WorldWideScience

Sample records for stand-alone blood plasma

  1. Stand-alone XLIF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, E. J.; Simony, A.; Hummel, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    and clinical/radiological results in 22 patients treated with XLIF procedure for DS or degenerative disc disease (DDD). Material and methods: 22 consecutive patients with DS underwent surgery with the XLIF stand-alone procedure, with follow-up of 24 months. Clinical outcome scores were collected. Complications......Introduction: Adult thoracolumbar degeneration is an increasing challenge in the aging population. With age the progressive degeneration of the discs leads to an asymmetric collapse and a thoracolumbar coronal plane deformity, a degenerative scoliosis (DS). Aim: To evaluate the complication rate......-year follow-up, with a 31.8% revision rate. Due to the high revision rate we recommend supplementary posterior instrumentation, to achieve a higher fusion rate. When considering XLIF-stand-alone procedure for DS or DDD without supplemental posterior instrumentation, only single-level disease should...

  2. Solar Charged Stand Alone Inverter

    OpenAIRE

    M.Vasugi; Prof R.Jayaraman

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with solar powered stand alone inverter which converts the variable dc output of a photovoltaic solar panel into ac that can be fed to loads. Stand alone inverters are used in systems where the inverter get its energy from batteries charged by photo voltaic arrays. A charge controller limits the rate at which electric current is added to or drawn from electric batteries. This charge discharge controller is needed to prevent the battery from being overcharged o...

  3. The Stand-alone Heliostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Navajas, G. I.; Egea Gea, A.

    2000-01-01

    The first Autonomous Heliostat has been developed by CIEMAT at PSA facilities in Almeria. This heliostat is an innovative approach to reducing the civil engineering work costs in heliostat fields of central tower plants. Channels, cables and other electric elements have been eliminated in the new heliostat. Thus, one 70-nr, classical T glass/metal heliostat has been adapted to include all the new stand-alone concept components. A PV system is able to drive two sun-tracking DC motors between 5 and 24Vdc, 0 and 15A. The heliostat communicates with the control room 400-m away by using a radio-modem working at 9600 baud. An anemometer, a wind switcher, light and ambient temperature sensors have been installed on the heliostat for self-protection decision-making. A PV panel integrated into the heliostat reflecting surface, eliminates cabling and other elements required for a conventional power supply. Communication lines between master control and local control have been replaced by radio-modem. Testing has validated the technical feasibility of the prototype and quantified the real consumption and efficiencies of new elements. The extra costs produced.by the autonomous concepts are compared with the cost of civil work in conventional heliostat field. (Author) 8 refs

  4. Basic Stand Alone Medicare Inpatient Claims PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Inpatient Public Use Files (PUF) named CMS 2008 BSA Inpatient Claims PUF with information from 2008 Medicare...

  5. Basic Stand Alone Carrier Line Items PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Carrier Line Items Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare Carrier claims. The CMS BSA Carrier Line...

  6. Stand alone photovoltaic systems: guarantee of results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This study aims to provide a guarantee of results for system performance for users of stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems, which have no back-up generator. The appropriate main performance criterion for PV systems is that a specified load is supplied with power either continuously or intermittently whenever the load requires power. A methodology to evaluate the power availability of stand-alone PV systems has been developed as part of the project, which encompasses power losses due to weather variations. The guarantee of results produced allows users to compare system designs from different manufacturers. (UK)

  7. Stand-alone photovoltaic applications. Lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loois, G.; Van Hemert, B.

    1999-02-01

    The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative R and D agreements established within the IEA. The objective of Task III is to promote and facilitate the exchange of information and experiences in the field of PV Systems in Stand-alone and Island Applications (SAPV). The book focuses on the practical experiences gained, and does not aim to provide a complete manual on SAPV. When Task III started its activities in 1993, a collection of 50 'State of the art' projects was published in the book 'Examples of Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems'. This publication marked the base line for the work of the task. Now, in 1998, the showcases from each country demonstrate the lessons learned in five years of cooperation. The book consists of two parts. The first part contains eight chapters dealing with a specific aspect of stand-alone PV. The second part introduces 14 national showcase projects in a systematic presentation. Each chapter and showcase can be read independently from the rest of the book. Chapter 2, contributed by The Netherlands, analyses the market for stand-alone PV systems. It gives an overview of the 'traditional' application of stand-alone PV, which is the electrification of remote buildings and which has been addressed in depth in other publications. The focus is on the market niches of service applications that are also interesting for more densely populated areas, e.g. in industrialised countries. The United Kingdom illustrates the economic aspects in Chapter 3. Cost comparisons are made, but more important is the illustration of the non-financial considerations that make PV the preferred choice as a power source for many applications. Switzerland explores in Chapter 4 (financing aspects) different financing mechanisms, and financial policies used to overcome the initial cost barrier. Most of these approaches have been applied in developing countries rather than in the western world. Using various examples from all over the

  8. Developing a mobile stand alone photovoltaic generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soler-Bientz, R.; Ricalde-Cab, L.O.; Solis-Rodriguez, L.E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a recent work developed to create a mobile stand alone photovoltaic generator that can be easily relocated in remote areas to evaluate the feasibility of photovoltaic energy applications. A set of sensors were installed to monitor the electric current and voltage of the energy generated, the energy stored and the energy used by the loads that may be connected to the system. Other parameters like solar radiations (both on the horizontal and on the photovoltaic generation planes) and temperatures (of both the environment and the photovoltaic module) were monitored. This was done while considering the important role of temperature in the photovoltaic module performance. Finally, a measurement and communication hardware was installed to interface the system developed with a conventional computer. In this way, the performance of the overall system in real rural conditions could be evaluated efficiently. Visual software that reads, visualizes and saves the data generated by the system was also developed by means of the LabVIEW programming environment

  9. 39 CFR 122.2 - Stand-alone special services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stand-alone special services. 122.2 Section 122.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES [DOMESTIC MAIL] SERVICE STANDARDS FOR MARKET-DOMINANT SPECIAL SERVICES PRODUCTS § 122.2 Stand-alone special services. (a) The service standard...

  10. Stand-alone induction generators for small water power schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, Adam [Intermediate Technology Development Group, Rugby (United Kingdom); Smith, Nigel [Smith Associates, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    1996-04-01

    Conventional technology for isolated power generation is the synchronous generator. Using stand-alone induction generators has proved to have tremendous advantages in remote regions of developing countries, where electricity has significant social benefits. (author)

  11. Basic Stand Alone Medicare DME Line Items PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Durable Medical Equipment (DME) Line Items Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare DME claims. The...

  12. Basic Stand Alone Skilled Nursing Facility Beneficiary PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Skilled Nursing Facility (SNF) Beneficiary Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare SNF claims. The...

  13. The stand-alone test and decreasing serial cost sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Thorlund-Petersen, Lars

    2000-01-01

    The rule of decreasing serial cost sharing defined in de Frutos [1] over the class of concave cost functions may violate the important stand-alone test. Sufficient conditions for the test to be satisfied are given, in terms of individual rationality as well as coalitional stability...

  14. Stand-alone solutions, computer networks and extern communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarschisch, H.

    1988-01-01

    The advantages of local networks over stand-alone solutions are presented. Of the local networks (LAN), two are presently at the center of attention: the bus and the ring. ETHERNET and the IBM-Token-Ring are described as typical examples. Access to public networks, especially TELEPAC and ISDN, is discussed. 12 figs

  15. Ampere hour method of sizing a stand alone photovoltaic system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stand-alone photovoltaic power systems are natural options for application in electrification of remote areas which are not served by the grid electricity supply system. An ampere-hour ... Sizing of the balance-of-system were carefully handled to avoid undersizing or oversizing and subsequent variation in supply reliability.

  16. Models for a stand-alone PV system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A.D.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Hansen, L.H.

    2001-01-01

    are based on the model descriptions found in the literature. The battery model is developed at UMASS and is known as the Kinetic Battery Model(KiBaM). The other component models in the PV system are based on simple electrical knowledge. The implementation is done using Matlab/Simulink, a simulation program......This report presents a number of models for modelling and simulation of a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system with a battery bank verified against a system installed at Risø National Laboratory. The work has been supported by the Danish Ministry ofEnergy, as a part of the activities in the Solar...... Energy Centre Denmark. The study is carried out at Risø National Laboratory with the main purpose to establish a library of simple mathematical models for each individual element of a stand-alone PVsystem, namely solar cells, battery, controller, inverter and load. The models for PV module and battery...

  17. Optimal sizing method for stand-alone photovoltaic power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groumpos, P P; Papageorgiou, G

    1987-01-01

    The total life-cycle cost of stand-alone photovoltaic (SAPV) power systems is mathematically formulated. A new optimal sizing algorithm for the solar array and battery capacity is developed. The optimum value of a balancing parameter, M, for the optimal sizing of SAPV system components is derived. The proposed optimal sizing algorithm is used in an illustrative example, where a more economical life-cycle cost has bene obtained. The question of cost versus reliability is briefly discussed.

  18. Models for a stand-alone PV system[Photovoltaic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, A.D.; Soerensen, P.; Hansen, L.H.; Bindner, H.

    2000-12-01

    This report presents a number of models for modelling and simulation of a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system with a battery bank verified against a system installed at Risoe National Laboratory. The work has been supported by the Danish Ministry of Energy, as a part of the activities in the Solar Energy Centre Denmark. The study is carried out at Risoe National Laboratory with the main purpose to establish a library of simple mathematical models for each individual element of a stand-alone PV system, namely solar cells, battery, controller, inverter and load. The models for PV module and battery are based on the model descriptions found in the literature. The battery model is developed at UMASS and is known as the Kinetic Battery Model (KiBaM). The other component models in the PV system are based on simple electrical knowledge. The implementation is done using Matlab/Simulink, a simulation program that provides a graphical interface for building models as modular block diagrams. The non-linear behaviour of the battery, observed in the measurements, is investigated and compared to the KiBaM model's performance. A set of linear Black box models are estimated based on the battery measurements. The performance of the best linear Black box model is compared to the KiBaM model. A validation of each of the implemented mathematical model is performed by an interactive analysis and comparison between simulation results and measurements, acquired from the stand-alone PV system at Risoe. (au)

  19. Size-Prediction Analysis for Stand-Alone Photovoltaic System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erusiafe, N. E.; Chendo, M. A. C.

    2002-01-01

    The cost - effectiveness of photovoltaic (PV) generator depends, among others, on its ability to satisfy energy demand and the cost of achieving this. In this work a step - by - step procedure for predicting the size of the main components of a stand - alone PV system (array and storage) is presented. The results yield an expression which can he used lo determine the size of both components at optimum cost and desired reliability. The result from this work compare favourably with some earlier works in that, the system sizes shows some degree of agreement

  20. Availability model of stand-alone photovoltaic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, G.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper we present a simple, empirical model of stand-alone photovoltaic power system availability. The model is a final result of five-year long studies and ground measurements of solar irradiation carried out in Central Europe. The obtained results facilitate sizing of PV modules that have to be installed with taking into account system's availability level in each month of a year. The model can be extended to different geographical locations, with help of local meteorological data or solar irradiation datasets derived from satellite measurements.

  1. Future UK markets for stand-alone renewable energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paish, O.

    1999-01-01

    A study to identify and quantify the market for stand-alone renewable energy supplies of power (photovoltaics, wind and micro-hydro electricity systems) was described. The study focused on small systems, generally less than a few kW installed capacity. It was suggested that in the UK, the emphasis on grid-connected renewable energy technologies (RETs) has blurred the fact that it is 'off-grid' renewable systems that can offer more immediate real commercial markets for the renewables business. With the likelihood of a significant increase in demand for renewables world wide over the next ten years, the UK needs to make a special effort to become involved

  2. Benchmarking the Collocation Stand-Alone Library and Toolkit (CSALT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Steven; Knittel, Jeremy; Shoan, Wendy; Kim, Youngkwang; Conway, Claire; Conway, Darrel J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the processes and results of Verification and Validation (VV) efforts for the Collocation Stand Alone Library and Toolkit (CSALT). We describe the test program and environments, the tools used for independent test data, and comparison results. The VV effort employs classical problems with known analytic solutions, solutions from other available software tools, and comparisons to benchmarking data available in the public literature. Presenting all test results are beyond the scope of a single paper. Here we present high-level test results for a broad range of problems, and detailed comparisons for selected problems.

  3. Enhanced current and voltage regulators for stand-alone applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, de Bosio; Pastorelli, Michele; Antonio DeSouza Ribeiro, Luiz

    2016-01-01

    State feedback decoupling permits to achieve a better dynamic response for Voltage Source in stand-alone applications. The design of current and voltage regulators is performed in the discrete-time domain since it provides better accuracy and allows direct pole placement. As the attainable...... bandwidth of the current loop is mainly limited by computational and PWM delays, a lead compensator structure is proposed to overcome this limitation. The design of the voltage regulator is based on the Nyquist criterion, verifying to guarantee a high sensitivity peak. Discrete-time domain implementation...

  4. Hydrogen Gas Production in a Stand-Alone Wind Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Naziry Kordkandy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is analyzing the operation of a stand-alone wind farm with variable speed turbines, permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSG and a system for converting wind energy during wind speed variations. On this paper, the design and modeling of a wind system which uses PMSG’s to provide the required power of a hydrogen gas electrolyzer system, is discussed. This wind farm consists of three wind turbines, boost DC-DC converters, diode full bridge rectifiers, permanent magnet synchronous generators, MPPT control and a hydrogen gas electrolyzer system. The MPPT controller based on fuzzy logic is designed to adjust the duty ratio of the boost DC-DC converters to absorb maximum power. The proposed fuzzy logic controller assimilates, with (PSF MPPT algorithm which generally used to absorb maximum power from paralleled wind turbines and stores it in form of hydrogen gas. The system is modeled and its behavior is studied using the MATLAB software.

  5. Magnetic field measurements near stand-alone transformer stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Shaiela; Hareuveny, Ronen; Yitzhak, Nir-Mordechay; Ruppin, Raphael

    2013-12-01

    Extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic field (MF) measurements around and above three stand-alone 22/0.4-kV transformer stations have been performed. The low-voltage (LV) cables between the transformer and the LV switchgear were found to be the major source of strong ELF MFs of limited spatial extent. The strong fields measured above the transformer stations support the assessment method, to be used in future epidemiological studies, of classifying apartments located right above the transformer stations as highly exposed to MFs. The results of the MF measurements above the ground around the transformer stations provide a basis for the assessment of the option of implementing precautionary procedures.

  6. Integral type small PWR with stand-alone safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makihara, Yoshiaki

    2001-01-01

    A feasibility study is achieved on an integral type small PWR with stand-alone safety. It is designed to have the following features. (1) The coolant does not leak out at any accidental condition. (2) The fuel failure does never occur while it is supposed on the large scale PWR at the design base accident. (3) At any accidental condition the safety is secured without any support from the outside (stand-alone safety secure). (4) It has self-regulating characteristics and easy controllability. The above features can be satisfied by integrate the steam generator and CRDM in the reactor vessel while the pipe line break has to be considered on the conventional PWR. Several counter measures are planned to satisfy the above features. The economy feature is also attained by several simplifications such as (1) elimination of main coolant piping and pressurizer by the integration of primary cooling system and self-pressurizing, (2) elimination of RCP by application of natural circulating system, (3) elimination of ECCS and accumulator by application of static safety system, (4) large scale volume reduction of the container vessel by application of integrated primary cooling system, (5) elimination of boric acid treatment by deletion of chemical shim. The long operation period such as 10 years can be attained by the application of Gd fuel in one batch refueling. The construction period can be shortened by the standardizing the design and the introduction of modular component system. Furthermore the applicability of the reduced modulation core is also considered. (K. Tsuchihashi)

  7. A control strategy for PV stand-alone applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slouma, S.; Baccar, H.

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system study in domestic applications. Because of the decrease in power of photovoltaic module as a consequence of changes in solar radiation and temperature which affect the photovoltaic module performance, the design and control of DC-DC buck converter was proposed for providing power to the load from a photovoltaic source.In fact, the control of this converter is carried out with integrated MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) algorithm which ensures a maximum energy generated by the PV arrays. Moreover, the output stage is composed by a battery energy storage system, dc-ac inverter, LCL filter which enables higher efficiency, low distortion ac waveforms and low leakage currents. The control strategy adopted is cascade control composed by two regulation loops.Simulations performed with PSIM software were able to validate the control system.The realization and testing of the photovoltaic system were achieved in the Photovoltaic laboratory of the Centre for Research and Energy Technologies at the Technopark Borj Cedria. Experimental results verify the effeciency of the proposed system.

  8. A control strategy for PV stand-alone applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slouma, S; Baccar, H

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system study in domestic applications. Because of the decrease in power of photovoltaic module as a consequence of changes in solar radiation and temperature which affect the photovoltaic module performance, the design and control of DC-DC buck converter was proposed for providing power to the load from a photovoltaic source.In fact, the control of this converter is carried out with integrated MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) algorithm which ensures a maximum energy generated by the PV arrays. Moreover, the output stage is composed by a battery energy storage system, dc-ac inverter, LCL filter which enables higher efficiency, low distortion ac waveforms and low leakage currents. The control strategy adopted is cascade control composed by two regulation loops.Simulations performed with PSIM software were able to validate the control system.The realization and testing of the photovoltaic system were achieved in the Photovoltaic laboratory of the Centre for Research and Energy Technologies at the Technopark Borj Cedria. Experimental results verify the effeciency of the proposed system

  9. Improving efficiency of a regional stand alone bone bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, Jonathan M; Rowan, Clare H; Davidson, Helen; Millar, Ciara; McAlinden, M Gavan

    2016-03-01

    The introduction of a stand-alone Bone Bank in our Regional Orthopaedic Hospital has improved the availability of femoral head allograft. Benninger et al. (Bone Joint J 96-B:1307-1311, 2014), demonstrated their institutions bank to be cost effective despite a 30 % discard rate for harvested allograft. We sought to audit our own discard rates and subsequent cost-effectiveness of our bone bank. Donor recruitment. Before approaching a potential donor, our establishment's nurse specialists review their clinical notes and biochemical laboratory results, available on a regional Electronic Care Records. They view femoral head architecture on radiographs against set criteria, Patient Archive and Communication system (SECTRA, Sweden). In total 1383 femoral heads were harvested, 247 were discarded giving an overall rate of 17.9 %. The most common reasons for discard of harvested graft was a positive microbiology/bacteriology result, n = 96 (38.9 %). After a rise in discard rates in 2007, we have steadily reduced our discard rates since 2006/2007 (28.2 %), 2008/2009 (17 %), 2010/2011 (14.8 %), and finally to 10.3 % in 2012/2013. In the current financial year, our cost to harvest, test, store and release a femoral head is £ 610. With a structured donor recruitment process and unique pre-operative radiographic analysis we have successfully reduced our discard rates bi-annually making our bone bank increasingly cost-effective.

  10. The Stand-alone Heliostat; El Heliostato Autonomo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Navajas, G.; Egea Gea, A. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The first Autonomous Heliostat has been developed by CIEMAT at PSA facilities in Almeria. This heliostat is an innovative approach to reducing the civil engineering work costs in heliostat fields of central tower plants. Channels, cables and other electric elements have been eliminated in the new heliostat. Thus, one 70-m''2, classical T glass/metal heliostat has been adapted to include all the new stand-alone concept components. A PV system is able to drive two sun-tracking DC motors between 5 and 24 Vdc, 0 and 15A. The heliostat communicates with the control room 400-m away by using a radio-modern working at 9600 baud. An anemometer, a wind switcher, light and ambient temperature sensors have been installed on the heliostat for self-protection decision-making. A PV panel integrated into the heliostat reflecting surface, eliminates cabling and other elements required for a conventional power supply. Communication lines between master control and local control have been replaced by radio-modern. Testing has validated the technical feasibility of the prototype and quantified the real consumption and efficiencies of new elements. The extra costs produced by the autonomous concepts are compared with the cost of civil work in conventional heliostat field. (Author) 8 refs.

  11. The Stand-alone Heliostat; El Heliostato Autonomo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Navajas, G; Egea Gea, A [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The first Autonomous Heliostat has been developed by CIEMAT at PSA facilities in Almeria. This heliostat is an innovative approach to reducing the civil engineering work costs in heliostat fields of central tower plants. Channels, cables and other electric elements have been eliminated in the new heliostat. Thus, one 70-m''2, classical T glass/metal heliostat has been adapted to include all the new stand-alone concept components. A PV system is able to drive two sun-tracking DC motors between 5 and 24 Vdc, 0 and 15A. The heliostat communicates with the control room 400-m away by using a radio-modern working at 9600 baud. An anemometer, a wind switcher, light and ambient temperature sensors have been installed on the heliostat for self-protection decision-making. A PV panel integrated into the heliostat reflecting surface, eliminates cabling and other elements required for a conventional power supply. Communication lines between master control and local control have been replaced by radio-modern. Testing has validated the technical feasibility of the prototype and quantified the real consumption and efficiencies of new elements. The extra costs produced by the autonomous concepts are compared with the cost of civil work in conventional heliostat field. (Author) 8 refs.

  12. A review of three stand-alone topical thrombins for surgical hemostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Christine M; Meyer-Massetti, Carla; Kayser, Steven R

    2009-01-01

    Topical thrombins are active hemostatic agents that can be used to minimize blood loss during surgery. Before 2007, the only topical thrombins available were derived from bovine plasma. Antibody formation to bovine thrombin and/or factor V, with subsequent risk of cross-reactivity with human factor V, and hemorrhagic complications associated with human factor-V deficiencies have been described in case reports of surgeries in which bovine thrombins were used. This risk is now included in the boxed warning section of the bovine thrombin prescribing information. In 2007 and 2008, 2 new topical thrombins from nonbovine sources received approval for use from the US Food and Drug Administration. The 3 active topical thrombins that are currently marketed are bovine plasma-derived thrombin, human plasma-derived thrombin, and human recombinant thrombin. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the literature on the efficacy and safety of topical thrombins and discuss the pharmacoeconomic considerations associated with their use. PubMed, EMBASE, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts were searched for relevant papers published in English through October 10,2008, using the terms thrombin, human recombinant thrombin, bovine thrombin, plasma derived thrombin, and topical thrombin. Manufacturer-provided materials were also reviewed. Abstracts and unpublished data, as well as evaluations of sealants, adhesives, glues, and other hemostats that contain thrombin mixed with fibrinogen and other clotting factors, were excluded. Four randomized, double-blind studies involving the active, stand-alone topical thrombins were found. The bovine thrombin involved in these studies was the predecessor to the currently marketed, highly purified bovine formulation. No studies comparing the human products, studies involving the highly purified bovine preparation, or placebo-controlled studies involving bovine thrombin were found. In a Phase III comparison of human recombinant thrombin and

  13. JAERI Fuel Cleanup System (J-FCU) stand-alone tritium test at the TSTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Satoshi; Hayashi, Takumi; Inoue, Masahiko

    1993-03-01

    JAERI designed, fabricated, and installed the JAERI Fuel Cleanup System (J-FCU) as a subsystem of simulated fusion fuel loop at the TSTA. The main function of the J-FCU is to purify and to recover hydrogen isotopes from simulated plasma exhaust while exhausting tritium free impurities. After a lot of deuterium tests, a first tritium test of the J-FCU was performed with one gram of tritium at the TSTA on June 1991. Main purpose of this test was to evaluate the total integrity and function of the J-FCU system with a DT mixture. Through this test, the J-FCU was operated well and its function with tritium was demonstrated. This report describes the detail test results of the J-FCU first tritium test and discuss its functions by stand-alone mode. Residual tritium inventory of the J-FCU system was also discussed. (author)

  14. R and D into stand-alone PV systems for export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The current status of photovoltaic (PV) technology is reviewed for systems to provide electricity where mains supplies are unavailable, known as stand-alone PV systems. Typical applications and experiences with installed stand-alone systems are described. Economic issues and barriers to the wide use of PV systems are also examined. (UK)

  15. Clinical outcome of stand-alone ALIF compared to posterior instrumentation for degenerative disc disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udby, Peter M.; Bech-Azeddine, Rachid

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the article was to: a) present results from a case cohort pilot study comparing stand-alone ALIF and TLIF and, b) review the literature on studies comparing the clinical outcome of stand-alone ALIF with posterior instrumentation including TLIF or PLIF, in patients with disabling...... low back pain resulting from degenerative disc disease. ALIF surgery has previously been linked with certain high risk complications and unfavorable long term fusion results. Newer studies suggest that stand-alone ALIF can possibly be advantageous compared to other types of posterior instrumented...

  16. Procedures for Determining the Performance of Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBlasio, R.; Durand, S.; Hansen, R.; Hutchinson, P.; Kroposki, B.; McNutt, P.; Rosenthal, A.; Thomas, M.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides the procedures for determining the performance of stand-alone PV systems. The procedures in this document provide a common approach for evaluating whether a given PV system is suitable to perform the function for which it was designed and manufactured to accomplish, and whether it will provide adequate power to run the load. These procedures cover small stand-alone PV systems. They cover complete outdoor system testing. Test results are valid only for the system that is tested

  17. Stand-alone photovoltaic systems in the Netherlands. Evaluation of the market introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloin, J.; Van Dijk, A.L.; Westra, C.A.

    1999-08-01

    The policy followed for stand-alone PV systems in the Netherlands is evaluated for the period 1997-1998. The world-wide powerful growth of the PV industry is not being followed by the increase in volume of implemented stand-alone PV systems in the Netherlands. This leads to the question whether the Dutch policy to stimulate stand-alone PV systems is effective. Recommendations on the use of communication as a strategic instrument are given, including the drawing up of a marketing plan. Other recommendations include increased transparency in the application for subsidies and a pro-active role of the Netherlands Agency for Energy and the Environment (Novem) in the contact with relevant market parties. The increased focus on product development aimed at the environmental benefits and general reliability of PV systems is recommended. 38 refs

  18. Stand-alone wind system with Vanadium Redox Battery energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Barote, L.; Weissbach, R.

    2008-01-01

    Energy storage devices are required for power balance and power quality in stand alone wind energy systems. A Vanadium Redox Flow Battery (VRB) system has many features which make its integration with a stand-alone wind energy system attractive. This paper proposes the integration of a VRB system...... with a typical stand-alone wind energy system during wind speed variation as well as transient performance under variable load. The investigated system consists of a variable speed wind turbine with permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG), diode rectifier bridge, buck-boost converter, bidirectional charge...... controller, transformer, inverter, ac loads and VRB (to store a surplus of wind energy and to supply power during a wind power shortage). The main purpose is to supply domestic appliances through a single phase 230V, 50Hz inverter. Simulations are accomplished in order to validate the stability of the supply....

  19. Connecting embedded and stand-alone peer mentoring models to enhance student engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhys Cooper

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the Trident Student Mentoring Program that runs in the College of Engineering at Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia. The program offers both embedded and stand-alone models of peer mentoring services to the same cohort of first-year students. It shows that by forming strong links between these two types of peer mentoring models, the inherent challenges of both, such as low attendance rates in stand-alone models and short periods of peer to peer time in embedded models, are mitigated.

  20. Sensorless direct voltage control of the stand-alone brushless doubly-fed generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yi; Xu, Wei; Xiong, Fei

    2017-01-01

    The conventional stand-alone brushless doubly-fed generator (BDFG) control strategies need the feedback from the rotor position or speed sensors, which can reduce system reliability and increase the cost and axial volume of the machine. In this paper, a sensorless direct voltage control (DVC) str......) strategy is presented for the stand-alone BDFG. The satisfactory dynamic performance is verified by experimental results under four kinds of typical operation conditions. Besides, the proposed control strategy is robust due to no generator parameters being required....

  1. Stand-Alone Lateral Interbody Fusion for the Treatment of Low-Grade Degenerative Spondylolisthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Marchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to investigate the stand-alone lateral interbody fusion as a minimally invasive option for the treatment of low-grade degenerative spondylolisthesis with a minimum 24-month followup. Prospective nonrandomized observational single-center study. 52 consecutive patients (67.6±10 y/o; 73.1% female; 27.4±3.4 BMI with single-level grade I/II single-level degenerative spondylolisthesis without significant spine instability were included. Fusion procedures were performed as retroperitoneal lateral transpsoas interbody fusions without screw supplementation. The procedures were performed in average 73.2 minutes and with less than 50cc blood loss. VAS and Oswestry scores showed lasting improvements in clinical outcomes (60% and 54.5% change, resp.. The vertebral slippage was reduced in 90.4% of cases from mean values of 15.1% preoperatively to 7.4% at 6-week followup (P<0.001 and was maintained through 24 months (7.1%, P<0.001. Segmental lordosis (P<0.001 and disc height (P<0.001 were improved in postop evaluations. Cage subsidence occurred in 9/52 cases (17% and 7/52 cases (13% spine levels needed revision surgery. At the 24-month evaluation, solid fusion was observed in 86.5% of the levels treated. The minimally invasive lateral approach has been shown to be a safe and reproducible technique to treat low-grade degenerative spondylolisthesis.

  2. Linguistic and Structural Analyses of Stand-Alone Literature Reviews: Seventy-Five Years of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Heidi Rachel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to offer a multifaceted overview of stand-alone literature reviews. These texts, literature reviews published unattached to research articles, have existed for centuries but remained largely unstudied by linguists. Thus, the goal of this project is to present these reviews' situational, grammatical, and…

  3. Assessment of Stand-Alone Displays for Time Management in a Creativity-Driven Learning Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimodt-Møller, Søren

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers the pros and cons of stand-alone displays, analog (e.g. billboards, blackboards, whiteboards, large pieces of paper etc.) as well as digital (e.g. large shared screens, digital whiteboards or similar), as tools for time management processes in a creativity-driven learning...

