WorldWideScience

Sample records for standard advertising pre-test

  1. Pre-test CFD Calculations for a Bypass Flow Standard Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich Johnson

    2011-11-01

    The bypass flow in a prismatic high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) is the flow that occurs between adjacent graphite blocks. Gaps exist between blocks due to variances in their manufacture and installation and because of the expansion and shrinkage of the blocks from heating and irradiation. Although the temperature of fuel compacts and graphite is sensitive to the presence of bypass flow, there is great uncertainty in the level and effects of the bypass flow. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program at the Idaho National Laboratory has undertaken to produce experimental data of isothermal bypass flow between three adjacent graphite blocks. These data are intended to provide validation for computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analyses of the bypass flow. Such validation data sets are called Standard Problems in the nuclear safety analysis field. Details of the experimental apparatus as well as several pre-test calculations of the bypass flow are provided. Pre-test calculations are useful in examining the nature of the flow and to see if there are any problems associated with the flow and its measurement. The apparatus is designed to be able to provide three different gap widths in the vertical direction (the direction of the normal coolant flow) and two gap widths in the horizontal direction. It is expected that the vertical bypass flow will range from laminar to transitional to turbulent flow for the different gap widths that will be available.

  2. Smokers' responses to television advertisements about the serious harms of tobacco use: pre-testing results from 10 low- to middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Melanie; Bayly, Megan; Durkin, Sarah; Cotter, Trish; Mullin, Sandra; Warne, Charles

    2013-01-01

    While television advertisements (ads) that communicate the serious harms of smoking are effective in prompting quitting-related thoughts and actions, little research has been conducted among smokers in low- to middle-income countries to guide public education efforts. 2399 smokers aged 18-34 years in 10 low- to middle-income countries (Bangladesh, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Philippines, Russia, Turkey and Vietnam) viewed and individually rated the same five anti-smoking ads on a standard questionnaire and then engaged in a structured group discussion about each ad. Multivariate logistic regression analysis, with robust SEs to account for the same individual rating multiple ads, was performed to compare outcomes (message acceptance, perceived personalised effectiveness, feel uncomfortable, likelihood of discussing the ad) across ads and countries, adjusting for covariates. Ads by country interactions were examined to assess consistency of ratings across countries. Three ads with graphic imagery performed consistently highly across all countries. Two of these ads showed diseased human tissue or body parts, and a third used a disgust-provoking metaphor to demonstrate tar accumulation in smokers' lungs. A personal testimonial ad performed more variably, as many smokers did not appreciate that the featured woman's lung cancer was due to smoking or that her altered physical appearance was due to chemotherapy. An ad using a visual metaphor for lung disease was also more variable, mostly due to lack of understanding of the term 'emphysema'. Television ads that graphically communicate the serious harms of tobacco use are likely to be effective with smokers in low- to middle-income countries and can be readily translated and adapted for local use. Ads with complex medical terms or metaphors, or those that feature personal testimonials, are more variable and at least require more careful pre-testing and adaptation to maximise their potential.

  3. The role of the advertising agency: Standardization/Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Aygul Isayeva

    2011-01-01

    In this article the role of advertising agency in global marketing strategy has been examined. The developed matrix examines the contingencies that influence the success of the company’s global advertising strategy. This research reviews how the company, as the principal, may determine the nature of its relationship with the advertising agency and the degree of adaptation vs. standardization necessary in each situation.

  4. Report to Advertising Standards Authority, UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virdi, Kuldeep

    2009-01-01

    The report assesses the claims in an advertisement against technical submisison from competitors. The details are subject to a confidentiality agreement.......The report assesses the claims in an advertisement against technical submisison from competitors. The details are subject to a confidentiality agreement....

  5. Patient perspectives with abbreviated versus standard pre-test HIV counseling in the prenatal setting: a randomized-controlled, non-inferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohan, Deborah; Gomez, Elvira; Greenberg, Mara; Washington, Sierra; Charlebois, Edwin D

    2009-01-01

    In the US, an unacceptably high percentage of pregnant women do not undergo prenatal HIV testing. Previous studies have found increased uptake of prenatal HIV testing with abbreviated pre-test counseling, however little is known about patient decision making, testing satisfaction and knowledge in this setting. A randomized-controlled, non-inferiority trial was conducted from October 2006 through February 2008 at San Francisco General Hospital (SFGH), the public teaching hospital of the City and County of San Francisco. A total of 278 English- and Spanish-speaking pregnant women were randomized to receive either abbreviated or standard nurse-performed HIV test counseling at the initial prenatal visit. Patient decision making experience was compared between abbreviated versus standard HIV counseling strategies among a sample of low-income, urban, ethnically diverse prenatal patients. The primary outcome was the decisional conflict score (DCS) using O'Connor low-literacy scale and secondary outcomes included satisfaction with test decision, basic HIV knowledge and HIV testing uptake. We conducted an intention-to-treat analysis of 278 women--134 (48.2%) in the abbreviated arm (AA) and 144 (51.8%) in the standard arm (SA). There was no significant difference in the proportion of women with low decisional conflict (71.6% in AA vs. 76.4% in SA, p = .37), and the observed mean difference between the groups of 3.88 (95% CI: -0.65, 8.41) did not exceed the non-inferiority margin. HIV testing uptake was very high (97. 8%) and did not differ significantly between the 2 groups (99.3% in AA vs. 96.5% in SA, p = .12). Likewise, there was no difference in satisfaction with testing decision (97.8% in AA vs. 99.3% in SA, p = .36). However, women in AA had significantly lower mean HIV knowledge scores (78.4%) compared to women in SA (83.7%, pprocess, while associated with slightly lower knowledge, does not compromise patient decision making or satisfaction regarding HIV testing

  6. GLOBAL ADVERTISING IN THE INTERNET ERA: THE STANDARDIZATION-CUSTOMIZATION DEBATE REVISITED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Y. TANTAWY

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Advertising is a huge worldwide industry growing in importance due to the high penetration rate through mainstream media channels and the internet, reflecting social values worldwide. While the standardization versus localization debate has quite matured in the case of traditional advertising, it has not yet touched upon most critical issues related to digital marketing. The paper reviews the literature, compares both the strategies, and conclude with recommendations for global advertising decision makers.

  7. Test of "Light" cigarette counter-advertising using a standard test of advertising effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Shiffman, S.; Burton, S.; Pillitteri, J.; Gitchell, J.; Di, M; Sweeney, C.; Wardle, P.; Koehler, G.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To evaluate systematically the effectiveness of six advertising strategies (two message strategies presented in three different contexts) designed to promote smoking cessation by addressing smokers' misperceptions about Light cigarettes.
DESIGN—Smokers viewed one of six, 30 second test television concept advertisements, which varied by message (one emphasising how the sensory effects of Lights can be deceptive, the other describing the effects of vent blocking) and by ad context (no...

  8. Test of "Light" cigarette counter-advertising using a standard test of advertising effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, S; Burton, S L; Pillitteri, J L; Gitchell, J G; Di Marino, M E; Sweeney, C T; Wardle, P A; Koehler, G L

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate systematically the effectiveness of six advertising strategies (two message strategies presented in three different contexts) designed to promote smoking cessation by addressing smokers' misperceptions about Light cigarettes. Smokers viewed one of six, 30 second test television concept advertisements, which varied by message (one emphasising how the sensory effects of Lights can be deceptive, the other describing the effects of vent blocking) and by ad context (non-commercial public service announcement (PSA), promotion of unbranded nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), or promotion of branded NRT). The effectiveness of each advertisement was determined using a validated advertising testing system in which ads were viewed in the context of reviewing a pilot television programme. Response to ads is assessed through shifts in subject choices of products offered as prizes before and after viewing the test advertisements. Included among the possible prizes were cigarettes and various pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation. Daily smokers (n = 1890) of Regular (34%), Light (47%), and Ultra Light (19%) cigarettes recruited from eight US cities. The primary outcome of interest was the shift away from cigarettes as the selected prize following exposure to the test advertisements. Secondary outcomes of interest included movement away from Light cigarettes and movement towards assisted quitting products. Smokers who saw the advertisement emphasising the sensory characteristics of Light cigarettes were more likely than subjects who saw the advertisement emphasising the effect of vent blocking to move away from cigarettes (OR = 1.97, 95% confidence interval CI 1.25 to 3.09; chi(2)(1) = 8.69, p = 0.003). Similarly, subjects who saw the advertisement framed as a PSA, rather than as a promotion for either a branded or unbranded NRT product, were also somewhat more likely to move away from cigarettes (OR = 1.51, 95% CI 0.94 to 2.40; chi(2)(1) = 2.97, p = 0.085). The

  9. Consumers’ Perception on Standardized Advertizing and Localized Advertising of Multinational Companies in Smartphone Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Liu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzed the difference between standardized advertising and localized (adapted advertising based on the perception of consumers from China and the U.S. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses have been using to evaluate different marketing approaches in multiple international markets. The emphasis of this study focuses on evaluating the efficiency of advertising by assessing to what extent a standardized and localized commercial enhances brand preference and consumer’s likelihood to purchase. Quantitative analysis was conducted to identify the significance of the difference between the efficiency of standardized advertising and localized advertising in the smartphone industry, based on the perception of consumers from China and the United States in the smartphone industry. By testing the significance of the hypothesis on ad standardization and localization, some implications are suggested. The results show that it is more effective to implement a standardized ad rather than a localized ad in China.  Although the sample data of this study is collected from China and the U.S., qualitative analysis covers multiple nations from Asia to Europe and has meaningful empirical value for MNCs to develop business in those countries 

  10. Self-regulation of motor vehicle advertising: is it working in Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Robert J; Fielder, Lynda J; Ouschan, Robyn; Ewing, Michael

    2011-05-01

    There is growing concern that certain content within motor vehicle advertising may have a negative influence on driving attitudes and behaviours of viewers, particularly young people, and hence a negative impact on road safety. In response, many developed countries have adopted a self-regulatory approach to motor vehicle advertising. However, it appears that many motor vehicle advertisements in Australia and elsewhere are not compliant with self-regulatory codes. Using standard commercial advertising methods, we exposed three motor vehicle ads that had been the subject of complaints to the Australian Advertising Standards Board (ASB) to, N = 463, 14-55 year olds to assess the extent to which their perceptions of the content of the ads communicated themes that were contrary to the Australian self-regulatory code. All three ads were found to communicate messages contrary to the code (such as the vehicle's speed and acceleration capabilities). However, the ASB had upheld complaints about only one of the ads. Where motor vehicle advertising regulatory frameworks exist to guide motor vehicle advertisers as to what is and what is not acceptable in their advertising, greater efforts are needed to ensure compliance with these codes. One way may be to make it mandatory for advertisers to report consumer pre-testing of their advertising to ensure that undesirable messages are not being communicated to viewers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 75 FR 49363 - Deposit Insurance Regulations; Permanent Increase in Standard Coverage Amount; Advertisement of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... (12 CFR part 330), international banking regulations (12 CFR part 347) and advertising regulations (12... limit, which is potentially misleading to depositors. The FDIC expects that these institutions, in... deposit insurance coverage. A delay in distribution of signs advertising the new deposit insurance limit...

  12. Advertising Agencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Advertising agencies are the most significant organizations in the development of advertising and marketing worldwide. An advertising agency is an independent service company, composed of business, marketing and creative people, who develop, prepare, and place advertising in advertising media...... for their clients, the advertisers, who are in search of customers for their goods and services. Agencies thus mediate between three different but interlocking social groups: industry, media, and consumers. The history of advertising is largely the history of the advertising agencies that have served the needs....... This article is concerned with the origins, early developments, organization, compensation arrangements, and accounts of contemporary full-service advertising agencies....

  13. 40 CFR 89.406 - Pre-test procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pre-test procedures. 89.406 Section 89.406 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Procedures § 89.406 Pre-test procedures. (a) Allow a minimum of 30 minutes warmup in the standby or operating...

  14. Banner Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Majoroš, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    History of internet advertising, types of internet advertising. Banner advertising, methods of payment for banner advertising, formats and technologies. Internet media market in Czech Republic, portals, servers, media agents, media agencies, SPIR association. Banner campaign, its planning, execution and evaluation. Videobanner campaign Nivea For Men, searching for the most effective format for videoadvertising on the internet.

  15. Should Advertising Be Standardized Based on Specific Cultural Dimensions? - A Comparative Study of Ad Preference and Cultural Dimensions in the US and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study is to test the idea that different cultural dimensions have the same degree of impact on consumer preference of advertising standardization. Hofstede’s (1980, 2001 cultural dimensions are used to examine the differences of its impact on advertising standardization between China and US consumer preference in smartphone industry. A preliminary explanation of the management dilemma, the practical and theoretical interest of the study is explained, followed by a brief explanation of the hypothesis, methodologies and research findings. After a statistical analysis based on data collected from existing research, the research finds that there is insufficient evidence to conclude that the impact of all cultural dimensions on ad standardization are not all the same across the US and China, which give some weights on the idea that all cultural dimensions should all be considered as a whole and weighted no differently to analyze the linkage between culture and ad preference.

  16. Misleading advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Bláhová, Vladimíra

    2006-01-01

    Misleading advertising The topic of this rigorous thesis is "Misleading advertising". The theme of the thesis is current and attractive, because everybody comes across the advertising all the time and thus the advertisement influents each of our lives. One of the motives for writing this rigorous thesis was to mediate understanding of problems concerning with the misleading advertising and the unfair competition. The rigorous thesis is divided into six chapters. The first chapter deals with t...

  17. Online Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Goldfarb, Avi; Tucker, Catherine Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This chapter explores what makes online advertising different from traditional advertising channels. We argue that online advertising differs from traditional advertising channels in two important ways: measurability and targetability. Measurability is higher because the digital nature of online advertising means that responses to ads can be tracked relatively easily. Targetability is higher because data can be automatically tracked at an individual level, and it is relatively easy to show di...

  18. Physician advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lober, C W

    1993-04-01

    Practically nonexistent until the late 1970s, advertising by physicians has become commonplace. Although informational and educational advertising may contain information that potential patients may find to be useful, laudatory and predatory advertising are unethical and may be patently illegal. There is a conflict between the obligations of a physician to his patients and the intentions of advertising. The role of the Federal Trade Commission and state regulations are discussed.

  19. Mobile Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Alamuri, Lavanya

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this project was to get an understanding of how companies adopt mobile as an advertising medium. The literature review aided in framing a draft of the factors that affect mobile advertising adoption and possible forms of mobile advertising. Considering the scope of the thesis work, branding strategy, service costs, personalization and privacy and platform were considered to be the factors that could affect the mobile advertising adoption. A few possible forms on mobile device we...

  20. Functional Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Guy

    With minor modifications, an advertising fundamentals course can stimulate creative development and provide career direction while it presents the basic elements of advertising. A group presentation introduces students to research and familiarizes them with the conflict resolution process useful in preparing advertising. A group project arranges…

  1. 40 CFR 90.408 - Pre-test procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....408 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... during service accumulation is allowed only in accordance with § 90.118. (b) Engine pre-test preparation... by § 90.324(a). If necessary, allow the heated sample line, filters, and pumps to reach operating...

  2. 40 CFR 91.408 - Pre-test procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....408 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... accordance with § 91.117. (b) Engine pre-test preparation. (1) Drain and charge the fuel tank(s) with the..., including the sample probe, using mode 1 from Table 2 in appendix A of this subpart. The emission sampling...

  3. Advertising styles in different cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasulja Nevena

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern consumer is inhabitant of a "Global Village" as well as of its own national culture which largely influences his creation of a system of values, beliefs and style of life in general. According to adopted values and styles, consumers from different cultures have different buying behavior, different needs and preferences related to a product and they have their favorite advertising styles. As advertising reflects culture, symbols and rituals which are used are even more emphasized and strengthen cultural values, which are then used as a strong advertising style characteristic. Global advertisers are increasingly faced with different environment meaning. A fact that has been proved in practice is that standardized approach to advertising does not transmit values in a correct way, so the advertisers that want to achieve long term success must differentiate their brands to competitors'. In modern market environment strategy "Think globally, act locally" proved to be adequate for advertising in modern international market.

  4. ADVERTISING AGENCY MARKETING MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Denis Kislov, Yevgenia Horobei

    2015-01-01

    Goal of the paper. The goal of this article is to define the nature, specific features and factors pertaining to the advertising agency marketing management. One of the tools is the use of non-standard approaches to management of advertising agencies, which under certain conditions makes it possible to improve the situation and to bring the agency to a new higher level as well as to improve the efficiency of its functioning in the conditions of transformational economy of Ukraine. Methodol...

  5. Advertising Systems in Japan Marketing Behavior, Advertising Industry, Advertising Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    KISHIYA, Kazuhiro

    2005-01-01

    This paper clarifies advertising systems unique to Japan. As typical of Japanese advertising systems, advertising expression tend to adopt soft sell and transformational type. The advertising expression is explained not only by the cultural value but also marketing behavior of advertisers and the characteristics of Advertising transactions. As to marketing behavior channel-oriented marketing behavior has an impact on advertising expressions. As to characteristics of Advertising transactions, ...

  6. False Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Rhodes, Andrew; Wilson, Chris M

    2015-01-01

    There is widespread evidence that some firms use false advertising to overstate the value of their products. We consider a model in which a policymaker is able to punish such false claims. We characterize an equilibrium where false advertising actively influences rational buyers, and analyze the effects of policy under different welfare objectives. We establish precise conditions where policy optimally permits a positive level of false advertising, and show how these conditions vary intuitive...

  7. Gender Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Erving

    A heavily illustrated discussion of the ways in which men and women are portrayed in advertisements is presented. The three essays which precede the 56 pages of illustrations discuss gender expressions, characteristics of public and private pictures, and gender commercials. The author notes that advertisements do not depict how men and women…

  8. Internet advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Popelová, Veronika

    2009-01-01

    Aim of this thesis was to find out an attitude of internet users toward selected internet advertisement. Theoretical part introduces internet marketing and chosen types of internet advertisement. Hypotheses stated in advance were answered in a practical part by method of questionnaire. Result of thesis is recommendation for companies who are making business on internet or using internet for their business.

  9. Advertising Ethics: Student Attitudes and Behavioral Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Jami A.; Kendrick, Alice; McKinnon, Lori Melton

    2013-01-01

    A national survey of 1,045 advertising students measured opinions about the ethical nature of advertising and ethical dilemmas in the advertising business. More than nine out of ten students agreed that working for a company with high ethical standards was important. Students rated all twelve workplace dilemmas presented as somewhat unethical. For…

  10. Choreographer Pre-Testing Code Analysis and Operational Testing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, David J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Harrison, Christopher B. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Perr, C. W. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hurd, Steven A [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Choreographer is a "moving target defense system", designed to protect against attacks aimed at IP addresses without corresponding domain name system (DNS) lookups. It coordinates actions between a DNS server and a Network Address Translation (NAT) device to regularly change which publicly available IP addresses' traffic will be routed to the protected device versus routed to a honeypot. More details about how Choreographer operates can be found in Section 2: Introducing Choreographer. Operational considerations for the successful deployment of Choreographer can be found in Section 3. The Testing & Evaluation (T&E) for Choreographer involved 3 phases: Pre-testing, Code Analysis, and Operational Testing. Pre-testing, described in Section 4, involved installing and configuring an instance of Choreographer and verifying it would operate as expected for a simple use case. Our findings were that it was simple and straightforward to prepare a system for a Choreographer installation as well as configure Choreographer to work in a representative environment. Code Analysis, described in Section 5, consisted of running a static code analyzer (HP Fortify) and conducting dynamic analysis tests using the Valgrind instrumentation framework. Choreographer performed well, such that only a few errors that might possibly be problematic in a given operating situation were identified. Operational Testing, described in Section 6, involved operating Choreographer in a representative environment created through EmulyticsTM . Depending upon the amount of server resources dedicated to Choreographer vis-á-vis the amount of client traffic handled, Choreographer had varying degrees of operational success. In an environment with a poorly resourced Choreographer server and as few as 50-100 clients, Choreographer failed to properly route traffic over half the time. Yet, with a well-resourced server, Choreographer handled over 1000 clients without missrouting. Choreographer

  11. Food and beverage advertising on children's web sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustjanauskas, A E; Harris, J L; Schwartz, M B

    2014-10-01

    Food marketing contributes to childhood obesity. Food companies commonly place display advertising on children's web sites, but few studies have investigated this form of advertising. Document the number of food and beverage display advertisements viewed on popular children's web sites, nutritional quality of advertised brands and proportion of advertising approved by food companies as healthier dietary choices for child-directed advertising. Syndicated Internet exposure data identified popular children's web sites and food advertisements viewed on these web sites from July 2009 through June 2010. Advertisements were classified according to food category and companies' participation in food industry self-regulation. The percent of advertisements meeting government-proposed nutrition standards was calculated. 3.4 billion food advertisements appeared on popular children's web sites; 83% on just four web sites. Breakfast cereals and fast food were advertised most often (64% of ads). Most ads (74%) promoted brands approved by companies for child-directed advertising, but 84% advertised products that were high in fat, sugar and/or sodium. Ads for foods designated by companies as healthier dietary choices appropriate for child-directed advertising were least likely to meet independent nutrition standards. Most foods advertised on popular children's web sites do not meet independent nutrition standards. Further improvements to industry self-regulation are required. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  12. Advertising literacy and children's susceptibility to advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendaal, E.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation covers two areas of research that expand our knowledge on children's advertising literacy (i.e., advertising-related knowledge). The first part addresses the development of children's advertising literacy into adult-like levels. The second part focuses on the role of advertising

  13. EFFECTIVENESS OF ONLINE ADVERTISING

    OpenAIRE

    G. Anusha

    2017-01-01

    Advertising has come a long way today. More and more new medium is being explored each day to make a successful advertising campaign. Internet that has in recent times picked up as advertising medium has become the favorite of the advertiser in no time. Online advertisement, also called internet advertising uses the internet to deliver promotional marketing messages to consumers. It includes email marketing, search engine marketing, social media marketing, many types of display advertising (i...

  14. ADVERTISING AGENCY MARKETING MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Kislov, Yevgenia Horobei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Goal of the paper. The goal of this article is to define the nature, specific features and factors pertaining to the advertising agency marketing management. One of the tools is the use of non-standard approaches to management of advertising agencies, which under certain conditions makes it possible to improve the situation and to bring the agency to a new higher level as well as to improve the efficiency of its functioning in the conditions of transformational economy of Ukraine. Methodology. Monitoring of the marketing behavior of agencies that promote advertising services. The results of monitoring and analysis demonstrated that the majority of agencies have a disorganized approach to the agency marketing, which results in sporadic activities related to the use and organization of agency marketing. Only individual agencies begin to form their own marketing strategy for the implementation of which marketing budgets are allocated. The main marketing functions of a Ukrainian advertising agency have been identified. Practical value. Rapid development of technologies, sophistication and increased variety of goods and services, reduction of their life cycle, higher customer demands, the growth of volume and speed of obtaining information, increased competition – all these changes that are taking place in the external environment make the Ukrainian companies that provide advertising services search for new approaches to ensure better adaptation to these conditions. Uncertainty, unpredictability and instability of the external environment will continue to grow. Therefore, the companies that provide advertising services need to constantly adapt not only to the existing conditions but also ensure that they are able to quickly react in the future. The basic precondition for success is stability of the quality that is achieved through strategic planning, fine-tuned search system, efficient management, which encourages creation of a position of quality

  15. Advertising Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandage, C. H.; Fryburger, Vernon

    The social and economic functions of advertising, its role in business, how it works, and how it is planned and created are the subject of this textbook. Sections include basic values and functions, background for planning advertising strategy, the advertising message, advertising media, testing advertising effectiveness, and the advertising…

  16. Strengthening the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, Carly M; Rempel, Benjamin; Krank, Marvin

    2012-05-24

    Research evidence points to harmful effects from alcohol advertising among children and youth. In particular, exposure to alcohol advertising has been associated with adolescents drinking both earlier and heavier. Although current federal and provincial guidelines have addressed advertising practices to prevent underage drinking, practice has not been supported by existing policy. While protective measures such as social marketing campaigns have the potential for counteracting the effects from alcohol advertising, the effectiveness of such measures can be easily drowned out with increasing advertising activities from the alcohol industry, especially without effective regulation. Research reviewed by the European Focus on Alcohol Safe Environment (FASE) Project has identified a set of key elements that are necessary to make alcohol advertising policy measures effective at protecting children and youth from the harmful effects of alcohol marketing. Using these key elements as an evaluation framework, there are critical components in the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system that clearly require strengthening. To protect impressionable children and youth against the harmful effects of alcohol advertising, 13 recommendations to strengthen current alcohol advertising regulations in Canada are provided for Canadian policy-makers, advertising standard agencies, and public health groups.

  17. Look How Little I′m Advertising!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagwell, Kyle; Overgaard, Per Baltzer

    This paper studies the role of advertising and prices as signals of quality in a purely static setting, where repeat purchases are suppressed altoghether, but where advertising affects demand directly. We first show, under standard regularity assumptions, that the high-quality firm will distort i...

  18. Culture, Product Advertising, and Advertising Agency Operations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Advertising is a means through which products, services and ideas of organizations are brought to the public knowledge. As a means of telling the market about a new product, advertising persuades and reminds the audience of their continuous support of the advertised item. In the face of globalization, varying cultures are ...

  19. Assessment of alcohol advertising practices in Ethiopia | Negussie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Alcohol advertising should be prepared with an appropriate sense of responsibility to the consumer public. In Ethiopia, some aspects of alcohol advertising practices contravene with standards. Objectives: To document alcohol advertising practices and explore perceptions about them in Ethiopia. Methods: A ...

  20. 46 CFR 80.30 - Promotional literature or advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Promotional literature or advertising. 80.30 Section 80... SAFETY STANDARDS AND COUNTRY OF REGISTRY § 80.30 Promotional literature or advertising. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, all promotional literature or advertising in or over any medium...

  1. Advertising on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugenheimer, Donald W.

    1996-01-01

    States that although many advertisers have intentions of utilizing the Internet for advertising, which can provide specific audience targeting and buyer/seller interactivity, few have been successful. Explains advantages and disadvantages of using the Internet for advertising purposes. Cites special problems with Internet advertising and successes…

  2. Framatome's 1997 advertisement campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonnac, Alain de

    1998-01-01

    As many other companies involved in the nuclear business, Framatome was initially concentrating on corporate advertisements in business newspapers and magazines. The first goal was to concentrate on our traditional nuclear core business, while selecting the protection of the environment at large, and particularly the greenhouse effect, one of the most sensible issues of the moment. The 1997 campaign was shaped around the need to motivate European decision makers, while maintaining a domestic consensus towards nuclear power for the future resumption of constructions. The brief elaborated for Ad agencies was roughly threefold: elaborate simple messages, unquestionable, and explained with serenity; put emphasis on the benefits of nuclear power for the environment; establish a balanced comparison between nuclear and fossil fuels. A pre-test was conducted with about 100 people, half of which from the energy sector, and politicians, mainly members of the French and European Parliaments, the other half from the general public. Being accustomed to a usually discrete, if not 'ashamed' nuclear communication, people were generally surprised by such an optimistic tone about nuclear power, but agreed, on average. The campaign lasted one month (spread over June-July 97), and the three selected ads appeared successively in the form of a colour double page. Beyond nuclear magazines, the media plan included French daily newspapers le Figaro, le Monde, les Echos, Liberation, and weekly magazines: le Point, le Nouvel Observateur, I'Express, etc. All of them are intended for middle to high social class readers. In addition, some advertisements were inserted in The European Voice, a weekly publication reaching Brussels Commission and European parliament members. As an average, the campaign was perceived as dynamic (69%), and original (61%). But credibility and conviction were poor (resp 33%, 26%), probably because it was coincident with La Hague being on the carpet. On the other hand

  3. Legal features of the drug advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashkov, Vitalii M; Olefir, Andrii A; Bytyak, Oleksiy Y

    In the article discribed current trends of advertising in the pharmaceutical market and foreign experience of legal regulation of these relations. As for the advertising of medicines identified it's symptoms, types, basic rules and prohibitions. Modern pharmaceutical companies can not successfully carry out economic activities without advertising. Besides we can mention some fundamental changes in society (information overload, universal access to internet, social media, freedom of movement of goods, labor and finance), also self-medication becomes more popular. At the same time, the number of deaths after improper and uncontrolled use of drugs ranks fifth in the world among the causes of death. Investigate current trends of advertising on the pharmaceutical market, find advertising signs, basic restrictions and prohibitions on advertising of medicines, as well as foreign experience of legal regulation of these relations. Despite the fact that pharmaceutical advertising were studied by such scholars as M. Abraham, L. Bradley, C. Dunn, J. Donoh'yu, D. Castro, M. Lipski, K. Taylor and others, number of issues related features of drug advertising, remained without proper theoretical studies. Based on the analysis can come to the conclusion that advertising of medicinal products are the subject of special attention from the state. Drugs, unlike other products, are a group of specialized consumer products. Risks increase when patients under the influence of «aggressive» advertising resort to self-medication. If a complete ban on advertising of medicines is inappropriate, you should set stricter requirements for the content of advertising and product placement rules. That is, in the national legislation to implement regulatory requirements of Directive 2001/83 / EC. Legal regulation of drug advertising can be improved by such legal means: - should provide for a mechanism of public control over the observance of ethical standards in the advertising of medicinal products

  4. Ethical Perspectives on Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    SOJKOVÁ, Eva

    2008-01-01

    In my paper I examine the practice of advertising from ethical perspective. The paper informs about the ethical regulation of advertising practice in Czech Republic and highlights its interconnection with legislative regulation. It also introduces the work of the Committee for advertising - the first organization for auto-regulation of advertising in Eastern Europe - whose goal is to ensure honest, legal, decent, truthful practice of advertising in Czech Republic. In the main part of my paper...

  5. Misleading Advertising in Duopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Keisuke Hattori; Keisaku Higashida

    2011-01-01

    This paper builds a model of strategic misleading advertising in duopolistic markets with horizontal product differentiation and advertising externality between firms. We investigate the effects of regulating misinformation on market competition, behaviour of firms, and social welfare. We show that the degree of advertising externality and the magnitude of advertising costs are crucial for determining the welfare effects of several regulations, including prohibiting misleading advertising, ed...

  6. INTERNET ADVERTISING: A PRIMER

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew N. O. Sadiku*, Shumon Alam, Sarhan M. Musa

    2017-01-01

    Internet advertising (IA) is using the Internet to market products and services to a large audience. In the current era of Internet commerce, companies have chosen to use Internet advertising and the trend is irreversible. The goal of Internet advertising is to drive customers to your website. Understanding some key concepts of Internet advertising is crucial to creating a strategy that will suit one’s business. This paper provides a brief introduction to Internet or online advertising.

  7. The ethics of advertising for health care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Yael; Arnold, Robert M; London, Alex John

    2014-01-01

    Advertising by health care institutions has increased steadily in recent years. While direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising is subject to unique oversight by the Federal Drug Administration, advertisements for health care services are regulated by the Federal Trade Commission and treated no differently from advertisements for consumer goods. In this article, we argue that decisions about pursuing health care services are distinguished by informational asymmetries, high stakes, and patient vulnerabilities, grounding fiduciary responsibilities on the part of health care providers and health care institutions. Using examples, we illustrate how common advertising techniques may mislead patients and compromise fiduciary relationships, thereby posing ethical risks to patients, providers, health care institutions, and society. We conclude by proposing that these risks justify new standards for advertising when considered as part of the moral obligation of health care institutions and suggest that mechanisms currently in place to regulate advertising for prescription pharmaceuticals should be applied to advertising for health care services more broadly.

  8. Pre-Test pan Work Plan sebagai Strategi Pembelajaran Efektif pada Praktikum Bahan Teknik Lanjut Jurusan Pendidikan Teknik Mesin FT UNY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdjito Nurdjito

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To find the most effective learning strategy for the practicum in the laboratory of materials of the department of Mechanical Engineering Education, Faculty of Engineering, Yogyakarta State University (YSU, a study that aims to determine the effect of applying pre-test and work plan on the learning activities and the achievement of students in the laboratory was conducted. This action research used the purposive random sampling technique. Pre-test and work plan were conducted as the treatment. The data of study was collected through a test to analyse the students’ achievement scores, then they were analyzed using t-test with SPSS. The results of this study indicated that the application of pre-test and work plan in addition to the standard module was proven to be more effective than the  normative learning using the module with t = 3.055 p = 0.003 <0.05. The implementation of the pre-test and work plan in addition to the use of standard modules is able to  improve the students’ motivation, independence and readiness to learn as well as the cooperation among the students, therefore the achievement is also improved. The mastery of competencies increased significantly proved by the increasing values of mode 66 to 85 (the experiment, and mean 73.12 into 79.32 (experiment.

  9. Proposal and realization advertising campaign

    OpenAIRE

    RYCHLÁ, Marie

    2008-01-01

    The Bachelor Paper contains proposal and realization advertising campaign, including make charge for cost amount. The advertising campaign is made for chosen product of firm. Advertising campaign is planning by the medium of broadsheet and advertising on the Internet.

  10. Newspaper Ideabook: Creative Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasler, Wayne

    1977-01-01

    Offers suggestions to high school newspaper staffs for designing effective advertisements for local businesses and then selling them to the businesses. Notes that carefully planned advertisements can increase the appeal and value of a publication. (GW)

  11. Effectivity of banner advertisement

    OpenAIRE

    Šandrik, Vladimír

    2008-01-01

    The thesis deals about banner advertisement. After brief introduction, theoretical basis describes how did banner advertisement go throughout the timeline, what are the possibilities of banner advertisement, which technologies can be used for proper banner advertisement, how is it measured, etc. In practical part of thesis a global company is introduced and there are analyzed ways how it uses banners in its web presentation. In final part a research is made to point out the importance of vari...

  12. Targeting and Persuasive Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Egli, Alain (Autor/in)

    2015-01-01

    Firms face a prisoner's dilemma when advertising in a competitive environment. In a Hotelling framework with persuasive advertisingfirms counteract this prisoner's dilemma with targeting. The firms even solve the prisoner's problem if targeted advertising is effective enough. Advertising turns from wasteful competition into profits. This is in contrast to wasteful competition as argument for regulations. A further result is maximum advertising differentiation: thefirms target their advertisin...

  13. Culture, Product Advertising, and Advertising Agency Operations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gold

    2012-07-26

    Jul 26, 2012 ... traditional sources of cultural influence such as family, church and school. The implication is that viewers or listeners of advertisements do so at the peril of their sources of cultural impartation. Suggestively, advertising transcends influential sources such as family, church, school and age groups. Douglas ...

  14. Advertising on mobile applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sobolevsky, Alexandr

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the new method of mobile advertising. Advertising in mobile applications - a subspecies of mobile marketing, where advertising is distributed using mobile phones and smartphones. Ad placement is going on inside of applications and games for smartphones. It has a high potential due to the large number of mobile phone users (over 6.5 billion in 2013).

  15. Advertising and Student Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, William B.

    Rhetoric, the persuasive use of language to influence public thought and action, is experienced in advertising, and advertising can be used as a medium for teaching rhetoric. Advertising demonstrates both admirable and creative use of English and despicable corruption of both language and thought. Both aspects can be employed in teaching…

  16. Home Study Advertising Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Michael P., Ed.; Welch, Sally R., Ed.

    This handbook contains a collections of nine articles on the subject of direct-response advertising. The handbook gives advice on how to create effective advertisements for home study courses. The nine articles are the following: "Overview of Home Study Advertising in the 1990s" (Michael P. Lambert); "Ad Features that Sell"…

  17. [A contribution to the development of advertising in pharmacy II. Historical development of regulation of advertising of medicinal products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranová, Vilma

    2012-10-01

    The article deals with the development of regulation of advertising of medicinal products in the Czech Lands of the Habsburg Monarchy and Czechoslovakia in the years 1775-1938. Advertising medicines had and has its specifics and its regulation had been addressed by specific standards and linked to other health laws and regulations. Regulation of advertising of medicinal products has undergone a long process from the initial total ban on advertising to the establishment of clear rules, some of which, such as restrictions on advertising prescription-only medicines only to the professional healthcare press, are still valid.

