poor exemplars of back AE vowels. In this study, speaker- and context-independent cross-language discriminant analyses of NG and AE vowels produced in CVC syllables (C=labial, alveolar, velar stops) in sentences showed that NG front-rounded vowels fell within AE back-vowel distributions, due to the ``fronting'' of AE back vowels in alveolar/velar contexts. NG [smcapi, e, ɛ, openo] were located relatively ``higher'' in acoustic vowel space than their AE counterparts and varied in cross-language similarity across consonantal contexts. In a perceptual assimilation task, naive listeners classified NG vowels in terms of native AE categories and rated their goodness on a 7-point scale (very foreign to very English sounding). Both front- and back-rounded NG vowels were perceptually assimilated overwhelmingly to back AE categories and judged equally good exemplars. Perceptual assimilation patterns did not vary with context, and were not always predictable from acoustic similarity. These findings suggest that listeners adopt a context-independent strategy when judging the cross-language similarity of vowels produced and presented in continuous speech contexts.
Full Text Available This research aims at knowing and describing on the utilization of mind mapping strategy in summarizing English text under the theme American Culture. It is conducted to the third semester of English Department students at STKIP PGRI Banjarmasin batch 2016 who take Reading III course. The instruments used in this research are observation sheet and documentation of students’ mind map products. The observation sheet is analyzed qualitatively by describing the important result of observation process while the students’ mind maps are analyzed quantitatively using mind mapping scoring rubric. They create mind mapping in post-reading activity. After reading, they have to summarize the text written through mind map. The result from the observation sheet shows that during four meetings of learning to create mind maps, students carry out the steps of creating mind map well. Although they get difficulties in early activities of this process, however, they can accomplish it well in the last meeting with a different topic of the text. Moreover, there are 17 (51% of 33 students as the subject of this research who have a good score on their mind maps products. It indicates that utilizing mind map is good enough for helping them to summarize the text written.
Clopper, Cynthia G.; Bradlow, Ann R.
Most second language acquisition research focuses on linguistic structures, and less research has examined the acquisition of sociolinguistic patterns. The current study explored the perceptual classification of regional dialects of American English by native and non-native listeners using a free classification task. Results revealed similar classification strategies for the native and non-native listeners. However, the native listeners were more accurate overall than the non-native listeners. In addition, the non-native listeners were less able to make use of constellations of cues to accurately classify the talkers by dialect. However, the non-native listeners were able to attend to cues that were either phonologically or sociolinguistically relevant in their native language. These results suggest that non-native listeners can use information in the speech signal to classify talkers by regional dialect, but that their lack of signal-independent cultural knowledge about variation in the second language leads to less accurate classification performance. PMID:20161400
Clopper, Cynthia G.; Pisoni, David B.
Perceptual and acoustic research on dialect variation in the United States requires an appropriate corpus of spoken language materials. Existing speech corpora that include dialect variation are limited by poor recording quality, small numbers of talkers, and/or small samples of speech from each talker. The Nationwide Speech Project corpus was designed to contain a large amount of speech produced by male and female talkers representing the primary regional varieties of American English. Five male and five female talkers from each of six dialect regions in the United States were recorded reading words, sentences, passages, and in interviews with an experimenter, using high quality digital recording equipment in a sound-attenuated booth. The resulting corpus contains nearly an hour of speech from each of the 60 talkers that can be used in future research on the perception and production of dialect variation. PMID:21423815
Vladimir V. Mihajlović
Full Text Available Review of a book by Sanja Lazarević Radak. 2011. Na granicama orijenta. Predstave o Srbiji u engleskim i američkim putopisima između dva svetska rata. [On the Border of Orient: The Perception of Serbia in English and American Travel Accounts Between Two Wars]. Pančevo: Mali Nemo, pp. 321
Mitchiner, Julie Cantrell
This study examines Deaf parents with children who have cochlear implants on their beliefs and perspectives of bilingualism in American Sign Language and English using complementary mixed methods through surveys and follow-up interviews. Seventeen families participated in the survey and eight families continued their participation in semi-formal…
Bohn, Ocke-Schwen; Best, Catherine T.
Perception of nonnative consonant contrasts may be influenced by phonetic, as well as phonological, properties of the listener’s native language. The impact of both factors on perception of American English /r l w j/ was investigated with native speakers of Danish and German, which have /r l j/ b...
Garayeva, Almira K.; Akhmetzyanov, Ildar G.; Khismatullina, Lutsia G.
The importance of the topic of this study is determined by several factors: increased interest of linguists to the problem of interaction between language and culture; the need to study the onomastic units as body language. The purpose of this article is to identify the types of motivational nick names of famous American and English public…
Kushalnagar, Poorna; Hannay, H. Julia; Hernandez, Arturo E.
Early deafness is thought to affect low-level sensorimotor processing such as selective attention, whereas bilingualism is thought to be strongly associated with higher order cognitive processing such as attention switching under cognitive load. This study explores the effects of bimodal-bilingualism (in American Sign Language and written English)…
Salleh, Safrul Izani Mohd; Gardner, John C.; Sulong, Zunaidah; McGowan, Carl B., Jr.
This study examines the differences in the interpretation of ten "in context" verbal probability expressions used in accounting standards between native Chinese speaking and native English speaking accounting students in United Kingdom universities. The study assesses the degree of grouping factors consensus on the numerical…
Craig, Holly K; Grogger, Jeffrey T
In this study, the authors examined the influences of selected social (gender, employment status, educational achievement level) and style variables (race of examiner, interview topic) on the production of African American English (AAE) by adults. Participants were 50 African American men and women, ages 20-30 years. The authors used Rapid and Anonymous Survey (RAS) methods to collect responses to questions on informal situational and formal message-oriented topics in a short interview with an unacquainted interlocutor. Results revealed strong systematic effects for academic achievement, but not gender or employment status. Most features were used less frequently by participants with higher educational levels, but sharp declines in the usage of 5 specific features distinguished the participants differing in educational achievement. Strong systematic style effects were found for the 2 types of questions, but not race of addressee. The features that were most commonly used across participants-copula absence, variable subject-verb agreement, and appositive pronouns-were also the features that showed the greatest style shifting. The findings lay a foundation with mature speakers for rate-based and feature inventory methods recently shown to be informative for the study of child AAE and demonstrate the benefits of the RAS.
Craig, Holly K.; Grogger, Jeffrey T.
Purpose In this study, the authors examined the influences of selected social (gender, employment status, educational achievement level) and style variables (race of examiner, interview topic) on the production of African American English (AAE) by adults. Method Participants were 50 African American men and women, ages 20–30 years. The authors used Rapid and Anonymous Survey (RAS) methods to collect responses to questions on informal situational and formal message-oriented topics in a short interview with an unacquainted interlocutor. Results Results revealed strong systematic effects for academic achievement, but not gender or employment status. Most features were used less frequently by participants with higher educational levels, but sharp declines in the usage of 5 specific features distinguished the participants differing in educational achievement. Strong systematic style effects were found for the 2 types of questions, but not race of addressee. The features that were most commonly used across participants—copula absence, variable subject–verb agreement, and appositive pronouns—were also the features that showed the greatest style shifting. Conclusions The findings lay a foundation with mature speakers for rate-based and feature inventory methods recently shown to be informative for the study of child AAE and demonstrate the benefits of the RAS. PMID:22361105
Acoustical correlates of stress can be divided into duration, intensity, and fundamental frequency. This study examined the acoustical difference in the first two syllables of stressed English words produced by ten American and Korean speakers. The Korean subjects scored very high in TOEFL. They read, at a normal speed, a fable from which the acoustical parameters of eight words were analyzed. In order to make the data comparison meaningful, each parameter was collected at 100 dynamic time points proportional to the total duration of the two syllables. Then, the ratio of the parameter sum of the first rime to that of the second rime was calculated to determine the relative prominence of the syllables. Results showed that the durations of the first two syllables were almost comparable between the Americans and Koreans. However, statistically significant differences showed up in the diphthong pronunciations and in the words with the second syllable stressed. Also, remarkably high r-squared values were found between pairs of the three acoustical parameters, which suggests that either one or a combination of two or more parameters may account for the prominence of a syllable within a word. [Work supported by Korea Science Foundation R01-1999-00229.
Jacewicz, Ewa; Fox, Robert A; Salmons, Joseph
This acoustic study examines sound (vowel) change in apparent time across three successive generations of 123 adult female speakers ranging in age from 20 to 65 years old, representing three regional varieties of American English, typical of western North Carolina, central Ohio and southeastern Wisconsin. A set of acoustic measures characterized the dynamic nature of formant trajectories, the amount of spectral change over the course of vowel duration and the position of the spectral centroid. The study found a set of systematic changes to /I, ε, æ/ including positional changes in the acoustic space (mostly lowering of the vowels) and significant variation in formant dynamics (increased monophthongization). This common sound change is evident in both emphatic (articulated clearly) and nonemphatic (casual) productions and occurs regardless of dialect-specific vowel dispersions in the vowel space. The cross-generational and cross-dialectal patterns of variation found here support an earlier report by Jacewicz, Fox, and Salmons (2011) which found this recent development in these three dialect regions in isolated citation-form words. While confirming the new North American Shift in different styles of production, the study underscores the importance of addressing the stress-related variation in vowel production in a careful and valid assessment of sound change.
Tastan, Sevinc; Linch, Graciele C. F.; Keenan, Gail M.; Stifter, Janet; McKinney, Dawn; Fahey, Linda; Dunn Lopez, Karen; Yao, Yingwei; Wilkie, Diana J.
Objective To determine the state of the science for the five standardized nursing terminology sets in terms of level of evidence and study focus. Design Systematic Review. Data sources Keyword search of PubMed, CINAHL, and EMBASE databases from 1960s to March 19, 2012 revealed 1,257 publications. Review Methods From abstract review we removed duplicate articles, those not in English or with no identifiable standardized nursing terminology, and those with a low-level of evidence. From full text review of the remaining 312 articles, eight trained raters used a coding system to record standardized nursing terminology names, publication year, country, and study focus. Inter-rater reliability confirmed the level of evidence. We analyzed coded results. Results On average there were 4 studies per year between 1985 and 1995. The yearly number increased to 14 for the decade between 1996–2005, 21 between 2006–2010, and 25 in 2011. Investigators conducted the research in 27 countries. By evidence level for the 312 studies 72.4% were descriptive, 18.9% were observational, and 8.7% were intervention studies. Of the 312 reports, 72.1% focused on North American Nursing Diagnosis-International, Nursing Interventions Classification, Nursing Outcome Classification, or some combination of those three standardized nursing terminologies; 9.6% on Omaha System; 7.1% on International Classification for Nursing Practice; 1.6% on Clinical Care Classification/Home Health Care Classification; 1.6% on Perioperative Nursing Data Set; and 8.0% on two or more standardized nursing terminology sets. There were studies in all 10 foci categories including those focused on concept analysis/classification infrastructure (n = 43), the identification of the standardized nursing terminology concepts applicable to a health setting from registered nurses’ documentation (n = 54), mapping one terminology to another (n = 58), implementation of standardized nursing terminologies into electronic health
Mills, Sarah D; Fox, Rina S; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Roesch, Scott C; Champagne, Brian R; Sadler, Georgia Robins
The Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale (GAD-7) is a self-report questionnaire that is widely used to screen for anxiety. The GAD-7 has been translated into numerous languages, including Spanish. Previous studies evaluating the structural validity of the English and Spanish versions indicate a unidimensional factor structure in both languages. However, the psychometric properties of the Spanish language version have yet to be evaluated in samples outside of Spain, and the measure has not been tested for use among Hispanic Americans. This study evaluated the reliability, structural validity, and convergent validity of the English and Spanish language versions of the GAD-7 for Hispanic Americans in the United States. A community sample of 436 Hispanic Americans with an English (n = 210) or Spanish (n = 226) language preference completed the GAD-7. Multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine the goodness-of-fit of the unidimensional factor structure of the GAD-7 across language-preference groups. Results from the multiple-group CFA indicated a similar unidimensional factor structure with equivalent response patterns and item intercepts, but different variances, across language-preference groups. Internal consistency was good for both English and Spanish language-preference groups. The GAD-7 also evidenced good convergent validity as demonstrated by significant correlations in expected directions with the Perceived Stress Scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and the Physical Health domain of the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF assessment. The unidimensional GAD-7 is suitable for use among Hispanic Americans with an English or Spanish language preference.
Abdelli-Beruh, Nassima B; Wolk, Lesley; Slavin, Dianne
The purpose of this study was to assess possible gender differences in the prevalence of vocal fry in the voices of young male college students. Results were compared with previously published findings derived from a matched sample of female speakers. Thirty-four male college students, native American English speakers, produced speech samples in two speaking conditions: (1) sustained isolated vowel /a/ and (2) reading task. Data analyses included perceptual evaluations by two licensed speech-language pathologists. Results showed that vocal fry was perceived significantly more frequently in sentences than in isolated vowel productions. When vocal fry occurred in sentences, it was detected significantly more often in sentence-final position than in initial- and/or mid-sentence position. Furthermore, the prevalence of vocal fry in sentences was significantly lower for male speakers than has previously been reported for female speakers. Possible physiological and sociolinguistic explanations are discussed. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
A handful of studies have examined children's perception of clear speech in the presence of background noise. Although accurate vowel perception is important for listeners' comprehension, no study has focused on whether vowels uttered in clear speech aid intelligibility for children listeners. In the present study, American-English (AE) speaking children repeated the AE vowels /epsilon, ae, alpha, lambda in the nonsense word /g[schwa]bVp[schwa]/ in phrases produced in conversational and clear speech by two female AE-speaking adults. The recordings of the adults' speech were presented at a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of -6 dB to 15 AE-speaking children (ages 5.0-8.5) in an examination of whether the accuracy of AE school-age children's vowel identification in noise is more accurate when utterances are produced in clear speech than in conversational speech. Effects of the particular vowel uttered and talker effects were also examined. Clear speech vowels were repeated significantly more accurately (87%) than conversational speech vowels (59%), suggesting that clear speech aids children's vowel identification. Results varied as a function of the talker and particular vowel uttered. Child listeners repeated one talker's vowels more accurately than the other's and front vowels more accurately than central and back vowels. The findings support the use of clear speech for enhancing adult-to-child communication in AE, particularly in noisy environments.
Mohammad Hadi Daraei
Full Text Available Pacta sunt servanda” is one of the most fundamental principles in the common law and Iranian legal systems, which have been exposed to exceptions in the process of time. These exceptions are part of general doctrine of frustration. Iranians exceptions to this rule are named as “Ta`azzor” and “Ta`assor” rules. Doctrine of Frustration in Common law includes three subdivision theories: “impossibility of performance”, “frustration of purpose” and “impracticability” (hardship. All of these theories applied where a supervening event occurs. In English courts, only first two theories are accepted but third one is applicable in American courts. In imamieh Jurisprudence and Iranian law, “Ta`azzor” rule in most aspects is similar to Impossibility and “Ta`assor” rule is somehow like Impracticability. Some Iranian lawyers are said that we have no rule like “Frustration of Purpose” but I believe we can find traces of this theory in Imamieh jurisprudence and according which it is part of “Ta`azzor” rule.
Scott, Jessica A; Hoffmeister, Robert J
For many years, researchers have sought to understand the reading development of deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) students. Guided by prior research on DHH and hearing students, in this study we investigate the hypothesis that for secondary school DHH students enrolled in American Sign Language (ASL)/English bilingual schools for the deaf, academic English proficiency would be a significant predictor of reading comprehension alongside ASL proficiency. Using linear regression, we found statistically significant interaction effects between academic English knowledge and word reading fluency in predicting the reading comprehension scores of the participants. However, ASL remained the strongest and most consistent predictor of reading comprehension within the sample. Findings support a model in which socio-demographic factors, ASL proficiency, and word reading fluency are primary predictors of reading comprehension for secondary DHH students. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@.com.
Pan, Tonya M; Mills, Sarah D; Fox, Rina S; Baik, Sharon H; Harry, Kadie M; Roesch, Scott C; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Malcarne, Vanessa L
The Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) is a widely used measure of optimism and pessimism, with three positively worded and three negatively worded content items. This study examined the structural validity and invariance, internal consistency reliability, and convergent and divergent validity of the English and Spanish versions of the LOT-R among Hispanic Americans. A community sample of Hispanic Americans ( N = 422) completed self-report measures, including the LOT-R, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, in their preferred language of English or Spanish. Based on the literature, four structural models were tested: one-factor , oblique two-factor , orthogonal two-factor method effects with positive specific factor , and orthogonal two-factor method effects with negative specific factor . Baseline support for both of the English and Spanish versions was not achieved for any model; in all models, the negatively worded items in Spanish had non-significant factor loadings. Therefore, the positively worded three-item optimism subscale of the LOT-R was examined separately and fit the data, with factor loadings equivalent across language-preference groups. Coefficient alphas for the optimism subscale were consistent across both language-preference groups (αs = .61 [English] and .66 [Spanish]). In contrast, the six-item total score and three-item pessimism subscale demonstrated extremely low or inconsistent alphas. Convergent and divergent validity were established for the optimism subscale in both languages. In sum, the optimism subscale of the LOT-R demonstrated minimally acceptable to good psychometric properties across English and Spanish language-preference groups. However, neither the total score nor the pessimism subscale showed adequate psychometric properties for Spanish-speaking Hispanic Americans, likely due to translation and cultural adaptation issues, and thus are not supported for use with this population.
Full Text Available This article investigates the effects of ethnic acceptance and prejudice on English language learning among immigrant nonnative speakers. During 2004 and 2005, the author conducted participatory dialogues among six Vietnamese and Mexican adult immigrant English language learners. The researcher sought to answer five questions: (1 What are some nonnative English speakers’ experience regarding the way native speakers treat them? (2 How have nonnative English speakers’ experiences of ethnic acceptance or ethnic prejudice affected their learning of English? (3 What do nonnative English speakers think they need in order to lower their anxiety as they learn a new language? (4 What can native English speakers do to lower nonnative speakers’ anxiety? (5 What can nonnative English speakers do to lower their anxiety with native English speakers? Even though many of the adult immigrant participants experienced ethnic prejudice, they developed strategies to overcome anxiety, frustration, and fear. The dialogues generated themes of acceptance, prejudice, power, motivation, belonging, and perseverance, all factors essential to consider when developing English language learning programs for adult immigrants.
"The environment of the world has now become so deteriorated that we can come across news of this issue almost every day. The perspective of environmental issues will, in time, be incorporated into every dictionary. A comparison of Longman Dictionary of American English (Longman) and Xinhua Zidian (Xinhua) permits a glimpse into the beginning of this process. Besides just observing the evolution of vocabularies, I would argue that we are compelled to take action without delay. Xinhua could in...
Kang, Suk-Young; Howard, Diane; Kim, Jeungkun; Payne, Jennifer Shepard; Wilton, Leo; Kim, Wooksoo; Maramba, Dina
Background US Department of Health and Human Services reported that the lack of English language proficiency and the shortage of providers who possessed appropriate language skills were identified as major barriers to mental health service use for approximately half of the population of Asians and Pacific Islanders. The aim of this study was to examine the predictors of lifetime mental health service use in relation to English language proficiency among Asian Americans. Methods Data from 2095 Asian participants from the National Latino and Asian American Study were analyzed using logistic regression. Results Respondents with better English language proficiency and with a mental health diagnosis were more inclined to use mental health services. Participants who were born in the USA, who were widowed, separated or divorced, who sought comfort from religion, who reported worse physical and mental health self-ratings were more likely to use mental health services. The lack of health insurance coverage was not a significant predictor. Conclusions The public health implications for behavioral health include the need to educate health-care providers working with Asian Americans regarding the benefits derived from seeking services and making interpreter services available in a culturally sensitive environment. PMID:20202979
Estrada, Myrna Hipol
In light of the need to close the achievement gap among our culturally and linguistically diverse students, more specifically the Hispanics and the Hispanic English Learners (ELs), the effects of teacher professional development (2 year PD vs. 1 Year PD vs. no PD) on the implementation of a standards-aligned and inquiry-based science curriculum program---the Integrated Coordinated Science for the 21st Century published by It's About Time, Inc. (ICS-IAT)---on the LAUSD ninth graders science scores were examined. Participants included 8,937 9th grade students (7,356 Hispanics). The primary outcome measurement was scaled scores from the California Standard Test (CST) in Integrated Coordinated Science (CST_ICS1). Correlations between California English Language Development Test (CELDT) component subscores (reading, listening and speaking) and CST scores were also examined. Results indicated that the science scores of the students of teachers who participated in two year PD were significantly higher compared to the scores of students of the one year PD group and the control group. The results show that all ethnic groups benefited from two years of teacher PD, except the African American group. Among Hispanics, students classified as IFEP, RFEP and EO gained from the teachers having two years of professional development. But the target population, ELs did not benefit from two years of teacher PD. The correlations between the CELDT and CST_ELA were much higher than the CELDT and CST_ICS1 correlations. This finding validates Abedi's claim (2004) that EL students are disadvantaged because of their language handicap on tests that have a greater language load. Two year PD participation significantly enhanced the accessibility of science to the ninth graders. The essential features in the PD were classroom simulation of all the activities identified in the storyboard with the actual and correct use of needed equipment and materials; creation and presentation of sample or model
Kioko, Angelina Nduku; Muthwii, Margaret Jepkirui
The study sought to establish the attitudes of Kenyan speakers (n = 210) towards three varieties of English: (1) ethnically marked Kenyan English, (2) standard Kenyan English and (3) native speaker English (British, American, Australian, etc). Of the three varieties, the most preferred by both rural and urban respondents for use in the media and…
Abdelli-Beruh, Nassima B; Drugman, Thomas; Red Owl, R H
The goal of this study was to analyze the occurrence frequencies of three individual acoustic patterns (A, B, C) and of vocal fry overall (A + B + C) as a function of gender, word position in the sentence (Not Last Word vs. Last Word), and sentence length (number of words in a sentence). This is an experimental design. Twenty-five male and 29 female American English (AE) speakers read the Grandfather Passage. The recordings were processed by a Matlab toolbox designed for the analysis and detection of creaky segments, automatically identified using the Kane-Drugman algorithm. The experiment produced subsamples of outcomes, three that reflect a single, discrete acoustic pattern (A, B, or C) and the fourth that reflects the occurrence frequency counts of Vocal Fry Overall without regard to any specific pattern. Zero-truncated Poisson regression analyses were conducted with Gender and Word Position as predictors and Sentence Length as a covariate. The results of the present study showed that the occurrence frequencies of the three acoustic patterns and vocal fry overall (A + B + C) are greatest at the end of sentences but are unaffected by sentence length. The findings also reveal that AE female speakers exhibit Pattern C significantly more frequently than Pattern B, and the converse holds for AE male speakers. Future studies are needed to confirm such outcomes, assess the perceptual salience of these acoustic patterns, and determine the physiological correlates of these acoustic patterns. The findings have implications for the design of new excitation models of vocal fry. Copyright Â© 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zachary Scott Jaggers
Full Text Available This study tests whether native speakers of American English exhibit a glide-vowel distinction ([j]-[i] in a speech elicitation experiment. When reading sentences out loud, participants’ pronunciations of 4 near-minimal pairs of pre-existing lexical items (e.g., 'Eston'[iə] vs. 'pneumon'[jə] exhibit significant differences when acoustically measured, confirming the presence of a [j]-[i] distinction. This distinction is also found to be productively extended to the production of 20 near-minimal pairs of nonce words (e.g., 'Súmia '→ [sumiə] vs. 'Fímya '→ [fimjə], diversified and balanced along different phonologically relevant factors of the surrounding environment. Multiple acoustic measurements are compared to test what aspects most consistently convey the distinction: F2 (frontness, F1 (height, intensity, vocalic sequence duration, transition earliness, and transition speed. This serves the purpose of documenting the distinction’s acoustic phonetic realization. It also serves in the comparison of phonological representations. Multiple types of previously proposed phonological representations are considered along with the competing predictions they generate regarding the acoustic measurements performed. Results suggest that the primary and most consistent characteristic of the distinction is earliness of transition into the following vowel, with results also suggesting that the [j] glide has a greater degree of constriction. The [j] glide is found to have a significantly 'less 'anterior articulation, challenging the application of a representation based on place or articulator differences that would predict [j] to be 'more 'anterior.
...-0146-02] Final Voluntary Product Standard; DOC PS 20-10 ``American Softwood Lumber Standard'' AGENCY... of Standards and Technology (NIST) announces voluntary product standard DOC PS 20-10 ``American Softwood Lumber Standard'' which will supersede DOC PS 20-05. The Standard establishes standard sizes and...
Milena Dževerdanović Pejović
Full Text Available This paper focuses on lexical aspect making the core of the Standard Marine Communication Phrases (SMCP – the verbs. Given that the key feature of this specific maritime sublanguage laid down by the International Maritime Organization (IMO, the Standard Marine Communication Phrases i s to convey precise information in English between seafarers on board and in external ship - to - ship and ship - to - shore communication at sea, the semantic analysis of the verbs in the SMCP was carried out, applying theoretical knowledge in the semantic domain s of verbs (Biber et al., 1999 and verb patterns (Francis et al., 1996. The discursive function of verbs and verb patterns, as well as verb phrases making up idiomatic expressions in the SMCP, is explained in the light of conceptual knowledge or knowledg e of the professional (maritime setting in which they occur. This study also supports idea that results of analysis carried out by the use of modern linguistic quantitative tools should be incorporated in teaching SMCP phrases and presented to seafarers i n the form of e - documents like screenshots, concordance lists and formulaic structures. Due to lack of time spent on shore, seafarers particularly benefit from computer - based learning and prefer economic and short information.
Doel, W.Z. van den
This study is the first ever to employ a large-scale Internet survey to investigate priorities in English pronunciation training. Well over 500 native speakers from throughout the English-speaking world, including North America, the British Isles, Australia and New Zealand, were asked to detect and
Anible, Benjamin; Twitchell, Paul; Waters, Gabriel S.; Dussias, Paola E.; Piñar, Pilar; Morford, Jill P.
Native speakers of English are sensitive to the likelihood that a verb will appear in a specific subcategorization frame, known as "verb bias." Readers rely on verb bias to help them resolve temporary ambiguity in sentence comprehension. We investigate whether deaf sign-print bilinguals who have acquired English syntactic knowledge…
Crews, Charla Faulkner
This study examined the effects of aligning the "Virginia Standards of Learning (SOL)" English Framework with Bloom's Taxonomy on student achievement. Changes prompted by "No Child Left Behind" legislation increased accountability for student success, as well as mandated testing to determine annual academic growth of all…
Full Text Available Review of:Anthony Cross, In the Lands of the Romanovs. An Annotated Bibliography of First-hand English-language Accounts of the Russian Empire (1613-1917. Cambridge, UK: Open Book Publishers, 2014, 419 p. ISBN 978-1-78374-057-4
Cox, Richard J.