  4. Stand-alone version of the 11kW Gaia wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, H.; Rosas, P.A.C.; Teodorescu, R.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the development of a stand-alone version of the 11kW Gaia wind turbine. Various possible configurations are investigated and a configuration using a back-to-back converter is chosen. A model is developed for controller design of thefast controllers of the unit. Controllers...... assessment and controller design a dynamic performance assessment model has been developed....

  5. A maximum power point tracking scheme for a 1kw stand-alone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A maximum power point tracking scheme for a 1kw stand-alone solar energy based power supply. ... Nigerian Journal of Technology ... A method for efficiently maximizing the output power of a solar panel supplying a load or battery bus under ...

  6. Use of Super-Capacitor to Enhance Charging Performance of Stand-Alone Solar PV System

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B. J.; Hsu, P. C.; Ho, P. Y

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The battery charging performance in a stand-alone solar PV system affects the PV system efficiency and the load operating time. The New Energy Center of National Taiwan University has been devoted to the development of a PWM charging

  7. Environmental/Climatic Effect on Stand-Alone Solar Energy Supply ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the climatic eects and environmental variations on the performance of a stand-alone photovoltaic system. The eects of partial shading with dierent climate conditions and load resistance variations were examined. A survey of some of the work done in this eld of environmental eect on solar panel was ...

  8. 11kW stand alone wind turbine based on proven wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, H.; Wodstrup, J.; Andersen, J.

    2004-01-01

    and enable control of frequency and voltage independently on both the grid side and the generator side. The prototype has been installed at Risø. The paper will present results from test runs of the system both operating stand-alone supplying a single load and in parallel operation with a diesel genset....

  9. Modelling of fluid-solid interaction using two stand-alone codes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, Jan H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A method is proposed for the modelling of fluid-solid interaction in applications where fluid forces dominate. Data are transferred between two stand-alone codes: a dedicated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code capable of free surface modelling...

  10. Use of appliances in stand-alone PV power supply systems: problems and solutions. Task 3 use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallve, X.; Gafas, G. [IEA PVPS, Task 3 (Spain); Villoz, M. [IEA PVPS, Task 3 (Switzerland); Wilshaw, A. [IEA PVPS, Task 3 (United Kingdom); Jacquin, P. [IEA PVPS, Task 3 (France)

    2002-09-15

    In Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems (SAPV systems), special attention must be paid to the used appliances and loads. Inappropriate loads are very often the origin of PV system malfunction or failure. Start-up power peaks, or reactive power and harmonic distortion can cause system signal instability and protective devices will close the system down. A well-matched load together with a carefully selected choice of appliances can lead to significant savings in terms of reduced need for PV and electricity storage capacity. Conversely, inefficient appliances and processes, standby loads and inappropriate loads will increase the requirement for expensive PV and storage capacity. This paper presents a survey of real cases with load related problems in worldwide applications, their effect on quality and cost of the service and the solutions that were adopted and suggested alternative solutions. One of the main conclusions of the work is the importance to integrate the choice of the appliance while designing the SAPV system. (author)

  11. Hybrid Configuration of Darrieus and Savonius Rotors for Stand-alone Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakui, Tetsuya; Tanzawa, Yoshiaki; Hashizume, Takumi; Nagao, Toshio

    The suitable hybrid configuration of Darrieus lift-type and Savonius drag-type rotors for stand-alone wind turbine-generator systems is discussed using our dynamic simulation model. Two types of hybrid configurations are taken up: Type-A installs the Savonius rotor inside the Darrieus rotor and Type-B installs the Savonius rotor outside the Darrieus rotor. The computed results of the output characteristics and the dynamic behaviors of the system operated at the maximum power coefficient points show that Type-A, which has fine operating behavior to wind speed changes and can be compactly designed because of a shorter rotational shaft, is an effective way for self-controlled stand-alone small-scale systems.

  12. Stand-Alone Microgrid Inverter Controller Design for Nonlinear, Unbalanced Load with Output Transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Uk Lim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a technique that compensates for unbalance and nonlinearity in microgrid inverters with power transformers operating in stand-alone mode. When a microgrid inverter is operating in stand-alone mode, providing high-quality power is very important. When an unbalanced, nonlinear load is connected, zero sequence current and negative sequence current occur, which leads to an unbalanced output voltage. This paper examines why the zero sequence component occurs differently depending on the structure of a three-phase transformer connected to the inverter output terminal, and it proposes a method for controlling the zero sequence component. It also uses a resonant controller to remove the harmonics that correspond to the negative sequence component and the nonlinear component. The proposed elements were verified by a Powersim (PSIM simulation.

  13. A Three-Port Topology Comparison for a Low Power Stand-Alone Photovoltaic System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mira Albert, Maria del Carmen; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    Three-port converter (TPC) topologies for renewable energy systems aim to provide higher efficiency and power density than conventional cascaded structures. This work proposes an analytical comparison of different TPC topologies for a photovoltaic LED lamp stand-alone system. A comparison using c...... component stress factor (CSF) is performed, which gives a quantitative measure of the performance of the converter. The candidate topologies are compared to each other according to a defined LED lighting strategy and a solar irradiation profile.......Three-port converter (TPC) topologies for renewable energy systems aim to provide higher efficiency and power density than conventional cascaded structures. This work proposes an analytical comparison of different TPC topologies for a photovoltaic LED lamp stand-alone system. A comparison using...

  14. Analysis and controller design for stand-alone VSIs in synchronous reference frame

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramezani, Malek; Li, Shuhui; Golestan, Saeed

    2017-01-01

    -by-step graphical analysis and design approach for a three-phase stand-alone VSI system in the dq reference frame, which provides a clear systematic decoupling process to design the inner- and outer-loop current and voltage controllers, respectively. The closed-loop d- and q-axis output impedances of the stand......-alone VSI system by considering the coupling effects between axes are also formulated, modelled, and evaluated. The study investigates how the decoupling and compensating terms added in the current and voltage controllers affect the dynamic performance and output dq impedances of the VSI system. Simulation...... and hardware results verify the effectiveness of the graphic design and analysis strategy....

  15. A new approach for sizing stand alone photovoltaic systems based in neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hontoria, L.; Aguilera, J. [Universidad de Jaen, Dept. de Electronica, Jaen (Spain); Zufiria, P. [UPM Ciudad Universitaria, Dept. de Matematica Aplicada a las Tecnologias de la Informacion, Madrid (Spain)

    2005-02-01

    Several methods for sizing stand alone photovoltaic (pv) systems has been developed. The more simplistic are called intuitive methods. They are a useful tool for a first approach in sizing stand alone photovoltaic systems. Nevertheless they are very inaccurate. Analytical methods use equations to describe the pv system size as a function of reliability. These ones are more accurate than the previous ones but they are also not accurate enough for sizing of high reliability. In a third group there are methods which use system simulations. These ones are called numerical methods. Many of the analytical methods employ the concept of reliability of the system or the complementary term: loss of load probability (LOLP). In this paper an improvement for obtaining LOLP curves based on the neural network called Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) is presented. A unique MLP for many locations of Spain has been trained and after the training, the MLP is able to generate LOLP curves for any value and location. (Author)

  16. Minimum cost solution of wind–photovoltaic based stand-alone power systems for remote consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldellis, J.K.; Zafirakis, D.; Kavadias, K.

    2012-01-01

    Renewable energy sources (RES) based stand-alone systems employing either wind or solar power and energy storage comprise a reliable energy alternative, on top of conventional diesel-electric generator sets, commonly used by remote consumers. However, such systems usually imply the need for oversizing and considerable energy storage requirements leading to relatively high costs. On the other hand, hybrid configurations that may exploit both wind and solar potential of a given area may considerably reduce energy storage capacity and improve the economic performance of the system. In this context, an integrated techno-economic methodology for the evaluation of hybrid wind–photovoltaic stand-alone power systems is currently developed, aiming at the designation of optimum configurations for a typical remote consumer, using economic performance criteria. For the problem investigation, the developed evaluation model is applied to four representative areas of the Greek territory with different wind potential characteristics in order to obtain optimum configurations on the basis of minimum initial investment, 10-year and 20-year total cost. According to the results obtained, the proposed solution is favorably compared with all other stand-alone energy alternatives, reflecting the ability of hybrid systems to adjust even in areas where the local RES potential is not necessarily of high quality. - Highlights: ► Wind- and PV-stand alone systems often imply use of extreme battery capacity. ► Hybrid wind–PV systems may reduce energy storage requirements and associated costs. ► An optimization methodology is developed, based on economic performance criteria. ► Methodology is applied to four Greek regions of different wind potential. ► Results obtained reflect the hybrid solution's advantages over other alternatives.

  17. Secure stand alone positive personnel identity verification system (SSA-PPIV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merillat, P.D.

    1979-03-01

    The properties of a secure stand-alone positive personnel identity verification system are detailed. The system is designed to operate without the aid of a central computing facility and the verification function is performed in the absence of security personnel. Security is primarily achieved by means of data encryption on a magnetic stripe badge. Several operational configurations are discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of this system compared to a central computer driven system are detailed

  18. MOSFET Loss Evaluation for a Low-Power Stand-Alone Photovoltaic-LED System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mira Albert, Maria del Carmen; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a performance evaluation and comparison of state-of-the-art low voltage Si MOSFETs for a stand-alone photovoltaic-LED Light to Light (LtL) system. The complete system is formed by two cascaded converters that will be optimized for a determined solar irradiation and LED...... illumination profiles. The comparison is performed based on dynamic characterization and evaluation of the devices energy loss at different current levels....

  19. Stand-Alone Solar Organic Rankine Cycle Water Pumping System and Its Economic Viability in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh Baral; Kyung Chun Kim

    2015-01-01

    The current study presents the concept of a stand-alone solar organic Rankine cycle (ORC) water pumping system for rural Nepalese areas. Experimental results for this technology are presented based on a prototype. The economic viability of the system was assessed based on solar radiation data of different Nepalese geographic locations. The mechanical power produced by the solar ORC is coupled with a water pumping system for various applications, such as drinking and irrigation. The thermal ef...

  20. Methodology for the design of a stand-alone photovoltaic power supply

    OpenAIRE

    López Seguel, Julio; Seleme Junior, Seleme Isaac; Donoso-Garcia, Pedro F; Ferreira Morais, Lenin Martins; Cabaleiro Cortizo, Porfirio; Severo Mendes, Marcos A

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a complete methodology for the design of an autonomous photovoltaic system to maximize the use of solar energy. It is a method that prioritizes the best cost-effective choice at every step of the project. In order to ensure the proper use and extended battery life time, a control strategy for charging the batteries is proposed. Experimental results are provided for a stand-alone photovoltaic system with low electrical power, intended primarily for the illumination and basi...

  1. Modeling, Design and Simulation of Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Power Systems with Battery Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Essalam BADOUD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Stand alone renewable energy based on photovoltaic systems accompanied with battery storage system are beginning to play an important role over the world to supply power to remote areas. The objective of the study reported in this paper is to elaborate and design a bond graphs model for sizing stand-alone domestic solar photovoltaic electricity systems and simulating the performance of the systems in a tropical climate. The systems modelled consist of an array of PV modules, a lead-acid battery, and a number of direct current appliances. This paper proposes the combination of lead acid battery system with a typical stand alone photovoltaic energy system under variable loads. The main activities of this work purpose to establish library graphical models for each individual component of standalone photovoltaic system. Control strategy has been considered to achieve permanent power supply to the load via photovoltaic/battery based on the power available from the sun. The complete model was simulated under two testing including sunny and cloudy conditions. Simulation of the system using Symbols software was performed and the results of simulation show the superior stable control system and high efficiency. These results have been contrasted with real measured data from a measurement campaign plant carried on electrical engineering laboratory of Grenoble using various interconnection schemes are presented.

  2. Structure Optimization of Stand-Alone Renewable Power Systems Based on Multi Object Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hoon Cho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology for the size optimization of a stand-alone hybrid PV/wind/diesel/battery system while considering the following factors: total annual cost (TAC, loss of power supply probability (LPSP, and the fuel cost of the diesel generator required by the user. A new optimization algorithm and an object function (including a penalty method are also proposed; these assist with designing the best structure for a hybrid system satisfying the constraints. In hybrid energy system sources such as photovoltaic (PV, wind, diesel, and energy storage devices are connected as an electrical load supply. Because the power produced by PV and wind turbine sources is dependent on the variation of the resources (sun and wind and the load demand fluctuates, such a hybrid system must be able to satisfy the load requirements at any time and store the excess energy for use in deficit conditions. Therefore, reliability and cost are the two main criteria when designing a stand-alone hybrid system. Moreover, the operation of a diesel generator is important to achieve greater reliability. In this paper, TAC, LPSP, and the fuel cost of the diesel generator are considered as the objective variables and a hybrid teaching–learning-based optimization algorithm is proposed and used to choose the best structure of a stand-alone hybrid PV/wind/diesel/battery system. Simulation results from MATLAB support the effectiveness of the proposed method and confirm that it is more efficient than conventional methods.

  3. Optimization of stand-alone photovoltaic systems with hydrogen storage for total energy self-sufficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, P D [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Dept. of Technical Physics

    1991-01-01

    A new method for optimization of stand-alone photovoltaic-hydrogen energy systems is presented. The methodology gives the optimum values for the solar array and hydrogen storage size for any given system configuration and geographical site. Sensitivity analyses have been performed to study the effect of subsystem efficiencies on the total system performance and sizing, and also to identify possibilities for further improvements. Optimum system configurations have also been derived. The results indicate that a solar-hydrogen energy system is a very promising potential alternative for low power applications requiring a total electricity self-sufficiency. (Author).

  4. A Simple Sizing Algorithm for Stand-Alone PV/Wind/Battery Hybrid Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop a simple algorithm to determine the required number of generating units of wind-turbine generator and photovoltaic array, and the associated storage capacity for stand-alone hybrid microgrid. The algorithm is based on the observation that the state of charge of battery should be periodically invariant. The optimal sizing of hybrid microgrid is given in the sense that the life cycle cost of system is minimized while the given load power demand can be satisfied without load rejection. We also report a case study to show the efficacy of the developed algorithm.

  5. Lossy Data Aggregation with Network Coding in Stand-Alone Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tatiana Kozlova

    2011-01-01

    in chemical plants, etc. Given resource constrained operation of a sensor network where the nodes are battery powered and buffer sizes are limited, efficient methods for in-network data storage abd it subsequent fast and reliable transmission to a gateway is desirable. To save scarse resources and to prolong......This work focuses on a special type of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) that we refer to as a stand alone network. These netwoks operate in harsh and extreme environments where data collection is done only occasionally. Typical examples include habitat monitoring systems, monitoring systems...

  6. Boost converter with combined control loop for a stand-alone photovoltaic battery charge system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mira Albert, Maria del Carmen; Knott, Arnold; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius

    2013-01-01

    frequency avoids perturbations in the load being propagated to the photovoltaic panel and thus deviating the operating point. Linearization of the photovoltaic panel and converter state-space modeling is performed. In order to achieve stable operation under all operating conditions, the photovoltaic panel......The converter control scheme plays an important role in the performance of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms. In this paper, an input voltage control with double loop for a stand-alone photovoltaic system is designed and tested. The inner current control loop with high crossover...

  7. System design optimization for stand-alone photovoltaic systems sizing by using superstructure model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azau, M A M; Jaafar, S; Samsudin, K

    2013-01-01

    Although the photovoltaic (PV) systems have been increasingly installed as an alternative and renewable green power generation, the initial set up cost, maintenance cost and equipment mismatch are some of the key issues that slows down the installation in small household. This paper presents the design optimization of stand-alone photovoltaic systems using superstructure model where all possible types of technology of the equipment are captured and life cycle cost analysis is formulated as a mixed integer programming (MIP). A model for investment planning of power generation and long-term decision model are developed in order to help the system engineer to build a cost effective system.

  8. Development of a microprocessor controller for stand-alone photovoltaic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millner, A. R.; Kaufman, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    A controller for stand-alone photovoltaic systems has been developed using a low power CMOS microprocessor. It performs battery state of charge estimation, array control, load management, instrumentation, automatic testing, and communications functions. Array control options are sequential subarray switching and maximum power control. A calculator keypad and LCD display provides manual control, fault diagnosis and digital multimeter functions. An RS-232 port provides data logging or remote control capability. A prototype 5 kW unit has been built and tested successfully. The controller is expected to be useful in village photovoltaic power systems, large solar water pumping installations, and other battery management applications.

  9. Design, building and testing of a stand alone fuel cell hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segura, F.; Duran, E.; Andujar, J.M. [Department of Electronic, Computer Science and Automatic Engineering, University of Huelva (Spain)

    2009-08-01

    This paper designs, sizes, builds and tests a stand alone fuel cell hybrid system made up of a fuel cell stack and a battery bank. This system has been sized to supply a typical telecommunication load profile, but moreover, the system can supply other profiles. For this purpose, a modular low cost electronic load bank has been designed and built. This load bank allows the power demand to be chosen by selecting different solid state relays. Moreover, a virtual instrument based on NI Labview {sup registered} has been designed to select the load power demand from the computer. (author)

  10. Design and Operation Studies of A Stand-Alone PV Generation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yanting; Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Donglai

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the modeling, design and operation of a PV powered stand-alone system, which includes a PV array, a battery bank, power electronic converters and the associated control system. The design considerations are analyzed and a design platform is presented. Furthermore the operation...... modes of the system are described. A power electronic system with the associated control scheme has been proposed and simulation models have been developed. Simulation studies have been conducted on an example system; the results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the presented methods....

  11. State Feedback Decoupling with In-Loop Lead Compensator in Stand-Alone VSIs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, de Bosio; Pastorelli, Michele; de Sousa Ribeiro, Luiz Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The performance of current and voltage regulators during transients and steady-state is of primary concern for power converters intended for stand-alone applications. Dynamics performance and command tracking capability are enhanced by actively decoupling the controlled states variables. To further...... widen the current loop bandwidth while still preserving a well-damped system a lead compensator structure on the forward loop is proposed. A 3 kHz bandwidth with 0.707 damping factor is achieved for the inner current controller. Accordingly, also the voltage regulator bandwidth can be widen, thus...

  12. Information systems for the materials management department: stand-alone and enterprise resource planning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Materials management information systems (MMISs) incorporate information tools that hospitals can use to automate certain business processes, increase staff compliance with these processes, and identify opportunities for cost savings. Recently, there has been a push by hospital administration to purchase enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems, information systems that promise to integrate many more facets of healthcare business. We offer this article to help materials managers, administrators, and others involved with information system selection understand the changes that have taken place in materials management information systems, decide whether they need a new system and, if so, whether a stand-alone MMIS or an ERP system will be the best choice.

  13. Simulation of stand alone PV systems; Dokuritsugata taiyoko hatsuden system no simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuda, I.; Sakuta, K. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan); Oshiro, T. [Japan Quality Assurance Organization, Tokyo (Japan); Kurokawa, K. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Studies are performed to develop a simulation program for a stand-alone photovoltaic power generation system equipped with a lead acid battery. In this stand-alone photovoltaic power generation system, the load is connected in shunt with the solar cell array output through the intermediary of a lead acid battery and inverter. The program is a model in which the solar cell model is built taking parallel resistance into account, and the temperature-dependence of the constants is described using approximations experimentally obtained by Solar Techno Center of JQA (Japan Quality Assurance Organization), Hamamatsu. Insolation data for the model is described using METPV compiled by Japan Weather Association, and load data is described using data actually measured at Shizuoka. This program is compared with the data of operation at Hamamatsu, and the result is almost satisfactory. Simulations are conducted at five typical locations in Japan using this program, and it is found that the array load matching correction factor is dependent on seasonal changes rather than locality, that the battery contribution rate does not change much throughout the year, and that it is not dependent on locality. 5 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Modified Chaos Particle Swarm Optimization-Based Optimized Operation Model for Stand-Alone CCHP Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The optimized dispatch of different distributed generations (DGs in stand-alone microgrid (MG is of great significance to the operation’s reliability and economy, especially for energy crisis and environmental pollution. Based on controllable load (CL and combined cooling-heating-power (CCHP model of micro-gas turbine (MT, a multi-objective optimization model with relevant constraints to optimize the generation cost, load cut compensation and environmental benefit is proposed in this paper. The MG studied in this paper consists of photovoltaic (PV, wind turbine (WT, fuel cell (FC, diesel engine (DE, MT and energy storage (ES. Four typical scenarios were designed according to different day types (work day or weekend and weather conditions (sunny or rainy in view of the uncertainty of renewable energy in variable situations and load fluctuation. A modified dispatch strategy for CCHP is presented to further improve the operation economy without reducing the consumers’ comfort feeling. Chaotic optimization and elite retention strategy are introduced into basic particle swarm optimization (PSO to propose modified chaos particle swarm optimization (MCPSO whose search capability and convergence speed are improved greatly. Simulation results validate the correctness of the proposed model and the effectiveness of MCPSO algorithm in the optimized operation application of stand-alone MG.

  15. Design of a Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Model for Home Lightings and Clean Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ani, Vincent Anayochukwu, E-mail: vincent_ani@yahoo.com [Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria)

    2016-01-11

    This paper gives a well-documented health risk of fuel-based lighting (kerosene lamps and fuel-powered generators) and proposed a design of a stand-alone solar PV system for sustainable home lightings in rural Nigerian area. The design was done in three different patterns of electricity consumptions with energy efficient lightings (EELs) using two different battery types (Rolls Surrette 6CS25PS and Hoppecke 10 OpzS 1000) on; (i) judicious power consumption, (ii) normal power consumption, and (iii) excess power consumption; and compared them with the incandescent light bulb consumption. The stand-alone photovoltaic energy systems were designed to match the rural Nigerian sunlight and weather conditions to meet the required lightings of the household. The objective function and constraints for the design models were formulated and optimization procedures were used to demonstrate the best solution (reliability at the lowest lifecycle cost). Initial capital costs as well as annualized costs over 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 years were quantified and documented. The design identified the most cost-effective and reliable solar and battery array among the patterns of electricity consumption with EEL options (judicious power consumption, normal power consumption, and excess power consumption).

  16. Design of Stand-Alone Hybrid Power Generation System at Brumbun Beach Tulungagung East Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmat, A. N.; Hidayat, M. N.; Ronilaya, F.; Setiawan, A.

    2018-04-01

    Indonesian government insists to optimize the use of renewable energy resources in electricity generation. One of the efforts is launching Independent Energy Village plan. This program aims to fulfill the need of electricity for isolated or remote villages in Indonesia. In order to support the penetration of renewable energy resources in electricity generation, a hybrid power generation system is developed. The simulation in this research is based on the availability of renewable energy resources in Brumbun beach, Tulungagung, East Java. Initially, the electricity was supplied through stand-alone electricity generations which are installed at each house. Hence, the use of electricity between 5 p.m. – 9 p.m. requires high operational costs. Based on the problem above, this research is conducted to design a stand-alone hybrid electricity generation system, which may consist of diesel, wind, and photovoltaic. The design is done by using HOMER software to optimize the use of electricity from renewable resources and to reduce the operation of diesel generation. The combination of renewable energy resources in electricity generation resulted in NPC of 44.680, COE of 0,268, and CO2 emissions of 0,038 % much lower than the use of diesel generator only.

  17. Fuzzy logic control of stand-alone photovoltaic system with battery storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalouni, S.; Rekioua, D.; Rekioua, T.; Matagne, E.

    Photovoltaic energy has nowadays an increased importance in electrical power applications, since it is considered as an essentially inexhaustible and broadly available energy resource. However, the output power provided via the photovoltaic conversion process depends on solar irradiation and temperature. Therefore, to maximize the efficiency of the photovoltaic energy system, it is necessary to track the maximum power point of the PV array. The present paper proposes a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) method, based on fuzzy logic controller (FLC), applied to a stand-alone photovoltaic system. It uses a sampling measure of the PV array power and voltage then determines an optimal increment required to have the optimal operating voltage which permits maximum power tracking. This method carries high accuracy around the optimum point when compared to the conventional one. The stand-alone photovoltaic system used in this paper includes two bi-directional DC/DC converters and a lead-acid battery bank to overcome the scare periods. One converter works as an MPP tracker, while the other regulates the batteries state of charge and compensates the power deficit to provide a continuous delivery of energy to the load. The Obtained simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy logic controller.

  18. A sizing method for stand-alone PV installations with variable demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posadillo, R. [Grupo de Investigacion en Energias y Recursos Renovables, Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada, E.P.S., Universidad de Cordoba, Avda. Menendez Pidal s/n, 14004 Cordoba (Spain); Lopez Luque, R. [Grupo de Investigacion de Fisica Para las Energias y Recursos Renovables, Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada, Edificio C2 Campus de Rabanales, 14071 Cordoba (Spain)

    2008-05-15

    The practical applicability of the considerations made in a previous paper to characterize energy balances in stand-alone photovoltaic systems (SAPV) is presented. Given that energy balances were characterized based on monthly estimations, the method is appropriate for sizing installations with variable monthly demands and variable monthly panel tilt (for seasonal estimations). The method presented is original in that it is the only method proposed for this type of demand. The method is based on the rational utilization of daily solar radiation distribution functions. When exact mathematical expressions are not available, approximate empirical expressions can be used. The more precise the statistical characterization of the solar radiation on the receiver module, the more precise the sizing method given that the characterization will solely depend on the distribution function of the daily global irradiation on the tilted surface H{sub g{beta}}{sub i}. This method, like previous ones, uses the concept of loss of load probability (LLP) as a parameter to characterize system design and includes information on the standard deviation of this parameter ({sigma}{sub LLP}) as well as two new parameters: annual number of system failures (f) and the standard deviation of annual number of system failures ({sigma}{sub f}). This paper therefore provides an analytical method for evaluating and sizing stand-alone PV systems with variable monthly demand and panel inclination. The sizing method has also been applied in a practical manner. (author)

  19. Design of a Stand-Alone Photovoltaic (PV Models for Home Lightings and Clean Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Anayochukwu Ani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a well-documented health risks of fuel-based lighting (kerosene lamps and fuel-powered generators and proposed a design of a stand-alone solar PV system for sustainable home lightings in rural Nigerian area. The design was done in three different patterns of electricity consumptions with energy efficient lightings (EELs using two different battery types (Rolls Surrette 6CS25PS and hoppecke 10 OpzS 1000 on; i judicious power consumption, ii normal power consumption, iii excess power consumption; and compared them with the incandescent light bulb consumption. The stand-alone photovoltaic energy systems were designed to match the rural Nigerian sunlight and weather conditions to meet the required lightings of the household. The objective function and constraints for the design models were formulated and optimization procedure were used to demonstrate the best solution (reliability at the lowest lifecycle cost. Initial capital costs as well as annualized costs over 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 years were quantified and documented. The design identified the most cost-effective and reliable solar and battery array among the patterns of electricity consumption with energy efficient lighting options (judicious power consumption, normal power consumption, and excess power consumption.

  20. International market assessment of stand-alone photovoltaic power systems for cottage industry applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippi, T. M.

    1981-01-01

    The final result of an international assessment of the market for stand-alone photovoltaic systems in cottage industry applications is reported. Nonindustrialized countries without centrally planned economies were considered. Cottage industries were defined as small rural manufacturers, employing less than 50 people, producing consumer and simple products. The data to support this analysis were obtained from secondary and expert sources in the U.S. and in-country field investigations of the Philippines and Mexico. The near-term market for photovoltaics for rural cottage industry applications appears to be limited to demonstration projects and pilot programs, based on an in-depth study of the nature of cottage industry, its role in the rural economy, the electric energy requirements of cottage industry, and a financial analysis of stand-alone photovoltaic systems as compared to their most viable competitor, diesel driven generators. Photovoltaics are shown to be a better long-term option only for very low power requirements. Some of these uses would include clay mixers, grinders, centrifuges, lathes, power saws and lighting of a workshop.

  1. Coordination Control Strategy for AC/DC Hybrid Microgrids in Stand-Alone Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Riana Aryani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Interest in DC microgrids is rapidly increasing along with the improvement of DC power technology because of its advantages. To support the integration process of DC microgrids with the existing AC utility grids, the form of hybrid AC/DC microgrids is considered for higher power conversion efficiency, lower component cost and better power quality. In the system, AC and DC portions are connected through interlink bidirectional AC/DC converters (IC with a proper control system and power management. In the stand-alone operation mode of AC/DC hybrid microgrids, the control of power injection through the IC is crucial in order to maintain the system security. This paper mainly deals with a coordination control strategy of IC and a battery energy storage system (BESS converter under stand-alone operation. A coordinated control strategy for the IC, which considers the state of charge (SOC level of BESS and the load shedding scheme as the last resort, is proposed to obtain better power sharing between AC and DC subgrids. The scheme will be tested with a hybrid AC/DC microgrid, using the tool of the PSCAD/EMTDC software.

  2. International market assessment of stand-alone photovoltaic power systems for cottage industry applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippi, T. M.

    1981-11-01

    The final result of an international assessment of the market for stand-alone photovoltaic systems in cottage industry applications is reported. Nonindustrialized countries without centrally planned economies were considered. Cottage industries were defined as small rural manufacturers, employing less than 50 people, producing consumer and simple products. The data to support this analysis were obtained from secondary and expert sources in the U.S. and in-country field investigations of the Philippines and Mexico. The near-term market for photovoltaics for rural cottage industry applications appears to be limited to demonstration projects and pilot programs, based on an in-depth study of the nature of cottage industry, its role in the rural economy, the electric energy requirements of cottage industry, and a financial analysis of stand-alone photovoltaic systems as compared to their most viable competitor, diesel driven generators. Photovoltaics are shown to be a better long-term option only for very low power requirements. Some of these uses would include clay mixers, grinders, centrifuges, lathes, power saws and lighting of a workshop.