  18. [Analysis of drug advertising in Spanish gynecology journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Brezo; Hidalgo, Agustín

    2012-01-01

    To determine advertising pressure in three Spanish gynecology journals, to describe the characteristics of the drugs advertised and to analyze compliance with current regulatory standards in drug advertisements. We identified the number of advertisements, the characteristics of the drugs advertised, the minimum information required by legislation and the advertising message in the selected journals. A total of 139 advertisements were identified, corresponding to 33 distinct products (28 prescription medicines and five over-the-counter drugs). Advertising pressures were 18.13% in Progresos de Obstetricia y Ginecología, 16.18% in Acta Ginecológica and 5.21% in Clínica e Investigación en Ginecología y Obstetricia. Legislative failure occurred in 82.14% of the advertisements and in 22.22% of slogans, while 41.46% of advertising messages were misleading. A critical attitude to advertising among health professionals is advisable. Information contained in advertisements should be contrasted with official and other independent sources. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. AN ADVERTISING OLIGOPOLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Irina GHIRVU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model of advertising competition based on the Cournot oligopoly model using a dynamic system, the equilibrium points of which can be determined analytically. We consider several cases for explaining the way in which firms will adapt their own advertising volume, depending on the number and the advertising volume of their competitors, in the context of an online video game used for advertising purposes. The dynamic setup is given by online Internet connection that allows interaction and communication and the high level of technology that permits nowadays real-time advertising insertions.

  20. Representation of Black women in advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, Tiphaine

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This project aims to confirm the assumption that L’Oreal over represents beauty standards in its advertising. From a social constructivist approach, and using advertising theories, this study explores the marks left by colonialism and post colonialism in the beauty context of black women. This research is based upon L’Oreal’s TV Commercial 2008, Féria coloration promoted by the singer Beyoncé Knowles. This commercial portrays the celebrity straightened and fair haired. It is uncommo...

  1. Achievement of course outcome in vector calculus pre-test questions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No Abstract. Keywords: pre-test; course outcome; bloom taxanomy; Rasch measurement model; vector calculus. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  2. Targeting as the basis for pre-test market of lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuniaristanto, Zakaria, R.; Saputri, V. H. L.; Sutopo, W.; Kadir, E. A.

    2017-11-01

    This article discusses about market segmentation and targeting as a first step in pre-test market of a new technology. The benefits of targeting towards pre-test market are pre-test market can be conducted to focus on selected target markets so there is no bias during the pre-test market. In determining the target market then do some surveys to identify the state of market in the future, so that the marketing process is not misplaced. Lithium ion battery which is commercialized through start-up companies is the case study. This start-up companies must be able to respond the changes and bring in customers as well as maintain them so that companies can survive and evolve to achieve its objectives. The research aims to determine market segments and target market effectively. Marketing strategy (segmentation and targeting) is used to make questionnaire and cluster analysis in data processing. Respondents were selected by purposive sampling and have obtained data as many as 80 samples. As the results study, there are three segments for lithium ion battery with their own distinguished characteristics and there are two segments that can be used as the target market for the company.

  3. Free Fall Misconceptions: Results of a Graph Based Pre-Test of Sophomore Civil Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecinos, Alicia M.

    2014-01-01

    A partially unusual behaviour was found among 14 sophomore students of civil engineering who took a pre test for a free fall laboratory session, in the context of a general mechanics course. An analysis contemplating mathematics models and physics models consistency was made. In all cases, the students presented evidence favoring a correct free…

  4. Mobile Phones and Outdoor Advertising: Measurable Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Quercia, Daniele; Di Lorenzo, Giusy; Calabrese, Francesco; Ratti, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    Television and newspapers sit at the top of many agency marketing plans, while outdoor advertising stays at the bottom. The reason for this is that it’s difficult to account for who views a billboard, so there is no way of consistently determining the effectiveness of outdoor advertising. As a result, agencies do not consider the medium and allocate their money elsewhere. To change this situation, one needs to create new credible audience measurements for the outdoor marketing industry. He...

  5. ETHICS AND ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin SASU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Advertising is often critiqued for not respecting rules of ethics both in the process of advertisement design and in the way it influences society. The main concern of advertisers as representatives of companies that seek profit making is to increase sales, win new clients, increase the demand for the product they want to be presented in as nice and colorful advertisement as possible. They pretend that their product is the best, has unique qualities, better than their competitor´s, it has a better cost and brings much more benefits. That is the reason why the great challenge in advertising is to create sales efficient and at the same time moral and true advertising messages.

  6. Advertising on social media

    OpenAIRE

    Sumit Goyal

    2013-01-01

    This communication reports the latest trends of advertising on social media. Social media advertising means to gain traffic or attention of online users through social media sites. Today, when a user thinks about buying something, he first comes to the internet, searches for that product, compares its price with other competing brands and takes a decision, which one to buy. In this write-up, author has discussed many aspects concerning advertising through social media, viz., what is social me...

  7. Advertising literacy and children’s susceptibility to advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Rozendaal, E.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation covers two areas of research that expand our knowledge on children’s advertising literacy (i.e., advertising-related knowledge). The first part addresses the development of children’s advertising literacy into adult-like levels. The second part focuses on the role of advertising literacy in reducing children’s susceptibility to advertising effects. In doing so, this dissertation not only deepens the existing theoretical and empirical insights on children’s advertising litera...

  8. Attention competition with advertisement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  9. Informative Advertising: Competition or Cooperation?

    OpenAIRE

    Witness Simbanegavi

    2005-01-01

    I compare the outcome when firms semicollude on advertising to the outcome in the Grossman and Shapiro (1984) model of informative advertising. I show that advertising is lower but prices and profits are higher under semicollusion on advertising. I also show that semicollusion on advertising is detrimental to welfare. Although firms earn higher profits when colluding on advertising, fewer consumers are informed, and as a result, welfare is lower. Compared to semicollusion on price, semicollus...

  10. Advertising Dynamics and Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich Doraszelski; Sarit Markovich

    2004-01-01

    Can advertising lead to a sustainable competitive advantage? To answer this question, we propose a dynamic model of advertising competition where firms repeatedly advertise, compete in the product market, and make entry as well as exit decisions. Within this dynamic framework, we study two different models of advertising: In the first model, advertising influences the goodwill consumers extend towards a firm ("goodwill advertising"), whereas in the second model it influences the share of cons...

  11. Advertising Emergency Department Wait Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Scott G.

    2013-01-01

    Advertising emergency department (ED) wait times has become a common practice in the United States. Proponents of this practice state that it is a powerful marketing strategy that can help steer patients to the ED. Opponents worry about the risk to the public health that arises from a patient with an emergent condition self-triaging to a further hospital, problems with inaccuracy and lack of standard definition of the reported time, and directing lower acuity patients to the higher cost ED setting instead to primary care. Three sample cases demonstrating the pitfalls of advertising ED wait times are discussed. Given the lack of rigorous evidence supporting the practice and potential adverse effects to the public health, caution about its use is advised. PMID:23599836

  12. Pre-testing nutrition education materials for elderly care-givers in Boipatong

    OpenAIRE

    Gaede, Rolf J

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. The paper deals with issues and concerns relating to the process of pre-testing visual illustrations used in educational material in a community communication setting. The first part of the paper discusses how selected aspects of nutrition education materials meant for elderly care givers in Boipatong were pre‐tested using questionnaires (n=55) and focus group discussions in order to establish the target group’s views and opinions about different types of visual illustration appro...

  13. Physicians and advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, B H; Wright, R A; Raho, L E

    1985-01-01

    In this study, although the majority of responding physicians seemed to perceive advertising as not having an impact on the medical marketplace, the results concerning the medical profession appear quite different. In addition to soundly rejecting advertising as a communication mode in their profession, the physicians felt strongly that it would damage the profession's public image, plus promote fraud and hucksterism. A majority of respondents even went so far as to state that advertising would cause the quality of care to deteriorate. A majority also felt that advertising is ethically wrong for physicians. From these results, it seems that these physicians were not as concerned about the evils of advertising, per se, as the manner in which advertising would be applied by their colleagues to undermine the profession. It is very clear from the factor analysis that the major dimension of these physicians' attitudes toward advertising pertained to concern for the image of the profession, although economic and media communications aspects were of some importance. The question items loading most heavily on the IMAGE factor reflect perceptions that advertising will impact on the quality of care, promote fraud and hucksterism, convey a negative public image, etc. Thus, the primary focus of the physicians' negative attitudes does not seem to be toward the economic consequences, nor toward advertising as a societal entity. But, the major element for negativity is the way in which advertising would be applied by medical practitioners. More specifically, physicians believed that it would be applied in an unprofessional, unethical manner. Results of the factor analysis imply that the negativity focused upon advertising is really directed toward uncertainty pertaining to the ethics of medical practitioners and the way in which these ethics would be projected through media and other communications vehicles.

  14. Diagnostic models of the pre-test probability of stable coronary artery disease: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting He

    Full Text Available A comprehensive search of PubMed and Embase was performed in January 2015 to examine the available literature on validated diagnostic models of the pre-test probability of stable coronary artery disease and to describe the characteristics of the models. Studies that were designed to develop and validate diagnostic models of pre-test probability for stable coronary artery disease were included. Data regarding baseline patient characteristics, procedural characteristics, modeling methods, metrics of model performance, risk of bias, and clinical usefulness were extracted. Ten studies involving the development of 12 models and two studies focusing on external validation were identified. Seven models were validated internally, and seven models were validated externally. Discrimination varied between studies that were validated internally (C statistic 0.66-0.81 and externally (0.49-0.87. Only one study presented reclassification indices. The majority of better performing models included sex, age, symptoms, diabetes, smoking, and hyperlipidemia as variables. Only two diagnostic models evaluated the effects on clinical decision making processes or patient outcomes. Most diagnostic models of the pre-test probability of stable coronary artery disease have had modest success, and very few present data regarding the effects of these models on clinical decision making processes or patient outcomes.

  15. Redefining "child-directed advertising" to reduce unhealthy television food advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L; Sarda, Vishnudas; Schwartz, Marlene B; Brownell, Kelly D

    2013-04-01

    Food and beverage companies have pledged to reduce unhealthy marketing to children through the Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI). However, public health experts question the initiative's effectiveness because pledges apply to only some types of marketing. For instance, the CFBAI covers only TV advertising that is "child-directed," defined as advertising during programs for which children make up 35% or more of the viewing audience. To quantify the proportion of food and beverage TV advertisements (ads) viewed by children that is covered by current CFBAI pledges and examine the potential impact of broader definitions of child-directed advertising. Nielsen data were used to quantify percentages of children (aged 2-11 years) in the audience (i.e., child-audience share), as well as absolute numbers of child viewers, for all national TV programs in 2009. Nielsen advertising data provided the number of food and beverage ads viewed by preschoolers (aged 2-5 years); older children (aged 6-11 years); and adults (aged 18-49 years) during programs with various child-audience compositions. Data were collected in 2010 and analyzed in 2011. Just 45%-48% of food ads viewed by children met current CFBAI definitions of child-directed advertising. Expanding this definition to include advertising during programs with a child-audience share of 20% or higher and/or 100,000 or more child viewers would cover 70%-71% of food advertising seen by children but just one third of ads seen by adults. Children viewed an estimated 35% fewer food ads during TV programs with a high child-audience share (≥50%) in 2009 compared with 2004. However, ensuring that nutrition standards apply to the majority of food ads viewed by children requires broader definitions of child-directed advertising. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Television food advertising to children: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; Halford, Jason C G; Boyland, Emma J; Chapman, Kathy; Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada; Berg, Christina; Caroli, Margherita; Cook, Brian; Coutinho, Janine G; Effertz, Tobias; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Keller, Kathleen; Leung, Raymond; Manios, Yannis; Monteiro, Renata; Pedley, Claire; Prell, Hillevi; Raine, Kim; Recine, Elisabetta; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Singh, Sonia; Summerbell, Carolyn

    2010-09-01

    We compared television food advertising to children in several countries. We undertook a collaboration among 13 research groups in Australia, Asia, Western Europe, and North and South America. Each group recorded programming for 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days between 6:00 and 22:00, for the 3 channels most watched by children, between October 2007 and March 2008. We classified food advertisements as core (nutrient dense, low in energy), noncore (high in undesirable nutrients or energy, as defined by dietary standards), or miscellaneous. We also categorized thematic content (promotional characters and premiums). Food advertisements composed 11% to 29% of advertisements. Noncore foods were featured in 53% to 87% of food advertisements, and the rate of noncore food advertising was higher during children's peak viewing times. Most food advertisements containing persuasive marketing were for noncore products. Across all sampled countries, children were exposed to high volumes of television advertising for unhealthy foods, featuring child-oriented persuasive techniques. Because of the proven connections between food advertising, preferences, and consumption, our findings lend support to calls for regulation of food advertising during children's peak viewing times.

  17. Television Food Advertising to Children: A Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Jason C.G.; Boyland, Emma J.; Chapman, Kathy; Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada; Berg, Christina; Caroli, Margherita; Cook, Brian; Coutinho, Janine G.; Effertz, Tobias; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Keller, Kathleen; Leung, Raymond; Manios, Yannis; Monteiro, Renata; Pedley, Claire; Prell, Hillevi; Raine, Kim; Recine, Elisabetta; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Singh, Sonia; Summerbell, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We compared television food advertising to children in several countries. Methods. We undertook a collaboration among 13 research groups in Australia, Asia, Western Europe, and North and South America. Each group recorded programming for 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days between 6:00 and 22:00, for the 3 channels most watched by children, between October 2007 and March 2008. We classified food advertisements as core (nutrient dense, low in energy), noncore (high in undesirable nutrients or energy, as defined by dietary standards), or miscellaneous. We also categorized thematic content (promotional characters and premiums). Results. Food advertisements composed 11% to 29% of advertisements. Noncore foods were featured in 53% to 87% of food advertisements, and the rate of noncore food advertising was higher during children's peak viewing times. Most food advertisements containing persuasive marketing were for noncore products. Conclusions. Across all sampled countries, children were exposed to high volumes of television advertising for unhealthy foods, featuring child-oriented persuasive techniques. Because of the proven connections between food advertising, preferences, and consumption, our findings lend support to calls for regulation of food advertising during children's peak viewing times. PMID:20634464

  18. Advertising-Induced Embarrassment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puntoni, S.; Hooge, de I.E.; Verbeke, W.J.M.I.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Consumer embarrassment is a concern for many advertisers. Yet little is known about ad-induced embarrassment. The authors investigate when and why consumers experience embarrassment as a result of exposure to socially sensitive advertisements. The theory distinguishes between viewing

  19. Advertising Pressures on Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammitt, Harry

    The majority of the media in the United States is funded through revenues derived from the sale of advertising space. The problem that arises from this situation is fundamentally an economic one: if advertisers are paying the bills for the media, how much control over content should they have? This report offers a review of instances in which…

  20. Morphing banner advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.L. Urban (Glen); G. Liberali (Gui); E. MacDonald (Erin); R. Bordley (Robert); J. Hauser (J.)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractResearchers and practitioners devote substantial effort to targeting banner advertisements to consumers, but they focus less effort on how to communicate with consumers once targeted. Morphing enables a website to learn, automatically and near optimally, which banner advertisements to

  1. Unconscious advertising effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moorman, M.; Belch, M.A.; Belch, G.E.

    2011-01-01

    Most traditional advertising effect models are based on the premise that advertising is attended to and processed consciously. However, recent neuroscientific research shows that most information is unconsciously attended to, processed, and stored in memory. The concept of unconscious processing is

  2. Advertising-induced Embarrassment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Puntoni (Stefano); I.E. de Hooge (Ilona); W.J.M.I. Verbeke (Willem)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractConsumer embarrassment is an important concern for marketers. Yet, little is known about embarrassment in passive situations like advertising viewing. The authors investigate when and why consumers experience embarrassment as a result of exposure to socially sensitive advertisements. The

  3. Strategic Targeted Advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Galeotti; J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe present a strategic game of pricing and targeted-advertising. Firms can simultaneously target price advertisements to different groups of customers, or to the entire market. Pure strategy equilibria do not exist and thus market segmentation cannot occur surely. Equilibria exhibit

  4. The Significance of Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsteller, William A.

    This pamphlet discusses some of the values and responsibilities of advertising in a free competitive economy. One of the primary objectives of advertising is to communicate truthfully. The laws of the Federal Trade Commission exist to protect the public from wrong and misleading information, but the greatest protection is the hard light of…

  5. Advertising literacy and children’s susceptibility to advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendaal, E.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation covers two areas of research that expand our knowledge on children’s advertising literacy (i.e., advertising-related knowledge). The first part addresses the development of children’s advertising literacy into adult-like levels. The second part focuses on the role of advertising

  6. Advertising is magic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haskins, Louise

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Now in its fourth year, BNFL's advertising strategy continues to evolve and build upon the communication achievements of previous years. The case study this year will reflect upon progress so far and will concentrate specifically on the 1998 campaign development. It will begin by briefly reiterating the role we believe advertising plays in the communications mix and by recapping on the theoretical framework upon which the strategy continues to be based. Last year, I presented a case study on the development of BNFL's second television advertisement and supporting media. This year, I will present opinion research data which indicates that BNFL has, indeed, begun to detach itself from the contentious debate which surrounds the nuclear industry in general. Verbatim comments from respondents demonstrate that BNFL is now being perceived more widely within the UK as a successful corporate entity. The presentation will concentrate on the decision-making and research process which led us to select the content of our third advertising campaign. One key consideration being the impact of BNR:s merger with Magnox Electric plc and how their activity was incorporated into the overall advertising strategy. Having established key image characteristics through describing BNFL's scientific achievements and, more recently, BNFL's fuel recycling capabilities, the presentation will outline why this time we have opted for a total capability' advertisement whilst endeavouring to retain the five key image criteria which are at the heart of the strategy. Specific areas covered will include our clearance of the advertisement through the UK's advertising regulatory bodies (the Broadcast Advertising Clearance Centre (BACC) and the Independent Television Commission (ITQ). This in itself will demonstrate the importance of gaining detailed substantiation and legal clearance of the advertising claims made. Finally, we will share our experiences of each production phase, not least, the

  7. 24 CFR 1715.50 - Advertising disclaimers; subdivisions registered and effective with HUD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... advertising of a classified type which is less than one column in print wide and is less than five inches long... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising disclaimers... REGISTRATION PROGRAM) PURCHASERS' REVOCATION RIGHTS, SALES PRACTICES AND STANDARDS Advertising Disclaimers...

  8. Even when regulated, advertising is still advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    The Swiss authorities have tried to make drug advertising less misleading by insisting that it be evidence-based. However, a study conducted 3 years after the legislation was enacted showed that half of the claims made in drug ads were not backed up by the references cited or were based on biased information.

  9. Advertising Bans and the Substitutability of Online and Offline Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Goldfarb, Avi; Tucker, Catherine Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The authors examine whether the growth of the Internet has reduced the effectiveness of government regulation of advertising. They combine nonexperimental variation in local regulation of offline alcohol advertising with data from field tests that randomized exposure to online advertising for 275 different online advertising campaigns to 61,580 people. The results show that people are 8% less likely to say that they will purchase an alcoholic beverage in states that have alcohol advertising b...

  10. Quality uncertainty and informative advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moraga-González, José Luis

    We present a price signalling model with informative advertising. A costly advertisement informs of the good's quality directly and therefore the seller determines the fraction of informed buyers endogenously. We show that informative advertising only occurs in pooling equilibria. For an advertising

  11. Navy Advertising: Targeting Generation Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Command, 2012, p. 2). Local leads are overseen by the Local Marketing and Leads Analysis Division (N94). According to the NRC Field Advertising Manual ...17 1. Navy Recruiting and Advertising Budget ..................................18 H. JOINT ADVERTISING, MARKET RESEARCH AND STUDIES...7 Figure 3. Projected Continued Increase of Online Marketing and Advertising Spending from 2014 to 2019

  12. Internet Advertising: Ethics and Etiquette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machovec, George S.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the growth of the Internet and the attitudes of users toward advertising, provides examples of kinds of advertising used on electronic networks, and lists several companies that help advertisers use the Internet. Fifteen guidelines are suggested to help advertisers use the Internet in a reasonable and appropriate way. (Contains 11…

  13. The Effectiveness of Advertising Matching Purchase Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Loef, J.; Antonides, G.; van Raaij, W.F.

    2001-01-01

    textabstractSeveral authors have proposed frameworks to help advertisers predict and plan advertising effectiveness. Rossiter and Percy's advertising grid (1997) recommends that the ad appeal should match the purchase motivation or attitude base. They suggest that for utilitarian brands informational advertising is more effective than transformational advertising. Likewise, for hedonic brands transformational advertising is more effective than informational advertising. These recommendations ...

  14. A Theory of Combative Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Yuxin Chen; Yogesh V. Joshi; Jagmohan S. Raju; Z. John Zhang

    2009-01-01

    In mature markets with competing firms, a common role for advertising is to shift consumer preferences towards the advertiser in a tug-of-war, with no effect on category demand. In this paper, we analyze the effect of such “combative” advertising on market power. We show that, depending on the nature of consumer response, combative advertising can reduce price competition to benefit competing firms. However, it can also lead to a procompetitive outcome where individual firms advertise to incr...

  15. A well test analysis method accounting for pre-test operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silin, D.B.; Tsang, C.-F.

    2003-01-01

    We propose to use regular monitoring data from a production or injection well for estimating the formation hydraulic properties in the vicinity of the wellbore without interrupting the operations. In our approach, we select a portion of the pumping data over a certain time interval and then derive our conclusions from analysis of these data. A distinctive feature of the proposed approach differing it form conventional methods is in the introduction of an additional parameter, an effective pre-test pumping rate. The additional parameter is derived based on a rigorous asymptotic analysis of the flow model. Thus, we account for the non-uniform pressure distribution at the beginning of testing time interval caused by pre-test operations at the well. By synthetic and field examples, we demonstrate that deviation of the matching curve from the data that is usually attributed to skin and wellbore storage effects, can also be interpreted through this new parameter. Moreover, with our method, the data curve is matched equally well and the results of the analysis remain stable when the analyzed data interval is perturbed, whereas traditional methods are sensitive to the choice of the data interval. A special efficient minimization procedure has been developed for searching the best fitting parameters. We enhanced our analysis above with a procedure of estimating ambient reservoir pressure and dimensionless wellbore radius. The methods reported here have been implemented in code ODA (Operations Data Analysis). A beta version of the code is available for free testing and evaluation to interested parties

  16. Symbolic Relationships in Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costin Popescu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The advertisements prepare to the products they recommend a rich symbolic life. What symbolic breadth can be bestowed to a product? Do different product categories require differentsymbolic breadths? For some products, creatives want to eliminate every hesitation in the interpretation of the proposed meanings; for others, by the contrary, they propose blurred readings, content-nebulas (U. Eco.Advertising witnesses different symbolizing modes. The advertisements for fragrance prefer modes which, deploying content-nebulas, ask their readers to give several – and complex – interpretations. The paper presents an interpretation of an advertisement for Boucheron’s Jaïpur(the 1990s and proposes another.Keywords: symbolic relationship, positioning, values, icons

  17. Trends in Advertising Typography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Sandra Ernst

    1982-01-01

    Reviews advertising typography in general interest, special interest, and trade magazines and concludes that special interest magazine ads are making the most effort to be fashionable, but also have the greatest chance of having functional problems. (FL)

  18. Alcohol advertising and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Susan E; Snyder, Leslie B; Hamilton, Mark; Fleming-Milici, Fran; Slater, Michael D; Stacy, Alan; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W

    2002-06-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2001 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Montreal, Canada. The symposium was organized and chaired by Joel W. Grube. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction and background, by Susan E. Martin; (2) The effect of alcohol ads on youth 15-26 years old, by Leslie Snyder, Mark Hamilton, Fran Fleming-Milici, and Michael D. Slater; (3) A comparison of exposure to alcohol advertising and drinking behavior in elementary versus middle school children, by Phyllis L. Ellickson and Rebecca L. Collins; (4) USC health and advertising project: assessment study on alcohol advertisement memory and exposure, by Alan Stacy; and (5) TV beer and soft drink advertising: what young people like and what effects? by Meng-Jinn Chen and Joel W. Grube.

  19. Creative Designs Sell Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpepper, Alyce

    1991-01-01

    Discusses six essential elements in the design of an advertisement: sales pitch, major headline, minor headline, company statistics, artwork or photograph, and white space. Offers five exercises for the classroom or staff. (SR)

  20. Sounds of Web Advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Iben Bredahl; Graakjær, Nicolai Jørgensgaard

    2010-01-01

    Sound seems to be a neglected issue in the study of web ads. Web advertising is predominantly regarded as visual phenomena–commercial messages, as for instance banner ads that we watch, read, and eventually click on–but only rarely as something that we listen to. The present chapter presents...... an overview of the auditory dimensions in web advertising: Which kinds of sounds do we hear in web ads? What are the conditions and functions of sound in web ads? Moreover, the chapter proposes a theoretical framework in order to analyse the communicative functions of sound in web advertising. The main...... argument is that an understanding of the auditory dimensions in web advertising must include a reflection on the hypertextual settings of the web ad as well as a perspective on how users engage with web content....

  1. Eight worst advertising mistakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maley, Catherine

    2010-11-01

    This article presents strategies for advertising the medical practice. The emphasis is on breaking out of the old rules of how one should advertise and delves into asking questions that lead to a true strategy unique to one's medical practice and offerings. The article discusses the myriad ways to think about and create a patient-centered approach, turning from "here is what we offer" to instead "what you want we offer." Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mobile Search and Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Lovitskii, Vladimir; McCaffery, Colin; Thrasher, Michael; Traynor, David; Wright, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Mobile advertising is a rapidly growing sector providing brands and marketing agencies the opportunity to connect with consumers beyond traditional and digital media and instead communicate directly on their mobile phones. Mobile advertising will be intrinsically linked with mobile search, which has transported from the internet to the mobile and is identified as an area of potential growth. The result of mobile searching show that as a general rule such search result exceed 1...

  3. [Misleading advertisement on Opatanol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, A E

    2006-07-01

    In an advertisement in this journal, Alcon Nederland BV has recommended Opatanol (olopatadin) as the 'first choice medication/NHG practice guideline for Red eye/Allergic conjunctivitis'. However, the practice guideline of the Dutch College of General Practitioners (NHG) mentions the following 3 antihistaminica as first choice for the treatment of red eye/allergic conjunctivitis: azelastin, levocabastin or olopatadin. Therefore, it is concluded that the Alcon advertisement is misleading.

  4. Emotional response to advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Anastasiei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Emotions can transcend cultural, linguistic, demographic, and social boundaries. Emotions affect information processing and create a positive attitude toward the ad, which becomes associated with the brand. Objectives. This study investigates the role of pleasure (P, arousal (A and domination (D emotions in mobile’s photo camera advertisement and how each of them is influencing consumer attitude towards the advertisement and brand. Prior Work. Holbrook and Batra (1987 developed their own emotional scale based on these three dimensions (PAD, showing that these emotions mediate consumer responses to advertising. Approach. A 1*4 factorial experiment design method was adopted in order to measure the impact of independent variables (emotion type on dependent variables (attitude toward ad, attitude toward brand. Results. The results revealed that emotions like Pleasure (loving, friendly, grateful and Arousal (active, interested, excited, entertained influence consumers' attitudes towards brand and advertising. Value. Marketers need to understand the role of pleasure and arousal emotions when making advertising campaign; an effective promotion leads to persuading consumers. The results indicate that marketing practitioners should measure affective responses when testing an advertisement, as long as this action would predict brand attitude.

  5. How effective is advertising in duopoly markets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznajd-Weron, K.; Weron, R.

    2003-06-01

    A simple Ising spin model which can describe the mechanism of advertising in a duopoly market is proposed. In contrast to other agent-based models, the influence does not flow inward from the surrounding neighbors to the center site, but spreads outward from the center to the neighbors. The model thus describes the spread of opinions among customers. It is shown via standard Monte Carlo simulations that very simple rules and inclusion of an external field-an advertising campaign-lead to phase transitions.

  6. Socio-economic differences in exposure to television food advertisements in the UK: a cross-sectional study of advertisements broadcast in one television region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; Tyrrell, Rachel; Adamson, Ashley J; White, Martin

    2012-03-01

    To document socio-economic differences in exposure to food advertising, including advertisements for foods high in fat, salt and sugar (HFSS) as defined by the UK Food Standards Agency's Nutrient Profiling Model. A cross-sectional survey. Information (including product advertised and viewing figures) on all advertisements broadcast in one UK region over one week (6-12 July 2009) was obtained. Food advertisements were identified and linked to nutritional information on the content of advertised foods. UK Tyne-Tees television region. Data were sourced from a UK-wide television viewing panel. Eleven per cent of advertising seen was for food and 63 % of food advertising seen was for HFSS foods. The proportion of all advertising seen that was for food was smaller among viewers in the least v. most affluent social grade (OR = 0·98, 99 % CI 0·95, 1·00). There was no difference in the proportion of food advertising seen that was for HFSS food between viewers in the most and least affluent social grades. Total exposure to both all food advertising and HFSS food advertising was 2·1 times greater among the least v. the most affluent viewers. While the least affluent viewers saw relatively fewer food advertisements, their absolute exposure to all food and HFSS food advertisements was higher than that of the most affluent viewers. Current UK restrictions prohibit advertisements for HFSS foods during programmes with a high proportion of child viewers. Extending these to all programming may reduce socio-economic inequalities in exposure to these advertisements and in diet and obesity.

  7. The Risk of Vampire Effect in Advertisements Using Celebrity Endorsement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Kuvita

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the race to get the attention of the target audience, advertisers often use special attention-getting devices. This in turn exposes them to a higher risk of creating a vampire effect when the core message about the brand or a product is “eaten up” by such devices. The concept of a vampire effect in advertising appears to be under-researched in the current literature. Therefore, this paper provides deeper insights into the vampire effect occurrences in printed advertisements using celebrity endorsement. The paper is based on a qualitative study with an eye-tracking device with 12 participants and on the following experiment with 60 university students. The research found that a significantly higher risk of creating a vampire effect exists when using an unrelated celebrity as an attention-getting device than when using a related celebrity or no celebrity at all. Marketers are advised to use related celebrities if choosing to stick to this attention-getting approach. However, the concept of “relatedness” should be pre-tested prior to launching an advertising campaign.

  8. Analysis of written advertising material distributed through community pharmacies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Aqeel SA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advertising is a crucial component of pharmaceutical industry promotion. Research indicates that information on advertisement materials might be inadequate, inaccurate, biased, and misleading. Objective: To analyse and critically assess the information presented in print pharmaceutical advertisements in Saudi Arabia.Methods: Pharmaceutical advertisements were collected from 280 community pharmacies in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The advertisements were evaluated using criteria derived from the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA regulation, the World Health Organization (WHO ethical medicinal drug promotion criteria, and other principles reported in similar studies. The data were extracted independently by two of the researchers using a standardized assessment form. Results: One hundred eighty five printed advertisements were included in the final sample. Approximately half of the advertisements (n = 94, 51% were for over-the-counter (OTC medications, and 71 (38% were for prescription-only medication. Information such as the name of active ingredients was available in 168 (90.8% advertisements, therapeutic uses were mentioned in 156 (98.7% of analysed advertisements. Safety information related to side effects, precautions, and major interactions were stated in 53 (28.5%, 58 (31%, and 33 (16.5% advertisements, respectively. Only 119 advertisements (64% provided references for information presented. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that print advertisements do not convey all the information necessary for safe prescribing. These results have implications for the regulation of drug advertising and the continuing education of pharmacists.

  9. [The advertising message of drugs advertisements in Spanish medical journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Eusebi J Castaño; de la Fuente, David Oterino; Rodrígueza, Rosa M Rodríguez

    2007-01-01

    To describe the characteristics of advertising in Spanish medical journals and to analyze the advertising message in drug advertisements. Six issues of 4 Spanish medical journals published in 2001 were reviewed to identify the number of advertisements and their characteristics. The journals selected were Atención Primaria, Anales Españoles de Pediatría, Medicina Clínica and Gaceta Sanitaria. The advertising message was analyzed by evaluating 5 factors: communication aim, sales argument, communication treatment, and use of text and image. 609 advertisements were found. Drug advertisements were the most numerous (69.9%). Advertising pressure was highest in Atención Primaria (36%), followed by Anales Españoles de Pediatría (22%), Medicina Clínica (12%) and Gaceta Sanitaria (4%). Of the 195 drug advertisements analyzed, the aim of the advertising message was mostly to present or remind readers of an existing product (70.8%). The sales argument was rational in 86.5%. The communication treatment was advertising in 72.6%. The text of the advertisement contained a headline in 82.4% or a slogan in 50.8%. The advertisement image was a photograph in 74.7% and the aim of the image was to present the product (48.7%), to promise a benefit (45.1%), or to argue its qualities (31.1%). In the journals aimed at prescribing physicians advertising pressure was higher and advertisements were intercalated in article text. Advertising concerned already existing products, used rational arguments, and the communication treatment was advertising.

  10. TOPFLOW-PTS experiments. pre-test calculations with NEPTUNE{sub C}FD code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, A., E-mail: alain-cc.martin@edf.fr [Electricite de France, Chatou (France); Heib, C.; Dubois, F., E-mail: caroline.heib@irsn.fr, E-mail: franck.dubois@irsn.fr [Inst. de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Raynaud, C.; Peturaud, P., E-mail: christelle.raynaud@edf.fr, E-mail: pierre.peturaud@edf.fr [Electricite de France, Chatou (France); Huvelin, F.; Barbier, A., E-mail: fabien.huvelin@areva.com, E-mail: anthony.barbier@areva.com [AREVA-NP, Paris la Defense (France)

    2011-07-01

    Hypothetical Small Break Loss Of Coolant Accident is identified as one of the most severe transients leading to a potential huge Pressurized Thermal Shock on the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV). This may result in two-phase flow configurations in the cold legs, according to the operating conditions, and to reliably assess the RPV wall integrity, advanced two-phase flow simulations are required. Related needs in development and/or validation of these advanced models are important, and the on-going TOPFLOW-PTS experimental program was designed to provide a well documented data base to meet these needs. This paper focuses on pre-test NEPTUNE{sub C}FD simulations of TOPFLOW-PTS experiments; these simulations were performed to (i) help in the definition of the test matrix and test procedure, and (ii) check the presence of the different key physical phenomena at the mock-up scale. (author)

  11. Do Tobacco Bans Harm the Advertising Industry?

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Coupe; Olena Gnezdilova

    2008-01-01

    We use panel data on advertising expenditures to check the influence of tobacco advertising bans on the advertising industry. We find no clear evidence of a negative effect of tobacco bans on total per capita advertising expenditures.

  12. Reducing Outdoor Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice de Rendinger

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental concept is that public space is not a private property. So, a facade (the outer skin, the last millimeter belongs to the town, not to the owner of the building. Changing the rendering, a window, adding or removing anything from a facade requires a permission delivered by the town's authority.In places like Paris, Bordeaux, Marseilles, Lyon, Strasbourg… everywhere one can find a registrated building such as a cathedral, a castle, or a group of ancient buildings, a national administration is controlling this permission. This administration is called «historical monuments administration» and is locally lead by a specialized architect.In the late seventies, French government decided to reduce advertising on the roads and on the city walls. Advertising on the road was leading to a confusion reducing the efficacy of the roadsigns and direction signs, which is dangerous. The reduction was under control of a national administration: the ministry of equipment in charge of the roads design. Advertising on the walls with publicity boards was under control of the cities. Every city has a townplanning regulation. Many cities included forbidding advertisement boards on the walls in this regulation.A couple of firms, but mainly once (Decaux found clever to give a hand to the cities to control advertising. Decaux developed a line of bus stop shelters including advertisements and advertising panels and paid the cities the right to put rather smaller publicities on the public domain.Now Decaux is no more alone on this market and the cities are comparing offers.Marseille turned to a foreign advertising firm who pays three times the price Decaux paid… for half of the advertising surface. Freiburg erased totally the public domain advertisements, selling the tramways and bus coachwork as advertising spaces. Paris is reopening the advertising market before the end of Deacaux's contract and will pay Deacaux a huge amount

  13. Mobile Advertising : A Case study of Mobile advertising Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Salim, Ali; Alikhani, Nima

    2009-01-01

    This report has been produced as a result of a Thesis assignment conducted at Ericsson. Itspurpose is to give an overview of the Mobile Advertising industry. In this report an overviewof mobile advertising is presented and thru which channels advertising could be used. Thenthree mobile advertising campaigns are shown and described with background, strategy andresults. The different global markets, the different actors in the value chain and how the onlinebehavior has changed are analyzed. The...