Discussion of the use of standards by archivists highlights the U.S. MARC AMC (Archives-Manuscript Control) format for reporting archival records and manuscripts; their interest in specific standards being developed for the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) reference model; and the management of records in electronic formats. (16 references) (LAE)
The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) new criticality safety order, DOE Order 420.1 (open-quotes Facility Safety,close quotes October 13, 1995), Sec. 4.3 (open-quotes Nuclear Criticality Safetyclose quotes), invokes, as an integral part, 12 appropriate American National Standards Institute/American Nuclear Society (ANSI/ANS) Series-8 standards for nuclear criticality safety, but with modifications. (The order that 420.1/4.3 replaced also invoked some ANSI/ANS Series-8 standards.) These modifications include DOE operation-specific exceptions to the standards and elaborations on some of the wording in the standards
Ramesh, R.; Sumathi, B.
English is a language, which is spoken by numerous people across the world. It has acquired a prominent place in meeting the communicational needs of the people. Grammar is a set of rules that helps the people to use the language better. In schools, the teachers of English are considered as the most important factor in making the study of English…
Shilts, Mical Kay; Lamp, Cathi; Horowitz, Marcel; Townsend, Marilyn S
Investigate the impact of a nutrition education program on student academic performance as measured by achievement of education standards. Quasi-experimental crossover-controlled study. California Central Valley suburban elementary school (58% qualified for free or reduced-priced lunch). All sixth-grade students (n = 84) in the elementary school clustered in 3 classrooms. 9-lesson intervention with an emphasis on guided goal setting and driven by the Social Cognitive Theory. Multiple-choice survey assessing 5 education standards for sixth-grade mathematics and English at 3 time points: baseline (T1), 5 weeks (T2), and 10 weeks (T3). Repeated measures, paired t test, and analysis of covariance. Changes in total scores were statistically different (P academic performance measured by achievement of specific mathematics and English education standards. Nutrition educators can show school administrators and wellness committee members that this program can positively impact academic performance, concomitant to its primary objective of promoting healthful eating and physical activity.
Coronado, Gloria D; Taylor, Vicky; Acorda, Elizabeth; Hoai Do, H; Thompson, Beti
Chinese Americans are at disproportionately high risk of liver cancer. A major risk factor for liver cancer in Asia is infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV): Approximately 80% of liver cancers are linked to HBV, and chronic carriers of HBV are > 100 times more likely to develop liver cancer compared with noncarriers. However, many adults, particularly those who have immigrated to the U.S., remain untested and therefore unvaccinated or unmonitored for the disease. Chinese Americans are mostly foreign born, and more recent arrivals face multiple social and health challenges. Many require special attention from public health professionals because of low levels of acculturation and difficulties learning English. It has long been established that an English as a Second Language (ESL) curriculum can teach immigrant adults and their family's important life skills, such as job training and citizenship. The authors report on their plans to develop and pilot test a culturally appropriate curriculum that will motivate Chinese ESL students to obtain a blood test for the detection of the HBV. Cancer 2005. (c) 2005 American Cancer Society.
Qi, Cathy H.; Marley, Scott C.
The purpose of the study was to examine the psychometric properties of the "Preschool Language Scale-4" (PLS-4) with a sample of English-speaking Hispanic and European American children who attended Head Start programs. Participants were 440 children between the ages of 3 and 5 years (52% male; 86% Hispanic and 14% European American).…
Gonzalo Aguilar Cavallo
Full Text Available In this brief analysis we will review the difficulties faced in establishing responsibility for human rights violation to companies as well as the Inter-American Court of Human Rights’ case law in the field. We will analyze the international standards established in corporate responsibility. Finally, we will examine if the Chilean national courts incorporate the standards set by the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, especially concerning private companies.
This standard identifies and describes the specifications for developing, preparing, and documenting nuclear data sets to be used in reactor design calculations. The specifications include criteria for acceptance of evaluated nuclear data sets, criteria for processing evaluated data and preparation of processed continuous data and averaged data sets, and identification of specific evaluated, processed continuous, and averaged data sets which meet these criteria for specific reactor types
A standard is presented which identifies and describes the specifications for developing, preparing, and documenting nuclear data sets to be used in reactor design calculations. The specifications include (a) criteria for acceptance of evaluated nuclear data sets, (b) criteria for processing evaluated data and preparation of processed continuous data and averaged data sets, and (c) identification of specific evaluated, processed continuous, and averaged data sets which meet these criteria for specific reactor types
Baik, Sharon H; Fox, Rina S; Mills, Sarah D; Roesch, Scott C; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Klonoff, Elizabeth A; Malcarne, Vanessa L
This study examined the psychometric properties of the Perceived Stress Scale-10 among 436 community-dwelling Hispanic Americans with English or Spanish language preference. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis examined the factorial invariance of the Perceived Stress Scale-10 across language groups. Results supported a two-factor model (negative, positive) with equivalent response patterns and item intercepts but different factor covariances across languages. Internal consistency reliability of the Perceived Stress Scale-10 total and subscale scores was good in both language groups. Convergent validity was supported by expected relationships of Perceived Stress Scale-10 scores to measures of anxiety and depression. These results support the use of the Perceived Stress Scale-10 among Hispanic Americans.
Zuo, Huifang; Wang, Chuang
This qualitative study explores the sources of the self-efficacy development of five Chinese doctoral students' use of English as a second language in a southeastern university in the United Sates. Although individual differences were reported, common themes were also recognized. Consistent with the self-efficacy theory and previous studies in…
Miller, Julie; Berkey, Becca; Griffin, Francis
As the number of international students studying in the United States continues to grow, the body of literature about service-learning in English Language Learning (ELL) curricula is growing in tandem. The primary goal of this paper is to explore how service-learning impacts the development and transition of pathway program students in the United…
Ma, Wen; Wang, Chuang
International students in the United States often employ culture-specific learning strategies to help them improve their proficiency in English. This study explored the use of self-regulated strategies by 49 Chinese graduate students from 24 fields of study at three universities in the Northeast. The research used the mixed survey method to…
Pishghadam, Reza; Zarei, Sima
Granted the fact that different cultures have different speaking styles, knowledge of these styles can help people grasp the essence of social cultural knowledge to communicate with others more successfully. In this regard, the present paper aims at comparing the use of speech act of gratitude in Persian and Chinese EFL learners and English native…
Riggs, Stephen Return; Dorsey, James Owen; Powell, John Wesley
This volume consists of a Dakota-English dictionary. The Dakota, commonly known as the Sioux, forms the leading and best known division of the Siouan linguistic family. The Dakota language now consists of three well defined dialects, the Santee, Yankton and Teton.
Bullinger, Monika; Sommer, Rachel; Pleil, Andreas; Mauras, Nelly; Ross, Judith; Newfield, Ron; Silverman, Lawrence; Rohenkohl, Anja; Fox, Janet; Quitmann, Julia
The European Quality of Life in Short Stature Youth (QoLISSY) is a novel condition-specific instrument developed to assess health related quality of life (HrQoL) in children/adolescents with short stature from patient and parent perspectives. Study objective was to linguistically validate and psychometrically test the American-English version of the QoLISSY instrument. Upon conversion of the British-English version to American-English, content validity and acceptance of the questionnaire were examined through focus group discussions with cognitive debriefing in 28 children/adolescents with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) or idiopathic short stature (ISS) and their parents. In the subsequent field test with 51 families and a re-test with 25 families the psychometric performance of the American-English version was examined and compared with the original European dataset. Pilot test results supported the suitability of the American-English version. Good internal consistency with Cronbach's Alpha ranging from 0.84 to 0.97 and high test-re-test reliabilities were observed in the field test. The QoLISSY was able to detect significant differences according to the degree of short stature with higher HrQoL for taller children. Correlations with a generic HrQoL tool support the QoLISSY's concurrent validity. The scale's operating characteristics were comparable to the original European data. Results support that the QoLISSY American-English version is a psychometrically sound short stature-specific instrument to assess the patient- and parent- perceived impact of short stature. The QoLISSY instrument is fit for use in clinical studies and health services research in the American-English speaking population.
Is Spanish Pragmatic Instruction Necessary in the L2 Classroom If Latin American Speakers of Spanish Take on American English Pragmatic Norms Once Prolonged Exposure in the United States Occurs? A Study on Refusal Strategies
Bachelor, Jeremy W.; Hernandez, Lydia; Shively, Rachel L.
As educators of foreign and second languages debate the most efficient methods of implementing pragmatic instruction in the L2 classroom, is it possible that Spanish pragmatic instruction is not necessary if American Spanish pragmatic norms are no different than American English norms? The present investigation studies the pragmatic norms in…
Martínez Serrano, Francisco Javier; Camacho P., Alma A.
-065 ASTM Standard2 showing the results based on the resolution, sensitivity, and repeatability required by the standard.
Smits, Cas; Watson, Charles S; Kidd, Gary R; Moore, David R; Goverts, S Theo
The Dutch digits-in-noise test (NL DIN) and the American-English version (US DIN) are speech-in-noise tests for diagnostic and clinical usage. The present study investigated differences between NL DIN and US DIN speech reception thresholds (SRTs) for a group of native Dutch-speaking listeners. In experiment 1, a repeated-measures design was used to compare SRTs for the NL DIN and US DIN in steady-state noise and interrupted noise for monaural, diotic, and dichotic listening conditions. In experiment 2, a subset of these conditions with additional speech material (i.e. US DIN triplets without inter-digit coarticulation/prosody) was used. Experiment 1 was conducted with 16 normal-hearing Dutch students. Experiment 2 was conducted with nine different students. No significant differences between SRTs measured with the NL DIN and US DIN were found in steady-state noise. In interrupted noise the US DIN SRTs were significantly better in monaural and diotic listening conditions. Experiment 2 demonstrated that these better SRTs cannot be explained by the combined effect of inter-digit coarticulation and prosody in the American-English triplets. The NL DIN and US DIN are highly comparable and valuable tests for measuring auditory speech recognition abilities. These tests promote across-language comparisons of results.
Neuss, Michael N; Gilmore, Terry R; Belderson, Kristin M; Billett, Amy L; Conti-Kalchik, Tara; Harvey, Brittany E; Hendricks, Carolyn; LeFebvre, Kristine B; Mangu, Pamela B; McNiff, Kristen; Olsen, MiKaela; Schulmeister, Lisa; Von Gehr, Ann; Polovich, Martha
Purpose To update the ASCO/Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) Chemotherapy Administration Safety Standards and to highlight standards for pediatric oncology. Methods The ASCO/ONS Chemotherapy Administration Safety Standards were first published in 2009 and updated in 2011 to include inpatient settings. A subsequent 2013 revision expanded the standards to include the safe administration and management of oral chemotherapy. A joint ASCO/ONS workshop with stakeholder participation, including that of the Association of Pediatric Hematology Oncology Nurses and American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, was held on May 12, 2015, to review the 2013 standards. An extensive literature search was subsequently conducted, and public comments on the revised draft standards were solicited. Results The updated 2016 standards presented here include clarification and expansion of existing standards to include pediatric oncology and to introduce new standards: most notably, two-person verification of chemotherapy preparation processes, administration of vinca alkaloids via minibags in facilities in which intrathecal medications are administered, and labeling of medications dispensed from the health care setting to be taken by the patient at home. The standards were reordered and renumbered to align with the sequential processes of chemotherapy prescription, preparation, and administration. Several standards were separated into their respective components for clarity and to facilitate measurement of adherence to a standard. Conclusion As oncology practice has changed, so have chemotherapy administration safety standards. Advances in technology, cancer treatment, and education and training have prompted the need for periodic review and revision of the standards. Additional information is available at http://www.asco.org/chemo-standards .
Maria Cristina Fava
Full Text Available The increasing number of non-native English speaking students in American universities, mostly from Asian countries, presents unprecedented challenges and calls for an in-depth study on how we teach western art music history. This essay challenges some aspects of liberal multiculturalism and proposes the creation of channels of communication that allow non-native English speaking students to understand the premises of a Eurocentric system of knowledge without undermining their own cultural backgrounds.
Chládková, Kateřina; Hamann, Silke; Williams, Daniel; Hellmuth, Sam
Acoustic studies of several languages indicate that second-formant (F2) slopes in high vowels have opposing directions (independent of consonantal context): front [iː]-like vowels are produced with a rising F2 slope, whereas back [uː]-like vowels are produced with a falling F2 slope. The present study first reports acoustic measurements that confirm this pattern for the English variety of Standard Southern British English (SSBE), where /uː/ has shifted from the back to the front area of the vowel space and is now realized with higher midpoint F2 values than several decades ago. Subsequently, we test whether the direction of F2 slope also serves as a reliable cue to the /iː/-/uː/ contrast in perception. The findings show that F2 slope direction is used as a cue (additional to midpoint formant values) to distinguish /iː/ from /uː/ by both young and older Standard Southern British English listeners: an otherwise ambiguous token is identified as /iː/ if it has a rising F2 slope and as /uː/ if it has a falling F2 slope. Furthermore, our results indicate that listeners generalize their reliance on F2 slope to other contrasts, namely /ɛ/-/ɒ/ and /æ/-/ɒ/, even though F2 slope is not employed to differentiate these vowels in production. This suggests that in Standard Southern British English, a rising F2 seems to be perceptually associated with an abstract feature such as [+front], whereas a falling F2 with an abstract feature such as [-front].
Bock, K.; Butterfield, S.; Cutler, A.; Cutting, J.C.; Eberhard, K.M.; Hunphreys, K.R.
British and American speakers exhibit different verb number agreement patterns when sentence subjects have collective head nouns. From linguistic and psycholinguistic accounts of how agreement is implemented, three alternative hypotheses can be derived to explain these differences. The hypotheses
Edwards, Viv; Ran, An; Li, Daguo
This paper explores student and teacher perspectives of challenges relating to the levels of competence in English of Chinese students studying overseas from the perspective of critical pedagogy. It draws on two complementary studies undertaken by colleagues at the University of Reading. The first--a research seminar attended by representatives…
Bailey, Alison L.; Carroll, Patricia E.
The purpose of this chapter is twofold: (1) to provide a detailed review of current language assessment policies and practices with English language learner (ELL) students under the federal requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB; 2001) and relevant research in order to evaluate their technical quality and validity, and (2) to examine…
In institutional settings of globalization, labelled languages are generally preferred over multilingual repertoires and mobile language resources. Drawing on linguistic-ethnographic analysis of the way English is treated as an invariable "ad hoc" idiom in the Belgian asylum interview, this article demonstrates how institutional measures…
The present study examines sociolinguistic features of a particular speech act, paying compliments, by comparing and contrasting native Chinese and native American speakers' performances. By focusing on a relatively understudied speaker group such as the Chinese, typically regarded as having rules of speaking and social norms very different from those of Westerners, this paper aims at illuminating the fact that, in cross-cultural communication, foreign language speakers have to pay close attention to sociolinguistic rules of the target language in addition to structure and discourse rules to meet the needs of linguistic accuracy and fluency. This is due to the fact that such rules play an indispensable role in appropriating the proper use of linguistic forms. The data for this study were collected using ethnographic observation pioneered in this field by Wolfson and Manes (1980). The analysis will first explore both the features of distribution of paying compliments, and the functions they may serve in spoken exchanges for native Chinese and American English speakers. To present a fuller picture of the socio-cultural features this speech act may represent in Chinese and American societies, the analysis will further focus on the issues of topics, the addresser-addressee relationship, and culture-specificity versus universality.
Sukasih Ratna Widayanti
Full Text Available This study is aimed at describing the use of English of the teachers and students at State Junior High School 1 Magelang as a pilot international standard school. The objectives of this study are (1 to find out the frequencies and percentages of the use of English spoken by teachers and students and (2 to describe the types of the occurrence of English sentences, clauses, and phrases spoken by teachers and students. This study was descriptive-qualitative. The subjects were two teachers and forty-eight students of 8B and 8C in State Junior High School 1 Magelang in the school year 2010/2011. The object of this study was the transcript of teachers and students’ utterances indicating the use of English during teaching and learning process in the classroom. The data were collected through observation and audio-taped of the teaching and learning processes. The results of the study are as follows. First, the teachers’ frequencies and percentages of English sentences are 176 sentences from the total number of 220 sentences or 80%, while the students’ frequencies and percentages of English sentences are 72 sentences from the total of 92 sentences or 78.26 %. Both the teachers’ and the students’ quality of English is very good since they make only a few incorrect English sentences. Second, the four types of English sentences are declarative, imperative, interrogative, and exclamatory; the two types of clauses found in English sentences are independent clauses and dependent clauses; and the four types of phrases found in English sentences are noun phrases, verb phrases, adjective phrases, and prepositional phrases. Keywords: the use of English, pilot international standard school
colored english, caribbean dutch, counting-out rimes, diglossia, dutch, english, ethnolects, etymology, family names, french, german, jewish afrikaans, jewish american english, jewish british english, jewish english, jewish irish english, jewish ...
The Mathematics and Computations Division of the American Nuclear Society sponsors the ANS-10 Standards Subcommittee. This subcommittee, which is part of the ANS Standards Committee, currently maintains four ANSI/ANS software standards. These standards are: Recommended Programming Practices to Facilitate the Portability of Scientific Computer Programs, ANS-10.2; Guidelines for the Documentation of Computer Software, ANS-10.3; Guidelines for the Verification and Validation of Scientific and Engineering Computer Programs for the Nuclear Industry, ANS-10.4; and Guidelines for Accommodating User Needs in Computer Program Development, ANS-10.5. 5 refs
Smith, Shana; Bellon-Harn, Monica L
The purpose of this exploratory study is to examine rates of auxiliary is and are across dialect patterns produced by African American English with specific language impairment (AAE-SLI) children following language treatment. The following research question is asked: Do AAE-SLI children exhibit rates of auxiliary is and are across dialect patterns consistent with previous reports of typically developing children and adult AAE speakers? A pre-/post-test design was used to identify patterns in which auxiliary is and are were produced at significant levels. Individual performance was included to examine variable rates of use across patterns. Group and individual results suggest children used auxiliary is and are in dialect patterns at rates consistent with typically developing child and adult AAE speakers. We conclude that rates of use may contribute to evidence-based guidelines for morphological intervention with AAE-SLI children.
Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of semantic classification of the verbs of the North American continent. 60 verbs marked in the dictionaries (Hornby, Webster, Gage as British, American, Canadian have been chosen for the investigation. The classification of verbal lexemes according to their semantic meaning suggested by A.A. Ufimtseva has been taken for the basis of this research. According to this classification all the verbs fall into two groups: lexemes of active action and lexemes of non-active action.
Drawing upon literary criticism, cultural studies, and social history, this book examines the canonizing assumptions (and compulsions) that have fabricated an image of American poetry since World War II, foremost of which is the enshrinement of the self-expressive subject. The tone of the book oscillates between documentary and polemic in an…
Smith, D.R.; Carson, R.W.
American National Standard Administrative Practices for Nuclear Criticality Safety, ANSI/ANS-8.19, provides guidance for the administration of an effective program to control the risk of nuclear criticality in operations with fissile material outside reactors. The several sections of the standard address the responsibilities of management, supervisory personnel, and the criticality safety staff, as well as requirements and suggestions for the content of operating procedures, process evaluations, material control procedures, and emergency procedures
Full Text Available For a long time, whether learners' first language (L1 should be used in the foreign language classroom has been a controversial issue in the foreign language education field. The focus has been mostly on the use of L1 in the English language classroom (e.g.,Atkinson, 1987; Brooks-Lewis, 2009; Kieu, 2010; Krashen, 1981; Miles, 2004; Nazary, 2008; Prodromou, 2002; Schweers, 1999; Tang,2002. The debate centers on two diverse pedagogical approaches: the monolingual approach and the bilingual approach. The supporters of the monolingual approach contend that only the target language that learners are acquiring (i.e. English in most of the study should be allowed in the classroom, and Krashen (1981, 1985 was a pivotal supporter of this approach. However, other researchers and language teachers argue that the monolingual approach is not practical, particularly in lower-level classes (e.g., Atkinson, 1987; BrooksLewis, 2009; Schweers, 1999; Tang, 2002. They believe that using L1 in the classroom can be very effective when explaining difficult grammar points and linguistic elements that are language specific. The supporters of the bilingual approach do not deny the advantages of maximizing target language exposure and practice. However, they suggest that when learners' L1 is applied strategically, it can actually be a very important learning tool (e.g., Atkinson, 1987; Brooks-Lewis,2009; Schweers, 1999. Furthermore, both Schweers (1999 and Miles (2004 point out that the use of L1 provides students a more relaxed atmosphere and makes them less anxious and more confident in the classroom.
This article frames history education as a social construction designed to create a national identity through the inclusion, exclusion, and treatment of various societal groups. Using this lens, the author analyzes curriculum standards from nine states that annually assess student knowledge of American history to better understand the depiction of…
Berry, Jessica R.; Oetting, Janna B.
Purpose: We compared copula and auxiliary verb BE use by African American English-speaking children with and without a creole heritage, using Gullah/Geechee as the creole criterion, to determine if differences exist, the nature of the differences, and the impact of the differences on interpretations of ability. Method: Data came from 38 children,…
Despite the significance of vocabulary knowledge to student learning, limited studies have examined English language arts (ELA) teachers' skills and practices that may be effective for building word consciousness in high school Mexican-American bilingual students. The research objective of the present study is to examine how two high school ELA…
Scott, James Calvert
English language business-related documents around the world contain purposeful spelling differences that reflect two standards, American English and British English. Given the importance of culturally acceptable spelling, the need to be aware of and sensitive to cultural differences, and strong reactions to variation in spelling, it is important…
Tarca, Adi L.; Romero, Roberto; Gudicha, Dereje W.; Erez, Offer; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Yeo, Lami; Bhatti, Gaurav; Pacora, Percy; Maymon, Eli; Hassan, Sonia S.
Background The assessment of fetal growth disorders requires a standard. Current nomograms for the assessment of fetal growth in African American women have been derived either from neonatal (rather than fetal) biometry data or have not been customized for maternal ethnicity, weight, height, parity, and fetal sex. Objective We sought to 1) develop a new customized fetal growth standard for African American mothers; and 2) compare such a standard to three existing standards for the classification of fetuses as small (SGA) or large (LGA) for gestational age. Study Design A retrospective cohort study included 4,183 women (4,001 African American and 182 Caucasian) from the Detroit metropolitan area who underwent ultrasound examinations between 14 and 40 weeks of gestation (the median number of scans per pregnancy was 5, interquartile range 3-7) and for whom relevant covariate data were available. Longitudinal quantile regression was used to build models defining the “normal” estimated fetal weight (EFW) centiles for gestational age in African American women, adjusted for maternal height, weight, parity, and fetal sex, and excluding pathologic factors with a significant effect on fetal weight. The resulting Perinatology Research Branch/Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (hereinafter, PRB/NICHD) growth standard was compared to 3 other existing standards—the customized gestation-related optimal weight (GROW) standard; the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (hereinafter, NICHD) African American standard; and the multinational World Health Organization (WHO) standard—utilized to screen fetuses for SGA (90th centile) based on the last available ultrasound examination for each pregnancy. Results 1) First, the mean birthweight at 40 weeks was 133g higher for neonates born to Caucasian than to African American mothers and 150g higher for male than female neonates; maternal weight
Full Text Available Jumbled sentence items in language assessment have been criticized by some authors as inauthentic. However, unscrambling jumbled sentences is a common occurrence in real-world communication in English as a lingua franca. Naturalistic inquiry identified 54 instances of jumbled sentence use in daily life in Dubai/Sharjah, where English is widely used as a lingua franca. Thus it is seen that jumbled sentence test items can reflect real-world language use. To evaluate scrambled sentence test items, eight test item types developed from one jumbled sentence instance (“Want taxi Dubai you?” were analyzed in terms of interactivity and authenticity. Items ranged from being completely decontextualized, non-interactive, and inauthentic to being fully contextualized, interactive, and authentic. To determine appropriate assessment standards for English tests in schools in this region, the English language standards for schools and English language requirements for university admission in the UAE were analyzed. Schools in Dubai/Sharjah use Inner Circle English varieties of English (e.g., British or American English as the standard for evaluation, as well as non-native-English-speaker varieties (e.g., Indian English(es. Also, students applying to English-medium universities in the UAE must meet the required scores on standardized English tests including the IELTS and TOEFL. Standards for evaluation of communication in English involving tasks of jumbled sentences in classroom tests must reflect the language learning goals of the school and community. Thus standards for classroom assessment of English in Dubai/Sharjah are determined by local schools’ and universities’ policies.
Full Text Available The purpose of this qualitative inquiry was to explore and describe the perspectives of local English teachers on the National Standardized Exam [NSE] policy as a high-stakes exam to gauge student performance nationally at four senior high schools in Jambi City, Indonesia. The theoretical framework of the ethics of critique, justice, and care was used to guide this study. Data for this study are collected through a demographic background survey and in-depth interviews with fifteen local English teachers. The demographic data were analyzed descriptively. The interviews data were analyzed using within-case and cross-case displays and analyses. Two salient themes with their subthemes that emerged were (1 negative perspectives on the practices and accuracy of the NSE policy and (2 unintended consequences the NSE policy (curriculum and instruction, teaching and learning, teacher motivation, student motivation, less attention to non-tested disciplines, and widespread cheating. This study provides information for policy makers, school leaders, researchers, and teacher educators to understand how the policy is implemented at the school level. Policy implications are discussed
Mugler, Emily M.; Patton, James L.; Flint, Robert D.; Wright, Zachary A.; Schuele, Stephan U.; Rosenow, Joshua; Shih, Jerry J.; Krusienski, Dean J.; Slutzky, Marc W.
Objective. Although brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) can be used in several different ways to restore communication, communicative BCI has not approached the rate or efficiency of natural human speech. Electrocorticography (ECoG) has precise spatiotemporal resolution that enables recording of brain activity distributed over a wide area of cortex, such as during speech production. In this study, we sought to decode elements of speech production using ECoG. Approach. We investigated words that contain the entire set of phonemes in the general American accent using ECoG with four subjects. Using a linear classifier, we evaluated the degree to which individual phonemes within each word could be correctly identified from cortical signal. Main results. We classified phonemes with up to 36% accuracy when classifying all phonemes and up to 63% accuracy for a single phoneme. Further, misclassified phonemes follow articulation organization described in phonology literature, aiding classification of whole words. Precise temporal alignment to phoneme onset was crucial for classification success. Significance. We identified specific spatiotemporal features that aid classification, which could guide future applications. Word identification was equivalent to information transfer rates as high as 3.0 bits s-1 (33.6 words min-1), supporting pursuit of speech articulation for BCI control.
... REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT BUSINESS PRACTICE STANDARDS AND COMMUNICATION PROTOCOLS FOR PUBLIC... Quadrant standards. (a) All entities to which § 38.1 is applicable must comply with the following business practice and electronic communication standards promulgated by the North American Energy Standards Board...
Strange, Winifred; Levy, Erika; Lehnholf, Robert
Previous research in our laboratory has demonstrated that the perceived similarity of vowels across languages is not always predictable from the closeness of their target formant values in F1/F2/F3 space. In this study, perceptual similarity was established using a task in which 11 American English (AE) monolinguals were presented multiple tokens of 9 French vowels and 14 North German vowels (in separate blocks) produced in citation-form /hVb(a)/ (bi)syllables by native speakers. They selected 1 of 11 AE vowel responses to which each non-native vowel token was most similar, and rated its goodness on a 9-point Likert scale. Of special interest was the perceptual assimilation of front rounded French [y, oe] and German [y, Y, o/, oe] vowels. Acoustically, all six French and German vowels are more similar to front unrounded AE vowels. However, all six vowels were perceived to be more similar to back rounded AE vowels (range across vowels = 55% to 100%), although relatively poor exemplars. There were differences across languages in how the same vowel was assimilated (e.g., French /y/ assimilated to front AE vowels 13%, German /y/, 0% French [oe] 3%, German [oe] 45%). There were also large individual differences in listeners assimilation patterns. [Work supported by NIDCD.
Picard, Michelle; Velautham, Lalitha
This paper describes an action research project to develop online, self-access listening resources mirroring the authentic academic contexts experienced by graduate university students. Current listening materials for English as an Additional Language (EAL) students mainly use Standard American English or Standard British pronunciation, and far…
Senn, Gary J.; McMurtrie, Deborah H.; Coleman, Bridget K.
This article explores using the RAFT strategy (Role, Audience, Format, Topic) for writing in science classes. The framework of the RAFT strategy will be explained, and connections with Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for ELA/Literacy will be discussed. Finally, there will be a discussion of a professional learning experience for teachers in…
Ko, Kyung Hee; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Young Ah; Son, Eun Ju; Oh, Ki Keun; Chung, Sun Yang
To evaluate the technical quality of breast ultrasound based on American College of Radiology(ACR) standards. Between March 2002 and July 2002, ninety three breast sonograms obtained from 73 institutions were evaluated based on ACR standards for the hardware, technical settings, labeling of the images and identification. Of 93 breast sonograms, a satisfactory compliance with all ACR standards in the performance of breast US examinations was documented in 31% while the remaining 69% did not fully meet all ACR standards. 4.3% of breast US examinations were performed with a convex transducers, and the focal zone was inappropriately positioned in 14.2%. Gray-scale gain was subjectively characterized as inappropriate in 26.9%, and the size of lesion was not measured in 7.5%. Anatomic location of lesions was inappropriately described in 9.3%. The orientation of an US transducer was not properly labeled on any images in 33.3%. Inadequate recording of patient's information was noted in 43.3%. 50% of sonograms at University medical centers and larger general hospitals fully met all ACR standards while 36.8% at radiologic clinics and 12.1% at other private clinics met all ACR standards. Overall, 69% of breast sonograms failed to meet the quality criteria of the ACR standards. Therefore, it is essential to educate the basic technical details in performing breast US for the quality control.
Sawaki, Yasuyo; Koizumi, Rie
This small-scale qualitative study considers feedback and results reported for two major large-scale English language tests administered in Japan: the Global Test of English Communication for Students (GTECfS) and the Eiken Test in Practical English Proficiency (Eiken). Specifically, it examines current score-reporting practices in student and…
A series of pressure vessel surveillance capsules is installed in each commercial nuclear power plant in the United States. A capsule typically contains neutron dose meters, thermal monitors, tensile specimens, and Charpy V-notch impact specimens. In order to determine property changes of the pressure vessel resulting from irradiation, surveillance capsules are periodically removed during the life of a reactor and examined. There are numerous standards, regulations, and codes governing US pressure vessel surveillance capsule programmes. These are put out by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). A majority of the pertinent ASTM standards are under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee E-10 on Nuclear Applications and Measurements of Radiation Effects. The standards, regulations, and codes pertaining to pressure vessel surveillance play an important role in ensuring reliability of the nuclear pressure vessels. ASTM E 185-73 is the Standard Recommended Practice for Surveillance Tests for Nuclear Reactors. This standard recommends procedures for both the irradiation and subsequent testing of surveillance capsules. ASTM E 185-73 references many additional specialized ASTM standards to be followed in specific areas of a surveillance capsule examination. A key element of surveillance capsule programmes is the Charpy V-notch impact test, used to define curves of fracture behaviour over a range of temperatures. The data from these tests are used to define the adjusted reference temperature used in determining pressure-temperature operating curves for a nuclear power plant. (author)
Widdowson, H. G.
A plenary address from the 1993 Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) Convention discusses the question of how English teachers delimit and design their world. Issues of standard English are raised, and it is noted that, if English serves the communicative and communal needs of different communities, it must be diverse. (One…
Weston, M; Bird, S; Helsen, W; Nevill, A; Castagna, C
The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of match standard and referee experience on the objective and subjective workload of referees during English Premier League and Football League soccer matches. We also examined the relationship between heart rate (HR) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) for assessing match intensity in soccer referees. Heart rate responses were recorded using short-range telemetry and RPE scores were collected using a 10-point scale. Analysis revealed a significant relationship between mean match HR and match RPE scores (r=0.485, pFootball League 81.5+/-2.2%HRmax, pFootball League 6.9+/-0.8, pReferee experience had no effect on match HR and RPE responses to Premier League and Football League matches. The results of the present study demonstrate the validity of using HR and RPE as a measure of global match intensity in soccer referees. Referee experience had no effect on the referees' objective and subjective match workload assessments, whereas match intensity was correlated to competition standard. These findings have implications for fitness preparation and evaluation in soccer referees. When progressing to a higher level of competition, referees should ensure that appropriate levels of fitness are developed in order to enable them to cope with an increase in physical match demands.
Full Text Available Between-country comparisons of estimated dietary intake are particularly prone to error when different food composition tables are used. The objective of this study was to describe our procedures and rationale for the selection and adaptation of available food composition to a single database to enable cross-country nutritional intake comparisons. Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS is a multicenter cross-sectional study of representative samples from eight Latin American countries. A standard study protocol was designed to investigate dietary intake of 9000 participants enrolled. Two 24-h recalls using the Multiple Pass Method were applied among the individuals of all countries. Data from 24-h dietary recalls were entered into the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R program after a harmonization process between countries to include local foods and appropriately adapt the NDS-R database. A food matching standardized procedure involving nutritional equivalency of local food reported by the study participants with foods available in the NDS-R database was strictly conducted by each country. Standardization of food and nutrient assessments has the potential to minimize systematic and random errors in nutrient intake estimations in the ELANS project. This study is expected to result in a unique dataset for Latin America, enabling cross-country comparisons of energy, macro- and micro-nutrient intake within this region.
Kovalskys, Irina; Fisberg, Mauro; Gómez, Georgina; Rigotti, Attilio; Cortés, Lilia Yadira; Yépez, Martha Cecilia; Pareja, Rossina G.; Herrera-Cuenca, Marianella; Zimberg, Ioná Z.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Koletzko, Berthold; Pratt, Michael
Between-country comparisons of estimated dietary intake are particularly prone to error when different food composition tables are used. The objective of this study was to describe our procedures and rationale for the selection and adaptation of available food composition to a single database to enable cross-country nutritional intake comparisons. Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS) is a multicenter cross-sectional study of representative samples from eight Latin American countries. A standard study protocol was designed to investigate dietary intake of 9000 participants enrolled. Two 24-h recalls using the Multiple Pass Method were applied among the individuals of all countries. Data from 24-h dietary recalls were entered into the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R) program after a harmonization process between countries to include local foods and appropriately adapt the NDS-R database. A food matching standardized procedure involving nutritional equivalency of local food reported by the study participants with foods available in the NDS-R database was strictly conducted by each country. Standardization of food and nutrient assessments has the potential to minimize systematic and random errors in nutrient intake estimations in the ELANS project. This study is expected to result in a unique dataset for Latin America, enabling cross-country comparisons of energy, macro- and micro-nutrient intake within this region. PMID:26389952
Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor; Lapierre, Matthew A; Linebarger, Deborah L
Children who possess less self-regulatory skill are at a disadvantage when compared to children who demonstrate greater skill at regulating their emotions, cognitions and behavior. Children with these regulatory deficits have difficulty connecting with peers, generating relationships with teachers, negotiating their social world, and succeeding academically. By understanding the correlates of self-regulatory abilities, interventions can be developed to ensure that children at-risk for poor self-regulation receive the support necessary to enhance their regulatory skills. Using data from a nationally representative survey of English-speaking American parents with children between the ages of two and eight ( n = 1,141), we evaluated a host of demographic and parenting variables to isolate the correlates of self-regulation. Older children were found to have fewer regulatory problems than younger children while children from low-income homes and male children were found to have greater problems with self-regulation. Minority status, household composition (single vs multi-parent), and parental education were not significant correlates of self-regulation. Findings also illustrate the powerful relationship between parenting style and self-regulation. Parents who rely on nurturing parenting practices that reinforce the child's sense of autonomy while still maintaining a consistent parenting presence (i.e., authoritative parenting) have children who demonstrate stronger self-regulatory skills. Parents who exert an excess of parental control (i.e., authoritarian parents) have children with weaker self-regulatory skills. And lastly, parents who have notable absence of control (i.e., permissive parents) are more likely to have children with considerable regulatory deficits. Results offer implications for both practitioners and scholars.
Mayo, Charles S; Moran, Jean M; Bosch, Walter; Xiao, Ying; McNutt, Todd; Popple, Richard; Michalski, Jeff; Feng, Mary; Marks, Lawrence B; Fuller, Clifton D; Yorke, Ellen; Palta, Jatinder; Gabriel, Peter E; Molineu, Andrea; Matuszak, Martha M; Covington, Elizabeth; Masi, Kathryn; Richardson, Susan L; Ritter, Timothy; Morgas, Tomasz; Flampouri, Stella; Santanam, Lakshmi; Moore, Joseph A; Purdie, Thomas G; Miller, Robert C; Hurkmans, Coen; Adams, Judy; Jackie Wu, Qing-Rong; Fox, Colleen J; Siochi, Ramon Alfredo; Brown, Norman L; Verbakel, Wilko; Archambault, Yves; Chmura, Steven J; Dekker, Andre L; Eagle, Don G; Fitzgerald, Thomas J; Hong, Theodore; Kapoor, Rishabh; Lansing, Beth; Jolly, Shruti; Napolitano, Mary E; Percy, James; Rose, Mark S; Siddiqui, Salim; Schadt, Christof; Simon, William E; Straube, William L; St James, Sara T; Ulin, Kenneth; Yom, Sue S; Yock, Torunn I
A substantial barrier to the single- and multi-institutional aggregation of data to supporting clinical trials, practice quality improvement efforts, and development of big data analytics resource systems is the lack of standardized nomenclatures for expressing dosimetric data. To address this issue, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group 263 was charged with providing nomenclature guidelines and values in radiation oncology for use in clinical trials, data-pooling initiatives, population-based studies, and routine clinical care by standardizing: (1) structure names across image processing and treatment planning system platforms; (2) nomenclature for dosimetric data (eg, dose-volume histogram [DVH]-based metrics); (3) templates for clinical trial groups and users of an initial subset of software platforms to facilitate adoption of the standards; (4) formalism for nomenclature schema, which can accommodate the addition of other structures defined in the future. A multisociety, multidisciplinary, multinational group of 57 members representing stake holders ranging from large academic centers to community clinics and vendors was assembled, including physicists, physicians, dosimetrists, and vendors. The stakeholder groups represented in the membership included the AAPM, American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), NRG Oncology, European Society for Radiation Oncology (ESTRO), Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG), Children's Oncology Group (COG), Integrating Healthcare Enterprise in Radiation Oncology (IHE-RO), and Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine working group (DICOM WG); A nomenclature system for target and organ at risk volumes and DVH nomenclature was developed and piloted to demonstrate viability across a range of clinics and within the framework of clinical trials. The final report was approved by AAPM in October 2017. The approval process included review by 8 AAPM committees, with additional review by ASTRO
Chisman, Forrest P.; And Others
An investigation of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) services for adults in the United States is reported. The goal was to examine ESL services as a national system and determine how well that system meets the needs of limited-English-proficient adults and the nation as a whole. The study had two phases: (1) review of literature, information…
Hoedel, Joseph M.; Lee, Robert E.
This is a case study in which the Character Development and Leadership Program replaced an alternative high school's traditional English language offerings. A triangulated case study used student records, field notes, and interviews of stakeholders to compare the academic year prior to this substitution and the 2 academic years following it. All 3…
Asif, Irfan M; Stovak, Mark; Ray, Tracy; Weiss-Kelly, Amanda
The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine recognises a need to provide direction and continually enhance the quality of sports medicine fellowship training programmes. This document was developed to be an educational resource for sports medicine physicians who teach in a 1-year primary care sports medicine fellowship training programme. It is meant to provide high standards and targets for fellowship training programmes that choose to re-assess their curriculum and seek to make improvements. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Braun, A R; Guillemin, A; Hosey, L; Varga, M
In order to identify brain regions that play an essential role in the production of discourse, H2 15O-PET scans were acquired during spontaneous generation of autobiographical narratives in English and in American Sign Language in hearing subjects who were native users of both. We compared languages that differ maximally in their mode of expression yet share the same core linguistic properties in order to differentiate the stages of discourse production: differences between the languages should reflect later, modality-dependent stages of phonological encoding and articulation; congruencies are more likely to reveal the anatomy of earlier modality-independent stages of conceptualization and lexical access. Common activations were detected in a widespread array of regions; left hemisphere language areas classically related to speech were also robustly activated during sign production, but the common neural architecture extended beyond the classical language areas and included extrasylvian regions in both right and left hemispheres. Furthermore, posterior perisylvian and basal temporal regions appear to play an integral role in spontaneous self-generated formulation and production of language, even in the absence of exteroceptive stimuli. Results additionally indicate that anterior and posterior areas may play distinct roles in early and late stages of language production, and suggest a novel model for lateralization of cerebral activity during the generation of discourse: progression from the early stages of lexical access to later stages of articulatory-motor encoding may constitute a progression from bilateral to left-lateralized activation. This pattern is not predicted by the standard Wernicke-Geschwind model, and may become apparent when language is produced in an ecologically valid context.
Keenan, James M.
Teachers of standards based, College Prep English classes regularly face resistant and struggling readers who fail to engage, persevere, and comprehend curricular texts. As a result, these readers do not share in class discussions. Therefore, a class discourse was formulated upon Gee's (1996) Social Discourse theory and Leu, Kinzer, Coiro, and…
Development and administration of institutional ESL placement tests require a great deal of financial and human resources. Due to a steady increase in the number of international students studying in the United States, some US universities have started to consider using standardized test scores for ESL placement. The English Placement Test (EPT)…
Parker, Michelle A; Borrie, Stephanie A
Vocal fry is a prevalent speech feature in college-aged American women living in the United States. However, there is currently little consensus about how its use influences listener judgments of the speaker. This study investigated how vocal fry influences judgments of intelligence and the likability of young adult female speakers of American English while taking into account the surrounding acoustic-prosodic context, specifically voice pitch and speech rate. Speech samples were obtained from eight American English-speaking females who presented with different combinations of voice pitch (low or high), speech rate (slow or fast), and vocal fry (presence or absence). Listener judgments of ratings of intelligence and likability were collected from 463 adults via online crowdsourcing. Generalized estimating equation models revealed significant three-way interactions between the voice pitch, speech rate, and vocal fry for listener judgments of intelligence and likability. While vocal fry had favorable effects in some contexts (eg, high pitch, fast rate) it had unfavorable effects in others (eg, low pitch, fast rate). Listener judgments of young American women based on information afforded in their speech are not solely based on the presence or absence of vocal fry, but rather a combination of features that interact with one another in unique ways. Thus, whether or not the use of vocal fry in this population projects a favorable impression depends on the acoustic-prosodic context in which it is produced. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tiewtrakul, T; Fletcher, S R
Although English has been the international aviation language since 1951, formal language proficiency testing for key aviation personnel has only recently been implemented by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). It aims to ensure minimum acceptable levels of English pronunciation and comprehension universally, but does not attend to particular regional dialect difficulties. However, evidence suggests that voice transmissions between air traffic controllers and pilots are a particular problem in international airspace and that pilots may not understand messages due to the influence of different accents when using English. This study explores the potential impact of 'non-native English' in pilot-air traffic control transmissions using a 'conversation analysis' technique to examine approach phase recordings from Bangkok International Airport. Results support that communication errors, defined by incidents of pilots not understanding, occur significantly more often when speakers are both non-native English, messages are more complex and when numerical information is involved. These results and their possible implications are discussed with reference to the development of ICAO's new language proficiency standards. Statement of Relevance: This study builds on previous work and literature, providing further evidence to show that the risks caused by language and linguistics in aviation must be explored more deeply. Findings are particularly contemporary and relevant today, indicating that recently implemented international standards would benefit from further exploratory research and development.
小林, 薫; Kaoru, Kobayashi; 東京農業大学; Tokyo University of Agriculture
This presentation describes the organizational structure and metatext strategies in English and Japanese research article abstracts in the field of applied linguistics. There have been some contrastive studies on logical development between English and Japanese texts on expository writing and argumentative essays, (H. Kobayashi, 1984, Oi, 1986, Oi and Kamimura 1997, Kubota 1996, 1997, 1998). However, there has not been much research on genre specific contrastive rhetoric between English and J...
Cutler, C; Peng, T; Stinson, J; Tucker, L; Boneparth, A; Klein Gitelman, M; Moorthy, L Nandini
Objective The objective of this article is to examine the quality, content, and readability of information and resources in the English language and accessible on the internet by pediatric patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and their families in North America. Methods Keywords relevant to SLE were generated by an undergraduate student, a first-year medical student, and a third-year pediatric resident, and a search was conducted across five commonly used search engines. Quality of information found was evaluated independently by an undergraduate student, a graduate student, a first-year medical student, and a third-year pediatric resident using the DISCERN tool. Two pediatric rheumatologists assessed website accuracy and completeness. Readability of websites was determined using the Flesch-Kincaid grade level and Reading Ease score. Results Out of 2000 websites generated in the search, only 34 unique websites met inclusion criteria. Only 16 of these websites had DISCERN scores above 50% (fair quality). Overall quality of website information was fair with mean ±standard deviation (SD) DISCERN quality score of 44 ± 7 (range: 30-56). Only nine websites of 34 had DISCERN scores above 50 (>66%, indicating greater quality) and were further assessed for completeness. Flesch-Kincaid grade level was 11 ± 1 (mean±SD) and reading ease score was 39 ± 10 (mean±SD, range of 11-61). Conclusion Our study highlights the need for more complete, readable information regarding the unique needs of pediatric patients with childhood-onset SLE and their families.
Full Text Available developing resources for an under-resourced variety of English, the compilation of acoustic data should be prioritised, language modelling data has a weaker effect on performance and the pronunciation dictionary the smallest....
Aziz, Nazneen; Zhao, Qin; Bry, Lynn; Driscoll, Denise K; Funke, Birgit; Gibson, Jane S; Grody, Wayne W; Hegde, Madhuri R; Hoeltge, Gerald A; Leonard, Debra G B; Merker, Jason D; Nagarajan, Rakesh; Palicki, Linda A; Robetorye, Ryan S; Schrijver, Iris; Weck, Karen E; Voelkerding, Karl V
The higher throughput and lower per-base cost of next-generation sequencing (NGS) as compared to Sanger sequencing has led to its rapid adoption in clinical testing. The number of laboratories offering NGS-based tests has also grown considerably in the past few years, despite the fact that specific Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988/College of American Pathologists (CAP) laboratory standards had not yet been developed to regulate this technology. To develop a checklist for clinical testing using NGS technology that sets standards for the analytic wet bench process and for bioinformatics or "dry bench" analyses. As NGS-based clinical tests are new to diagnostic testing and are of much greater complexity than traditional Sanger sequencing-based tests, there is an urgent need to develop new regulatory standards for laboratories offering these tests. To develop the necessary regulatory framework for NGS and to facilitate appropriate adoption of this technology for clinical testing, CAP formed a committee in 2011, the NGS Work Group, to deliberate upon the contents to be included in the checklist. Results . -A total of 18 laboratory accreditation checklist requirements for the analytic wet bench process and bioinformatics analysis processes have been included within CAP's molecular pathology checklist (MOL). This report describes the important issues considered by the CAP committee during the development of the new checklist requirements, which address documentation, validation, quality assurance, confirmatory testing, exception logs, monitoring of upgrades, variant interpretation and reporting, incidental findings, data storage, version traceability, and data transfer confidentiality.
Culver, Bruce H; Graham, Brian L; Coates, Allan L; Wanger, Jack; Berry, Cristine E; Clarke, Patricia K; Hallstrand, Teal S; Hankinson, John L; Kaminsky, David A; MacIntyre, Neil R; McCormack, Meredith C; Rosenfeld, Margaret; Stanojevic, Sanja; Weiner, Daniel J
The American Thoracic Society committee on Proficiency Standards for Pulmonary Function Laboratories has recognized the need for a standardized reporting format for pulmonary function tests. Although prior documents have offered guidance on the reporting of test data, there is considerable variability in how these results are presented to end users, leading to potential confusion and miscommunication. A project task force, consisting of the committee as a whole, was approved to develop a new Technical Standard on reporting pulmonary function test results. Three working groups addressed the presentation format, the reference data supporting interpretation of results, and a system for grading quality of test efforts. Each group reviewed relevant literature and wrote drafts that were merged into the final document. This document presents a reporting format in test-specific units for spirometry, lung volumes, and diffusing capacity that can be assembled into a report appropriate for a laboratory's practice. Recommended reference sources are updated with data for spirometry and diffusing capacity published since prior documents. A grading system is presented to encourage uniformity in the important function of test quality assessment. The committee believes that wide adoption of these formats and their underlying principles by equipment manufacturers and pulmonary function laboratories can improve the interpretation, communication, and understanding of test results.
Noble, Clifford Elliott, II
The problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of three single-task instruments---(a) the Test of English as a Foreign Language, (b) the Aviation Test of Spoken English, and (c) the Single Manual-Tracking Test---and three dual-task instruments---(a) the Concurrent Manual-Tracking and Communication Test, (b) the Certified Flight Instructor's Test, and (c) the Simulation-Based English Test---to predict the language performance of 10 Chinese student pilots speaking English as a second language when operating single-engine and multiengine aircraft within American airspace. Method. This research implemented a correlational design to investigate the ability of the six described instruments to predict the mean score of the criterion evaluation, which was the Examiner's Test. This test assessed the oral communication skill of student pilots on the flight portion of the terminal checkride in the Piper Cadet, Piper Seminole, and Beechcraft King Air airplanes. Results. Data from the Single Manual-Tracking Test, as well as the Concurrent Manual-Tracking and Communication Test, were discarded due to performance ceiling effects. Hypothesis 1, which stated that the average correlation between the mean scores of the dual-task evaluations and that of the Examiner's Test would predict the mean score of the criterion evaluation with a greater degree of accuracy than that of single-task evaluations, was not supported. Hypothesis 2, which stated that the correlation between the mean scores of the participants on the Simulation-Based English Test and the Examiner's Test would predict the mean score of the criterion evaluation with a greater degree of accuracy than that of all single- and dual-task evaluations, was also not supported. The findings suggest that single- and dual-task assessments administered after initial flight training are equivalent predictors of language performance when piloting single-engine and multiengine aircraft.
Hinze, W. J.; Aiken, C.; Brozena, J.; Coakley, B.; Dater, D.; Flanagan, G.; Forsberg, R.; Hildenbrand, T.; Keller, Gordon R.; Kellogg, J.; Kucks, R.; Li, X.; Mainville, A.; Morin, R.; Pilkington, M.; Plouff, D.; Ravat, D.; Roman, D.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Veronneau, M.; Webring, M.; Winester, D.
The North American gravity database as well as databases from Canada, Mexico, and the United States are being revised to improve their coverage, versatility, and accuracy. An important part of this effort is revising procedures for calculating gravity anomalies, taking into account our enhanced computational power, improved terrain databases and datums, and increased interest in more accurately defining long-wavelength anomaly components. Users of the databases may note minor differences between previous and revised database values as a result of these procedures. Generally, the differences do not impact the interpretation of local anomalies but do improve regional anomaly studies. The most striking revision is the use of the internationally accepted terrestrial ellipsoid for the height datum of gravity stations rather than the conventionally used geoid or sea level. Principal facts of gravity observations and anomalies based on both revised and previous procedures together with germane metadata will be available on an interactive Web-based data system as well as from national agencies and data centers. The use of the revised procedures is encouraged for gravity data reduction because of the widespread use of the global positioning system in gravity fieldwork and the need for increased accuracy and precision of anomalies and consistency with North American and national databases. Anomalies based on the revised standards should be preceded by the adjective "ellipsoidal" to differentiate anomalies calculated using heights with respect to the ellipsoid from those based on conventional elevations referenced to the geoid. ?? 2005 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract: In the last few decades, Central American countries are making a significant effort in order to modernize their governments' legislation both on financial management and systems of financial information. In this sense, these countries aim to enhance the quality of public financial information in order to improve decision-making processes, decrease the level of corruption, and keep citizens informed. In this context, the purpose of this paper is twofold. Firstly, to assess the degree of similarity of the financial information that is being developed by Central American governments with regard to the recommendations set up by Ipsas, and secondly, to analyse the efforts and the strategies that those countries are carrying out in the process of implementing those standards. To determine the differences in the information containing the annual financial statements issued by national public authorities and the recommendations set up by Ipsas we conducted a deductive content analysis. In view of the results we can say that the quality of annual financial statements presented by the countries in Central America, in comparison to the recommendations by the Ipsas concerning Ifac information, is not enough. Hence, in order to operate significant changes, it is still necessary to create new strategies for the implementation of the Ipsas.
Sanchez, Deborah M.