  3. Feasibility and Optimal Design of a Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Energy System for the Orphanage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Anayochukwu Ani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Access to electricity can have a positive psychological impact through a lessening of the sense of exclusion, and vulnerability often felt by the orphanages. This paper presented the simulation and optimization study of a stand-alone photovoltaic power system that produced the desired power needs of an orphanage. Solar resources for the design of the system were obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy website at a location of 6°51′N latitude and 7°35′E longitude, with annual average solar radiation of 4.92 kWh/m2/d. This study is based on modeling, simulation, and optimization of energy system in the orphanage. The patterns of load consumption within the orphanage were studied and suitably modeled for optimization. Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables (HOMER software was used to analyze and design the proposed stand-alone photovoltaic power system model. The model was designed to provide an optimal system configuration based on an hour-by-hour data for energy availability and demands. A detailed design, description, and expected performance of the system were presented in this paper.

  4. Robust Power Management Control for Stand-Alone Hybrid Power Generation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, Elkhatib; Adouane, Lounis; Aitouche, Abdel; Mohammed, Walaa

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new robust fuzzy control of energy management strategy for the stand-alone hybrid power systems. It consists of two levels named centralized fuzzy supervisory control which generates the power references for each decentralized robust fuzzy control. Hybrid power systems comprises: a photovoltaic panel and wind turbine as renewable sources, a micro turbine generator and a battery storage system. The proposed control strategy is able to satisfy the load requirements based on a fuzzy supervisor controller and manage power flows between the different energy sources and the storage unit by respecting the state of charge and the variation of wind speed and irradiance. Centralized controller is designed based on If-Then fuzzy rules to manage and optimize the hybrid power system production by generating the reference power for photovoltaic panel and wind turbine. Decentralized controller is based on the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model and permits us to stabilize each photovoltaic panel and wind turbine in presence of disturbances and parametric uncertainties and to optimize the tracking reference which is given by the centralized controller level. The sufficient conditions stability are formulated in the format of linear matrix inequalities using the Lyapunov stability theory. The effectiveness of the proposed Strategy is finally demonstrated through a SAHPS (stand-alone hybrid power systems) to illustrate the effectiveness of the overall proposed method. (paper)

  5. Design of a Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Model for Home Lightings and Clean Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ani, Vincent Anayochukwu

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a well-documented health risk of fuel-based lighting (kerosene lamps and fuel-powered generators) and proposed a design of a stand-alone solar PV system for sustainable home lightings in rural Nigerian area. The design was done in three different patterns of electricity consumptions with energy efficient lightings (EELs) using two different battery types (Rolls Surrette 6CS25PS and Hoppecke 10 OpzS 1000) on; (i) judicious power consumption, (ii) normal power consumption, and (iii) excess power consumption; and compared them with the incandescent light bulb consumption. The stand-alone photovoltaic energy systems were designed to match the rural Nigerian sunlight and weather conditions to meet the required lightings of the household. The objective function and constraints for the design models were formulated and optimization procedures were used to demonstrate the best solution (reliability at the lowest lifecycle cost). Initial capital costs as well as annualized costs over 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 years were quantified and documented. The design identified the most cost-effective and reliable solar and battery array among the patterns of electricity consumption with EEL options (judicious power consumption, normal power consumption, and excess power consumption).

  6. Input of biomass in stand-alone small-scale installations for power generation. Calculation of the financial gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tilburg, X.; De Vries, H.J.; Pfeiffer, A.E.; Beekes, M.; Cleijne, J.W.

    2005-09-01

    A number of new initiatives in which bio-oil is used in stand-alone plants for power generation has been reviewed. The question to be answered is whether the reference case for stand alone biomass projects based on burning of wood chips can still be considered representative for the costs and benefits in this category. ECN, in cooperation with KEMA, have determined the financial gap between the costs and benefits of projects in which bio-oil is used in stand alone plants for power generation. The ranges and reference case for bio-oil in stand alone applications show that these projects have a substantially lower financial gap than the current reference case based on wood chips [nl

  7. Charactrization of a Li-ion battery based stand-alone a-Si photovoltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid Vishkasougheh, Mehdi; Tunaboylu, Bahadir

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An Li-ion battery based stand-alone a-Si PV was designed. The system composed of three a-Si panels with an efficiency of 7% and 40 cells of LFP batteries. • Effects of solar radiation and environmental temperature for three cities, Istanbul, Ankara, and Adana, have been investigated on a-Si panels. • Using transition formulas BSPV outputs are predictable for any location out of standard test condition. - Abstract: The number of photovoltaic (PV) system installations is increasing rapidly. As more people learn about this versatile and often cost-effective power option, this trend will accelerate. This document presents a recommended design for a battery based stand-alone photovoltaic system (BSPV). BSPV system has the ability to be applied in different areas, including warning signals, lighting, refrigeration, communication, residential water pumping, remote sensing, and cathodic protection. The presented calculation method gives a proper idea for a system sizing technique. Based on application load, different scenarios are possible for designing a BSPV system. In this study, a battery based stand-alone system was designed. The electricity generation part is three a-Si panels, which are connected in parallel, and for the storage part LFP (lithium iron phosphate) battery was used. The high power LFP battery packs are 40 cells each 8S5P (configured 8 series 5 parallel). Each individual pack weighs 0.5 kg and is 25.6 V. In order to evaluate the efficiency of a-Si panels with respect to the temperature and the solar irradiation, cities of Istanbul, Ankara and Adana in Turkey were selected. Temperature and solar irradiation were gathered from reliable sources and by using translation equations, current and voltage output of panels were calculated. As a result of these calculations, current and energy outputs were computed by considering an average efficient solar irradiation time value per day in Turkey. The calculated power values were inserted to a

  8. Charactrization of a Li-ion battery based stand-alone a-Si photovoltaic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamid Vishkasougheh, Mehdi, E-mail: mehdi.hamid2@gmail.com [Istanbul Sehir University, Kubakisi Caddesi, No: 27, Altunizade, Uskudar, Istanbul 34662 (Turkey); Tunaboylu, Bahadir [Istanbul Sehir University, Kubakisi Caddesi, No: 27, Altunizade, Uskudar, Istanbul 34662 (Turkey); Marmara Research Center, Materials Institute, PO Box 21, Gebze, Kocaeli 41470 (Turkey)

    2014-11-01

    Highlights: • An Li-ion battery based stand-alone a-Si PV was designed. The system composed of three a-Si panels with an efficiency of 7% and 40 cells of LFP batteries. • Effects of solar radiation and environmental temperature for three cities, Istanbul, Ankara, and Adana, have been investigated on a-Si panels. • Using transition formulas BSPV outputs are predictable for any location out of standard test condition. - Abstract: The number of photovoltaic (PV) system installations is increasing rapidly. As more people learn about this versatile and often cost-effective power option, this trend will accelerate. This document presents a recommended design for a battery based stand-alone photovoltaic system (BSPV). BSPV system has the ability to be applied in different areas, including warning signals, lighting, refrigeration, communication, residential water pumping, remote sensing, and cathodic protection. The presented calculation method gives a proper idea for a system sizing technique. Based on application load, different scenarios are possible for designing a BSPV system. In this study, a battery based stand-alone system was designed. The electricity generation part is three a-Si panels, which are connected in parallel, and for the storage part LFP (lithium iron phosphate) battery was used. The high power LFP battery packs are 40 cells each 8S5P (configured 8 series 5 parallel). Each individual pack weighs 0.5 kg and is 25.6 V. In order to evaluate the efficiency of a-Si panels with respect to the temperature and the solar irradiation, cities of Istanbul, Ankara and Adana in Turkey were selected. Temperature and solar irradiation were gathered from reliable sources and by using translation equations, current and voltage output of panels were calculated. As a result of these calculations, current and energy outputs were computed by considering an average efficient solar irradiation time value per day in Turkey. The calculated power values were inserted to a

  9. Loss-of-load probabilities for stand-alone photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, S.A.; Beckman, W.A.

    1989-01-01

    A general method is presented for estimating the loss-of-load probability of stand-alone photovoltaic systems. The method was developed by correlating simulation results. The simulations were driven with synthetic radiation sequences having the same statistical significance as available historical data. The methods assumes a constant nighttime load and accounts for the distribution and persistence in daily solar radiation data. It is shown that the 10 year average performance of systems having loss-of-load probabilities less than about 0.01 can vary greatly from one ten year period to the next and thereby cannot be considered realistic performance estimates of a system during its lifetime. (author). 26 refs, 15 figs, 4 tabs

  10. Stand-alone version of the 11kW Gaia wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindner, H.; Rosas, P.A.C.; Teodorescu, R.; Blaabjerg, F.

    2004-09-15

    This report describes the development of a stand-alone version of the 11kW Gaia wind turbine. Various possible configurations are investigated and a configuration using a back-to-back converter is chosen. A model is developed for controller design of the fast controllers of the unit. Controllers are designed and a prototype is built for testing. The report documents the performance of the prototype through measurements done on the full scale prototype installed in a test facility where it has been tested both as a standalone unit and in parallel with a diesel genset. For system wide power quality assessment and controller design a dynamic performance assessment model has been developed. (au)

  11. Size optimization of stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) room air conditioners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chien-Wei; Zahedi, A.

    2006-01-01

    Sizing of a stand-alone PV system determines the main cost of the system. PV electricity cost is determined by the amount of solar energy received, hence the actual climate and weather conditions such as solar irradiance and ambient temperature affect the size required and cost of the system. Air conditioning demand also depends on the weather conditions. Therefore, sizing a PV powered air conditioner must consider the characteristics of local climate and temperature. In this paper, sizing procedures and special considerations for air conditioning under Melbourne's climatic conditions is presented. The reliability of various PV-battery size combinations is simulated by MATLAB. As a result, excellent system performance can be predicated.(Author)

  12. An Analysis of Stand-alone GPS Quality and Simulated GNSS Quality for Road Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabic, Martina; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2006-01-01

    Use of GPS for road pricing has often been suggested as the way of creating more efficient charging strategies than existing systems based on cordon lines or time use. In Denmark, Copenhagen participated with the AKTA project in the PRoGRESS programme, sponsored by the EU. The major part...... of the AKTA project was to equip 500 cars with GPS receivers. The paper presents the methods and results from a study of GPS quality in relation to road pricing in a dense urban area. The collected data from 500 cars over a two-year period in the Copenhagen region was analyzed in order to determine whether...... the stand alone GPS quality and reliability is adequate for implementation of an operational road pricing system in Copenhagen. The results from the analysis show that the satellite availability in Copenhagen is not sufficient to form the basis for a reliable operational road pricing system. The narrow...

  13. Integrated Three-Port DC-DC Converter for Photovoltaic (PV) Battery Stand-alone Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2016-01-01

    of solar energy. Moreover, a novel transformer configuration enables variable turns ratio controlled by the phase between the two current excitations subjected to the primary windings, allowing a wider input/output range. 1 kW experimental prototype has been built to demonstrate a wellmanaged power flow......Several power sources such as PV solar arrays and battery are often used to manage the power flow for a photovoltaic (PV) based stand-alone power system due to the fluctuation nature of solar energy resource, and deliver a continuous power to the users in an appropriate form. Traditionally, three...... different single-input single-output (SISO) dc/dc converters would have been used. To reduce the cost and improve the power density of the system, an integrated three-port isolated dc/dc converter is proposed in this paper. It can realize all functions of the energy delivery due to the fluctuation nature...

  14. Study of Stand-Alone Microgrid under Condition of Faults on Distribution Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malla, S. G.; Bhende, C. N.

    2014-10-01

    The behavior of stand-alone microgrid is analyzed under the condition of faults on distribution feeders. During fault since battery is not able to maintain dc-link voltage within limit, the resistive dump load control is presented to do so. An inverter control is proposed to maintain balanced voltages at PCC under the unbalanced load condition and to reduce voltage unbalance factor (VUF) at load points. The proposed inverter control also has facility to protect itself from high fault current. Existing maximum power point tracker (MPPT) algorithm is modified to limit the speed of generator during fault. Extensive simulation results using MATLAB/SIMULINK established that the performance of the controllers is quite satisfactory under different fault conditions as well as unbalanced load conditions.

  15. Solar pv fed stand-alone excitation system of a synchronous machine for reactive power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, N.; Jain, Siddhartha; Jyotheeswara Reddy, K.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a model of a stand-alone solar energy conversion system based on synchronous machine working as a synchronous condenser in overexcited state. The proposed model consists of a Synchronous Condenser, a DC/DC boost converter whose output is fed to the field of the SC. The boost converter is supplied by the modelled solar panel and a day time variable irradiance is fed to the panel during the simulation time. The model also has one alternate source of rechargeable batteries for the time when irradiance falls below a threshold value. Also the excess power produced when there is ample irradiance is divided in two parts and one is fed to the boost converter while other is utilized to recharge the batteries. A simulation is done in MATLAB-SIMULINK and the obtained results show the utility of such modelling for supplying reactive power is feasible.

  16. Use of small stand-alone Internet nodes as a distributed control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Robert W.; Kucera, Michael J.; Shea, Michael F.

    1994-12-01

    For several years, the standard model for accelerator control systems has been workstation consoles connected to VME local stations by a Local Area Network with analog and digital data being accessed via a field bus to custom I/O interface electronics. Commercially available hardware has now made it possible to implement a small stand-alone data acquisition station that combines the LAN connection, the computer, and the analog and digital I/O interface on a single board. This eliminates the complexity of a field bus and the associated proprietary I/O hardware. A minimum control system is one data acquisition station and a Macintosh or workstation console, both connected to the network; larger systems have more consoles and nodes. An implementation of this architecture is described along with performance and operational experience.

  17. Stand-Alone Photovoltaic System Operation with Energy Management and Fault Tolerant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jmashidpour, Ehsan; Poure, Philippe; Gholipour, E.; Saadate, Shahrokh

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system with a fault tolerant operation capability. An energy management method is provided to keep the balance between produced and consumed energy instantaneously. As the storage element, an Ultra-Capacitor (UC) pack is used for facing high frequency variation of the load/source, and batteries are in charge of slow load /source variations. A Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm is applied to control the boost converter of the PV source to achieve the maximum power. In order to improve the micro-grid service continuity and reliability, a fast fault diagnosis method based on the converter current shape for PV source is applied. Finally, the validity of the proposed energy management and the fault diagnosis method is confirmed by the simulation and experimental results. (author)

  18. Power quality improvement of a stand-alone power system subjected to various disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lone, Shameem Ahmad; Mufti, Mairaj Ud-Din

    In wind-diesel stand-alone power systems, the disturbances like random nature of wind power, turbulent wind, sudden changes in load demand and the wind park disconnection effect continuously the system voltage and frequency. The satisfactory operation of such a system is not an easy task and the control design has to take in to account all these subtleties. For maintaining the power quality, generally, a short-term energy storage device is used. In this paper, the performance of a wind-diesel system associated with a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) system is studied. The effect of installing SMES at wind park bus/load bus, on the system performance is investigated. To control the exchange of real and reactive powers between the SMES unit and the wind-diesel system, a control strategy based on fuzzy logic is proposed. The dynamic models of the hybrid power system for most common scenarios are developed and the results presented.

  19. System Simulation by Recursive Feedback: Coupling a Set of Stand-Alone Subsystem Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, D. D.

    2001-01-01

    Conventional construction of digital dynamic system simulations often involves collecting differential equations that model each subsystem, arran g them to a standard form, and obtaining their numerical gin solution as a single coupled, total-system simultaneous set. Simulation by numerical coupling of independent stand-alone subsimulations is a fundamentally different approach that is attractive because, among other things, the architecture naturally facilitates high fidelity, broad scope, and discipline independence. Recursive feedback is defined and discussed as a candidate approach to multidiscipline dynamic system simulation by numerical coupling of self-contained, single-discipline subsystem simulations. A satellite motion example containing three subsystems (orbit dynamics, attitude dynamics, and aerodynamics) has been defined and constructed using this approach. Conventional solution methods are used in the subsystem simulations. Distributed and centralized implementations of coupling have been considered. Numerical results are evaluated by direct comparison with a standard total-system, simultaneous-solution approach.

  20. Imagery rescripting as a stand-alone treatment for patients with social phobia: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frets, Petra G; Kevenaar, Ciska; van der Heiden, Colin

    2014-03-01

    The majority of patients with social phobia reports experiencing negative images, usually linked to memories of earlier aversive social experiences. Several studies have indicated that such negative self-imagery appears to have a causal role in maintaining social phobia, which suggests that interventions aimed at dealing with these images could be beneficial in the treatment of social phobia. One potentially powerful approach is imagery rescripting (IR), a clinical intervention that focuses on changing the meaning and impact of unpleasant memories. In the treatment of social phobia IR was only used as part of a broader cognitive-behavioral treatment package. However, we propose that IR alone might also be an effective treatment for this anxiety disorder. The present study reports an initial evaluation of the application of IR as a stand-alone treatment for six adult outpatients presenting with social phobia. A single case series using an A-B replication across patients design was employed. Following a no-treatment baseline period, IR was delivered weekly and patients were followed up for 3 and 6 months. For all patients, substantial reductions were obtained on all outcome measures at post-treatment, and gains were largely maintained at 6-months follow-up. The generalizability of the effects of IR for social phobia is limited by the small number of patients treated by only one therapist. The results of this preliminary case series suggest that IR as a stand alone treatment is an apparently effective intervention in the treatment of patients with social phobia, and indicate that controlled evaluation of its efficacy might be worthwhile. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimal expansion planning of stand-alone systems with stochastic simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoese, Alejandro [Instituto de Energia Electrica (IEE), Universidad Nacional de San Juan, (Argentina)

    1997-12-31

    Stand-alone systems in the range of 1 kW - 10 MW are taking relevance in the new (global) liberal concept of energy market. State and private investors are becoming increasingly attention on the use of renewable for these systems, but it must be shown that these non-conventional solutions are competitive with the established conventional ones. The high investment costs and the technical and economic uncertainties coupled with the use of time-dependent energy sources are the mainly inhibiting factors for the decision agents to choose these systems instead of conventional ones. In the paper a new model for optimal expansion planning of hybrid stand-alone generating systems under consideration of uncertainties is presented. This model is at present in {sup d}evelopment state{sup .} Results already obtained in the first steps of this research are promising and some of them are here presented. [Espanol] Los sistemas autocontenidos en el rango de 1 Kw a 10 MW estan tomando importancia en el nuevo (global) concepto liberal del mercado de la energia. Inversionistas privados y del Estado estan poniendo mayor atencion en el uso de energias renovables para estos sistemas, pero debe mostrarse que estas soluciones no-convencionales son competitivas con las convencionales establecidas. Los altos costos de inversion y las incertidumbres tecnicas y economicas aunadamente con el uso de fuentes de energia dependientes del tiempo son los principales factores inhibidores de los factores de decision para escoger estos sistemas en lugar de los convencionales. En este articulo se presenta un nuevo modelo de planeacion de expansion optima de sistemas hibridos autocontenidos de generacion electrica bajo la consideracion de incertidumbres. Este modelo esta actualmente en {sup e}stado de desarrollo{sup .} Los resultados ya obtenidos en las primeras etapas de esta investigacion son prometedores y se presentan algunos de ellos.

  2. Diagnostic value of the stand-alone synthetic image in digital breast tomosynthesis examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garayoa, Julia; Chevalier, Margarita; Castillo, Maria; Mahillo-Fernández, Ignacio; Amallal El Ouahabi, Najim; Estrada, Carmen; Tejerina, Alejandro; Benitez, Olivia; Valverde, Julio

    2018-02-01

    To demonstrate the non-inferiority of synthetic image (SI) mammography versus full-field digital mammography (FFDM) in breast tomosynthesis (DBT) examinations. An observational, retrospective, single-centre, multireader blinded study was performed, using 2384 images to directly compare SI and FFDM based on Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) categorisation and visibility of radiological findings. Readers had no access to digital breast tomosynthesis slices. Multiple reader, multiple case (MRMC) receiver operating characteristic (ROC) methodology was used to compare the diagnostic performance of SI and FFDM images. The kappa statistic was used to estimate the inter-reader and intra-reader reliability. The area under the ROC curves (AUC) reveals the non-inferiority of SI versus FFDM based on BIRADS categorisation [difference between AUC (ΔAUC), -0.014] and lesion visibility (ΔAUC, -0.001) but the differences were not statistically significant (p=0.282 for BIRADS; p=0.961 for lesion visibility). On average, 77.4% of malignant lesions were detected with SI versus 76.5% with FFDM. Sensitivity and specificity of SI are superior to FFDM for malignant lesions scored as BIRADS 5 and breasts categorised as BIRADS 1. SI is not inferior to FFDM when DBT slices are not available during image reading. SI can replace FFDM, reducing the dose by 45%. • Stand-alone SI demonstrated performance not inferior for lesion visibility as compared to FFDM. • Stand-alone SI demonstrated performance not inferior for lesion BIRADS categorisation as compared to FFDM. • Synthetic images provide important dose savings in breast tomosynthesis examinations.

  3. Energy management system for stand-alone diesel-wind-biomass microgrid with energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chengshan; Liu, Yixin; Li, Xialin; Guo, Li; Qiao, Lei; Lu, Hai

    2016-01-01

    An energy management system for stand-alone microgrid composed of diesel generators, wind turbine generator, biomass generator and an ESS (energy storage system) is proposed in this paper. Different operation objectives are achieved by a hierarchical control structure with different time scales. Firstly, the optimal schedules of the diesel generators, wind turbine generator, biomass generator and ESS are determined fifteen minutes ahead according to the super short-term forecast of load and wind speed in the optimal scheduling layer. Comprehensive analysis which takes the uncertainty of load and wind speed into account is conducted in this layer to minimize the operation cost of the system and ensure a desirable range of the state of charge of the ESS. Secondly, the operation points of each unit are regulated dynamically to guarantee real-time power balance and safety range of diesel generation in the real-time control layer, based on which the response capability when suffering significant forecast deviation and other emergency issues, e.g. sudden load-up can be improved. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed energy management strategy is verified on an RT-Lab based real-time simulation platform, and the economic performances with different types of ESS are analyzed as well. - Highlights: • A hierarchical control strategy is proposed for a stand-alone microgrid. • The uncertainties of load and wind speed have been considered. • Better economic performance and high reliability of the system can be achieved. • The influences of different energy storage systems have been analyzed.

  4. A Meta-Analytic Review of Stand-Alone Interventions to Improve Body Image.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M Alleva

    Full Text Available Numerous stand-alone interventions to improve body image have been developed. The present review used meta-analysis to estimate the effectiveness of such interventions, and to identify the specific change techniques that lead to improvement in body image.The inclusion criteria were that (a the intervention was stand-alone (i.e., solely focused on improving body image, (b a control group was used, (c participants were randomly assigned to conditions, and (d at least one pretest and one posttest measure of body image was taken. Effect sizes were meta-analysed and moderator analyses were conducted. A taxonomy of 48 change techniques used in interventions targeted at body image was developed; all interventions were coded using this taxonomy.The literature search identified 62 tests of interventions (N = 3,846. Interventions produced a small-to-medium improvement in body image (d+ = 0.38, a small-to-medium reduction in beauty ideal internalisation (d+ = -0.37, and a large reduction in social comparison tendencies (d+ = -0.72. However, the effect size for body image was inflated by bias both within and across studies, and was reliable but of small magnitude once corrections for bias were applied. Effect sizes for the other outcomes were no longer reliable once corrections for bias were applied. Several features of the sample, intervention, and methodology moderated intervention effects. Twelve change techniques were associated with improvements in body image, and three techniques were contra-indicated.The findings show that interventions engender only small improvements in body image, and underline the need for large-scale, high-quality trials in this area. The review identifies effective techniques that could be deployed in future interventions.

  5. Optimal expansion planning of stand-alone systems with stochastic simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoese, Alejandro [Instituto de Energia Electrica (IEE), Universidad Nacional de San Juan, (Argentina)

    1998-12-31

    Stand-alone systems in the range of 1 kW - 10 MW are taking relevance in the new (global) liberal concept of energy market. State and private investors are becoming increasingly attention on the use of renewable for these systems, but it must be shown that these non-conventional solutions are competitive with the established conventional ones. The high investment costs and the technical and economic uncertainties coupled with the use of time-dependent energy sources are the mainly inhibiting factors for the decision agents to choose these systems instead of conventional ones. In the paper a new model for optimal expansion planning of hybrid stand-alone generating systems under consideration of uncertainties is presented. This model is at present in {sup d}evelopment state{sup .} Results already obtained in the first steps of this research are promising and some of them are here presented. [Espanol] Los sistemas autocontenidos en el rango de 1 Kw a 10 MW estan tomando importancia en el nuevo (global) concepto liberal del mercado de la energia. Inversionistas privados y del Estado estan poniendo mayor atencion en el uso de energias renovables para estos sistemas, pero debe mostrarse que estas soluciones no-convencionales son competitivas con las convencionales establecidas. Los altos costos de inversion y las incertidumbres tecnicas y economicas aunadamente con el uso de fuentes de energia dependientes del tiempo son los principales factores inhibidores de los factores de decision para escoger estos sistemas en lugar de los convencionales. En este articulo se presenta un nuevo modelo de planeacion de expansion optima de sistemas hibridos autocontenidos de generacion electrica bajo la consideracion de incertidumbres. Este modelo esta actualmente en {sup e}stado de desarrollo{sup .} Los resultados ya obtenidos en las primeras etapas de esta investigacion son prometedores y se presentan algunos de ellos.

  6. Key factors for the implementation of successful, stand-alone village electrification schemes in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Campos, Teodoro

    The hypothesis of this work is that there are social, financial, technical, managerial institutional and political key factors that may either support or prevent the success of small stand alone energy systems in rural areas. This research work aims at contributing to the identification of such factors and study their relevance to the performance and sustainability of stand alone energy systems in rural areas; to meet its purpose, a wide range of literature was reviewed including rural electrification programmes and projects, research and development projects on access to electricity in rural areas, impact studies and others, and a field research survey was done the Andes and Upper Jungle regions in Peru. Nineteen possible critical factors were identified, thirteen with relevance at the local context (the community or village), and six with relevance at the national (or wider) context. From literature review it was found that the possible local critical factors were relevant only to four categories of factors instead of the six considered initially (i.e. social, financial, technological and managerial): the other two categories, political and institutional were found to be more relevant to the national context, therefore those were included in the group of possible critical factors of wider context. A series of questionnaires were designed to collect field data information, which was later used to analyse and establish the relation of each identified factor with the success of the systems studied. The survey research was implemented in 14 villages, 7 with small diesel sets and 7 with small hydropower schemes, all spread in the Andes and Upper Jungle of Peru, which were carefully selected to be representative of regions with isolated stand alone systems and with different socioeconomic background. Out of the 13 possible critical factors of local context, it was found that only 3 are really critical, the others are important but not critical; one of them (technical

  7. Multi-objective analytical model for optimal sizing of stand-alone photovoltaic water pumping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olcan, Ceyda

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An analytical optimal sizing model is proposed for PV water pumping systems. • The objectives are chosen as deficiency of power supply and life-cycle costs. • The crop water requirements are estimated for a citrus tree yard in Antalya. • The optimal tilt angles are calculated for fixed, seasonal and monthly changes. • The sizing results showed the validity of the proposed analytical model. - Abstract: Stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) water pumping systems effectively use solar energy for irrigation purposes in remote areas. However the random variability and unpredictability of solar energy makes difficult the penetration of PV implementations and complicate the system design. An optimal sizing of these systems proves to be essential. This paper recommends a techno-economic optimization model to determine optimally the capacity of the components of PV water pumping system using a water storage tank. The proposed model is developed regarding the reliability and cost indicators, which are the deficiency of power supply probability and life-cycle costs, respectively. The novelty is that the proposed optimization model is analytically defined for two-objectives and it is able to find a compromise solution. The sizing of a stand-alone PV water pumping system comprises a detailed analysis of crop water requirements and optimal tilt angles. Besides the necessity of long solar radiation and temperature time series, the accurate forecasts of water supply needs have to be determined. The calculation of the optimal tilt angle for yearly, seasonally and monthly frequencies results in higher system efficiency. It is, therefore, suggested to change regularly the tilt angle in order to maximize solar energy output. The proposed optimal sizing model incorporates all these improvements and can accomplish a comprehensive optimization of PV water pumping systems. A case study is conducted considering the irrigation of citrus trees yard located in Antalya, Turkey

  8. Five-year durability of stand-alone interspinous process decompression for lumbar spinal stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunley PD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pierce D Nunley,1 Vikas V Patel,2 Douglas G Orndorff,3 William F Lavelle,4 Jon E Block,5 Fred H Geisler6 1Spine Institute of Louisiana, Shreveport, LA, 2The Spine Center, University of Colorado Hospital, Denver, CO, 3Spine Colorado, Mercy Regional Hospital, Durango, CO, 4Upstate Bone and Joint Center, East Syracuse, NY, 5Independent Consultant, San Francisco, CA, 6Independent Consultant, Chicago, IL, USA Background: Lumbar spinal stenosis is the most common indication for spine surgery in older adults. Interspinous process decompression (IPD using a stand-alone spacer that functions as an extension blocker offers a minimally invasive treatment option for intermittent neurogenic claudication associated with spinal stenosis.Methods: This study evaluated the 5-year clinical outcomes for IPD (Superion® from a randomized controlled US Food and Drug Administration (FDA noninferiority trial. Outcomes included Zurich Claudication Questionnaire (ZCQ symptom severity (ss, physical function (pf, and patient satisfaction (ps subdomains, leg and back pain visual analog scale (VAS, and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI.Results: At 5 years, 84% of patients (74 of 88 demonstrated clinical success on at least two of three ZCQ domains. Individual ZCQ domain success rates were 75% (66 of 88, 81% (71 of 88, and 90% (79 of 88 for ZCQss, ZCQpf, and ZCQps, respectively. Leg and back pain success rates were 80% (68 of 85 and 65% (55 of 85, respectively, and the success rate for ODI was 65% (57 of 88. Percentage improvements over baseline were 42%, 39%, 75%, 66%, and 58% for ZCQss, ZCQpf, leg and back pain VAS, and ODI, respectively (all P<0.001. Within-group effect sizes were classified as very large for four of five clinical outcomes (ie, >1.0; all P<0.0001. Seventy-five percent of IPD patients were free from reoperation, revision, or supplemental fixation at their index level at 5 years.Conclusion: After 5 years of follow-up, IPD with a stand-alone spacer provides

  9. Efficiency of hydrogen gas production in a stand-alone solar hydrogen system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K.; Tamakloe, R.Y.