  14. Advertising Through Social Media : Advertising plan for a hotel

    OpenAIRE

    Verbrugghe, Yann

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was written in order to develop advertising for the manor hotel Karolineburg, located in Kajaani, Finland, by using a social network as advertising media. This work also had for goal to show the possibility of social advertising and the benefits it can bring along. According to the situation of the company, findings and results revealed positive aspects of the work done.

  15. Reconsidering advertising literacy as a defense against advertising effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendaal, E.; Lapierre, M.A.; van Reijmersdal, E.A.; Buijzen, M.

    2011-01-01

    It is widely assumed that advertising literacy makes children less susceptible to advertising effects. However, empirical research does not provide convincing evidence for this view. In this article, we explain why advertising literacy as it is currently defined (i.e., conceptual knowledge of

  16. Online Advertising in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherjeiran, Abraham; Bhatt, Rushi P.; Parekh, Rajesh; Chaoji, Vineet

    Online social networks offer opportunities to analyze user behavior and social connectivity and leverage resulting insights for effective online advertising. This chapter focuses on the role of social network information in online display advertising.

  17. New marketing techniques: creative advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Chesnokova, M.

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with the essence of creative advertising and the features of the creative process. Furthermore, the author of the article analyzes the use of creative advertising used by universities when promoting their educational programs.

  18. Stereotypes and advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starčević Slađana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Many times, we have had a chance to hear that marketing communications are something that can move ahead of time. However, there are many areas in which they are moving slowly than time, without consideration of provided conditions. One of these areas is gender portraying, that is, accepted roles of women and men in the society. We cannot deny that gentle movements have been made towards their more realistic presentation, but a persistent claim that results from recent researches is that marketing communications and particularly advertising, as instrument that most directly reflects this theme, has remained rather resistant to changes in the society. Consequently values that have been built in brands with help of advertising are rather obsolete. Differently speaking, advertising has a showdown with stereotyping - as an assignment of a (usually negative label to certain groups of people based on a certain belief about how these people tend to behave in the society.

  19. The advertising and children's audience

    OpenAIRE

    A.S. Teletov; T.Ye. Ivanova

    2015-01-01

    The aim of article. The article shows that today more and more citizens supply from advertising. Children's perception of the world is radically different from the adults’ perception. Modern advertising industry affects children's audience more and more. The aim of the article is to analyze the impact of advertising on children's audience with further proposals. The results of the analysis. Some social critics believe that advertising provides new information that helps to be more adaptive...

  20. Targeted Advertising in Magazine Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Ambarish Chandra; Ulrich Kaiser

    2010-01-01

    We examine the scope and value of targeted advertising in the magazine industry. We use data on reader characteristics at individual media, in contrast to previous work that has needed to infer this information from aggregate data. Our results show a strong relationship between subscriber characteristics and advertising prices. Advertisers clearly value more homogenous groups of readers, measured according to income, gender and age. Our results explain recent trends of declining advertising e...

  1. SHORT ANALYSIS OF COMMERCIAL ADVERTISING

    OpenAIRE

    VIRGIL - ION POPOVICI

    2015-01-01

    In DEX, commercial advertising is defined as the (commercial) activity which aimes by advertising (by prints, radio, television, movies, etc.), to point out public interest on certain goods, books, show, the use of services etc. A famous, advertised product remains in our memory. Many of us ask somehow annoyed: How some of the brands remain in our memory, although we believe that we are not strongly influenced by advertisements? Interest publicity led to the creation of specialize...

  2. Television Advertising and Soda Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Rigoberto A.; Liu, Yizao; Zhu, Chen

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effects of television advertising on consumer demand for carbonated soft drinks using a random coefficients logit model (BLP) with household and advertising data from seven U.S. cities over a three year period. We find that advertising decreases the price elasticity of demand, indicating that advertising plays predominantly a persuasive, therefore anti-competitive role in this market. Further results show that brand spillover effects are significant and that measuring ...

  3. Initial experience of evaluation of coronary artery with 320-slice row CT system in high pre-test probability population without heart rate (rhythm) control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Gang; Li Guoying; Li Min; Ding Juan; Li Shenghui; Li Li; Zhu Shifang; Lin Changling; Zou Xiaofeng

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the accuracy of 320-slice row CT system for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) in high pre-test probability population without heart rate/rhythm control. Methods: Thirty patients with a high pre-test probability of CAD underwent 320-slice row CT without preceding heart rate/rhythm control. Invasive coronary angiography (ICA) served as the standard reference. Data sets were evaluated by 2 observers in consensus with respect to stenoses ≥50% decreased diameter. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and Youden index were analyzed; the impact of heart rate and calcification on image quality as well as diagnostic accuracy were also analyzed by Chi-square test. Results: Mean heart rate during scanning was 73.7±15.4 beats per min(bpm), and median(QR) of Agatston score of segment was 45.6 (181). On a per-segment analysis, overall sensitivity was 96.1% (74/77, 95% CI:89.03%-99.19%), specificity was 98.3% (337/343, 95% CI:96.23%-99.36%), PPV was 92.5% (74/80, 95% CI:84.39%-97.20%), NPV of 99.1% (337/340, 95% CI: 97.44%-99.82%) and the Youden index was 0.94. In both heart-rate subgroups (242 in heart rate < 70 bpm group, 169 in heart rate ≥70 bpm group), diagnostic accuracy for the assessment of coronary artery stenosis was similar (P<0.05). The accuracy and the quality score of the subgroup Agatston score ≥100 were lower than that of the subgroup Agatston score <100; however, the difference of results between 320-slice row CT and ICA was not significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: 320-detector row CT can reliably detect coronary artery stenoses in a high pre-test probability population without heart rate/rhythm control. (authors)

  4. MARKETING RESEARCH IN ADVERTISING

    OpenAIRE

    Vranceanu Diana; Popescu Ioana Cecilia; Tatu Cristi

    2008-01-01

    21th century advertising might just be the most powerful weapon a marketer haves and a quite efficient one if we think about the way it changed our world. But all that power comes with great responsibility: used accordingly by planning everything in the smallest detail possible it can be the best thing that ever happen to a company, used without any kind of strategy it can very well be a large scale disaster. Because of the great costs that advertising is much too often associated with and al...

  5. Advertising on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.A. (Communication) The information age we find ourselves in require a different approach to advertising than the traditional advertising approach we are used to. Messages will no longer be placed in order to reach a mass audience, but to reach a very closely defined audience. Products and services will be customised to meet individual needs and the relationship with the consumer will be the key to success in a global economy. We are moving towards a many-to-many model of communication. T...

  6. Do UK television alcohol advertisements abide by the code of broadcast advertising rules regarding the portrayal of alcohol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, Rebecca; Alston, Daisy; French, David P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the extent to which members of the UK general public perceive television alcohol advertisements to comply with the regulatory code governing these: the Advertising Standards Authority Code of Broadcast Advertising (BCAP Code). The Code provides a general principle and 16 rules to prevent such adverts implying, condoning or encouraging immoderate, irresponsible or anti-social drinking. Quota sample of 373 adults, representative of the UK population aged 18-74 years in terms of age and gender, were recruited at a train station. Participants were shown one of seven advertisements that had been broadcast in the previous month on the two leading commercial television channels, and then completed a questionnaire with 40 statements representing the BCAP Code rules. Overall, 75% of the participants rated the advertisements as breaching at least one rule from the BCAP Code. Breaches were observed for all the seven advertisements, ranging from 49 to 91% non-compliant. Rules regarding alcohol being presented as contributing to popularity or confidence, and implying that alcohol is capable of changing mood, physical condition, behaviour, or as nourishment, were seen as being breached by over 50% of participants. A clear majority of the UK general public perceive alcohol advertisements to breach the BCAP Code, suggesting that the current regulatory system for UK television alcohol advertisements is inadequate. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  7. Advertising. Advanced placement of objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ali Al-Ababneh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of one of the most important concepts and marketing events which is advertising. The author studies the history of the formation of modern advertising and covers the main interpretations of the concept of advertising. The article presents the data on the chronology of the formation of the key objectives of the advertising process and the basic classification of types of advertising, its purpose and place in the marketing mix. It sets out the classification and content of the basic concepts of marketing. The article considers the potential effectiveness of the basic types of advertising communications, and especially the impact of these promotional activities on the perception of the end user. Particular attention is paid to the study of certain promising areas of advertising, namely, advertising at airports and in airplanes, it is a special case of transit advertising. The author describes the identified advantages and disadvantages of this direction of marketing communications as well as the analysis of statistical data on the effectiveness of advertising at airports and in airplanes. It is suggested to consider this type of advertising as promising and effective in the conditions of modern times because there is the tendency to increase the dynamic potential users of the specified mode of transport and, as a consequence, it is possible with certainty to predict the transformation of potential passengers into real consumers of the studied type of advertising

  8. Some Aspects Regarding Internet Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiţu I.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine internet advertising, to understand its strengths and weaknesses, to compare the content and potential of traditional media with Web sites and to describe the specific types of internet advertising. The paper also tries to present some facts and figures regarding internet advertising.

  9. Bilingual Advertising in Melbourne Chinatown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sherry Yong

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the function of bilingual advertising by analyzing a case study of bilingual advertising in the Chinatown of Melbourne, Australia. The use of bilingual advertising in an immigrant setting differentiates itself from those in Asian settings where English is not used by dominant proportion of speakers in the society, and this…

  10. Some Aspects Regarding Internet Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Chiţu I.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine internet advertising, to understand its strengths and weaknesses, to compare the content and potential of traditional media with Web sites and to describe the specific types of internet advertising. The paper also tries to present some facts and figures regarding internet advertising.

  11. Youth perceptions of alcohol advertising: are current advertising regulations working?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Alexandra; Lam, Tina; Gilmore, William; Burns, Lucy; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Lenton, Simon; Lloyd, Belinda; Lubman, Dan; Ogeil, Rowan; Allsop, Steve

    2018-04-26

    We investigated young people's exposure to alcohol advertising, their intentions to consume and purchase alcohol products following the viewing of advertisements, and whether they perceived the actors in the advertisements as being under the age of 25 years. Face-to-face interviews were completed with 351 risky drinking 16-19-year-old Australians, with a sub-sample (n=68) responding to a range of alcohol advertisements in an in-depth interview. Participants were exposed to alcohol advertisements from an average of seven specific contexts in the past 12 months, with younger adolescents more likely to recall TV and outdoor billboards (n=351). Positive perception of advertisements was associated with increased intention to use and to purchase advertised products (n=68). A liqueur advertisement actor was perceived by 94% as being under 25 years-old, and almost 30% thought the advertisement was marketed at people younger than 18 years of age. Young people's perceptions of alcohol advertising are not necessarily in line with expert/industry assessment; products are sometimes marketed in a way that is highly appealing to young people. Greater appeal was associated with increased intention to consume and to purchase products. Implications for public health: These results indicate deficiencies in the effectiveness of current advertising codes in regard to protecting the health and wellbeing of adolescents. © 2018 The Authors.

  12. Advertising execution styles as a reflection of culture : Cross-cultural analysis of messaging app advertising preferences in South Korea and China

    OpenAIRE

    Kivinen, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Increased globalization and the thought of converging values has lead marketing practitioners and academics to consider more standardized approaches to marketing and advertising strategies. Even though cultures seem to evolve closer to each other, cultural diversity still exists. Advertising reflects and influences our cultural values and therefore it cannot be ignored when building effective advertising. Results show that culture impacts execution more than creative strategy (Wei & Jiang...

  13. Advertising in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Horst, G

    1987-06-01

    Due to a rapid increase of unemployment among dentists in many countries, the interest in advertising as a means of stimulating the demand for dental care is increasing. In some countries (i.e. USA, Canada, Finland and Holland) campaigns have been organized and the results have been published. In order to give as complete a picture as possible of all promotional activities in the field of dentistry, the member organizations of the FDI have been asked to answer the following questions: (1) Are individual dentists in your country allowed to solicit new patients by means of advertisements? (2) Do you, as an organization, have guidelines for your members in this respect? (3) Have there been any joint promotional activities by dentists in your country aimed at increasing the demand for dental care? (a) If so, in what form (e.g. advertisements, television or radio commercials)? (b) How much money was invested in such activities? (c) What were the results achieved? The results are presented. The effectiveness of specific methods used in stimulating the demand for dental care are analysed. Moreover, a comparison is made between studies on the attitudes of dentists toward advertising in Holland and the United States.

  14. Children's Advertisement Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Andrew; Beard, Roger

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores primary school children's ability to engage with "the power of the text" by tackling persuasive writing in the form of an advertisement. It is eclectically framed within genre theory and rhetorical studies and makes use of linguistic tools and concepts. The paper argues that writing research has not built upon earlier…

  15. Pre-test analysis for identification of natural circulation instabilities in TALL-3D facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kööp, Kaspar; Jeltsov, Marti; Grishchenko, Dmitry; Kudinov, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Global optimum search method was used to identify a region of instability. • Parametric study was used for detailed investigation of system behavior modes. • The results include identification of sustained mass flow rate oscillations. • Recommendations are made for selection of optimal experimental conditions. - Abstract: TALL-3D facility is a lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) thermal-hydraulic loop designed to provide experimental data on thermal-hydraulics phenomena for validation of stand-alone and coupled System Thermal Hydraulics (STH) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. Pre-test analysis is crucial for proper choice of experimental conditions at which the experimental data would be most useful for code validation and benchmarking. The goal of this work is to identify these conditions at which the experiment is challenging for the STH codes yet minimizes the 3D-effects from the test section on the loop dynamics. The analysis is focused on the identification of limit cycle flow oscillations in the TALL-3D facility main heater leg using a global optimum search tool GA-NPO to find a general region in the parameter space where oscillatory behavior is expected. As a second step a grid study is conducted outlining the boundaries between different stability modes. Phenomena, simulation results and methodology for selection of the test parameters are discussed in detail and recommendations for experiments are provided.

  16. Pre-test analysis for identification of natural circulation instabilities in TALL-3D facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kööp, Kaspar, E-mail: kaspar@safety.sci.kth.se; Jeltsov, Marti, E-mail: marti@safety.sci.kth.se; Grishchenko, Dmitry, E-mail: dmitry@safety.sci.kth.se; Kudinov, Pavel, E-mail: pavel@safety.sci.kth.se

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Global optimum search method was used to identify a region of instability. • Parametric study was used for detailed investigation of system behavior modes. • The results include identification of sustained mass flow rate oscillations. • Recommendations are made for selection of optimal experimental conditions. - Abstract: TALL-3D facility is a lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) thermal-hydraulic loop designed to provide experimental data on thermal-hydraulics phenomena for validation of stand-alone and coupled System Thermal Hydraulics (STH) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. Pre-test analysis is crucial for proper choice of experimental conditions at which the experimental data would be most useful for code validation and benchmarking. The goal of this work is to identify these conditions at which the experiment is challenging for the STH codes yet minimizes the 3D-effects from the test section on the loop dynamics. The analysis is focused on the identification of limit cycle flow oscillations in the TALL-3D facility main heater leg using a global optimum search tool GA-NPO to find a general region in the parameter space where oscillatory behavior is expected. As a second step a grid study is conducted outlining the boundaries between different stability modes. Phenomena, simulation results and methodology for selection of the test parameters are discussed in detail and recommendations for experiments are provided.

  17. How much food advertising is there on Australian television?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Kathy; Nicholas, Penny; Supramaniam, Rajah

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive content analysis of television food advertising and provide data on current levels of food advertising in Australia. All three commercial stations available on free-to-air Australian television were concurrently videotaped between 7 a.m. and 9 p.m. on two weekdays and both weekend days in four locations across Australia to provide a total of 645 h for analysis. Each advertisement was categorized as 'non-food ad', 'healthy/core food ad' or 'unhealthy/non-core food ad' according to set criteria. Thirty-one percent of the advertisements analyzed were for food. Eighty-one percent of the food advertisements identified were for unhealthy/non-core foods. When comparing the results of this study with previous research, it was found that the number of unhealthy advertisements screened per hour had not changed over the past few years. On weekdays, the number of advertisements increased throughout the day to peak at more than five advertisements per hour in the 6 p.m. to 9 p.m. time slot. The early morning time slot on Saturday was the most concentrated period for advertising unhealthy/non-core food with more than six advertisements screened per hour. The regional areas screened a significantly lower level of unhealthy/non-core food advertisements (19.5%) compared with the metropolitan areas (29.5%). Fast food and takeaway was the most advertised food category, followed by chocolate and confectionery. A total 194 breaches of the Children's Television Standards were identified according to our interpretation of the standard. It is well recognized that childhood obesity is a worldwide problem. The heavy marketing of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods influences food choices and contributes to the incidence of overweight and obesity in children. Despite the recognition of this growing problem, little has been done to ensure children are protected against the use of large volumes of unhealthy/non-core food advertising.

  18. Privacy issues in mobile advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix

    becomes an important part of marketing strategies. The development of mobile advertising, however, will be dependent on acceptance and usability issues in order to ensure permission-based advertising. Growing concerns about the protection of the users' privacy have been raised since mobile advertising may......The emergence of the wired Internet and mobile telecommunication networks is creating new opportunities for advertisers to generate new revenue streams through mobile users. As consumer adoption of mobile technology continues to increase, it is only a question of time when mobile advertising...... become extremely intrusive practices in an intimate personal space. This article focuses on the evaluation of legal problems raised by this novel form of advertising. It is assumed that a technological design, which is in line with the legal framework, will ensure that the benefits of mobile advertising...

  19. Privacy issues in mobile advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix

    2007-01-01

    becomes an important part of marketing strategies. The development of mobile advertising, however, will be dependent on acceptance and usability issues in order to ensure permission-based advertising. Growing concerns about the protection of the users' privacy have been raised since mobile advertising may......The emergence of the wired Internet and mobile telecommunication networks is creating new opportunities for advertisers to generate new revenue streams through mobile users. As consumer adoption of mobile technology continues to increase, it is only a question of time when mobile advertising...... become extremely intrusive practices in an intimate personal space. This article focuses on the evaluation of legal problems raised by this novel form of advertising. It is assumed that a technological design, which is in line with the legal framework, will ensure that the benefits of mobile advertising...

  20. SHORT ANALYSIS OF COMMERCIAL ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIRGIL - ION POPOVICI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In DEX, commercial advertising is defined as the (commercial activity which aimes by advertising (by prints, radio, television, movies, etc., to point out public interest on certain goods, books, show, the use of services etc. A famous, advertised product remains in our memory. Many of us ask somehow annoyed: How some of the brands remain in our memory, although we believe that we are not strongly influenced by advertisements? Interest publicity led to the creation of specialized agencies and organizations at a very broad diversification methods but advertising means.With advertising, the companies using various methods and means of popularizing notify the assortment of goods offered for sale population, of its quality, how to use and the price. In this regard propaganda to persuade consumers through various forms of advertising seeks not only to ensure its capture attention and conversion of formats such motivations in buying certain actions.

  1. Advertising media and cigarette demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Rajeev K

    2011-01-01

    Using state-level panel data for the USA spanning three decades, this research estimates the demand for cigarettes. The main contribution lies in studying the effects of cigarette advertising disaggregated across five qualitatively different groups. Results show cigarette demand to be near unit elastic, the income effects to be generally insignificant and border price effects and habit effects to be significant. Regarding advertising effects, aggregate cigarette advertising has a negative effect on smoking. Important differences across advertising media emerge when cigarette advertising is disaggregated. The effects of public entertainment and Internet cigarette advertising are stronger than those of other media. Anti-smoking messages accompanying print cigarette advertising seem relatively more effective. Implications for smoking control policy are discussed.

  2. Leftward lighting in advertisements increases advertisement ratings and purchase intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Jennifer; Thomas, Nicole A; Elias, Lorin

    2011-07-01

    It has been reliably shown that light is assumed to come from above. There is also some suggestion that light from the left might be preferred. Leftward lighting biases have been observed across various mediums such as paintings, portraits, photographs, and advertisements. As advertisements are used to persuade the public to purchase products, it was of interest to better understand whether leftward lighting would influence future intention to purchase. Participants gave preference ratings for pairs of advertisements with opposing lighting directions. Attitude towards the advertisement and the brand as well as future purchase intention was then rated. Overall, participants indicated that they preferred advertisements with leftward lighting and were more likely to purchase these products in the future than when the same products were lit from the right. Findings are consistent with previously observed leftward lighting biases and suggest that advertisements with a leftward lighting bias might be more effective.

  3. Development of new risk score for pre-test probability of obstructive coronary artery disease based on coronary CT angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Shinichiro; Kondo, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Hideya; Yokoyama, Naoyuki; Tarutani, Yasuhiro; Takamura, Kazuhisa; Urabe, Yoji; Konno, Kumiko; Nishizaki, Yuji; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Kihara, Yasuki; Daida, Hiroyuki; Isshiki, Takaaki; Takase, Shinichi

    2015-09-01

    Existing methods to calculate pre-test probability of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) have been established using selected high-risk patients who were referred to conventional coronary angiography. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate our new method for pre-test probability of obstructive CAD using patients who underwent coronary CT angiography (CTA), which could be applicable to a wider range of patient population. Using consecutive 4137 patients with suspected CAD who underwent coronary CTA at our institution, a multivariate logistic regression model including clinical factors as covariates calculated the pre-test probability (K-score) of obstructive CAD determined by coronary CTA. The K-score was compared with the Duke clinical score using the area under the curve (AUC) for the receiver-operating characteristic curve. External validation was performed by an independent sample of 319 patients. The final model included eight significant predictors: age, gender, coronary risk factor (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking), history of cerebral infarction, and chest symptom. The AUC of the K-score was significantly greater than that of the Duke clinical score for both derivation (0.736 vs. 0.699) and validation (0.714 vs. 0.688) data sets. Among patients who underwent coronary CTA, newly developed K-score had better pre-test prediction ability of obstructive CAD compared to Duke clinical score in Japanese population.

  4. Does Generic Advertising Help or Hurt Brand Advertising?

    OpenAIRE

    Suh, Daeseok; Chung, Chanjin

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the generic advertising helps or hurts the brand advertising within the differentiated product environments. We develop an analytical model that includes both generic and brand advertising expenditures considering vertical product differentiation. Then the analysis is devoted to examine how marginal effects of expenditure affect each other under product differentiation. To help examine the relationship, we also include a new variable, the de...

  5. Advertising in virtual space. An increasing threat for traditional advertising.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan DINA

    Full Text Available Traditional advertising media used as a main TV, radio and print media. When the Internet has become one of the most important channels of communication between people, advertising has proposed to use this new medium to promote products and services on the market. Currently, more than 50% of the western countries population and share increasingly larger of population from other countries have Internet access, which creates a huge potential for online advertising.

  6. Internet and Advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2016-02-01

    The Internet has revolutionized the way knowledge is currently produced, stored and disseminated. A few finger clicks on a keyboard can save time and many hours of search in libraries or shopping in stores. Online trademarks with an (e-) prefix such as e-library, e-business, e-health etc., are increasingly part of our daily professional vocabularies. However, the Internet has also produced multiple negative side effects, ranging from an unhealthy dependency to a dehumanization of human relationships. Fraudulent, unethical and scam practices are also flourishing through for example misleading online advertising methods. Some social and professional networks gather users' profiles for selling and advertising purposes, sometimes by making it technically difficult to unsubscribe. Here, I discuss some of these unethical aspects and propose some potential solutions to reduce them.

  7. Comparison of patient comprehension of rapid HIV pre-test fundamentals by information delivery format in an emergency department setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Melissa A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two trials were conducted to compare emergency department patient comprehension of rapid HIV pre-test information using different methods to deliver this information. Methods Patients were enrolled for these two trials at a US emergency department between February 2005 and January 2006. In Trial One, patients were randomized to a no pre-test information or an in-person discussion arm. In Trial Two, a separate group of patients were randomized to an in-person discussion arm or a Tablet PC-based video arm. The video, "Do you know about rapid HIV testing?", and the in-person discussion contained identical Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-suggested pre-test information components as well as information on rapid HIV testing with OraQuick®. Participants were compared by information arm on their comprehension of the pre-test information by their score on a 26-item questionnaire using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results In Trial One, 38 patients completed the no-information arm and 31 completed the in-person discussion arm. Of these 69 patients, 63.8% had twelve years or fewer of formal education and 66.7% had previously been tested for HIV. The mean score on the questionnaire for the in-person discussion arm was higher than for the no information arm (18.7 vs. 13.3, p ≤ 0.0001. In Trial Two, 59 patients completed the in-person discussion and 55 completed the video arms. Of these 114 patients, 50.9% had twelve years or fewer of formal education and 68.4% had previously been tested for HIV. The mean score on the questionnaire for the video arm was similar to the in-person discussion arm (20.0 vs. 19.2; p ≤ 0.33. Conclusion The video "Do you know about rapid HIV testing?" appears to be an acceptable substitute for an in-person pre-test discussion on rapid HIV testing with OraQuick®. In terms of adequately informing ED patients about rapid HIV testing, either form of pre-test information is preferable than for patients

  8. Comparison of patient comprehension of rapid HIV pre-test fundamentals by information delivery format in an emergency department setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Roland C; Gee, Erin M; Clark, Melissa A; Mayer, Kenneth H; Seage, George R; DeGruttola, Victor G

    2007-01-01

    Background Two trials were conducted to compare emergency department patient comprehension of rapid HIV pre-test information using different methods to deliver this information. Methods Patients were enrolled for these two trials at a US emergency department between February 2005 and January 2006. In Trial One, patients were randomized to a no pre-test information or an in-person discussion arm. In Trial Two, a separate group of patients were randomized to an in-person discussion arm or a Tablet PC-based video arm. The video, "Do you know about rapid HIV testing?", and the in-person discussion contained identical Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-suggested pre-test information components as well as information on rapid HIV testing with OraQuick®. Participants were compared by information arm on their comprehension of the pre-test information by their score on a 26-item questionnaire using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results In Trial One, 38 patients completed the no-information arm and 31 completed the in-person discussion arm. Of these 69 patients, 63.8% had twelve years or fewer of formal education and 66.7% had previously been tested for HIV. The mean score on the questionnaire for the in-person discussion arm was higher than for the no information arm (18.7 vs. 13.3, p ≤ 0.0001). In Trial Two, 59 patients completed the in-person discussion and 55 completed the video arms. Of these 114 patients, 50.9% had twelve years or fewer of formal education and 68.4% had previously been tested for HIV. The mean score on the questionnaire for the video arm was similar to the in-person discussion arm (20.0 vs. 19.2; p ≤ 0.33). Conclusion The video "Do you know about rapid HIV testing?" appears to be an acceptable substitute for an in-person pre-test discussion on rapid HIV testing with OraQuick®. In terms of adequately informing ED patients about rapid HIV testing, either form of pre-test information is preferable than for patients to receive no pre-test

  9. Policy Implications of Advertising to Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Emilie

    Since its inception the Children's Advertising Review Unit has turned to research in order to better evaluate children's advertisements, to develop guidelines for children's advertisers and to resolve some perplexing questions about certain types of advertising content. Although some work has been done in advertising directed toward children, most…

  10. 27 CFR 5.66 - Comparative advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Comparative advertising. 5..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Advertising of Distilled Spirits § 5.66 Comparative advertising. (a) General. Comparative advertising shall not be disparaging of a...

  11. 27 CFR 7.55 - Comparative advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Comparative advertising. 7..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Advertising of Malt Beverages § 7.55 Comparative advertising. (a) General. Comparative advertising shall not be disparaging of a...

  12. Advertising as a tool of communication mix

    OpenAIRE

    DUFKOVÁ, Iva

    2010-01-01

    The target of the thesis is an evaluation of current advertising offers and budgeting system characteristic of a particular organization. Object of study is advertising on various radio stations, satisfaction with the work of companies, advertising agencies and then to their advertising and consumers look to advertising.

  13. 32 CFR 705.13 - Commercial advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... encourages cooperation with advertisers. However, the layout, artwork and text of the proposed advertisement... exclusively for the use of an advertiser. (d) Navy cooperation in commercial advertising, publicity and other... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial advertising. 705.13 Section 705.13...

  14. 36 CFR 223.227 - Sale advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... advertisement. (a) The Forest Service shall advertise any special forest products sales with an appraised value... products without advertisement, or advertise a special forest products sale for a period less than 30 days... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sale advertisement. 223.227...

  15. 12 CFR 230.8 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 230.8 Section 230.8 Banks and... SAVINGS (REGULATION DD) § 230.8 Advertising. (a) Misleading or inaccurate advertisements. An advertisement... obtain the advertised annual percentage yield. For tiered-rate accounts, the minimum balance required for...

  16. 12 CFR 707.8 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 707.8 Section 707.8 Banks and... Advertising. (a) Misleading or inaccurate advertisements. An advertisement must not: (1) Be misleading or... balance required to earn the advertised annual percentage yield. For tiered-rate accounts, the minimum...

  17. Women in Serbian Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Popesku, Mihajlo

    2008-01-01

    This study is an attempt of valuable contribution to the gender issues literature since it explains portrayal and appearance of women in advertising within the context of Serbia, a country in transition. Having in mind this extremely turbulent and unique context, it is of particular interest to re-examine gender issues hypotheses based on the findings from western countries, due to the fact that knowledge gained from these contexts may not be fully applicable to the Serbian context. The...

  18. Contraceptive product advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastor, A

    1985-07-01

    In the US, all national broadcast networks refuse to accept ads for contraceptive products. About 10 years ago, the National Association of Broadcasters (NAB), a trade association, inserted a ban on contraceptive ads in its advertising code for member stations. The ban was voluntary, but all NAB stations adhered to it. When the NAB dropped its advertising code in 1982, for legal reasons unrelated to contraceptive advertising, individual networks established their own codes. These codes continued the ban on contraceptives along with bans on ads for cigarettes, X-rated movies, sex magazines, and astrology services. In recent years, a few local radio and television stations and cable networks began accepting contraceptive ads. The ads, which are tasteful and straightforward, met with little or no public disapproval. Given that the national television networks through their programming willingly expose viewers to an estimated 9230 sexual acts or references a year, it is hard to understand why they persist in refusing to air contraceptive ads or to allow any references to contraceptive use in their programming. There are some hopeful signs. A number of national organizations are now publicly urging the networks to drop their ban. These organizations include the American College of Nurse-Midwives, the American Jewish Congress, and the Society for Adolescent Medicine. The Center for Population Options recently organized a task force to promote contraceptive advertising. The task force is composed of representatives from a wide range of national organizations, including the American Public Health Association and the National Urban League. The task force developed guidelines for the production and selection of contraceptive ads. The guidelines state that ads must provide accurate and clear information on product effectiveness, present comparisons with other products fairly, advise users to read all instructions, and inform listeners if there is an effectiveness waiting

  19. How effective is the revised regulatory code for alcohol advertising in Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sandra C; Hall, Danika; Munro, Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    Australia, like several other countries, has a self-regulatory approach to advertising. However, in recent years the effectiveness of the regulatory system has been questioned, and there have been increasing public calls for an overhaul of the system. Following a formal review in 2003, the Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy proposed a revised Alcoholic Beverages Advertising Code (ABAC), which came into operation in 2004. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of this revised system. From May 2004 until March 2005 television and magazine advertising campaigns were monitored for alcohol products. Over this period 14 complaints against alcohol advertisements were lodged with the self-regulatory board, and the authors recruited an independent expert panel to assess the advertisements and complaints. In eight of the 14 cases a majority of the judges perceived the advertisement to be in breach of the code, and in no cases did a majority perceive no breach. Conversely, however, none of the complaints were upheld by the Advertising Standards Board (ASB) and only one by the ABAC Panel. The results of this study suggest that the decisions made by the ASB in relation to complaints against alcohol advertisements are not in harmony with the judgement of independent experts, and that the ASB may not be performing an adequate job of representing community standards or protecting the community from offensive or inappropriate advertisements. Further, it appears that the revisions to the ABAC code, and associated processes, have not reduced the problems associated with alcohol advertising in Australia.

  20. Dialogism in Advertising Persuasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Cruz Pistori

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes two advertisements from the same brand, but produced in different local media: France and Brazil. It aims to pursue the interrelation and nexus needed between the verbal, visual and extraverbal dimensions to produce and understand the effects of persuasive sense. Concepts from ancient and modern Rhetoric, as well as dialogic discourse analysis notions and categories, inspired in the works of Bakhtin and the Circle, are the article’s theoretical-methodological basis. In the chosen advertisements, we observe the tense way they reflect and refract reality and how this is expressed in concrete utterances, constructed according to genre coercions. By analyzing the produced meaning effects, we especially highlight the presence of persuasion in different dialogic relationships allowed by the texts, audience importance in effect construction of text persuasive meaning, and proximity between advertisement and epidictic genre in ancient rhetoric. Persuasive dialogic relationships express broad and different spheres of human activity, in connection with the organization of social life, space and time; in fact, they are not aimed at product purchase, but at access to a way of life, which is linked to ideological values of privilege.

  1. MARKETING RESEARCH IN ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vranceanu Diana

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available 21th century advertising might just be the most powerful weapon a marketer haves and a quite efficient one if we think about the way it changed our world. But all that power comes with great responsibility: used accordingly by planning everything in the smallest detail possible it can be the best thing that ever happen to a company, used without any kind of strategy it can very well be a large scale disaster. Because of the great costs that advertising is much too often associated with and also the long term affects it haves on the consumer a company should never start an advertising campaign without knowing every single last detail concerning their product and consumers. The study of the promotional message will show its capacity to gain the attention of the targeted audience, to stand out from other messages, to be associated with the product/service it promotes, to generate a positive reaction towards that specific product/service and to encourage its purchasing.

  2. MANIPULATING CONSUMERS THROUGH ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta -Andreea Neacşu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Marketing communication has evolved steadily in the direction of increasing complexity and increasing volume of funds needed to run their own actions. More than ever, consumers are exposed to an overwhelming variety of sources and communication tehniques, the information received being numerous, diverse and polyvalent. The desire to make more efficient the marketing communication activity urges the broadcasters to encode messages, to use effective means of propagation in order to obtain a high degree of control on receptors and to influence the consumption attitudes. Between the means used for this purpose, manipulation tehniques are well known. This paper highlights the main conclusions drawn as a result of a quantitative marketing research on the adult population from Braşov in order to identify the attitudes and opinions of consumers from Braşov regarding the manipulation techniques used by commercial practices and advertising.The results of the research have shown that 82% of the respondents buy products in promotional offers, and 18% choose not to buy these products and 61% of the respondents consider that they have not been manipulated not even once, while only 39% believe that they have been manipulated at least once through advertising or commercial practices. Advertisements on TV have a strong influence on consumers, 81% of the respondents considering that at least once they have bought a product because of a TV commercial.

  3. A systematic review of the effect of pre-test rest duration on toe and ankle systolic blood pressure measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Measurement of toe and ankle blood pressure is commonly used to evaluate peripheral vascular status, yet the pre-test rest period is inconsistent in published studies and among practitioners, and could affect results. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate all research that has investigated the effect of different periods of pre-test rest on toe and ankle systolic blood pressure. Methods The following databases were searched up to April 2012: Medline (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1947), CINAHL (from 1937), and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (from 1800). No language or publication restrictions were applied. Eighty-eight content experts and researchers in the field were contacted by email to assist in the identification of published, unpublished, and ongoing studies. Studies evaluating the effect of two or more pre-test rest durations on toe or ankle systolic blood pressure were eligible for inclusion. No restrictions were placed on participant characteristics or the method of blood pressure measurement. Outcomes included toe or ankle systolic blood pressure and adverse effects. Abstracts identified from the search terms were independently assessed by two reviewers for potential inclusion. Results 1658 abstracts were identified by electronic searching. Of the 88 content experts and researchers in the field contacted by email a total of 33 replied and identified five potentially relevant studies. No studies were eligible for inclusion. Conclusions There is no evidence of the effect of different periods of pre-test rest duration on toe and ankle systolic blood pressure measurements. Rigorous trials evaluating the effect of different durations of pre-test rest are required to direct clinical practice and research. PMID:24708870

  4. Undergraduates’ attitudes toward mobile advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Usta, Resul

    2009-01-01

    The rapid proliferation of mobile devices such as cellular phones has created a new communication channel for marketing. Currently, cellular phones are mostly used for Short Messaging Service (SMS) advertising. The aim of this study is to explore the factors that underline undergraduates’ attitudes toward SMS advertising. The results obtained indicated factors such as entertainment, informativeness, irritation, reliability, general attitude and permission and incentive-based advertising. The ...