This study explores the epistemology present in hip-hop music and its reflection in the writing of one African American student in a postsecondary transitional English class. An integration of hip-hop and academic literacy practices in the student's essay challenges the supremacy of a "standard" academic English and deficit perspectives about…
There is broad agreement as to many of the segmental features of the Hong Kong accent of English: neutralisation of vowels which contrast in Standard Southern British English or General American, non-release of final stops, simplification of consonant clusters and devoicing of coda consonants. However, while it is apparent that there is no reason…
Thelma Valéria Rocha
Full Text Available This study analyzes the adaptation versus standardization dilemma in International Marketing in subsidiaries of multinationals corporations. It highlights the importance of GMS – global marketing strategies – in the ability to innovate in subsidiaries in emerging economies, as Brazil. The objective is to find out how the level of autonomy displayed by subsidiaries influences the adaptation vs. standardization dilemma, and, consequently, the marketing-mix program. The methodology followed is qualitative research using a case-study approach in an American multinational from the food sector. In this case, we found out that firm's brands are very important to this firm's success overseas, which sustains that brand policies should be defined carefully at both levels: subsidiaries and headquarters. This brand policy influences direct the autonomy to innovate in marketing at subsidiaries level. This study is useful for managers at subsidiaries who need to understand the importance of global marketing strategies, and also for managers at headquarters who need to verify in which circumstances autonomy pays off.
Full Text Available The main goal of this article is to investigate the distribution of two apparently vying finite complementation patterns—if and whether clauses—accompanying three mental verbs (see, wonder, and know in the MICASE corpus of spoken academic American English. The default introspective theoretical assumption that the two investigated complementizers are in a free distribution was not corroborated by the empiricical inquiry. The three verbs do evince linguistic preferences regarding complementation, preferences which depend on a number of factors: the valency pattern of a given verb, co(ntext, sub-genre, and the like. Moreover, the investigation also appears to have demonstrated that, in respect to the complementation of see, wonder, and know, spoken academic English bears a greater resemblance to everyday conversation than to written academic English, thus corroborating the contention that field prevails over mode (to employ Hallidayan parlance. Furthermore, the inquiry into the semantics of the three mental verbs investigated indicates that their meanings are affected by the genre, inasmuch as the verbs investigated tend to depart from their default dictionary definitions by conveying less-prototypical meanings. This finding, in turn, provides a rationale for probing into the pragmatics and functions of the three verbs. It must be stressed that the results should not be generalised due to the relatively small corpus size, which implies that further research is indicated.
The aim of this study is to investigate the reading strategies used by Chinese English major students in the reading component in standardized national tests of TEM-4 with regard to reading efficiency. The research questions include: 1) what strategies are used by the students in TEM-4 test context; 2) whether there is a significant correlation between strategy use and efficient reading in the test; 3) what kinds of reading problems are revealed in the students’ use of processing strategies; ...
von Heyking, Amy
At the beginning of the twentieth century, English-Canadian schools have attempted to create citizens of good character who were loyal to a Canadian nation defined by its role in the British Empire. Because of the country's experience in World War I, Canadians refined their identity in the 1920s, keeping it distinct from its relationship with…
Bell, Robert A.; Cassady, Diana; Culp, Jennifer; Alcalay, Rina
Objective: To describe food advertised on networks serving children and youth, and to compare ads on English-language networks with ads on Spanish networks. Design: Analysis of television food advertisements appearing on Saturday morning and weekday afternoons in 2005-2006. A random sample of 1,130 advertisements appearing on 12 networks catering…
Full Text Available One of the key issues in the pipeline design is wall thickness calculation. This paper highlights a comparison of wall thickness calculation methods of submarine gas pipeline based on Norwegian Standard (DNV-OS-F101, Indonesian Standard SNI 3474 which refers to American Standard(ASME B31.8, and Russian Standard (VN39-1.9-005-98. A calculation of wall thickness for a submarine gas pipeline in Indonesia (pressure 12 MPa, external diameter 668 mm gives the results of 18.2 mm (VN39-1.9-005-98, 16 mm (ASME B31.8, and 13.5 mm (DNV-OS-F101.The design formula of hoop stress due to internal pressure is interpreted in different ways for every standard. Only Norwegian Standard requires calculating hoop stresses in the inner surface, which leads to a decreased value of the wall thickness. Furthermore, the calculation of collapse factor dueto external pressure is only regulated in Americanand Norwegian Standards while Russian Standard uses that factor as an intermediate parameter in calculating local buckling. For propagation buckling, either Russian or American Standard explains empirical formula of critical hydrostatics pressure as the input in propagation buckling calculation. This formula is almost similar to the empirical formula of Norwegian Standard. From the comparison of these standards, DNV OS-F101 gives more stringent requirements than others
This study investigated the intelligibility of Chinese and American graduate students to their Korean and American peers. A psycholinguistic word-recognition-in-noise study investigated the effects on intelligibility of speakers’ L1 and segmental pronunciation accuracy and how this varied...... by listeners’ L1 and word familiarity. Participants included 6 male graduate students (Chinese and American) as speakers and 36 male and female graduate students (Korean and American) as listeners. Since there was no speech corpus publicly available that would help answer the research questions, the researcher...... first compiled the Buckeye GTA Corpus, which includes L1 and L2 speech recordings of Chinese, Indian, Korean, and American university students. A series of logistic regression mixed-effects models revealed that speaker L1, listener L1, and listener word familiarity were significant predictors...
Faravan, Amir; Mohammadi, Nooredin; Alizadeh Ghavidel, Alireza; Toutounchi, Mohammad Zia; Ghanbari, Ameneh; Mazloomi, Mehran
Standards have a significant role in showing the minimum level of optimal optimum and the expected performance. Since the perfusion technology staffs play an the leading role in providing the quality services to the patients undergoing open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass machine, this study aimed to assess the standards on how Iranian perfusion technology staffs evaluate and manage the patients during the cardiopulmonary bypass process and compare their practice with the recommended standards by American Society of Extracorporeal Technology. In this descriptive study, data was collected from 48 Iranian public hospitals and educational health centers through a researcher-created questionnaire. The data collection questionnaire assessed the standards which are recommended by American Society of Extracorporeal Technology. Findings showed that appropriate measurements were carried out by the perfusion technology staffs to prevent the hemodilution and avoid the blood transfusion and unnecessary blood products, determine the initial dose of heparin based on one of the proposed methods, monitor the anticoagulants based on ACT measurement, and determine the additional doses of heparin during the cardiopulmonary bypass based on ACT or protamine titration. It was done only in 4.2% of hospitals and health centers. Current practices of cardiopulmonary perfusion technology in Iran are inappropriate based on the standards of American Society of Cardiovascular Perfusion. This represents the necessity of authorities' attention to the validation programs and development of the caring standards on one hand and continuous assessment of using these standards on the other hand.
Dictionary of electrical engineering. Power engineering, automation technology, measurement and control technology, mechatronics. German - English; Fachwoerterbuch Elektrotechnik. Energietechnik, Automatisierungstechnik, Mess-, Steuer- und Regelungstechnik, Mechatronik. Deutsch - Englisch
This comprehensive dictionary contains more than 60,000 electrotechnical and engineering terms - used in textbooks, manuals, data sheets, whitepapers and international standards. British English and American English spelling differences are identified. Terms used in IEC standards of the International Electrotechnical Commission are marked, allowing the reader to have easy access to the multilingual glossary of the IEC. (orig.)
... cotton. 28.303 Section 28.303 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL... STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for Length of Staple § 28.303 Standards for length of staple for...
While distinguishing between literary criticism and the scientific study of translation, Latin American translations are analyzed according to the identification of "speech facts," levels of stylistic performance, translating from scratch, and the stylistic features of Rabassa. (NCR)
This study explores the awareness and attitudes of English teachers in South Korea (ETSK) toward eight selected varieties of English: American English (AmE), British English (BrE), Canadian English (CaE), Singaporean English (SiE), Indian English (InE), Chinese English (ChE), Japanese English (JaE) and Korean English (KoE). Data, consisting of 204 questionnaires and 63 interviews, is collected from both Korean and non-Korean English teachers, from two major regions, Busan Gyeongnam and Seoul ...
2013 updated American Society of Clinical Oncology/Oncology Nursing Society chemotherapy administration safety standards including standards for the safe administration and management of oral chemotherapy.
Neuss, Michael N; Polovich, Martha; McNiff, Kristen; Esper, Peg; Gilmore, Terry R; LeFebvre, Kristine B; Schulmeister, Lisa; Jacobson, Joseph O
In 2009, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and the Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) published standards for the safe use of parenteral chemotherapy in the outpatient setting, including issues of practitioner orders, preparation, and administration of medication. In 2011, these were updated to include inpatient facilities. In December 2011, a multistakeholder workgroup met to address the issues associated with orally administered antineoplastics, under the leadership of ASCO and ONS. The workgroup participants developed recommended standards, which were presented for public comment. Public comments informed final edits, and the final standards were reviewed and approved by the ASCO and ONS Boards of Directors. Significant newly identified recommendations include those associated with drug prescription and the necessity of ascertaining that prescriptions are filled. In addition, the importance of patient and family education regarding administration schedules, exception procedures, disposal of unused oral medication, and aspects of continuity of care across settings were identified. This article presents the newly developed standards.
Full Text Available Teaching English as a foreign language is rooted in the national interest of English-speaking countries that promote their own culture throughout the world. To some extent, ‘culture’ is a byword for what has come to be known as the modern nation. Mainly the UK and the US are in the spotlight of EFL teaching and learning. At the expense of other, less ‘sought-after’ varieties of English, British and American English make the case for British and American cultures. Essentially, this is all about Britishness and Americanness, as the very name of the English variety testifies to the British or the American standard. Of course, the other choice, i.e. not to make a choice, is a statement on its own. One way or another, the attempt to pick and choose shapes teaching and learning EFL. However, English is associated with teaching cultural diversity more than other prestige languages. Despite the fact that its status has everything to do with the colonial empire of Great Britain, English highlights the conflict between the use made of the mother tongue to stereotype the non-native speaker of English and current Anglo- American multiculturalism. Effectively, language-use is supposed to shed light on the self-identification patterns that run deep in the literary culture of the nation. Content and language integrated learning (CLIL encompasses the above-mentioned and, if possible, everything else from the popular culture of the English-speaking world. It feels safe to say that the intractable issue of “language teaching as political action” (Cook, 2016: 228 has yet to be resolved in the classrooms of the Romanian public schools too.
Crismore, Avon; And Others
A 16-item Likert Scale questionnaire was used to investigate the perceptions and attitudes of Malaysian teachers and students at the university level toward Malaysian English. The functionality of Malaysian English was accepted, but respondents were determined to learn Standard English because they viewed Malaysian English as "wrong…
Oncology nurses have used chemotherapy standards to develop educational materials and guidelines for standardization and safety and anticipate future opportunities to partner in translating evidence into practice.
Compared to other groups of color, Asian Americans and their perspectives have rarely been given attention in curriculum studies. This article seeks to address the gap in the literature. It uses AsianCrit, a branch of critical race theory, as a theoretical lens to analyze and explicate common patterns across various states' scripting of Asian…
Heppner, Frank; And Others
Without a formal mechanism to produce consensus, American colleges generally have come to agree on what constitutes an appropriate set of course requirements for Biology and Zoology majors. This report describes a survey of American four-year colleges and universities offering biology and/or zoology degrees. Questionnaires were sent to 741 biology…
Butzow, Carol; Butzow, John
By means of 30 children's picture books--with stories set in times ranging from the early settlement of American until today--this book explores the characteristics of American heroes and the ways in which they have influenced our history, our way of life, and the principles upon which our culture has developed.
Sandau, Kristin E; Funk, Marjorie; Auerbach, Andrew; Barsness, Gregory W; Blum, Kay; Cvach, Maria; Lampert, Rachel; May, Jeanine L; McDaniel, George M; Perez, Marco V; Sendelbach, Sue; Sommargren, Claire E; Wang, Paul J
This scientific statement provides an interprofessional, comprehensive review of evidence and recommendations for indications, duration, and implementation of continuous electro cardiographic monitoring of hospitalized patients. Since the original practice standards were published in 2004, new issues have emerged that need to be addressed: overuse of arrhythmia monitoring among a variety of patient populations, appropriate use of ischemia and QT-interval monitoring among select populations, alarm management, and documentation in electronic health records. Authors were commissioned by the American Heart Association and included experts from general cardiology, electrophysiology (adult and pediatric), and interventional cardiology, as well as a hospitalist and experts in alarm management. Strict adherence to the American Heart Association conflict of interest policy was maintained throughout the consensus process. Authors were assigned topics relevant to their areas of expertise, reviewed the literature with an emphasis on publications since the prior practice standards, and drafted recommendations on indications and duration for electrocardiographic monitoring in accordance with the American Heart Association Level of Evidence grading algorithm that was in place at the time of commissioning. The comprehensive document is grouped into 5 sections: (1) Overview of Arrhythmia, Ischemia, and QTc Monitoring; (2) Recommendations for Indication and Duration of Electrocardiographic Monitoring presented by patient population; (3) Organizational Aspects: Alarm Management, Education of Staff, and Documentation; (4) Implementation of Practice Standards; and (5) Call for Research. Many of the recommendations are based on limited data, so authors conclude with specific questions for further research. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Lee, Jade Tsui-yu
The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of globalization upon the college-level instruction of English/American literature in Taiwan. The examination will be centered upon the subject of Englishness as demonstrated in the courses of English/American Literature taught in Taiwan. By focusing on the term "Englishness," the paper…
Novogrodsky, Rama; Caldwell-Harris, Catherine; Fish, Sarah; Hoffmeister, Robert J.
It is unknown if the developmental path of antonym knowledge in deaf children increases continuously with age and correlates with reading comprehension, as it does in hearing children. In the current study we tested 564 students aged 4-18 on a receptive multiple-choice American Sign Language (ASL) antonym test. A subgroup of 138 students aged 7-18…
Cannon, Joanna E.; Fredrick, Laura D.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.
Reading to children improves vocabulary acquisition through incidental exposure, and it is a best practice for parents and teachers of children who can hear. Children who are deaf or hard of hearing are at risk for not learning vocabulary as such. This article describes a procedure for using books read on DVD in American Sign Language with…
Discusses the role of the English language in postcolonial African literature, focusing on the politics of language, "Africanized" English, and the social languages used in Chinua Achebe's novels and concludes that English today is as much an African language as a British or American one. (Contains 37 references.) (MDM)
Bell, Robert A; Cassady, Diana; Culp, Jennifer; Alcalay, Rina
To describe food advertised on networks serving children and youth, and to compare ads on English-language networks with ads on Spanish networks. Analysis of television food advertisements appearing on Saturday morning and weekday afternoons in 2005-2006. A random sample of 1,130 advertisements appearing on 12 networks catering to Spanish-language, children, youth, Black youth, and general audiences were analyzed. Each advertisement was coded for the nature of the item promoted, the selling propositions used, and any nutritional claims made. Cross-tabulations using Fisher's exact test (P food. Food ads were especially prevalent on Saturday programs and children's networks. Seventy percent of food ads were for items high in sugar or fat. More than one fourth of food advertisements were for fast-food restaurants, which were especially common on MTV and Spanish-language networks. Ads for fruits and vegetables were rare (1.7%). One nutrition-related public service announcement was found for every 63 food ads. Food advertisements continue to promote less-healthful items. Until marketing of high calorie, low-nutrient food to children is restricted, education and media literacy remain the best strategies for mitigating advertising effects.
Freedman, Rachel E.K.; Carter, Michele M.; Sbrocco, Tracy; Gray, James J.
Racial differences in men’s preferences for African-American and Caucasian women’s body size and shape were examined. As expected, there was a trend for African-American men to choose ideal figures with a lower waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), which is associated with a more curvaceous figure. Contrary to expectations, however, African-American men did not choose heavier female figures as ideal. In fact, both groups chose underweight and normal weight figures as ideal. The results from this study suggest that while preferences for WHR may continue to be associated with cultural factors, African-American and Caucasian men may have become more similar than different in their preferences for female weight. Also, the results suggest that within the African-American sample, there were two subsamples with regard to WHR preferences, with one subgroup endorsing the same ideal WHR as their Caucasian counterparts. The results are discussed in terms of possible changes to cultural values that may be reflected in a change in what is considered attractive. PMID:17606230
Freedman, Rachel E K; Carter, Michele M; Sbrocco, Tracy; Gray, James J
Racial differences in men's preferences for African-American and Caucasian women's body size and shape were examined. As expected, there was a trend for African-American men to choose ideal figures with a lower waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), which is associated with a more curvaceous figure. Contrary to expectations, however, African-American men did not choose heavier female figures as ideal. In fact, both groups chose underweight and normal weight figures as ideal. The results from this study suggest that while preferences for WHR may continue to be associated with cultural factors, African-American and Caucasian men may have become more similar than different in their preferences for female weight. Also, the results suggest that within the African-American sample, there were two subsamples with regard to WHR preferences, with one subgroup endorsing the same ideal WHR as their Caucasian counterparts. The results are discussed in terms of possible changes to cultural values that may be reflected in a change in what is considered attractive.
Palmer, Christina G S; Boudreault, Patrick; Berman, Barbara A; Wolfson, Alicia; Duarte, Lionel; Venne, Vickie L; Sinsheimer, Janet S
Deaf American Sign Language-users (ASL) have limited access to cancer genetics information they can readily understand, increasing risk for health disparities. We compared effectiveness of online cancer genetics information presented using a bilingual approach (ASL with English closed captioning) and a monolingual approach (English text). Bilingual modality would increase cancer genetics knowledge and confidence to create a family tree; education would interact with modality. We used a parallel 2:1 randomized pre-post study design stratified on education. 150 Deaf ASL-users ≥18 years old with computer and internet access participated online; 100 (70 high, 30 low education) and 50 (35 high, 15 low education) were randomized to the bilingual and monolingual modalities. Modalities provide virtually identical content on creating a family tree, using the family tree to identify inherited cancer risk factors, understanding how cancer predisposition can be inherited, and the role of genetic counseling and testing for prevention or treatment. 25 true/false items assessed knowledge; a Likert scale item assessed confidence. Data were collected within 2 weeks before and after viewing the information. Significant interaction of language modality, education, and change in knowledge scores was observed (p = .01). High education group increased knowledge regardless of modality (Bilingual: p education group increased knowledge with bilingual (p Bilingual modality yielded greater confidence creating a family tree (p = .03). Bilingual approach provides a better opportunity for lower educated Deaf ASL-users to access cancer genetics information than a monolingual approach. Copyright Â© 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
With the implementation of No Child Left Behind came a wave of educational reform intended for those working with student populations whose academic performance seemed to indicate an alienation from the educational process. Central to these reforms was the implementation of standards-based instruction and their accompanying standardized assessments; however, in one area reform seemed nonexistent---the teacher's gradebook. (Erickson, 2010, Marzano, 2006; Scriffiny, 2008). Given the link between the grading process and achievement motivation, Ames (1992) suggested the use of practices that promote mastery goal orientation. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of standards-based grading system as a factor contributing to mastery goal orientation on the academic performance of urban African American students. To determine the degree of impact, this study first compared the course content averages and End-of-Course-Test (EOCT) scores for science classes using a traditional grading system to those using a standards-based grading system by employing an Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). While there was an increase in all grading areas, two showed a significant difference---the Physical Science course content average (p = 0.024) and ix the Biology EOCT scores (p = 0.0876). These gains suggest that standards-based grading can have a positive impact on the academic performance of African American students. Secondly, this study examined the correlation between the course content averages and the EOCT scores for both the traditional and standards-based grading system; for both Physical Science and Biology, there was a stronger correlation between these two scores for the standards-based grading system.
Caines, Jade; Engelhard, George, Jr.
Standard setting (the process of establishing minimum passing scores on high-stakes exams) is a highly evaluative and policy-driven process. It is a common belief that standard setting panels should be diverse and representative. There is concern, however, that panelists with varying characteristics may differentially influence the results of the…
With the failure of the No Child Left Behind policies of the 1990's, educational reformers wished to establish a "new and improved" set of standards for the United States to follow. However, since their inception in 2006-2007, the new Common Core State Standards have become increasingly unpopular due to the fact that they remain largely…
.... MPMS Chapter 10.9, Standard Test Method for Water in Crude Oils by Coulometric Karl Fischer Titration... the Internal Electro-Optical Distance Ranging (EODR) Method, 2nd Ed. MPMS Chapter 4.5, Master-Meter... Transit Time Technology, 2nd Ed. MPMS Chapter 9.1, Standard Test Method for Density, Relative Density...
... Vietnamese, 46 percent of Chinese, 23 percent of Filipinos and 21 percent of Asian Indians are not fluent in English. In 2015, 75.5 percent of Asian American spoke a language other than English at home. Educational Attainment: According ...
... standards apply only to that part of the Eastern Interconnection within the NPCC geographical footprint. \\3... recorders or as part of another device such as a remote terminal unit or a generator plant digital (or...
Full Text Available Materials evaluation is a critically significant feature of a coherent curriculum to achieve the objectives of pedagogy. To this end, two EFL textbooks commonly taught in language institutes in Iran, namely Interchange series and American English File, were selected for evaluation, seeking teachers’ viewpoints on the effectiveness of the two textbooks. Thirty EFL teachers who had used these two textbooks in their teaching experience participated in the study. A modified version of Litz’s (2005 teacher textbook evaluation form was used to collect data. Analysis of the collected data showed that the teachers were satisfied with the two materials. Moreover, it was found that the difference between the two textbooks was not significant in four features including practical considerations, layout and design, activities, and skills but this difference was significant in two features including language type as well as subject and content. The authors of the two textbooks, the administrators of language institutes, curriculum and material developers, and also students interested in learning EFL can benefit from the findings of this study.
Shilts, Mical Kay; Lamp, Cathi; Horowitz, Marcel; Townsend, Marilyn S.
Objective: Investigate the impact of a nutrition education program on student academic performance as measured by achievement of education standards. Design: Quasi-experimental crossover-controlled study. Setting: California Central Valley suburban elementary school (58% qualified for free or reduced-priced lunch). Participants: All sixth-grade…
Thron, E. Michael
Examines the recent call for English departments to recognize literature that falls outside the British and American tradition. Suggests that we recognize English as a world language and choose books to teach accordingly. (JC)
Redlich, Carrie A; Tarlo, Susan M; Hankinson, John L; Townsend, Mary C; Eschenbacher, William L; Von Essen, Susanna G; Sigsgaard, Torben; Weissman, David N
This document addresses aspects of the performance and interpretation of spirometry that are particularly important in the workplace, where inhalation exposures can affect lung function and cause or exacerbate lung diseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or fibrosis. Issues that previous American Thoracic Society spirometry statements did not adequately address with respect to the workplace were identified for systematic review. Medline 1950-2012 and Embase 1980-2012 were searched for evidence related to the following: training for spirometry technicians; testing posture; appropriate reference values to use for Asians in North America; and interpretative strategies for analyzing longitudinal change in lung function. The evidence was reviewed and technical recommendations were developed. Spirometry performed in the work setting should be part of a comprehensive workplace respiratory health program. Effective technician training and feedback can improve the quality of spirometry testing. Posture-related changes in FEV1 and FVC, although small, may impact interpretation, so testing posture should be kept consistent and documented on repeat testing. Until North American Asian-specific equations are developed, applying a correction factor of 0.88 to white reference values is considered reasonable when testing Asian American individuals in North America. Current spirometry should be compared with previous tests. Excessive loss in FEV1 over time should be evaluated using either a percentage decline (15% plus loss expected due to aging) or one of the other approaches discussed, taking into consideration testing variability, worker exposures, symptoms, and other clinical information. Important aspects of workplace spirometry are discussed and recommendations are provided for the performance and interpretation of workplace spirometry.
This standard establishes the classification of certain radioactive self-luminous light sources according to radionuclide, type of source, activity, and performance requirements. The objectives are to establish minimum prototype testing requirements for radioactive self-luminous light sources, to promote uniformity of marking such sources, and to establish minimum physical performance for such sources. This standard is primarily directed toward assuring adequate containment of the radioactive material. Testing procedures and classification designations are specified for discoloration, temperature, thermal shock, reduced pressure, impact, vibration, and immersion. A range of test requirements is presented according to intended usage and source activity
A considerable amount of time has elapsed since the existence of a distinct variety of English, Brunei English (BNE), was mooted in the early 1990s. A subsequent study conducted by Svalberg in 1998 suggested that BNE was then in its infancy and that its speakers were largely unaware of the differences between it and Standard British English (STE).…
Bao, Zhiming; Wee, Lionel
Presents an analysis of the two passive (or passive-like) constructions in Singapore English which exhibit substrate influence from Malay and Chinese. The paper shows that while substrate languages contribute to the grammar of Singapore English, the continued prestige of standard English exerts normative pressure and mitigates the effect of…
..., 9th Edition Document XX, Life Cycle Management for Exploration and Production Oilfield Equipment For... Equipment, 1st Edition Recommended Practice 99, Flash Fire Risk Assessment Standard for the Upstream Oil and... Chapter 22.5, Testing Protocols--Electronic Flow Computer Calculations, 1st Edition MPMS Chapter 22.6...
This standard provides criteria for a fire protection program for research reactor facilities and for the reactor safety-related systems included in those facilities. It stresses preservation of the capability to achieve and maintain safe shutdown of the reactor, and includes consideration of both direct fire hazards and indirect or consequential hazards
The worldwide spread of English has recently received much interest. Issues relating to the multifaceted roles of English around the world have been highlighted and purist positions about English challenged. In particular (a) the assumption that British English is the only valid standard of English; and (b) the notion that the "native speaker" is…
Qian, Yang; Jingxia, Liu
With the development of globalization, English is clearly spoken by many more non-native than native speakers, which raises the discussion of English varieties and the debate regarding the conformity to Standard English. Although a large number of studies have shown scholars' attitudes towards native English and non-native English, little research…
The term ‘New Englishes’ attempts to cover the large number of varieties of English, far from uniform among themselves in their features and use and different from the historically and culturally established British and American standards. Over the past years, these New Englishes have been more acknowledged in the foreign language class. Linguists have called attention to the importance of increasing the learner’s linguistic awareness by covering topics of “linguistic variation and varieties ...