    2003-01-01

    Many photovoltaic systems operate in a decentralised electricity producing system, or stand-alone mode and the total energy demand is met by the output of the photovoltaic array. The output of the photovoltaic system fluctuates and is unpredictable for many applications making some forms of energy storage system necessary. The role of storage medium is to store the excess energy produced by the photovoltaic arry, to absorb momentary power peaks and to supply energy during sunless periods. One of the storage modes is the use of electrochemical techniques, with batteries and water electrolysis as the most important examples. The present study includes three main parts: the first one is the hydrogen production form the electrolysis of water depending on the DC output current of the photovoltaic (PV) energy source and the charging of the battery. The second part presents the influence of various parameters on the efficiency of hydrogen gas production. The final part includes simulation studies with focus on solar hydrogen efficiency under the influence of various physical and chemical parameters. For a 50W panel-battery-electrolyser system, the dependence of volume of hydrogen gas on voltage, current and power yielded a maximum efficiency of 13.6% (author)

  10. Control of a Stand-Alone Variable Speed Wind Energy Supply System †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Hamada

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple control strategy for the operation of a variable speed stand-alone wind turbine with a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG. The PMSG is connected to a three phase resistive load through a switch mode rectifier and a voltage source inverter. Control of the generator side converter is used to achieve maximum power extraction from the available wind power. Control of the DC-DC bidirectional buck-boost converter, which is connected between batteries bank and DC-link voltage, is used to maintain the DC-link voltage at a constant value. It is also used to make the batteries bank stores the surplus of wind energy and supplies this energy to the load during a wind power shortage. The load side voltage source inverter uses a relatively complex vector control scheme to control the output load voltage in terms of amplitude and frequency. The control strategy works under wind speed variation as well as with variable load. Extensive simulation results have been performed using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

  11. Optimal sizing method for constituent elements of stand-alone photovoltaic power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Hirotada; Oi, Yoichi [Hokuriku Electric Power Co., Inc. Toyama (Japan)

    1988-12-25

    The purpose of the report was to calculate the optimal volume of constituent elements of stand-alone photovoltaic power systems, based on the distribution of global radiation on an inclined surface (herein-after called flux of solar radiation), which had been previously measured, and the size of load to be supplied. The least power generation cost was calculated, supposing that setting load was 176kWh/month and the loss of load probability (LOLP) was 1%, by using actual amount of solar radiation in May 1985. The cost was divided into two components: one was proportionate to the size of solar cell, and the other was in proportion to the battery volume. And then, the cost of twenty-year operation(TLC) was calculated. The size of array and the battery volume, which minimize the cost, can be determined when TLC is differentiate. Since auxiliary power source is not attached to this system, it is necessary to restrict the load in order to meet the electric power shortage. In case of the cost at construction in 1984, a standard model indicating the least power generation cost is a photovoltaic system with the array size of A=49.0m{sup 2} and the battery volume of Q=568(Ah). 4 refs., 9 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. Battery Storage Technologies for Electrical Applications: Impact in Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Akinyele

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Batteries are promising storage technologies for stationary applications because of their maturity, and the ease with which they are designed and installed compared to other technologies. However, they pose threats to the environment and human health. Several studies have discussed the various battery technologies and applications, but evaluating the environmental impact of batteries in electrical systems remains a gap that requires concerted research efforts. This study first presents an overview of batteries and compares their technical properties such as the cycle life, power and energy densities, efficiencies and the costs. It proposes an optimal battery technology sizing and selection strategy, and then assesses the environmental impact of batteries in a typical renewable energy application by using a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV system as a case study. The greenhouse gas (GHG impact of the batteries is evaluated based on the life cycle emission rate parameter. Results reveal that the battery has a significant impact in the energy system, with a GHG impact of about 36–68% in a 1.5 kW PV system for different locations. The paper discusses new batteries, strategies to minimize battery impact and provides insights into the selection of batteries with improved cycling capacity, higher lifespan and lower cost that can achieve lower environmental impacts for future applications.

  13. [Clinical application of stand-alone MC+PEEK cage in the anterior cervical fusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bing; Cao, Yan-Qing; Pan, Hong; Zhu, Cheng-Run; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Tao, Yue-Feng; Liu, Zhen

    2015-04-01

    To explore the effect of clinical application of stand-alone MC+PEEK cage in anterior cervical fusion. From January 2011 to January 2014,50 patients were treated with the MC+PEEK cage filled with autogenous cancellous illic-bone graft after anterior cervical discectomy. There were 22 patients with cervical spondylosis,26 patients with traumatic cervical disc herniation, 2 patients with cervical instability in these patients. There were 32 males and 18 females, aged from 30 to 79 years old with an average of 53.30 years old. There were 32 patients with single segment, 15 patients with double segments and 3 patients with three segments. Cervical AP and lateral and the flexion-extension X-rays were regularly taken in order to assess the cervical physiological curvature, the graft fusion and internal fixation related complications. Nerve function, clinical effect and bone fusion were respectively evaluated according to Japan Orthopedic Association (JOA), Otani grade and Suk method. All patients were followed up from 6 to 36 months with an average of 20 months. No correlated surgical complications were found and all patients obtained bony fusion with an average time of 4.30 months. JOA score had significantly improvement after surgery (P cervical fusion can obtain satisfactory clinical effect with less operation injury and reduce the complications. It is a better fusion method in anterior cervical fusion.

  14. Performance and Simulation of a Stand-alone Parabolic Trough Solar Thermal Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, S. T.; Al-Kayiem, H. H.; Assadi, M. K.; Gilani, S. I. U. H.; Khlief, A. K.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a Simulink® Thermolib Model has been established for simulation performance evaluation of Stand-alone Parabolic Trough Solar Thermal Power Plant in Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Malaysia. This paper proposes a design of 1.2 kW parabolic trough power plant. The model is capable to predict temperatures at any system outlet in the plant, as well as the power output produced. The conditions that are taken into account as input to the model are: local solar radiation and ambient temperatures, which have been measured during the year. Other parameters that have been input to the model are the collector’s sizes, location in terms of latitude and altitude. Lastly, the results are presented in graphical manner to describe the analysed variations of various outputs of the solar fields obtained, and help to predict the performance of the plant. The developed model allows an initial evaluation of the viability and technical feasibility of any similar solar thermal power plant.

  15. Comparative analysis of distributed MPPT controllers for partially shaded stand alone photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthuramalingam, M.; Manoharan, P.S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Analyzes the performance of ANN and ANFIS MPPT algorithms by stand alone PV system. • ISSBC with ANFIS can provide the overall efficiency higher than ANN. • CHBMLI integrate with SHE ANN modulation technique improve output voltage quality. • Simulation and hardware results show the ANFIS algorithm efficient than ANN algorithm. - Abstract: This paper presents a unique combination of an interleaved soft switched boost converter (ISSBC) run by a set of two photovoltaic panel (PV) with a distributed MPPT, suitable to guarantee MPPT even under partial shadowed conditions, managed by an adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system trained by the training data derived from a particle swarm optimization (PSO–ANFIS) unit. The ISSBC is followed by a, single phase cascaded H bridge five-level inverter (CHI) driven by the individual DC outputs of the ISSBC, with selective harmonic elimination scheme to eliminate typically the seventh order harmonics. A comparison of different intelligent distributed maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms for photovoltaic (PV) system under partial shadow conditions is carried out. The use of the ISSBC guarantees mitigation of ripple and it is meant to handle higher currents with minimal switching losses. Simulation was carried out in the Matlab Simulink environment and an experimental verification with a scaled down model validated the proposed scheme. It has been thus established, by both simulation and experimental verification, that the PSO–ANFIS model of distributed MPPT scheme of control outperforms other schemes of control for MPPT

  16. Can aqueous hydrogen peroxide be used as a stand-alone energy source?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disselkamp, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    A novel electrochemical scheme to convert a stand-alone supply of aqueous hydrogen peroxide into a fuel cell-ready stream of hydrogen gas plus aqueous hydrogen peroxide is described. The electrochemical cell, consisting of a solid base and solid acid electrocatalyst, together with a proton exchange membrane, comprise the system that converts aqueous hydrogen peroxide into separate gas streams of oxygen and hydrogen. Aqueous hydrogen peroxide is contained in the anode compartment only and exists in the region where oxygen gas is formed, whereas the cathode compartment is where hydrogen gas is generated and therefore exists in a reduced state. A near zero theoretical over-potential can be achieved by the choice of basicity and acidity of the electrode materials. The primary cost of the electrochemical cell is electrode construction and the aqueous hydrogen peroxide energy storage compound. Additional research effort is required to experimentally validate the concept and explore the full economic impact should initial studies, based on the design presented here, prove promising. (author)

  17. An intelligent stand-alone ultrasonic device for monitoring local structural damage: implementation and preliminary experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertsch, Alexander; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Wang, Yang; Jacobs, Laurence J

    2011-01-01

    Continuous structural health monitoring has the potential to significantly improve the safety management of aged, in-service civil structures. In particular, monitoring of local damage growth at hot-spot areas can help to prevent disastrous structural failures. Although ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) has proved to be effective in monitoring local damage growth, conventional equipment and devices are usually bulky and only suitable for scheduled human inspections. The objective of this research is to harness the latest developments in embedded hardware and wireless communication for developing a stand-alone, compact ultrasonic device. The device is directed at the continuous structural health monitoring of civil structures. Relying on battery power, the device possesses the functionalities of high-speed actuation, sensing, signal processing, and wireless communication. Integrated with contact ultrasonic transducers, the device can generate 1 MHz Rayleigh surface waves in a steel specimen and measure response waves. An envelope detection algorithm based on the Hilbert transform is presented for efficiently determining the peak values of the response signals, from which small surface cracks are successfully identified

  18. Approaches for developing a sizing method for stand-alone PV systems with variable demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posadillo, R. [Grupo de Investigacion en Energias y Recursos Renovables, Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada, E.P.S., Universidad de Cordoba, Avda. Menendez Pidal s/n, 14004 Cordoba (Spain); Lopez Luque, R. [Grupo de Investigacion de Fisica para las Energias y Recursos Renovables, Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada. Edificio C2 Campus de Rabanales, 14071 Cordoba (Spain)

    2008-05-15

    Accurate sizing is one of the most important aspects to take into consideration when designing a stand-alone photovoltaic system (SAPV). Various methods, which differ in terms of their simplicity or reliability, have been developed for this purpose. Analytical methods, which seek functional relationships between variables of interest to the sizing problem, are one of these approaches. A series of rational considerations are presented in this paper with the aim of shedding light upon the basic principles and results of various sizing methods proposed by different authors. These considerations set the basis for a new analytical method that has been designed for systems with variable monthly energy demands. Following previous approaches, the method proposed is based on the concept of loss of load probability (LLP) - a parameter that is used to characterize system design. The method includes information on the standard deviation of loss of load probability ({sigma}{sub LLP}) and on two new parameters: annual number of system failures (f) and standard deviation of annual number of failures ({sigma}{sub f}). The method proves useful for sizing a PV system in a reliable manner and serves to explain the discrepancies found in the research on systems with LLP<10{sup -2}. We demonstrate that reliability depends not only on the sizing variables and on the distribution function of solar radiation, but on the minimum value as well, which in a given location and with a monthly average clearness index, achieves total solar radiation on the receiver surface. (author)

  19. Stand-alone excitation synchronous wind power generators with power flow management strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzuen-Lih Chern

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a stand-alone excitation synchronous wind power generator (SESWPG with power flow management strategy (PFMS. The rotor speed of the excitation synchronous generator tracks the utility grid frequency by using servo motor tracking technologies. The automatic voltage regulator governs the exciting current of generator to achieve the control goals of stable voltage. When wind power is less than the needs of the consumptive loading, the proposed PFMS increases motor torque to provide a positive power output for the loads, while keeping the generator speed constant. Conversely, during the periods of wind power greater than output loads, the redundant power of generator production is charged to the battery pack and the motor speed remains constant with very low power consumption. The advantage of the proposed SESWPG is that the generator can directly output stable alternating current (AC electricity without using additional DC–AC converters. The operation principles with software simulation for the system are described in detail. Experimental results of a laboratory prototype are shown to verify the feasibility of the system.

  20. Analysis and control of induction generator supplying stand-alone AC loads employing a Matrix Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumedha Mahajan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a Capacitor Excited Induction Generator (CEIG-Matrix Converter (MC system for feeding stand-alone AC loads. The variable output voltage magnitude and frequency from CEIG is converted into a constant voltage magnitude and frequency at the load terminals by controlling MC using Space Vector Modulation (SVM technique. This single-stage MC is turned up as a good alternative for the proposed system against commonly used AC/DC/AC two stage power converters. The configuration and implementation of the closed-loop control scheme employing dSPACE 1103 real time controller have been fully described in the paper. The proposed closed-loop controller regulates the AC load voltage irrespective of changes in the prime mover speed and load. A method for predetermining the steady-state performance of the proposed system has been developed and described with relevant analytical expressions. The effectiveness of the proposed system is exemplified through simulation results for various operating conditions. The proposed control technique is further validated using an experimental setup developed in the laboratory.

  1. Design of a reliable and low-cost stand-alone micro hydropower station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusakana, K.; Munda, J.L. [Tshwane Univ. of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    A stand-alone micro-hydropower station was presented. The plant was comprised of a squirrel cage induction machine coupled to a Kaplan water turbine. Power converters were used to control the variable frequency and voltage outputs of the generator caused by variations in water flow. The hydropower plant was installed a farm in the Kwazulu-Natal region of South Africa, and was designed to provide electricity in relation to the low power demand of users in the region as well as according to the site's hydrology and topology. Load forecasts for the 8 houses using the system were conducted. A generator with a higher output than the average power needed to feed the load was selected in order to ensure load supply during peak demand. The system was designed to shore energy generated during off-peak periods in batteries. An AC-DC-AC converter was used as an interface between the generator and the load in order to ensure voltage and frequency stabilization. Simulations of plant components were conducted to demonstrate output power supply during water flow variations. Results of the modelling study indicated that power converters are needed to stabilize generator outputs. The hydropower design is a cost-effective means of supplying power to low-income households. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  2. Simulation of stand alone PV system; Dokuritsugata taiyoko hatsuden system no simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, H; Ogawa, H; Sekii, Y [Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba (Japan); Tsuda, I; Nozaki, K [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan); Kurokawa, K [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In order to evaluate the simulation results of a photovoltaic power generation system, an operation simulation was carried out using the actual measured data of a stand alone PV system in Miyakojima, Okinawa Prefecture, so as to make a comparison with the actual operation data. The electric power was supplied to 250 houses and primary/junior high schools in the surrounding villages, which had an average demand load of approximately 90kw and the maximum of approximately 200kw. The power was supplied through the PV power generation in the duration of the sunshine, with an excess power charged in storage batteries and then supplied from the batteries at night. The array capacity was made 750kWp, the output current and storage batteries being characteristic type with an actual efficiency curve used for the inverter. The weather data used were the actual inclined insolation quantity and the outside air temperature data for a period of one month of November. The power charged in excess of 100% in the batteries was termed as an overflow power. With the charging condition 30% or less, a diesel generator was run for a rated operation for one hour, the power of which was termed as a backup power. As a result, the simulation was found nearly in agreement with the actual measurements. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Solar photovoltaic applications seminar: design, installation and operation of small, stand-alone photovoltaic power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    This seminar material was developed primarily to provide solar photovoltaic (PV) applied engineering technology to the Federal community. An introduction to photoconductivity, semiconductors, and solar photovoltaic cells is included along with a demonstration of specific applications and application identification. The seminar details general systems design and incorporates most known information from industry, academia, and Government concerning small solar cell power system design engineering, presented in a practical and applied manner. Solar PV power system applications involve classical direct electrical energy conversion and electric power system analysis and synthesis. Presentations and examples involve a variety of disciplines including structural analysis, electric power and load analysis, reliability, sizing and optimization; and, installation, operation and maintenance. Four specific system designs are demonstrated: water pumping, domestic uses, navigational and aircraft aids, and telecommunications. All of the applications discussed are for small power requirement (under 2 kilowatts), stand-alone systems to be used in remote locations. Also presented are practical lessons gained from currently installed and operating systems, problems at sites and their resolution, a logical progression through each major phase of system acquisition, as well as thorough design reviews for each application.

  4. Use of Super-Capacitor to Enhance Charging Performance of Stand-Alone Solar PV System

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B. J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The battery charging performance in a stand-alone solar PV system affects the PV system efficiency and the load operating time. The New Energy Center of National Taiwan University has been devoted to the development of a PWM charging technique to continue charging the lead-acid battery after the overcharge point to increase the battery storage capacity by more than 10%. The present study intends to use the super-capacitor to further increase the charge capacity before the overcharge point of the battery. The super-capacitor is connected in parallel to the lead-acid battery. This will reduce the overall charging impedance during the charge and increase the charging current, especially in sunny weather. A system dynamics model of the lead-acid battery and super-capacitor was derived and the control system simulation was carried out to predict the charging performance for various weathers. It shows that the overall battery impedance decreases and charging power increases with increasing solar radiation. An outdoor comparative test for two identical PV systems with and without supercapacitor was carried out. The use of super-capacitor is shown to be able to increase the lead-acid charging capacity by more than 25% at sunny weather and 10% in cloudy weather. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  5. On the economics of stand-alone renewable hybrid power plants in remote regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrakopoulou, Fontina

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Economic evaluation of three renewable hybrid power plants for off-grid operation. • The high electricity cost of remote regions increases the competitiveness of renewable energy. • The proposed plants are economically viable when compared to the existing situation. • The zero direct emissions of the plants constitute an additional advantage of the plants. - Abstract: In recent years ever more examples of regions that have managed to achieve or orientate themselves toward renewable energy sufficiency are emerging. However, actions to create energy autonomy are mainly the result of isolated activities and they are less driven from fully organized movements. In addition, total energy independence without the support of a centralized electrical grid is yet to be achieved. The objectives of this work are to investigate the associated costs of stand-alone renewable hybrid power plants on a Greek island and compare them to the cost of the currently used fossil-fuel-based conventional plant. The plants examined here are designed to fully cover the electricity needs of the island. Islands may face numerous energy problems and rely heavily on foreign and environmentally-harmful fuels. It is shown that the relatively high cost of electricity of such a remote region can increase the competitiveness and promote the wider incorporation of technologies based on renewable energy sources that may, in other cases, seem economically inferior to business-as-usual energy solutions.

  6. MIRNA-DISTILLER: a stand-alone application to compile microRNA data from databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K. Rieger

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNA are small non-coding RNA molecules of ~22 nucleotides which regulate large numbers of genes by binding to seed sequences at the 3’-UTR of target gene transcripts. The target mRNA is then usually degraded or translation is inhibited, although thus resulting in posttranscriptional down regulation of gene expression at the mRNA and/or protein level. Due to the bioinformatic difficulties in predicting functional miRNA binding sites, several publically available databases have been developed that predict miRNA binding sites based on different algorithms. The parallel use of different databases is currently indispensable, but highly uncomfortable and time consuming, especially when working with numerous genes of interest. We have therefore developed a new stand-alone program, termed MIRNA-DISTILLER, which allows to compile miRNA data for given target genes from public databases. Currently implemented are TargetScan, microCosm, and miRDB, which may be queried independently, pairwise, or together to calculate the respective intersections. Data are stored locally for application of further analysis tools including freely definable biological parameter filters, customized output-lists for both miRNAs and target genes, and various graphical facilities. The software, a data example file and a tutorial are freely available at http://www.ikp-stuttgart.de/content/language1/html/10415.asp

  7. MIRNA-DISTILLER: A Stand-Alone Application to Compile microRNA Data from Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Jessica K; Bodan, Denis A; Zanger, Ulrich M

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small non-coding RNA molecules of ∼22 nucleotides which regulate large numbers of genes by binding to seed sequences at the 3'-untranslated region of target gene transcripts. The target mRNA is then usually degraded or translation is inhibited, although thus resulting in posttranscriptional down regulation of gene expression at the mRNA and/or protein level. Due to the bioinformatic difficulties in predicting functional miRNA binding sites, several publically available databases have been developed that predict miRNA binding sites based on different algorithms. The parallel use of different databases is currently indispensable, but highly uncomfortable and time consuming, especially when working with numerous genes of interest. We have therefore developed a new stand-alone program, termed MIRNA-DISTILLER, which allows to compile miRNA data for given target genes from public databases. Currently implemented are TargetScan, microCosm, and miRDB, which may be queried independently, pairwise, or together to calculate the respective intersections. Data are stored locally for application of further analysis tools including freely definable biological parameter filters, customized output-lists for both miRNAs and target genes, and various graphical facilities. The software, a data example file and a tutorial are freely available at http://www.ikp-stuttgart.de/content/language1/html/10415.asp.

  8. 49 CFR 1109.4 - Mandatory mediation in rate cases to be considered under the stand-alone cost methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mandatory mediation in rate cases to be considered... § 1109.4 Mandatory mediation in rate cases to be considered under the stand-alone cost methodology. (a) A... methodology must engage in non-binding mediation of its dispute with the railroad upon filing a formal...

  9. An improved synchronous reference frame phase-locked loop for stand-alone variable speed constant frequency power generation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yi; Xu, Wei; Ke, Longzhang

    2017-01-01

    The phase-locked loop (PLL) based on conventional synchronous reference frame, i.e. dqPLL, is usually employed in grid-connected variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) power generation systems (PGSs). However, the voltage amplitude drop of stand-alone PGSs is often greater than that of the grid...

  10. Analyzing grid extension and stand-alone photovoltaic systems for the cost-effective electrification of Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeyringer, Marianne; Pachauri, Shonali; Schmid, Erwin; Schmidt, Johannes; Worrell, Ernst|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/106856715; Morawetz, Ulrich B.

    2015-01-01

    The declaration of 2014-2024 as the Decade of Sustainable Energy for All has catalyzed actions towards achieving universal electricity access. The high costs of building electric infrastructure are a major impediment to improved access, making stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems an attractive

  11. Stand-Alone Ethics, Social Responsibility, and Sustainability Course Requirements: A Snapshot from Australia and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn R.; Wymer, Walter

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the extent to which Australian and New Zealand marketing educators use dedicated or stand-alone courses to equip students with alternative views of business. A census of marketing programs in degree-granting universities was conducted. Program brochures were obtained via the Internet and were content analyzed. This study…

  12. Stand-Alone Photovoltaic System Assessment in Warmer Urban Areas in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto-Jesus Perea-Moreno

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the possibility of using a stand-alone photovoltaic system (SAPVS for electricity generation in urban areas in Southern Mexico. In Mexico, an urban area is defined as an area where more than 2500 inhabitants live. Due to constant migration from the countryside to the cities, the number of inhabitants of urban localities has been increasing. Global horizontal irradiation (GHI data were recorded every 10 min during 2014–2016 in Coatzacoalcos in the state of Veracruz located on 18°08′09″ N and 94°27′48″ W. In this study, batteries represented 77% of the total cost, 12 PV panels of 310 W could export 5.41 MWh to the grid, and an inverter with an integrated controller and charger was selected, which decreased the initial cost. The city of Coatzacoalcos was chosen because the average annual temperature is 28°, with an average relative humidity of 75% and an average irradiance of 5.3 kWh/m2/day. An emission factor 0.505 tCO2/MWh of greenhouse gases (GHG were obtained, based on the power system, the reduction of net annual GHG would be 11 tCO2 and a financial revenue of 36.951 × 103 $/tCO2 would be obtained. Financial parameters such as a 36.3% Internal Rate Return (IRR and 3.4 years payback show the financial viability of this investment. SAPVSs in urban areas in Mexico could be a benefit as long as housing has a high consumption of electricity.

  13. The Use of Artificial Neural Networks for Forecasting the Electric Demand of Stand-Alone Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanin, O. A.; Direktor, L. B.

    2018-05-01

    The problem of short-term forecasting of electric power demand of stand-alone consumers (small inhabited localities) situated outside centralized power supply areas is considered. The basic approaches to modeling the electric power demand depending on the forecasting time frame and the problems set, as well as the specific features of such modeling, are described. The advantages and disadvantages of the methods used for the short-term forecast of the electric demand are indicated, and difficulties involved in the solution of the problem are outlined. The basic principles of arranging artificial neural networks are set forth; it is also shown that the proposed method is preferable when the input information necessary for prediction is lacking or incomplete. The selection of the parameters that should be included into the list of the input data for modeling the electric power demand of residential areas using artificial neural networks is validated. The structure of a neural network is proposed for solving the problem of modeling the electric power demand of residential areas. The specific features of generation of the training dataset are outlined. The results of test modeling of daily electric demand curves for some settlements of Kamchatka and Yakutia based on known actual electric demand curves are provided. The reliability of the test modeling has been validated. A high value of the deviation of the modeled curve from the reference curve obtained in one of the four reference calculations is explained. The input data and the predicted power demand curves for the rural settlement of Kuokuiskii Nasleg are provided. The power demand curves were modeled for four characteristic days of the year, and they can be used in the future for designing a power supply system for the settlement. To enhance the accuracy of the method, a series of measures based on specific features of a neural network's functioning are proposed.

  14. Stand-Alone Solar Organic Rankine Cycle Water Pumping System and Its Economic Viability in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Baral

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents the concept of a stand-alone solar organic Rankine cycle (ORC water pumping system for rural Nepalese areas. Experimental results for this technology are presented based on a prototype. The economic viability of the system was assessed based on solar radiation data of different Nepalese geographic locations. The mechanical power produced by the solar ORC is coupled with a water pumping system for various applications, such as drinking and irrigation. The thermal efficiency of the system was found to be 8% with an operating temperature of 120 °C. The hot water produced by the unit has a temperature of 40 °C. Economic assessment was done for 1-kW and 5-kW solar ORC water pumping systems. These systems use different types of solar collectors: a parabolic trough collector (PTC and an evacuated tube collector (ETC. The economic analysis showed that the costs of water are $2.47/m3 (highest and $1.86/m3 (lowest for the 1-kW system and a 150-m pumping head. In addition, the cost of water is reduced when the size of the system is increased and the pumping head is reduced. The minimum volumes of water pumped are 2190 m3 and 11,100 m3 yearly for 1 kW and 5 kW, respectively. The payback period is eight years with a profitability index of 1.6. The system is highly feasible and promising in the context of Nepal.

  15. Optimum capacity determination of stand-alone hybrid generation system considering cost and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hung-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► This paper presents a methodology for the installation capacity optimization. ► Hybrid generation system is optimized by application of adaptive genetic algorithm. ► A cost investigation is made under various conditions and component characteristics. ► The optimization scheme is validated to meet the annual power load demand. -- Abstract: The aim of this work is to present an optimization methodology for the installation capacity of a stand-alone hybrid generation system, taking into consideration the cost and reliability. Firstly, on the basis of derived steady state models of a wind generator (WG), a photovoltaic array (PV), a battery and an inverter, the hybrid generation system is modeled for the purpose of capacity optimization. Secondly, the power system is analyzed for determining both the system structure and the operation control strategy. Thirdly, according to hourly weather database of wind speed, temperature and solar irradiation, annual power generation capacity is estimated for the system match design in order that an annual power load demand can be met. The capacity determination of a hybrid generation system becomes complicated as a result of the uncertainty in the renewable energy together with load demand and the nonlinearity of system components. Aimed at the power system reliability and the cost minimization, the capacity of a hybrid generation system is optimized by application of an adaptive genetic algorithm (AGA) to individual power generation units. A total cost investigation is made under various conditions, such as wind generator power curves, battery discharge depth and the loss of load probability (LOLP). At the end of this work, the capacity of a hybrid generation system is optimized at two installation sites, namely the offshore Orchid Island and Wuchi in Taiwan. The optimization scheme is validated to optimize power capacities of a photovoltaic array, a battery and a wind turbine generator with a relative

  16. The eBioKit, a stand-alone educational platform for bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-de-Diego, Rafael; de Villiers, Etienne P; Klingström, Tomas; Gourlé, Hadrien; Conesa, Ana; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik

    2017-09-01

    Bioinformatics skills have become essential for many research areas; however, the availability of qualified researchers is usually lower than the demand and training to increase the number of able bioinformaticians is an important task for the bioinformatics community. When conducting training or hands-on tutorials, the lack of control over the analysis tools and repositories often results in undesirable situations during training, as unavailable online tools or version conflicts may delay, complicate, or even prevent the successful completion of a training event. The eBioKit is a stand-alone educational platform that hosts numerous tools and databases for bioinformatics research and allows training to take place in a controlled environment. A key advantage of the eBioKit over other existing teaching solutions is that all the required software and databases are locally installed on the system, significantly reducing the dependence on the internet. Furthermore, the architecture of the eBioKit has demonstrated itself to be an excellent balance between portability and performance, not only making the eBioKit an exceptional educational tool but also providing small research groups with a platform to incorporate bioinformatics analysis in their research. As a result, the eBioKit has formed an integral part of training and research performed by a wide variety of universities and organizations such as the Pan African Bioinformatics Network (H3ABioNet) as part of the initiative Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa), the Southern Africa Network for Biosciences (SAnBio) initiative, the Biosciences eastern and central Africa (BecA) hub, and the International Glossina Genome Initiative.