  5. Retorical figures in advertising language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenković-Šošić Bojana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Promotional activities are very often based on advertising and diverse types of public relations. In order to attract consumers' attention and achieve communication goals set by the corporate strategy, advertisers frequently use rhetorical elements in advertising discourse. The advertisers try to convey a desired message and to communicate with the recipient of the message by using various rhetorical figures. It is argued that understanding the structure and function of rhetorical figures in advertising requires a "text- and reader-aware approach". The use of rhetorical figures in advertising has been overlooked in consumer research. This paper shows that the use of rhetorical elements in the advertising discourse is very frequent, but at the same time it is questioned if the function of the rhetorical figures is just a communication with the target market (which is a base of communication models and if the consequences of linguistic influences are much more serious. The complex nature of advertising language with various rhetorical figures (thropes and schemes do not just stimulate recipients to demonstrate a desirable behavior, but indirectly it constructs a concept of desirable lifestyle and it induces them to identify themselves with the explained model. Moreover, the analyzed corpus included advertising slogans of social responsible companies as well as advertising campaigns with elements of diverse ideologies. In the time of digitization and a rapid information flow, consumer's attention is less dedicated to the advertising messages. Therefore, it should be expected that in the future advertisers will have to adjust linguistic, audio and visual techniques to the unfocused message recipients.

  6. Advertising as a communications tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aduss, E.L.; Bisconti, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    Advertising is one component of the US nuclear industry's co-ordinated communications programme aimed at assuring an understanding of nuclear energy's role and benefits. This communication programme, conducted by the US Council for Energy Awareness (USCEA), includes many media and public relations activities, a variety of publications aimed at key audiences, reports, technical analyses, as well as advertising. Advertising enables USCEA to disseminate key information to very broad audiences continuously and consistently

  7. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were sur...

  8. Social Advertising Quality: Assessment Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Kalmykov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the The purpose of the publication is development of existing criterial assessment in social advertising sphere. The next objectives are provided for its achievement: to establish research methodology, to develop the author’s version of necessary notional apparatus and conceptual generalization, to determine the elements of social advertising quality, to establish the factors of its quality, to conduct the systematization of existing criteria and measuring instruments of quality assessment, to form new criteria of social advertising quality, to apply received results for development of criterial assessment to determine the further research perspectives. Methods: the methodology of research of management of social advertising interaction with target audience, which has dynamic procedural character with use of sociological knowledge multivariate paradigmatic status, has been proposed. Results: the primary received results: the multivariate paradigmatic research basis with use of works of famous domestic and foreign scientists in sociology, qualimetry and management spheres; the definitions of social advertising, its quality, sociological quality provision system, target audience behavior model during social advertising interaction are offered; the quality factors with three groups by level of effect on consumer are established; the systematization of existing quality and its measure instruments assessment criteria by detected social advertising quality elements are conducted; the two new criteria and its management quality assessment measuring instruments in social advertising sphere are developed; the one of the common groups of production quality criteria – adaptability with considering of new management quality criteria and conducted systematization of existing social advertising creative quality assessment criteria development; the perspective of further perfection of quality criterial assessment based on social advertising

  9. Evolutionary Aesthetics and Print Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Luczaj

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the extent to which predictions based on the theory of evolutionary aesthetics are utilized by the advertising industry. The purpose of a comprehensive content analysis of print advertising is to determine whether the items indicated by evolutionists such as animals, flowers, certain types of landscapes, beautiful humans, and some colors are part of real advertising strategies. This article has shown that many evolutionary hypotheses (although not all of them are supported by empirical data. Along with these hypotheses, some inferences from Bourdieu’s cultural capital theory were tested. It turned out that advertising uses both biological schemata and cultural patterns to make an image more likable.

  10. Methodological Guidelines for Advertising Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossiter, John R.; Percy, Larry

    2017-01-01

    In this article, highly experienced advertising academics and advertising research consultants John R. Rossiter and Larry Percy present and discuss what they believe to be the seven most important methodological guidelines that need to be implemented to improve the practice of advertising research....... Their focus is on methodology, defined as first choosing a suitable theoretical framework to guide the research study and then identifying the advertising responses that need to be studied. Measurement of those responses is covered elsewhere in this special issue in the article by Bergkvist and Langner. Most...

  11. Advertising and generic market entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Königbauer, Ingrid

    2007-03-01

    The effect of purely persuasive advertising on generic market entry and social welfare is analysed. An incumbent has the possibility to invest in advertising which affects the prescribing physician's perceived relative qualities of the brand-name and the generic version of the drug. Advertising creates product differentiation and can induce generic market entry which is deterred without differentiation due to strong Bertrand competition. However, over-investment in advertising can deter generic market entry under certain conditions and reduces welfare as compared to accommodated market entry.

  12. Disease-specific direct-to-consumer advertising for reminding consumers to take medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutada, Nilesh S; Rollins, Brent L

    2015-01-01

    To assess the relationship between disease-specific direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising, via traditional advertising effectiveness measures, and consumers' self-reported medication-taking behavior. Data were gathered for 514 respondents (age 18 and above) using an online survey panel. Participants were exposed to a disease-specific (i.e., nonbranded) DTC advertising for depression. The advertising stimulus created for the study was based on the Food and Drug Administration guidelines for disease-specific DTC advertising and modeled after current print disease-specific DTC advertising. Participants reviewed the advertising stimulus through the online program and then responded to a questionnaire containing closed-ended questions assessing the constructs. Data were analyzed using chi-square tests. All tests were interpreted at an a priori alpha of 0.05. Significantly more respondents who were highly involved, paid more attention to the advertisement, and were responsive to DTC advertisements in the past indicated that the disease-specific DTC advertising stimulus reminded them to take their depression and other medications. These exploratory results show disease-specific DTC advertising can help people remember to take their prescription medication when viewed, which may lead to more positive medication-taking behavior and increased medication adherence. Additionally, given the fair balance and legal issues surrounding product-specific DTC advertising, disease-specific DTC advertising can serve as an effective component of the marketing mix for pharmaceutical manufacturers. Future research should attempt to study the impact of disease-specific DTC advertising on consumers' actual medication adherence using standardized adherence measures such as prescription records.

  13. The Effectiveness of Advertising Matching Purchase Motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Loef; G. Antonides (Gerrit); W.F. van Raaij (Fred)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractSeveral authors have proposed frameworks to help advertisers predict and plan advertising effectiveness. Rossiter and Percy's advertising grid (1997) recommends that the ad appeal should match the purchase motivation or attitude base. They suggest that for utilitarian brands

  14. Using cognitive pre-testing methods in the development of a new evidenced-based pressure ulcer risk assessment instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, S; Nixon, J; Keen, J; Muir, D; Wilson, L; McGinnis, E; Stubbs, N; Dealey, C; Nelson, E A

    2016-11-16

    Variation in development methods of Pressure Ulcer Risk Assessment Instruments has led to inconsistent inclusion of risk factors and concerns about content validity. A new evidenced-based Risk Assessment Instrument, the Pressure Ulcer Risk Primary Or Secondary Evaluation Tool - PURPOSE-T was developed as part of a National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) funded Pressure Ulcer Research Programme (PURPOSE: RP-PG-0407-10056). This paper reports the pre-test phase to assess and improve PURPOSE-T acceptability, usability and confirm content validity. A descriptive study incorporating cognitive pre-testing methods and integration of service user views was undertaken over 3 cycles comprising PURPOSE-T training, a focus group and one-to-one think-aloud interviews. Clinical nurses from 2 acute and 2 community NHS Trusts, were grouped according to job role. Focus group participants used 3 vignettes to complete PURPOSE-T assessments and then participated in the focus group. Think-aloud participants were interviewed during their completion of PURPOSE-T. After each pre-test cycle analysis was undertaken and adjustment/improvements made to PURPOSE-T in an iterative process. This incorporated the use of descriptive statistics for data completeness and decision rule compliance and directed content analysis for interview and focus group data. Data were collected April 2012-June 2012. Thirty-four nurses participated in 3 pre-test cycles. Data from 3 focus groups, 12 think-aloud interviews incorporating 101 PURPOSE-T assessments led to changes to improve instrument content and design, flow and format, decision support and item-specific wording. Acceptability and usability were demonstrated by improved data completion and appropriate risk pathway allocation. The pre-test also confirmed content validity with clinical nurses. The pre-test was an important step in the development of the preliminary PURPOSE-T and the methods used may have wider instrument development application

  15. Using cognitive pre-testing methods in the development of a new evidenced-based pressure ulcer risk assessment instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Coleman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variation in development methods of Pressure Ulcer Risk Assessment Instruments has led to inconsistent inclusion of risk factors and concerns about content validity. A new evidenced-based Risk Assessment Instrument, the Pressure Ulcer Risk Primary Or Secondary Evaluation Tool - PURPOSE-T was developed as part of a National Institute for Health Research (NIHR funded Pressure Ulcer Research Programme (PURPOSE: RP-PG-0407-10056. This paper reports the pre-test phase to assess and improve PURPOSE-T acceptability, usability and confirm content validity. Methods A descriptive study incorporating cognitive pre-testing methods and integration of service user views was undertaken over 3 cycles comprising PURPOSE-T training, a focus group and one-to-one think-aloud interviews. Clinical nurses from 2 acute and 2 community NHS Trusts, were grouped according to job role. Focus group participants used 3 vignettes to complete PURPOSE-T assessments and then participated in the focus group. Think-aloud participants were interviewed during their completion of PURPOSE-T. After each pre-test cycle analysis was undertaken and adjustment/improvements made to PURPOSE-T in an iterative process. This incorporated the use of descriptive statistics for data completeness and decision rule compliance and directed content analysis for interview and focus group data. Data were collected April 2012-June 2012. Results Thirty-four nurses participated in 3 pre-test cycles. Data from 3 focus groups, 12 think-aloud interviews incorporating 101 PURPOSE-T assessments led to changes to improve instrument content and design, flow and format, decision support and item-specific wording. Acceptability and usability were demonstrated by improved data completion and appropriate risk pathway allocation. The pre-test also confirmed content validity with clinical nurses. Conclusions The pre-test was an important step in the development of the preliminary PURPOSE-T and the

  16. Optimal Temporal Policies in Fluid Milk Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Philip R. Vande Kamp; Harry M. Kaiser

    2000-01-01

    This study develops an approach to obtain optimal temporal advertising strategies when consumers' response to advertising is asymmetric. Using this approach, optimal strategies for generic fluid milk advertising in New York City are determined. Results indicate that pulsed advertising policies are significantly more effective in increasing demand than a uniform advertising policy. Sensitivity analyses show that the optimal advertising policies are insensitive to reasonable variations in inter...

  17. Analisa Pengaruh Mobile Advertising pada Industri Telekomunikasi

    OpenAIRE

    Iskandar, Didik

    2014-01-01

    Layanan mobile advertising terus mengalami perkembangan seiring dengan perkembangan sarana telekomunikasi mobile. Peluang mobile advertising ini sangat besar, akan tetapi peluang tersebut belum dimanfaatkan dengan maksimal. Mobil advertising terdiri dari beragam tipe, seperti SMS, MMS, E-mail, Search, Banner Display, Content Sponsorship dan Video. Sementara itu model Mobile advertising terdiri dari pull advertising dan push advertising. Di penelitian ini diteliti tentang pengaruh mobile adver...

  18. Hospital Advertising, Competition, and HCAHPS: Does It Pay to Advertise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppertz, John W; Bowman, R Alan; Bizer, George Y; Sidhu, Mandeep S; McVeigh, Colleen

    2017-08-01

    To test whether hospital advertising expenditures predict HCAHPS global ratings. We examined media advertising expenditures by 2,142 acute care hospitals in 209 markets in the United States. Data on hospital characteristics, location, and revenue came from CMS reports; system ownership was obtained from the American Hospital Association. Advertising data came from Kantar Media. HCAHPS data were obtained from HospitalCompare. Regression models examined whether hospitals' advertising spending predicts HCAHPS global measures and whether market concentration moderated this association. Hospital advertising spending was calculated by adding each individual hospital's expenditures to the amount spent by its parent health system, proportionally allocated by hospital revenue. Health system market share was used to estimate market concentration. These data were compared to hospitals' HCAHPS measures. In competitive markets (HHI below 1,000), hospital advertising predicted HCAHPS global measures. A 1-percent increase in advertising was associated with a 1.173-percent increase in patients rating the hospital a "9" or "10" on the HCAHPS survey and a 1.540-percent increase in patients who "definitely" would recommend the hospital. In concentrated markets, this association was not significant. In competitive markets, hospitals that spend more on advertising earn higher HCAHPS ratings on global measures. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  19. Advertising, democracy and censorship:

    OpenAIRE

    Craig, Robert L.

    2004-01-01

    The article develops an argument for the control of commercial and political advertising in the United States and a return to a journalism of public service and in support of democratic principles of communication. Based on a number of previous studies, the author describes and analyzes the impact of a business culture on the traditional role of the media, the expectations of journalism, and the rights of citizen to be informed by a range of ideas and in the spirit of a democratic existence. ...

  20. What factors are influencing preferences toward conventional versus complementary and alternative medical clinic advertisements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hye-Won; Chang, Dong-Seon; Lee, Hyangsook; Kang, O-Seok; Lee, Hyejung; Park, Hi-Joon; Chae, Younbyoung

    2011-10-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether health service advertisements are perceived differently depending on advertising conventional or complementary and alternative medicine clinics. A total of 42 adults (male=21, female=21) recruited through advertisements in Seoul, South Korea participated in this study. A standardized health service advertisement was designed with three controlled visual components such as (1) medical treatment information, (2) medical practitioner, and (3) medical facilities and it was shown to subjects while their eye movements were tracked and they were asked to rate their preferences for the different advertisements and their separate components. A multiple regression analysis was performed to see the correlation of the preferences for each of the three visual components with the overall preference rating of each health service advertisement. Preferences for the advertisement depended mostly on the preference for the medical treatment information, whereas advertisements for complementary and alternative medical clinics depended also on the preference for the medical practitioner. These results imply that the same health service advertisement will be perceived differently depending on whether it advertises Western or Oriental medical clinics.

  1. Newspaper advertising by health maintenance organizations during the reform of healthcare services in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuveni, H; Shvarts, S; Meyer, J; Elhayany, A; Greenberg, D

    2001-06-01

    On 1 January 1995 a new mandatory National Health Insurance Law was enacted in Israel. The new law fostered competition among the four major Israeli healthcare providers (HMOs or sick funds) already operating in the market due to the possibility that an unlimited number of patients and the relative budget share would shift among the HMOs. This led them to launch advertising campaigns to attract new members. To examine newspaper advertising activities during the early stages of healthcare market reform in Israel. Advertising efforts were reviewed during a study period of 24 months (July 1994 to June 1996). Advertisements were analyzed in terms of marketing strategy, costs and quality of information. During the study period 412 newspaper advertisements were collected. The total advertising costs by all HMOs was approximately US$4 million in 1996 prices. Differences were found in marketing strategy, relative advertising costs, contents and priorities among the HMOs. The content of HMOs' newspaper advertising was consistent with their marketing strategy. The messages met the criteria of persuasive advertising in that they cultivated interest in the HMOs but did not provide meaningful information about them. Future developments in this area should include consensus guidelines for advertising activities of HMOs in Israel, instruction concerning the content of messages, and standardization of criteria to report on HMO performance.

  2. Targeted Advertising and Social Status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Vikander (Nick)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper shows how a firm can use non-targeted advertising to exploit consumers' desire for social status. A monopolist sells multiple varieties of a good to consumers who each care about what others believe about his wealth. Advertising allows consumers both to buy different varieties

  3. Comparison of different coupling CFD–STH approaches for pre-test analysis of a TALL-3D experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papukchiev, Angel, E-mail: angel.papukchiev@grs.de [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Garching n. Munich (Germany); Jeltsov, Marti; Kööp, Kaspar; Kudinov, Pavel [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Lerchl, Georg [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Garching n. Munich (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Thermal-hydraulic system codes and CFD tools are coupled. • Pre-test calculations for the TALL-3D facility are performed. • Complex flow and heat transfer phenomena are modeled. • Comparative analyses have been performed. - Abstract: The system thermal-hydraulic (STH) code ATHLET was coupled with the commercial 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package ANSYS CFX to improve ATHLET simulation capabilities for flows with pronounced 3D phenomena such as flow mixing and thermal stratification. Within the FP7 European project THINS (Thermal Hydraulics of Innovative Nuclear Systems), validation activities for coupled thermal-hydraulic codes are being carried out. The TALL-3D experimental facility, operated by KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, is designed for thermal-hydraulic experiments with lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) coolant at natural and forced circulation conditions. GRS carried out pre-test simulations with ATHLET–ANSYS CFX for the TALL-3D experiment T01, while KTH scientists perform these analyses with the coupled code RELAP5/STAR CCM+. In the experiment T01 the main circulation pump is stopped, which leads to interesting thermal-hydraulic transient with local 3D phenomena. In this paper, the TALL-3D behavior during T01 is analyzed and the results of the coupled pre-test calculations, performed by GRS (ATHLET–ANSYS CFX) and KTH (RELAP5/STAR CCM+) are directly compared.

  4. Newspaper vs. online advertising: Is there a niche for newspapers in modern advertising markets?

    OpenAIRE

    Lindstädt, Nadine; Budzinski, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Newspapers have experienced declining circulation figures and declining advertising revenues for several years. In particular, declining advertising figures put a threat on newspapers – this is especially severe in the US where 73% of their revenues are generated through advertising. On the advertising side many companies have expanded their advertising expenditure towards online. Consequently, there are concerns about online advertising substituting newspaper advertising – in the same way as...

  5. ADVERTISING BETWEEN RULES AND CREATIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina SUSANU

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Where would the world be without advertising? Stuart Henderson Britt strongly believed in it. Hesaid: “Doing business without advertising is like winking at a girl in the dark. You know what youare doing, but she doesn’t.” The work reviews the evolution of advertising, highlighting theuncontestable part played by it within organizations and society in general and it focuses on anessential element of it, that is the advertising print. The purpose of this paperwork is to highlight thenecessary rules for the making of a quality print, with the help of a comparative study on prints ofeight organizations. The print represents an exercise of writing and design, in words and images, fortransmitting the advertising message. The fulfillment of this task depends on the perspicacity,imagination and the creativity of the maker.

  6. Should Utility-Reducing Media Advertising be Taxed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kind, Hans Jarle; Köthenbürger, Marko; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2009-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that people dislike ads in media products like TV programs. In such situations standard economic theory prescribes that the advertising volume can be optimally reduced by levying a tax on ads. However, making use of recent advances in the theory of Industrial Organizat......Empirical evidence suggests that people dislike ads in media products like TV programs. In such situations standard economic theory prescribes that the advertising volume can be optimally reduced by levying a tax on ads. However, making use of recent advances in the theory of Industrial...

  7. 16 CFR 1615.31 - Labeling, recordkeeping, advertising, retail display and guaranties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling, recordkeeping, advertising, retail... FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CHILDREN'S SLEEPWEAR: SIZES 0 THROUGH 6X (FF 3-71) Rules and Regulations § 1615.31 Labeling, recordkeeping, advertising, retail display and...

  8. Advertisement Policy - 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ADVERTISEMENT POLICY - 2016Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH, the official publication of Indian Association of Preventive and Social Medicine (IAPSM published from Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand, India is an indexed journal published quarterly. The open access policy of the journals ensure good visibility of the online content of the journals. The journal with high circulation and visibility, thus offer excellent media for promotion of your products, services or conferences of academic or research interest through advertisement. The journal has the potential to deliver the message to the targeted audience regularly with each issue. The cost of investment per view is substantially low for our print as well as electronic journals.Your advertisements in our journal will keep your products getting boost every quarter in the nook and corner of the country through our journal which is the forefront of community health. The journal is indexed and abstracted in more than 70 databases worldwide including SCOPUS, Index Medicus SEAR, Bioline International, DOAJ, WHO HINARI, Indian Science Abstract, etc. Apart from the print advertisement, we also consider advertisement on web, bulk subscriptions, gift subscriptions or reprint purchases for distribution.Note: Indian Journal of Community Health does not give medical advice and will not be able to respond to inquiries about specific diseases, medical or surgical conditions, diagnosis, treatments or contact of another person. Advertisement Rate – 2016Category INRInside Full Back Cover (color15,000Inside Full Back Cover (B & W10,000Full Page (Color10,000Half Page (Color5,000Full Page (B & W5,000Half Page (B & W2,000 Sponsorship Rate - Supplementary IssueThe cost towards publishing a single special issue of IJCH is Rs. 75,000/- per issue. The above mentioned cost is based on the following specifications i.e.  Page size 8.5" X 11", Printing Offset printing, Pages - 90 b/w + 10 full color pages + 4

  9. Television food advertisement exposure and FTO rs9939609 genotype in relation to excess consumption in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert-Diamond, D; Emond, J A; Lansigan, R K; Rapuano, K M; Kelley, W M; Heatherton, T F; Sargent, J D

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to food advertisements may cue overeating among children, especially among those genetically predisposed to respond to food cues. We aimed to assess how television food advertisements affect eating in the absence of hunger among children in a randomized trial. We hypothesized that the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) rs9939609 single-nucleotide polymorphism would modify the effect of food advertisements. In this randomized experiment, 200 children aged 9-10 years were served a standardized lunch and then shown a 34-min television show embedded with either food or toy advertisements. Children were provided with snack food to consume ad libitum while watching the show and we measured caloric intake. Children were genotyped for rs9939609 and analyses were conducted in the overall sample and stratified by genotype. A formal test for interaction of the food advertisement effect on consumption by rs9939609 was conducted. About 172 unrelated participants were included in this analysis. Children consumed on average 453 (s.d.=185) kcals during lunch and 482 (s.d.=274) kcals during the experimental exposure. Children who viewed food advertisements consumed an average of 48 kcals (95% confidence interval: 10, 85; P=0.01) more of a recently advertised food than those who viewed toy advertisements. There was a statistically significant interaction between genotype and food advertisement condition (P for interaction=0.02), where the difference in consumption of a recently advertised food related to food advertisement exposure increased linearly with each additional FTO risk allele, even after controlling for body mass index percentile. Food advertisement exposure was associated with greater caloric consumption of a recently advertised food, and this effect was modified by an FTO genotype. Future research is needed to understand the neurological mechanism underlying these associations.

  10. HOW ADVERTISING SHAPES OUR MINDS: PRAGMATIC AND COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Olenyuk

    2016-03-01

    2009 to 2014 has been selected as the material for the research, with 2000 samples of advertising discourse being analyzed. The main conclusion to be drawn is that advertising contributes to moulding the addressee’s world view, thus affecting the way the recipient perceives the reality and shaping his/her values.To put it another way, advertising discourse causes shifts in human cognition and imposes on its recipients new ideals, standards and moral principles

  11. 27 CFR 6.84 - Point of sale advertising materials and consumer advertising specialties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Point of sale advertising....84 Point of sale advertising materials and consumer advertising specialties. (a) General. The act by an industry member of giving or selling point of sale advertising materials and consumer advertising...

  12. The Strategies Used in Japanese Advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurose, Yuki

    This paper investigates the possibility of using Japanese advertising language as a teaching tool in the second language classroom. First, it reviews the aims of advertising and the advantages of learning advertising language in the classroom based on previous research. Next, it discusses language strategies used in Japanese advertising,…

  13. The underlying processes of creative media advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauwers, F.; van Noort, G.; Verlegh, P.; Voorveld, H.; Eisend, M.

    2016-01-01

    Consumers are exposed to a large volume of advertising messages on a daily basis. This excess of commercial messages is called advertising clutter. Marketers are searching for new innovative advertising strategies to break through this clutter and creative media advertising is considered as one of

  14. 20 CFR 655.1303 - Advertising requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising requirements. 655.1303 Section... Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) § 655.1303 Advertising requirements. All advertising conducted... the H-2A workers. All advertising must contain the following information: (a) The employer's name and...

  15. 16 CFR 259.2 - Advertising disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising disclosures. 259.2 Section 259.2... ADVERTISING FOR NEW AUTOMOBILES § 259.2 Advertising disclosures. (a) No manufacturer or dealer shall make any express or implied representation in advertising concerning the fuel economy of any new automobile 1...

  16. 12 CFR 338.3 - Nondiscriminatory advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nondiscriminatory advertising. 338.3 Section... POLICY FAIR HOUSING Advertising § 338.3 Nondiscriminatory advertising. (a) Any bank which directly or through third parties engages in any form of advertising of any loan for the purpose of purchasing...

  17. 25 CFR 215.12 - Advertising costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising costs. 215.12 Section 215.12 Indians BUREAU... LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.12 Advertising costs. All advertising costs, publication fees, expenses incurred for abstracts of lease title, and other expenses incurred in connection with the advertising and...

  18. 20 CFR 655.17 - Advertising requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising requirements. 655.17 Section 655... States (H-2B Workers) § 655.17 Advertising requirements. All advertising conducted to satisfy the... employment which are not less favorable than those to be offered to the H-2B workers. All advertising must...

  19. 27 CFR 4.65 - Comparative advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Comparative advertising. 4..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Advertising of Wine § 4.65 Comparative advertising. (a) General. Comparative adverstising shall not be disparaging of a competitor's product. (b...

  20. Sikap, Periklanan dan Attitude Toward Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Imasari, Kartika

    2010-01-01

    Advertising addresses to create consumers' affection and cognition; besides, affect buying behaviour. Advertising also used to create long-term image's product or to trigger sales. It can be formed if we can understand costumer's behaviour which created the advertising itself. The advertising consumer's approval will be influential to goods or services offered.

  1. 20 CFR 655.151 - Newspaper advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Newspaper advertisements. 655.151 Section 655... advertisements. (a) The employer must place an advertisement (in a language other than English, where the CO... job opportunity. Newspaper advertisements must satisfy the requirements set forth in § 655.152. (b) If...

  2. 36 CFR 327.17 - Advertisment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 327.17 Advertisment. (a) Advertising and the distribution of printed matter is allowed within project... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertisment. 327.17 Section... that this activity is not solely commercial advertising. (b) An application for such a permit shall set...

  3. 36 CFR 1005.1 - Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertisements. 1005.1....1 Advertisements. Commercial notices or advertisements shall not be displayed, posted, or... by the Executive Director. Such permission may be granted only if the notice or advertisement is of...

  4. 33 CFR 136.309 - Advertisement determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertisement determinations. 136... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Designation of Source and Advertisement § 136.309 Advertisement determinations. (a) The Director, NPFC, determines for each incident the type, geographic scope...

  5. 36 CFR 5.1 - Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertisements. 5.1 Section 5... AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.1 Advertisements. Commercial notices or advertisements shall not be... or advertisement is of goods, services, or facilities available within the park area and such notices...

  6. 32 CFR 644.540 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Advertising. 644.540 Section 644.540 National... HANDBOOK Disposal Sale Procedure § 644.540 Advertising. (a) Definition and purposes. GSA regulations... for sale. Sales will be made to the highest responsible bidder after advertising. Advertising consists...

  7. 12 CFR 213.7 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 213.7 Section 213.7 Banks and... (REGULATION M) § 213.7 Advertising. (a) General rule. An advertisement for a consumer lease may state that a... paragraph (d)(1) of this section shall also state the following items: (i) That the transaction advertised...

  8. Implicature Analysis on Cigarette Advertisement Slogans

    OpenAIRE

    MUTMAINNAH

    2014-01-01

    Mutmainnah. 2013. Implicature Analysis on Cigarette Advertisement Slogans. Study Program of English, Department of Languages and Literature, Faculty of Cultural Studies, Universitas Brawijaya. Supervisor: Endang Sasanti; Co-supervisor: Istiqomah Wulandari. Kata Kunci: Implicature, cigarette advertisement slogans. Some advertisements cannot show the products to persuade people because the government forbids the advertisement to show or mention the objects of the products. In Indonesia th...

  9. The ethics of distress: toward a framework for determining the ethical acceptability of distressing health promotion advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen L; Whiting, Demian

    2014-04-01

    Distressing health promotion advertising involves the elicitation of negative emotion to increase the likelihood that health messages will stimulate audience members to adopt healthier behaviors. Irrespective of its effectiveness, distressing advertising risks harming audience members who do not consent to the intervention and are unable to withdraw from it. Further, the use of these approaches may increase the potential for unfairness or stigmatization toward those targeted, or be considered unacceptable by some sections of the public. We acknowledge and discuss these concerns, but, using the public health ethics literature as a guide, argue that distressing advertising can be ethically defensible if conditions of effectiveness, proportionality necessity, least infringement, and public accountability are satisfied. We do not take a broad view as to whether distressing advertising is ethical or unethical, because we see the evidence for both the effectiveness of distressing approaches and their potential to generate iatrogenic effects to be inconclusive. However, we believe it possible to use the current evidence base to make informed estimates of the likely consequences of specific message presentations. Messages can be pre-tested and monitored to identify and deal with potential problems. We discuss how advertisers can approach the problems of deciding on the appropriate intensity of ethical review, and evaluating prospective distressing advertising campaigns against the conditions outlined. © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.

  10. Dermatology Internet Yellow Page advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Shayla; Kozak, Katarzyna Z; Heilig, Lauren; Lundahl, Kristy; Bowland, Terri; Hester, Eric; Best, Arthur; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2006-07-01

    Patients may use Internet Yellow Pages to help select a physician. We sought to describe dermatology Internet Yellow Page advertising. Dermatology advertisements in Colorado, California, New York, and Texas at 3 Yellow Page World Wide Web sites were systematically examined. Most advertisements (76%; 223/292) listed only one provider, 56 listed more than one provider, and 13 listed no practitioner names. Five advertisements listed provider names without any credentialing letters, 265 listed at least one doctor of medicine or osteopathy, and 9 listed only providers with other credentials (6 doctors of podiatric medicine and 3 registered nurses). Most advertisements (61%; 179/292) listed a doctor of medicine or osteopathy claiming board certification, 78% (139/179) in dermatology and 22% (40/179) in other medical specialties. Four (1%; 4/292) claims of board certification could not be verified (one each in dermatology, family practice, dermatologic/cosmetologic surgery, and laser surgery). Board certification could be verified for most doctors of medicine and osteopathy not advertising claims of board certification (68%; 41/60; 32 dermatology, 9 other specialties). A total of 50 advertisements (17%) contained unverifiable or no board certification information, and 47 (16%) listed a physician with verifiable board certification in a field other than dermatology. All Internet Yellow Page World Wide Web sites and all US states were not examined. Nonphysicians, physicians board certified in medical specialties other than dermatology, and individuals without verifiable board certification in any medical specialty are advertising in dermatology Internet Yellow Pages. Many board-certified dermatologists are not advertising this certification.

  11. The Rise of native advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius MANIC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Native advertising is described both as a new way for promoters to engage audiences and as a new, clever, source of revenue for publishers and media agencies. The debates around its morality and the need for a wide accepted framework are often viewed as calls for creativity. Aside from the various forms, strategies and the need for clarification, the fact that native advertising works and its revenue estimates increase annually transforms the new type of ad into a clear objective for companies, marketers and publishers. Native advertising stopped being a buzzword and started being a marketing reality.

  12. Forty Thousand Years of Advertisement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Lidin

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The roots of advertisement are connected with reclamations, claims and arguments. No surprise that many people treat it with distrust, suspicion and irritation.Nobody loves advertisement (except its authors and those who order it, nobody watches it, everybody despises it and get annoyed because of it. But newspapers, magazines, television and city economy in general cannot do without it. One keeps on arguing whether to prohibit advertisement, to restrict its expansion, to bring in stricter regulations on advertisement…If something attracts attention, intrigues, promises to make dreams true and arouses desire to join - it should be considered as advertisement. This definition allows saying with no doubts: yes, advertisement did existed in the most ancient strongest cultures. Advertisement is as old as the humane civilization. There have always been the objects to be advertised, and different methods appeared to reach those goals.Advertisement techniques and topics appear, get forgotten and appear again in other places and other times. Sometimes the author of advertisement image has no idea about his forerunners and believes he is the discoverer. A skillful designer with high level of professionalism deliberately uses images from past centuries. The professional is easily guided by historical prototypes.But there is another type of advertisement, its prototypes cannot be found in museums. It does not suppose any respect, because it is built on scornful attitude towards the spectator.However, basically the advertisement is made by professional designers, and in this case ignorance is inadmissible. Even if we many times appeal to Irkutsk designers to work on raising their cultural level of advertisements, anyhow, orders will be always made by those who pay. Unless Its Majesty Ruble stands for Culture, those appeals are of no use.

  13. Design of an audio advertisement dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yutao; Liu, Jihong; Zhang, Qi; Geng, Yuting

    2015-12-01

    Since more and more advertisements swarm into radios, it is necessary to establish an audio advertising dataset which could be used to analyze and classify the advertisement. A method of how to establish a complete audio advertising dataset is presented in this paper. The dataset is divided into four different kinds of advertisements. Each advertisement's sample is given in *.wav file format, and annotated with a txt file which contains its file name, sampling frequency, channel number, broadcasting time and its class. The classifying rationality of the advertisements in this dataset is proved by clustering the different advertisements based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The experimental results show that this audio advertisement dataset offers a reliable set of samples for correlative audio advertisement experimental studies.

  14. Determinants of Temporal Variations in Advertising Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Chanjin; Kaiser, Harry M.

    1998-01-01

    This article develops a varying-parameter advertising model which specifies advertising parameters as a function of variables representing advertising strategies and market environments to explain the varying nature of the advertising responses. Unlike prior models, this model allows researchers to examine the sources of change in advertising effectiveness over time. The model is applied to the New York City fluid milk market for the period from January 1986 through June 1995. Results indicat...

  15. Has Internet Changed Anything in Advertising?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Ljubičić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we shall consider grosso modo actual opinions regarding advertising and advertising ethics. The emergence of the Internet aroused hope that advertising ethics is not the ultimate oxymoron (Beltramini, 2003. In spite of a negative connotation that postmodernism and globalization added to advertising theory and practice, the appearance of the Internet has really changed business philosophy regarding advertising and emphasized its ethical dimension. Results of our research confirm this thesis.

  16. Advertising in Modern and Postmodern Times

    OpenAIRE

    Odih, Pamela

    2007-01-01

    How does advertising position itself in consumer culture? In what ways does it 'create' desire and wants? This richly illustrated, incisive text produces the most complete critical introduction to advertising culture.\\ud \\ud Advertising in Modern and Postmodern Times: \\ud provides a comprehensive discussion of the main theories\\ud shows you how real adverts work, together with reproductions of advertising images and copy\\ud demonstrates how advertising constructs subjects\\ud provides an instr...

  17. Connecting Mobile Game Advertising with Local Stores

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Yanzhao

    2016-01-01

    With the growth of mobile market, mobile advertising and mobile game advertising are becoming more and more important. On one hand, mobile advertising is able to deliver relevant ads to targeted users based on their locations and behaviors. On the other hand, as the number of mobile game players and free-to-play mobile games are increasing, mobile game advertising forms one important way of monetization. It is important to increase the advertising effectiveness while producing friendly user e...

  18. Stochastic Budget Optimization in Internet Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    DasGupta, Bhaskar; Muthukrishnan, S.

    2010-01-01

    Internet advertising is a sophisticated game in which the many advertisers "play" to optimize their return on investment. There are many "targets" for the advertisements, and each "target" has a collection of games with a potentially different set of players involved. In this paper, we study the problem of how advertisers allocate their budget across these "targets". In particular, we focus on formulating their best response strategy as an optimization problem. Advertisers have a set of keywo...

  19. Key Success Factors in Internet Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Papadopoulos, Symeon

    2009-01-01

    Internet advertising (also known as online advertising) is the delivery of advertising messages and marketing communications through the Web. It has presented sustainable revenue growth since its inception in the mid-1990s. Internet advertising takes a multitude of forms, ranging from the “traditional” banners to today's rich media ads. Due to its wide success, internet advertising currently constitutes a significant marketing channel for a large number of firms, ranging from news agenci...