This standard defines the required functions of fuel handling systems at light water reactor nuclear power plants. It provides minimum design requirements for equipment and tools for safe handling of nuclear fuel and control components at light water reactor nuclear power plants. The fuel handling system covered by this standard consists of handling equipment used for receiving and inspecting fuel containing new and recycled uranium; transporting on-site and loading fuel containing new and recycled uranium or irradiated fuel and control components in the reactor; removing from the reactor, transporting to storage, and inspecting irradiated fuel and loading casks for shipment of irradiated fuel from the site. It includes basic requirements and configuration for design, fabrication, maintenance, and operation. The basis of this standard is that the intended function of the equipment will be performed in an efficient and economical manner that assures protection to plant personnel and to the public, and that any radiation exposurers are maintained as low as reasonably achievable
Glines, Wayne M; Markham, Anna
Seventy-five years after the Hanford Site was initially created as the primary plutonium production site for atomic weapons development under the Manhattan Project, the American Nuclear Society and the Health Physics Society are sponsoring a conference from 30 September through 3 October 2018, in Pasco, Washington, titled "Applicability of Radiation Response Models to Low Dose Protection Standards." The goal of this conference is to use current scientific data to update the approach to regulating low-level radiation doses; i.e., to answer a quintessential question of radiation protection-how to best develop radiation protection standards that protect human populations against detrimental effects while allowing the beneficial uses of radiation and radioactive materials. Previous conferences (e.g., "Wingspread Conference," "Arlie Conference") have attempted to address this question; but now, almost 20 y later, the key issues, goals, conclusions, and recommendations of those two conferences remain and are as relevant as they were then. Despite the best efforts of the conference participants and increased knowledge and understanding of the science underlying radiation effects in human populations, the bases of current radiation protection standards have evolved little. This 2018 conference seeks to provide a basis and path forward for evolving radiation protection standards to be more reflective of current knowledge and understanding of low dose response models.
Algeo, John, Ed.
This book is one volume in a series that examines the history of English. It traces the history of English in North America during the past 400 years, from its British background to its present position among the varieties of English used worldwide. Influences that have formed American English include political, social, and cultural changes in…
This Issue Brief is the third in a series of Employee Benefit Research Institute (EBRI) publications based on data collected in 1998 and released in 2002 as the Retirement and Pension Plan Coverage Topical Module of the 1996 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). This report completes the series by examining the survey's more detailed questions concerning workers' employment-based retirement plans. Specifically, it examines the percentage of workers who are participating in a plan, and also workers' reasons for not participating in a plan when working in a job where a plan is sponsored; the features of, or decisions made concerning salary reduction plans; historical participation in employment-based retirement plans; and a comparison of the standard of living of individuals age 55 or older with their living standard in their early 50s. As of June 1998, 64.3 percent of wage and salary workers age 16 or older worked for an employer or union that sponsored any type of retirement plan (defined contribution or defined benefit) for any of its employees or members (the "sponsorship rate"). Almost 47 percent of these wage and salary workers participated in a plan (the "participation rate"), with 43.2 percent being entitled to a benefit or eligible to receive a lump-sum distribution from a plan if their job terminated at the time of survey (the "vested rate"). The predominant reason for choosing not to participate in a retirement plan was that doing so was unaffordable. The eligible participation rate for salary reduction plans was 81.4 percent. Fifty-six percent of all workers have participated in some type of retirement plan sometime during their work life through 1998. For those ages 51-60, almost 72 percent have ever participated in a plan. The median account balance in salary reduction plans in 1998 was $14,000. In 1998, 12.9 percent of salary reduction plan participants eligible to take a loan had done so, and the average outstanding loan balance was $5
Frost, Darrel R.; McDiarmid, Roy W.; Mendelson, Joseph R.
The Point of View by Gregory Pauly, David Hillis, and David Cannatella misrepresents the motives and activities of the anuran subcommittee of the Scientific and Standard English Names Committee, contains a number of misleading statements, omits evidence and references to critical literature that have already rejected or superseded their positions, and cloaks the limitations of their nomenclatural approach in ambiguous language. Their Point of View is not about promoting transparency in the process of constructing the English Names list, assuring that its taxonomy is adequately reviewed, or promoting nomenclatural stability in any global sense. Rather, their Point of View focuses in large part on a single publication, The Amphibian Tree of Life, which is formally unrelated to the Standard English Names List, and promotes an approach to nomenclature mistakenly asserted by them to be compatible with both the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature and one of its competitors, the PhyloCode.
Full Text Available This article discusses Contemporary History (CH during the formation of students in high school years. The objects are the assigned curricula for high schools in Brazil, USA and France in the last two decades. By using comparative history strategies, we examine how present time is configured in different cultures, the ways in which the State appropriates itself of this period’s historical representation in school programs and standards, the historians’ degree of intervention (and that of CH in particular in the elaboration of curricula for the teaching of History and the representations these countries make of each other on the theme of the 20th and 21st centuries.
Kerr, Zachary Y.; Marshall, Stephen W.; Simon, Janet E.; Hayden, Ross; Snook, Erin M.; Dodge, Thomas; Gallo, Joseph A.; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.; Mensch, James; Murphy, Joseph M.; Nittoli, Vincent C.; Dompier, Thomas P.; Ragan, Brian; Yeargin, Susan W.; Parsons, John T.
Background: American youth football leagues are typically structured using either age-only (AO) or age-and-weight (AW) playing standard conditions. These playing standard conditions group players by age in the former condition and by a combination of age and weight in the latter condition. However, no study has systematically compared injury risk between these 2 playing standards. Purpose: To compare injury rates between youth tackle football players in the AO and AW playing standard conditions. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Athletic trainers evaluated and recorded injuries at each practice and game during the 2012 and 2013 football seasons. Players (age, 5-14 years) were drawn from 13 recreational leagues across 6 states. The sample included 4092 athlete-seasons (AW, 2065; AO, 2027) from 210 teams (AW, 106; O, 104). Injury rate ratios (RRs) with 95% CIs were used to compare the playing standard conditions. Multivariate Poisson regression was used to estimate RRs adjusted for residual effects of age and clustering by team and league. There were 4 endpoints of interest: (1) any injury, (2) non–time loss (NTL) injuries only, (3) time loss (TL) injuries only, and (4) concussions only. Results: Over 2 seasons, the cohort accumulated 1475 injuries and 142,536 athlete-exposures (AEs). The most common injuries were contusions (34.4%), ligament sprains (16.3%), concussions (9.6%), and muscle strains (7.8%). The overall injury rate for both playing standard conditions combined was 10.3 per 1000 AEs (95% CI, 9.8-10.9). The TL injury, NTL injury, and concussion rates in both playing standard conditions combined were 3.1, 7.2, and 1.0 per 1000 AEs, respectively. In multivariate Poisson regression models controlling for age, team, and league, no differences were found between playing standard conditions in the overall injury rate (RRoverall, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.4-2.6). Rates for the other 3 endpoints were also similar (RRNTL, 1.1 [95% CI, 0
Craig F. Berning
Full Text Available The debate as to whether to require mandatory labeling of genetically modified organism (GMO foods was partially settled on 29 July 2016, when President Obama signed the National Bioengineered Food Disclosure Standard into public law. In contrast to precipitating legislation passed by the State of Vermont that required disclosure of GMO ingredients on food shelves or food packages, the superseding National Standard allows firms to disclose bioengineered ingredients to consumers via symbols, electronic or digital links, or phone numbers, and further requires a study assessing the ability of consumers to access disclosure information by these means. This communication analyzes survey responses from 525 adults to investigate whether U.S. consumers are able to obtain information as per the disclosure methods allowed in the Federal legislation. The survey probes deeper to investigate consumer perceptions of genetically modified organisms and whether consumers would use the tools available to access disclosure about bioengineered ingredients. Findings from the survey show that 93.8% of respondents have the ability to access information via the disclosure methods permitted. Those in the lowest income group, and from the oldest age group are least likely to have such access. This provides the United State Department of Agriculture with information relevant to how they can implement the law and highlights particular demographic segments that may require additional attention to ensure the disclosed information is universally accessible.
Cook, William W.
Cites and discusses various forms of satire from Black American, Caribbean, and African cultures. Forms considered include oral ballads ('toasts') antebellum sermons, praise poems, mother-rhyming, ritual insult and theater. Emphasizes the agonistic element and the impossibility of performing Afro-American satire in standard English. (RDN)
John Considine, Department of English, University of Alberta,. Edmonton, Canada .... this sort of negative attention to it. Wordlists appeared sporadically, but on a very modest scale. So, for instance, Julian Moreton's Life and Work in Newfound- ..... sort of scale as the Dictionary of Americanisms on which Lovell had worked.
Describes Earphone English, a student club sponsored through a partnership between Berkeley High School and the Berkeley Public Library that offers students whose primary language is not English to practice their spoken and aural English skills. Discusses the audiobooks used in the program and the importance of multicultural content and age…
Tokumoto, Mina; Shibata, Miki
According to previous studies, Japanese EFL learners who wish to acquire American or British English pronunciation are reluctant to speak their L1-accented English. In view of this tendency, the present study examined the attitudes of Asian learners toward their L1-accented English. University students from Japan, South Korea, and Malaysia…
Rindal, Ulrikke; Piercy, Caroline
This study investigates the pronunciation of English among Norwegian adolescents by applying sociolinguistic methods in a second language context. Results from an auditory analysis of seven phonological variables show a blended use of linguistic features from American English and British English, with some additional pronunciations, forming a…
WOODHEAD, D.R., ED.; BEENE, WAYNE, ED.
THE PRESENT DICTIONARY IS BASED ON THE EDUCATED COLLOQUIAL ARABIC OF BAGHDAD. INTENDED AS A COMPREHENSION DICTIONARY FOR AMERICAN ENGLISH SPEAKERS, ITS USE REQUIRES A BASIC KNOWLEDGE OF ARABIC STRUCTURE AND PHONOLOGY AS WELL AS AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE STANDARD ARRANGEMENT OF AN ARABIC DICTIONARY. THE ENTRIES, WHICH APPEAR IN PHONEMIC…
Every language has its peculiar problems of meaning for the foreign learner. In the English language, some of the biggest yet most fascinating problems are concentrated in the area of the finite verb phrase: in particular, tense, aspect, mood and modality. Meaning and the English Verb describes these fields in detail for teachers and advanced students of English as a foreign or second language. This new third edition uses up-to-date examples to show differences and similarities between American and British english, reflecting a great deal of recent research in this area. It also takes account
Appelbaum, B C; Appelbaum, P S; Grisso, T
In the wake of the U.S. Supreme Court's 1990 decision in Zinermon v. Burch, renewed attention has been given to capacities patients must have to be considered competent to consent to voluntary hospitalization. An American Psychiatric Association (APA) task force suggested that strong policy interests support the establishment of a low threshold for competence in this situation. The study examined whether, as previous research suggested, patients would have difficulty meeting even this lenient standard. One hundred voluntarily hospitalized psychiatric patients were read two brief paragraphs, one explaining the purposes of psychiatric hospitalization and and the other explaining policies for discharge. The paragraphs' readability measured about eighth-grade level. After each paragraph, participants were read two sets of questions, one testing recall of the presented information and the other testing recognition of the information in a true-false format. The scores of patients grouped by selected demographic and clinical variables were compared. The vast majority of patients were able to comprehend the information that the APA task force suggested was relevant to their decision. However, a subgroup of patients who were initially admitted involuntarily had significantly poorer performance and may constitute a group who need special educational efforts focused on the consequences of voluntary admission.
Mitterling, Thomas; Högl, Birgit; Schönwald, Suzana Veiga; Hackner, Heinz; Gabelia, David; Biermayr, Marlene; Frauscher, Birgit
Despite differences between American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) and Rechtschaffen and Kales scoring criteria, normative values following the current AASM criteria are lacking. We investigated sleep and respiratory variables in healthy adults over the lifespan, and established polysomnographic normative values according to current standards. Prospective polysomnographic investigation. Academic referral hospital sleep laboratory. One hundred healthy sleepers aged 19-77 y were selected from a representative population sample by a two-step screening. N/A. All subjects underwent one full-night polysomnography. Sleep and arousals were scored according to AASM standards. Respiration was scored according to AASM 2007 and 2012 criteria in order to compare both methods. Percentile curves showed age-related differences in sleep architecture: a decrease was found for sleep efficiency [≤ 30 y: 87.0 (71.9-94.1)% versus > 60 y: 79.7 (44.5-90.9)%], total sleep time [≤ 30 y: 413.5 (345.6-451.9) min versus > 60 y: 378.3 (216.0-440.0) min], the percentages of N3 [≤ 30 y 20.7 (15.2-37.5)% versus > 60 y: 14.9 (2.4-35.6)%] and rapid eye movement sleep [≤ 30 y 15.5 (7.5-23.6)% versus. > 60 y: 10.3 (1.9-21.9)%], whereas the percentage of wake time after sleep onset increased with age [≤ 30 y 6.0 (1.9-22.8)% versus > 60 y: 15.2 (6.3-48.7)%]. The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was higher when applying the AASM 2012 criteria [AHI AASM 2007 0.7 (0.0-21.5)/h versus 2012: 1.7 (0.0-25)/h; P 15/h. This study provides normative data on sleep macrostructure, microstructure, and respiration in adults following AASM standards. Furthermore, we demonstrated that respiration scoring according to AASM 2012 results in higher AHIs, and challenge the use of age-independent respiratory cutoff values. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.
Jensen, Signe Hannibal
activities are more supportive of language learning than others, i.e. gaming, watching television, music, etc. Finally, a qualitative gaming study will be carried out to explore what goes on linguistically when very young children game in English together: type of interaction between players...... and with the game and if this interaction can be seen to support their English language learning. Preliminary results indicate that although children use / are exposed to English in a range of different contexts and through a variety of modalities (internet, console/PC games, music etc.), the one activity...... that seems to have the most impact on children’s English learning is gaming....
Cohen, Erik; Allen, Ann
This article explores the impact of standardization policies of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001 on the American Indian/Alaska Native community and the ability of educational policy to promote sovereignty, liberty and equity within indigenous communities. Examining current research and data generated from the National Indian Education…
Concerted efforts to characterise Botswana English (BE), though still referred to as "a variety in development", have validated its existence. However, the teaching and assessment of English in the high schools do not seem to have responded to the development of this variety. This paper discusses the viability of using Standard British…
Peng, Long; Ann, Jean
Investigates stress placement in the English of Spanish Speakers and in speakers of Nigerian English and Singapore English. Reveals that these three varieties have in common several patterns of stress placement that are distinct from British or American English. Shows that these patterns cannot be accounted for by transfer. (Author/VWL)
McKim, Aaron J.; Lambert, Misty D.; Sorensen, Tyson J.; Velez, Jonathan J.
The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) represent a shift in the American education system. Included in the CCSS are opportunities for agriculture teachers to integrate math and English language arts content into their curriculum. Using the theory of planned behavior, we sought to identify Oregon agriculture teachers' attitudes, familiarity with,…
This multimedia program of English grammar caters specifically for Danish students at Bachelor level. The handbook introduces students to well-established grammatical terminology within the traditional areas of English grammar, and the CD-ROM, which contains about 120 exercises, offers students...
Gimson, Alfred C.
Discusses changes in the pronunciation of colloquial Brltish English, reflecting changing social attitudes toward traditional Received Pronunciation. Finds that a study is needed to determine a new standard for the use of future foreign students of English. A pilot study is described. (IFS/WGA) i
Wakelin, Martyn F.
Discusses, from both historical and sociolinguistic viewpoints, the changing of the phoneme /a/ in colloquial English. The rather "bright, moderately open" sound, once considered standard English, has been and is moving toward a more open and back articulation. (IFS/WGA)
Ekkens, Kristin; Winke, Paula
Companies across the United States provide workplace English classes to non-native-English-speaking employees to increase productivity, retention, and on-the-job safety. Institutions that financially support the programs often require evidence of learning through standardized tests as a prerequisite for continued funding. However, the tests…
Sara Atef-Vahid; Alireza Fard Kashani
The present study explored English language learning anxiety among 38 third-year high school students in English classrooms and its relationship with overall English achievement. Students’ foreign language anxiety was surveyed and analyzed using the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986)  and their English achievement was measured through their final standardized English exam administered by the school. The results showed that although ...
Diederich, Paul B.
The monograph is a complete outline for a program designed to help English departments institute logical and fair procedures for grading student essays. The contents in this monograph include "Factors in Judgments of Writing Ability,""The Effect of Bias,""Measuring Improvement in Writing,""Personal vs Staff Grading,""Standard Scores for Test…
I. G. Fedotova
Full Text Available The Department of English Language № 8 works with students of the Faculty of International Law. The unique school of teaching legal aspects of the English language is one of the most significant achievements of the department. Associate Professor V.F. Nazarov was one of professionals, was at the origin of this school. In 1992 the textbook "The course of the legal interpretation of Anglo-American Commercial Law" was published, which was the result of work of group of specialists in legal translation since early 1970s. The book laid foundation for the further development of the school of teaching legal aspects of the English language. After1990stheteaching of the legal aspects of English language was brought to the next level, marked of the by the creation of the educational complex "Legal concepts and categories in the English language" by I.G. Fedotova and G.P. Tolstopyatenko, based on the new competence-based concept of educating professional international lawyers.
Jacobson, Joseph O; Polovich, Martha; Gilmore, Terry R; Schulmeister, Lisa; Esper, Peg; Lefebvre, Kristine B; Neuss, Michael N
In November 2009, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and the Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) jointly published a set of 31 voluntary chemotherapy safety standards for adult patients with cancer, as the end result of a highly structured, multistakeholder process. The standards were explicitly created to address patient safety in the administration of parenteral and oral chemotherapeutic agents in outpatient oncology settings. In January 2011, a workgroup consisting of ASCO and ONS members was convened to review feedback received since publication of the standards, to address interim changes in practice, and to modify the standards as needed. The most significant change to the standards is to extend their scope to the inpatient setting. This change reflects the conviction that the same standards for chemotherapy administration safety should apply in all settings. The proposed set of standards has been approved by the Board of Directors for both ASCO and ONS and has been posted for public comment. Comments were used as the basis for final editing of the revised standards. The workgroup recognizes that the safety of oral chemotherapy usage, nononcology medication reconciliation, and home chemotherapy administration are not adequately addressed in the original or revised standards. A separate process, cosponsored by ASCO and ONS, will address the development of safety standards for these areas.
Zhiming, Bao; Huaqing, Hong
Colloquial Singapore English is an outer circle variety that exhibits contact induced linguistic change. It has been characterized as the L variant in diglossic opposition to standard English. In this paper, the authors address two related issues: (1) the extent to which the Singapore English diglossia is supported by corpus data, and (2) the…
Since its first publication in 1962, Gimson's Pronunciation of English has been the essential reference book for anyone studying or teaching the pronunciation of English.This eighth edition has been updated to describe General British (GB) as the principal accent, rather than RP, and the accompanying transcriptions have been brought into line with recent changes in pronunciation. This latest edition also includes completely rewritten chapters on the history of the language and the emergence of a standard, alongside a justification for the change from RP to GB.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Site - Rose Island, American Samoa, -14.5514, -168.16018 ARGOS ID 27267 Time series data from this mooring provide high resolution sea surface temperature, surface...
2013 updated American Society of Clinical Oncology/Oncology Nursing Society chemotherapy administration safety standards including standards for the safe administration and management of oral chemotherapy.
Neuss, Michael N; Polovich, Martha; McNiff, Kristen; Esper, Peg; Gilmore, Terry R; LeFebvre, Kristine B; Schulmeister, Lisa; Jacobson, Joseph O
In 2009, ASCO and the Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) published standards for the safe use of parenteral chemotherapy in the outpatient setting, including issues of practitioner orders, preparation, and administration of medication. In 2011, these were updated to include inpatient facilities. In December 2011, a multistakeholder workgroup met to address the issues associated with orally administered antineoplastics, under the leadership of ASCO and ONS. The workgroup participants developed recommended standards, which were presented for public comment. Public comments informed final edits, and the final standards were reviewed and approved by the ASCO and ONS Boards of Directors. Significant newly identified recommendations include those associated with drug prescription and the necessity of ascertaining that prescriptions are filled. In addition, the importance of patient and family education regarding administration schedules, exception procedures, disposal of unused oral medication, and aspects of continuity of care across settings were identified. This article presents the newly developed standards.
This study aimed at looking at perception of English palatal codas by Korean speakers of English to determine if perception problems are the source of production problems. In particular, first, this study looked at the possible first language effect on the perception of English palatal codas. Second, a possible perceptual source of vowel epenthesis after English palatal codas was investigated. In addition, individual factors, such as length of residence, TOEFL score, gender and academic status, were compared to determine if those affected the varying degree of the perception accuracy. Eleven adult Korean speakers of English as well as three native speakers of English participated in the study. Three sets of a perception test including identification of minimally different English pseudo- or real words were carried out. The results showed that, first, the Korean speakers perceived the English codas significantly worse than the Americans. Second, the study supported the idea that Koreans perceived an extra /i/ after the final affricates due to final release. Finally, none of the individual factors explained the varying degree of the perceptional accuracy. In particular, TOEFL scores and the perception test scores did not have any statistically significant association.
Poloskov, Elizabeth; Tracey, Terence J G
The relationships among acculturation, internalization of U.S. sociocultural standards of female beauty, and body dissatisfaction were examined in a sample of 211 Mexican American college women. Structural equation modeling was used to identify the paths among these three factors. Results demonstrated that there are two distinct types of body dissatisfaction: global evaluations and composite site-specific evaluations. The relationships between acculturation toward dominant U.S. culture and both types of body dissatisfaction were found to be fully mediated by internalization of U.S. standards of female beauty. There were no relationships between Mexican orientation and any of the study variables. The results from this study imply that it is important for therapists working with Mexican American female clients to assess the client's level of acculturation, examine the cultural (U.S. and Mexican) messages the client receives, and explore how these messages impact her body image. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
The American National Standard, Control of Radioactive Surface Contamination on Materials, Equipment and Facilities to be Released for Uncontrolled Use, was developed under the procedures of ANSI for ANSI Main Committee N13 (Radiation Protection) by a working group of the Health Physics Society Standards Committee. This standard provides criteria for the control of materials, equipment and facilities contaminated with radioactivity proposed to be released for uncontrolled use. Permissible contamination limits are specified as well as methods assessing the levels of contamination. This paper reviews the proceedings of the Subcommittee on Radioactive Surface Contamination, the comments received by reviewers of the standard, the resolution of the committee, and the bases for reaching the final limits, recommendations, and measurement procedures. (H.K.)
James Alexander Cameron
Full Text Available Sedilia are the ceremonial seats of the priest, deacon, and subdeacon placed to the south of the altar. In Gothic church architecture, they typically take the form of three deep niches, recessed into the thickness of the wall, surmounted by arches and separated by shafts. These types of sedilia are most well-known from English churches of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. This essay looks to explain why sedilia became so popular in England, through a consideration of trends in English architecture. With the help of Nikolaus Pevsner’s characterization of the country’s art from The Englishness of English Art, it will argue that the basic decorative language of sedilia is entrenched in trends first developed in the Anglo-Norman Romanesque. It will also suggest, however, that regional variations in the distribution of sedilia complicate the idea of a single “national style”.
In North American English (NAE) and British English, [ae] and [?] are open vowel phonemes which are articulated by a speaker easily without a build-up of air pressure. Among all English vowels, the greatest problem for most Turkish majors of English is the discrimination of [ae] and [?]. In English, [ae] is called the "short a" or ash,…
Xu, Wei; Wang, Yu; Case, Rod E.
This study reports on findings of an investigation into Chinese students' attitudes towards varieties of English before the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. One hundred and eight college students in mainland China evaluated six English speeches by two American English speakers, two British English speakers, and two Chinese English speakers for social…
Coupland, Nikolas; And Others
Measures the reactions of teachers all over Wales to a number of varieties of Welsh English, as well as Standard British English. While they endorsed the social value of Standard British English as holding most prestige, the Southwest Wales variety emerged as a dynamic and the most truly Welsh-sounding contender for the title of Standard Welsh…
This article responds to two long-standing dilemmas that limit the effectiveness of language education for students who speak and write in African American Language (AAL): (1) the gap between theory and research on AAL and classroom practice, and (2) the need for critical language pedagogies. This article presents the effectiveness of a critical…
A new standard submitted by the Health Physics Society Standards Committee to the American National Standards Institute concerning radioactive surface contamination of materials and equipment is discussed. The chronological events in the development of this standard are given. The standard provides criteria for the release for uncontrolled use of materials, equipment and facilities contaminated or potentially contaminated with radioactivity. Permissible contamination limits are specified for: 1) long lived alpha emitters except natural uranium and thorium, 2) more hazardous beta-gamma emitters, 3) less hazardous beta-gamma emitters and 4) natural uranium and thorium. A contamination reference level of 1000 dpm/100 cm 2 for 90 Sr was set as the basis for assigning limits to radionuclides presenting an ingestion hazard and other radionuclides were grouped based on the values of their maximum permissible concentration (MPC) in water relative to 90 Sr. The contamination limit for 239 Pu was chosen as the basis for assigning limits based on MPC in air to radionuclides presenting an inhalation hazard; a value of 100 dpm/100 cm 2 was adopted in the standard. An upper limit of 5000 dpm/100 cm 2 for surface contamination was selected for the standard. (UK)
If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 firstname.lastname@example.org PLACES AVAILABLE Writing Professional Documents in English This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English who need to improve their professional writing (administrative, scientific, technical). Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) Date and timetable will be fixed when there are sufficient participants enrolled. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their sp...
Full Text Available With the notion of World Englishes (WE accepted in the academia, the past decade has witnessed ten studies or so conducted to scrutinize how English learners of China perceptually evaluate English varieties. Those studies, however, seldom explore the juncture between learners’ attitudes toward accent varieties of English and their expectations of English phonetics instruction. Additionally, they primarily draw quantitative data from surveys of large samples without providing in-depth viewpoints from learners themselves. This study aimed to investigate Chinese tertiary-level English learners’ attitudes toward WE accents and how they view accents situated in English phonetics instruction with cross-validated research methods including an accent recognition test, an attitudinal experiment, a questionnaire survey, and semi-structured interviews. Its participants were 64 sophomore English majors at a Chinese university; the accents examined were American English (AmE, British English (BrE, China English (ChE, Australian English, Indian English, and Korean English. Results indicate that students could recognize AmE and BrE better than other accents and that they identified with BrE most, but preferred to imitate AmE and welcome Americans as their phonetics teachers. Results also show students’ propensity for setting a native speaker norm, rather than adopting ChE as a model, at phonetics class. Based on the findings, the study concluded that nowadays teachers for English majors in China still need to adhere to the native speaker model in English phonetics instruction, and meanwhile, expose their students to various WE accents in order to facilitate their English phonetics learning and cultivate their awareness of WE.
Scott Walker, L.; Liu, J.