  17. "Candidatus Fokinia solitaria", a Novel "Stand-Alone" Symbiotic Lineage of Midichloriaceae (Rickettsiales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Szokoli

    Full Text Available Recently, the family Midichloriaceae has been described within the bacterial order Rickettsiales. It includes a variety of bacterial endosymbionts detected in different metazoan host species belonging to Placozoa, Cnidaria, Arthropoda and Vertebrata. Representatives of Midichloriaceae are also considered possible etiological agents of certain animal diseases. Midichloriaceae have been found also in protists like ciliates and amoebae. The present work describes a new bacterial endosymbiont, "Candidatus Fokinia solitaria", retrieved from three different strains of a novel Paramecium species isolated from a wastewater treatment plant in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil. Symbionts were characterized through the full-cycle rRNA approach: SSU rRNA gene sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with three species-specific oligonucleotide probes. In electron micrographs, the tiny rod-shaped endosymbionts (1.2 x 0.25-0.35 μm in size were not surrounded by a symbiontophorous vacuole and were located in the peripheral host cytoplasm, stratified in the host cortex in between the trichocysts or just below them. Frequently, they occurred inside autolysosomes. Phylogenetic analyses of Midichloriaceae apparently show different evolutionary pathways within the family. Some genera, such as "Ca. Midichloria" and "Ca. Lariskella", have been retrieved frequently and independently in different hosts and environmental surveys. On the contrary, others, such as Lyticum, "Ca. Anadelfobacter", "Ca. Defluviella" and the presently described "Ca. Fokinia solitaria", have been found only occasionally and associated to specific host species. These last are the only representatives in their own branches thus far. Present data do not allow to infer whether these genera, which we named "stand-alone lineages", are an indication of poorly sampled organisms, thus underrepresented in GenBank, or represent fast evolving, highly adapted evolutionary lineages.

  18. Study on the optimization of stand-alone type photovoltaic systems. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Man Geun; Song, Jin Soo; Kim, Boo ho; Park, I June; Jung, Meung Woong; Yoo, Kyun Joung; Kim, Hong Woo [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The objectives of this study are to make a maximization of the operating efficiency of photovoltaic power systems, to improve stand- align PV systems design, technical operation and system analysis, and to promote technical cooperation of mutual interest in the area of IEA/PVPS program. This study aims to investigating the problems of applied photovoltaic power systems currently in operation to improve a system design, seeking remedies of individual PVPS applications to improve the system efficiency and reliability and to raise the system economics, and reporting the international movements of PV system dissemination and technical cooperation for developing countries. For the purpose of this works 1) Investigations of applications of existing photovoltaic power systems: - Photovoltaic electric sources used for expressway lamps - Optimum design of solar light with low pressure sodium lamps under 8 hours lighting a day at night by program-able electronic timer. 2) Comparative analyses of Marado PV system and propose a new reliable PV-diesel hybrid system and high efficiency operations. 3) Overall review of Hahwado 60 KWp PV system extending from 25 KWp and the remote monitoring systems for measurement of its operating results. 4) Introduction of IEA/PVPS international cooperating program, especially in task III for stand- alone PV systems and isolated islands and Exco meeting. As results, investigative findings of PVPS currently in operation and the work for improvement - Propose a prescription of Marado PV systems being blocked up by explosion of electrical demands from residence, parallel operational dual inverter with a big capacity. - There are shortage of solar generated power due to shortage of solar cell capacity that results in an increased operating time of diesel generator. Hence the insolation capacity of solar cell per household is continuously increased from the 0.5 KWp to 2 KWp in Hanwado island electrification.

  19. A Low-Power Wearable Stand-Alone Tongue Drive System for People With Severe Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Ali; Buswell, Nathanael; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Mohsenin, Tinoosh

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a low-power stand-alone tongue drive system (sTDS) used for individuals with severe disabilities to potentially control their environment such as computer, smartphone, and wheelchair using their voluntary tongue movements. A low-power local processor is proposed, which can perform signal processing to convert raw magnetic sensor signals to user-defined commands, on the sTDS wearable headset, rather than sending all raw data out to a PC or smartphone. The proposed sTDS significantly reduces the transmitter power consumption and subsequently increases the battery life. Assuming the sTDS user issues one command every 20 ms, the proposed local processor reduces the data volume that needs to be wirelessly transmitted by a factor of 64, from 9.6 to 0.15 kb/s. The proposed processor consists of three main blocks: serial peripheral interface bus for receiving raw data from magnetic sensors, external magnetic interference attenuation to attenuate external magnetic field from the raw magnetic signal, and a machine learning classifier for command detection. A proof-of-concept prototype sTDS has been implemented with a low-power IGLOO-nano field programmable gate array (FPGA), bluetooth low energy, battery and magnetic sensors on a headset, and tested. At clock frequency of 20 MHz, the processor takes 6.6 s and consumes 27 nJ for detecting a command with a detection accuracy of 96.9%. To further reduce power consumption, an application-specified integrated circuit processor for the sTDS is implemented at the postlayout level in 65-nm CMOS technology with 1-V power supply, and it consumes 0.43 mW, which is 10 lower than FPGA power consumption and occupies an area of only 0.016 mm.

  20. Hydrogen-based energy storage unit for stand alone PV systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labbe, J.

    2006-12-01

    Stand alone systems supplied only by a photovoltaic generator need an energy storage unit to be fully self sufficient. Lead acid batteries are commonly used to store energy because of their low cost, despite several operational constraints. A hydrogen-based energy storage unit (HESU) could be another candidate, including an electrolyser, a fuel cell and a hydrogen tank. However many efforts still need to be carried out for this technology to reach an industrial stage. In particular, market outlets must be clearly identified. The study of small stationary applications (few kW) is performed by numerical simulations. A simulator is developed in the Matlab/Simulink environment. It is mainly composed of a photovoltaic field and a storage unit (lead acid batteries, HESU, or hybrid storage HESU/batteries). The system component sizing is achieved in order to ensure the complete system autonomy over a whole year of operation. The simulator is tested with 160 load profiles (1 kW as a yearly mean value) and three locations (Algeria, France and Norway). Two coefficients are set in order to quantify the correlation between the power consumption of the end user and the renewable resource availability at both daily and yearly scales. Among the tested cases, a limit value of the yearly correlation coefficient came out, enabling to recommend the use of the most adapted storage to a considered case. There are cases for which using HESU instead of lead acid batteries can increase the system efficiency, decrease the size of the photovoltaic field and improve the exploitation of the renewable resource. In addition, hybridization of HESU with batteries always leads to system enhancements regarding its sizing and performance, with an efficiency increase by 10 to 40 % depending on the considered location. The good agreement between the simulation data and field data gathered on real systems enabled the validation of the models used in this study. (author)

  1. Probabilistic modelling and analysis of stand-alone hybrid power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lujano-Rojas, Juan M.; Dufo-López, Rodolfo; Bernal-Agustín, José L.

    2013-01-01

    As a part of the Hybrid Intelligent Algorithm, a model based on an ANN (artificial neural network) has been proposed in this paper to represent hybrid system behaviour considering the uncertainty related to wind speed and solar radiation, battery bank lifetime, and fuel prices. The Hybrid Intelligent Algorithm suggests a combination of probabilistic analysis based on a Monte Carlo simulation approach and artificial neural network training embedded in a genetic algorithm optimisation model. The installation of a typical hybrid system was analysed. Probabilistic analysis was used to generate an input–output dataset of 519 samples that was later used to train the ANNs to reduce the computational effort required. The generalisation ability of the ANNs was measured in terms of RMSE (Root Mean Square Error), MBE (Mean Bias Error), MAE (Mean Absolute Error), and R-squared estimators using another data group of 200 samples. The results obtained from the estimation of the expected energy not supplied, the probability of a determined reliability level, and the estimation of expected value of net present cost show that the presented model is able to represent the main characteristics of a typical hybrid power system under uncertain operating conditions. - Highlights: • This paper presents a probabilistic model for stand-alone hybrid power system. • The model considers the main sources of uncertainty related to renewable resources. • The Hybrid Intelligent Algorithm has been applied to represent hybrid system behaviour. • The installation of a typical hybrid system was analysed. • The results obtained from the study case validate the presented model

  2. Feasibility study and energy conversion analysis of stand-alone hybrid renewable energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baghdadi, Fazia; Mohammedi, Kamal; Diaf, Said; Behar, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid stand-alone wind–solar–fossil power system is analyzed. • Measurement data are used to evaluate system performance. • The proposed system can generate about 70% from renewables. • Such a hybrid plant is very promising for remote regions in Algeria. - Abstract: There is a great interest in the development of renewable power technologies in Algeria, and more particularly hybrid concept. The present paper has investigated the performance of hybrid PV–Wind–Diesel–Battery configuration based on hourly measurements of Adrar climate (southern Algeria). Data of global solar radiation, ambient temperature and wind speed for a period of one year have been used. Firstly, the proposed hybrid system has been optimized by means of HOMER software. The optimization process has been carried out taking into account renewable resources potential and energy demand; while maximizing renewable electricity use and fuel saving are the purpose. In the second step, a mathematical model has been developed to ensure efficient energy management on the basis of various operation strategies. The analysis has shown that renewable energy system (PV–Wind) is able to supply about 70% of the demand. Wind power has ranked first with 43% of the annual total electricity production followed by diesel generator (with 31%) while the remaining fraction is being to PV panels. In this context, 69% of the fossil fuel can be saved when using the proposed hybrid configuration instead of the diesel generators that are currently installed in most remote regions in Algeria. Such a concept is very promising to meet the focus of renewable energy program announced in 2011.

  3. Stand alone solution for generation and storage of hydrogen and electric energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gany, Alon; Elitzur, Shani; Valery

    2015-01-01

    A novel method enabling safe, simple, and controllable production, storage, and use of hydrogen as well as compact electric energy storage and generation via hydrogen- oxygen fuel cells has been developed. The technology indicates, in our opinion, a significant milestone in the search for practical utilization of hydrogen as an alternative energy source. It consists of an original thermal-chemical treatment / activation of aluminum powders to react spontaneously with water to produce hydrogen at regular conditions according to the reaction Al+3H 2 O=Al (OH) 3 +3/2H 2 . Only about 1-2% of lithium, based activator is applied, and any type of water including tap water, sea water and waste water may be used, making the method attractive for variety of applications. 11% of hydrogen compared to the aluminum mass can be obtained, and our experiments reveal 90% reaction yield and more. The technology has a clear advantage over batteries, providing specific electric energy of over 2 kW h/kg Al, 5-10 times greater than that of commonly used lithium-ion batteries. Combined with a fuel cell it may be particularly beneficial for stand-alone electric power generators, where there is no access to the grid. Such applications include emergency generators (e.g., in hospitals), electricity backup systems, and power generation in remote communication posts. Automotive applications may be considered as well. The technology provides green electric energy and quiet operation as well as additional heat energy resulting mainly from the exothermic aluminum-water reaction. (full text)

  4. Stand-alone flat-plate photovoltaic power systems: System sizing and life-cycle costing methodology for Federal agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, C. S.; Volkmer, K.; Cochrane, E. H.; Lawson, A. C.

    1984-01-01

    A simple methodology to estimate photovoltaic system size and life-cycle costs in stand-alone applications is presented. It is designed to assist engineers at Government agencies in determining the feasibility of using small stand-alone photovoltaic systems to supply ac or dc power to the load. Photovoltaic system design considerations are presented as well as the equations for sizing the flat-plate array and the battery storage to meet the required load. Cost effectiveness of a candidate photovoltaic system is based on comparison with the life-cycle cost of alternative systems. Examples of alternative systems addressed are batteries, diesel generators, the utility grid, and other renewable energy systems.

  5. prfectBLAST: a platform-independent portable front end for the command terminal BLAST+ stand-alone suite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Sotelo, Perfecto; Ramirez-Prado, Jorge Humberto

    2012-11-01

    prfectBLAST is a multiplatform graphical user interface (GUI) for the stand-alone BLAST+ suite of applications. It allows researchers to do nucleotide or amino acid sequence similarity searches against public (or user-customized) databases that are locally stored. It does not require any dependencies or installation and can be used from a portable flash drive. prfectBLAST is implemented in Java version 6 (SUN) and runs on all platforms that support Java and for which National Center for Biotechnology Information has made available stand-alone BLAST executables, including MS Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux. It is free and open source software, made available under the GNU General Public License version 3 (GPLv3) and can be downloaded at www.cicy.mx/sitios/jramirez or http://code.google.com/p/prfectblast/.

  6. Modeling, design and analysis of a stand-alone hybrid power generation system using solar/urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Wei; Zhou, Ya-Yan; Lin, Mu-Hsuan; Hwang, Jenn-Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The stand-alone hybrid power system is presented. • The urine-to-hydrogen processor is proposed. • Scenario analysis of the hybrid power dispatching and the urine/solar demands is investigated. • The design, modeling and optimization of the hybrid power system is addressed by Aspen Plus and Matlab. - Abstract: The urine turned to hydrogen as an energy conversion process is integrated into a stand-alone hybrid (PV/FC/battery) power generation system. The optimization and simulation of a new urine-to-hydrogen processor is evaluated in Aspen Plus environment. In our approach, the PV generator aims to reduce urine consumption and the lithium-ion battery can compensate the power gap due to the fuel processing delay. Based on prescribed patterns of solar irradiation and the daily load demand of a 30-persons classroom, scenario analyses of the hybrid power dispatching and operational feasibility is addressed

  7. Enhancement of a stand-alone photovoltaic system's performance: Reduction of soft and hard shading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamont, Lisa A.; El Chaar, Lana [Petroleum Institute, Electrical Engineering Department, P.O. Box 2533, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2011-04-15

    A stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system is the most promising solution to supply electric power to meet energy demand in isolated locations. This technology can offer an interesting alternative to other currently existing sources of energy. Due to space constraint in the remote offshore oil and gas industry, a stand-alone system is used for cathodic protection, telemetry and valve control. However in such an environment, dust accumulation and bird droppings have been critical issues to the operation of off-grid solar devices. These factors do not only reduce the available power of the modules but also makes the cost of solar devices ineffective since cleaning, especially on well-head towers, is very expensive due to the location. Hence this paper presents two technical solutions that have shown promising results in reducing the impact of these factors. (author)

  8. Control strategy of wind turbine based on permanent magnet synchronous generator and energy storage for stand-alone systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Fujin; Liu, Dong; Chen, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates a variable speed wind turbine based on permanent magnet synchronous generator and a full-scale power converter in a stand-alone system. An energy storage system(ESS) including battery and fuel cell-electrolyzer combination is connected to the DC link of the full-scale power...... converter through the power electronics interface. Wind is the primary power source of the system, the battery and FC-electrolyzer combination is used as a backup and a long-term storage system to provide or absorb power in the stand-alone system, respectively. In this paper, a control strategy is proposed...... for the operation of this variable speed wind turbine in a stand-alone system, where the generator-side converter and the ESS operate together to meet the demand of the loads. This control strategy is competent for supporting the variation of the loads or wind speed and limiting the DC-link voltage of the full...

  9. Sizing, techno-economic and generation management analysis of a stand alone photovoltaic power unit including storage devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jallouli, Rihab; Krichen, Lotfi

    2012-01-01

    Due to the mismatch between the load demand and the intermittent solar energy, a stand-alone photovoltaic-hydrogen system and an optimal control scheme are designed to maintain the high system efficiency. Based on meteorological and the load demand data, a system sizing technique is proposed to establish the minimum capacity of the system components, which are a photovoltaic (PV) panel, a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), a battery bank and an alkaline electrolyzer (Elz). An accurate energy management scheme that is utilized during power transfer is proposed to meet the economic requirements. Case studies are used to verify the efficiency of the energy management strategy and system sizing technique. Simulation results illustrate a simple solution to the design and processing of stand-alone PV-hydrogen (PV-H 2 ) systems. -- Highlights: ► We study a stand alone PV-hydrogen system comprising renewable devices. ► A PV generator, a battery bank, a fuel cell and an electrolyzer are modeled. ► Power management taking into account the economic arrangement and the operating conditions to ensure energy availability is proposed.

  10. Optimum autonomous stand-alone photovoltaic system design on the basis of energy pay-back analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldellis, J.K.; Zafirakis, D.; Kondili, E.

    2009-01-01

    Stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems comprise one of the most promising electrification solutions for covering the demand of remote consumers. However, such systems are strongly questioned due to extreme life-cycle (LC) energy requirements. For similar installations to be considered as environmentally sustainable, their LC energy content must be compensated by the respective useful energy production, i.e. their energy pay-back period (EPBP) should be found less than their service period. In this context, an optimum sizing methodology is currently developed, based on the criterion of minimum embodied energy. Various energy autonomous stand-alone PV-lead-acid battery systems are examined and two different cases are investigated; a high solar potential area and a medium solar potential area. By considering that the PV-battery (PV-Bat) system's useful energy production is equal to the remote consumer's electricity consumption, optimum cadmium telluride (CdTe) based systems yield the minimum EPBP (15 years). If achieving to exploit the net PV energy production however, the EPBP is found less than 20 years for all PV types. Finally, the most interesting finding concerns the fact that in all cases examined the contribution of the battery component exceeds 27% of the system LC energy requirements, reflecting the difference between grid-connected and stand-alone configurations.

  11. A Case Study of Control and Improved Simplified Swarm Optimization for Economic Dispatch of a Stand-Alone Modular Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianyong Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complex configuration and control framework, the conventional microgrid is not cost-effective for engineering applications with small or medium capacity. A stand-alone modular microgrid with separated AC bus and decentralized control strategy is proposed in this paper. Each module is a self-powered system, which consists of wind and solar power, a storage battery, load and three-port converter. The modules are interconnected by three-port converters to form the microgrid. Characteristics, operation principle, control of the modular microgrid and the three-port converter are analyzed in detail. Distributed storage batteries enable power exchanges among modules to enhance economic returns. Economic dispatch of the stand-alone modular microgrid is a mixed-integer programming problem. A day-ahead operation optimization model including fuel cost, battery operation cost, and power transmission cost is established. Because there are so many constraints, it is difficult to produce a feasible solution and even more difficult to have an improved solution. An improved simplified swarm optimization (iSSO method is therefore proposed. The iSSO scheme designs the new update mechanism and survival of the fittest policy. The experimental results from the demonstration project on DongAo Island reflect the effectiveness of the stand-alone modular microgrid and the economic dispatch strategy based on the iSSO method.

  12. A New Vector Control of Brushless Doubly-Fed Inductor Generator With Transient Current Compensation for Stand-Alone Power Generation Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yi; Xu, Wei; Yu, Kailiang

    2018-01-01

    The stand-alone brushless doubly-fed induction generator (BDFIG) with the conventional control strategies suffers heavily from poor dynamic performance especially under heavy load disturbance. This paper presents a new vector control strategy of BDFIG for stand-alone power generation applications...... control strategies, and the results verify the satisfactory dynamic performance of the proposed strategy....

  13. New control strategy of stand-alone brushless doubly-fed induction generator for supplying unbalanced loads in ship shaft power generation system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yi; Xu, Wei; Xiong, Fei

    2017-01-01

    The ship shaft power generation system based on a stand-alone brushless doubly-fed induction generator (BDFIG) have demonstrated excellent saving-energy performance. This paper presents a new control scheme of the stand-alone BDFIG for supplying unbalanced loads in the ship shaft power generation...

  14. Methanol production via pressurized entrained flow biomass gasification – Techno-economic comparison of integrated vs. stand-alone production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Jim; Lundgren, Joakim; Marklund, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    The main objective with this work was to investigate techno-economically the opportunity for integrated gasification-based biomass-to-methanol production in an existing chemical pulp and paper mill. Three different system configurations using the pressurized entrained flow biomass gasification (PEBG) technology were studied, one stand-alone plant, one where the bark boiler in the mill was replaced by a PEBG unit and one with a co-integration of a black liquor gasifier operated in parallel with a PEBG unit. The cases were analysed in terms of overall energy efficiency (calculated as electricity-equivalents) and process economics. The economics was assessed under the current as well as possible future energy market conditions. An economic policy support was found to be necessary to make the methanol production competitive under all market scenarios. In a future energy market, integrating a PEBG unit to replace the bark boiler was the most beneficial case from an economic point of view. In this case the methanol production cost was reduced in the range of 11–18 Euro per MWh compared to the stand-alone case. The overall plant efficiency increased approximately 7%-units compared to the original operation of the mill and the non-integrated stand-alone case. In the case with co-integration of the two parallel gasifiers, an equal increase of the system efficiency was achieved, but the economic benefit was not as apparent. Under similar conditions as the current market and when methanol was sold to replace fossil gasoline, co-integration of the two parallel gasifiers was the best alternative based on received IRR. - Highlights: • Techno-economic results regarding integration of methanol synthesis processes in a pulp and paper mill are presented. • The overall energy efficiency increases in integrated methanol production systems compared to stand-alone production units. • The economics of the integrated system improves compared to stand-alone alternatives. • Tax

  15. Maintenance of Segmental Lordosis and Disk Height in Stand-alone and Instrumented Extreme Lateral Interbody Fusion (XLIF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malham, Gregory M; Ellis, Ngaire J; Parker, Rhiannon M; Blecher, Carl M; White, Rohan; Goss, Ben; Seex, Kevin A

    2017-03-01

    A prospective single-surgeon nonrandomized clinical study. To evaluate the radiographic and clinical outcomes, by fixation type, in extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) patients and provide an algorithm for determining patients suitable for stand-alone XLIF. XLIF may be supplemented with pedicle screw fixation, however, since stabilizing structures remain intact, it is suggested that stand-alone XLIF can be used for certain indications. This eliminates the associated morbidity, though subsidence rates may be elevated, potentially minimizing the clinical benefits. A fixation algorithm was developed after evaluation of patient outcomes from the surgeon's first 30 cases. This algorithm was used prospectively for 40 subsequent patients to determine the requirement for supplemental fixation. Preoperative, postoperative, and 12-month follow-up computed tomography scans were measured for segmental and global lumbar lordosis and posterior disk height. Clinical outcome measures included back and leg pain (visual analogue scale), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and SF-36 physical and mental component scores (PCS and MCS). Preoperatively to 12-month follow-up there were increases in segmental lordosis (7.9-9.4 degrees, P=0.0497), lumbar lordosis (48.8-55.2 degrees, P=0.0328), and disk height (3.7-5.5 mm, P=0.0018); there were also improvements in back (58.6%) and leg pain (60.0%), ODI (44.4%), PCS (56.7%), and MCS (16.1%) for stand-alone XLIF. For instrumented XLIF, segmental lordosis (7.6-10.5 degrees, P=0.0120) and disk height (3.5-5.6 mm, Plordosis decreased (51.1-45.8 degrees, P=0.2560). Back (49.8%) and leg pain (30.8%), ODI (32.3%), PCS (37.4%), and MCS (2.0%) were all improved. Subsidence occurred in 3 (7.5%) stand-alone patients. The XLIF treatment fixation algorithm provided a clinical pathway to select suitable patients for stand-alone XLIF. These patients achieved positive clinical outcomes, satisfactory fusion rates, with sustained correction of lordosis and

  16. Stand-Alone Personalized Normative Feedback for College Student Drinkers: A Meta-Analytic Review, 2004 to 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keri B Dotson

    Full Text Available Norms clarification has been identified as an effective component of college student drinking interventions, prompting research on norms clarification as a single-component intervention known as Personalized Normative Feedback (PNF. Previous reviews have examined PNF in combination with other components but not as a stand-alone intervention.To investigate the degree to which computer-delivered stand-alone personalized normative feedback interventions reduce alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms among college students and to compare gender-neutral and gender-specific PNF.Electronic databases were searched systematically through November 2014. Reference lists were reviewed manually and forward and backward searches were conducted.Outcome studies that compared computer-delivered, stand-alone PNF intervention with an assessment only, attention-matched, or active treatment control and reported alcohol use and harms among college students.Between-group effect sizes were calculated as the standardized mean difference in change scores between treatment and control groups divided by pooled standard deviation. Within-group effect sizes were calculated as the raw mean difference between baseline and follow-up divided by pooled within-groups standard deviation.Eight studies (13 interventions with a total of 2,050 participants were included. Compared to control participants, students who received gender-neutral (dbetween = 0.291, 95% CI [0.159, 0.423] and gender-specific PNF (dbetween = 0.284, 95% CI [0.117, 0.451] reported greater reductions in drinking from baseline to follow-up. Students who received gender-neutral PNF reported 3.027 (95% CI [2.171, 3.882] fewer drinks per week at first follow-up and gender-specific PNF reported 3.089 (95% CI [0.992, 5.186] fewer drinks. Intervention effects were small for harms (dbetween = 0.157, 95% CI [0.037, 0.278].Computer-delivered PNF is an effective stand-alone approach for reducing college student

  17. Stand-Alone Personalized Normative Feedback for College Student Drinkers: A Meta-Analytic Review, 2004 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Keri B; Dunn, Michael E; Bowers, Clint A

    2015-01-01

    Norms clarification has been identified as an effective component of college student drinking interventions, prompting research on norms clarification as a single-component intervention known as Personalized Normative Feedback (PNF). Previous reviews have examined PNF in combination with other components but not as a stand-alone intervention. To investigate the degree to which computer-delivered stand-alone personalized normative feedback interventions reduce alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms among college students and to compare gender-neutral and gender-specific PNF. Electronic databases were searched systematically through November 2014. Reference lists were reviewed manually and forward and backward searches were conducted. Outcome studies that compared computer-delivered, stand-alone PNF intervention with an assessment only, attention-matched, or active treatment control and reported alcohol use and harms among college students. Between-group effect sizes were calculated as the standardized mean difference in change scores between treatment and control groups divided by pooled standard deviation. Within-group effect sizes were calculated as the raw mean difference between baseline and follow-up divided by pooled within-groups standard deviation. Eight studies (13 interventions) with a total of 2,050 participants were included. Compared to control participants, students who received gender-neutral (dbetween = 0.291, 95% CI [0.159, 0.423]) and gender-specific PNF (dbetween = 0.284, 95% CI [0.117, 0.451]) reported greater reductions in drinking from baseline to follow-up. Students who received gender-neutral PNF reported 3.027 (95% CI [2.171, 3.882]) fewer drinks per week at first follow-up and gender-specific PNF reported 3.089 (95% CI [0.992, 5.186]) fewer drinks. Intervention effects were small for harms (dbetween = 0.157, 95% CI [0.037, 0.278]). Computer-delivered PNF is an effective stand-alone approach for reducing college student drinking and

  18. An optimized Fuzzy Logic Controller by Water Cycle Algorithm for power management of Stand-alone Hybrid Green Power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarvi, Mohammad; Avanaki, Isa Nasiri

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new method to improve the performance of renewable power management is proposed. • The proposed method is based on Fuzzy Logic optimized by the Water Cycle Algorithm. • The proposed method characteristics are compared with two other methods. • The comparisons confirm that the proposed method is robust and effectiveness one. - Abstract: This paper aims to improve the power management system of a Stand-alone Hybrid Green Power generation based on the Fuzzy Logic Controller optimized by the Water Cycle Algorithm. The proposed Stand-alone Hybrid Green Power consists of wind energy conversion and photovoltaic systems as primary power sources and a battery, fuel cell, and Electrolyzer as energy storage systems. Hydrogen is produced from surplus power generated by the wind energy conversion and photovoltaic systems of Stand-alone Hybrid Green Power and stored in the hydrogen storage tank for fuel cell later using when the power generated by primary sources is lower than load demand. The proposed optimized Fuzzy Logic Controller based power management system determines the power that is generated by fuel cell or use by Electrolyzer. In a hybrid system, operation and maintenance cost and reliability of the system are the important issues that should be considered in studies. In this regard, Water Cycle Algorithm is used to optimize membership functions in order to simultaneously minimize the Loss of Power Supply Probability and operation and maintenance. The results are compared with the particle swarm optimization and the un-optimized Fuzzy Logic Controller power management system to prove that the proposed method is robust and effective. Reduction in Loss of Power Supply Probability and operation and maintenance, are the most advantages of the proposed method. Moreover the level of the State of Charge of the battery in the proposed method is higher than other mentioned methods which leads to increase battery lifetime.