  20. What Are Cancer Centers Advertising to the Public? A Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vater, Laura B.; Donohue, Julie M.; Arnold, Robert; White, Douglas B; Chu, Edward; Schenker, Yael

    2015-01-01

    Background Although critics have expressed concerns about cancer center advertising, the content of these advertisements has not been analyzed. Objective To characterize the informational and emotional content of cancer center advertisements. Design Systematic analysis of all cancer center advertisements in top U.S. consumer magazines (N=269) and television networks (N=44) in 2012. Measurements Using a standardized codebook, we assessed (1) types of clinical services promoted; (2) information provided about clinical services, including risks, benefits, and costs; (3) use of emotional advertising appeals; and (4) use of patient testimonials. Two investigators independently coded advertisements using ATLAS.ti. Kappa values ranged from 0.77 to 1.0. Results A total of 102 cancer centers placed 409 unique clinical advertisements in top media markets in 2012. Advertisements promoted treatments (88%) more often than screening (18%) or supportive services (13%; padvertised therapies were described more often than risks (27% vs. 2%; padvertisements mentioned insurance coverage or costs (5%). Emotional appeals were frequent (85%), most often evoking hope for survival (61%), describing cancer treatment as a fight or battle (41%), and evoking fear (30%). Nearly half of advertisements included patient testimonials, usually focused on survival or cure. Testimonials rarely included disclaimers (15%) and never described the results a typical patient might expect. Limitations Internet advertisements were not included. Conclusions Clinical advertisements by cancer centers frequently promote cancer therapy using emotional appeals that evoke hope and fear while rarely providing information about risks, benefits, or costs. Further work is needed to understand how these advertisements influence patient understanding and expectations of benefit from cancer treatments. PMID:24863081

  1. Categorization of Mobile Advertising Campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Pousttchi, Key; Wiedemann, Dietmar Georg

    2006-01-01

    The result of this contribution is a categorization and thus a description model for mobile advertising campaigns using the morphological method. For identification of the characteristics 32 case studies were analysed and relevant literature was sighted.

  2. SOCIOLINGUISTIC PECULIARITIES OF ADVERTISEMENT LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savina, N.A.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the text of the English-language advertising as a special type of discourse, which morphological and syntactic features are directly dependent on the target audience, which this type of text is created for, and provides some observations made in the course of practical linguistic studies of English advertisement texts. A proportional system of the most general male and female social roles is worked out here that helps to analyze different types of advertisement texts according to their grammatical functions, which helps not only to detect their impact in our everyday life but also gives a field for the further development of advertisement as a type of discourse.

  3. Transcreation in Marketing and Advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Daniel

    Within marketing and advertising, transcreation constitutes a fairly new domain, which has experienced extensive growth during the last decade or so. More and more companies provide transcreation alongside other services like translation and localisation. In academic circles, the term transcreation...

  4. Cognitive interviewing methods for questionnaire pre-testing in homeless persons with mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Carol E; Holland, Anna C; Patterson, Michelle L; Mason, Kate S; Goering, Paula N; Hwang, Stephen W

    2012-02-01

    In this study, cognitive interviewing methods were used to test targeted questionnaire items from a battery of quantitative instruments selected for a large multisite trial of supported housing interventions for homeless individuals with mental disorders. Most of the instruments had no published psychometrics in this population. Participants were 30 homeless adults with mental disorders (including substance use disorders) recruited from service agencies in Vancouver, Winnipeg, and Toronto, Canada. Six interviewers, trained in cognitive interviewing methods and using standard interview schedules, conducted the interviews. Questions and, in some cases, instructions, for testing were selected from existing instruments according to a priori criteria. Items on physical and mental health status, housing quality and living situation, substance use, health and justice system service use, and community integration were tested. The focus of testing was on relevance, comprehension, and recall, and on sensitivity/acceptability for this population. Findings were collated across items by site and conclusions validated by interviewers. There was both variation and similarity of responses for identified topics of interest. With respect to relevance, many items on the questionnaires were not applicable to homeless people. Comprehension varied considerably; thus, both checks on understanding and methods to assist comprehension and recall are recommended, particularly for participants with acute symptoms of mental illness and those with cognitive impairment. The acceptability of items ranged widely across the sample, but findings were consistent with previous literature, which indicates that "how you ask" is as important as "what you ask." Cognitive interviewing methods worked well and elicited information crucial to effective measurement in this unique population. Pretesting study instruments, including standard instruments, for use in special populations such as homeless

  5. How Does Advertising Affect Market Performance? The Case of Generic Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Stephen F.; Richards, Timothy J.; Stiegert, Kyle W.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of advertising on market performance has been a long-standing debate. Advertising that increases the dispersion of consumers’ valuations for advertised goods raises the market power of firms, while advertising that decreases the dispersion of consumers’ valuations leads to narrower price-cost margins and superior performance in markets for advertised goods. Numerous challenges confound the empirical identification of advertising effects on market performance. This paper proposes a ...

  6. Inducing value-congruent behavior through advertising and the moderating role of attitudes toward advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Defever, Christine; Pandelaere, Mario; Roe, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Advertisements frequently link values to advertised products or services, but little is known about the effect of this practice on value-driven behavior that is unrelated to the advertising context. Evidence from two studies show that exposure to value-laden advertisements instigates behavior that is congruent with the "advertised" value (i.e., self-direction, security, achievement, or benevolence). Moreover, attitudes toward advertising moderate this effect. To the extent that people value p...

  7. BEAUTY AND THE BEAST : IMAGES OF WOMEN IN ADVERTISEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther H. Kuntjara

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Images in advertisements have power to shape our perception on the way we look at the world. Women in ads are often portrayed as sexual objects. Conventional beauty is women’s attribute. Unfortunately%2C the images of women most ads portray are usually the creation of artificiality that establishes an impossible standard of physical perfection for women This article presents some different ads from some famous women’s magazines and discusses some possible meanings the viewers may perceive from the images. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : images%2C women%2C advertisement.

  8. The effect of search condition and advertising type on visual attention to Internet advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gho; Lee, Jang-Han

    2011-05-01

    This research was conducted to examine the level of consumers' visual attention to Internet advertising. It was predicted that consumers' search type would influence visual attention to advertising. Specifically, it was predicted that more attention to advertising would be attracted in the exploratory search condition than in the goal-directed search condition. It was also predicted that there would be a difference in visual attention depending on the advertisement type (advertising type: text vs. pictorial advertising). An eye tracker was used for measurement. Results revealed that search condition and advertising type influenced advertising effectiveness.

  9. [Governance of drug advertising control: assessment of misleading advertising penalties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakroun, R

    2013-04-01

    Loyal promotion of the pharmaceutical industry has been challenged by stakeholders. Drug advertising is the easiest point to assess. Based on the agency theory, our objective was to describe the governance of advertising control when it was misleading and the terms of penalties within the framework of the contradictory process between the industry and the regulatory authorities. We conducted a thorough analysis of the contents of the minutes of the Board of Control of advertising from April 2007 to May 2010. The amounts of penalties were analyzed according to three criteria: the timing of the examination procedure (first session versus second session), the nature of the penalty (ban versus notice of change) and the company's defense strategy (written response versus presence of company representatives). Thirty-nine reports involving 62 projects to ban advertisements were analyzed. The first two causes of penalties were off label promotion and non-objective use of study results to support claims. The Committee issued 47 advertising bans (76%) and 15 formal notices of change (24%). When the defense strategy of the company involved the presence of representatives, there was a significant reduction of votes in favor of a ban (68% versus 81%, Pstrategy did not influence the nature of the penalty (Chi(2)=2.05; P=n.s). These results should be put into perspective considering the fact that the qualitative composition of the commission was not free of potential conflicts of interest and that, moreover, only 10% of the penalty projects were reviewed. In addition, advertising control does not address the issue of the loyalty of the sales forces. Finally, our results open perspectives for research and managerial applications for the governance of advertising controls. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. Extensive advertising. Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaser, Y

    1993-12-01

    The Turkish Family Health and Planning Foundation set out with the support of the US Agency for International Development in 1988 to develop a contraceptive social marketing program. It was designed to increase the availability and use of condoms and low-dose pills, while maximizing the participation of the private sector. The program would build a market using existing infrastructure; collaborate and participate with 4 major pharmaceutical companies; use all commercial products and nothing donated; and negotiate for commercial product prices without subsidy. Full cost recovery and self-sufficient operation was projected to be realized by the 4th year of sales. The OK condom brand was created for the program and marketed through television, open air advertisements, gifts, and sponsorship from mid-1991. 4.46 million units were sold over the period May-December 1991 and 5.76 million over January-November 1992; these figures were 127% and 115% above sales targets, respectively. The OK brand dominated the market of everusers with 41.1% having employed the brand. Data suggest that the condoms are effectively being used by the urban and comparatively poor segments of society. Sales volumes were so robust that the commercial sector expanded the product line on its own to offer OK Extra.

  11. Pharmaceutical advertising in emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Catherine A

    2004-04-01

    Promotion of prescription drugs represents a growing source of pharmaceutical marketing expenditures. This study was undertaken to identify the frequency of items containing pharmaceutical advertising in clinical emergency departments (EDs). In this observational study, emergency physician on-site investigators quantified a variety of items containing pharmaceutical advertising present at specified representative times and days, in clinical EDs. Measurements were obtained by 65 on-site investigators, representing 22 states. Most EDs in this study were community EDs (87% community and 14% university or university affiliate), and most were in urban settings (50% urban, 38% suburban, and 13% rural). Investigators measured 42 items per ED (mean = 42; median = 31; interquartile range of 14-55) containing pharmaceutical advertising in the clinical area. The most commonly observed items included pens (mean 15 per ED; median 10), product brochures (mean 5; median 3), stethoscope labels (mean 4; median 2), drug samples (mean 3; median 0), books (mean 3.4), mugs (mean 2.4), and published literature (mean 3.1). EDs with a policy restricting pharmaceutical representatives in the ED had significantly fewer items containing pharmaceutical advertising (median 7.5; 95% CI = 0 to 27) than EDs without such a policy (median 35; 95% CI = 27 to 47, p = 0.005, nonparametric Wilcoxon two-sample test). There were no differences in quantities of pharmaceutical advertising for EDs in community compared with university settings (p = 0.5), rural compared with urban settings (p = 0.3), or annual ED volumes (p = 0.9). Numerous items containing pharmaceutical advertising are frequently observed in EDs. Policies restricting pharmaceutical representatives in the ED are associated with reduced pharmaceutical advertising.

  12. Kid-Short Marfan Score (Kid-SMS) Is a Useful Diagnostic Tool for Stratifying the Pre-Test Probability of Marfan Syndrome in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Veronika C; Arndt, Florian; Harring, Gesa; von Kodolitsch, Yskert; Kozlik-Feldmann, Rainer; Mueller, Goetz C; Steiner, Kristoffer J; Mir, Thomas S

    2015-03-12

    Due to age dependent organ manifestation, diagnosis of Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a challenge, especially in childhood. It is important to identify children at risk of MFS as soon as possible to direct those to appropriate treatment but also to avoid stigmatization due to false diagnosis. We published the Kid-Short Marfan Score (Kid-SMS) in 2012 to stratify the pre-test probability of MFS in childhood. Hence we now evaluate the predictive performance of Kid-SMS in a new cohort of children. We prospectively investigated 106 patients who were suspected of having MFS. At baseline, children were examined according to Kid-SMS. At baseline and follow-up visit, diagnosis of MFS was established or rejected using standard current diagnostic criteria according to the revised Ghent Criteria (Ghent-2). At baseline 43 patients were identified with a risk of MFS according to Kid-SMS whereas 21 patients had Ghent-2 diagnosis of MFS. Sensitivity was 100%, specificity 77%, negative predictive value 100% and Likelihood ratio of Kid-SMS 4.3. During follow-up period, three other patients with a stratified risk for MFS were diagnosed according to Ghent-2. We confirm very good predictive performance of Kid-SMS with excellent sensitivity and negative predictive value but restricted specificity. Kid-SMS avoids stigmatization due to diagnosis of MFS and thus restriction to quality of life. Especially outpatient pediatricians and pediatric cardiologists can use it for primary assessment.

  13. Online Behavioral Advertising: A Literature Review and Research Agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerman, S.C.; Kruikemeier, S.; Zuiderveen Borgesius, F.J.

    2017-01-01

    Advertisers are increasingly monitoring people's online behavior and using the information collected to show people individually targeted advertisements. This phenomenon is called online behavioral advertising (OBA). Although advertisers can benefit from OBA, the practice also raises concerns about

  14. The Cognitive and Behavioural Impact of Alcohol Promoting and Alcohol Warning Advertisements: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kyle G.; Stautz, Kaidy; Hollands, Gareth J.; Winpenny, Eleanor M.; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To assess the immediate effect of alcohol promoting and alcohol warning advertisements on implicit and explicit attitudes towards alcohol and on alcohol seeking behaviour. Methods We conducted a between-participants online experiment in which participants were randomly assigned to view one of three sets of advertisements: (a) alcohol promoting, (b) alcohol warning, or (c) unrelated to alcohol. A total of 373 participants (59.5% female) aged 18–40 (M = 28.03) living in the UK were recruited online through a research agency. Positive and negative implicit attitudes and explicit attitudes towards alcohol were assessed before and after advertisements were viewed. Alcohol seeking behaviour was measured by participants' choice of either an alcohol-related or non-alcohol-related voucher offered ostensibly as a reward for participation. Self-reported past week alcohol consumption was also recorded. Results There were no main effects on any of the outcome measures. In heavier drinkers, viewing alcohol promoting advertisements increased positive implicit attitudes (standardized beta = 0.15, P = 0.04) and decreased negative implicit attitudes (standardized beta = −0.17, P = 0.02). In heavier drinkers, viewing alcohol warning advertisements decreased negative implicit attitudes (standardized beta = −0.19, P = 0.01). Conclusions Viewing alcohol promoting advertisements has a cognitive impact on heavier drinkers, increasing positive and reducing negative implicit attitudes towards alcohol. Viewing alcohol warning advertisements reduces negative implicit attitudes towards alcohol in heavier drinkers, suggestive of a reactance effect. PMID:26391367

  15. Compliance with self-regulation of television food and beverage advertising aimed at children in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Fernández, Ma Mar; Royo-Bordonada, Miguel Angel; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate the level of compliance with the PAOS Code (Publicidad, Actividad, Obesidad y Salud), which establishes standards for the self-regulation of food marketing aimed at minors, in television advertising by food and beverage companies that have agreed to abide by the Code. The study sample consisted of food and beverage advertisements targeting children during 80 h of programming by four Spanish television networks. The level of compliance with each standard of the PAOS Code was classified into three categories: 'compliance', 'non-compliance' and 'uncertain compliance'. Overall, an advertisement was considered compliant with the PAOS Code if it met all the standards; non-compliant if it contravened one or more standards; and uncertain in all other cases. Of a total of 203 television advertisements from companies that agreed to the PAOS Code, the overall prevalence of non-compliance was 49.3% (v. 50.8% among those that did not agree to the code), with 20.7% of advertisements considered of uncertain compliance. Non-compliance was more frequent on Saturdays, in longer advertisements, in advertisements containing promotions or dairy products, and for advertisements from companies of French or US origin. Non-compliance with the PAOS Code was very high and was similar for companies that did and did not agree to the Code, casting doubt on the Code's effectiveness and oversight system. It seems the time has come to commit to statutory regulations that reduce the negative impact of advertising on children's diets, as demanded by public health experts and consumer associations.

  16. Pre-Test Analysis Predictions for the Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor Checkout Tests - TA01 and TA02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornburgh, Robert P.; Hilburger, Mark W.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the pre-test analysis predictions for the SBKF-P2-CYL-TA01 and SBKF-P2-CYL-TA02 shell buckling tests conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in support of the Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor (SBKF) Project, NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Assessment. The test article (TA) is an 8-foot-diameter aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) orthogrid cylindrical shell with similar design features as that of the proposed Ares-I and Ares-V barrel structures. In support of the testing effort, detailed structural analyses were conducted and the results were used to monitor the behavior of the TA during the testing. A summary of predicted results for each of the five load sequences is presented herein.

  17. Web-Based Antismoking Advertising to Promote Smoking Cessation: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yom-Tov, Elad; Muennig, Peter; El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M

    2016-11-21

    Although hundreds of millions of dollars are spent each year on public health advertising, the advertisement content, design, and placement are usually developed by intuition rather than research. The objective of our study was to develop a methodology for testing Web-based advertisements to promote smoking cessation. We developed 10 advertisements that varied by their content (those that empower viewers to quit, help viewers to quit, or discuss the effects of smoking). We then conducted a series of Web-based randomized controlled trials that explored the effects of exposing users of Microsoft's Bing search engine to antismoking advertisements that differed by content, placement, or other characteristics. Finally, we followed users to explore whether they conducted subsequent searches for smoking cessation products or services. The advertisements were shown 710,106 times and clicked on 1167 times. In general, empowering advertisements had the greatest impact (hazard ratio [HR] 2.6, standard error [SE] 0.09 relative to nonempowering advertisements), but we observed significant variations by gender. For instance, we found that men exposed to smoking cessation advertisements were less likely than women to subsequently conduct smoking cessation searches (HR 0.2, SE 0.07), but that this likelihood increased 3.5 times in men exposed to advertisements containing empowering content. Women were more influenced by advertisements that emphasized the health effects of smoking. We also found that appearing at the top right of the page (HR 2.1, SE 0.07) or at the bottom rather than the top of a list (HR 1.1, SE 0.02) can improve smoking cessation advertisements' effectiveness in prompting future searches related to smoking cessation. Advertising should be targeted to different demographic groups in ways that are not always intuitive. Our study provides a method for testing the effectiveness of Web-based antismoking advertisements and demonstrates the importance of advertisements

  18. General principles of advertising practices and consumer protection

    OpenAIRE

    Slánská, Martina

    2008-01-01

    Diploma thesis provides an overview of legal and ethical regulation of advertising, defines the basic concepts in advertising, summarizes the functions and objectives of advertising and characterized various forms of advertising by the communication media. Through the questionnaire survey detects and analyzes the general attitudes towards advertising as specific views on ethically problematic advertisements.

  19. Seeing and liking cigarette advertisements: is there a 'mere exposure' effect?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Isensee, Barbara; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to explain the association between exposure to a cigarette advertisement and favorable attitudes towards the advertisement. We used data from an observational cross-sectional study with a sample of 3,415 German schoolchildren aged 10-17 years. Cigarette advertising exposure was assessed with an image of a Marlboro ad, asking for contact frequency (number of times seen the ad) and brand name. Liking of the ad was measured with two items (alpha = 0.78). We found a positive linear association between exposure to the Marlboro ad and liking it. This association remained significant (standardized β = 0.09; p advertising receptivity (having a favorite cigarette ad), exposure to other advertisings, age, sex, socioeconomic status, rebelliousness and sensation seeking, self-reported school performance, and study region. The association between exposure to an advertisement and liking it was robust and could not be fully explained without referring to either unmeasured confounding or implicit advertising effects (e.g. mere exposure). Implicit effects have implications for prevention strategies as it may be very difficult to counteract unconscious advertising effects. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Advertising effects in Sznajd marketing model

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze, Christian

    2002-01-01

    The traditional Sznajd model, as well as its Ochrombel simplification for opinion spreading, are applied to marketing with the help of advertising. The larger the lattice is the smaller is the amount of advertising needed to convince the whole market

  1. Food advertising and eating behavior in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkvord, F.; Anschutz, D.J.; Boyland, E.J.; Kelly, B.; Buijzen, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Systematic research reviews have repeatedly shown that food advertising affects children's eating behavior. Given that most food advertising promotes unhealthy, palatable, and rewarding food products, it is considered to be a significant contributor to the current obesity epidemic. This review

  2. Advertising in the Sznajd Marketing Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Christian

    The traditional Sznajd model, as well as its Ochrombel simplification for opinion spreading, is applied to marketing with the help of advertising. The larger the lattice, the smaller the amount of advertising is needed to convince the whole market.

  3. 48 CFR 803.570 - Commercial advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial advertising. 803.570 Section 803.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL... Commercial advertising. ...

  4. Morphing advertising to improve online campaign success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Liberali (Gui)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Even though online advertising revenues have grown dramatically, click-through rates for banner advertising continue to decrease, raising hard questions regarding its effectiveness when targeting consumers. However, with the development of a new technique that

  5. Advertising, commercialism, and professionalism: a history of the ethics of advertising in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrold, L; Karkhanehchi, H

    2000-01-01

    The authors "read" the historical dental codes prohibiting advertising and the U. S. Supreme Court decision striking down prohibitions against advertising by lawyers in Arizona, and by extension, professional advertising generally. The arguments presented in defense of prohibiting professional advertising and the court's responses to each are presented in detail. The current ADA code is analyzed in this context.

  6. Advertising and Innovation: A New Course and Direction for Advertising Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, John M.

    At a time when few copywriting jobs are available for new graduates, enrollments in advertising are exploding. An advertising educator set out to change students' perceptions that in advertising only copywriting requires imagination by developing a course called "Advertising and Innovation" which was designed to force students to use…

  7. Psychoactive drug advertising: content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroianni, Patrícia C; Vaz, Amanda Cristina R; Noto, Ana Regina; Galduróz, José Carlos F

    2008-10-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the human figures portrayed in psychoactive drug advertising in terms of gender, age, ethnic group, and social context. Content analysis for 86 new pieces of printed advertisements released in 2005 was carried out. Fisher exact test was used to analyze the association between categories. There was a preponderance of women (62.8%) who were four times more present in advertisements for antidepressants and anxyolitics than men. Most of the people shown were Caucasian (98.8%) young adults (72%). These people were pictured in leisure activities (46.5%), at home (29%), or in contact with nature (16.2%). The message conveyed was that the drugs treat routinely felt subjective symptoms of discomfort, inducing in an irrational appeal that may affect drug prescription.

  8. DISSONANCE OF ADVERTISING AND REALITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Layton, Roslyn; Khajeheian, Datis

    2018-01-01

    quantitatively and qualitatively. The results are compared against demographic statistics for the country and a survey of residents in Tehran. This research finds that while women have a major presence on IRIB television programs and in advertising on non-televised media, women are strangely and significantly...... as modern, dynamic, and cosmopolitan.This research is indicative of a key question in media and feminist studies, whether advertising reflects or creates reality. While we see the salience of a number of theories, we suggest that the dissonance between the outmoded depiction of women in IRIB commercials...... versus reality is the result of long-standing advertising subsidy regime for state supported industries and firms....

  9. Advertising media strategies in the film industry

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Caroline; Simmons, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of this article is to estimate the multiple determinants of film advertising expenditures in four important media, namely television, press, outdoor and radio, in the UK. First, television advertising, the leading film advertising medium, is examined as part of a system of equations, capturing the interdependences between advertising, the number of screens on which films are initially shown and box office revenues. Then a reduced form model is put forward to reveal the determi...

  10. Advertising effectiveness: the role of content

    OpenAIRE

    Becker , Maren

    2017-01-01

    Despite its long-standing history and many strong findings, research on advertising effectiveness still ranks high on the academic and practitioner agenda. With respect to the influence of advertising on sales, existing econometric response models mostly focus on the impact of advertising spending and scheduling. Comparatively less attention has been devoted to the specific advertising content. Even though, choosing appropriate content cues that grab consumers’ attention and persuade them bec...

  11. Internet advertising effectiveness by using hierarchical model

    OpenAIRE

    RAHMANI, Samaneh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Present paper has been developed with the title of internet advertising effectiveness by using hierarchical model. Presenting the question: Today Internet is an important channel in marketing and advertising. The reason for this could be the ability of the Internet to reduce costs and people’s access to online services[1]. Also advertisers can easily access a multitude of users and communicate with them at low cost [9]. On the other hand, compared to traditional advertising, interne...

  12. Key factors of teenagers' mobile advertising acceptance

    OpenAIRE

    Martí Parreño, José; Sanz Blas, Silvia; Ruiz Mafé, Carla; Aldás Manzano, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse key drivers of teenagers’ attitude toward mobile advertising and its effects on teenagers’ mobile advertising acceptance. Design/methodology/approach – A proposed model of affective (irritation and entertainment) and cognitive (perceived usefulness) antecedents of attitude toward mobile advertising and its effects on mobile advertising acceptance is analysed. The sample consisted of 355 Spanish teenagers. The model was tested us...

  13. Advertising and the Seven Sins of Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Percy, Larry

    2004-01-01

    A positive intention may be formed as a result of exposure to an advertisement, but if a memory malfunction interferes with that intention, the advertising will be ineffective.This paper considers the implications for advertisers of Daniel Schacter’s ‘seven sins of memory’: transcience, absent......-mindedness, blocking, misattribution, suggestibility, bias and persistence. Each of the ‘sins’ is explained in detail and advice provided for advertisers on how to avoid these pitfalls....

  14. Significant Decline in Celebrity Usage in Advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schimmelpfennig, Christian; Hollensen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    Over the decades, the use of celebrities in advertising has increased. Research suggests that in western countries between 20% and 30% of all advertising used celebrities in the late 1990s. During the past 10 years, however, the use of celebrities in advertising has plunged. This paper discusses...... why advertisers are turning away from using major celebrities in their campaigns, and what alternative individuals may be used instead of the celebrities....

  15. Viral Advertising: Branding Effects from Consumers’ Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yueqing

    2012-01-01

    Viral advertising is popular for its high viral transmission results online. Its increased impacts on the social media users have been noticed by the author. At the same time, viewers’ negative attitudes toward traditional advertisements become obvious which can be regarded as the phenomenon of advertisement avoidance. It arouses author’s interests to know how the viral advertising reduces the viewers’ negative emotions and its performances in branding online. This paper is going to look into...

  16. Behind Advertising: The Language of Persuasion

    OpenAIRE

    Kenechukwu, S. A; Ezekiel S. Asemah; Leo O.N. Edegoh

    2013-01-01

    Advertising is a force that makes it possible to sell more merchandise due to its persuasive nature. As a tool of marketing communication, advertising is the structured and composed, non-personal communication of information. It is usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature. The language of persuasion is employed for successful advertising campaign thereby, boosting patronage of idea, product or service. The persuasive nature of advertising however, has generated criticisms and controv...

  17. Persuasive and Informative Advertising: A Classroom Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Beth A. Freeborn; Jason P. Hulbert

    2009-01-01

    This paper outlines a pair of classroom activities designed to provide an intuitive foundation to the theoretical introduction of advertising in monopoly markets. The roles of both informative and persuasive advertising are covered. Each student acts as a monopolist and chooses the number of (costly) advertisements and price. The experiments are intended for intermediate microeconomics or industrial organization courses, though may be utilized in any course that covers advertising models.

  18. Music, advertising and transmedia storytelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cande SÁNCHEZ-OLMOS

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquity of advertising in everyday life and the importance of music demand a critical study on how brands use music for commercial purposes. In a context of convergence and participatory culture, it is necessary to develop new strategies, codes and narratives that brands and artists are creating to connect with consumers. Music is the basis of the collective experience and, in addition, it connects intensely and emotionally with the identity of groups that are its potential target. Brands use music to generate memorable experiences for consumers who reject traditional advertising forms. In addition, music, as a product of the cultural industry, needs marketing strategies to connect with fans.

  19. Advertising, welfare economics and ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Steedman, Ian

    2011-01-01

    It is a fact of life that economic resources are used to alter other's preferences over commodities. Yet this is seldom taken into account in basic economic theory, explanatory or normative. It is shown here how a certain type of advertising is readily allowed for in the Edgeworth exchange box, in the small country foreign trade model, etc.. It is found, in welfare terms, that exchange/trade with advertising can involve some agents gaining at the expense of others; there need not be mutual ga...

  20. Men who advertise for sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumby, M E

    1978-01-01

    This content analysis of 1,111 paid ads in the Advocate identifies 17 self-descriptive categories in the "Personals" (PER) and "Models, Masseurs, and Escorts" (MME) sections of the "Trader Dick" supplement. Advertisers place primary emphases on sex and masculinity. Among MME, youthfulness, handsomeness, and sexiness are important, promoting versatility in place of specificity when mentioning sexual acts. PER advertisers, however, indicate concerns about age, race, and finding lovers. They also detail specific sexual interests and reject a variety of unacceptable behaviors.

  1. 25 CFR 162.606 - Advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertisement. 162.606 Section 162.606 Indians BUREAU OF... § 162.606 Advertisement. Except as otherwise provided in this part, prior to granting a lease or permit as authorized under § 162.601 of this subpart the Secretary shall advertise the land for lease...

  2. 25 CFR 152.26 - Advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Trust Or Restricted Lands § 152.26 Advertisement. (a) Upon approval of an application for an advertised... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertisement. 152.26 Section 152.26 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF...

  3. Strategies for Teaching Advertising: A Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flory, Joyce

    This paper offers techniques and strategies which high school and college teachers of speech communication can use for teaching units and/or courses in advertising. One such technique is role playing, which can involve the corporate chairperson, the executive coordinator, and chairpersons for magazine advertising, outdoor advertising, broadcast…

  4. Point of sale tobacco advertisements in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, S; Chaudhry, S; Chaudhry, K

    2007-01-01

    The effect of any legislation depends on its implementation. Limited studies indicate that tobacco companies may tend to use such provision for surrogate advertising. The point of sale advertisement provision has been placed in the Indian Tobacco Control legislation. The study was undertaken to assess the Indian scenario in this regard. To assess if there are any violations related to provision of point of tobacco sale advertisements under India's comprehensive tobacco Control legislation in different parts of India. Boards over various shops showing advertisements of tobacco products were observed in the cities of Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Trivandrum and Jaipur, between September 2005 and March 2006. The point of sale advertisements mushroomed after the implementation of 2004 tobacco control legislation. Tobacco advertisement boards fully satisfying the point of sale provision were practically non-existent. The most common violation of point of sale advertisements was the larger size of the board but with tobacco advertisement equal to the size indicated in the legislation and remaining area often showing a picture. Invariably two boards were placed together to provide the impression of a large single repetitive advertisement. More than two boards was not common. Tobacco advertisement boards were also observed on closed shops/ warehouses, shops not selling tobacco products and on several adjacent shops. The purpose of the point of sale advertisements seems to be surrogate advertisement of tobacco products, mainly cigarettes.

  5. Advertising, Intended vs. Unintended Effects of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.A.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Arnett, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of television advertising on children and adolescents can be divided into two general types: intended and unintended. Intended effects are the effects that advertisers wish to achieve with their advertisements, and unintended effects include the often-undesired side effects of

  6. Corporate Web Sites in Traditional Print Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardun, Carol J.; Lamb, Larry

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Web presence in print advertisements to determine how marketers are creating bridges between traditional advertising and the Internet. Content analysis showed Web addresses in print ads; categories of advertisers most likely to link print ads with Web sites; and whether the Web site attempts to develop a database of potential…

  7. Perceptions of Advertising Influence on Broadcast News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Hubert W.; Barnes, Beth E.

    2001-01-01

    Finds that while students (studying broadcast journalism or advertising) and practitioners (station news directors and agency media directors) were in agreement on the majority of opinion statements discussing advertising's influence on broadcast news content, except students were less bothered by advertising's influence on news content than were…

  8. Corporate Advocacy Advertising and Political Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltzer, Herbert

    1988-01-01

    Offers an operational definition and typology of advocacy and image advertising as complementary forms of institutional advertising. Examines two of the more important forms of advocacy advertising--paid print editorials appearing on the "op-ed" page of the "New York Times" and the "advertorials" in two principal…

  9. How Advertising History Helps Explain Current Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfranco, Leonard W.

    Students majoring in advertising can benefit from a study of that field in its historical context because such study helps them to understand current practices and to foresee future developments. One model of teaching advertising history within a required course about advertising and society begins with some basic definitions of the advertising…

  10. Use of Endorsers in Magazine Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Patricia A.; Moon, Young Sook

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes full-page advertisements in four national magazines for the years 1980 to 1986. Finds (1) endorsements occurred in about half of the advertisements; (2) endorsers most used were celebrities; (3) advertisements with endorsers contain less information; and (4) celebrities most often endorsed personal care or apparel products. (RS)

  11. Children's understanding of advertisers' persuasive tactics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendaal, E.; Buijzen, M.; Valkenburg, P.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate children’s understanding of six popular tactics used by advertisers to elicit certain advertising effects, including ad repetition, product demonstration, peer popularity appeal, humour, celebrity endorsement and premiums. We first asked 34 advertisers of

  12. Web Usage, Advertising, and Shopping: Relationship Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korgaonkar, Pradeep; Wolin, Lori D.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses Web sales and explores the differences between heavy, medium, and light Web users in terms of their beliefs about Web advertising, attitudes toward Web advertising, purchasing patterns, and demographics. Suggests marketers need to target Web advertising to particular Web users. (Author/LRW)

  13. 27 CFR 6.52 - Cooperative advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooperative advertising. 6..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Paying for Advertising, Display Or Distribution Service § 6.52 Cooperative advertising. An arrangement in which an industry member participates...

  14. 20 CFR 655.152 - Advertising requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising requirements. 655.152 Section 655... Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) Post-Acceptance Requirements § 655.152 Advertising requirements. All advertising conducted to satisfy the required recruitment activities under § 655.151 must...

  15. 12 CFR 626.6020 - Nondiscriminatory advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nondiscriminatory advertising. 626.6020 Section... § 626.6020 Nondiscriminatory advertising. (a) A Farm Credit institution that directly or through third parties engages in any form of advertising shall not use words, phrases, symbols, directions, forms, or...

  16. 14 CFR 141.23 - Advertising limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising limitations. 141.23 Section 141...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS General § 141.23 Advertising limitations. (a) The... certificate may not advertise that the school is certificated unless it clearly differentiates between courses...

  17. 16 CFR 307.10 - Cooperative advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative advertising. 307.10 Section 307... REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMPREHENSIVE SMOKELESS TOBACCO HEALTH EDUCATION ACT OF 1986 Advertising Disclosures § 307.10 Cooperative advertising. The Act prohibits any manufacturer, packager, or importer of smokeless...

  18. 14 CFR 142.31 - Advertising limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising limitations. 142.31 Section 142...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES TRAINING CENTERS General § 142.31 Advertising limitations. (a) A certificate holder may not conduct, and may not advertise to conduct, any training, testing, and checking that...

  19. 12 CFR 528.4 - Nondiscriminatory advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nondiscriminatory advertising. 528.4 Section... REQUIREMENTS § 528.4 Nondiscriminatory advertising. No savings association may directly or indirectly engage in any form of advertising that implies or suggests a policy of discrimination or exclusion in violation...

  20. Customer Directed Advertising and Product Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Esteban; J.M. Hernandez; J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe consider a market where a single seller must employ informative advertising to launch a new product of observable quality. The monopolist may use mass, targeted or customer directed advertising. We show that the choice of advertising strategy depends on the economic properties of the

  1. 41 CFR 101-4.540 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Advertising. 101-4.540... Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 101-4.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification, or...

  2. 45 CFR 86.59 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising. 86.59 Section 86.59 Public Welfare... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.59 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification, or...

  3. 36 CFR 1211.540 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising. 1211.540 Section 1211.540 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation...

  4. 38 CFR 23.540 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising. 23.540 Section 23.540 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation...

  5. 47 CFR 32.6613 - Product advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Product advertising. 32.6613 Section 32.6613... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6613 Product advertising. This... the purchase of products and services. This excludes nonproduct-related advertising, such as corporate...

  6. 28 CFR 54.540 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising. 54.540 Section 54.540... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification, or...

  7. 38 CFR 21.4507 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising. 21.4507...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Education Loans § 21.4507 Advertising. (a) General. No educational institution or training establishment shall include a statement in advertisements or brochures intended to...

  8. 31 CFR 28.540 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising. 28.540 Section 28.540... Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 28.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification...

  9. 29 CFR 36.540 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Advertising. 36.540 Section 36.540 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING... Activities Prohibited § 36.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment...

  10. 36 CFR 223.63 - Advertised rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertised rates. 223.63... DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.63 Advertised rates. Timber shall be advertised for sale at its appraised value. The road construction cost used to...

  11. 49 CFR 25.540 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising. 25.540 Section 25.540 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 25.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising...

  12. 44 CFR 19.540 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising. 19.540 Section 19.540 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Programs or Activities Prohibited § 19.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to...

  13. 40 CFR 5.540 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising. 5.540 Section 5.540... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification, or...

  14. 36 CFR 331.20 - Advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertisement. 331.20 Section..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.20 Advertisement. Unless otherwise authorized in writing by the District Engineer, advertising by the use of billboards, signs, markers, audio devices, or any other means...

  15. 32 CFR 196.540 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising. 196.540 Section 196.540 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation...