The ANSI N43 committee established a writing committee to re-write the ANSI N43.1 accelerator safety standard in 1994. James Liu and Scott Walker were appointed as co-chairman. Compared to the old standard, the new standard is aimed to have a broader application, up-to-date requirements, and recommendations for best practices. The new standard uses a hazard based graded approach to address radiation safety programs for accelerators with various energies, beam currents and applications (excluding medical accelerators which are covered by another standard). Thus, the standard fulfills the goal of the committee to prepare a standard with unlimited application to industrial and research accelerators. The standard is largely complete with chapters as follows: 1) Scope. 2) Definitions. 3) Radiation Safety Program (facility safety program, radiation safety planning, organizational considerations, safety assessment, review and performance evaluation). 4) Radiation Safety System (prompt radiation, safety system features, reliability and fail-safety, tamper resistance, quality control, configuration control, adventitious production of radiation, and induced radioactivity). 5) Personnel Access Control System (including graded approach, postings, barriers, beam inhibiting devices and interlocks). 6) Radiation Control System, (passive shielding, and active systems). 7) Accelerator Operation (including readiness reviews, maintenance and testing, bypasses and deviation from procedure, operating practices, emergencies). 8) Operational Health Physics, and 9) Training. The document also has appendices regarding how to determine the Safety and Operations Envelope, Guidance for Computer Based Access Control Systems, and Radiation Measurements at Accelerators. (Author)
English Graphic is a book of essays on the subject of illustration, with the focus entirely on English artists using graphic media; drawings, prints and watercolours. As editor, I built on a schedule Tom drew up. It contains essays drawn from a variety of sources: the Great Works column, reviews, catalogue essays, and previously unpublished material. The historical span of the book is broad – from the Winchester Psalter Hellmouth to Harry Beck’s London Underground Map and Dom Sylvester Houéda...
Hector-Mason, Anestine; Shaewitz, Dahlia; Sherman, Renee; Brown, Delphinia; Salomon, Erika; Bauman, Emily; Mendieta, Yorkmit; Corley, Mary Ann
On July 17, 2008 the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Vocational and Adult Education (OVAE) awarded a contract to the American Institutes for Research (AIR) to assist OVAE in conducting a descriptive study of instructional and programmatic practices that support the transition of English language learners (TELL) from English as a second…
Farrar, H. IV.
A task group has been formed within the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) specifically to develop standards for measuring radiation dose for food processing. The task group, which has 78 members, including 16 from Europe, consists of a broad cross section of food industry, government, regulatory, manufacturing, and university interests. The group is working on seven standards; three specifically for food irradiation applications, and four for using specific dosimeter types for all radiation applications, including food processing. Together, this set of standards will specify acceptable methods of accomplishing the required irradiation treatment of food and other products, and will be available for adoption by regulatory agencies in food irradiation protocols. 1 tab
American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition and Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Revised 2014 Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance for Registered Dietitian Nutritionists (Competent, Proficient, and Expert) in Nutrition Support.
Brantley, Susan L; Russell, Mary K; Mogensen, Kris M; Wooley, Jennifer A; Bobo, Elizabeth; Chen, Yimin; Malone, Ainsley; Roberts, Susan; Romano, Michelle M; Taylor, Beth
This 2014 revision of the Standards of Practice (SOP) and Standards of Professional Performance (SOPP) for Registered Dietitians Nutritionists (RDNs) in Nutrition Support represents an update of the 2007 Standards composed by content experts of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. The revision is based upon the Revised 2012 SOP in Nutrition Care and SOPP for RDs, which incorporates the Nutrition Care Process and the six domains of professionalism: Quality in Practice, Competence and Accountability, Provision of Services, Application of Research, Communication and Application of Knowledge, and Utilization and Management of Resources. These SOP and SOPP are designed to promote the provision of safe, effective, and efficient nutrition support services, facilitate evidence-based practice, and serve as a professional evaluation resource for RDNs who specialize or wish to specialize in nutrition support therapy. These standards should be applied in all patient/client care settings in which RDNs in nutrition support provide care. These settings include, but are not limited to, acute care, ambulatory/outpatient care, and home and alternate site care. The standards highlight the value of the nutrition support RDN's roles in quality management, regulatory compliance, research, teaching, consulting, and writing for peer-reviewed professional publications. The standards assist the RDN in nutrition support to distinguish his or her level of practice (competent, proficient, or expert) and would guide the RDN in creating a personal development plan to achieve increasing levels of knowledge, skill, and ability in nutrition support practice. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.
An analysis of the responses of 83 English language instructors and 251 college students to a survey regarding their attitudes toward Malaysian English, a still-evolving derivative of Standard British English, showed that younger persons had much more tolerance for Malaysian English, which could be accepted as a legitimate…
Saad Nasser Aldwayan
Full Text Available Spatial scenes are identical in the world languages. However, cultures may diverge in profiling spatial scenes (Levinson 2003. This paper selects for study the prepositions in and on in English and their Modern Standard Arabic (MSA counterparts fi and 3ala, arguing that MSA and English seem to diverge in the spatial configurations and meanings of these prepositions. The sub-schemas of CONTAINMENT (in-ness in MSA are found to partially overlap with those of English, with the other sub-schemas being taken care of by SUPPORT (on-ness and PUNCTUALITY (point-ness. Such differences classify MSA more as a CONTAINMENT-based language than English, which seems to prefer SUPPORT and PUNCTUALITY. However, English and MSA seem to converge in their metaphoric conceptualizations of states owing to conceptual embodiment (Lakoff 1987. The article discusses the implications of such findings for spatial cognition and cultural cognition and EFL/ESL writing and translating.
Fernald, C D
With increases in world-wide travel and communication, cultural sensitivity becomes increasingly important. Professionals in English-speaking countries vary considerably in their preference of disability language. For example, the phrase person with mental retardation, although widely accepted in the United States, is offensive to many Britons. On the other hand, learning disability, the current British equivalent of mental retardation, is confusing to Americans. Differences in language preferences such as these can interfere with international communication. In this paper, language standards of disability organizations in four English-speaking countries were surveyed for similarities and differences. Recommendations were made to facilitate communication across cultures.
In a remix of the infamous Hitler meme--taking a scene from the movie, "Downfall" (2005), and adding subtitles appropriate (in this case) for "Kairos" readers--theamishaugur makes a pointed, humorous (to some) commentary on the status of multimodal composition scholars in English departments during job market season.
General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 03 March to 28 June 2003 (2 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: tel.73127 or Mr. Liptow: tel.72957. Writing Professional Documents in English This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) For registration and further information, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Tessa Osborne: Tessa.Osborne@cern. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be approximately 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, rol...
General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 03 March to 28 June 2003 (2 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: tel.73127 or Mr. Liptow: tel.72957. Writing Professional Documents in English This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) For registration and further information, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Tessa Osborne: Tessa.Osborne@cern. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be approximately 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-p...
for phoneticians, phonologists, and other linguists to locate and use, English Phonetics: Twentieth-Century Developments is a veritable treasure-trove. The gathered works are reproduced in facsimile, giving users a strong sense of immediacy to the texts and permitting citation to the original pagination...
New courses University of Cambridge ESOL examination course We will be starting two new courses in October leading to the Cambridge First Certificate in English (level B2 of the European Framework) and the Cambridge Advanced English (level C1) examinations. These courses will consist of two semesters of 15 weeks with two two-hourly classes per week. There will be an average of eight students per class. Normally the examination will be taken in June 2011 but strong participants could take it earlier. People wishing to take these courses should enrol: http://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=110:9:1927376177842004::NO::X_COURSE_ID,X_STATUS:4133%2CD and they will then be required to take a placement test to check that their level of English is of an appropriate level. Please note that we need a minimum of seven students enrolled to open a session. For further information please contact Tessa Osborne 72957. General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: From 4th October 2010 to 5th Feb...
Full Text Available With the development of globalization, English is clearly spoken by many more non-native than native speakers, which raises the discussion of English varieties and the debate regarding the conformity to Standard English. Although a large number of studies have shown scholars’ attitudes towards native English and non-native English, little research is conducted from the point of college students until recently. This paper focuses on Chinese college students’ perceptions of native English and non-native English in order to offer insights into the mainstream English language teaching in terms of its exclusive reference to English as a native language in China. This paper draws on the data contributed by 50 Chinese university students through questionnaires. The questionnaire responses displayed a superficial preference for native English and a potential inclination for non-native English in EFL classrooms. The article argues that factors behind the attitude point to the need of changing mainstream English teaching. Keywords: Native English, Non-native English, Chinese college students’ attitudes, mainstream English teaching
Gasquoine, Philip Gerard; Croyle, Kristin L; Cavazos-Gonzalez, Cynthia; Sandoval, Omar
This study compared the performance of Hispanic American bilingual adults on Spanish and English language versions of a neuropsychological test battery. Language achievement test scores were used to divide 36 bilingual, neurologically intact, Hispanic Americans from south Texas into Spanish-dominant, balanced, and English-dominant bilingual groups. They were administered the eight subtests of the Bateria Neuropsicologica and the Matrix Reasoning subtest of the WAIS-III in Spanish and English. Half the participants were tested in Spanish first. Balanced bilinguals showed no significant differences in test scores between Spanish and English language administrations. Spanish and/or English dominant bilinguals showed significant effects of language of administration on tests with higher language compared to visual perceptual weighting (Woodcock-Munoz Language Survey-Revised, Letter Fluency, Story Memory, and Stroop Color and Word Test). Scores on tests with higher visual-perceptual weighting (Matrix Reasoning, Figure Memory, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Spatial Span), were not significantly affected by language of administration, nor were scores on the Spanish/California Verbal Learning Test, and Digit Span. A problem was encountered in comparing false positive rates in each language, as Spanish norms fell below English norms, resulting in a much higher false positive rate in English across all bilingual groupings. Use of a comparison standard (picture vocabulary score) reduced false positive rates in both languages, but the higher false positive rate in English persisted.
Making Out in English is a fun, accessible and thorough English phrase book and guide to the English language as it's really spoken. If you are a student, businessman or tourist traveling to the English speaking world and would like to have an authentic and meaningful experience, the key is being able to speak like a local. This friendly and easy-to-use English phrasebook makes this possible. Making Out in English has been revised and redesigned to act as a guide to modern colloquial English for use in everyday informal interactionsgiving access to the sort of catchy English expressions that
Full Text Available Our paper analyzed relevant acoustic parameters of people’s speech samples and the results that compared with English standard pronunciation with methods of experimental phonetics by phonetic analysis software and statistical analysis software. Then we summarized phonetic pronunciation errors of college students through the analysis of English pronunciation of vowels, we found that college students’ English pronunciation are easy occur tongue position and lip shape errors during pronounce vowels. Based on analysis of pronunciation errors, we put forward targeted voice training for college students’ English pronunciation, eventually increased the students learning interest, and improved the teaching of English phonetics.
Atechi, Samuel; Angwah, Julius
Teachers of English in Cameroon are proficient speakers of Cameroon English and their non-native status militates against their usage of Standard British English in the English language classrooms. This makes the attainment of British English thorny and perhaps impossible in Cameroon. Standing on that premise, we were motivated to find out…
A VOCABULARY GUIDE OF COGNATE WORDS IN ENGLISH AND SPANISH IS PRESENTED. THE VALUE OF THE GUIDE RESTS ON THE ASSUMPTIONS THAT THE LEARNING OF SIMILAR WORDS IN BOTH LANGUAGES COULD CHANGE SPANISH-SPEAKING AMERICAN PUPILS' NEGATIVE ATTITUDE ABOUT ENGLISH AS WELL AS INCREASE THEIR VOCABULARY. WORDS IN THE "VELAZQUEZ SPANISH AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY" OF…
Dallo, F J; James, S A
With the steady increase of non-European, non-English speaking immigrants to the United States, the relationship between acculturation and risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an issue of growing importance to researchers interested in the health of new immigrant populations. The influence of acculturation processes on adverse changes in blood pressure (BP), a major risk factor for CVD, has been examined in Hispanic-Americans and Asian-Americans. Published studies on this relationship in Arab-Americans are lacking, however, despite their growing numbers. With a specific focus on Chaldean-Americans, a major subgroup of the large Arab-American population located in metropolitan Detroit, Michigan, the current study investigates the influence of level of acculturation on BP in a community probability sample of 130 Chaldean-American women. Study participants were interviewed in their homes (92% response rate). Physical measurements included BP, body mass index (BMI), and waist-hip ratio. Demographic and acculturation data were obtained through a standardized questionnaire. The crude hypertension prevalence in the sample was 16%. Three dimensions of acculturation were identified through content and factor analysis: English language preference, parental school involvement, and ethnic identity. In unadjusted analyses, both English language preference and Chaldean-American ethnic identity were associated (p Americans (and other Arab-American populations) should use improved measures of acculturation, broader assessments of behavioral and socioeconomic status, and larger samples that includes both genders.
You have a good level of English BUT... You still need to improve your speaking or You have problems writing professional documents Would you like to work in a small group on either of these areas? Then, the following courses are for you! Writing Professional Documents in English The aim of the course is for students to improve their professional writing. Participants will work on technical, scientific or administrative documents depending on the needs of the group. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) Oral Expression The emphasis will be on oral expression with necessary feed-back. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) For registration and further information, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957 / Mrs. Tessa Osborne: Tessa.Osborne@cern.ch.
You have a good level of English BUT... You still need to improve your speaking or You have problems writing professional documents Would you like to work in a small group on either of these areas? Then, the following courses are for you! Writing Professional Documents in English The aim of the course is for students to improve their professional writing. Participants will work on technical, scientific or administrative documents depending on the needs of the group. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) Oral Expression The emphasis will be on oral expression with necessary feed-back. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) For registration and further information, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957 / Mrs. Tessa Osborne: Tessa.Osborne@cern.ch.
It has been observed that language-shift varieties of English tend to be relatively close to Standard English (Trudgill and Chambers 1991: 2–3). An often- used explanation for this is that Standard English was acquired in schools by the shifting population (Filppula 2006: 516). In this paper, I
Full Text Available In the USA, the use of the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (ACR BI-RADS has served not only as a quality assurance tool and guide to standardizing breast imaging reports but has also improved communication between referring physicians, researchers, and patients. In fact, in the USA, the Mammography Quality Standards Act of 1997 requires that all mammograms be assigned a BI-RADS category based on the finding of most concern. In this manuscript, we aim to review the recommendations provided in the 4 th edition of the ACR BI-RADS for mammography, USG, and MRI. We also review the major controversies surrounding the use of ACR BI-RADS .
Sharer, J Daniel; Bodamer, Olaf; Longo, Nicola; Tortorelli, Silvia; Wamelink, Mirjam M C; Young, Sarah
Disclaimer: These ACMG Standards and Guidelines are intended as an educational resource for clinical laboratory geneticists to help them provide quality clinical laboratory genetic services. Adherence to these standards and guidelines is voluntary and does not necessarily assure a successful medical outcome. These Standards and Guidelines should not be considered inclusive of all proper procedures and tests or exclusive of others that are reasonably directed to obtaining the same results. In determining the propriety of any specific procedure or test, clinical laboratory geneticists should apply their professional judgment to the specific circumstances presented by the patient or specimen. Clinical laboratory geneticists are encouraged to document in the patient's record the rationale for the use of a particular procedure or test, whether or not it is in conformance with these Standards and Guidelines. They also are advised to take notice of the date any particular guideline was adopted, and to consider other relevant medical and scientific information that becomes available after that date. It also would be prudent to consider whether intellectual property interests may restrict the performance of certain tests and other procedures.Cerebral creatine deficiency syndromes are neurometabolic conditions characterized by intellectual disability, seizures, speech delay, and behavioral abnormalities. Several laboratory methods are available for preliminary and confirmatory diagnosis of these conditions, including measurement of creatine and related metabolites in biofluids using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, enzyme activity assays in cultured cells, and DNA sequence analysis. These guidelines are intended to standardize these procedures to help optimize the diagnosis of creatine deficiency syndromes. While biochemical methods are emphasized, considerations for confirmatory molecular testing are also discussed
Cours d'anglais général et professionnel La prochaine session se déroulera du 4 mars jusqu’au 21 juin 2013. Ces cours s'adressent à toute personne travaillant au CERN ainsi qu'à leur conjoint. Pour le détail des cours proposés, consultez nos pages web. Oral Expression The next sessions will take place from 4 March to 21 June 2013. This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to enhance their speaking skills. There will be on average of 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. More information here. Writing Professional Documents in English - Administrative Writing Professional Documents in English - Technical The next sessions will take place from 4 March to 21 June 2013. These courses are designed for people with a goo...
General and Professional English Courses The next sessions will take place: From 3rd October 2011 to beginning of February 2012 (break at Christmas). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister, tel. 70896. Oral Expression The next sessions will take place from 3rd October 2011 to beginning of February 2012 (break at Christmas). This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to enhance their speaking skills. There will be on average of 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister, tel. 70896. Writing Professional Documents in English - Administrative Wr...
that there is a tendency for Danish immigrants in North America born in Denmark to use the Danish pattern and for descendants of immigrants to use the English pattern but also that the pressure from English has different outcomes related to the individual speaker’s inclination for using the English vs. the Danish pattern.......The article analyses the use and non-use of the indefinite article in the identifying copula construction with bare noun as the subject predicate in American Danish. With a point of departure in the semantics associated with use and non-use of the indefinite article in Standard Danish and Danish...... dialects the article shows that there is a clear indication of English influence with nouns denoting profession and social status, whereas with nouns that denote an inhabitant it cannot be decided whether American Danish is influenced by English or shows a dialect relic. The article shows...
Baker, Robert A; Bronson, Shahna L; Dickinson, Timothy A; Fitzgerald, David C; Likosky, Donald S; Mellas, Nicholas B; Shann, Kenneth G
One of the roles of a professional society is to develop standards and guidelines of practice as an instrument to guide safe and effective patient care. The American Society of Extracorporeal Technology (AmSECT) first published its Essentials for Perfusion Practice, Clinical Function: Conduct of Extracorporeal Circulation in 1993. The International Consortium for Evidence-Based Perfusion (ICEBP), a committee within AmSECT, was tasked with updating this document in 2010. The aim of this report is to describe the method of development and content of AmSECT's new professional standards and guidelines. The ICEBP committee independently evaluated and provided input regarding the current "Essentials and Guidelines." Structural changes were made to the entire document, and a draft document was developed, presented, and circulated to the AmSECT Board of Directors and broader membership for comment. Informed by these reviews, a revised document was then presented to the Society for a membership vote. The final document consists of 15 areas of practice covered by 50 Standards and 38 Guidelines (see Appendix 1) with the first standard focusing on the development of institutional protocols to support their implementation and use. A majority of the membership voted to accept the document (81.2% of the voting membership accepting, 18.8% rejecting). After an audit of the balloting process by AmSECT's Ethics Committee, the results were reported to the membership and the document was officially adopted on July 24, 2013. The Standards and Guidelines will serve as a useful guide for cardiac surgical teams that wish to develop institution-specific standards and guidelines to improve the reliability, safety, and effectiveness of adult cardiopulmonary bypass. The ICEBP recognizes that the development of a Standards and Guidelines statement alone will not change care. Safe, reliable, and effective care will be best served through the development and implementation of institutional
Sara Atef-Vahid; Alireza Fard Kashani
ABSTRACT The present study explored English language learning anxiety among 38 third-year high school students in English classrooms and its relationship with overall English achievement. Students’ foreign language anxiety was surveyed and analyzed using the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986)  and their English achievement was measured through their final standardized English exam administered by the school. The results showed that although some ...
Gu, Lin; Lockwood, John; Powers, Donald E.
Standardized tests are often designed to provide only a snapshot of test takers' knowledge, skills, or abilities at a single point in time. Sometimes, however, they are expected to serve more demanding functions, one of them is assessing change in knowledge, skills, or ability over time because of learning effects.The latter is the case for the…
Golden, B. W.; Francis, T. K.
This work attempts to answer the question "how much, if any, climate change, exists in middle and high school curricula in the United States?" A necessary first step towards this answer involves an examination of Global Climate Change (GCC) coverage in the requisite standards documents. Until recently, each state had its own science framework, with four states (at the time of writing) having already adopted the new Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) (Achieve, Inc, 2013). This work reports on an analysis of the extent to which GCC exists within the content frameworks of each state, including the NGSS. The analysis began with a word search for such content as "climate change", "greenhouse effect", and "global warming". We then searched through the remainder of the documents in question to understand the nuance of each framework. Each framework was then scored on a scale form zero (no mention of climate change) to four (climate change is explicit, an anthropogenic potential cause is emphasized, and GCC appears within at least one standard of its own). Eighteen states scored a zero, while only five states scored a four. This is particularly troubling, in light of recent statements of scientific consensus (AAAS, 2006; 2009; AGU, 2013; IPCC, 2007). While the NGSS scored well, it is unclear what this means in terms of actual students encountering the subject of climate change in actual classroom. Attention is given to some still-problematic aspects of GCC content are addressed, including its focus largely within courses not required for graduation, as well as the murky details of the yet-to-be determined processes by which individual states will choose to test, or not to test, the subject matter. The authors conclude that as of 2013, there is little evidence that students in most states are required to take courses which include significant aspects of GCC in their curricula.
The effect of tertiary study at an English medium university on the written English. Jean Parkinson. Abstract. Increasing numbers of South African students speak a variety of English known as Black South African English (BSAfE). Lectures, notes and textbooks are in Standard English, and might be expected to influence the ...
Anguished English is the impossibly funny anthology of accidental assaults upon our common language. From bloopers and blunders to Signs of the Times to Mixed-Up Metaphors . . . from Two-Headed Headlines to Mangling Modifiers . . . it's a collection that will leave you roaring with delight and laughter.Help wanteds:Wanted: Unmarried girls to pick fresh fruit and produce at night.Two-Headed Headlines:Grandmother of eight makes hole in one!Doctor testifies in horse suit.Modern-Day Malapropisms:I suffer from a deviant septum.
In 2003 the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) strengthened the provisions that English be made available for international radiotelephony communication. ICAO also developed standards for English proficiency for international pilots and air traffic controllers. However, these standards are applied variably from country to country and…
Карина Джаббаровна Тамбовцева
Full Text Available This article analyzes the methods of word formation in slangs used by the American youth. The relevance of the study is justified by a large interest to examine the ways of word formation in non-standard vocabulary and the sociolinguistic factors influencing this process. The aim of the study is to determine the most common methods of word formation among the American youth in their use of slang, i.e. to identify the sources of slangisms, characterize and support them by proper examples, analyze them and generate an appropriate classification. The slang expressions are taken from movie scripts of modern American cinema for the young. A sample of about 1000 units served as data for this study. The authors use standard methods of data collection, observation of the subjects - native speakers of American English-, data classification and comparative analysis of the collected material. This article would be useful for researchers working in the field of colloquial vocabulary and social dialects, word-formation processes in language, for socio-linguists and teachers of English. The result of this research has been fruitful: based on slangisms collected from the scripts of modern American movies, the authors were able to classify methods of formation of American youth slang, describe them on the basis of empirical data and provide relevant examples.
Our paper analyzed relevant acoustic parameters of people’s speech samples and the results that compared with English standard pronunciation with methods of experimental phonetics by phonetic analysis software and statistical analysis software. Then we summarized phonetic pronunciation errors of college students through the analysis of English pronunciation of vowels, we found that college students’ English pronunciation are easy occur tongue position and lip shape errors during pronounce vow...
Throughout the nineteenth century, the sciences in the United States went through many professional and disciplinary shifts. While the impact of these changes on university education has been well established, their consequences at the level of high school education have been often overlooked. In mathematics, debates at the level of university officials found clear outlets in the reform movement concerning secondary school offerings and college entrance requirements. This article therefore focuses on these debates and also the attempts to achieve compromises through standardized curricula in the recommendations of the Committee of Ten. In discussing the interplay between university and secondary education, it exposes a feature of the history of science education that has been neglected.
Tajeldin Ali, Ezzeldin Mahmoud
This is a study on the pronunciation and perception of English sounds and words by university students of English in Sudan, whose native language is Sudanese Arabic. The study aims to establish the intelligibility of Sudanese-Arabic (SA) accented English for native English (British and American)
Neusprachliche Mitteilungen, 1976
Reprints reviews of 20 recent (1973-74) books on English teaching, including: works on English at the primary level, communicative competence, teaching literature; three grammar systems and some text collections; modern English drama, English short stories; American novels and lyric poetry; aspects of linguistics; four lexicons. (Text is in…
Nielsen, Sandro; Bergenholtz, Henning; Mourier, Lise
The English-Danish Dictionary of Accounting contains about 5.600 English accounting terms, both British, American and international (IFRS). The terms are defined and translated into Danish. The dictionary kan be used for translationg and writing of English accounting texts and for reading English...
It is probable that the majority of the 455 000 strong Aboriginal population of Australia speak some form of Australian Aboriginal English (AAE) at least some of the time and that it is the first (and only) language of many Aboriginal children. This means their language is somewhere on a continuum ranging from something very close to Standard Australian English (SAE) at one end, through to something very close to creole at the other. The phonetics and phonology, grammar, and lexicon of AAE are influenced to varying degrees by the Australian Aboriginal language substrate. There are also some features typical of non-standard Englishes in general, and some which have been retained from earlier forms of the colonial language. Many teachers still see this variety as an uneducated or corrupted form of Standard Australian English, rather than as a different dialect of English that is just as efficient a medium of communication.
Cawthon, Stephanie W.; Winton, Samantha M.; Garberoglio, Carrie Lou; Gobble, Mark E.
Students who are deaf or hard of hearing (SDHH) often need accommodations to participate in large-scale standardized assessments. One way to bridge the gap between the language of the test (English) and a student's linguistic background (often including American Sign Language [ASL]) is to present test items in ASL. The specific aim of this project…
Falsetti, Julie, Comp.
This third edition of the video directory updates previous editions and alphabetically lists videos, by title. It is designed to assist in the teaching of English or the training of teachers of English. Information included are format, standard, variety, use, target, level, price, duration, quality, support materials included, distributor, year…
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Abstract: The lexicographical record of English in Canada began with wordlists of the late eighteenth, nineteenth, and early twentieth centuries. From the beginning of the twentieth century onwards, the general vocabulary of English in Canada has been represented in bilingual and monolingual dictionaries, often adapted from American or British dictionaries. In the 1950s, several important projects were initiated, resulting in the publication of general dictionaries of English in Canada, and of dictionaries of Canadianisms and of the vocabulary of particular regions of Can-ada. This article gives an overview of these dictionaries and of their reception, contextualizing them in the larger picture of the lexicography of Canada's other official language, French, and of a number of its non-official languages. It concludes by looking at the future of English-language lexicography in Canada, and by observing that although it has, at its best, reached a high degree of sophistication, there are still major opportunities waiting to be taken.