  19. Hierarchical energy management system for stand-alone hybrid system based on generation costs and cascade control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torreglosa, J.P.; García, P.; Fernández, L.M.; Jurado, F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We present an energy management system for a stand-alone WT/PV/hydrogen/battery hybrid system. • Hierarchical control composed by master and slave control strategies. • Control assures reliable electricity support for stand-alone applications subject to technical and economic criteria. - Abstract: This paper presents an energy management system (EMS) for stand-alone hybrid systems composed by photovoltaic (PV) solar panels and a wind turbine (WT) as primary energy sources and two energy storage systems, which are a hydrogen system and a battery. The hydrogen system is composed of fuel cell (FC), electrolyzer and hydrogen storage tank. The EMS is a hierarchical control composed by a master control strategy and a slave control strategy. On the one hand, the master control generates the reference powers to meet several premises (such as to satisfy the load power demand, and to maintain the hydrogen tank level and the state of charge (SOC) of the battery between their target margins), taking also into account economic aspects to discriminate between using the battery or hydrogen system. On the other hand, the slave control modifies the reference powers generated by the master control according to the energy sources dynamic limitations, and maintains the DC bus voltage at its reference value. The models, implemented in MATLAB-Simulink environment, have been developed from commercially available components. To check the viability of the proposed EMS, two kinds of simulations were carried out: (1) A long-term simulation of 25 years (expected lifetime of the system) with a sample time of one hour to validate the master control of the EMS; and (2) A short-term simulation with sudden net power variations to validate the slave control of the EMS

  20. Efficiency of the hybrid solar-wind systems for electricity supply to the stand-alone sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullaev, D.A.; Isaev, R.I.

    2000-01-01

    The features of stand-alone sites and principles of their electricity supply is described there is going observation of the works about conditions of production and efficiency of using autonomy wind turbines and photovoltaics. Their unsufficiency is estimated. The advantages of hybrid systems and their realization schemes is described. The advantage of hybrid solar-wind Battery system (HSWBS) on the basis of own researches and the facts of other authors are given. The conception overall discounting cost is developed on HSWBS case. (Author)

  1. Evaluation of a proper controller performance for maximum-power point tracking of a stand-alone PV system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nafeh, A.E.-S.A.; Fahmy, F.H. [Electronics Research Institute, Cairo (Egypt); El-Zahab, E.M.A. [Cairo University, Giza (Egypt). Faculty of Engineering

    2003-02-01

    In this paper the implementation of a suggested stand-alone PV system, for maximum-power point tracking (MPPT), is carried out. Also, this paper presents a comparative study, through experimental work, between the conventional PI controller and the fuzzy logic controller (FLC) under different atmospheric conditions. The implemented system with both the PI controller and the FLC gives a good maximum-power operation of the PV array, but the tracking capability for different optimum operating points is better and faster for the case of using the FLC compared to the case of using the PI controller. (author)

  2. GOssTo: a stand-alone application and a web tool for calculating semantic similarities on the Gene Ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caniza, Horacio; Romero, Alfonso E; Heron, Samuel; Yang, Haixuan; Devoto, Alessandra; Frasca, Marco; Mesiti, Marco; Valentini, Giorgio; Paccanaro, Alberto

    2014-08-01

    We present GOssTo, the Gene Ontology semantic similarity Tool, a user-friendly software system for calculating semantic similarities between gene products according to the Gene Ontology. GOssTo is bundled with six semantic similarity measures, including both term- and graph-based measures, and has extension capabilities to allow the user to add new similarities. Importantly, for any measure, GOssTo can also calculate the Random Walk Contribution that has been shown to greatly improve the accuracy of similarity measures. GOssTo is very fast, easy to use, and it allows the calculation of similarities on a genomic scale in a few minutes on a regular desktop machine. alberto@cs.rhul.ac.uk GOssTo is available both as a stand-alone application running on GNU/Linux, Windows and MacOS from www.paccanarolab.org/gossto and as a web application from www.paccanarolab.org/gosstoweb. The stand-alone application features a simple and concise command line interface for easy integration into high-throughput data processing pipelines. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. SedInConnect: a stand-alone, free and open source tool for the assessment of sediment connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crema, Stefano; Cavalli, Marco

    2018-02-01

    There is a growing call, within the scientific community, for solid theoretic frameworks and usable indices/models to assess sediment connectivity. Connectivity plays a significant role in characterizing structural properties of the landscape and, when considered in combination with forcing processes (e.g., rainfall-runoff modelling), can represent a valuable analysis for an improved landscape management. In this work, the authors present the development and application of SedInConnect: a free, open source and stand-alone application for the computation of the Index of Connectivity (IC), as expressed in Cavalli et al. (2013) with the addition of specific innovative features. The tool is intended to have a wide variety of users, both from the scientific community and from the authorities involved in the environmental planning. Thanks to its open source nature, the tool can be adapted and/or integrated according to the users' requirements. Furthermore, presenting an easy-to-use interface and being a stand-alone application, the tool can help management experts in the quantitative assessment of sediment connectivity in the context of hazard and risk assessment. An application to a sample dataset and an overview on up-to-date applications of the approach and of the tool shows the development potential of such analyses. The modelled connectivity, in fact, appears suitable not only to characterize sediment dynamics at the catchment scale but also to integrate prediction models and as a tool for helping geomorphological interpretation.

  4. Improved double integral sliding mode MPPT controller based parameter estimation for a stand-alone photovoltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatrenour, Nasrin; Razmi, Hadi; Doagou-Mojarrad, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • IDISMC based MPPT algorithm is introduced. • Hurwitz stability theorem is used for switching surface coefficients computation. • GA approach is presented for parameter estimation of the stand-alone PV system. - Abstract: In this paper, an Improved Double Integral Sliding Mode MPPT Controller (IDISMC) for a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system is proposed. Performance of a sliding mode controller (SMC) is greatly influenced by the choice of the sliding surface. Switching surface coefficients were selected by the use of Hurwitz stability theorem. The IDISMC not only is robust against parametric and non-parametric uncertainties, but also has a very small steady-state error, thanks to the use of double integral of tracking voltage error in the definition of its sliding surface. For realistic simulation, Genetic Algorithm (GA) method was used to estimate parameters of solar panels model. The validity of the proposed double integral SMC in maximum power point tracking was approved by comparing the simulation results obtained for a sample PV system with the results of other methods.

  5. Economic and Environmental Assessment of a Renewable Stand-Alone Energy Supply System Using Multi-objective Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dohyun; Han, Seulki; Kim, Jiyong Kim [Incheon National University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    This study aims to propose a new optimization-based approach for design and analysis of the stand-alone hybrid energy supply system using renewable energy sources (RES). In the energy supply system, we include multiple energy production technologies such as Photovoltaics (PV), Wind turbine, and fossil-fuel-based AC generator along with different types of energy storage and conversion technologies such as battery and inverter. We then select six different regions of Korea to represent various characteristics of different RES potentials and demand profiles. We finally designed and analyzed the optimal RES stand-alone energy supply system in the selected regions using multiobjective optimization (MOOP) technique, which includes two objective functions: the minimum cost and the minimum CO{sub 2} emission. In addition, we discussed the feasibility and expecting benefits of the systems by comparing to conventional systems of Korea. As a result, the region of the highest RES potential showed the possibility to remarkably reduce CO{sub 2} emissions compared to the conventional system. Besides, the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of the RES-based energy system is identified to be slightly higher than conventional energy system: 0.35 and 0.46 $/kWh, respectively. However, the total life-cycle emission of CO{sub 2} (LCECO{sub 2}) can be reduced up to 470 gCO{sub 2}/kWh from 490 gCO{sub 2}/kWh of the conventional systems.

  6. Comparison of pulp-mill-integrated hydrogen production from gasified black liquor with stand-alone production from gasified biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, E.; Harvey, S.

    2007-01-01

    When gasified black liquor is used for hydrogen production, significant amounts of biomass must be imported. This paper compares two alternative options for producing hydrogen from biomass: (A) pulp-mill-integrated hydrogen production from gasified back liquor; and (B) stand-alone production of hydrogen from gasified biomass. The comparison assumes that the same amount of biomass that is imported in Alternative A is supplied to a stand-alone hydrogen production plant and that the gasified black liquor in Alternative B is used in a black liquor gasification combined cycle (BLGCC) CHP unit. The comparison is based upon equal amounts of black liquor fed to the gasifier, and identical steam and power requirements for the pulp mill. The two systems are compared on the basis of total CO 2 emission consequences, based upon different assumptions for the reference energy system that reflect different societal CO 2 emissions reduction target levels. Ambitions targets are expected to lead to a more CO 2 -lean reference energy system, in which case hydrogen production from gasified black liquor (Alternative A) is best from a CO 2 emissions' perspective, whereas with high CO 2 emissions associated with electricity production, hydrogen from gasified biomass and electricity from gasified black liquor (Alternative B) is preferable. (author)

  7. Multi-objective optimal planning of the stand-alone microgrid system based on different benefit subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Li; Wang, Nan; Lu, Hai; Li, Xialin; Wang, Chengshan

    2016-01-01

    As an important means to realize the energetic complementarity and improve the efficiency of renewable resources, the stand-alone microgrid (SAMG) system gains attention increasingly, especially in islands and remote areas. In this paper, considering the interest conflict of the distribution company and the distributed generation owner, a new multi-objective optimal planning model is formulated for medium voltage SAMG. Besides, to avoid the power constraint of distributed generation (DG) once the over-limit voltage occurs, a novel two-step power dispatch control method including the voltage regulation strategy is proposed, in which the absorption of distributed power by energy storage system (ESS) and the reactive power adjustment though its power control system are used to regulate voltage. The goal of this paper is to search the Pareto-optimal front of the site and capacity of DG as well as the contract price between both parties, and thus can provide effective references for practical planning of SAMG. Considering the high cost of ESS, the investment analysis of ESS is also discussed in the paper. - Highlights: • A multi-objective planning model based on different benefit subjects is proposed. • A two-step power dispatch method including the voltage regulation is proposed. • The economical efficiency of the proposed model is analyzed. • The effective reference for the stand-alone microgrid planning is provided.

  8. A Control Approach and Supplementary Controllers for a Stand-Alone System with Predominance of Wind Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Lukasievicz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a control approach and supplementary controllers for the operation of a hybrid stand-alone system composed of a wind generation unit and a conventional generation unit based on synchronous generator (CGU. The proposed controllers allow the islanded or isolated operation of small power systems with predominance of wind generation. As an advantage and a paradigm shift, the DC-link voltage of the wind unit is controlled by means of a conventional synchronous generator connected to the AC grid of the system. Two supplementary controllers, added to a diesel generator (DIG and to a DC dump load (DL, are proposed to control the DC-link voltage. The wind generation unit operates in V-f control mode and the DIG operates in PQ control mode, which allows the stand-alone system to operate either in wind-diesel (WD mode or in wind-only (WO mode. The strong influence of the wind turbine speed variations in the DC-link voltage is mitigated by a low-pass filter added to the speed control loop of the wind turbine. The proposed control approach does not require the use battery bank and ultra-capacitor to control the DC-link voltage in wind generation units based on fully rated converter.

  9. Optimization of the photovoltaic-hydrogen supply system of a stand-alone remote-telecom application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Guillermo; Martinez, Graciano; Galvez, Jose L.; Cuevas, Raquel; Maellas, Jesus [National Institute for Aerospace Technology (INTA), Renewable Energy Department, Ctra. Ajalvir km 4, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Gila, Raul; Bueno, Emilio [Polytechnical School - Alcala de Henares University, Electronics Department, Campus Universitario, Ctra. De Madrid-Barcelona Km 33.600, Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-07-15

    Hydrogen is considered as the optimal carrier for the surplus energy storage from renewable resources. Although hydrogen and its application in fuel cell is considered as a high-cost energy system, some cost-efficient solutions have been found for their use in stand-alone applications, which usually depend on the variability of renewable sources that have to be oversized in order to reduce their dependence on external energy sources. This paper shows the results from the simulation of several alternatives of introducing hydrogen technologies to increase the independence of a remote-telecom application fed by photovoltaic panels. Hydrogen is obtained by electrolysis and it is used in a fuel cell when the renewable energy source is not enough to maintain the stand-alone application. TRNSYS simulation environment has been used for evaluating the proposed alternatives. The results show that the best configuration option is that considering the use of hydrogen as a way to storage the surplus of radiation and the management system can vary the number of photovoltaic panels assigned to feed the hydrogen generation, the batteries or the telecom application. (author)

  10. Human microRNA target analysis and gene ontology clustering by GOmir, a novel stand-alone application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubelakis, Maria G; Zotos, Pantelis; Papachristoudis, Georgios; Michalopoulos, Ioannis; Pappa, Kalliopi I; Anagnou, Nicholas P; Kossida, Sophia

    2009-06-16

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded RNA molecules of about 20-23 nucleotides length found in a wide variety of organisms. miRNAs regulate gene expression, by interacting with target mRNAs at specific sites in order to induce cleavage of the message or inhibit translation. Predicting or verifying mRNA targets of specific miRNAs is a difficult process of great importance. GOmir is a novel stand-alone application consisting of two separate tools: JTarget and TAGGO. JTarget integrates miRNA target prediction and functional analysis by combining the predicted target genes from TargetScan, miRanda, RNAhybrid and PicTar computational tools as well as the experimentally supported targets from TarBase and also providing a full gene description and functional analysis for each target gene. On the other hand, TAGGO application is designed to automatically group gene ontology annotations, taking advantage of the Gene Ontology (GO), in order to extract the main attributes of sets of proteins. GOmir represents a new tool incorporating two separate Java applications integrated into one stand-alone Java application. GOmir (by using up to five different databases) introduces miRNA predicted targets accompanied by (a) full gene description, (b) functional analysis and (c) detailed gene ontology clustering. Additionally, a reverse search initiated by a potential target can also be conducted. GOmir can freely be downloaded BRFAA.

  11. Study on Soft Phase Locked Method to Solving the Synchronization Problem of Active Power Filter in Stand-alone Power Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuo, Fang; Wu, Longhui; Chen, Zhe

    2009-01-01

    on zero-cross detection can't work effectively in small rating stand-alone power grid. Then a soft phase locked loop with additional filter is proposed. It can lock the phase angle on to the positive sequence of fundamental voltage accurately and rapidly. It ensures the performance of APF applied...... in the small rating stand-alone power grid. Moreover, the soft phase locked loop is easy to be implemented in a Digital Signal Processor (DSP). Simulation and experimental results validate that the soft phase locked loop has satisfactory performance.......Traditional LC filters can't work stably in small rating stand-alone power grid. So active power filter (APF) is becoming an important tool to solve the power quality problem in small rating stand-alone power grid. In most current detection algorithm of APF, it needs a synchronizing signal. Firstly...

  12. Clinical and radiological outcome after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with stand-alone empty polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiban, Ehab; Gapon, Karina; Wostrack, Maria; Meyer, Bernhard; Lehmberg, Jens

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate long-term results after one-, two-, and three-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) with stand-alone empty polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages. We performed a retrospective review of a consecutive patient cohort that underwent ACDF with stand-alone empty PEEK cages between 2007 and 2010 with a minimum follow-up of 12 months. Radiographic follow-up included static and flexion/extension radiographs. Changes in the operated segments were measured and compared to radiographs directly after surgery. Clinical outcome was evaluated by a physical examination, pain visual analog scale (VAS), and health-related quality of life (HRQL) using the EuroQOL questionnaire (EQ-5D). Analysis of associations between fusion, subsidence, cervical alignment, and clinical outcome parameters were performed. Of 407 consecutive cases, 318 met all inclusion criteria. Follow-up data were obtained from 265 (83 %) cases. The mean age at presentation was 55 years and 139 patients were male (52 %). In the sample, 127, 125, and 13 patients had one-, two-, and three-level surgeries, respectively; 132 (49 %) presented with spondylotic cervical myelopathy and 133 (50 %) with cervical radiculopathy. Fusion was achieved in 85, 95, and 94 % of segments in one-, two-, and three-level surgeries, respectively. Non-fusion was associated with higher VAS pain levels. Radiographic adjacent segment disease (ASD) was observed in 20, 29, and 15 % in one-, two-, and three-level surgeries, respectively. ASD was associated with lower HRQL. Subsidence was observed in 25, 27, and 15 % of segments in one-, two-, and three-level surgeries, respectively. However, this had no influence on clinical outcome. Follow-up operations for symptomatic adjacent disc disease and implant failure at index level were needed in 16 (6 %) and four (1.5 %) cases, respectively. Younger age was associated with better clinical outcome. Multilevel surgery favored better myelopathy outcomes and fusion reduced overall

  13. Hydrodynamic blood plasma separation in microfluidic channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouvet, Lionel

    2010-01-01

    The separation of red blood cells from plasma flowing in microchannels is possible by biophysical effects such as the Zweifach–Fung bifurcation law. In the present study, daughter channels are placed alongside a main channel such that cells and plasma are collected separately. The device is aimed...

  14. Online retrieval of patient information by asynchronous communication between general purpose computer and stand-alone personal computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutsumi, Reiko; Takahashi, Kazuei; Sato, Toshiko; Komatani, Akio; Yamaguchi, Koichi

    1988-01-01

    Asynchronous communication was made between host (FACOM M-340) and personal computer (OLIBETTIE S-2250) to get patient's information required for RIA test registration. The retrieval system consists of a keyboad input of six numeric codes, patient's ID, and a real time reply containing six parameters for the patient. Their identified parameters are patient's name, sex, date of birth (include area), department, and out- or inpatient. Linking this program to RIA registration program for individual patient, then, operator can input name of RIA test requested. Our simple retrieval program made a useful data network between different types of host and stand-alone personal computers, and enabled us accurate and labor-saving registration for RIA test. (author)

  15. Integration of hydrogen energy technologies in stand-alone power systems analysis of the current potential for applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoulias, E.I.; Lymberopoulos, N.; Tsoutsos, T.; Glockner, R.; Mydske, H.J.; Vosseler, I.; Gavalda, O.; Taylor, P.

    2006-01-01

    The European study entitled: 'Market Potential Analysis for Introduction of Hydrogen Energy Technology in Stand-Alone Power Systems (H-SAPS)' aimed to establish a broad understanding of the market potential for H-SAPS and provide a basis for promoting in wide scale new technological applications. The scope of the study was limited to small and medium installations, up to a few hundred kW power rating and based on RE as the primary energy source. The potential for hydrogen technology in SAPS was investigated through an assessment of the technical potential for hydrogen, the market analysis and the evaluation of external factors. The results are mostly directed towards action by governments and the research community but also industry involvement is identified. The results include targeted market research, establishment of individual cost targets, regulatory changes to facilitate alternative grid solutions, information and capacity building, focused technology research and bridging the technology gaps. (author)

  16. A soil-canopy scheme for use in a numerical model of the atmosphere: 1D stand-alone model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, E. A.; Garratt, J. R.; Krummel, P. B.

    We provide a detailed description of a soil-canopy scheme for use in the CSIRO general circulation models (GCMs) (CSIRO-4 and CSIRO-9), in the form of a one-dimensional stand-alone model. In addition, the paper documents the model's ability to simulate realistic surface fluxes by comparison with mesoscale model simulations (involving more sophisticated soil and boundary-layer treatments) and observations, and the diurnal range in surface quantities, including extreme maximum surface temperatures. The sensitivity of the model to values of the surface resistance is also quantified. The model represents phase 1 of a longer-term plan to improve the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and surface schemes in the CSIRO GCMs.

  17. Leadership in Dental Hygiene Degree Completion Programs: A Pilot Study Comparing Stand-Alone Leadership Courses and Leadership-Infused Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michelle L; Gurenlian, JoAnn R; Freudenthal, Jacqueline J; Farnsworth, Tracy J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to define the extent to which leadership and leadership skills are taught in dental hygiene degree completion programs by comparing stand-alone leadership courses/hybrid programs with programs that infuse leadership skills throughout the curricula. The study involved a mixed-methods approach using qualitative and quantitative data. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with program directors and faculty members who teach a stand-alone leadership course, a hybrid program, or leadership-infused courses in these programs. A quantitative comparison of course syllabi determined differences in the extent of leadership content and experiences between stand-alone leadership courses and leadership-infused curricula. Of the 53 U.S. dental hygiene programs that offer degree completion programs, 49 met the inclusion criteria, and 19 programs provided course syllabi. Of the program directors and faculty members who teach a stand-alone leadership course or leadership-infused curriculum, 16 participated in the interview portion of the study. The results suggested that competencies related to leadership were not clearly defined or measurable in current teaching. Reported barriers to incorporating a stand-alone leadership course included overcrowded curricula, limited qualified faculty, and lack of resources. The findings of this study provide a synopsis of leadership content and gaps in leadership education for degree completion programs. Suggested changes included defining a need for leadership competencies and providing additional resources to educators such as courses provided by the American Dental Education Association and the American Dental Hygienists' Association.

  18. Stand-alone microgrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, P.; Weldemariam, L.E.; Raijen, E.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract- A hybrid power system (HPS) which consists of diesel Genset, PV -arrays and wind turbines with energy storing and power electronic devices is discussed in this paper. An inventory of different connection topologies is made for some of the sources that generate AC power and others that

  19. Epicardial, Biatrial Ablation With Integrated Uni-bipolar Radiofrequency Technology in Stand-alone Persistent Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Fabrizio; Muneretto, Claudio; Merati, Elisa; Polvani, Gianluca; Moltrasio, Massimo; Tondo, Claudio; Curnis, Antonio; Cerini, Manuel; Metras, Alexandre; Bisleri, Gianluigi

    Although minimally invasive approaches for surgical treatment of stand-alone atrial fibrillation have gained popularity for the past decade, ablation technology and extensive lesion sets play a major role in the achievement of a successful procedure, especially in presence of persistent and long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation. We evaluated clinical outcomes after totally endoscopic biatrial epicardial ablation of persistent atrial fibrillation with a novel integrated uni-bipolar radiofrequency device. Forty-nine (49) consecutive patients with stand-alone atrial fibrillation underwent right-sided monolateral thoracoscopic surgical ablation with a novel integrated uni-bipolar radiofrequency energy delivery and temperature-controlled technology. Atrial fibrillation was persistent in 13 (26.5%) of 49 and long-standing persistent in 36 (73.5%) of 49 patients. Mean ± SD age was 60.6 ± 10.3 years. Median duration of atrial fibrillation was 74 months. Mean ± SD left atrial diameter was 44.7 ± 4.0 mm. Epicardial en bloc isolation of all pulmonary veins (box lesion) and additional ablation of the right atrial free wall was successfully performed via minimally invasive approach without any intraoperative and postoperative major complications. Intraoperative entrance and exit block was achieved in 77.5% (38/49) and 91.8% (45/49) of patients, respectively. Mean ± SD ablation time was 16.3 ± 4.8 minutes. No intensive care unit stay was required. Postoperative sinus rhythm was achieved in 93.8% (30/32) patients, and no pacemaker implantation was required. At 13 months, 87.7% (43/49) of patients were in sinus rhythm; 71.4% (35/49) were free from antiarrhythmic drugs and 75.5% (37/49) from oral anticoagulation. Integrated uni-bipolar radiofrequency ablation technology showed to be effective for the surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation with a total endoscopic approach. A versapolar suction device with extensive right-left atrial lesion set may further improve

  20. A Novel Method for Fast Configuration of Energy Storage Capacity in Stand-Alone and Grid-Connected Wind Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixiang Zang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel method is proposed and applied to quickly calculate the capacity of energy storage for stand-alone and grid-connected wind energy systems, according to the discrete Fourier transform theory. Based on practical wind resource data and power data, which are derived from the American Wind Energy Technology Center and HOMER software separately, the energy storage capacity of a stand-alone wind energy system is investigated and calculated. Moreover, by applying the practical wind power data from a wind farm in Fujian Province, the energy storage capacity for a grid-connected wind system is discussed in this paper. This method can also be applied to determine the storage capacity of a stand-alone solar energy system with practical photovoltaic power data.

  1. Development of a Laser-Powered Dielectric Structure-Based Accelerator as a Stand-Alone Particle Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoder, R. B.; Travish, G.; Arab, E. R.; Fong, D.; Hoyer, Z.; Lacroix, U. H.; Vartanian, N.; Rosenzweig, J. B.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental program to develop and build a dielectric-based slab-symmetric structure (the micro-accelerator platform, or MAP) for generating and accelerating low-energy electrons is underway at UCLA and Manhattanville College. This optical acceleration structure is effectively a resonant cavity powered by a side-coupled laser, and has applications as a radiation source for medicine or industry. We present recent experimental and computational results on the accelerator, and progress toward its incorporation into a self-contained particle source. Such a particle source would incorporate a micron-scale electron emitter and a non-relativistic capture region to enable self-injection into the synchronous field within the accelerator. A prototype of the accelerator itself has been constructed from candidate dielectric materials using micromanufacturing techniques; the current status of the testing program is described. A novel electron emitter incorporating pyroelectric crystals with field-enhancing tips has been demonstrated to produce steady currents; the results are dependent on tip geometry, and appear suitable for injection into a microstructure. Extension of the MAP concept to non-relativistic velocities, as in the stand-alone source, requires a tapered structure that gives rise to numerous complications including beam defocusing and manufacturing challenges; approaches for addressing these complications are mentioned.

  2. Adaptive Artificial intelligence based fuzzy logic MPPTcontrol for stande-alone photovoltaic system under different atmospheric conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaghba Layachi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available there is an increased need for analysing the effect of atmospheric variables on photovoltaic (PV production and performance. The outputs from the different PV cells in different atmospheric conditions, such as irradiation and temperature , differ from each other evidencing knowledge deficiency in PV systems [14]. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT methods are used to maximize the PV array output power by tracking continuously the maximum power point (MPP. Among all MPPT methods existing in the literature, perturb and observe (P&O is the most commonly used for its simplicity and ease of implementation; however, it presents drawbacks such as slow response speed, oscillation around the MPP in steady state, and even tracking in wrong way under rapidly changing atmospheric conditions. In order to allow a functioning around the optimal point Mopt, we have inserted a DC-DC converter (Buck–Boost for a better matching between the PV and the load. This paper, we study the Maximum power point tracking using adaptive Intelligent fuzzy logic and conventional (P&O control for stande-alone photovoltaic Array system .In particular, the performances of the controllers are analyzed under variation weather conditions with are constant temperature and variable irradiation. The proposed system is simulated by using MATLAB-SIMULINK. According to the results, fuzzy logic controller has shown better performance during the optimization.

  3. Stand-alone power systems for the future: Optimal design, operation and control of solar-hydrogen energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulleberg, Oeystein

    1999-12-31

    This thesis gives a systematic review of the fundamentals of energy systems, the governing physical and chemical laws related to energy, inherent characteristics of energy system, and the availability of the earth`s energy. It shows clearly why solar-hydrogen systems are one of the most viable options for the future. The main subject discussed is the modelling of SAPS (Stand-Alone Power Systems), with focus on photovoltaic-hydrogen energy systems. Simulation models for a transient simulation program are developed for PV-H{sub 2} components, including models for photovoltaics, water electrolysis, hydrogen storage, fuel cells, and secondary batteries. A PV-H{sub 2} demonstration plant in Juelich, Germany, is studied as a reference plant and the models validated against data from this plant. Most of the models developed were found to be sufficiently accurate to perform short-term system simulations, while all were more than accurate enough to perform long-term simulations. Finally, the verified simulation models are used to find the optimal operation and control strategies of an existing PV-H{sub 2} system. The main conclusion is that the simulation methods can be successfully used to find optimal operation and control strategies for a system with fixed design, and similar methods could be used to find alternative system designs. 148 refs., 78 figs., 31 tabs.

  4. Power fluctuations suppression of stand-alone hybrid generation combining solar photovoltaic/wind turbine and fuel cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Nabil A.; Miyatake, Masafumi; Al-Othman, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a hybrid energy system combining variable speed wind turbine, solar photovoltaic and fuel cell generation systems is presented to supply continuous power to residential power applications as stand-alone loads. The wind and photovoltaic systems are used as main energy sources while the fuel cell is used as secondary or back-up energy source. Three individual dc-dc boost converters are used to control the power flow to the load. A simple and cost effective control with dc-dc converters is used for maximum power point tracking and hence maximum power extracting from the wind turbine and the solar photovoltaic systems. The hybrid system is sized to power a typical 2 kW/150 V dc load as telecommunication power plants or ac residential power applications in isolated islands continuously throughout the year. The results show that even when the sun and wind are not available; the system is reliable and available and it can supply high-quality power to the load. The simulation results which proved the accuracy of the proposed controllers are given to demonstrate the availability of the proposed system in this paper. Also, a complete description of the management and control system is presented

  5. Comparison of Turkey’s Geographical Regions in terms of Stand-Alone PV System Design and Cost Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat Onat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stand-alone photovoltaic (SAPV systems are widely used in rural areas where there is no national grid or as a precaution against power outages. In this study, technical and economic analysis of a SAPV system was carried out using meteorological data for 75 province centers in seven geographical regions of Turkey. Obtained results for each province center were separated by geographical area. The averages of the centers for each region are taken as output. A calculation algorithm based on MsExcel has been established for these operations. The analyses made with the developed algorithm are repeated for five different scenarios that they cover periods of time when a constant strong load is active for all seasons (winter, spring, summer, and autumn and all year round. The developed algorithm calculates the life-cycle cost, the unit energy cost, the electrical capacity utilization rate, the amount of generated/excess energy per month, the initial investment/replacement, and operating and maintenance (O&M costs of each element. As a result, geographical regions of Turkey are compared in terms of these outputs graphically. Further investigations may include the sale of excess energy generated, small-scale PV system cost factors parallel to the grid, and the effects of government incentives.