  16. Runaway Slave Advertisements: Teaching from Primary Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Tom; Doyle, Brooke

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss how children can learn from runaway slave advertisements. The advertisements for runaway slaves that masters placed in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century newspapers are among the documentary sources available to teachers for studying the lives of African-American slaves. Such advertisements often describe a…

  17. Adolescent exposure to food advertising on television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M; Szczypka, Glen; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2007-10-01

    Television viewing is hypothesized to contribute to obesity among children and adolescents through several mechanisms that include the displacement of physical activity, snacking while watching TV, and the influence of food advertising. This study drew on television ratings to examine the distribution of food advertising exposure among adolescents aged 12 through 17 based on 170 top-rated shows across network, cable and syndicated TV stations over the 9-month period from September 2003 to May 2004. A total of 238,353 30-second equivalent advertisements on the top-rated shows were assessed. Each advertisement was weighted by its rating to measure actual exposure to advertisements. The results showed that among total nonprogram content time, food-related products accounted for roughly one fifth of advertising exposure. Excluding TV promotions and public service announcements, as a proportion of all product advertising, total food-related advertising made up 26% of advertised products viewed by adolescents. By race, the proportion of advertising exposure to food products was 14% greater for African-American versus white adolescents and total exposure to food advertising would be even larger for African-American teens given that, on average, they watched more TV. Fast food was the most frequently viewed food product category comprising 23% of all food-related advertisements among adolescents. Food ads made up just over one quarter of TV ads viewed by adolescents with the most commonly viewed products of fast food, sweets, and beverage products well within the reach of their own purchasing power.

  18. ADVERTISING PRACTICE IN NIGERIA: DEVELOPMENT, NEW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    imitch

    controlled persuasive communication, paid for by identified sponsor(s), about products, services or ideas and disseminated through the mass media to a target group”. The Advertising Practitioners Council of Nigeria. (APCON) in their The Nigerian Code of Advertising Practice defines advertising as “a form of communication.

  19. Advertisement Analysis: A Comparative Critical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaal, Noureldin Mohamed; Sase, Amal Saleh

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at analyzing two advertisements, and investigating how advertisers use discourse and semiotics to make people and customers buy into their ideas, beliefs, or simply their products. The two advertisements analyzed are beauty products which have been selected from internet magazines. The methodology adopted in this study is…

  20. Morphing advertising to improve online campaign success

    OpenAIRE

    Liberali, Gui

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Even though online advertising revenues have grown dramatically, click-through rates for banner advertising continue to decrease, raising hard questions regarding its effectiveness when targeting consumers. However, with the development of a new technique that matches banners to the cognitive style of viewers, the world of online advertising is about to change.

  1. 15 CFR 8a.540 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 8a.540 Section 8a.540... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 8a.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification, or...

  2. 12 CFR 226.24 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 226.24 Section 226.24 Banks and... LENDING (REGULATION Z) Closed-End Credit § 226.24 Advertising. (a) Actually available terms. If an... than one simple annual rate of interest will apply over the term of the advertised loan, the...

  3. 6 CFR 17.540 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 17.540 Section 17.540 Domestic... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 17.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification, or...

  4. 14 CFR 399.84 - Price advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Price advertising. 399.84 Section 399.84... STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Enforcement § 399.84 Price advertising. The Board considers any advertising or solicitation by a direct air carrier, indirect air carrier, or an...

  5. 34 CFR 106.59 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising. 106.59 Section 106.59 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation...

  6. 43 CFR 41.540 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising. 41.540 Section 41.540 Public... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 41.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification, or...

  7. 14 CFR 147.45 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 147.45 Section 147.45... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES AVIATION MAINTENANCE TECHNICIAN SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 147.45 Advertising... aviation maintenance technician school indicates in advertising that it is a certificated school, it shall...

  8. 45 CFR 618.540 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising. 618.540 Section 618.540 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation...

  9. 7 CFR 15a.59 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 15a.59 Section 15a.59 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM... Activities Prohibited § 15a.59 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment...

  10. 12 CFR 563.27 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 563.27 Section 563.27 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-OPERATIONS Operation and Structure § 563.27 Advertising. No savings association shall use advertising (which includes print...

  11. 13 CFR 113.540 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 113.540 Section 113.540 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FINANCIAL... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation...

  12. 10 CFR 5.540 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 5.540 Section 5.540 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL... Prohibited § 5.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate...

  13. 18 CFR 1317.540 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising. 1317.540 Section 1317.540 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation...

  14. 7 CFR 1955.146 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Advertising. 1955.146 Section 1955.146 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of Inventory Property General § 1955.146 Advertising. (a... real estate brokers, it is the servicing official's responsibility to ensure adequate advertising of...

  15. 22 CFR 229.540 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising. 229.540 Section 229.540 Foreign... in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification, or discrimination based on...

  16. 24 CFR 3.540 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising. 3.540 Section 3.540 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation...

  17. 45 CFR 2555.540 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising. 2555.540 Section 2555.540 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation...

  18. 12 CFR 226.16 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 226.16 Section 226.16 Banks and... LENDING (REGULATION Z) Open-End Credit § 226.16 Advertising. (a) Actually available terms. If an... accordance with § 226.5a do not constitute advertising terms for purposes of the requirements of this section...

  19. 22 CFR 146.540 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising. 146.540 Section 146.540 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising...

  20. 14 CFR 381.7 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 381.7 Section 381.7... REGULATIONS SPECIAL EVENT TOURS § 381.7 Advertising. No operator of a Special Event Tour or agent of such an operator shall conduct, or cause or allow to be conducted, any advertising, solicitation or other promotion...

  1. 10 CFR 1042.540 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 1042.540 Section 1042.540 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1042.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising...

  2. 14 CFR 1253.540 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 1253.540 Section 1253.540... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1253.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification, or...

  3. Persuasive and Informative Advertising: A Classroom Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeborn, Beth A.; Hulbert, Jason P.

    2011-01-01

    The authors outline a pair of classroom activities designed to provide an intuitive foundation to the theoretical introduction of advertising in monopoly markets. The roles of both informative and persuasive advertising are covered. Each student acts as a monopolist and chooses the number of (costly) advertisements and the price. The experiments…

  4. Advertising: A Research Subject for Persuasive Writers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malachowski, Ann Marie

    1984-01-01

    Describes using the parallels between developing the persuasive essay and an advertisement to help advertising students become aware of the importance of voice, point of view, and audience. Students complete a written essay modeled after the language and techniques employed by advertisers. (HTH)

  5. Taking Advertising Literacy to a Higher Level: An Exploratory Multilevel Analysis of Children's Advertising Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    De Pauw, Pieter; Cauberghe, Veroline; Hudders, Liselot

    2017-01-01

    As few studies focus on how children’s coping with advertising is affected by their environment, the present study uses multilevel analysis to explore the role of both primary (i.e. parents) and secondary socializing agents (i.e. classmates, teachers) in children’s advertising literacy. The results show that children’s cognitive advertising literacy and attitudes toward advertising are to a large extent determined by class-level processes. Their moral advertising literacy is a more individual...

  6. The Effect of Sexual Appeal Advertising to Advertising Effectiveness in Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Muslim, Abdul Wahid

    2014-01-01

    Advertising is very crucial in marketing. They are literally everywhere in the newspapers, magazines, on TV, on billboards, in the cinema or while surfing the Internet. In marketing campaigns, many techniques and approaches to attract customers. One of those approaches is sexual appeal. Sexy advertising can attract attention, increase retention and improve advertising consumer attitudes toward advertising. Sexual appeals in the media as an advertising strategy to inform a product with the int...

  7. Printed advertisement and web advertisement : a comparative study on design characteristics of both media

    OpenAIRE

    Çuhadar, Gökçe

    2005-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. This thesis compares two forms of media advertising; printed advertising and advertising designed for the web, and covers the elements of design, the principles of design, and the experimental design aspects of the two mediums by means of the question “Do the principles of printed advertising design apply to web advertising?” Çuhadar, Gökçe M.S.

  8. Regulating Alcohol Advertising: Content Analysis of the Adequacy of Federal and Self-Regulation of Magazine Advertisements, 2008–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukier, Samantha; Jernigan, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed beer, spirits, and alcopop magazine advertisements to determine adherence to federal and voluntary advertising standards. We assessed the efficacy of these standards in curtailing potentially damaging content and protecting public health. Methods. We obtained data from a content analysis of a census of 1795 unique advertising creatives for beer, spirits, and alcopops placed in nationally available magazines between 2008 and 2010. We coded creatives for manifest content and adherence to federal regulations and industry codes. Results. Advertisements largely adhered to existing regulations and codes. We assessed only 23 ads as noncompliant with federal regulations and 38 with industry codes. Content consistent with the codes was, however, often culturally positive in terms of aspirational depictions. In addition, creatives included degrading and sexualized images, promoted risky behavior, and made health claims associated with low-calorie content. Conclusions. Existing codes and regulations are largely followed regarding content but do not adequately protect against content that promotes unhealthy and irresponsible consumption and degrades potentially vulnerable populations in its depictions. Our findings suggest further limitations and enhanced federal oversight may be necessary to protect public health. PMID:24228667

  9. Regulating alcohol advertising: content analysis of the adequacy of federal and self-regulation of magazine advertisements, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine C; Cukier, Samantha; Jernigan, David H

    2014-10-01

    We analyzed beer, spirits, and alcopop magazine advertisements to determine adherence to federal and voluntary advertising standards. We assessed the efficacy of these standards in curtailing potentially damaging content and protecting public health. We obtained data from a content analysis of a census of 1795 unique advertising creatives for beer, spirits, and alcopops placed in nationally available magazines between 2008 and 2010. We coded creatives for manifest content and adherence to federal regulations and industry codes. Advertisements largely adhered to existing regulations and codes. We assessed only 23 ads as noncompliant with federal regulations and 38 with industry codes. Content consistent with the codes was, however, often culturally positive in terms of aspirational depictions. In addition, creatives included degrading and sexualized images, promoted risky behavior, and made health claims associated with low-calorie content. Existing codes and regulations are largely followed regarding content but do not adequately protect against content that promotes unhealthy and irresponsible consumption and degrades potentially vulnerable populations in its depictions. Our findings suggest further limitations and enhanced federal oversight may be necessary to protect public health.

  10. [Drug advertising as communication between the pharmaceutical industry and the physician: advertisements for psychotropic drugs in the Dutch medical journal, Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, 1900-1940].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoogte, Arjo Roersch; Pieters, Toine

    2010-01-01

    In this article we explore the historical development of drug advertisements for psychotropic drugs in the leading Dutch medical journal from 1900 to 1940. The advertisements for hypnotics and sedatives, in The Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde (Dutch medical journal) reflected the changes in the vocabulary and image promoted by the pharmaceutical companies. In the first two decades, the advertisements were sober and to the point, and included the trademark, company name, molecular formula and therapeutic properties of the medication. The emphasis was on creating a scientific image of reliable symptom control for the therapeutic drug. In doing so, the ethical drug companies tried (successfully) to distinguish themselves from the producers of patent medicines. Once scientific credibility was established, the form and content of the advertisements changed significantly. In the late 1920s and 1930s drug companies embraced modern advertising techniques, developing a figurative language to address the changing beliefs and practices of Dutch physicians. Instead of promoting therapeutic drugs as safe and scientific, the emphasis was on their effectiveness in comparison to similar drugs. In the process, scientific information was reduced to an indispensable standardized minimum, whereby therapeutic drugs were advertised according to the latest pharmacological taxonomy rather than molecular formulas. The image-making of 'ethical marketing' began during the interwar years when marketers applied modern advertising techniques and infotainment strategies. The scanty black and white informational bulletins transitioned into colourful advertisements. The pharmaceutical companies employed the same medical language as used by physicians, so that one word or image in an advertisement would suffice for the physician to recognize a drug and its therapeutic properties. These developments show the changing relationship between the modern ethical pharmaceutical industry and Dutch

  11. Is this the end of the conventional advertising in TV broadcasting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LANGE, Talvani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this essay we explore some basic historical and economic aspects related to the TV advertising industry. Our main goal is to focus on old and new commercial formats that were created with the TV popularization in western societies in general. In this context we approach the promotional tool of product placement as a controversial marketing strategy, mainly if codes of advertising standards are considered to be followed by professionals in this field. Ethical directions to conceive advertising can be rethought after analysing promotional practices in broadcasting. Bibliographical research and discourse analysis, concerning these technological changes, were used as part of the methodology.

  12. Should advertisers use skinny models?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H.R.V. Smeesters (Dirk); T. Mussweiler (Thomas); N. Mandel (Naomi)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe size of the models you show in advertising affects how consumers feel about themselves and your products. A woman’s body image is an important source of her self-esteem, yet approximately 50% of girls and young women report being dissatisfied with their bodies.

  13. Adjective Identification in Television Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Rahim, Normaliza

    2013-01-01

    Learning the Malay language has been a challenging task for foreign language learners. Learners have to learn Malay grammar structure rules in order to write simple sentences. The word choice is important in constructing a sentence. Therefore, the study focuses on the use of adjectives in television advertisements among Korean learners at Hankuk…

  14. Advertising and Sales Promotion Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document contains teacher materials for a 4-unit, 1-year marketing education course in advertising and sales promotion offered in grades 11 and 12 in North Carolina. The preface contains a rationale for the development of the course, a course description, course objectives, a list of the instructional units of the course, and a list of the…

  15. Global Imagery in Online Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Geraldine E.; Janson, Marius

    2007-01-01

    A well-designed online advertisement is essential for effective communication with potential customers and contributes to successful e-commerce. However, creating online sales messages that appeal to a broad range of cultures can pose unique challenges. Internet ads must offer both a globally appealing and a culture-specific message that in turn…

  16. Bicultural Advertising and Hispanic Acculturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wan-Hsiu Sunny; Li, Cong

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the moderating effects of acculturation modes (assimilated, integrated, and separated) on Hispanic consumers' responses to three advertising targeting strategies (Caucasian targeted, bicultural, and Hispanic targeted). The hypotheses were empirically tested in a 3 x 3 factorial experiment with 155 self-identified Hispanic adult…

  17. Mood, media experiences and advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronner, F.; van Velthoven, S.; Costa Pereira, F.; Veríssimo, J.; Neijens, P.C.

    2008-01-01

    Studying moods and the effects that a mood has is an important topic in research into advertising. But nearly all data on mood effects are gathered in a forced exposure and lab context. In a real-life study we relate in this contribution mood to moments of media consumption. So we analyze at the

  18. [Misleading advertisement of Adalat Oros

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheugt, F.W.A.

    2001-01-01

    Referring to the INSIGHT trial published in The Lancet, Bayer Netherlands states in an advertisement in Dutch medical journals that nifedipine reduces cardiovascular events by 50% in patients with hypertension and at least one additional risk factor. However, the agent studied in the INSIGHT trial

  19. Advertising media selection and planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moorman, M.; Neijens, P.C.; Smit, E.G.; Belch, M.A.; Belch, G.E.

    2010-01-01

    Reach, frequency, and timing are key concepts in selecting TV, radio, newspapers, magazines, out-of-home, direct mail, Internet, and other media for advertising campaigns. We discuss these concepts and their role in media selection and media planning processes. We also describe media and audience

  20. Campaign Advertising and Voter Welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prat, A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of campaign advertising and the opportunity of legal restrictions on it. An electoral race is modeled as a signalling game with three classes of players: a continuum of voters, two candidates, and one interest group. The group has non-verifiable insider information

  1. Consumer views on DTCA advertising.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, L. van; Vervloet, M.; Friele, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In most Western countries, except for New Zealand and the USA, direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs is prohibited. Currently, at European level, there is an ongoing discussion whether or not to allow pharmaceutical companies to inform consumers about prescription drugs.

  2. Social and ethical aspects of advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasulja Nevena

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though advertising has great power, there are often to be heard the critics on methods and techniques used, and on the way it influences social values, consumer life style, their preferences and behavior. Critics often claim that advertising is false and misleading, very offensive and even irritating. Exploitation of some target groups is mentioned, where biggest critics are on advertising on for children. Many believe that advertising has to be only informal. Audience has to be free of persuasion, subjective and overwhelmed claims, offensive suggestions and advertisements which manipulate consumers in order to force them buy certain product.

  3. Advertisement Analysis: A Comparative Critical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureldin Mohamed Abdelaal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at analyzing two advertisements, and investigating how advertisers use discourse and semiotics to make people and customers buy into their ideas, beliefs, or simply their products. The two advertisements analyzed are beauty products which have been selected from internet magazines. The methodology adopted in this study is qualitative method. The first advertisement is analyzed qualitatively in terms of content; there was no focus on a specific theoretical frame work, while the second advertisement analysis is based on Fairclough’s framework, the critical discourse analysis framework.

  4. Impact of Celebrity Credibility on Advertising Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Aziz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Advertisers often make use of endorsers or representatives as trustworthy sources of persuasion for consumers' attitudes. Promotion of products through celebrities is a trendy advertising practice around the world. The present study judged the impact of celebrity credibility on advertising effectiveness in terms of consumer’s attitude towards the advertisement, attitude towards the brand and their purchase intention. This study also explored the differences of respondent’s responses towards the advertisements of brand through famous celebrities as well as unknown celebrities. Different TV advertisements were used for the experiment. Several statistical tools were applied to test the hypotheses and identify significant differences & the proposed relationships among the variables. Overall findings suggests that the respondents considered the famous celebrities of the brand as the most credible celebrities, having positive impact on consumers attitude towards the advertisement, attitude to the brand and their favorable purchase intentions as compare to the unknown celebrity with less credibility.

  5. Informing consumers: Protection from deceptive advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that only informed consumers are protected from potential violation of their consumer rights. Advertising represents one of the main ways of informing consumers, so it is of crutial importance for it to include adequate information that can facilitate decision making proces regarding the purchase. With aim of preventing violation of basic consumer rights, advertising is regulated by legislation, both on EU level and on national level in Republic of Serbia, and while so special attention is dedicated to defining advertising that can possibly lead to deception of consumers. Authors of this paper are focused on analysing legislation and theoretical explanations of deceptive advertising. Results of the research regarding advertising in Serbia and ability of consumers to protect themselves from deceptive advertising are presented. The main aim of the authors is to contribute to increasing level of consumers' self-protection through increasing level of their counciousness on deceptive advertising and its concequences.

  6. Pleasantness, activation, and sex differences in advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whissell, C; McCall, L

    1997-10-01

    Advertisements in men's, women's, girls', and boys' magazines (n = 38,195 words) were scored objectively in terms of 15 measures of linguistic style, e.g., use of common words, use of long words, use of specific words and emotional tone (pleasantness and activation, as measured by the Dictionary of Affect). There were several sex- and age-related differences among advertisements from different sources. Advertisements from boys' magazines were extremely active, those from women's and girls' magazines were shorter and unusually pleasant. In two follow-up studies (N = 122 volunteers), objective emotional measures of advertising text proved to be related to ratings of persuasion and of success of appeal for individual advertisements. The most preferred advertisement for women was pleasant and active, that for men unpleasant and active. When men and women created advertisements, women's were shorter and more pleasant.

  7. Point-of-sale tobacco advertising in Beirut, Lebanon following a national advertising ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Nakkash, Rima T; Myers, Allison E; Wood, Kathryn A; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2013-06-03

    The objective of this study was to conduct an audit of point-of-sale (POS) tobacco advertising and assess compliance with an advertising ban in a large district of Beirut, Lebanon. The audit was conducted 3 months following the ban on tobacco advertising. Trained students observed all tobacco retail outlets (n = 100) and entered data into a web-based form using iPad(®) technology. Presence of tobacco advertisements was assessed to determine compliance with the national advertising ban. Among the 100 tobacco retail outlets, 62% had tobacco advertisements, including 7% with a tobacco brand logo as part of the main exterior store sign. POS tobacco advertising is widespread in Beirut despite the national advertising ban. These findings point to an urgent need for the enforcement of the advertisement ban with tobacco retail outlets in Lebanon.

  8. Preparing for a digital future - Advertising to Finnish Millennials

    OpenAIRE

    Miiluvaara, Mirella

    2016-01-01

    This thesis explores the topic of online advertising. The main focus of the thesis is to find out how advertisers can reach Millennials through online advertising. The researcher explores which online channels Millennials prefer among other things. Therefore, the purpose of the thesis is to find out which advertising channels and formats advertisers should use in order to reach this generation and prepare for future trends. In other words, finding out which advertising methods advertisers sho...

  9. Non-comparative and comparative advertising in oligopolistic markets

    OpenAIRE

    Alipranti, Maria; Mitrokostas, Evangelos; Petrakis, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    We study firms' advertising strategies in an oligopolistic market in which both non-comparative and comparative advertising are present. We show that in equilibrium firms mix over the two types of advertising, with the intensity of comparative advertising exceeding that of non-comparative advertising; moreover, that the intensity of comparative increases relatively to non-comparative advertising as market competition intensifies. Interestingly, the use of comparative advertising may lead to h...

  10. Effects of video-feedback on the communication, clinical competence and motivational interviewing skills of practice nurses: a pre-test posttest control group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordman, Janneke; van der Weijden, Trudy; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2014-10-01

    To examine the effects of individual video-feedback on the generic communication skills, clinical competence (i.e. adherence to practice guidelines) and motivational interviewing skills of experienced practice nurses working in primary care. Continuing professional education may be necessary to refresh and reflect on the communication and motivational interviewing skills of experienced primary care practice nurses. A video-feedback method was designed to improve these skills. Pre-test/posttest control group design. Seventeen Dutch practice nurses and 325 patients participated between June 2010-June 2011. Nurse-patient consultations were videotaped at two moments (T0 and T1), with an interval of 3-6 months. The videotaped consultations were rated using two protocols: the Maastrichtse Anamnese en Advies Scorelijst met globale items (MAAS-global) and the Behaviour Change Counselling Index. Before the recordings, nurses were allocated to a control or video-feedback group. Nurses allocated to the video-feedback group received video-feedback between T0 and T1. Data were analysed using multilevel linear or logistic regression. Nurses who received video-feedback appeared to pay significantly more attention to patients' request for help, their physical examination and gave significantly more understandable information. With respect to motivational interviewing, nurses who received video-feedback appeared to pay more attention to 'agenda setting and permission seeking' during their consultations. Video-feedback is a potentially effective method to improve practice nurses' generic communication skills. Although a single video-feedback session does not seem sufficient to increase all motivational interviewing skills, significant improvement in some specific skills was found. Nurses' clinical competences were not altered after feedback due to already high standards. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Bentonite buffer pre-test. Core drilling of drillholes ONK-PP264...267 in ONKALO at Olkiluoto 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropainen, V.

    2010-12-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled four drillholes for bentonite buffer pre-test in ONKALO at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto in July 2010. The identification numbers of the holes are ONK-PP264..267, and the lengths of the drillholes are approximately 4.30 metres each. The drillholes are 75.7 mm by diameter. The drillholes were drilled in a niche at access tunnel chainage 1475. The hydraulic DE 130 drilling rig was used for the work. The drilling water was taken from the ONKALO drilling water pipeline and premixed sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. In addition to drilling, the drillcores were logged and reported by geologist. Geological logging included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracture parameters, fractured zones, core loss, weathering, fracture frequency, RQD and rock quality. The main rock type in the drillholes is pegmatitic granite. The average fracture frequency in the drill cores is 4.0 pcs / m and the average RQD value 94.2 %. (orig.)

  12. Masters in nursing degrees: an evaluation of management and leadership outcomes using a retrospective pre-test design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennan, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to measure the leadership and management abilities of graduates who had completed a master's degree in nursing. A number of reports have recommended that leadership competencies be integrated into education programmes for nurses at a master's level. In spite of the growth in the number of graduates from higher degrees in nursing, there is a paucity of evidence on the management and leadership outcomes that develop as a result of undertaking a master's degree. A cross-sectional survey using a retrospective pre-test design was used to measure self-reported leadership and management outcomes from the graduates' educational programmes. Results found that graduates had gained significantly on their ability to change practice, communicate and work as part of a team and to problem solve as an outcome of completing a master's degree in nursing. Graduates make substantial gains in leadership and management capabilities as a consequence of their higher degree. These capabilities are necessary as nurses take the lead in many areas of healthcare. The masters in nursing degree now has a pivotal role in providing effective continuing education to the nursing profession; especially for those who occupy or intend to occupy senior positions within clinical, management or education branches of the profession. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Scene Integration for Online VR Advertising Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kalochristianakis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a scene composition approach that allows the combinational use of standard three dimensional objects, called models, in order to create X3D scenes. The module is an integral part of a broader design aiming to construct large scale online advertising infrastructures that rely on virtual reality technologies. The architecture addresses a number of problems regarding remote rendering for low end devices and last but not least, the provision of scene composition and integration. Since viewers do not keep information regarding individual input models or scenes, composition requires the consideration of mechanisms that add state to viewing technologies. In terms of this work we extended a well-known, open source X3D authoring tool.

  14. 27 CFR 4.20 - Application of standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Identity for Wine § 4.20 Application of standards. The standards of identity for the several classes and types of wine set forth herein...

  15. Significance of Demographic Variables for Targeting of Internet Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Stříteský

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Broad ad targeting options belong among the major advantages of internet advertising. Demographic targeting has become a standard option in most of on-line advertising systems. There are more ways how to target on-line advertisements by using demographic variables. In some cases, e.g., social media, we can use data from user registrations. Modern technologies enable to estimate the demographic profile of internet users using on behavioural data. The traditional approach to the demographic targeting of advertisements based on affinity targeting assumes the existence of internet servers with sufficient homogeneity of visits. The aim of this article is to identify the differences in the internet content consumption habits of Czech internet users based on gender and age. The analysis is based on the data from the extensive research which was carried out by the Netmonitor project, and which was provided for the purposes of this study by the Association for Internet Development (SPIR. The research results show that the traditional affinity-based method of targeting according to gender and age is still suitable on the Czech internet. On the other hand, in some cases, the traditional approach of ad targeting based on affinity leads to wasted ad impressions that miss defined target group.

  16. Health and nutrition content claims on websites advertising infant formula available in Australia: A content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Nina J; Gribble, Karleen D

    2017-10-01

    The use of health and nutrition content claims in infant formula advertising is restricted by many governments in response to WHO policies and WHA resolutions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether such prohibited claims could be observed in Australian websites that advertise infant formula products. A comprehensive internet search was conducted to identify websites that advertise infant formula available for purchase in Australia. Content analysis was used to identify prohibited claims. The coding frame was closely aligned with the provisions of the Australian and New Zealand Food Standard Code, which prohibits these claims. The outcome measures were the presence of health claims, nutrition content claims, or references to the nutritional content of human milk. Web pages advertising 25 unique infant formula products available for purchase in Australia were identified. Every advertisement (100%) contained at least one health claim. Eighteen (72%) also contained at least one nutrition content claim. Three web pages (12%) advertising brands associated with infant formula products referenced the nutritional content of human milk. All of these claims appear in spite of national regulations prohibiting them indicating a failure of monitoring and/or enforcement. Where countries have enacted instruments to prohibit health and other claims in infant formula advertising, the marketing of infant formula must be actively monitored to be effective. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Students as subjects in food advertising studies. An appraisal of appropriateness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hojoon; Reid, Leonard N

    2014-10-01

    Considerable knowledge on food advertising has been generated by research on consumers' psychological reactions to food advertising messaging using either students or nonstudents as subjects. Building on past research, this article investigates the methodological question of whether students are appropriate surrogates for nonstudents in food advertising studies. Following exposure to print advertisements featuring healthy and unhealthy foods with two different nutrient attribute-based message appeals, student and nonstudent subjects were asked to complete five standard evaluative response measures to the food ads: claim believability, attitude-toward-the ad, attitude-toward-the-product, attitude-toward-the-brand, and purchase intention. Among the findings, students were found to react differently and more negatively to identical food advertisements than nonstudents. Overall, the message sent to health communication researchers, policy officials, and practicing professionals is - unless certain criteria are satisfied - students should be considered inadequate subjects to represent all age groups of the general population in food advertising research. Thus, conclusions drawn from student-based research about advertising processing and effects should be questioned and broad generalizations avoided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Advertising of toothpaste in parenting magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Hammond, Rodney; Guinta, Alexis; Rajan, Sonali; Basch, Charles E

    2013-10-01

    We assessed advertisements for children's toothpaste in two widely read US parenting magazines. Data on the number and type of toothpaste advertisements in two parenting magazines were collected from 116 magazine issues between 2007 and 2011. The number of children's toothpaste advertisements per year and across magazines was computed. The amount of toothpaste presented in each advertisement was categorized. We noted whether the toothpaste advertisement stated that the toothpaste was fluoridated. We identified a total of 117 children's toothpaste advertisements in these magazines and confirmed that the majority of the magazine issues contained at least one toothpaste advertisement. Of the 31 advertisements that depicted a picture of a toothbrush with toothpaste, all but one (96.8 %) depicted a full swirl of toothpaste covering the entire toothbrush head, which is well over the recommended amount. The pictures on the advertisements show an excessive amount of toothpaste on the brush, which directly conflicts with the instructions on many toothpastes and dentist recommendations. Those advertisements with photographs that depict a toothbrush with a full brush head of toothpaste are showing over four times the recommended amount for children.

  19. Television Advertisements: A Reception Study from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen Ebren

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on an analysis of advertising reception and explores how audiences interpret advertisements. The study attempted to answer how female and male participants interpret advertisements with symbolic expressions and advertisements with direct messages. The main purpose is to define differences in interpretation of advertisements based on gender. In this process, a two-stage approach is employed in order to examine the audience reception in the context of television advertising. In this study, we first identified the characteristic features of the advertisements, later we intended to explore the reception of advertisements. The first stage of the study evaluated the contribution of 21 participants in Antalya, Turkey determined by snowball sample with male and female participants within the age range 21-55 years. The participants articulated written reactions to two advertisements instantly displayed on computer screen. Participants were subject to viewing those advertisements and responding ready-made questions on paper. In the second stage, considering Höijer (1990’s study, a focus group discussion was conducted in order to reveal more detailed information as a second stage of the research. This group consisted of 10 participants of the first stage. A semi-structured focus group discussion was employed for our study which allowed group interaction. Our findings revealed a difference in interpretation based on the gender of the participant. This reception study is one of the few researches done in the field in Turkey. It is also expected to make a contribution to gender studies

  20. Pharmaceutical advertising as a consumer empowerment device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, P H

    2001-01-01

    Pharmaceutical companies have greatly increased their level of "direct-to-consumer" (DTC) advertising in recent years. For 1998, estimates are that over $1.1 billion was spent on this form of advertising, increased from $850 million in 1997 and $600 million in 1996. In 1998, 84 separate drugs were advertised to consumers. The impetus was a decision in August of 1997 by the Food and Drug Administration to reduce the restrictions on DTC advertising on television. As a result, such ads have become very common on TV, and 32 products were advertised on TV in 1998. Pharmaceutical companies advertise because they think that advertising will make money for them. But how will this make money? It will make money by providing consumers with the information they need to make proper decisions about medication. That is, DTC advertising is profitable exactly because it empowers consumers and enables them to purchase useful drugs. The goals of advertising companies and consumers are both for consumers to have information about the most beneficial drug for particular conditions, and so advertising is beneficial both to manufacturers and to consumers. This article describes emerging trends in DTC within the context of the life sciences sector.

  1. Using contextual advertising in Internet marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тетяна Олександрівна Левицька

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the substantiation of the use of contextual advertising in Internet marketing as one of the most universal and expedient tools of modern advertising, applied for the first time in 1994, describing the principles of its implementation and the prospects for using it. The shortcomings and advantages of Internet marketing and contextual advertising in particular, its types and technologies, on which it is implemented, the possibilities, as well as the purposes of application, are considered. The main characteristics of contextual advertising, namely its characteristic properties as compared to the other types of Internet marketing, were highlighted. The use of contextual advertising in the search, on partner sites of the advertising network and an example of the report that was received by means of the Yandex.Metrika service have been shown. On the basis of the analysis the use of contextual advertising has been proved and its basic types and methods of measuring the effectiveness of advertising campaigns using deep analytics services have been demonstrated. The factor of the complexity of the configuration process has been singled out, and in this connection, a variant of professional intervention in setting up contextual advertising by specialized agencies has been offered. In the long term, the tools of contextual advertising are to expand. Every year, more and more services are being created for a deeper analysis of statistics, end-to-end analytics, and the improvement of the campaign management interface

  2. The advertised diet: an examination of the extent and nature of food advertising on Australian television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michele; Pettigrew, Simone; Chapman, Kathy; Quester, Pascale; Miller, Caroline

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe food advertising and expenditure on Australian television, and to conduct an audit to assess what proportion of food and beverage television advertisements was consistent with dietary recommendations. Data were acquired from a national media monitoring company for advertisements broadcast in five major Australian cities from 1 September 2010 to 31 October 2010. Content analysis was undertaken on these advertisements and the advertised foods were assessed against the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. The data also included advertising expenditures. Most advertised foods were non-core foods (63%), with few advertisements for fruits and vegetables (6%). Advertisements for non-core foods were significantly more frequent during prime time viewing periods (71% vs 60%; Padvertising for fast food (28%) and non-core beverages (24%) were recorded. The present study found that the foods advertised during the data-collection period were inconsistent with the recommended diet. There are clear areas for policy concern given that the majority of recorded advertisements were for foods classified as 'occasional foods', there were low levels of advertising for fruit and vegetables, and there were no social marketing messages to support healthy eating. SO WHAT? The findings of the study suggest that there is an urgent need for more comprehensive regulation of food advertising in Australia.

  3. 16 CFR 14.15 - In regard to comparative advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... advertisers, advertising agencies, broadcasters, and self-regulation entities to restate its current policy... by advertisers using comparative advertising has been required by self-regulation entities. The... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false In regard to comparative advertising. 14.15...

  4. The Influence of Advertising on Attendance at Park Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyburn, Jerry H.; Knudson, Douglas M.

    1975-01-01

    Investigated were the effects on attendance of four types of pre-program advertising: no advertising, personal invitation, signs, and innovation. All three advertising treatments increased program attendance over no advertising. Each advertising technique has advantages and disadvantages. Signs are impersonal, but effective. Personal invitation is…

  5. Young Children's Ability to Recognize Advertisements in Web Page Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Moondore; Blades, Mark; Oates, Caroline; Blumberg, Fran

    2009-01-01

    Identifying what is, and what is not an advertisement is the first step in realizing that an advertisement is a marketing message. Children can distinguish television advertisements from programmes by about 5 years of age. Although previous researchers have investigated television advertising, little attention has been given to advertisements in…

  6. Peculiarities of conducting an advertising campaign of a commercial bank

    OpenAIRE

    Platonov K. A.; Glinskaya I. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    the article outlines special characteristics of banking advertising. It describes the main types of banking advertising as well as the main types of banking products and services. What is more, the authors discovered the peculiarities of advertising budgeting of a commercial bank, analyzes different methods of determining the advertising budget and controlling the work of an advertising department of a commercial bank.

  7. 12 CFR 328.3 - Official advertising statement requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... institution. (d) Types of advertisements which do not require the official advertising statement. The following types of advertisements do not require use of the official advertising statement: (1) Statements... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official advertising statement requirements...

  8. A Q-Analysis of College Students Attitudes Toward Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Ernest F.

    Eighty college students were administered 26 Likert-type statements designed to measure their attitudes toward advertising along four different dimensions: economic effects of advertising, social effects of advertising, ethics of advertising, and regulation of advertising. Analysis of the responses revealed five clusters or "types" of individuals…

  9. 40 CFR 152.168 - Advertising of restricted use products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... advertised unless the advertisement contains a statement of its restricted use classification. (b) The... advertisement. The requirement may be satisfied with respect to broadcast or telephone advertising by inclusion... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising of restricted use products...

  10. 48 CFR 852.203-70 - Commercial advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial advertising... Commercial advertising. As prescribed in 803.570-2, insert the following clause: Commercial Advertising (JAN... solicitation, he/she will not advertise the award of the contract in his/her commercial advertising in such a...

  11. 33 CFR 136.313 - Content of advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Content of advertisement. 136.313... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Designation of Source and Advertisement § 136.313 Content of advertisement. Each advertisement required by this subpart may be required to contain the...

  12. 33 CFR 136.311 - Types of advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Types of advertisement. 136.311... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Designation of Source and Advertisement § 136.311 Types of advertisement. Advertisement required by the Director, NPFC, will normally include one or more of...