Keywords: DICTIONARY, LEXICOGRAPHY, CANADIAN ENGLISH, CANADIANISMS, NATIONAL DICTIONARIES, CANADIAN FRENCH, CANADIAN FIRST NATIONS LAN-GUAGES, BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES, REGIONAL DICTIONARIES, UNFINISHED DICTIONARY PROJECTS
Opsomming: Woordeboeke van Kanadese Engels. Die leksikografiese optekening van Engels in Kanada begin met woordelyste van die laat agtiende, neëntiende en vroeë twintigste eeue. Van die begin van die twintigste eeu af en verder, is die algemene woordeskat van Engels weergegee in tweetalige en eentalige woordeboeke, dikwels met wysiginge ontleen aan Ameri-kaanse en Britse woordeboeke. In die 1950's is verskeie belangrike projekte onderneem wat gelei het tot die publikasie van algemene woordeboeke van Engels in Kanada, en van woordeboeke van Kanadeïsmes en van die woordeskat van bepaalde streke van Kanada. Hierdie artikel gee 'n oorsig van dié woordeboeke, en van hul ontvangs, deur
E. Aminudin Aziz
Full Text Available In a seminar on ESP held in Bandung, Andy Kirkpatrick of Curtin University of Technology, Australia, in relation to the anticipation of the potential emergence of a new variety of English in the Southeast Asian region and in Indonesia in particular, invited the audience, who were mostly university teachers, to start thinking about developing a teaching program based more on Indonesian culture than on, Anglo or American culture. This idea is based on the fact that â€œthe vast majority of people in the region who are learning English are doing so with the expressed purpose of being able to use it as a lingua franca. They are not learning English to communicate with native speakers of English, but rather with other non-native speakersâ€ (Kirkpatrick 2001. While the idea is "stimulating and challenging" (Dardjowidjojo, 2001, cares need to be taken before we finally embark further to talk about it. This is particularly important because what we will need at the outset is the down-to-earth explorations discussing the issues related particularly with the unique features that will characterise the new variety of English (if at all any. In this paper, I explore some of the potential features and argue that the most prominent of all are the differences in the realisation in the acts of speech (and writing.
Teaching English as a foreign language is rooted in the national interest of English-speaking countries that promote their own culture throughout the world. To some extent, ‘culture’ is a byword for what has come to be known as the modern nation. Mainly the UK and the US are in the spotlight of EFL teaching and learning. At the expense of other, less ‘sought-after’ varieties of English, British and American English make the case for British and American cultures. Essentially, this is all abou...
Perez, Christina R.; Bonar, Scott A.; Amberg, Jon J.; Ladell, Bridget; Rees, Christopher B.; Stewart, William T.; Gill, Curtis J.; Cantrell, Chris; Robinson, Anthony
Recently, methods involving examination of environmental DNA (eDNA) have shown promise for characterizing fish species presence and distribution in waterbodies. We evaluated the use of eDNA for standard fish monitoring surveys in a large reservoir. Specifically, we compared the presence, relative abundance, biomass, and relative percent composition of Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides and Gizzard Shad Dorosoma cepedianum measured through eDNA methods and established American Fisheries Society standard sampling methods for Theodore Roosevelt Lake, Arizona. Catches at electrofishing and gillnetting sites were compared with eDNA water samples at sites, within spatial strata, and over the entire reservoir. Gizzard Shad were detected at a higher percentage of sites with eDNA methods than with boat electrofishing in both spring and fall. In contrast, spring and fall gillnetting detected Gizzard Shad at more sites than eDNA. Boat electrofishing and gillnetting detected Largemouth Bass at more sites than eDNA; the exception was fall gillnetting, for which the number of sites of Largemouth Bass detection was equal to that for eDNA. We observed no relationship between relative abundance and biomass of Largemouth Bass and Gizzard Shad measured by established methods and eDNA copies at individual sites or lake sections. Reservoirwide catch composition for Largemouth Bass and Gizzard Shad (numbers and total weight [g] of fish) as determined through a combination of gear types (boat electrofishing plus gillnetting) was similar to the proportion of total eDNA copies from each species in spring and fall field sampling. However, no similarity existed between proportions of fish caught via spring and fall boat electrofishing and the proportion of total eDNA copies from each species. Our study suggests that eDNA field sampling protocols, filtration, DNA extraction, primer design, and DNA sequencing methods need further refinement and testing before incorporation into standard
Schaetzel, Kirsten; Lim, Beng Soon; Low, Ee Ling
Research into Singapore English (SgE) has undergone many paradigm shifts from the 1970s to the present. This paper first begins with a consideration of how variation in the English language used in Singapore has been studied. It then identifies the two main varieties of English commonly described in Singapore, namely, Standard SgE (SSE) and…
Yang, James H.
Drawing on critical pedagogy, this study challenges the hegemony of Standard English (SE) to promote inclusive approaches which recognise and tolerate the variation of World Englishes to prepare students for intercultural encounters with interlocutors speaking different varieties of English. To enhance students' ethno-sensitivity and receptive…
Against the backdrop of the near-impossibility of attaining a native-like command of the English in a second language situation, which is one of the major factors found to be militating against Nigerian learners of the English language, this study examines the prospects of promoting the Standard Nigerian English to end the ...
The phonology of General Indian English (the region-independent variety of English that is considered the norm for India) is analyzed as a step in establishing a standard pronunciation for classroom use in India. A table is appended which presents English sound discriminations that are difficult for Indian learners with various language…
Thøgersen, Jacob Martin
to terms with that. Most striking is the great uniformity in the discourses through which English is constructed on the one hand as the default language of the world, on the other as a sign of modernity. An important by-product of the investigation is that it reveals how attitudes are constructed in situ......This paper presents an investigation of Danes' attitudes towards English through qualitative interviews. Denmark, like most other countries in the so-called Western world, is under significant linguistic and cultural influence from (American) English. In this paper, I analyse how Danes come...
Cours d'anglais général et professionnel : La prochaine session se déroulera : du 27 février au 22 juin 2012. Ces cours s'adressent à toute personne travaillant au CERN ainsi qu'à leur conjoint. Pour vous inscrire et voir tout le détail des cours proposés, consultez nos pages Web: http://cern.ch/Training Vous pouvez aussi contacter Kerstin Fuhrmeister, tél. 70896. Oral Expression The next sessions will take place from 27 February to 22 June, 2012. This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to enhance their speaking skills. There will be on average of 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web page: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister, tel. ...
McNulty, Cliodna A M; Verlander, Neville Q; Moore, Philippa C L; Larcombe, James; Dudley, Jan; Banerjee, Jaydip; Jadresic, Lyda
The National Institute of Care Excellence (NICE) 2007 guidance CG54, on urinary tract infection (UTI) in children, states that clinicians should use urgent microscopy and culture as the preferred method for diagnosing UTI in the hospital setting for severe illness in children under 3 years old and from the GP setting in children under 3 years old with intermediate risk of severe illness. NICE also recommends that all 'infants and children with atypical UTI (including non-Escherichia coli infections) should have renal imaging after a first infection'. We surveyed all microbiology laboratories in England with Clinical Pathology Accreditation to determine standard operating procedures (SOPs) for urgent microscopy, culture and reporting of children's urine and to ascertain whether the SOPs facilitate compliance with NICE guidance. We undertook a computer search in six microbiology laboratories in south-west England to determine urine submissions and urine reports in children under 3 years. Seventy-three per cent of laboratories (110/150) participated. Enterobacteriaceae that were not E. coli were reported only as coliforms (rather than non-E. coli coliforms) by 61% (67/110) of laboratories. Eighty-eight per cent of laboratories (97/110) provided urgent microscopy for hospital and 54% for general practice (GP) paediatric urines; 61% of laboratories (confidence interval 52-70%) cultured 1 μl volume of urine, which equates to one colony if the bacterial load is 106 c.f.u. l(-1). Only 22% (24/110) of laboratories reported non-E. coli coliforms and provided urgent microscopy for both hospital and GP childhood urines; only three laboratories also cultured a 5 μl volume of urine. Only one of six laboratories in our submission audit had a significant increase in urine submissions and urines reported from children less than 3 years old between the predicted pre-2007 level in the absence of guidance and the 2008 level following publication of the NICE guidance. Less than a
Hu, Chunyu; Chen, Zhi
Inflation is often regarded as a dangerous phenomenon which poses a potential threat to economies in the world. It is thus an entity that demands the constant attention of economists, policymakers and the general public. In order to make this abstract entry more concrete and vivid, a number of metaphorical expressions are used to depict inflation.…
English in Australia, 2001
Presents a provisional framework for the STELLA (Standards for Teachers of English Language and Literacy in Australia), which identifies broad dimensions of teaching together with groupings of related attributes derived from teachers' narratives. (RS)
Tanaka, Sachiko Oda
Describes the use of English in the media in Japan, focusing on the role and history of English-language newspapers, radio, and television programs, as well as the proliferation of English-language films shown in Japanese cinemas. Discusses the implications of English in the Japanese media. (20 references) (MDM)
Swales, John M.
The increasing domination of English as the world's leading medium of international professional communication has begun to impact English for Academic Purposes (EAP) programs, specifically the question of whether English is becoming too successful. The article argues that resistance to the "triumphalism" of English is a responsibility of EAP…
British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.
A review of the status of English language instruction in Poland begins with an overview of the role of English in the society in general, and outlines the status of English use and instruction in the educational system at all levels (elementary, secondary, higher, adult, and teacher), the characteristics and training of English language…
Instituto de Idiomas Yazigi, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Linguistica Aplicada.
This first book of a conversational English program for adults contains an introductory section in Portuguese and exercises in English. The text centers around an English-speaking family from the United States that goes to live in Brazil. It contains color photographs with captions followed by exercises. The exercises are in English and involve…
Instituto de Idiomas Yazigi, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Linguistica Aplicada.
This second book of a conversational English program for adults contains an introductory section in Portuguese and exercises in English. The text centers around an English-speaking family from the United States that goes to live in Brazil. It contains color photographs with captions followed by exercises. The exercises are in English and involve…
Nickerson, C.; Planken, B.C.
Introducing Business English provides a comprehensive overview of this topic, situating the concepts of Business English and English for Specific Business Purposes within the wider field of English for Special Purposes. This book draws on contemporary teaching and research contexts to demonstrate
Tsiang, John T; Woo, Benjamin K
Introduction There is a deficit of avenues for obtaining dementia information in the Asian American community. This study aims to compare the content and quality differences between websites providing information on dementia as found by a Google search conducted both in simplified Chinese characters and in English. Methods A Google search was performed for the phrase "dementia" in simplified Chinese characters and in English. The resultant websites were categorized by whether they were commercial in nature, the type of website, and whether the website provided an explanation of dementia signs and symptoms. The quality of the websites was assessed via readability and the Health on the Net Code of Conduct (HONcode). Chi-squared analyses were performed to establish differences between the English and simplified Chinese results. Results The simplified Chinese search websites were more likely to be commercial (p=0.045) and were more likely to not meet HONcode standards (p=0.008). No statistical significance was observed between the types of websites (p=0.127), the prevalence of signs and symptom explanations (p=0.073), and the readability of the website (p=0.151). Conclusion The quality of websites obtained from the simplified Chinese character Google search was lower than those obtained from searches using the English language. Given the limited sources of language and culturally appropriate information on dementia, improvement of Internet resources may help to improve health outcomes of dementia patients in the Asian American population.
Monaghan, A. I. C.
Electronic communication, and particularly the World Wide Web, is becoming increasingly indispensable in our daily lives. The vast majority of the information currently exchanged electronically is in English, and it might be assumed that this will promote the use of English. Rarely is the contrary view presented, that the adoption of English as a general-purpose medium for global communication will change the English language and perhaps even lead to the creation of a «Web English» which repl...
Cooper, Rachel; Wloch, Elizabeth G.; Hofer, Scott M.; Piccinin, Andrea M.; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela
Abstract Background: We aimed to identify the hierarchy of rates of decline in 16 physical functioning measures in U.S. and English samples, using a systematic and integrative coordinated data analysis approach. Methods: The U.S. sample consisted of 13,612 Health and Retirement Study participants, and the English sample consisted of 5,301 English Longitudinal Study of Ageing participants. Functional loss was ascertained using self-reported difficulties performing 6 activities of daily living and 10 mobility tasks. The variables were standardized, rates of decline were computed, and mean rates of decline were ranked. Mann–Whitney U tests were performed to compare rates of decline between studies. Results: In both studies, the rates of decline followed a similar pattern; difficulty with eating was the activity that showed the slowest decline and climbing several flights of stairs and stooping, kneeling, or crouching the fastest declines. There were statistical differences in the speed of decline in all 16 measures between countries. American women had steeper declines in 10 of the measures than English women. Similar differences were found between American and English men. Conclusions: Reporting difficulties climbing several flights of stairs without resting, and stooping, kneeling, or crouching are the first indicators of functional loss reported in both populations. PMID:27753610
Tong, Xiuhong; McBride, Catherine
Is dyslexia in Chinese for Chinese-English bilinguals associated with difficulties in reading English, given differences in L1 and L2 orthographies? Among 11 Hong Kong Chinese adolescents with dyslexia, who were diagnosed by professional psychologists using the diagnostic criteria set out in a standardized test, and 14 adolescents without…
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STUDENTS’ ENGLISH LISTENING PROFICIENCY AND INTEREST IN ENGLISH MOVIE: A LINK TO DETERMINE THE SIGNIFICANCE OF ENGLISH MOVIE AS A TEACHING MATERIAL IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE CLASSROOM
Full Text Available English movie has been proven to be an effective tool to improve English language learning process in classroom. However, very little empirical research has been carried out to determine students’ interest in this teaching material, especially in the view of the fact that high level of interest in a teaching and learning material aids motivation which is very essential for language learning. Two groups of students were selected for this study. The first group is a Masters of Art degree student in English who have studied in English medium schools since the beginning of their formal education while the second group has studied in Kannada medium school and they are currently learning spoken English in an English training institute. A survey was administered, this is followed by giving standardize English listening test which is a parameter to measure learners’ ability to comprehend English movie. Result presented in this paper shows that Indian English learners and speakers are more interested in local movie than in English movie irrespective of their level of English listening proficiency. This suggests that students’ lack of interest in English movie is an indication that English films might not be an effective tool for learning English.
The study discusses the dynamics English language instruction in the Philippine basic education curriculum. Although English enjoyed immense popularity as early as 1900s during the American entry to the country, its role in Philippine education has transformed gradually as the country undergoes political, social and economic reconstruction in the…
Maynes, J. O., Jr.
Defining the overall objective of bilingual education to be the integration of the child into the mainstream of American life while maintaining audiolingual skills in both English and the native language without losing certain aspects of the subculture, this report summarizes information from 19 school districts involved in special English classes…
Magoma, Charles M.
The current Kenyan secondary English curriculum (2002) has adopted an integrated approach not only to teaching, but also to the assessment of English language and Literature. This re-organisation is meant to improve the standards of teaching and performance in English. However, national performance in integrated English has remained consistently…
Full Text Available The present study explored English language learning anxiety among 38 third-year high school students in English classrooms and its relationship with overall English achievement. Students’ foreign language anxiety was surveyed and analyzed using the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986  and their English achievement was measured through their final standardized English exam administered by the school. The results showed that although some students felt extremely confident and relaxed, however, one-third of the
students experienced moderate to high-anxiety levels while learning the English language in class. Correlational analysis revealed that the total FLCAS scores had a significantly moderate negative correlation (r=-.0586, p<.01 with the total final English exams scores of the participants. Anxiety was also analyzed according to the four different variables of anxiety (communication anxiety, test anxiety, fear of negative evaluation, English classroom anxiety which were measured by the FLCAS. The results of the Pearson correlational analysis indicated that English achievement was modestly correlated with all four anxiety variables (p<0.01. Of the four types of anxiety, English Classroom anxiety had the highest correlational value. Finally, possible anxiety provoking factors
leading to these findings are examined and discussed, and some pedagogical implications are proposed.
Full Text Available American Studies at the University of BucharestThe idea of teaching American Studies and founding a program in American Studies was first voiced in the long meetings of faculty and students held at the University of Bucharest soon after the collapse of the communist regime. The proposal was one of many that reflected the spirit of reform and hope for radical changes at the outset of Romania’s transition to democracy. The absence of institutional structures other than English departments and t...
Palmer, Joe Darwin
This study summarizes the kinds of English grammar currently taught in American secondary schools and describes the effects of curriculum proposals by scholars upon the teaching of language and composition. A survey of grammar from classical Greek and Roman times to the present precedes a description of specific types of grammar (e.g.,…
The Cooperative Principle by American linguist Grice is one of the major principles guiding people's communication. Observing the Cooperative Principle will be helpful for people to improve the flexibility and accuracy of language communication. The ultimate aim of spoken English teaching is to develop students' communicative competence.…
Zhang, Weimin; Hu, Guiling
This pilot project investigates second language (L2) learners' attitudes towards three varieties of English: American (AmE), British (BrE) and Australian (AuE). A 69-word passage spoken by a female speaker of each variety was used. Participants were 30 Chinese students pursuing Masters or Doctoral degrees in the United States, who listened to each…
College instructors of English need to use selected strands from the educational psychology arena in teaching so that students may achieve more optimally. Each student needs to experience a quality English curriculum. A quality English class emphasizes instructional procedures which are conducive to achieving, growing, and learning on the part of…
British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.
This review of the status of English language instruction in Brazil provides an overview of the Brazilian geographic, historical, and political context and the role of English in the society in general and in the educational system. The following topics are covered: an outline of the status of English use and instruction in the educational system…
Denham, P. A.
The growing use of English in Vietnam is reviewed, along with the nation's linguistic history that exemplifies the close relationship between language and politics. The English curriculum in Vietnamese schools is described, and the future role of Outer Circle countries in English language teaching is considered. (19 references) (Author/LB)
Coskun, Abdullah; Arslan, Abdullah
This paper aims to emphasize the importance of using Moodle in foreign language learning and teaching by reviewing relevant literature and introducing a Moodle-based environment aiming to help English learners to practice their English by themselves. Firstly, the use of Moodle in education and more specifically in English Language Teaching is…
Traces the history of English in Fiji, especially in relation to education. The role of English in interethnic communication and as a language of wider communication with the outside world is discussed, and features of Fiji English, a local language variety, are described. (Author/CB)
This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…
Discusses the education system in Indonesia, the development of a national English syllabus, English in elementary and secondary schools and in higher education, private sector English courses, teacher preparation and professional development, and expatriate English teachers. (Author/VWL)
Fass-Holmes, Barry; Vaughn, Allison A.
Many American universities require international applicants whose native language is not English to submit English proficiency exam scores presumably because of proficiency's potential to predict future academic success. The present study provides evidence, however, that such applicants can succeed academically despite struggling with English.…
Yuan, Yifeng; Shen, Huizhong; Ewing, Robyn
For a long time, Australian English and culture have not been viewed in China as an equal to its American and British counterpart. This is reflected in teachers' choice of destination when it comes to English teaching and learning resources. This paper examines Chinese English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers' perceptions of the contents and…
Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015
The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. This fact sheet uses data from the 2013 American Community Survey (ACS), and applies the following definitions: An "English learner" student: (1) is ages 5 to 18; (2)…
Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015
The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. This fact sheet uses data from the 2013 American Community Survey (ACS) and applies specific definitions. An "English learner" student: (1) is ages 5 to 18; (2) attends…
Erbaugh, Mary S.
Compared American English and Mandarin Chinese speakers' oral descriptions of a film that had sound but no dialogue. Results revealed that Chinese speakers provided at least as much chronological detail as and more social and moral interpretations than English speakers, although the English speakers offered more personal comments. (21 references)…
British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.
A profile of English language teaching in Poland is provided in outline form. The following topics are dealt with: the role of English in the country, teaching hours per week in English at each educational level, English language versus English literature, public examinations, syllabuses and textbooks, specialized English programs, adult English…
Part-time teacher of primary English needed for September 2003 to teach English National Curriculum (KS2) and NLS to mother tongue or good second language English-speakers aged 7-10. 4 hours contact time per week, team planning, marking and meetings. Candidates should be English mother tongue qualified teachers, confident, flexible classroom practitioners and team players. For further details and how to apply see http://enpferney.org/staff_vacancies.htm English National Programme, Lycée International, Ferney-Voltaire (http://enpferney.org/)
Part-time teacher of primary English needed for September 2002 to teach English National Curriculum (KS2) and NLS to mother tongue or good second language English-speakers aged 7-10. 4 hours contact time per week, team planning, marking and meetings. Candidates should be English mother tongue qualified teachers, confident, flexible classroom practitioners and team players. For further details and how to apply: email@example.com or 04 50 40 82 66. Apply as soon as possible, and in any case before 8 July. English National Programme, Lycée International, Ferney-Voltaire.
Full Text Available This article considers the developing status of English in Norway, both as a language and as a school subject, making predictions about which ontological and epistemological perspectives will influence English language teaching (ELT in Norway towards 2030. Status quo and predictions for English in Norway is approached from two angles; the development of presiding language beliefs in linguistic science and in ELT practices from the 16th century to the present, and the more recent and rapid development of English as the foremost global language of communication. The article shows how English language beliefs and the status of English are made visible in the national subject curriculum and in the English language practices among Norwegian adolescent learners. The discussion suggests that English is increasingly characterised by those who use it as a second or later language, including Norwegians who negotiate the meanings of English in the ELT classroom. The article predicts that a logical development for Norwegian ELT is increased influence from social constructionist perspectives, in combination with the existing focus on communicative competence. The study shows that global circumstances related to the status of English are reciprocally related to local language beliefs among educational authorities, teachers and students, and that these have major implications for English as a discipline in lower and higher education.
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a text-based (TB English structured language development programme and a teacher-designed standards-based (SB English instructional model. The sample of this study comprised of 500 Samoan children, in Kindergarten (K and Grade 1 (G1, on the island of American Samoa attending eight different schools. All the children enter school with no English competence. Six schools implemented the TB Language for Learning scripted programme and the Read Well. Two schools implemented the SB instructional model for English language development (SB, and only one of these schools implemented the SB instruction in reading. The results of this study support the efficacy of TB structured language programme as compared to the teacher-designed SB instructional model in all language and reading skills assessed.
Fabiola D. Kurnia
The purpose of this paper is to analyses the organizational patterns of imaginative English and foreign texts in an English speaking community of a mixed cultural literaty work. A contrastive list of foreign English text in Galsorthy's Quality and the standard English texts was used as the data. The data were then analysed according to the organizational patterns of sound systems, grammatical structures, vocabulary system, and cultural features. The analysis suggests that foreign English text...
Full Text Available The paper deals with the significant increase of English words and expressions in Romanian media, in the general context of English and American words’ invasion. The premise from which we start to analyze the influence of English on Romanian audiovisual space is that this influence is specific not only to Romania, but is also found in many countries worldwide. Massive borrowing of Anglo-American terms was obvious after the Second World War in most European languages. This paper constitutes an awareness call to all communication specialists, putting particular emphasis on journalists’ role and those responsible in communication to convey future generations a constant concern for all that means Romanian language. The second part of the paper presents examples of necessary borrowings and luxury Anglicisms from different fields: economic, financial, trade, education and research; sports, communication and media terminology. Then, the next part deals with examples from Romanian newspapers, magazines, from TV and radio. The media, the main providers of Anglicisms, have built a secondary reality, relying on information, reports and interpretations which they select, order them according to priorities, and spread them among the public, using a certain terminology. The attitude of speakers and specialists to the avalanche of English terms in Romanian audiovisual language must be a rational one, since it is necessary to measure both advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, in this paper I wish to plead for quality in journalistic expression without blaming the use of anglicisms or neologisms regardless of the language of origin. On the contrary, I would like to emphasize that, when their use is justified in terms of terminology and when they come to cover a semantic void or a more precise meaning, borrowings may be a demonstration of spirituality, enrichment, networking and integration of science and modern technology. The conclusion is that the
Anthony,Taiwanna D.; Kritsonis, William A.
As the era of bilingualism increases in many states, African American children are some how being overlooked. There are many challenges for non-native Spanish speakers. Many of the school programs are focused on ESL (English as a Second Language), ELL (English Language Learner), or LEP (Limited English Proficiency) students. The authors provide…
Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc., Alexandria, VA.
The guide outlines performance standards for each of three broad goals of English-as-a-Second-Language teaching in elementary and secondary education. The three goals include: use of English to communicate in social settings; use of English to achieve academically in all content areas; and use of English in socially and culturally appropriate…
Ng, Manwa L; Chen, Yang
The present study examined English sentence stress produced by native Cantonese speakers who were speaking English as a second language (ESL). Cantonese ESL speakers' proficiency in English stress production as perceived by English-speaking listeners was also studied. Acoustical parameters associated with sentence stress including fundamental frequency (F0), vowel duration, and intensity were measured from the English sentences produced by 40 Cantonese ESL speakers. Data were compared with those obtained from 40 native speakers of American English. The speech samples were also judged by eight native listeners who were native speakers of American English for placement, degree, and naturalness of stress. Results showed that Cantonese ESL speakers were able to use F0, vowel duration, and intensity to differentiate sentence stress patterns. Yet, both female and male Cantonese ESL speakers exhibited consistently higher F0 in stressed words than English speakers. Overall, Cantonese ESL speakers were found to be proficient in using duration and intensity to signal sentence stress, in a way comparable with English speakers. In addition, F0 and intensity were found to correlate closely with perceptual judgement and the degree of stress with the naturalness of stress.
Union, Craig D.; Union, Lori Walker; Green, Tim D.
This study explored the effects of a portable technology intervention, the Nook Simple Touch eReader, on student performance in Reading and English/Language Arts when included as an integral part of the teaching and learning process in an elementary third-grade classroom. This study used the participating students' end-of-year second-grade scores…
Coggins, Debra S (Susan)
Research-based strategies to reach English learners - now aligned with the Common Core!Enable your English learners to build higher-level math skills and gain greater fluency in their new language-all while achieving the goals of the Common Core. Now in its second edition, this trusted resource includes: Mathematics lesson scenarios in every chapter, directly connected to Common Core Standards and the Standards for Mathematical Practice Instructional approaches that promote participation, hands-on learning, and true comprehension of mathematics concepts that benefit ALL students Sample lessons, visuals, and essential vocabulary that connect mathematical concepts with language development.