  6. A stand alone computer system to aid the development of mirror fusion test facility RF heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) control system architecture requires the Supervisory Control and Diagnostic System (SCDS) to communicate with a LSI-11 Local Control Computer (LCC) that in turn communicates via a fiber optic link to CAMAC based control hardware located near the machine. In many cases, the control hardware is very complex and requires a sizable development effort prior to being integrated into the overall MFTF-B system. One such effort was the development of the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) system. It became clear that a stand alone computer system was needed to simulate the functions of SCDS. This paper describes the hardware and software necessary to implement the SCDS Simulation Computer (SSC). It consists of a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) LSI-11 computer and a Winchester/Floppy disk operating under the DEC RT-11 operating system. All application software for MFTF-B is programmed in PASCAL, which allowed us to adapt procedures originally written for SCDS to the SSC. This nearly identical software interface means that software written during the equipment development will be useful to the SCDS programmers in the integration phase

  7. Stand-alone power systems for the future: Optimal design, operation and control of solar-hydrogen energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulleberg, Oeystein

    1998-12-31

    This thesis gives a systematic review of the fundamentals of energy systems, the governing physical and chemical laws related to energy, inherent characteristics of energy system, and the availability of the earth`s energy. It shows clearly why solar-hydrogen systems are one of the most viable options for the future. The main subject discussed is the modelling of SAPS (Stand-Alone Power Systems), with focus on photovoltaic-hydrogen energy systems. Simulation models for a transient simulation program are developed for PV-H{sub 2} components, including models for photovoltaics, water electrolysis, hydrogen storage, fuel cells, and secondary batteries. A PV-H{sub 2} demonstration plant in Juelich, Germany, is studied as a reference plant and the models validated against data from this plant. Most of the models developed were found to be sufficiently accurate to perform short-term system simulations, while all were more than accurate enough to perform long-term simulations. Finally, the verified simulation models are used to find the optimal operation and control strategies of an existing PV-H{sub 2} system. The main conclusion is that the simulation methods can be successfully used to find optimal operation and control strategies for a system with fixed design, and similar methods could be used to find alternative system designs. 148 refs., 78 figs., 31 tabs.

  8. Modeling and control design of a stand alone wind energy conversion system based on functional model predictive control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, Ahmed M. [Beni-Suef University, Electrical Dept., Beni Suef (Egypt)

    2012-09-15

    This paper investigates the application of the model predictive control (MPC) approach to control the voltage and frequency of a stand alone wind generation system. This scheme consists of a wind turbine which drives an induction generator feeding an isolated load. A static VAR compensator is connected at the induction generator terminals to regulate the load voltage. The rotor speed, and thereby the load frequency are controlled via adjusting the mechanical power input using the blade pitch-angle. The MPC is used to calculate the optimal control actions including system constraints. To alleviate computational effort and to reduce numerical problems, particularly in large prediction horizon, an exponentially weighted functional model predictive control (FMPC) is employed. Digital simulations have been carried out in order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. The proposed controller has been tested through step changes in the wind speed and the load impedance. Simulation results show that adequate performance of the proposed wind energy scheme has been achieved. Moreover, this scheme is robust against the parameters variation and eliminates the influence of modeling and measurement errors. (orig.)

  9. Modeling and Experimental Test of Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Cell Emulating System in the Stand-alone Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Minh Phap

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, generation of electricity from solar arrays has been increased to meet the world's growing energy demand. However, the utilization rate of the power conditioner in the grid-tied solar power system is low because the operation of solar panels is dependent on sunlight. Thus, we studied the method that the small scale wind power generating system in size from a few hundred watts to two or three kilowatts can be connected to the grid-tied power conditioner of the solar power system for residential applications with low power ratings (single phase, size is limited to 10kW by emulating characteristic of the solar panel. In this paper, we introduce the application of the grid-tied PV cell emulating system in the stand-alone mode to improve the utilization rate of the power conditioner. The simulation and experimental test results verify that the PV cell emulating system can operate the power conditioner of the gridtied solar power system.

  10. Multi-Objective Optimal Design of Stand-Alone Hybrid Energy System Using Entropy Weight Method Based on HOMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxin Lu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of hybrid energy system (HES is generally considered as a promising way to satisfy the electrification requirements for remote areas. In the present study, a novel decision making methodology is proposed to identify the best compromise configuration of HES from a set of feasible combinations obtained from HOMER. For this purpose, a multi-objective function, which comprises four crucial and representative indices, is formulated by applying the weighted sum method. The entropy weight method is employed as a quantitative methodology for weighting factors calculation to enhance the objectivity of decision-making. Moreover, the optimal design of a stand-alone PV/wind/battery/diesel HES in Yongxing Island, China, is conducted as a case study to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Both the simulation and optimization results indicate that, the optimization method is able to identify the best trade-off configuration among system reliability, economy, practicability and environmental sustainability. Several useful conclusions are given by analyzing the operation of the best configuration.

  11. Interaction of blood plasma with antifouling surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar; Brynda, Eduard; Riedel, Tomáš; Sedláková, Zdeňka; Houska, Milan; Bologna Alles, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 11 (2009), s. 6328-6333 ISSN 0743-7463 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200670701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : blood plasma fouling * antigouling coatings * SPR biosensors Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.898, year: 2009

  12. Effects of a stand-alone web-based electronic screening and brief intervention targeting alcohol use in university students of legal drinking age: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Thomas; Braun, Michael; Laging, Marion; Schermelleh-Engel, Karin; Michalak, Johannes; Heidenreich, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    Many intervention efforts targeting student drinking were developed to address US college students, which usually involves underage drinking. It remains unclear, if research evidence from these interventions is generalizable to university and college students of legal drinking age, e.g., in Europe. To evaluate the effectiveness of a translated and adapted version of the eCHECKUP TO GO, applied as stand-alone web-based electronic screening and brief intervention (e-SBI), in German university students at risk for hazardous drinking. A fully automated web-based two-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial was conducted. Participants were randomized to an e-SBI or assessment-only (AO) condition. The current paper analyzed students with baseline AUDIT-C scores ≥3 for women and ≥4 for men (sample at baseline: e-SBI [n=514], AO [n=467]; 3-month follow-up: e-SBI [n=194], AO [n=231]; 6-month follow-up: e-SBI [n=146], AO [n=200]). The primary outcome was prior four weeks' alcohol consumption. Secondary outcomes were frequency of heavy drinking occasions, peak blood alcohol concentration, and number of alcohol-related problems. Mixed linear model analyses revealed significant interaction effects between groups and time points on the primary outcome after 3 and 6months. Compared to students in the AO condition, students in the e-SBI condition reported consuming 4.11 fewer standard drinks during the previous four weeks after 3months, and 4.78 fewer standard drinks after 6months. Mixed results were found on secondary outcomes. The results indicate that evidence on and knowledge of web-based e-SBIs based on US college student samples is transferable to German university students of legal drinking age. However, knowledge of what motivates students to complete programs under voluntary conditions, although rare, is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Contact activation of blood-plasma coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golas, Avantika

    Surface engineering of biomaterials with improved hemocompatibility is an imperative, given the widespread global need for cardiovascular devices. Research summarized in this dissertation focuses on contact activation of FXII in buffer and blood plasma frequently referred to as autoactivation. The extant theory of contact activation imparts FXII autoactivation ability to negatively charged, hydrophilic surfaces. According to this theory, contact activation of plasma involves assembly of proteins comprising an "activation complex" on activating surfaces mediated by specific chemical interactions between complex proteins and the surface. This work has made key discoveries that significantly improve our core understanding of contact activation and unravel the existing paradigm of plasma coagulation. It is shown herein that contact activation of blood factor XII (FXII, Hageman factor) in neat-buffer solution exhibits a parabolic profile when scaled as a function of silanized-glass-particle activator surface energy (measured as advancing water adhesion tension t°a=g° Iv costheta in dyne/cm, where g°Iv is water interfacial tension in dyne/cm and theta is the advancing contact angle). Nearly equal activation is observed at the extremes of activator water-wetting properties --36 moderated by adsorption of plasma proteins unrelated to coagulation through an "adsorption-dilution" effect that blocks FXII contact with hydrophobic activator surfaces. The adsorption-dilution effect explains the apparent specificity for hydrophilic activators pursued by earlier investigators. Finally a comparison of FXII autoactivation in buffer, serum, protein cocktail, and plasma solutions is shown herein. Activation of blood plasma coagulation in vitro by contact with material surfaces is demonstrably dependent on plasma-volume-to-activator-surface-area ratio. However, activation of factor XII dissolved in buffer, protein cocktail, heat-denatured serum, and FXI deficient plasma does not

  14. Simple, miniaturized blood plasma extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Hee; Woenker, Timothy; Adamec, Jiri; Regnier, Fred E

    2013-12-03

    A rapid plasma extraction technology that collects a 2.5 μL aliquot of plasma within three minutes from a finger-stick derived drop of blood was evaluated. The utility of the plasma extraction cards used was that a paper collection disc bearing plasma was produced that could be air-dried in fifteen minutes and placed in a mailing envelop for transport to an analytical laboratory. This circumvents the need for venipuncture and blood collection in specialized vials by a phlebotomist along with centrifugation and refrigerated storage. Plasma extraction was achieved by applying a blood drop to a membrane stack through which plasma was drawn by capillary action. During the course of plasma migration to a collection disc at the bottom of the membrane stack blood cells were removed by a combination of adsorption and filtration. After the collection disc filled with an aliquot of plasma the upper membranes were stripped from the collection card and the collection disc was air-dried. Intercard differences in the volume of plasma collected varied approximately 1% while volume variations of less than 2% were seen with hematocrit levels ranging from 20% to 71%. Dried samples bearing metabolites and proteins were then extracted from the disc and analyzed. 25-Hydroxy vitamin D was quantified by LC-MS/MS analysis following derivatization with a secosteroid signal enhancing tag that imparted a permanent positive charge to the vitamin and reduced the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 1 pg of collected vitamin on the disc; comparable to values observed with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) of a venipuncture sample. A similar study using conventional proteomics methods and spectral counting for quantification was conducted with yeast enolase added to serum as an internal standard. The LOQ with extracted serum samples for enolase was 1 μM, linear from 1 to 40 μM, the highest concentration examined. In all respects protein quantification with extracted serum samples was comparable to

  15. Techno-economic analysis of stand-alone photovoltaic/wind/battery/hydrogen systems for very small-scale applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojković Saša M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a technical and economic analysis of three stand-alone hybrid power systems based on renewable energy sources which supply a specific group of low-power consumers. This particular case includes measuring sensors and obstacle lights on a meteorological mast for wind measurements requiring an uninterrupted power supply in cold climate conditions. Although these low-power (100 W measuring sensors and obstacle lights use little energy, their energy consumption is not the same as the available solar energy obtained on a daily or seasonal basis. In the paper, complementarity of renewable energy sources was analysed, as well as one of short-term lead-acid battery-based storage and seasonal, hydrogen-based (electrolyser, H2 tank, and fuel cells storage. These relatively complex power systems were proposed earlier for high-power consumers only, while this study specifically highlights the role of the hydrogen system for supplying low-power consumers. The analysis employed a numerical simulation method using the HOMER software tool. The results of the analysis suggest that solar and wind-solar systems, which involve meteorological conditions as referred to in this paper, include a relatively large number of lead-acid batteries. Additionally, the analysis suggests that the use of hydrogen power systems for supplying low power-consumers is entirely justifiable, as it significantly reduces the number of batteries (two at minimum in this particular case. It was shown that the increase in costs induced by the hydrogen system is acceptable.

  16. Energetic and financial investigation of a stand-alone solar-thermal Organic Rankine Cycle power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzivanidis, Christos; Bellos, Evangelos; Antonopoulos, Kimon A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A stand-alone solar driven Organic Rankine Cycle is optimized parametrically. • The system is optimized energetically and financially. • Nine working fluids are tested with cyclohexane to be the most suitable. • A collecting area of 25,000 m"2 parabolic trough collectors is the optimum solution. • The maximum IRR is 13.46% and the payback period is about 9 years. - Abstract: The use of solar thermal energy for electricity production is a clean and sustainable way to cover the increasing energy needs of our society. The most mature technology for capturing solar energy in high temperature levels is the parabolic trough collectors (PTC). In this study, an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) coupled with PTC is analyzed parametrically in order to be optimized financially and energetically. The first step is the thermodynamic investigation of the ORC by using various working fluids. The second step is the energetic and financial investigation of the total system which includes the solar field, the storage tank and the ORC module. By testing many combinations of collecting areas and storage tank volumes, finally cyclohexane proved to be the most suitable working fluid for producing 1 MW_e_l with PTC. Specifically, in the optimum situation a solar field of 25,000 m"2 with storage tank of about 300 m"3 leads to a payback period of 9 years and to an internal rate of return (IRR) equal to 13.46%. Moreover, an economic comparison for different commercial collectors is presented, with Eurotrough ET-150 being the financially optimum solution for this case study.

  17. An adaptive artificial neural network model for sizing stand-alone photovoltaic systems: Application for isolated sites in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellit, A.; Benghanem, M.; Hadj Arab, A.; Guessoum, G.

    2004-07-01

    In this paper we investigate, by using an adaptive Artificial Neural Network (ANN), in order to find a suitable model for sizing Stand-Alone Photovoltaic (SAPV) systems, based on a minimum of input data. This model combines Radial Basis Function (RBF) network and Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) filter in order to accelerate the convergence of the network. For the sizing of a photovoltaic (PV) system, we need to determine the optimal sizing coefficients (K PV , K B . These coefficients allow us to determine the number of solar panels and storage batteries necessary to satisfy a given consumption, especially in isolated sites where the global solar radiation data is not always available and which are considered the most important parameters for sizing a PV system. Obtained results by classical models (analytical, numerical, analytical- numerical, B-spline function) and new models like feed-forward (MLP), radial basis function (RBF), MLP-IIR and RBF-IIR have been compared with experimental sizing coefficients in order to illustrate the accuracy of the results of the new developed model. This model has been trained by using 200 known optimal sizing coefficients corresponding to 200 locations in Algeria. In this way, the adaptive model was trained to accept and even handle a number of unusual cases, the unknown validation sizing coefficients set produced very set accurate estimation and a correlation coefficient of 98% was obtained between the calculated and that estimated by the RBF-IIR model. This result indicates that the proposed method can be successfully used for the estimation of optimal sizing coefficients of SAPV systems for any locations in Algeria, but the methodology can be generalized using different locations over the world. (author)

  18. System dynamic model and charging control of lead-acid battery for stand-alone solar PV system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.

    2010-05-01

    The lead-acid battery which is widely used in stand-alone solar system is easily damaged by a poor charging control which causes overcharging. The battery charging control is thus usually designed to stop charging after the overcharge point. This will reduce the storage energy capacity and reduce the service time in electricity supply. The design of charging control system however requires a good understanding of the system dynamic behaviour of the battery first. In the present study, a first-order system dynamics model of lead-acid battery at different operating points near the overcharge voltage was derived experimentally, from which a charging control system based on PI algorithm was developed using PWM charging technique. The feedback control system for battery charging after the overcharge point (14 V) was designed to compromise between the set-point response and the disturbance rejection. The experimental results show that the control system can suppress the battery voltage overshoot within 0.1 V when the solar irradiation is suddenly changed from 337 to 843 W/m2. A long-term outdoor test for a solar LED lighting system shows that the battery voltage never exceeded 14.1 V for the set point 14 V and the control system can prevent the battery from overcharging. The test result also indicates that the control system is able to increase the charged energy by 78%, as compared to the case that the charging stops after the overcharge point (14 V). © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Stand-alone front-end system for high- frequency, high-frame-rate coded excitation ultrasonic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinhyoung; Hu, Changhong; Shung, K Kirk

    2011-12-01

    A stand-alone front-end system for high-frequency coded excitation imaging was implemented to achieve a wider dynamic range. The system included an arbitrary waveform amplifier, an arbitrary waveform generator, an analog receiver, a motor position interpreter, a motor controller and power supplies. The digitized arbitrary waveforms at a sampling rate of 150 MHz could be programmed and converted to an analog signal. The pulse was subsequently amplified to excite an ultrasound transducer, and the maximum output voltage level achieved was 120 V(pp). The bandwidth of the arbitrary waveform amplifier was from 1 to 70 MHz. The noise figure of the preamplifier was less than 7.7 dB and the bandwidth was 95 MHz. Phantoms and biological tissues were imaged at a frame rate as high as 68 frames per second (fps) to evaluate the performance of the system. During the measurement, 40-MHz lithium niobate (LiNbO(3)) single-element lightweight (<;0.28 g) transducers were utilized. The wire target measure- ment showed that the -6-dB axial resolution of a chirp-coded excitation was 50 μm and lateral resolution was 120 μm. The echo signal-to-noise ratios were found to be 54 and 65 dB for the short burst and coded excitation, respectively. The contrast resolution in a sphere phantom study was estimated to be 24 dB for the chirp-coded excitation and 15 dB for the short burst modes. In an in vivo study, zebrafish and mouse hearts were imaged. Boundaries of the zebrafish heart in the image could be differentiated because of the low-noise operation of the implemented system. In mouse heart images, valves and chambers could be readily visualized with the coded excitation.

  20. Apolipoprotein E in umbilical cord blood plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forte, T.M.; Davis, P.A.; Blum, C.B.

    1983-01-01

    Adolipoprotein E (apo E), with a molecular weight of approximately 37,000 daltons, is a minor apolipoprotein constituent in adult plasma lipoproteins. This apolipoprotein, like apolipoprotein B, is a ligand recognized by specific lipoprotein receptor sites (B-E receptors) on cell surfaces. We have recently shown that a pronounced apo E band appears in umbilical cord blood low-density (LDL) lipoproteins and also in high density (HDL) lipoproteins. Densitometric scans of Coomassie blue G-250 stained polyacrylamide gels suggested that apo E was probably elevated in cord blood lipoproteins. To pursue this suggestion, apo E in cord blood was quantitated by radioimmunoassay and correlated with cord blood lipid levels. In addition, apo E levels in 20 normal adult volunteers were also examined

  1. 77 FR 6463 - Revisions to Labeling Requirements for Blood and Blood Components, Including Source Plasma...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... Blood Components, Including Source Plasma; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION..., Including Source Plasma,'' which provided incorrect publication information regarding a 60-day notice that...

  2. Post-processing in cardiovascular computed tomography. Performance of a client server solution versus a stand-alone solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luecke, C.; Foldyna, B.; Andres, C.; Grothoff, M.; Nitzsche, S.; Gutberlet, M.; Lehmkuhl, L.; Boehmer-Lasthaus, S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the performance of server-based (CSS) versus stand-alone post-processing software (ES) for the evaluation of cardiovascular CT examinations (cvCT) and to determine the crucial steps. Data of 40 patients (20 patients for coronary artery evaluation and 20 patients prior to transcatheter aortic valve implantation [TAVI]) were evaluated by 5 radiologists with CSS and ES. Data acquisition was performed using a dual-source 128-row CT unit (SOMATOM Definition Flash, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) and a 64-row CT unit (Brilliance 64, Philips, Hamburg, Germany). The following workflow was evaluated: Data loading, aorta and coronary segmentation, curved multiplanar reconstruction (cMPR) and 3 D volume rendering technique (3D-VRT), measuring of coronary artery stenosis and planimetry of the aortic annulus. The time requirement and subjective quality for the workflow were evaluated. The coronary arteries as well as the TAVI data could be evaluated significantly faster with CSS (5.5 ± 2.9 min and 8.2 ± 4.0 min, respectively) than with ES (13.9 ± 5.2 min and 15.2 ± 10.9 min, respectively, p = 0.01). Segmentation of the aorta (CSS: 1.9 ± 2.0 min, ES: 3.7 ± 3.3 min), generating cMPR of coronaries (CSS: 0.5 ± 0.2 min, ES: 5.1 ± 2.6 min), aorta and iliac vessels (CSS: 0.5 ± 0.4 min and 0.4 ± 0.4 min, respectively, ES: 1.6 ± 0.7 min and 2.8 ± 3 min, respectively) could be performed significantly faster with CSS than with ES with higher quality of cMPR, measuring of coronary stenosis and 3D-VRT (p < 0.05). Evaluation of cvCT can be accomplished significantly faster and better with CSS than with ES. The segmentation remains the most time-consuming workflow step, so optimization of segmentation algorithms could improve performance even further.

  3. A compact seven switches topology and reduced DC-link capacitor size for single-phase stand-alone PV system with hybrid energy storages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiong; Wang, Peng; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2011-01-01

    Single-phase stand-alone PV system is suitable for household applications in remote area. Hybrid battery/ultra-capacitor energy storage can reduce charge and discharge cycles and avoid deep discharges of battery. This paper proposes a compact seven switches structure for stand-alone PV system......, which otherwise needs nine switches configuration, inclusive of one switch for boost converter, four switches for single-phase inverter and four switches for two DC/DC converters of battery and ultra-capacitor. It is well-known that a bulky DC-link capacitor is always required to absorb second......-order harmonic current caused by single-phase inverter. In the proposed compact topology, a small size DC-link capacitor can achieve the same function through charging/discharging control of ultra-capacitor to mitigate second-order ripple current. Simulation results are provided to validate the effectiveness...

  4. SoC-Based Output Voltage Control for BESS with a Lithium-Ion Battery in a Stand-Alone DC Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Yeong Yu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new DC output voltage control for a battery energy storage system (BESS with a lithium-ion battery based on the state of charge (SoC. The proposed control scheme was verified through computer simulations for a typical stand-alone DC microgrid, which consists of a BESS, photovoltaic (PV panel, engine generator (EG, and DC load. A scaled hardware prototype for a stand-alone DC microgrid was set up in the lab, in which the proposed control scheme was loaded in a DSP controller. The experimental results were compared with the simulation results for performance verification. The proposed control scheme provides relatively lower variation of the DC grid voltage than the conventional droop control.

  5. Biomechanical comparison of a new stand-alone anterior lumbar interbody fusion cage with established fixation techniques – a three-dimensional finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh Pang-Hsing

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Initial promise of a stand-alone interbody fusion cage to treat chronic back pain and restore disc height has not been realized. In some instances, a posterior spinal fixation has been used to enhance stability and increase fusion rate. In this manuscript, a new stand-alone cage is compared with conventional fixation methods based on the finite element analysis, with a focus on investigating cage-bone interface mechanics and stress distribution on the adjacent tissues. Methods Three trapezoid 8° interbody fusion cage models (dual paralleled cages, a single large cage, or a two-part cage consisting of a trapezoid box and threaded cylinder were created with or without pedicle screws fixation to investigate the relative importance of the screws on the spinal segmental response. The contact stress on the facet joint, slip displacement of the cage on the endplate, and rotational angle of the upper vertebra were measured under different loading conditions. Results Simulation results demonstrated less facet stress and slip displacement with the maximal contact on the cage-bone interface. A stand-alone two-part cage had good slip behavior under compression, flexion, extension, lateral bending and torsion, as compared with the other two interbody cages, even with the additional posterior fixation. However, the two-part cage had the lowest rotational angles under flexion and torsion, but had no differences under extension and lateral bending. Conclusion The biomechanical benefit of a stand-alone two-part fusion cage can be justified. This device provided the stability required for interbody fusion, which supports clinical trials of the cage as an alternative to circumferential fixations.

  6. Systematic Multi-variable H-infinity Control Design for Primary Frequency Regulation in Stand-alone Microgrids with High Penetration of Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Lam , Quang Linh; Bratcu , Antoneta Iuliana; Riu , Delphine

    2016-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, a systematic design of a robust multi-variable control structure for primary frequency regulation in microgrids with high rate of renewable source penetration is proposed. The considered microgrid represents a diesel-photovoltaic-supercapacitor hybrid power generation system operating in stand-alone mode. The proposed control structure relies on a two-level architecture: classical PI-based current tracking controllers are placed on the low control level ...

  7. Performance of a small stand alone photovoltaic-wind system at El Oyameyo D.F., Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Juarez, A.; Campos, J. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Tiburcio Silver, A. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca-Division de Posgrado, Toluca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    El Oyameyo, is an ecological site located to the South-West of the Topilejo town, D.F., 19 degree 25` North latitude, 99 degree 5` West longitude and at an altitude of 3100 m. At present, there are 10 families living at this place. They have energy generators to produce their own electricity by means of solar or wind energy using photovoltaic (PV) technology and eolic systems, respectively. There are three different configurations of energy generators: DC regulated PV systems, AC regulated PV systems and one PV-Wind hybrid system. The electrical power installed for the stand alone PV systems are from 48 W-p up to 768 W-p range. Among these, there are 4 PV systems that are configurated in DC regulated systems, and other 6 are AC regulated systems. All these systems use lead-acid battery (scaled or vented) banks to store the energy produced daily by the systems. The PV-Wind hybrid system in formed, at present, by a 5.0 kW wind generator, a PV array of 768 W-p, a 37.8 kW-h storage battery bank and a 5.0 kW DC/AC inverter. In this work, we report the electricity generated, load pattern and overall system performance of the photovoltaic-wind hybrid system. The technical characteristics, energy test on the hybrid system and the experience obtained from energy handling and system maintenance for all the systems are presented. We found that all the systems had shown good performance and users` satisfaction. [Espanol] El Oyameyo es un lugar ecologico localizado al Sur-Oeste del pueblo de Topilejo, D. F., 19 grados 25` de latitud Norte 99 grados 5` de longitud Oeste y a una altitud de 3100m. Actualmente hay 10 familias viviendo en este lugar. Tienen generadores de energia para producir su propia electricidad mediante la energia solar y la del viento usando sistemas fotovoltaicos (FV) y sistemas eolicos, respectivamente. Hay tres diferentes configuraciones de generadores de energia: sistemas fotovoltaicos de CD regulados, sistemas fotovoltaicos de CA regulados y un sistema

  8. Design of a small scale stand-alone solar thermal co-generation plant for an isolated region in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhady, Suzan; Borello, Domenico; Tortora, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • In the selected area, connection to the grid is very difficult and expensive. • The integrated unsteady CSP/ORC system, was modeled TRNSYS. • Assuming a CSP of 200,000 m 2 , 6 MW e and 21.5 MW th can be obtained. • The energy is sufficient to feed more than 3,300 rural users and two big factories. • PER = 1.43, LCOE = 1.25 USD/kW h and the GHG emissions are reduced of 7300 toe/year. - Abstract: Most of Egypt’s population is concentrated in the Nile Valley (5% of Egypt’s area), while the western desert occupies an area of 50% of the total area of Egypt with a small number of inhabitants. The New Valley is the largest governorates in Egypt which occupies 45.8% of the total area of the Country and 65% of the Western Desert and it is the least densely populated governorate in Egypt. However, New Valley has started to receive the migrated people from the Nile valley and Delta region and the demand for the energy is continuously increasing. However, the rural area in New Valley still suffers from lack of access to energy services. The very high transmission losses and costs are the main challenges for electrification in this area. Then, it is worth to investigate the opportunities for distributed energy generation. This area of Egypt receives some of the highest solar radiation in the world (up to 3000 kW h per square meters per year), making it a prime location for use of this resource. In this study, performance and economic assessment of a small scale stand-alone solar thermal co-generation plant using diathermic oil is presented. This configuration is considered as a promising and sustainable solution to provide electricity and heat to an isolated area satisfying the local loads. Parabolic trough plant has been modeled in TRNSYS simulation environment integrated with the Solar Thermal Electric Components (STEC) model library. Both solar and power cycle performances have been modeled based on the solar energy data of the plant site. The

  9. Performance of a small stand alone photovoltaic-wind system at El Oyameyo D.F., Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Juarez, A; Campos, J [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Tiburcio Silver, A [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca-Division de Posgrado, Toluca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    El Oyameyo, is an ecological site located to the South-West of the Topilejo town, D.F., 19 degree 25` North latitude, 99 degree 5` West longitude and at an altitude of 3100 m. At present, there are 10 families living at this place. They have energy generators to produce their own electricity by means of solar or wind energy using photovoltaic (PV) technology and eolic systems, respectively. There are three different configurations of energy generators: DC regulated PV systems, AC regulated PV systems and one PV-Wind hybrid system. The electrical power installed for the stand alone PV systems are from 48 W-p up to 768 W-p range. Among these, there are 4 PV systems that are configurated in DC regulated systems, and other 6 are AC regulated systems. All these systems use lead-acid battery (scaled or vented) banks to store the energy produced daily by the systems. The PV-Wind hybrid system in formed, at present, by a 5.0 kW wind generator, a PV array of 768 W-p, a 37.8 kW-h storage battery bank and a 5.0 kW DC/AC inverter. In this work, we report the electricity generated, load pattern and overall system performance of the photovoltaic-wind hybrid system. The technical characteristics, energy test on the hybrid system and the experience obtained from energy handling and system maintenance for all the systems are presented. We found that all the systems had shown good performance and users` satisfaction. [Espanol] El Oyameyo es un lugar ecologico localizado al Sur-Oeste del pueblo de Topilejo, D. F., 19 grados 25` de latitud Norte 99 grados 5` de longitud Oeste y a una altitud de 3100m. Actualmente hay 10 familias viviendo en este lugar. Tienen generadores de energia para producir su propia electricidad mediante la energia solar y la del viento usando sistemas fotovoltaicos (FV) y sistemas eolicos, respectivamente. Hay tres diferentes configuraciones de generadores de energia: sistemas fotovoltaicos de CD regulados, sistemas fotovoltaicos de CA regulados y un sistema

  10. Bystander apoptosis in human cells mediated by irradiated blood plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinnikov, Volodymyr, E-mail: vlad.vinnikov@mail.ru [Grigoriev Institute for Medical Radiology of the National Academy of Medical Science of Ukraine (Ukraine); Lloyd, David; Finnon, Paul [Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards of the Health Protection Agency of the United Kingdom (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-01

    Following exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation, due to an accident or during radiotherapy, bystander signalling poses a potential hazard to unirradiated cells and tissues. This process can be mediated by factors circulating in blood plasma. Thus, we assessed the ability of plasma taken from in vitro irradiated human blood to produce a direct cytotoxic effect, by inducing apoptosis in primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM), which mainly comprised G{sub 0}-stage lymphocytes. Plasma was collected from healthy donors' blood irradiated in vitro to 0-40 Gy acute {gamma}-rays. Reporter PBM were separated from unirradiated blood with Histopaque and held in medium with the test plasma for 24 h at 37 Degree-Sign C. Additionally, plasma from in vitro irradiated and unirradiated blood was tested against PBM collected from blood given 4 Gy. Apoptosis in reporter PBM was measured by the Annexin V test using flow cytometry. Plasma collected from unirradiated and irradiated blood did not produce any apoptotic response above the control level in unirradiated reporter PBM. Surprisingly, plasma from irradiated blood caused a dose-dependent reduction of apoptosis in irradiated reporter PBM. The yields of radiation-induced cell death in irradiated reporter PBM (after subtracting the respective values in unirradiated reporter PBM) were 22.2 {+-} 1.8% in plasma-free cultures, 21.6 {+-} 1.1% in cultures treated with plasma from unirradiated blood, 20.2 {+-} 1.4% in cultures with plasma from blood given 2-4 Gy and 16.7 {+-} 3.2% in cultures with plasma from blood given 6-10 Gy. These results suggested that irradiated blood plasma did not cause a radiation-induced bystander cell-killing effect. Instead, a reduction of apoptosis in irradiated reporter cells cultured with irradiated blood plasma has implications concerning oncogenic risk from mutated cells surviving after high dose in vivo irradiation (e.g. radiotherapy) and requires further study.