  13. Black economic empowerment progress in the advertising industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    within the South African advertising industry, but there have been few studies that have effectively ... Key words: advertising agency; advertising industry; affirmative action; Association for. Communication and ..... Advertising, Publishing, Printing and Packaging Sector Education and Training. Authority) advertising skills ...

  14. Cigarette advertising and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara; Sargent, James D; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2010-04-01

    Although most agree that the association between tobacco marketing and youth smoking is causal, few studies have assessed the specificity of this association. This study aims to examine the specificity of the association between cigarette advertising and teen smoking. A cross-sectional survey of 3415 German schoolchildren aged 10-17 years was conducted using masked images of six cigarette brands and eight other commercial products in 2008. The exposure variable was a combination of contact frequency (recognition) and brand names (cued recall). Sample quartile (Q) exposure to advertisement exposure was calculated in 2009. Outcome variables were ever tried and current (monthly) smoking, and susceptibility to smoking among never smokers. The prevalence of ever smoking was 31.1% and that of current smoking was 7.4%, and 35.3% of never smokers were susceptible to smoking. Ad recognition rates ranged from 15% for a regionally advertised cigarette brand to 99% for a sweet. Lucky Strike and Marlboro were the most highly recognized cigarette brands (with ad recognition rates of 55% and 34%, respectively). After controlling for a range of established influences on smoking behaviors, the adjusted ORs for having tried smoking were 1.97 (95% CI=1.40, 2.77) for Q4 exposure to cigarette ads compared with adolescents in Q1, 2.90 (95% CI=1.48, 5.66) for current smoking, and 1.79 (95% CI=1.32, 2.43) for susceptibility to smoking among never smokers. Exposure to ads for commercial products other than cigarettes was significantly associated with smoking in crude but not multivariate models. This study underlines the specificity of the relationship between tobacco marketing and youth smoking, with exposure to cigarette ads, but not other ads, being associated with smoking behavior and intentions to smoke. This finding suggests a content-related effect of tobacco advertisements. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Sacred in Contemporary Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Soreanu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As part of the contemporary media culture, advertising constantly mediates the relationship between the institutional dimension of religion (namely the church and the community, given the specific position of the Catholic religion: transparent, based on dialogue and the continuous questioning of the relationship between man and divinity. To manage their presence in public life, the church constantly approaches new media and specific forms of communication (posters, street banners and meshes, websites or interactive mobile structures.

  16. Advertising's new medium: human experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayport, Jeffrey F

    2013-03-01

    We live in a media-saturated world, where consumers are drowning in irrelevant messages delivered from the web, TV, radio, print, outdoor displays, and a proliferating array of mobile devices. Advertising strategies built on persuading through interruption, repetition, and brute ubiquity are increasingly ineffective. To win consumers' attention and trust, marketers must think less about what advertising says to its targets and more about what it does for them. Rayport outlines four domains of human experience: In the public sphere people move from one place or activity to another, both online and off. In the social sphere they interact with and relate to one another. In the tribal sphere they affiliate with groups to define or express their identity. In the psychological sphere they connect language with specific thoughts and feelings. Savvy marketers think about crafting messages that consumers will welcome in these domains. Zappos did that when it placed ads in airport security bins (the public sphere)--reaching people whose minds may be on their shoes. Nintendo identified young mothers who were willing to host Wii parties and provided them with everything they needed for these social-sphere events. Yelp's Elite Squad of reviewers have a heightened sense of tribal affiliation that makes them powerful brand ambassadors. Life is good Inc. is rooted in the psychological sphere: It advertises only through the optimism-promoting logo and slogan on its products.

  17. Relationship between Spokesperson’s Gender and Advertising Color Temperature in a Framework of Advertising Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilelienė Lina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Advertising spokesperson is one of the undeniably important factors affecting advertising effectiveness. However, advertising spokesperson has to have some particular features to be effective. Various previous researches resulted in determination of different features of advertising spokesperson and their effectiveness; i.e. type of a spokesperson (celebrity vs. a regular person; gender and race of a spokesperson; etc. were found to have an impact on the spokesperson’s effectiveness. However, the research on the impact of shooting color temperature on its effectiveness is still scarce. Moreover, an assumption can be made that color temperature might cause a different effect depending on advertising spokesperson’s gender. The aim of this paper is to fill this gap by analyzing the relationship between spokesperson’s gender and advertising color temperature in a framework of advertising effectiveness. Neuromarketing research methods were applied to meet the aim and to determine the guidelines for its usage in advertising.

  18. Emotional or Rational? The Determination of the Influence of Advertising Appeal on Advertising Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigaliunaite Viktorija

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In prevailing competition-based market economy, organizations have to search factors influencing advertising effectiveness. This research aims at developing the model of the influence of advertising appeal on advertising effectiveness. While achieving the aim of the article, the analysis and synthesis of scientific literature is provided. Furthermore, traditional marketing research methods as well as neuromarketing research methods are applied in order to determine the influences of different advertising appeals on advertising effectiveness. As a research result, the model of the influence of advertising appeal on advertising effectiveness is elaborated. Accordingly, this research fills the gap in scientific literature by determining the influences of emotional and rational appeals on print / outdoor advertising effectiveness in the context of convenience product category. Moreover, by answering the research question, the contribution to the field emerges in integrating both marketing theory and neuroscience in order to analyze and evaluate consumer behavior.

  19. Costly advertising and the evolution of cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Brede

    Full Text Available In this paper, I investigate the co-evolution of fast and slow strategy spread and game strategies in populations of spatially distributed agents engaged in a one off evolutionary dilemma game. Agents are characterized by a pair of traits, a game strategy (cooperate or defect and a binary 'advertising' strategy (advertise or don't advertise. Advertising, which comes at a cost [Formula: see text], allows investment into faster propagation of the agents' traits to adjacent individuals. Importantly, game strategy and advertising strategy are subject to the same evolutionary mechanism. Via analytical reasoning and numerical simulations I demonstrate that a range of advertising costs exists, such that the prevalence of cooperation is significantly enhanced through co-evolution. Linking costly replication to the success of cooperators exposes a novel co-evolutionary mechanism that might contribute towards a better understanding of the origins of cooperation-supporting heterogeneity in agent populations.

  20. The Subsiding Sizzle of Advertising History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzkopf, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to provide an overview over the development of historical research into advertising from the early twentieth century. Its main purposes are to interest marketing scholars and business historians in the history of advertising, help scholars that are unfamiliar...... with the field in choosing an appropriate theoretical and methodological angle, and provide a critique of a range of methods and theoretical approaches being applied in advertising historical research. Design/methodology/approach – The research design of this paper is based on historiographical analysis...... and method critique. It surveys the advertising historical literature of the three decades between 1980 and 2010, and it compares and contrasts dominant research methodologies and theoretical paradigms that have been used by historians and advertising researchers. Findings – Much advertising historical...

  1. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF ADVERTISING - SOME INSIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nichifor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Advertising as a tool of communication, but mostly as a marketing tool is subject to many theories and explanatory and normative models. Its contents and performed functions are not yet defined in general recognized theory. Present article focuses on the analysis of advertising in terms of its specific persuasive effort and communication process. Advertising seen as a process is based on the general scheme of the marketing communication process, with a number of specific features related to its content. The persuasive effort is related to creation of favorable attitudes or reinforcing existing attitudes. This process of persuasion is closely linked to the concept of attitude. Most theories of advertising have explored the connection between persuasion and attitude, identifying possible responses that the receiver can give to advertising information. Following lines develop these two important aspects associated with advertising theory, even if they are not the only issues that are debated in the literature.

  2. Model of Advertising Communication in Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevo Popović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study represent the advertising communication, while the main goal will be directional to creating of advertising model with specific retrospection in sport. The main tasks of this study are, the first conducting a situational analysis, then setting objectives for advertising, deciding on the budget funds, choosing the target market, creation of the advertising messages, selection of appropriate media, as well as evaluating effectiveness of advertising. During the making of this study, the author used descriptive method with consulting of competent literature. The previous author’ experience in this field was also so useful. Moreover, the author used the analytic method and parallel method that is the most productive if you make some inferences about some appearance. Consequently, the main outcome of this study was creation of conceptual model of advertising communication with special application in sport industry.

  3. Effectiveness of newspaper advertising for patient recruitment into a clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapca, Adrian; Jennings, Claudine G; Wei, Li; Wilson, Adam; MacDonald, Thomas M; Mackenzie, Isla S

    2014-01-01

    Aims To measure the impact of newspaper advertising across Scotland on patient interest, and subsequent recruitment into the Standard Care vs. Celecoxib Outcome Trial (SCOT), a clinical trial investigating the cardiovascular safety of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in patients with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. Methods Newspaper advertisements about the SCOT trial were placed sequentially in regional and national Scottish newspapers. The number of phone calls as a result of exposure to the advertisements and ongoing study recruitment rates were recorded before, during and after the advertising campaign. To enroll in SCOT individuals had to be registered with a participating GP practice. Results The total cost for the advertising campaign was £46 250 and 320 phone calls were received as a result of individuals responding to the newspaper advertisements. One hundred and seventy-two individuals were identified as possibly suitable to be included in the study. However only 36 were registered at participating GP practices, 17 completed a screening visit and 15 finally were randomized into the study. The average cost per respondent individual was £144 and the average cost per randomized patient was £3083. Analysis of recruitment rate trends showed that there was no impact of the newspaper advertising campaign on increasing recruitment into SCOT. Conclusions Advertisements placed in local and national newspapers were not an effective recruitment strategy for the SCOT trial. The advertisements attracted relatively small numbers of respondents, many of whom did not meet study inclusion criteria or were not registered at a participating GP practice. PMID:24283948

  4. Effectiveness of newspaper advertising for patient recruitment into a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapca, Adrian; Jennings, Claudine G; Wei, Li; Wilson, Adam; MacDonald, Thomas M; Mackenzie, Isla S

    2014-06-01

    To measure the impact of newspaper advertising across Scotland on patient interest, and subsequent recruitment into the Standard Care vs. Celecoxib Outcome Trial (SCOT), a clinical trial investigating the cardiovascular safety of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in patients with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. Newspaper advertisements about the SCOT trial were placed sequentially in regional and national Scottish newspapers. The number of phone calls as a result of exposure to the advertisements and ongoing study recruitment rates were recorded before, during and after the advertising campaign. To enroll in SCOT individuals had to be registered with a participating GP practice. The total cost for the advertising campaign was £46 250 and 320 phone calls were received as a result of individuals responding to the newspaper advertisements. One hundred and seventy-two individuals were identified as possibly suitable to be included in the study. However only 36 were registered at participating GP practices, 17 completed a screening visit and 15 finally were randomized into the study. The average cost per respondent individual was £144 and the average cost per randomized patient was £3083. Analysis of recruitment rate trends showed that there was no impact of the newspaper advertising campaign on increasing recruitment into SCOT. Advertisements placed in local and national newspapers were not an effective recruitment strategy for the SCOT trial. The advertisements attracted relatively small numbers of respondents, many of whom did not meet study inclusion criteria or were not registered at a participating GP practice. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  5. Government Regulation of Advertising in the Eurasian Economic Union: Contradictions of Public Policy and Advertising Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Bykov, Il’ia A.; Cherkashchenko, Tatiana A.; Dorskii, Andrei Y.; Kaverina, Elena A.

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the problems of government regulation of advertising industry in the member states of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU). The main purpose of the study includes evaluation of attitudes to the moral issues in advertising practice as well as government policy on the problem of unethical advertising. The study applies methodological framework of policy analysis toward the regulation of unethical advertising in the countries of the EAEU. The authors find out that there is n...

  6. Relationship between Spokesperson’s Gender and Advertising Color Temperature in a Framework of Advertising Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Pilelienė Lina; Grigaliūnaitė Viktorija

    2017-01-01

    Advertising spokesperson is one of the undeniably important factors affecting advertising effectiveness. However, advertising spokesperson has to have some particular features to be effective. Various previous researches resulted in determination of different features of advertising spokesperson and their effectiveness; i.e. type of a spokesperson (celebrity vs. a regular person); gender and race of a spokesperson; etc. were found to have an impact on the spokesperson’s effectiveness. However...

  7. Television food advertising directed towards Bulgarian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galcheva, S V; Iotova, V M; Stratev, V K

    2008-10-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious health problem worldwide with a prevalence rising to epidemic proportions. Television viewing is suspected as an important contributor and along with food advertisements significantly influence children's unhealthy dietary habits, purchase requests and adiposity. To examine the exposure of Bulgarian children to television food advertising and to make a content analysis of the food/beverage advertisements during children's television programmes. 41.5 h of children's television programming on three national networks, were videotaped. All recorded food advertisements were evaluated to identify the marketing strategies used for the stimulation of children's purchase requests. Food/beverage advertisements accounted for 124 (33.4%) of all commercials, with 96.8% being for unhealthy foods. 57% of them were aimed specifically at children as the most advertised products were salty/sweetened snacks and cereals, sweets, soft drinks/carbohydrate juices and salty foods, with no fruit or vegetable commercials. Food advertisements used more themes of adventure, animation, music and gifts to attract children's attention, and gave information based on the product's taste, physical qualities, novelty, presence of premiums/prizes. Of all food/beverage advertisements, 27.4% contained health-related information about the products; three-quarters of the advertisements were shot with young normal-weight actors with a good/healthy appearance. Almost all recorded food advertisements do not support the Bulgarian dietary recommendations for healthy and balanced eating. More activities to reduce the unhealthy food promotion to children are mandatory as restrictions by type of advertised food, target group or limits on the advertisements' account and times shown, as well as parental/self-regulation.

  8. Archetypes and Mythical Narratives in Car Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara LÄMMLEIN

    2014-01-01

    This article represents an excerpt of the PhD thesis Branding & Advertising and Communication Strategies by the author. Within this thesis inter - disciplinary approaches for deciphering messages of selected car advertising were used. Multiple methods and paradigms such as cultural studies, media communication, sociology, anthropology, semiotics, and psychoanalysis, were applied in order to analyze TV spots and print advertisements from a variety of angles. The purpose of this strategy was to...

  9. Automatic and strategic processes in advertising effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    1996-01-01

    Two kinds of cognitive processes can be distinguished: Automatic processes, which are mostly subconscious, are learned and changed very slowly, and are not subject to the capacity limitations of working memory, and strategic processes, which are conscious, are subject to capacity limitations......, and can easily be adapted to situational circumstances. Both the perception of advertising and the way advertising influences brand evaluation involves both processes. Automatic processes govern the recognition of advertising stimuli, the relevance decision which determines further higher-level processing...

  10. Delivering 3D advertising to mobile phones.

    OpenAIRE

    Chehimi, Fadi; Coulton, Paul; Edwards, Reuben

    2006-01-01

    Directing advertising to mobile phones currently is limited to commercial text messages, short-code text-back messages, two dimensional (2D) images, or wireless access protocol (WAP) clickable push links. All of these traditional methods do not facilitate advertising approach were consumers can interact with prospective purchases. In this paper we introduce a novel and highly interactive location- and permission-based advertising system that allows 3D product adverts to be displayed on users'...

  11. ADVERTISEMENT & ISLAM: A MUSLIM WORLD PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Adeel Bari; Rana Zamin Abbas

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary advertisement practices have created many social and ethical problems due to their materialistic focus. The effect of these problems can also be seen in many Muslim countries including Pakistan in terms of diversion from their cultural and religious values. This paper attempts to integrate the Islamic business ethics in contemporary advertisement practices to find the solution of the ethical dilemma which is created by these materialistic advertisement practices. The focus of Isl...

  12. Recommendation advertising method based on behavior retargeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yao; YIN, Xin-Chun; CHEN, Zhi-Min

    2011-10-01

    Online advertising has become an important business in e-commerce. Ad recommended algorithms are the most critical part in recommendation systems. We propose a recommendation advertising method based on behavior retargeting which can avoid leakage click of advertising due to objective reasons and can observe the changes of the user's interest in time. Experiments show that our new method can have a significant effect and can be further to apply to online system.

  13. Television food advertising to children in Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauchi, Daniel; Reiff, Sascha; Knai, Cecile; Gauci, Charmaine; Spiteri, Joanna

    2017-06-01

    To undertake a cross-sectional survey of the extent and nature of food and beverage advertising to children on Maltese national television stations. Seven national free-to-air channels were recorded for seven consecutive days in March 2014 between 07:00 and 22:00 h. Advertisements were coded according to predefined categories, with a focus on advertisements aired during 'peak' children's viewing times, defined as periods during which more than 25% of children were likely to be watching television on any channel. Food and beverage advertisements were classified as core (healthy), non-core (unhealthy) or miscellaneous foods. Malta. Whole population, with a focus on children. Food and drinks were the most heavily advertised product category (26.9% of all advertisements) across all channels. The proportion of non-core food/drink advertisements was significantly greater during peak compared with non-peak children's viewing times (52 vs 44.6%; p ≤ 0.001). A majority of advertisements aimed at children are for non-core foods, and are typically shown during family-oriented programmes in the late evening rather than being restricted to children's programmes. 'Taste', 'enjoyment' and 'peer status' were the primary persuasive appeals used in adolescent and child-focused advertisements. This first content analysis of television advertising in Malta suggests that there is scope for the implementation of statutory regulation regarding advertising of foods high in fat, sugar and salt (HFSS) during times when children are likely to watch television, rather than during children's programmes only. Ongoing, systematic monitoring is essential for evaluation of the effectiveness of regulations designed to reduce children's exposure to HFSS food advertising on television. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Sexualization of Women in Nigerian Magazine Advertisements

    OpenAIRE

    Kehinde Augustina Odukoya

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the portrayal of women in Nigerian magazine advertisements, with the aim to investigate whether there is sexualization of women in the advertisements. To achieve this aim, content analyses of 61 magazine advertisements from 5 different categories of magazines; a general interest magazine (Genevieve), fashion magazine (Hints Complete Fashion), men’s magazine (Mode), women’s magazine (Totally Whole) and a relationship magazine (Forever) were carried out. Erving Goffman’s 197...

  15. Role of Psychological Factors on Advertising Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Mohadese Ghayoomi Javinani; Shahab Alddin Shokri

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this research was to investigate effecting psychological factors on advertising effectiveness in case of Samsung Television. In this line, advertising attitude and advertising involvement were measured as indicators of effectiveness. This research is quantitative in its nature and applied in kind. The research population was consisted of 305 respondents who were selected by hazardous sampling. A questionnaire was developed as the research instrument and validity of it was ...

  16. Advertising of boutique hotel on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Antropov, Artem

    2014-01-01

    The research was conducted for Lossiranta Lodge, the Finnish boutique hotel located in Savonlinna, which is interested in expansion of the current promotion system via advertising on the Internet. The idea of the present thesis is promotion of the boutique hotel Lossiranta Lodge via various modern methods and ways on the Internet by dint of advertising. In the framework of this work was identified the main features of advertising on Internet in order to implement the outcome of my diplo...

  17. Direct-to-consumer advertising for bleeding disorders: a content analysis and expert evaluation of advertising claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, G. A.; Neufeld, E. J.; Sorel, M; Weeks, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires that all direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) contain both an accurate statement of a medication’s effects (“truth”) and an even-handed discussion of its benefits and risks/adverse effects (“fair balance”). DTCA for medications to treat rare diseases such as bleeding disorders is unlikely to be given high priority for FDA review. METHODS We reviewed all DTCA for bleeding disorder products appearing in the patient-directed magazine HemeAware from January, 2004 to June, 2006. We categorized the information presented in each advertisement as benefit, risk/adverse effect, or neither, and assessed the amount of text and type size devoted to each. We also assessed the readability of each type of text using the Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES, where a score of ≥ 65 is considered of average readability), and assessed the accuracy of the advertising claims utilizing a panel of five bleeding disorder experts. RESULTS A total of 39 unique advertisements for 12 products were found. On average, approximately twice the amount of text was devoted to benefits as compared to risks/adverse effects, and the later was more difficult to read (FRES of 20.45 for risks/adverse effects versus 32.08 for benefits; difference of 11.56 [95% CI: 4.52, 18.60]). Only about two-thirds of the advertising claims were considered by a majority of the experts to be based on at least low-quality evidence. CONCLUSION As measured by our methods, print DTCA for bleeding disorders may not reach the FDA’s standards of truth and fair balance. PMID:18647231

  18. Antecedents to Consumers' Acceptance of Mobile Advertisements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajala, Risto; Westerlund, Mika

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a hierarchical construct PLS structural equation model to analyze mobile advertisement acceptance. Hypotheses are established and tested about the hierarchical structure and the effects of the factors that precede consumers' behavioral intention to accept mobile advertisement....... The results suggest that valuable content and trust in advertisers are key predictors of mobile device users' acceptance of mobile advertising. In addition, subjective value of the ads and subjective norms mediate these antecedent-acceptance relationships. The results are invaluable to both scholars...... and business practitioners interested in mobile services....

  19. A nonlinear Cournot duopoly with advertising

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gori, Luca; Sodini, Mauro; Fanti, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at studying local and global dynamics in a nonlinear duopoly with quantity-setting firms and non-cooperative advertising investments that affect the degree of (horizontally) differentiated products. It concentrates on persuasive advertising in a model where each firm has limited information and uses a behavioural rule to set the quantity for the subsequent period. By using some mathematical techniques and numerical simulations, our results show the existence of weak (à la Milnor) attractors, multistability and chaotic dynamics. In the long term, firms may continuously shift from states in which they invest in advertising to states in which advertising investment is absent.

  20. The Social Effects of Advertising as Perceived by Advertising Executives, Businessmen, and the General Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surlin, Stuart H.

    This study attempts to compare the perceptions and self-reported behavior of high, middle, and low authoritarian advertising executives, business executives, and members of the general public concerning the social effects of advertising. For the advertising sample, a total of 393 men and women were selected according to their executive positions…

  1. Restriction of television food advertising in South Korea: impact on advertising of food companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyoung; Lee, Youngmi; Yoon, Jihyun; Chung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Hyogyoo

    2013-03-01

    The association between exposure to television (TV) food advertising and children's dietary habits has been well established in previous studies. However, the efficacy of restrictions on TV food advertising in the prevention of childhood obesity remains controversial. The South Korean government has recently enforced a regulation, termed the Special Act on Safety Management of Children's Dietary Life, which restricts TV advertising of energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods targeting children. This study aimed to determine the impact of this regulation by examining changes in the TV advertising practices of South Korean food companies since the scheduled enforcement date of January 2010. The total advertising budget, number of advertisement placements and gross rating points (GRPs) for advertisements on EDNP foods aired on the five representative TV channels in South Korea were compared and analyzed for the year before and after January 2010. After January 2010, the total adverting budget, number of advertisement placements and GRPs decreased during regulated hours. Even during non-regulated hours, a significant decline was noticed in the number of advertisement placements and GRPs. The total advertising budget for non-EDNP foods increased, whereas that for EDNP foods decreased at a higher rate in addition to a drop in its percentage share. These results suggest positive changes in TV advertising practices of food companies because of the regulation, thereby lowering children's exposure to TV advertising of EDNP foods and promoting a safer environment that may facilitate child health improvement in South Korea.

  2. 15 CFR 265.42 - Photography for advertising or commercial purposes; advertising and soliciting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Photography for advertising or commercial purposes; advertising and soliciting. 265.42 Section 265.42 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... COLLINS, COLORADO Buildings and Grounds § 265.42 Photography for advertising or commercial purposes...

  3. The effectiveness of cross-media advertising under simultaneous media exposure: combining online and radio advertisements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorveld, H.

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by the proliferating use of cross-media campaigns by advertisers, this study gives insight into the effectiveness of combining online and radio advertising. Because consumers started to use several media simultaneously, we investigated these advertising effects by exposing participants

  4. Generic and Brand Advertising Strategies in a Dynamic Duopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Frank M. Bass; Anand Krishnamoorthy; Ashutosh Prasad; Suresh P. Sethi

    2005-01-01

    To increase the sales of their products through advertising, firms must integrate their brand-advertising strategy for capturing market share from competitors and their generic-advertising strategy for increasing primary demand for the category. This paper examines whether, when, and how much brand advertising versus generic advertising should be done. Using differential game theory, optimal advertising decisions are obtained for a dynamic duopoly with symmetric or asymmetric competitors. We ...

  5. Effectiveness of mobile in-game banner advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Satokangas, S. (Saara)

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this research is to find out the effectiveness of banner advertising in mobile games. The matter has been approached by examining the attitudes consumers have towards mobile in-game banner advertising (IGBA) and the intention they have to click on these advertisements. The existing literature considering banner advertising, mobile advertising and in-game advertising is gone through rather extensively and...

  6. Study on Personalized Recommendation Model of Internet Advertisement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ning; Chen, Yongyue; Zhang, Huiping

    With the rapid development of E-Commerce, the audiences put forward higher requirements on personalized Internet advertisement than before. The main function of Personalized Advertising System is to provide the most suitable advertisements for anonymous users on Web sites. The paper offers a personalized Internet advertisement recommendation model. By mining the audiences' historical and current behavior, and the advertisers' and publisher's web site content, etc, the system can recommend appropriate advertisements to corresponding audiences.

  7. Analysis of the Perception of Television Advertising of University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Hérová, Lucie

    2012-01-01

    This diploma thesis looks into a problem of television advertisement, what is still the most perceived form of advertisement. In the introduction is defined concept of advertisement and its history, functions and there is concisely described only just television advertisement too. Other section of theoretical part refers to creation of advertising campaigns, what instruments are used there and how to measure advertisement's success. Practical part examines results of questionnaire research. I...

  8. Legal regulation of online advertising in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Sládek, Ondřej

    2012-01-01

    The thesis focuses on regulation of advertising on the Internet. The aim of the thesis is to evaluate the current state and position of public regulation of online advertising, both in general and on the example of Google advertising network. The approach to achieve defined goals is to first present a theoretical overview of the legal regulation of advertising with an emphasis on online advertising, followed by a case study showing the practical functioning of online advertising rules in Goog...

  9. Women in advertising production. Study of the Galician advertising sector from a gender perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora García-González

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the advertising sector has been strongly criticised due to its sexist representation of gender. The messages in advertisements are the result of a careful manufacturing process, which reflects the values and attitudes of the professionals involved in their creation. The main research hypothesis of this article is that the persistence of sexist stereotypes in advertising is related to the absence of women in the creative departments of advertising agencies. In this sense, the objective of this work is to examine the situation of women within the Galician advertising sector, and particularly women’s participation in ads production. This study, which has been carried out from the production perspective, also compares the situation of women in the Galician advertising agencies with the general situation of women in the national advertising sector.

  10. Children's responses to advertising in social games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendaal, E.; Slot, N.; Reijmersdal, E.A. van; Buijzen, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored children's (ages 9 through 12) level of persuasion knowledge and peer influence susceptibility concerning advertising in social games and investigated how these variables affect children's desire for the brands advertised in these games. Results showed that (1) children have a

  11. The Future of Children's Media: Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children Now, 2007

    2007-01-01

    American companies currently spend $15 billion a year on marketing and advertising to children under the age of 12. Annually, children influence $500 billion in spending on fast food, junk food, toys and other advertised products, and the average child sees thousands of ads on television alone. From video games and the Internet to cell phones and…

  12. Perception of Women in Magazine Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Susan R.; Rossi, Joseph S.

    Advertising research has indicated that a high degree of sexism toward women occurs in magazine and television advertising. However, the design of such marketing studies is different from the designs typically used in most psychological research. An experimental approach was used for a study in which 137 college students rated 10 control and 10…

  13. 21 CFR 1316.75 - Advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertisement. 1316.75 Section 1316.75 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS, PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Seizure, Forfeiture, and Disposition of Property § 1316.75 Advertisement. (a) If the appraised...

  14. Gender Stereotypes in Advertising: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmeyer, Lynn

    Television and television advertising, because of their pervasiveness and intrusiveness, have been identified by many as potent, formative, and usually negative influences within our culture. Print media, including magazine advertising, although perhaps less potent, are perceived as equally important. The effects of gender portrayals on audiences…

  15. Female gender stereotype in French advertising texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А С Борисова

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problem of female gender stereotypes in French advertising texts. On the ground of the practical analysis of advertising texts published in some modern French periodicals, we managed to expose and define general and national-cultural female gender stereotypes fixed in collective consciousness of the French.

  16. Embodied resistance to persuasion in advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewinski, P.; Fransen, M.L.; Tan, E.S.

    From the literature on resistance to persuasion in advertising, much is known about how people can resist advertising by adopting resistance strategies, such as avoidance, counter-arguing, and selective attention (e.g., Fransen et al., 2015b). However, the role of emotion regulation and bodily

  17. Impact of Advertising Appeals on Purchase Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Jovanović

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Companies use various appeals in their advertising practice to impact consumers’ attitudes and purchase intention by an advertisement. Advertising appeals can be divided into rational or emotional, depending on whether companies want to influence the rational or the emotional motives of the consumer to purchase of the advertised product. Since there is no general pattern for the use of appeals and the success of an advertising message, this study aims to explore the impact of the emotional and rational advertising appeals on the purchase intention. The results of the empirical research, conducted using the focus groups method, are shown in this paper and the focus group participants were members of the student population.The research results indicate that different advertising appeals may have a different impact on the consumer’s purchase intention; in case of women, the emotional appeal has a stronger impact while for men it is the rational appeal, while “fear appeal” proved to be effective to a certain point, after which it causes selective perception and rejection. This implies that depending on the product, its purpose and target group, advertisers can choose the type of appeal, combination of the appeals and their creative presentation, based on the empirical confirmation of the efficiency the approach.

  18. Customer directed advertising and product quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esteban, Lola; Hernandez, Jose M.; Moraga-Gonzalez, Jose Luis

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between three key elements of the marketing mix, namely, price, product, and promotion, in a model where a seller employs informative advertising to launch a new product. We propose a fairly general advertising technology for the study of three promotional

  19. Marketing Communications: How Strategic Advertising Enhances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates how marketing communications in strategic advertising scientifically brings long-term profits to a company in regard to management of customer relations and brand loyalty. Advertising being a function of attention, perception and trial brings about brand expectation to customers. Customers compare ...

  20. The Hidden Energy Cost of Web Advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, R.J.G; Pras, Aiko

    2010-01-01

    Advertising is an important source of income for many websites. To get the attention of the unsuspecting (and probably uninterested) visitors, web advertisements (ads) tend to use elaborate animations and graphics. Depending on the specific technology being used, displaying such ads on the visitor's

  1. Increasing advertising power via written scent references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, Anna; Breulmann, Svenja; Bialkova, Svetlana; Bialkova, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory cues in advertisements can evoke positive consumer emotions and product attitudes, yet including real scent in advertising is not always feasible. This study aimed at investigating whether written scent references could produce effects similar to real scents. Participants in online

  2. Advertising in the Schools. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidman, Amy

    This digest reviews the recent history of advertising to children, spotlights controversial marketing efforts, and examines the nature of commercial messages directed toward children in public schools. Because of the increase in children's spending power in recent decades, advertisers have closely targeted children as consumers. Advertising…

  3. BETWEEN ADVERTISING PRACTITIONERS AND ACADEMICS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    While the paper identifies some prevailing explanations why miscommunication exists between academics and practitioners, it ... who do not possess the prescribed academic qualifications; namely degree/HND in Advertising,. Mass Communication ..... Advertising Intelligence and Plannng, 57-68. AMA. (2009). Task Force ...

  4. Assessment of alcohol advertising practices in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Results: Alcohol advertising practices in Ethiopia contravene with fundamental principles of marketing for alcoholic beverages. Advertisers use misleading information about alcoholic drinks, .... journalism, public health, medicine and law while 11 of them had master's degrees in journalism, public health and medical ...

  5. Advertising practice in Nigeria: Development, new trends ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study mentioned some of the new trends in advertising in Nigeria which include the practice of Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC); which is the combination of various marketing communication techniques like advertising, public relations, publicity, sales promotions, events marketing, etc, in carrying out a ...

  6. Job Satisfaction among Women in Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrywczynski, James V.; Crowley, John H.

    A study examined job satisfaction among women in advertising. Subjects were 48 female respondents from a mail survey of membership of a Midwest advertising club. Two types of job satisfaction measures were used: items from the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire and the action tendency scales developed by E. Locke. The results showed a high level…

  7. Speech Act Classification of German Advertising Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Артур Нарманович Мамедов

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the theory of speech acts and the underlying concept of pragmalinguistics to determine the types of speech acts and their classification in the German advertising printed texts. We ascertain that the advertising of cars and accessories, household appliances and computer equipment, watches, fancy goods, food, pharmaceuticals, and financial, insurance, legal services and also airline advertising is dominated by a pragmatic principle, which is based on demonstrating information about the benefits of a product / service. This influences the frequent usage of certain speech acts. The dominant form of exposure is to inform the recipient-user about the characteristics of the advertised product. This information is fore-grounded by means of stylistic and syntactic constructions specific to the advertisement (participial constructions, appositional constructions which contribute to emphasize certain notional components within the framework of the advertising text. Stylistic and syntactic devices of reduction (parceling constructions convey the author's idea. Other means like repetitions, enumerations etc are used by the advertiser to strengthen his selling power. The advertiser focuses the attention of the consumer on the characteristics of the product seeking to convince him of the utility of the product and to influence his/ her buying behavior.

  8. Monitoring Outdoor Alcohol Advertising in Developing Countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analyses on the placement, channels, size and content of outdoor alcohol advertising practices (N=807) in relation to existing regulations are given. For example, in Gambia, the country with the most stringent alcohol marketing regulations of all countries studied, outdoor alcohol advertisements are on average smaller and ...

  9. 27 CFR 6.98 - Advertising service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising service. 6.98 Section 6.98 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.98 Advertising service. The listing of the names...

  10. Language, Cognition, and Manipulation in Advertising Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, Veronika

    2013-01-01

    This research examines advertising discourse in Russian and English as acts of communicative exchange and interpersonal relationship between advertising discourse participants. The purpose was to identify and describe the way that viewers process information contained in television commercials and how they become consumers moving from getting…

  11. Energy efficiency public service advertising campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson-Grant, Amanda [Advertising Council, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-06-12

    The Advertising Council (“the Ad Council”) and The United States Department of Energy (DOE) created and launched a national public service advertising campaign designed to promote energy efficiency. The objective of the Energy Efficiency campaign was to redefine how consumers approach energy efficiency by showing that saving energy can save homeowners money.

  12. RHETORIC OF GUANXI IN CHINESE ADVERTISEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabalina Olga Ivanovna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to modes of designing advertisements in China. The author proposes two hypotheses. According to the first one, instrumental values influence modes of advertisement design in a particular country. According to the second one, developing relationships (guanxi is a key instrumental value that determines rhetoric of advertising in China and spreads its impact on all its constituents: choice of referent, goals, modes of depicting target audience, patterns of reasoning, and typical set of expressive means. To test hypotheses we used content-analysis of outdoor advertisements in China, Russia, and Kazakhstan. The results of the content-analysis proved that developing relationships with consumers is a key goal of advertising in China. This goal determines the choice of the company as a referent. Social roles of advertising characters are a major descriptor of the target audience. The company’s status, its experience, and financial position are key motives that influence patterns of reasoning. Chinese advertising is also characterized by use of positive-colored vocabulary, traditional symbols and attributes of happiness, “holiday” syntax, appeals to harmony with nature and fellow men. The results of research are complex, have scientific novelty and can be used by foreign companies while developing advertisements, targeted at the Chinese consumer.

  13. RHETORIC OF GUANXI IN CHINESE ADVERTISEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Ивановна Шабалина

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to modes of designing advertisements in China. The author proposes two hypotheses. According to the first one, instrumental values influence modes of advertisement design in a particular country.  According to the second one, developing relationships (guanxi is a key instrumental value that determines rhetoric of advertising in China and spreads its impact on all its constituents: choice of referent, goals, modes of depicting target audience, patterns of reasoning, and typical set of expressive means.To test hypotheses we used content-analysis of outdoor advertisements in China, Russia, and Kazakhstan.The results of the content-analysis proved that developing relationships with consumers is a key goal of advertising in China. This goal determines the choice of the company as a referent. Social roles of advertising characters are a major descriptor of the target audience. The company’s status, its experience, and financial position are key motives that influence patterns of reasoning. Chinese advertising is also characterized by use of positive-colored vocabulary, traditional symbols and attributes of happiness, “holiday” syntax, appeals to harmony with nature and fellow men.The results of research are complex, have scientific novelty and can be used by foreign companies while developing advertisements, targeted at the Chinese consumer.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-33

  14. Mediating argumentative deconstruction of advertising discourses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Carmen Daniela

    exposes how the advertising discourse of various companies is articulated when promoting well known products and services in their commercials. The original advertising discourse is deconstructed and reconstructed with additional visual material in front of the viewers' eyes who are instructed by a voice...