A cluster randomized trial of standard quality improvement versus patient-centered interventions to enhance depression care for African Americans in the primary care setting: study protocol NCT00243425
Ghods Bri K
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies document disparities in access to care and quality of care for depression for African Americans. Research suggests that patient attitudes and clinician communication behaviors may contribute to these disparities. Evidence links patient-centered care to improvements in mental health outcomes; therefore, quality improvement interventions that enhance this dimension of care are promising strategies to improve treatment and outcomes of depression among African Americans. This paper describes the design of the BRIDGE (Blacks Receiving Interventions for Depression and Gaining Empowerment Study. The goal of the study is to compare the effectiveness of two interventions for African-American patients with depression--a standard quality improvement program and a patient-centered quality improvement program. The main hypothesis is that patients in the patient-centered group will have a greater reduction in their depression symptoms, higher rates of depression remission, and greater improvements in mental health functioning at six, twelve, and eighteen months than patients in the standard group. The study also examines patient ratings of care and receipt of guideline-concordant treatment for depression. Methods/Design A total of 36 primary care clinicians and 132 of their African-American patients with major depressive disorder were recruited into a cluster randomized trial. The study uses intent-to-treat analyses to compare the effectiveness of standard quality improvement interventions (academic detailing about depression guidelines for clinicians and disease-oriented care management for their patients and patient-centered quality improvement interventions (communication skills training to enhance participatory decision-making for clinicians and care management focused on explanatory models, socio-cultural barriers, and treatment preferences for their patients for improving outcomes over 12 months of follow
In 2001, California instituted a statewide test measuring English proficiency for English learners, students who are not proficient in English. In 2003 and 2004, nearly 500,000 English learners in grades 1-5 took this test each year. The relationship between bilingual education receipt and English proficiency is estimated using value-added…
If one of your New Year’s resolutions is to learn a language, there is no excuse anymore! You can attend one of our English or French courses and you can practise the language with a tandem partner! General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. Oral Expression This course is aimed at students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. Cours d’anglais général et professionnel La prochaine session se déroulera du 3 mars a...
Hu, Xiulian; Lin, Ye; Hunold, Cordula; Nelson, Katja
Speech adaptation after oral rehabilitation is based on a complex interaction of articulatory and myofunctional factors. The knowledge of basic phonetic principles may help clinicians identify phonetic problems associated with prosthodontic treatment. The purpose of this article is to illustrate basic phonetic terminology, standard Chinese (Putonghua) phonetics, and the anatomic structures relevant for dentistry. In cooperation with a Chinese linguistic specialist, Chinese articulators were selected and are described and compared with English phonetics. Established test words and sentences aid the identification of mispronounced articulators and their related dental structures. The pronunciation of most consonants and vowels in standard Chinese is similar to English, but some of them, such as the retropalatals (/zh/ [tʂ], /ch/ [thʂ], /sh/ [ʂ]), have notable differences. Palatal consonants (/j/ [tɕ], /q/ [tɕh], /x/ [ɕ]) are unique to the Chinese phonetic system and are not found in English phonetics. The comprehension of the basic anatomic regions involved in Chinese phonetics may help prosthodontists treat patients whose native language is standard Chinese. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.
Spann, Margaret; And Others
This manual for language arts instructors contains a basic core of instruction in English that provides updated and extensive vocationally related application of such basic English skills as reading, writing, and practical usage. Attention is also focused on assisting students with life and study skills. The material should be adapted to…
One of the keys to mastering English spellings is mastering the processes of word formation. The mode of word formation can influence the spelling. The study of the meaningful parts of a word is known as morphology. Linguists have identified many ways in which English form its words which include borrowing from Latin ...
Bhatia, Vijay K.; Bremner, Stephen
The concept of Business English has undergone some major shifts in the last few years because of a number of developments, such as advances in genre theory and the coming together of English for Business Purposes and Business Communication, inspired by the realization that there is a gap to be bridged between the academy and the globalized…
The article reviews the book "Nineteenth-Century English: Stability and Change," by Merja Kytö, Mats Rydèn and Erik Smitterberg......The article reviews the book "Nineteenth-Century English: Stability and Change," by Merja Kytö, Mats Rydèn and Erik Smitterberg...
Aiming at the phenomena that more and more abbreviations occur in maritime English correspondences, the composing laws of the abbreviations in maritime English correspondence are analyzed, and the correct methods to answer the abbreviations are pointed out, and the translation method of abbreviations are summarized in this article, and the…
In this article, I discuss the work of the British Council's Peacekeeping English Project: why the British Council is undertaking this work, why is it being sponsored, what exactly is being done and what are the key issues in English for peacekeeping and other security forces.
Using science notebooks effectively in the classroom can encourage students who are learning English to keep up and keep interested. English language proficiency might head the list of content areas that schools can teach properly and effectively through science. Amaral, Garrison, and Klentschy (2002) reported that a successful inquiry-based…
The study enlightens the effectiveness of Interactive-Multimedia Package in developing communicative skill in English at standard VI. Present methods of developing communicative skill are ineffective to the students in improving their communicative competencies in English. Challenging interactive Multimedia Package helps to enhance the…
Most school books and reading materials are written in English, but the standard of written and spoken ... should work together to find a remedy to redress the poor English language skills of most Nigerian pupils. ... strategy is rarely practiced in Nigeria today because of the unsettled nature of most homes and schools today.
including Italian, Spanish, and French, mixed with elements of Greek, Turkish, Arabic and. Persian to create the ... become global citizens must also speak the global language; therefore, English – whether the standard form or some ... Inner Circle university settings where English is taught by native-speaking instructors, an.
Full Text Available This article aims to discuss issues of World Englishes (WEs and the implications in ELT. It explores the extent to which WEs are taken into account as emerging English varieties different from inner circle varieties, how WEs should be accomodated by English teachers, and which standard to adopt to accommodate learner’s linguistic needs for international communication. It would help ELT practitioners adjust their current practices through the inclusion of varieties of WEs in developing learners’ oral communication. This offers relevant pedagogical movement to argue that changes should be made about the way English is valued and taught.
Dr. Josephine Dzahene-Quarshie
Dzahene-Quarshie: Swahili Football Language. 40 refa arbitrator/ referee referee mwamuzi decision maker referee benchi la ufundi bench of technical technical bench nahodha captain captain. Table 4: Standard Technical Expressions. Swahili labels. Literal Translations. English Equivalent msaada wa kifundi assistance ...
Horslund, Camilla Søballe
is increasing in relative use. Drug, on the other hand, stays a minority form over time, and there is no evidence that the form is becoming common. Snuck is generally much more common than drug, in both British and American English. Furthermore, both strong past tense forms are more common in American English...... than in British English. With respect to register, the strong form is most common in the spoken register for both American and British English and least common in the academic and newspaper registers, which could be taken to support an association between language use and language attitudes, (as......Language observers may have noticed the existence of two past tense forms for the verb to sneak in American English, sneaked and snuck. Interestingly, both forms have not always coexisted; the original form is sneaked, and snuck has only recently become a real competitor for sneaked (Hogg, 1988: 31...
Baker, Rachel E.; Baese-Berk, Melissa; Bonnasse-Gahot, Laurent; Kim, Midam; Van Engen, Kristin J.; Bradlow, Ann R.
In this study, we compare the effects of English lexical features on word duration for native and non-native English speakers and for non-native speakers with different L1s and a range of L2 experience. We also examine whether non-native word durations lead to judgments of a stronger foreign accent. We measured word durations in English paragraphs read by 12 American English (AE), 20 Korean, and 20 Chinese speakers. We also had AE listeners rate the `accentedness' of these non-native speakers. AE speech had shorter durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, greater reduction of function words, and less between-speaker variance than non-native speech. However, both AE and non-native speakers showed sensitivity to lexical predictability by reducing second mentions and high frequency words. Non-native speakers with more native-like word durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, and greater function word reduction were perceived as less accented. Overall, these findings identify word duration as an important and complex feature of foreign-accented English. PMID:21516172
Known as the "STELLA" (Standards for Teachers of English Language & Literacy in Australia) Standards Framework, there are a set of nine principles which all teachers of English in Australia should aspire to weave into their professional teaching practices. This article describes the journey that Miss Amy Andrew had embarked on in…
Full Text Available Educational psychology has recently reflected a policy shift from focusing on “what goes wrong” in schools, including psychological, physical, and educational disabilities, to recognizing and promoting strengths and positive aspects of students and their environments. Within this scope, some lines of research have examined the extent to which setting personal high standards influences such positive outcomes as educational achievement and high level of motivation. The present study was motivated by the concern that Iranian English language teachers' setting high standards, i.e. perfectionism, may predict English language learners’ motivation and language achievement. Through cluster random sampling, a total of 30 English language teachers with more than one year of experience and 300 elementary English language learners were selected from English Language Institutes in Fars province, Iran. Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism scale and Motivations Underlying English Language Learning questionnaire were used to measure teachers' perfectionism and learners’ language learning motivation, respectively. The learners' final scores in the English courses were collected as a measure of their language learning achievement. The result of simple regression analysis revealed that the teachers' perfectionism did not predict English language learners’ motivation and language achievement. In other words, Iranian English language teachers' perfectionism did not account for any variance in these two variables of interest. Keywords: Perfectionism, Motivation, Language Learning Achievement
Full Text Available Globalization and multicultural communicative settings have contributed to the expansion of English as the main international language and as a result, English as a Lingua Franca use has been on the rise. Considering this situation, the concept of English as a Foreign Language seems to no longer fulfill the needs of our multicultural society in constant transformation. Accordingly, research in English pedagogy has also shifted from Standard English and grammatical correctness approaches, to communicative competence and communicative effectiveness. Nowadays, learning English is a two-way process in which the goal for many (depending on the students and aims is to achieve intercultural communicative competence in order to acquire the knowledge, skills, attitudes and critical cultural awareness necessary to communicate. The essential shift has therefore been from an approach aimed at achieving fixed ``forms'', to a method in which we learn how to ``function'' accordingly with the language in variable contexts.
Nielsen, Sandro; Mourier, Lise; Bergenholtz, Henning
The English Dictionary of Accounting contains about 5.600 accounting terms, both British, American and international (IFRS). The terms are defined and the dictionary gives language information about the terms. The dictionary can be used when writing and reading English accounting texts and when you...... want to learn more about accounting and financial reporting. The dictionary is designed for accountants, auditors, translators, students communication officers and others interested in financial reporting....
This paper deals with English teachers who work with deaf and hard-of-hearing (D/HH) students. In France deaf students are required to attend foreign language classes--mostly English classes. The purpose is not to teach them British sign language (BSL) or American sign language (ASL), but written and/or spoken English. Indeed, sign languages are…
This paper argues that it would be useful for ergonomists and experienced English Language Teaching (ELT) professionals to collaborate as this would be of substantial interest to both sets of professionals. The ongoing debate in ELT on International English (IE) might usefully help to guide ergonomists if and when they require to judge that English is used at appropriately high levels in the workplace in non-English speaking countries. It may also help ergonomists who are non-native speakers (NNSs) of English to gain greater access to the top specialist journals and to found new e-journals on Ergonomics in English that deserve international recognition. At the same time ELT specialists would have great interest in advising ergonomists on these matters, in part, as a means of testing current hypotheses on the tendencies for new varieties of English to develop and win acceptance both from native and non-native speakers of English as setting standards of communicative competence in English both for end users of English in their professional lives and for well-structured and clear written academic debate.
Ward, Lesley J
If you're confused by commas, perplexed by pronouns, and plain terrified by tenses, English Grammar For Dummies will put your fears to rest. Packed with expert guidance, it covers everything from sentence basics to rules even your English teacher didn't know - if you want to brush up on your grammar, this is the only guide you'll ever need. Discover how to: avoid common grammatical errors; get to grips with apostrophes; structure sentences correctly; use verbs and find the right tense; and decide when to use slang or formal English.
Revised sections F7.5 (quantitative amino acid analysis) and F7.6 (qualitative amino acid analysis): American College of Medical Genetics Standards and Guidelines for Clinical Genetics Laboratories, 2003.
Grier, Robert E; Gahl, William A; Cowan, Tina; Bernardini, Isa; McDowell, Geraldine A; Rinaldo, Piero
Determination of plasma amino acid levels has become a key piece of information in the diagnosis and clinical management of a group of metabolic genetic disorders. Appropriate laboratory methodologies have been published for amino acid analysis, yet there is a need for direction for the laboratory in performing this testing. The following guidelines were generated by a working group of the American College of Medical Genetics Laboratory Quality Assurance Committee. Based upon a body of knowledge and professional experience, these guidelines and standards are to be the benchmark for performance of amino acid analysis for clinical interpretation.
Full Text Available School reform efforts across the US have focused on creating systems in which all students are expected to achieve to high standards. To ensure that students reach those standards and to document what students know and can do, schools collect assessment information on students' academic achievement. More information is needed, however, to find out when such assessments are appropriate for English learners and can provide meaningful information about what such learners know and can do. We describe and discuss a study that addresses the question of when it is appropriate to administer content area tests in English to English learners. Drawing on the student database of San Francisco Unified School District, we examined the effect of language demands on the SAT/9 mathematics scores of Chinese-speaking and Spanish-speaking students. Our results showed that while the English language demands of the problem solving subscale affect all students, they have a larger effect on English learners' performance, thus rendering the tests inaccurate in measuring English learners' subject matter achievement. Our results also showed that this effect gradually decreases as students become more proficient in English, taking five to six years for students to reach parity with national norms. These results have important implications for the design of school accountability systems and policies with high-stakes consequences for English learners such as high-school graduation requirements based on standardized tests.
This Standard provides requirements and recommendations for an administrative controls and quality assurance program necessary to provide assurance that operational phase activities at nuclear power plants are carried out without undue risk to the health and safety of the public. The requirements of this Standard apply to all activities affecting the safety-related functions of nuclear power plant structures, systems, and components. It is not intended to apply to test mobile and experimental reactors nor reactors not subject to U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing. However, applicable sections of this Standard should be used as they apply to related activities. Activities included are: design changes, purchasing, fabricating, handling, shipping, storing, cleaning, erecting, installing, inspecting, testing, operating, maintaining, repairing, refueling and modifying
The contextual demands of language in content area are difficult for ELLS. Content in the native language furthers students' academic development and native language skills, while they are learning English. Content in English integrates pedagogical strategies for English acquisition with subject area instruction. The following models of curriculum content are provided in most Miami Dade County Public Schools: (a) mathematics instruction in the native language with science instruction in English or (b) science instruction in the native language with mathematics instruction in English. The purpose of this study was to investigate which model of instruction is more contextually supportive for mathematics and science achievement. A pretest and posttest, nonequivalent group design was used with 94 fifth grade ELLs who received instruction in curriculum model (a) or (b). This allowed for statistical analysis that detected a difference in the means of .5 standard deviations with a power of .80 at the .05 level of significance. Pretreatment and post-treatment assessments of mathematics, reading, and science achievement were obtained through the administration of Aprenda-Segunda Edicion and the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test. The results indicated that students receiving mathematics in English and Science in Spanish scored higher on achievement tests in both Mathematics and Science than the students who received Mathematics in Spanish and Science in English. In addition, the mean score of students on the FCAT mathematics examination was higher than their mean score on the FCAT science examination regardless of the language of instruction.
Liu, Na; Lin, Chih-Kai; Wiley, Terrence G.
Since the 1980s, China has represented one of the major growth areas in the world for English language education, and studying English has been a priority among its foreign language educational policies. As English has gained more popularity in China, some have noted the potential value of English as a means to greater educational access and…
Richards, Jack C.
Most of the world's English language teachers speak English as a second or third language rather than as their first language. For many, their level of proficiency in English may not reach benchmarks established by their employers, raising the issue that is the focus of this article, namely, what kind of proficiency in English is necessary to be…
Grose-Fifer, Jillian; Helmer, Kimberly A.; Zottoli, Tina M.
We investigated whether students in psychology-based learning communities (LCs; i.e., cohorts who took introductory psychology and English together) performed better on psychology tests than those in standard classes. There were two types of LC; in one (connected LC), we created links between English and psychology by using English class readings…
Ekundayo, Omowumi Steve Bode
This paper examines the linguistic habit of "prepositional intraference" in Educated Nigerian English (ENE) with a view to establishing why and how Nigerians produce prepositional intraference variations and how the variations distinguish ENE morphosyntax from native English morphosyntax, particularly Standard British English (SBE).…
Wolfram, Walter A; Fasold, Ralph W.
Some differences between Standard English (SE) and "Black English" (BE) have important consequences in communication of messages. The authors cite as an example the "habitual" function of the finite verb "be" which has no equivalent in SE. They point out that "simplification" of the English of the Bible may result in a "translation" which is…
Singaravelu, G.; Paramasivam, M.
The study examined the insight of English Teacher towards students of standard XI in acquiring communicative skill in English. The main objective of the paper was to identify the problems of the students in acquiring communicative skill in English. The Normative survey method was adopted in the study. One hundred teachers were considered as a…
English is solidly entrenched in Israel as the "first foreign language", as defined in the Policy on Language Education in Israeli Schools. The English curriculum published in 2001 expresses the view that English is the world's most important language and therefore requires the highest standards of teaching. This research examined how…
The purpose of this study was to provide an insight into how former English learners' educational experiences allowed them to attain English language proficiency and meet grade level standards in English Language Arts. This study was informed by the theoretical frameworks of Albert Bandura's social learning theory, and Lev Vygotsky's sociocultural…
pronouns, conjunctions, auxiliary verbs and prepositions occur in Standard English sentences, they are produced in their weak forms. The concern of this study is whether educated Yoruba English speakers appropriately use the weak forms of English grammatical words in their sentences or not. One hundred Educated ...
Mees, Inger; Osorno, Christina Høøck
, bath) whose citation forms contain the TRAP vowel /æ/ in General American but the PALM vowel /ɑː/ in British RP. In other accents of English, including Cardiff English, the lexical distribution of the items is often less straightforward, with some items taking PALM while others take TRAP. The situation......This article investigates how a small number of female speakers from Cardiff pronounce items belonging to the lexical set BATH. The data forms a subsample extracted from a longitudinal study on Cardiff English with recordings from 1977, 1990 and 2011. The BATH set comprises items (e.g., chance...
Wijdicks, Eelco F M; Varelas, Panayiotis N; Gronseth, Gary S; Greer, David M
To provide an update of the 1995 American Academy of Neurology guideline with regard to the following questions: Are there patients who fulfill the clinical criteria of brain death who recover neurologic function? What is an adequate observation period to ensure that cessation of neurologic function is permanent? Are complex motor movements that falsely suggest retained brain function sometimes observed in brain death? What is the comparative safety of techniques for determining apnea? Are there new ancillary tests that accurately identify patients with brain death? A systematic literature search was conducted and included a review of MEDLINE and EMBASE from January 1996 to May 2009. Studies were limited to adults. In adults, there are no published reports of recovery of neurologic function after a diagnosis of brain death using the criteria reviewed in the 1995 American Academy of Neurology practice parameter. Complex-spontaneous motor movements and false-positive triggering of the ventilator may occur in patients who are brain dead. There is insufficient evidence to determine the minimally acceptable observation period to ensure that neurologic functions have ceased irreversibly. Apneic oxygenation diffusion to determine apnea is safe, but there is insufficient evidence to determine the comparative safety of techniques used for apnea testing. There is insufficient evidence to determine if newer ancillary tests accurately confirm the cessation of function of the entire brain.
Ng, Tiffany; McMahan, Shari; Mouttapa, Michele; Tanjasiri, Sora Park; Beam, William
Background: The World Health Organization released lower Body Mass Index (BMI) cutoff points for Asian individuals to account for increased body fat percentage (BF%) and risk of obesity-related conditions at a lower body mass index. Purpose: This preliminary study: (1) explores the impact of utilizing Asian BMI standards (compared to universal…
.... The implication is that these five dimensions mark fundamental rhetorical "cut points" in written English, functioning as a heretofore hidden meso-layer linking micro-level linguistic decisions...
In this paper I will offer some techniques on how to add stimulation and enjoyment to the study of English through watching movies. The reader will have a chance to examine how teachers can utilize movies in the classroom to generate significant language production. This paper will further demonstrate how movies provide a plethora of opportunities for learners to reinforce and integrate all four English language skills, while improving their ability to engage in discussions that elicit and en...
Renata R. Mautner Wasserman
Charles Brockden Brown’s Wieland (1798, one of the first novels by an American author set in the newly formed United States, and dealing with American topics, is generally classed as a “Gothic” novel and read as exploring issues of national identity. The Gothic form, popular in English literature, where it gave sensationalistic treatment to matters of gender, class, national identity and religious affiliation, proved adaptable to conditions overseas. Wieland, however, is less sanguine about the success of the nation-building and independence-achieving enterprise than other, later, novels of American national identity.
Even though English was the author's favorite subject, she was not good at speaking in English, and always tried to avoid it. However, it did not matter because she did not have to speak to demonstrate her English ability. After entering university, her lack of confidence in speaking English became a major issue, and other students face the same…
British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.
This profile in outline form of the English language teaching situation in Cyprus discusses the role of English within the Greek Cypriot community and within the educational system. Areas covered include English language requirements and English within the curriculum, teaching personnel and teacher training, instructional materials, English…
This is a fun and userfriendly way to learn English English Made Easy is a breakthrough in English language learningimaginatively exploiting how pictures and text can work together to create understanding and help learners learn more productively. It gives learners easy access to the vocabulary, grammar and functions of English as it is actually used in a comprehensive range of social situations. Selfguided students and classroom learners alike will be delighted by the way they are helped to progress easily from one unit to the next, using a combination of pictures and text to discover for themselves how English works. The pictorial method used in this book is based on a thorough understanding of language structure and how language is successfully learned.English Made Easy, Volume 1 consists of a total of 20 units arranged in groups of five. The first four units presents language and provide learners the opportunities to practice as they learn. The first page of each unit has a list of all the word...
This is a fun and userfriendly way to learn EnglishEnglish Made Easy is a breakthrough in English language learningimaginatively exploiting how pictures and text can work together to create understanding and help learners learn more productively. It gives learners easy access to the vocabulary, grammar and functions of English as it is actually used in a comprehensive range of social situations. Selfguided students and classroom learners alike will be delighted by the way they are helped to progress easily from one unit to the next, using a combination of pictures and text to discover for themselves how English works. The pictorial method used in this book is based on a thorough understanding of language structure and how language is successfully learned.English Made Easy, Volume 2 consists of a total of 20 units arranged in groups of five. The first four units presents language and provide learners the opportunities to practice as they learn. The first page of each unit has a list of all the words...
Full Text Available English has successfully overwhelmed Indonesian like tsunami as an imperialistic language. The meaning of imperialism here, however, differs from the conventional meaning as it is invited imperialism, not coerced imperialism.The influence of English in Indonesian is discussed in terms of modernization, globalization, economy, and history. The linguistic tsunami effects are overwhelming, staggering, and unstoppable. The data for this article were collected from various sources, and it was found that the number of English words (pure and modified is indeed confounding. Virtually English words have penetrated all walks of life. Unfortunately, there is no way we can prevent English influence on Indonesian, it is simply inevitable and we cannot do anything about it. Seen from linguistic purism, we have lost the battle in fighting off English influence; but seen from the eye of a descriptive linguist, it is an unpreventable historical phenomenon. It is a lingusitic dynamism in which language is altered and enriched by a continuous input from other languages, the most influential language being the major donor of loanwords of the receiving language. If it is considered a problem, the solution is to change our attitude to realize that any living language continues undergoing modifications and we should be willing to accommodate them. It is the dialectics of world history.
Dictionary of electrical engineering. Power engineering, automation technology, measurement and control technology, mechatronics. English - German; Fachwoerterbuch Elektrotechnik. Energietechnik, Automatisierungstechnik, Mess-, Steuer- und Regelungstechnik, Mechatronik. Englisch - Deutsch
The foreign-language vocabulary taught at school usually does not cover terms needed during professional life in electrical engineering. This comprehensive dictionary contains more than 60,000 electrotechnical and engineering terms - used in textbooks, manuals, data sheets, whitepapers and international standards. British English and American English spelling differences are identified. Terms used in IEC standards of the International Electrotechnical Commission are marked, allowing the reader to have easy access to the multilingual glossary of the IEC. This book contains the in-house dictionaries of the internationally operating companies Festo, KEB, Phoenix Contact, and Rittal. Topics: - Basic of electrical engineering, - Electrical power engineering, - Mechatronics, - Electrical drive engineering, - Electrical connection technology, - Automation technology, - Safety-related technology, - Information technology, - Measurement and control technology, - Explosion protection - Power plant technology, - Lightning and overvoltage protection. (orig.)
Full Text Available This paper describes an experiment in which groups of children attempted to improve their English pronunciation using an English-language learning software, some English films, and a speech-to-text software engine. The experiment was designed to examine two hypotheses. The first is that speech-to-text software, trained in an appropriate voice, can act as an evaluator of accent and clarity of speech as well as help learners acquire a standard way of speaking. The second is that groups of children can operate a computer and improve their pronunciation and clarity of speech, on their own, with no intervention from teachers. The results of the experiment are positive and point to a possible new pedagogy.
SRNL’s validation of ANSI N42.34-D6 for the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) was performed utilizing one hand-held instrument (or RID) – the FLIR identiFINDER 2. Each section of the standard was evaluated via a walk-through or test. NOTE: In Table 1, W = walk-through and T = test, as directed by the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO). For a walk-through, the experiment was either setup or reviewed for setup; for a test, the N42.34-D6 procedures were followed with some exceptions and comments noted. SRNL is not fully able to evaluate a RID against Sections 7 (Environmental), 8 (Electromagnetic), and 9 (Mechanical) of N42.34, so those portions of this validation were done in collaboration with Qualtest, Inc. in Orlando, Florida. The walk-throughs and tests of Sections 7, 8, and 9 were performed in Qualtest, Inc. facilities with SRNL providing radiological sources as necessary. Where applicable, assessment results and findings of the walk-throughs and tests were recorded on datasheets and a validation summary is provided. A general comment pertained to test requirements found in another standard and referenced in N42.34-D6. For example, step 1 of the test method in section 8.1.2 states “RF test set up information can be found in IEC 61000-4-3.” It is recommended that any information from other standards necessary for conducting the tests within N42.34 should be posted in N42.34 for simplicity and to prevent the user from having to peruse other documents. Another general comment, as noted by Qualtest, is that a tolerance reference is not listed for each test in sections 7-9. Overall, the N42.34-D6 was proven to be practicable, but areas for improvement and recommendations were identified for consideration prior to final ballot submittal.