  15. 47 CFR 73.4055 - Cigarette advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cigarette advertising. 73.4055 Section 73.4055 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4055 Cigarette advertising. See 15 U.S.C. 1335. [44 FR...

  16. 37 CFR 10.32 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising. 10.32 Section 10... COMMERCE REPRESENTATION OF OTHERS BEFORE THE PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE Patent and Trademark Office Code of Professional Responsibility § 10.32 Advertising. (a) Subject to § 10.31, a practitioner may...

  17. Media Selection for Public TV Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallstead, William F.

    Since limited funds restrict advertising by Public Broadcasting System (PBS) stations, and since PBS serves a variety of audiences, the selection of appropriate advertising media for PBS programs is difficult. It is further complicated by conflicting research reports on the public use of the daily papers. Availability to the target audience should…

  18. Second Screen Advertising: A Typology of Multiscreening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segijn, C.M.; De Pelsmacker, P.

    2016-01-01

    The advertising industry has undergone a rapid transformation in recent years. New communication technologies such as live streaming, gaming, social media, online brand communities and blogs have given advertisers new platforms to communicate and promote their messages. Two remarkable phenomena are

  19. The Digital Medium Meets the Advertising Message.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisenholtz, Martin

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the likelihood that companies will use online services as an advertising medium. Topics addressed include the art of interactive marketing; advertising in the digital age; early experiments with interactive marketing, including the use of videotex and videodisc; and recent trends that set the stage for interactive marketing to personal…

  20. The hidden powers of advertising investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekimpe, M.G.; Hanssens, D.M.; Hoekstra, J.C.; Wieringa, J.E.; Verhoef, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Advertising remains not only a very visible marketing instrument, it is also one of the most-often used marketing tools. Still, when looking at the sales response it generates in consumer-good markets, a typical advertising elasticity is small at best. This raises the question, why do so many

  1. 48 CFR 503.570 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising. 503.570 Section 503.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Other Improper Business Practices 503.570 Advertising. ...

  2. 7 CFR 550.30 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 550.30 Section 550.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Program Management § 550.30 Advertising. The Cooperator will not refer in any manner to the USDA or...

  3. 50 CFR 27.96 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising. 27.96 Section 27.96 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.96 Advertising. Except as...

  4. 12 CFR 741.211 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 741.211 Section 741.211 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR... Also Apply to Federally Insured State-Chartered Credit Unions § 741.211 Advertising. Any credit union...

  5. Some Correlates of Media Political Advertising Credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einsiedel, E. F.; Casey, William

    Data collected as part of a larger survey that focused on the 1978 gubernatorial race in New York State were used in a study of political advertising and media credibility. Specifically, the study examined the factors that influence an individual's rating of the helpfulness of political advertising and related these factors to voting patterns. A…

  6. Mxit advertising's influence on cognitive attitudes amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All of the usage elements and a demographic factor, gender, were also found to have a signifi cant influence. The results provide both academia and organisations with fresh insights and a greater understanding of social network advertising. Keywords: social media, social network sites, Mxit advertising, Millennials, ...

  7. Open Up Your Newspaper with Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberger, Ronald E.

    1980-01-01

    Suggests ways the business office of a student newspaper can ease the conflicts between news and advertising space, including: raising advertising rates, selling ads only in uniform sizes, charging extra for premium space, selling special features, and selling space around a monthly calendar of special events. (TJ)

  8. A Peircean Inspired Typology of Print Advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian; Sørensen, Bent

    2010-01-01

    types and is developed on the basis of an analysis of 150 quarto-, half-, and full-page advertisements from the Danish morning paper Berlingske Tidende. There are basically two traditions in advertising research — a semiotic one and a cognitive one. But none of these traditions have been used to suggest......Based on the hypothesis that Peircean semiotics can reveal how the construction of comprehension is at least partly a function of the structure of composition, the scope of this article is to present a new categorization of print advertising. The categorization consists of six different advertising...... a possible relation between composition and the effects of comprehension, as the conceptual foundation for a categorization seems, as does the Peircean variant of semiotics, to be very limited in advertising research as such. Generally seen, the purpose of the development of the present categorization...

  9. Costly Advertising and the Evolution of Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brede, Markus

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I investigate the co-evolution of fast and slow strategy spread and game strategies in populations of spatially distributed agents engaged in a one off evolutionary dilemma game. Agents are characterized by a pair of traits, a game strategy (cooperate or defect) and a binary ‘advertising’ strategy (advertise or don’t advertise). Advertising, which comes at a cost , allows investment into faster propagation of the agents’ traits to adjacent individuals. Importantly, game strategy and advertising strategy are subject to the same evolutionary mechanism. Via analytical reasoning and numerical simulations I demonstrate that a range of advertising costs exists, such that the prevalence of cooperation is significantly enhanced through co-evolution. Linking costly replication to the success of cooperators exposes a novel co-evolutionary mechanism that might contribute towards a better understanding of the origins of cooperation-supporting heterogeneity in agent populations. PMID:23861752

  10. Pharmaceutical advertising and Medicare Part D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Sood, Neeraj; Gu, Qian

    2013-12-01

    We explore how and to what extent prescription drug insurance expansions affect incentives for pharmaceutical advertising. When insurance expansions make markets more profitable, firms respond by boosting advertising. Theory suggests this effect will be magnified in the least competitive drug classes, where firms internalize a larger share of the benefits from advertising. Empirically, we find that the implementation of Part D coincides with a 14-19% increase in total advertising expenditures. This effect is indeed concentrated in the least competitive drug classes. The additional advertising raised utilization among non-elderly patients outside the Part D program by about 3.6%. This is roughly half of the direct utilization effect of Part D on elderly beneficiaries. The results suggest the presence of considerable spillover effects from publicly subsidized prescription drug insurance on the utilization and welfare of consumers outside the program. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Pharmaceutical Advertising and Medicare Part D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Sood, Neeraj; Gu, Qian

    2013-01-01

    We explore how and to what extent prescription drug insurance expansions affects incentives for pharmaceutical advertising. When insurance expansions make markets more profitable, firms respond by boosting advertising. Theory suggests this effect will be magnified in the least competitive drug classes, where firms internalize a larger share of the benefits from advertising. Empirically, we find that the implementation of Part D coincides with a 14% to 19% increase in total advertising expenditures. This effect is indeed concentrated in the least competitive drug classes. The additional advertising raised utilization among non-elderly patients outside the Part D program by about 3.6%. This is roughly half of the direct utilization effect of Part D on elderly beneficiaries. The results suggest the presence of considerable spillover effects from publicly subsidized prescription drug insurance on the utilization and welfare of consumers outside the program. PMID:24308884

  12. Ethics in medical information and advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serour, G I; Dickens, B M

    2004-05-01

    This article presents findings and recommendations of an international conference held in Cairo, Egypt in 2003 concerning issues of ethical practice in how information is provided to and by medical practitioners. Professional advertising to practitioners and the public is necessary, but should exclude misrepresentation of qualifications, resources, and authorship of research papers. Medical institutions are responsible for how staff members present themselves, and their institutions. Medical associations, both governmental licensing authorities and voluntary societies, have powers and responsibilities to monitor professional advertisement to defend the public interest against deception. Medical journals bear duties to ensure authenticity of authorship and integrity in published papers, and the scientific basis of commercial advertisers' claims. A mounting concern is authors' conflict of interest. Mass newsmedia must ensure accuracy and proportionality in reporting scientific developments, and product manufacturers must observe truth in advertising, particularly in Direct-to-Consumer advertising. Consumer protection by government agencies is a continuing responsibility.

  13. Students’ attitudes towards internet advertising study case: University of Pardubice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radbâță, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of computer technologies has changed the traditional ways of advertising. Nowadays, many companies have made internet part of their advertising media plan. Marketers found that internet has a greater flexibility and control over the advertising materials. However, there have been a lot of debates regarding the current state of internet advertising and how it compares to traditional advertising. Many researches have been made regarding who uses the internet and what are the internet users’ attitudes towards internet advertising. This research examines how students perceive internet advertising. A sample of 106 students from University of Pardubice (Czech Republic participated in this study. It explores their attitudes towards internet advertising, internet advertising informativeness, online purchasing patterns and their preference between internet advertising and traditional advertising.

  14. A STUDY ON ETHICAL ISSUES IN ADVERTISING AND ANALYZING DIFFERENT UNETHICAL ADVERTISEMENTS WITH RESULTS OF ASCI DECISIONS: AN INDIAN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha MUNJAL

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is to study the ethical issues that arise in print and television advertising and also analyzing the various types of unethical advertisement in India with reference to ASCI principles. Today the India’s advertising industry is expanding its business at a rapid rate. India’s advertising industry in very little time has carved a niche for itself and placed itself on a global map. But over the years advertising and marketing communication messages have created debatable ethical issues like surrogate advertising, puffery, unverified claims, women stereotype, comparative advertising, use of children in advertising etc. In today’s competitive market, advertisers are sometimes following the unethical practices to fight the competition. We have analyzed with the help of examples the different unethical practices used by advertisers in advertisements in India and also discussed some real life cases solved by CCC (Consumer complaint council following the necessary ASCI Codes for it.  

  15. Advertisement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The selected candidate shall undergo a probationary period of 2 years and extendable to such period(s) as may be decided by the competent authority. Candidates already in government service should forward their application thorough proper channel or should submit No Objection Certificate at the time of written test.

  16. Advertisement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IASc), an institution under the Department of Science & Technology,. Government of India publishes scholarly scientific journals, thematic books and other publications. The. Academy currently publishes 10 journals in various disciplines in science ...

  17. ADVERTISEMENT

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ellie Osir

    contributions, latest annual report, and organization setup structure and chart. Contracting details will be provided to pre- qualified organizations. 2 The initiative is keen to engage with organizations with a shared vision of nurturing long-term relationships among various national science system actors including science ...

  18. Advertising as a cue to consume: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of acute exposure to unhealthy food and nonalcoholic beverage advertising on intake in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyland, Emma J; Nolan, Sarah; Kelly, Bridget; Tudur-Smith, Catrin; Jones, Andrew; Halford, Jason Cg; Robinson, Eric

    2016-02-01

    Several studies have assessed the effects of food and nonalcoholic beverage (hereafter collectively referred to as food) advertising on food consumption, but the results of these studies have been mixed. This lack of clarity may be impeding policy action. We examined the evidence for a relation between acute exposure to experimental unhealthy food advertising and food consumption. The study was a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies in which advertising exposure (television or Internet) was experimentally manipulated, and food intake was measured. Five electronic databases were searched for relevant publications (SCOPUS, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, Emerald Insight, and JSTOR). An inverse variance meta-analysis was used whereby the standardized mean difference (SMD) in food intake was calculated between unhealthy food advertising and control conditions. Twenty-two articles were eligible for inclusion. Data were available for 18 articles to be included in the meta-analysis (which provided 20 comparisons). With all available data included, the analysis indicated a small-to-moderate effect size for advertising on food consumption with participants eating more after exposure to food advertising than after control conditions (SMD: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.09; 0.65; I(2) = 98%). Subgroup analyses showed that the experiments with adult participants provided no evidence of an effect of advertising on intake (SMD: 0.00; P = 1.00; 95% CI: -0.08, 0.08; I(2) = 8%), but a significant effect of moderate size was shown for children, whereby food advertising exposure was associated with greater food intake (SMD: 0.56; P = 0.003; 95% CI: 0.18, 0.94; I(2) = 98%). Evidence to date shows that acute exposure to food advertising increases food intake in children but not in adults. These data support public health policy action that seeks to reduce children's exposure to unhealthy food advertising. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Investigating the effect of advertisement on consumer behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Khodakaram Arzanagh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there has been tremendous increase in advertisement expenses all over the world. Therefore, it is important to examine, to investigate and to evaluate the performance of advertisement to reach organizations’ objectives. This paper presents an empirical investigation using highly reliable and efficient method called AIDA, which consists of four factors: attention, interest, desire and action. The study is implemented for one of Iranian food suppliers called TABAROK located in city of Mashad, Iran. The survey selects a sample of 300 regular customers and distributes a standard questionnaire among them. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.93, which is well above the minimum desirable level. Using Spearman correlation test, the study confirms that all four components of the survey influences consumer behavior, positively. The study also indicates that there were some positive and meaningful correlations among various components of the survey. In addition, applying Freedman test indicates that advertisement has the highest impact on convincing consumer to purchase product.

  20. ADVERTISING CHARACTERISTICS FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF PRAGMALINGUISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savina, N.A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the advertisement as a complex, multifaceted phenomenon, the study of which presupposes an interdisciplinary approach in which the pragmalinguistic aspect is dominant studying this process as a whole: via the communicative situation, speech act, adressant, addressee, presupposition, perlocutionary effect, etc. Factors that boost the perlocutionary effect and are mandatory in the creation of an advertisement are also analyzed here. They consist in strong connection of the advertising image with the advertised object that influences the ability of the addressee to understand the meaning of the message. No less important for the advertisement is the category of implicitness, which is revealed through the verbal as well as non-verbal part of this form of communication (phonation, miremics, mimics, proxemics and others that is being demonstrated here in the analysis of perfume advertising campaigns that describe their products with the help of both verbal and visual representation (product description on the site and a video. The attempt is made to show how in the process of perception of an advertisement a decoding of the information contained in it occurs, i.e. the concept image overlaps the concept of the verbal text.

  1. ISSUES ON DISABILITY ADVERTISING IMAGING IN MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojsa Randjelovic

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A great many government organizations, charities, advocacy groups, consulting firms and media organizations are expending enormous amounts of resources because they all agree with the premise that media are a powerful educator for cultural values and attitudes. Social learning theory, cultivation and media dependency theory all support that premise, as does a body of work in the rehabilitation literature. In the small world of advertising the results of this study suggest that images of people with disabilities in advertising are a bigger part of the overall advertising environment than they were in 2001 despite the difficulties associated with contextual elements in an ad, and the public outrage/civil suits. But if we compare the appearance rate for AI advertising, as part of the total advertising environment, to the percentage of adults classified as disabled in the total U.S. population based, people with disabilities are very much under-represented (1.7% from this study as compared to 12% according to the 2009 Disability Compendium. If equal representation is the goal, we are not there yet. If acceptance of the use of disabled portrayals in general product advertising on the part of the advertising industry is the goal, then much progress has been made.

  2. Generational cohorts and their attitudes toward advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Cyril de Run

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at determining the attitudes with regard to advertising from the perspective of generational cohorts in Sarawak. A two-phase of study was conducted to firstly identify generational cohorts in the state and, secondly, to investigate the attitude of each cohort to advertising. Utilizing theories of generations, a qualitative approach by means of personal interviews was used at the outset to identify external events which bring about the formation of cohorts. Accordingly, 48 interviews were conducted and data were content-analyzed. The findings were then incorporated into the second phase of study to investigate cohorts’ views about advertising, using theory of reasoned action. A quantitative approach via questionnaire-based survey was administered, and 1,410 copies were collected for analysis. Five distinct cohorts are proposed in the initial findings. They are labeled as Neoteric Inheritors, Prospective Pursuers, Social Strivers, Idealistic Strugglers and Battling Lifers on the basis of their respective engagement with events during the coming-of-age years. The subsequent findings show that beliefs about advertising are significant predictors of the attitudes to advertising, and so are the attitudes with regard to the intention of every cohort. However, their beliefs and attitudes to advertising are found to differ significantly, especially in the older cohort. The study thus highlights the implication of generational differences on the attitudes to advertising.

  3. Examining different factors in effectiveness of advertisement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Gholamreza Jalali Naini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the effects of different factors on advertising by examining the simultaneous effects of exposure to the advertisement, type of the media, creativity in advertisements and being informative. Using data collected from one of the chain supermarkets of Tehran called “Shahrvand”; the analysis focuses on the effectiveness of four independent variables and impact of customers’ needs on encouraging consumers to purchase. The results elucidate a relationship among these four variables with encouraging people to purchase. Using creativity in advertisements, however dominate the effects on this issue. The marketing and advertisement environment are dynamic and the paper concentrates only on some of the more effective factors. Producers might be more successful in choosing the best way to promote their goods and services by following the proposed model. This paper puts four effective factors together and investigates their impact on advertisement, which was not done by any other previous papers. Unlike other studies, this paper examines the role of customer needs together with four other elements on advertisement effectiveness.

  4. Analysis of medicine advertisement produced in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wzorek LF

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the compliance of drug advertisements with regulations in Brazil, subject to Resolution RDC No. 102/2000 since 2000, which abides by the WHO’s (World Health Organization Ethical Criteria for Medicinal Drug Promotion, published in 1988. Methods: Drug advertisements running within the period of October 2002 to October 2003 were collected and recorded. Media sources included various AM and FM radio stations, television channels, newspapers, and magazines, as well as printed material distributed in doctors’ offices, hospitals, drugstores, conferences, billboards, and bus doors. All sources were located in Curitiba City, Brazil, and its surrounding area. Advertisement content was analyzed according to a conformity checklist prepared based on the legal requirements of RDC No. 102/00. Results: A total of 827 advertisements for 517 different products, 83.91% regularly registered as medicinal drugs and 16.09% unregistered products that should be registered according to the Brazilian regulations, were recorded and collected. Approximately 74.73% of the advertisements did not comply with regulations; on average, such advertisements had 4.6 infractions each. Conclusions: The results of this research suggest that RDC No. 102/00 is not followed, which strengthens the need to adopt new forms of regulation to prohibit excesses of the pharmaceutical industry and to protect the population from abusive and misleading drug advertising.

  5. Effective Application of Psychological Motivators for Social Advertisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severn, Jessica

    Social advertisers--those responsible for public and nonprofit advertising and marketing--must employ many of the major psychological motivations used by commercial advertisers to stimulate desire and action on the part of target audiences. For example, commercial advertisers create psychological stimuli to facilitate motivation of the fulfillment…

  6. 23 CFR 190.3 - Agreement to control advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agreement to control advertising. 190.3 Section 190.3... FOR CONTROLLING OUTDOOR ADVERTISING ON THE INTERSTATE SYSTEM § 190.3 Agreement to control advertising... control outdoor advertising. It must fulfill, and must continue to fulfill its obligations under such...

  7. 16 CFR 238.0 - Bait advertising defined. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bait advertising defined. 1 238.0 Section... BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.0 Bait advertising defined. 1 1 For the purpose of this part “advertising” includes any form of public notice however disseminated or utilized. Bait advertising is an alluring but...

  8. 48 CFR 5.504 - Use of advertising agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of advertising... ACQUISITION PLANNING PUBLICIZING CONTRACT ACTIONS Paid Advertisements 5.504 Use of advertising agencies. (a) General. Basic ordering agreements may be placed with advertising agencies for assistance in producing and...

  9. 12 CFR 740.2 - Accuracy of advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accuracy of advertising. 740.2 Section 740.2... ADVERTISING AND NOTICE OF INSURED STATUS § 740.2 Accuracy of advertising. No insured credit union may use any advertising (which includes print, electronic, or broadcast media, displays and signs, stationery, and other...

  10. 12 CFR 740.3 - Advertising of excess insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising of excess insurance. 740.3 Section... ACCURACY OF ADVERTISING AND NOTICE OF INSURED STATUS § 740.3 Advertising of excess insurance. Any advertising that mentions share or savings account insurance provided by a party other than the NCUA must...

  11. Digital native advertising : Practitioner perspectives and a research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harms, Bianca; Bijmolt, Tammo; Hoekstra, Janita

    2018-01-01

    Digital native advertising is a subtle form of digital advertising that is integrated closely with its context. Practitioners are increasingly assigning budgets to this advertising strategy. On the basis of 22 in-depth expert interviews with senior executives of advertising brands, publishing

  12. 48 CFR 552.203-71 - Restriction on Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restriction on Advertising... Restriction on Advertising. As prescribed in 503.570-2, insert the following clause: Restriction on Advertising (SEP 1999) The Contractor shall not refer to this contract in commercial advertising or similar...

  13. A Metafunction Analysis of Selected Public Service Advertisements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was set out to provide a detailed Metafunction analysis of Public Advertisements in Nigeria and to show how the metafunctions characterise the public service advertisement as a special form of advertisement. Ten different public service advertisements by various Federal Government Agencies were analysed for ...

  14. 43 CFR 29.8 - Notification and advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... advertising for a period of not less than thirty days. (e) The advertisement must appear in one or more local... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification and advertisement. 29.8... LIABILITY FUND § 29.8 Notification and advertisement. (a) As soon as the person in charge of a vessel has...

  15. 36 CFR 223.82 - Contents of advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contents of advertisement... SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Advertisement and Bids § 223.82 Contents of advertisement. (a) A timber sale advertisement shall include the following information...

  16. 47 CFR 76.946 - Advertising of rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising of rates. 76.946 Section 76.946... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.946 Advertising of rates. Cable operators that advertise rates for basic service and cable programming service tiers shall be required to advertise rates...

  17. 40 CFR 35.938-4 - Formal advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formal advertising. 35.938-4 Section 35... advertising. Each contract shall be awarded after formal advertising, unless negotiation is permitted in accordance with § 35.936-18. Formal advertising shall be in accordance with the following: (a) Adequate...

  18. 25 CFR 163.15 - Advertisement of sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., and 163.26 of this part, sales of forest products shall be made only after advertising. (a) The advertisement shall be approved by the officer who will approve the instrument of sale. Advertised sales shall... advertised value or the appraised value at the time of sale, whichever is greater. ...

  19. Student-Run Advertising Agency: A Showcase for Student Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, James R.; Marra, James L.

    One of the best forums for teaching creativity in advertising is the student-run advertising agency. It is organized like a typical advertising agency with a creative department, a media department, a research department and an account service department, and has a pyramidic structure. Student-run advertising agencies exist for two primary…

  20. A pre-test and post-test study of the physical and psychological effects of out-of-home respite care on caregivers of children with life-threatening conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedios, Cheryl; Willenberg, Lisa; Zordan, Rachel; Murphy, Andrea; Hessel, Gail; Philip, Jennifer

    2015-03-01

    Respite services are recommended as an important support for caregivers of children with life-threatening conditions. However, the benefits of respite have not been convincingly demonstrated through quantitative research. To determine the impact of out-of home respite care on levels of fatigue, psychological adjustment, quality of life and relationship satisfaction among caregivers of children with life-threatening conditions. A mixed-methods, pre-test and post-test study A consecutive sample of 58 parental caregivers whose children were admitted to a children's hospice for out-of-home respite over an average of 4 days. Caregivers had below-standard levels of quality of life compared to normative populations. Paired t-tests demonstrated that caregivers' average psychological adjustment scores significantly improved from pre-respite (mean = 13.9, standard error = 0.71) to post-respite (mean = 10.7, standard error = 1); p psychological adjustment of caregivers of children with life-threatening conditions. Study outcomes inform service provision and future research efforts in paediatric palliative care. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Targeting gender: A content analysis of alcohol advertising in magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, A-Reum; Hovland, Roxanne

    2016-01-01

    Creating target specific advertising is fundamental to maximizing advertising effectiveness. When crafting an advertisement, message and creative strategies are considered important because they affect target audiences' attitudes toward advertised products. This study endeavored to find advertising strategies that are likely to have special appeal for men or women by examining alcohol advertising in magazines. The results show that the substance of the messages is the same for men and women, but they only differ in terms of presentation. However, regardless of gender group, the most commonly used strategies in alcohol advertising are appeals to the target audience's emotions.

  2. Reading culture from tobacco advertisements in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichter, Mimi; Padmawati, S; Danardono, M; Ng, N; Prabandari, Y; Nichter, Mark

    2009-04-01

    Tobacco advertising in Indonesia is among the most aggressive and innovative in the world, and tobacco advertisements saturate the environment. Tobacco companies are politically and financially powerful in the country because they are one of the largest sources of government revenue. As a result, there are few restrictions on tobacco marketing and advertising. National surveys reveal that 62% of men and 1% to 3% of women are smokers. Over 90% of smokers smoke clove cigarettes (kretek). This paper examines the social and cultural reasons for smoking in Indonesia and discusses how the tobacco industry reads, reproduces and works with culture as a means of selling cigarettes. An analysis is provided of how kretek tobacco companies represent themselves as supporters of Indonesian national identity. This analysis is used to identify strategies to break the chains of positive association that currently support widespread smoking. Between November 2001 and March 2007, tobacco advertisements were collected from a variety of sources, including newspapers and magazines. Frequent photographic documentation was made of adverts on billboards and in magazines. Advertisements were segmented into thematic units to facilitate analysis. In all, 30 interviews were conducted with smokers to explore benefits and risks of smoking, perceptions of advertisements and brand preferences. Focus groups (n = 12) were conducted to explore and pretest counter advertisements. Key themes were identified in tobacco advertisements including control of emotions, smoking to enhance masculinity and smoking as a means to uphold traditional values while simultaneously emphasising modernity and globalisation. Some kretek advertisements are comprised of indirect commentaries inviting the viewer to reflect on the political situation and one's position in society. After identifying key cultural themes in cigarette advertisements, our research group is attempting to engage the tobacco industry on "cultural

  3. Consumers’ Attitude Towards Advertising Audit As Marketing Communication Tool: Advertising Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma KARABAŞ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the methods used by companies, which want to forest all the arrivals, is use effective advertisements aiming to bring out the properties of the product. Advertisement on consumers’ behaviors is one of the effective methods in creating demand for the product. It is a tool used in order to be distinguished in all respects of competition becoming widespread day by day. This study discusses advertisement ethics especially the ads on TV. Advertisement, by its nature, may have a have a misleading hidden character and cause unfair competition. The approach developed by consumers against such kinds of advertisements has been studied via data obtained by survey method. Consumers’ opinions on advertisement ethics were taken via Likert scale. The methods used for evaluating these surveys are Kolmogorov Smirnov test and One-Sample t-test.

  4. Digital TV, advertising and audience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângelo Cruz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the advertisingsegment and their relationship with the development process of the digital television. We intent to observe the new perspectives of production and consumption of media. Among other things, that involves the issues of interactivity, the exhaustion of the traditional media models, and the relationship of the new media with the audience, considering the analysis of the tripod: digital television, advertising and audience. In Brazil, with the implementation of the Brazilian System of Digital Television (SBTVD, the problem takes bigger proportions, as a consequence of the possibility to issue and track down the digital content consumed. That happens as a consequence of the consumer ability to watch the program withor without the commercial break. At the current model of television, the public is the legitimizing factor: the broadcasters issues the public a ention asan instrument to obtain pecuniary rewarding of theadvertisers. That model constitutes itself as the main funding source of the channels and networks. On the one hand, digital television represents an advantage at the quality of picture and audio, multiplying the capacity to transmit television signals and to transport new features and services. On the other hand, it seems impossible to transform this industry without some reaction. The many interests involved constitute the main cause of that scenario: the agents interested in advertising are those concerned with the role of ideology, the support of capitalism and the industrial culture. Considering all these questions, it seems almost impossible to produce deep chances,contrary to the interests involved.

  5. GLOBAL ADVERTISING MARKET – THE DYNAMICS OF THE LAST DECADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nichifor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Advertising as a form of impersonal communication aimed at a wide and diffuse audience, is the ideal tool to promote products targeting large markets in which consumers are not strong differentiated in terms motivations, preferences, attitudes, etc. Currently, in the global advertising market we can find extremely powerful organizations whose work often exceeds local and even regional economic sphere. From simple expertise in advertising, these organizations have expanded their services to a growing number of communication tools, organizing their activity to better respond to client’s requirements. These kind of advertising organizations alongside global advertisers are the key factors in the dynamics of this market. This article focuses on presenting some data regarding global expenditure in advertising, establishing as reference points the years 2002 and 2012. Moreover, we concentrated on expenditures by regions and advertisers, and on revenues obtained by advertising organizations and advertising networks, starting from official data provided by Advertising Age and Euromonitor.

  6. Pengaruh Website Interface Features, Brand Ambassador Dan Creative Advertising Terhadap Advertising Effectiveness Serta Dampaknya Terhadap Online Shopping Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Wibowo, Bambang Setia

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of brand ambassador reputation, websiteinterface features and creative advertising to advertising effectiveness and its impact toonline shopping intention. This study is the integration of previous studies to determinethe effect of simultaneous between variables and the variable advertising effectiveness asa mediating variable in the influence of brand ambassador reputation, website interfacefeatures and creative advertising to online shopping intention. Resp...

  7. Children's processing of new advertising formats: how to improve children's dispositional and situational advertising literacy?

    OpenAIRE

    Hudders, Liselot; De Pauw, Pieter; Cauberghe, Veroline; Panic, Katarina; Zarouali, Brahim

    2015-01-01

    Compared to traditional advertising formats, contemporary advertising is characterized by a more subtle, less intrusive commercial nature. Commercial messages are now frequently integrated in or merged with highly entertaining and fun media content, which distract the users from systematically and critically processing the content. This makes it difficult for consumers, especially young consumers with limited advertising literacy, to evaluate the persuasion attempt critically. Not only do...

  8. Public Sphere - Political Advertisement Relationship in Turkey: Analysing Political Advertisements of JDP in General Elections 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Dağtaş

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Public sphere is a social space, open to active individual access and free discussion, rescued from state intervention, where communicative action free from violence and individual benefits is undertaken; and rational-critical discourse is built. Political advertisement is the type advertising which aims at directing voters or the government to a particular action, having them adopt a certain view or approach. The concept of political advertising emerged with the practice of using commercial advertising techniques to promote a party, candidate or an idea. Justice and Development Party (JDP, has been ruling Turkey since 2002. The leader of the party is Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. It is a conservative party and has carried out some practices that could be regarded as negative. Anti-secular attitudes are also among these practices. Thus, analysing the political advertisements of JDP has proved to be interesting. Public sphere studies are mostly conducted through news stories and columns in media. In that sense, it is significant to analyse political advertisements in terms of public sphere. In this study, the political advertisements of the ruling Justice and Development Party (JDP in the process of Turkish General Parliamentary Election, 2011 have been analysed. The political advertisements in question have been analysed via Sabah newspaper. The reason for choosing Sabah is that it supports JDP as an example of partisan press. The samples have been taken from 2 weeks before the elections. Accordingly, as a full-page advertisement is published every day, 14 political advertisement analyses have been conducted in total. Political advertisements have been analysed using qualitative text analysis. As the study follows the path of public place-political advertising relationship, it finds meaning in itself.

  9. Emotional or rational? The determination of the influence of advertising appeal on advertising effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Grigaliūnaitė, Viktorija; Pilelienė, Lina

    2016-01-01

    In prevailing competition-based market economy, organizations have to search factors influencing advertising effectiveness. This research aims at developing the model of the influence of advertising appeal on advertising effectiveness. While achieving the aim of the article, the analysis and synthesis of scientific literature is provided. Furthermore, traditional marketing research methods as well as neuromarketing research methods are applied in order to determine the influences of different...

  10. Everyday Advertising Context: An Ethnography of Advertising Response in the Family Living Room

    OpenAIRE

    Laknath Jayasinghe; Mark Ritson

    2013-01-01

    Consumer research largely examines television advertising effects using conventional psychological accounts of message processing. Consequently, there is an emphasis on the influence of textual content at the expense of the everyday interpersonal viewing contexts surrounding advertising audiences. To help restore this theoretical imbalance an ethnographic study was conducted in eight Australian homes to explore the influence of everyday viewing contexts on advertising audiences. This article ...

  11. Internet Advertising: An Interplay among Advertisers, Online Publishers, Ad Exchanges and Web Users

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Shuai; Abidin, Ahmad Zainal; Sloan, Marc; Wang, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Internet advertising is a fast growing business which has proved to be significantly important in digital economics. It is vitally important for both web search engines and online content providers and publishers because web advertising provides them with major sources of revenue. Its presence is increasingly important for the whole media industry due to the influence of the Web. For advertisers, it is a smarter alternative to traditional marketing media such as TVs and newspapers. As the web...

  12. Key Features of Political Advertising as an Independent Type of Advertising Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Anatolyevna Chubay

    2015-01-01

    To obtain the most complete understanding of the features of political advertising, the author characterizes its specific features allocated by modern researchers. The problem of defining the notion of political advertising is studied in detail. The analysis of definitions available in professional literature has allowed the author to identify a number of key features that characterize political advertising as an independent type of promotional activity. These features include belonging to th...

  13. [Competition and the legal ramifications of physician advertising].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Bertram F

    2009-01-01

    Various healthcare reforms have spurred the idea of competition among physicians. As physicians compete for a limited pool of patients advertising has become commonplace. No longer considered an unethical practice, the legal aspects of physician advertising have transformed over the years. The present article describes current laws and statutes regulating physician advertising in Germany. Especially any advertisement likely to mislead or deceive because of a failure to disclose material facts is prohibited. Important cases of German jurisdiction concerning physician advertising are given.

  14. A Friendly Turn: Advertising Bias in the News Media

    OpenAIRE

    Ruenzi, Stefan; Focke, Florens; Niessen-Ruenzi, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates whether newspapers report more favorably about advertising corporate clients than about other firms. Our identification strategy based on high-dimensional fixed effects and high frequency advertising data shows that advertising leads to more positive press coverage. This advertising bias in reporting is found among local and national newspapers. Further results show that advertising bias manifests particularly in less negative reporting after bad news events such as ne...

  15. Advertising as a socio-cultural field: discursive component

    OpenAIRE

    O. I. Gerus

    2016-01-01

    Using the theory of social fields by P. Bourdieu the article describes the features of the advertising as a symbolic cultural field functioning. Confined to the locality of its actions, advertising creates cultural forms, images, facilities, value­based judgments that become widespread, claiming the role of human behavior that must be followed. The author defines advertising as a symbolic cultural field. To analyse the advertising field and determine the impact of advertising on learning and ...

  16. Peculiarities of conducting an advertising campaign of a commercial bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Platonov K. A.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available the article outlines special characteristics of banking advertising. It describes the main types of banking advertising as well as the main types of banking products and services. What is more, the authors discovered the peculiarities of advertising budgeting of a commercial bank, analyzes different methods of determining the advertising budget and controlling the work of an advertising department of a commercial bank.

  17. The Dynamics of Price and Advertising as Signals of Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Musa Ayar

    2007-01-01

    A monopolist introduces a new product of either low or high quality. It advertises to make consumers aware of the product and signals product quality using both price and advertising. When consumption does not re- veal product quality, price is higher and advertising is lower than they would be if product quality is observable. Price rises and advertising falls as the fraction of aware consumers increases. When consumption reveals product quality, price is higher and advertising is lower than...

  18. Students’ attitudes towards internet advertising study case: University of Pardubice

    OpenAIRE

    Radbâță, A.; Kubenka, M.

    2012-01-01

    The development of computer technologies has changed the traditional ways of advertising. Nowadays, many companies have made internet part of their advertising media plan. Marketers found that internet has a greater flexibility and control over the advertising materials. However, there have been a lot of debates regarding the current state of internet advertising and how it compares to traditional advertising. Many researches have been made regarding who uses the internet and what are the int...

  19. PERIKLANAN DALAM MEDIA BARU (Advertising In The New Media )

    OpenAIRE

    Errika Dwi Setya Watie

    2016-01-01

    Advertising is currently getting a huge challenge. the number of ads , it is realized or not, effects on saturation of advertising. New era media presents new communications media to the community. This condition should be recognized by anyone working in the advertising, because the development of advertising is in line with a new media movement, so the expectansy of the intended market segment will be achieved better. Today, the challenge of a new style of advertising has been answered b...

  20. The Pollution Effect: Optimizing Keyword Auctions by Favoring Relevant Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Linden, Greg; Meek, Christopher; Chickering, Max

    2011-01-01

    Most search engines sell slots to place advertisements on the search results page through keyword auctions. Advertisers offer bids for how much they are willing to pay when someone enters a search query, sees the search results, and then clicks on one of their ads. Search engines typically order the advertisements for a query by a combination of the bids and expected clickthrough rates for each advertisement. In this paper, we extend a model of Yahoo's and Google's advertising auctions to inc...