  11. Bystander apoptosis in human cells mediated by irradiated blood plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinnikov, Volodymyr; Lloyd, David; Finnon, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Following exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation, due to an accident or during radiotherapy, bystander signalling poses a potential hazard to unirradiated cells and tissues. This process can be mediated by factors circulating in blood plasma. Thus, we assessed the ability of plasma taken from in vitro irradiated human blood to produce a direct cytotoxic effect, by inducing apoptosis in primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM), which mainly comprised G 0 -stage lymphocytes. Plasma was collected from healthy donors’ blood irradiated in vitro to 0–40 Gy acute γ-rays. Reporter PBM were separated from unirradiated blood with Histopaque and held in medium with the test plasma for 24 h at 37 °C. Additionally, plasma from in vitro irradiated and unirradiated blood was tested against PBM collected from blood given 4 Gy. Apoptosis in reporter PBM was measured by the Annexin V test using flow cytometry. Plasma collected from unirradiated and irradiated blood did not produce any apoptotic response above the control level in unirradiated reporter PBM. Surprisingly, plasma from irradiated blood caused a dose-dependent reduction of apoptosis in irradiated reporter PBM. The yields of radiation-induced cell death in irradiated reporter PBM (after subtracting the respective values in unirradiated reporter PBM) were 22.2 ± 1.8% in plasma-free cultures, 21.6 ± 1.1% in cultures treated with plasma from unirradiated blood, 20.2 ± 1.4% in cultures with plasma from blood given 2–4 Gy and 16.7 ± 3.2% in cultures with plasma from blood given 6–10 Gy. These results suggested that irradiated blood plasma did not cause a radiation-induced bystander cell-killing effect. Instead, a reduction of apoptosis in irradiated reporter cells cultured with irradiated blood plasma has implications concerning oncogenic risk from mutated cells surviving after high dose in vivo irradiation (e.g. radiotherapy) and requires further study.

  12. Single anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) using self- locking stand-alone polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage: evaluation of pain and health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Thomaidis, Tryfon; Charitoudis, George; Pavlidis, Pavlos; Theodosiadis, Panagiotis; Gkasdaris, Grigorios

    2017-09-01

    Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) constitutes the conventional treatment of cervical disc herniation due to degenerative disc disease (DDD). ACDF with plating presents a variety of complications postoperatively and stand-alone cages are thought to be a promising alternative. The aim of this study was firstly, to analyze prospectively collected data from a sample of patients treated with single ACDF using C-Plus self-locking stand-alone PEEK cage system, without the use of plates or screws, in order to evaluate pain levels of patients, utilizing Neck and Arm Pain scale as an expression of visual analogue scale (VAS). Secondly, we aimed to evaluate health-related quality of life, via the short-form 36 (SF-36) and Neck Disability Index (NDI). Thirty-six patients (19 male and 17 female) with mean age 49.6±7 years old who underwent successful single ACDF using self-locking stand-alone PEEK cage for symptomatic cervical DDD were selected for the study. Neck and Arm pain, as well as SF-36 and NDI were estimated preoperatively and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Patients underwent preoperative and postoperative clinical, neurological and radiological evaluation. The clinical and radiological outcomes were satisfactory after a minimum 1-year follow-up. All results were statistically important (P<0.05), excluding improvement in NDI measured between 6 and 12 months. SF-36, Neck Pain, as well as Arm Pain featured gradual and constant improvement during follow-up, with best scores presenting at 12 months after surgery, while NDI reached its best at 6 months postoperatively. Generally, all scores showed improvement postoperatively during the different phases of the follow-up. Subsequently, ACDF using C-Plus cervical cage constitutes an effective method for cervical disc herniation treatment, in terms of postoperative improvement on pain levels and health-related quality of life and a safe alternative to the conventional method of treatment for cervical DDD.

  13. Segmental kyphosis after cervical interbody fusion with stand-alone polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages: a comparative study on 2 different PEEK cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chi Heon; Chung, Chun Kee; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Park, Sung Bae; Sohn, Seil; Lee, Sungjoon

    2015-02-01

    Retrospective comparative study. Two polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages of different designs were compared in terms of the postoperative segmental kyphosis after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Segmental kyphosis occasionally occurs after the use of a stand-alone cage for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Although PEEK material seems to have less risk of segmental kyphosis compared with other materials, the occurrence of segmental kyphosis for PEEK cages has been reported to be from 0% to 29%. There have been a few reports that addressed the issue of PEEK cage design. A total of 41 consecutive patients who underwent single-level anterior discectomy and fusion with a stand-alone cage were included. Either a round tube-type (Solis; 18 patients, S-group) or a trapezoidal tube-type (MC+; 23 patients, M-group) cage was used. The contact area between the cage and the vertebral body is larger in MC+ than in Solis, and anchoring pins were present in the Solis cage. The effect of the cage type on the segmental angle (SA) (lordosis vs. kyphosis) at postoperative month 24 was analyzed. Preoperatively, segmental lordosis was present in 12/18 S-group and 16/23 M-group patients (P=0.84). The SA was more lordotic than the preoperative angle in both groups just after surgery, with no difference between groups (P=0.39). At 24 months, segmental lordosis was observed in 9/18 S-group and 20/23 M-group patients (P=0.01). The patients in M-group were 7.83 times more likely than patients in S-group (P=0.04; odds ratio, 7.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-56.28) not to develop segmental kyphosis. The design of the PEEK cage used may influence the SA, and this association needs to be considered when using stand-alone PEEK cages.

  14. Clinician's perspectives of the relocation of a regional child and adolescent mental health service from co-located to stand alone premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, K J; Boyd, C P; Sewell, J; Nurse, S

    2008-01-01

    Australia's National Mental Health Strategy's statement of rights and responsibilities states that children and adolescents admitted to a mental health facility or community program have the right to be separated from adult patients and provided with programs suited to their developmental needs. However, in rural Australia, where a lack of healthcare services, financial constraints, greater service delivery areas and fewer mental healthcare specialists represent the norm, Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) are sometimes co-located with adult mental health services. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a recent relocation of a regional CAMHS in Victoria from co-located to stand alone premises. Six CAMHS clinicians who had experienced service delivery at a co-located setting and the current stand-alone CAMHS setting were interviewed about their perceptions of the impact of the relocation on service delivery. An exploratory interviewing methodology was utilized due to the lack of previous research in this area. Interview data were transcribed and analysed according to interpretative phenomenological analysis techniques. Findings indicated a perception that the relocation was positive for clients due to the family-friendly environment at the new setting and separation of CAMHS from adult psychiatric services. However, the impact of the relocation on clinicians was marked by a perceived loss of social capital from adult psychiatric service clinicians. These results provide increased understanding of the effects of service relocation and the influence of co-located versus stand-alone settings on mental health service delivery - an area where little prior research exists.

  15. Factors that can influence the economic feasibility of stand-alone and grid-connected photovoltaic systems: case studies using the software AVES-F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasques, L.C.M.; Pinho, J.T.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents case studies of economic feasibility of solar photovoltaic systems using the software AVES-F (Analysis of Economic Feasibility of Photovoltaic Systems), developed by the authors, considering cases of stand-alone and grid-connected systems. The software takes into account several factors that can influence the economic feasibility of these kind of systems, like load to be supplied, distance to the grid, the use regime of the system, applied subsidies and others. The main goal of this paper is to analyze some of these factors and to observe how they can affect the economics of PV systems for electricity generation. (authors)

  16. [Biomechanicsl evaluation of a stand-alone interbody fusion cage based on porous TiO2/glass-ceramic on the human cervical spine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korinth, M C; Moersch, S; Ragoss, C; Schopphoff, E

    2003-12-01

    Recently, there has been a rapid increase in the use of cervical spine interbody fusion cages, differing in design and biomaterial used, in competition to autologous iliac bone graft and bone cement (PMMA). Limited biomechanical differences in primary stability, as well as advantages and disadvantages of each cage or material have been investigated in studies, using an in vitro human cervical spine model. 20 human cervical spine specimens were tested after fusion with either a cubical stand-alone interbody fusion cage manufactured from a new porous TiO2/glass composite (Ecopore) or PMMA after discectomy. Non-destructive biomechanical testing was performed, including flexion/extension and lateral bending using a spine testing apparatus. Three-dimensional segmental range of motion (ROM) was evaluated using an ultrasound measurement system. ROM increased more in flexion/extension and lateral bending after PMMA fusion (26.5%/36.1%), then after implantation of the Ecopore-cage (8.1%/7.8%). In this first biomechanical in vitro examination of a new porous ceramic bone replacement material a) the feasibility and reproducibility of biomechanical cadaveric cervical examination and its applicability was demonstrated, b) the stability of the ceramic cage as a stand alone interbody cage was confirmed in vitro, and c) basic information and knowledge for our intended biomechanical and histological in vivo testing, after implantation of Ecopore in cervical sheep spines, were obtained.

  17. Risk factors for subsidence in anterior cervical fusion with stand-alone polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages: a review of 82 cases and 182 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Ting-Hsien; Wu, Chen-Hao; Chou, Yu-Ching; Chen, Hsien-Te; Chen, Wen-Hsien; Tsou, Hsi-Kai

    2014-10-01

    To determine risk factors for subsidence in patients treated with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and stand-alone polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages. Records of patients with degenerative spondylosis or traumatic disc herniation resulting in radiculopathy or myelopathy between C2 and C7 who underwent ACDF with stand-alone PEEK cages were retrospectively reviewed. Cages were filled with autogenous cancellous bone harvested from iliac crest or hydroxyapatite. Subsidence was defined as a decrease of 3 mm or more of anterior or posterior disc height from that measured on the postoperative radiograph. Eighty-two patients (32 males, 50 females; 182 treatment levels) were included in the analysis. Most patients had 1-2 treatment levels (62.2 %), and 37.8 % had 3-4 treatment levels. Treatment levels were from C2-7. Of the 82 patients, cage subsidence occurred in 31 patients, and at 39 treatment levels. Multivariable analysis showed that subsidence was more likely to occur in patients with more than two treatment levels, and more likely to occur at treatment levels C5-7 than at levels C2-5. Subsidence was not associated with postoperative alignment change but associated with more disc height change (relatively oversized cage). Subsidence is associated with a greater number of treatment levels, treatment at C5-7 and relatively oversized cage use.

  18. DCE-MRI of the breast in a stand-alone setting outside a complementary strategy - results of the TK-study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Clemens G.; Krammer, J.; Wasser, K.; Schoenberg, S.O. [University Medical Centre Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim-University of Heidelberg, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Mannheim (Germany); Reich, C.; Kaiser, W.A. [Friedrich-Schiller-University Hospital Jena, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology I, Jena (Germany); Dietzel, M. [Friedrich-Alexander-University Hospital Erlangen-Nuernberg, Department of Neuroradiology, Erlangen (Germany); Baltzer, P.A.T. [Medical University Vienna, Institute of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of MRI of the breast (DCE-MRI) in a stand-alone setting with extended indications. According to the inclusion criteria, breast specialists were invited to refer patients to our institution for DCE-MRI. Depending on the MR findings, patients received either a follow-up or biopsy. Between 04/2006 and 12/2011 a consecutive total of 1,488 women were prospectively examined. Of 1,488 included patients, 393 patients were lost to follow-up, 1,095 patients were evaluated. 124 patients were diagnosed with malignancy by DCE-MRI (76 TP, 48 FP, 971 TN, 0 FN cases). Positive cases were confirmed by histology, negative cases by MR follow-ups or patient questionnaires over the next 5 years in 1,737 cases (sensitivity 100 %; specificity 95.2 %; PPV 61.3 %; NPV 100 %; accuracy 95.5 %). For invasive cancers only (DCIS excluded), the results were 63 TP; 27 FP; 971 TP and 0 FN (sensitivity 100 %; specificity 97.2 %; PPV 70 %; NPV 100 %; accuracy 97.5 %). The DCE-MRI indications tested imply that negative results in DCE-MRI reliably exclude cancer. The results were achieved in a stand-alone setting (single modality diagnosis). However, these results are strongly dependent on reader experience and adequate technical standards as prerequisites for optimal diagnoses. (orig.)

  19. DCE-MRI of the breast in a stand-alone setting outside a complementary strategy - results of the TK-study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Clemens G.; Krammer, J.; Wasser, K.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Reich, C.; Kaiser, W.A.; Dietzel, M.; Baltzer, P.A.T.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of MRI of the breast (DCE-MRI) in a stand-alone setting with extended indications. According to the inclusion criteria, breast specialists were invited to refer patients to our institution for DCE-MRI. Depending on the MR findings, patients received either a follow-up or biopsy. Between 04/2006 and 12/2011 a consecutive total of 1,488 women were prospectively examined. Of 1,488 included patients, 393 patients were lost to follow-up, 1,095 patients were evaluated. 124 patients were diagnosed with malignancy by DCE-MRI (76 TP, 48 FP, 971 TN, 0 FN cases). Positive cases were confirmed by histology, negative cases by MR follow-ups or patient questionnaires over the next 5 years in 1,737 cases (sensitivity 100 %; specificity 95.2 %; PPV 61.3 %; NPV 100 %; accuracy 95.5 %). For invasive cancers only (DCIS excluded), the results were 63 TP; 27 FP; 971 TP and 0 FN (sensitivity 100 %; specificity 97.2 %; PPV 70 %; NPV 100 %; accuracy 97.5 %). The DCE-MRI indications tested imply that negative results in DCE-MRI reliably exclude cancer. The results were achieved in a stand-alone setting (single modality diagnosis). However, these results are strongly dependent on reader experience and adequate technical standards as prerequisites for optimal diagnoses. (orig.)

  20. Self-separation of blood plasma from whole blood during the capillary flow in microchannel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunna, Bharath Babu; Zhuang, Shiqiang; Lee, Eon Soo

    2017-11-01

    Self-separation of blood plasma from whole blood in microchannels is of great importance due to the enormous range of applications in healthcare and diagnostics. Blood is a multiphase complex fluid, composed of cells suspended in blood plasma. RBCs are the suspended particles whose shape changes during the flow of blood. The primary constituents of blood are erythrocytes or red blood cells (RBCs), leukocytes or white blood cells (WBCs), thrombocytes or platelets and blood plasma. The existence of RBCs in blood makes the blood a non-Newtonian fluid. The current study of separation of blood plasma from whole blood during self-driven flows in a single microchannel without bifurcation, by enhancing the capillary effects. The change in the capillary effect results in a change in contact angle which directly influences the capillary flow. The flow velocity directly influences the net force acting on the RBCs and influence the separation process. The experiments are performed on the PDMS microchannels with different contact angles by altering the surface characteristics using plasma treatment. The change in the separation length is studied during the capillary flow of blood in microchannel. Bharath Babu Nunna is a researcher in mechanical engineering and implementing the novel and innovative technologies in the biomedical devices to enhance the sensitivity of the disease diagnosis.

  1. [Ratio of erythrocyte and plasma in massive blood transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xian-Hui; Liu, Feng-Xia; Zhang, Jun-Hua; Gui, Rong

    2014-06-01

    This study was purposed to explore the suitable ratio between fresh frozen plasma and erythrocyte by retrospective analysis of coagulation in patients with massive blood transfusion. The clinical data of 151 cases with massive blood transfusion from January 2011 to January 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. According to coagulation, patients were divided into coagulation normal group (138 cases) and coagulation dysfunction group (13 cases). Based on the ratio of 1:1 of fresh frozen plasma and erythrocyte, the patients were divided into high plasma group(2:1), medium plasma group (1:1) and low plasma (blood transfusion. The results showed that prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin time (TT) were prolonged, fibrinogen (FIB) level decreased significantly (all P blood transfusion 24 h; the high plasma and the medium plasma group of coagulation normal group had no significant changes in coagulation (P > 0.05); prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time and fibrinogen level in the medium plasma and low plasma subgroup of coagulation dysfunction group after massive transfusion was still in abnormal levels (P > 0.05), coagulation function in high plasma subgroup was improved significantly (P blood transfusion, the ratio between fresh frozen plasma and erythrocyte is recommended to be 2:1 in patients of coagulation dysfunction in order to improve the patient's coagulation function and to reduce the incidence of adverse event, the ratio of fresh frozen plasma to erythrocyte is recommended to be 1:1 in patients with normal coagulation so as to reduce the dilutional coagulopathy and hypervolemia of blood.

  2. Techno-economic assessment of FT unit for synthetic diesel production in existing stand-alone biomass gasification plant using process simulation tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunpinyo, Piyapong; Narataruksa, Phavanee; Tungkamani, Sabaithip

    2014-01-01

    For alternative thermo-chemical conversion process route via gasification, biomass can be gasified to produce syngas (mainly CO and H2). On more applications of utilization, syngas can be used to synthesize fuels through the catalytic process option for producing synthetic liquid fuels...... such as Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel. The embedding of the FT plant into the stand-alone based on power mode plants for production of a synthetic fuel is a promising practice, which requires an extensive adaptation of conventional techniques to the special chemical needs found in a gasified biomass. Because...... there are currently no plans to engage the FT process in Thailand, the authors have targeted that this work focus on improving the FT configurations in existing biomass gasification facilities (10 MWth). A process simulation model for calculating extended unit operations in a demonstrative context is designed...

  3. Effect of State Feedback Coupling and System Delays on the Transient Performance of Stand-Alone VSI with LC Output Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, de Bosio; de Sousa Ribeiro, Luiz Antonio; Freijedo Fernandez, Francisco Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The influence of state feedback coupling in the dynamics performance of power converters for stand-alone microgrids is investigated. Computation and PWM delays are the main factors that limit the achievable bandwidth of current regulators in digital implementations. In particular, the performance...... of state feedback decoupling is degraded because of these delays. Two decoupling techniques to improve the transient response of the system are investigated, named non-ideal and ideal capacitor voltage decoupling respectively. In particular, the latter solution consists in leading the capacitor voltage...... on the state feedback decoupling path in order to compensate for system delays. Practical implementation issues are discussed with reference to both the decoupling techniques. A design methodology for the voltage loop, that considers the closed loop transfer functions developed for the inner loop, is also...

  4. Synchronized Pulsed dc - dc Converter as Maximum Power Position Tracker with Wide Load and Insolation Variation for Stand Alone PV System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardik, P. Desai; Ranjan Maheshwari

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the interest focused on employing parallel connected dc-dc converter with high tracking effectiveness under wide variation in environmental conditions (Insolation) and wide load variation. dc-dc converter is an essential part of the stand alone PV system. Paper also presents an approach on how duty cycle for maximum power position (MPP) is adjusted by taking care of varying load conditions and without iterative steps. Synchronized PWM pulses are employed for the converter. High tracking efficiency is achieved with continuous input and inductor current. In this approach, the converter can he utilized in buck as well in boost mode. The PV system simulation was verified and experimental results were in agreement to the presented scheme. (authors)

  5. Grid parity analysis of stand-alone hybrid microgrids: A comparative study of Germany, Pakistan, South Africa and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Jawad M.

    Grid parity for alternative energy resources occurs when the cost of electricity generated from the source is lower than or equal to the purchasing price of power from the electricity grid. This thesis aims to quantitatively analyze the evolution of hybrid stand-alone microgrids in the US, Germany, Pakistan and South Africa to determine grid parity for a solar PV/Diesel/Battery hybrid system. The Energy System Model (ESM) and NREL's Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources (HOMER) software are used to simulate the microgrid operation and determine a Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) figure for each location. This cost per kWh is then compared with two distinct estimates of future retail electricity prices at each location to determine grid parity points. Analysis results reveal that future estimates of LCOE for such hybrid stand-alone microgrids range within the 35-55 cents/kWh over the 25 year study period. Grid parity occurs earlier in locations with higher power prices or unreliable grids. For Pakistan grid parity is already here, while Germany hits parity between the years 2023-2029. Results for South Africa suggest a parity time range of the years 2040-2045. In the US, places with low grid prices do not hit parity during the study period. Sensitivity analysis results reveal the significant impact of financing and the cost of capital on these grid parity points, particularly in developing markets of Pakistan and South Africa. Overall, the study helps conclude that variations in energy markets may determine the fate of emerging energy technologies like microgrids. However, policy interventions have a significant impact on the final outcome, such as the grid parity in this case. Measures such as eliminating uncertainty in policies and improving financing can help these grids overcome barriers in developing economies, where they may find a greater use much earlier in time.

  6. Effects of ozone as a stand-alone and coagulation-aid treatment on the reduction of trihalomethanes precursors from high DOC and hardness water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrnourmohamadi, Mehrnaz; Gorczyca, Beata

    2015-04-15

    This study investigates the effect of ozone as a stand-alone and coagulation aid on the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from the water with a high level of DOC (13.8 mgL(-1)) and calcium hardness (270 mgL(-1)) CaCO3. Natural water collected from the Assiniboine River (Manitoba, Canada) was used in this study. Effectiveness of ozone treatment was evaluated by measurement of DOC, DOC fractions, UV254, and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP). Additionally, zeta potential and dissolved calcium concentration were measured to discern the mechanism of ozone reactions. Results indicated that 0.8 mg O3/mg DOC ozone stand-alone can cause up to 86% UV254 reduction and up to 27% DOC reduction. DOC fractionation results showed that ozone can change the composition of DOC in the water samples, converting the hydrophobic fractions into hydrophilic ones and resulting in the reduction of THMFP. Also, ozone caused a decrease in particle stability and dissolved calcium concentration. These simultaneous ozonation effects caused improved water flocculation and enhanced removal of DOC. This resulted in reduction of the coagulant dosage when ozone doses higher than 0.2 mg O3/mg DOC were applied prior to coagulation with ferric sulfate. Also, pre-ozonation-coagulation process achieved preferential THMFP removal for all of the ozone doses tested (0-0.8 mg O3/mg DOC), leading to a lower specific THMFP in pre-ozonated-coagulated waters than in the corresponding ozonated waters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of plate-cage construct and stand-alone anchored spacer in the surgical treatment of three-level cervical spondylotic myelopathy: a preliminary clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Sheng; Liu, Zu-De; Li, Xin-Feng; Qian, Lie; Zhong, Gui-Bin; Chen, Fang-Jing

    2015-09-01

    Although stand-alone cages were advocated to be superior to plate-cage construct (PCC) because of comparable clinical outcomes and fewer plate-related complications, cage dislocation and subsidence were frequently mentioned in multilevel fusion. There are some concerns about whether these issues can be effectively prevented in multilevel anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) by stand-alone anchored spacer (SAAS). The aim was to compare clinical outcomes, radiologic parameters, and complications of PCC and SAAS in the treatment of three-level cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). This was a retrospective comparative study. A total of 38 consecutive patients with three-level CSM (ACDF with PCC, 20 patients; ACDF with SAAS, 18 patients) were reviewed. Clinical outcomes were assessed using Japanese Orthopaedic Association and Neck Disability Index. The radiologic evaluations included cervical alignment (CA), segmental angle (SA), postoperative curvature loss (PCL), and incidence of subsidence. All the aforementioned parameters were compared before and after surgery between two groups. Besides, the aforementioned results were also compared between the two groups. The complications were also recorded. The mean follow-up period was 30.3 months. No significant differences were observed in clinical outcomes between the two groups (p>.05). Additionally, no significant differences existed in fusion rate between the two groups. There were significant differences in PCL of SA and CA and correction of SA between the two groups (pSAAS group, and the potential of SAAS to reduce the incidence of postoperative dysphagia was not proven. No other complications were observed in this study. In the surgical treatment of three-level CSM, PCC is superior to SAAS in correction and maintenance of SA and avoiding cage subsidence, although the technique of ACDF with SAAS yielded encouraging clinical outcomes and high fusion rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. PR2ALIGN: a stand-alone software program and a web-server for protein sequence alignment using weighted biochemical properties of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Igor B; McDuffie, Michael

    2015-05-07

    Alignment of amino acid sequences is the main sequence comparison method used in computational molecular biology. The selection of the amino acid substitution matrix best suitable for a given alignment problem is one of the most important decisions the user has to make. In a conventional amino acid substitution matrix all elements are fixed and their values cannot be easily adjusted. Moreover, most existing amino acid substitution matrices account for the average (dis)similarities between amino acid types and do not distinguish the contribution of a specific biochemical property to these (dis)similarities. PR2ALIGN is a stand-alone software program and a web-server that provide the functionality for implementing flexible user-specified alignment scoring functions and aligning pairs of amino acid sequences based on the comparison of the profiles of biochemical properties of these sequences. Unlike the conventional sequence alignment methods that use 20x20 fixed amino acid substitution matrices, PR2ALIGN uses a set of weighted biochemical properties of amino acids to measure the distance between pairs of aligned residues and to find an optimal minimal distance global alignment. The user can provide any number of amino acid properties and specify a weight for each property. The higher the weight for a given property, the more this property affects the final alignment. We show that in many cases the approach implemented in PR2ALIGN produces better quality pair-wise alignments than the conventional matrix-based approach. PR2ALIGN will be helpful for researchers who wish to align amino acid sequences by using flexible user-specified alignment scoring functions based on the biochemical properties of amino acids instead of the amino acid substitution matrix. To the best of the authors' knowledge, there are no existing stand-alone software programs or web-servers analogous to PR2ALIGN. The software is freely available from http://pr2align.rit.albany.edu.

  9. A comparison of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) using self-locking stand-alone polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage with ACDF using cage and plate in the treatment of three-level cervical degenerative spondylopathy: a retrospective study with 2-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuqiao; Lü, Guohua; Wang, Bing; Li, Lei; Kuang, Lei

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy and radiological outcomes of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) using self-locking polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages for treatment of three-level cervical degenerative spondylopathy. Twenty-eight patients underwent three-level ACDF using self-locking stand-alone PEEK cages (group A), and 26 patients underwent three-level ACDF using cages and plate fixation (group B) were reviewed retrospectively. Clinical efficacy was evaluated by pre- and post-operative Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scores and Neck Disability Index (NDI). The operation time, blood loss, surgical results according to Odom's criteria and post-operative dysphagia status were also recorded. Radiological outcomes including fusion, cervical Cobb's lordosis, fused segment angle, disc height, and cage subsidence were assessed. Clinical outcome measures such as dysphagia and fusion rate and the results of surgery evaluated according to Odom's criteria were not statistically significant (P > 0.05) between groups. The operation time was shorter and blood loss was less in group A (P  0.05). Post-operative cage subsidence, the loss of disc height, cervical lordosis and the fused segment angle were relatively higher in group A than group B (P < 0.05). ACDF using self-locking stand-alone cages showed similar clinical results as compared to ACDF using cages and plate fixation for the treatment of three-level cervical degenerative spondylopathy. However, potential long-term problems such as cage subsidence, loss of cervical lordosis and fused segment angle post-operatively were shown to be associated with patients who underwent ACDF using self-locking stand-alone cages.

  10. 21 CFR 640.64 - Collection of blood for Source Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Collection of blood for Source Plasma. 640.64... (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.64 Collection of blood for Source Plasma. (a) Supervision. All blood for the collection of Source Plasma shall...

  11. Ciclosporine A asxay: RIA or HPLC, plasma or total blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapalus, P.; Garraffo, R.; Krebs, B.; Lapalus, F.

    1985-01-01

    The two methods now in force for ciclosporine A assay are radioimmunoassay (RIA) and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) in various biological media (plasma, serum, total blood). The advantages and disadvantages of the two methods are presented [fr

  12. Relationships of Whole Blood Serotonin and Plasma Norepinephrine within Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Bennett L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This study of 47 families of autistic probands found that whole blood serotonin was positively correlated between autistic children and their mothers, fathers, and siblings, but plasma norepinephrine levels were not. (Author/JDD)

  13. blood and plasma volumes in normal west african dwarf sheep

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    volume (PCV) and haemoglobin (Hb) values were determined as descried by Benjamin (1978) using the microhaematocrit and ... Standard dye concentration of 20 mg/ml was used for determining the dye concentration in plasma. ... Haemoglobin (Hb), Plasma Volume and Blood Volume in the West African Dwarf. Sheep.

  14. Biochemical characterization of blood plasma of coronary artery ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This study aimed to investigate the biochemical profile of blood plasma of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and angiographically normal subjects (controls) to determine biomarkers for their differentiation. In this double blind study, 5 mL venous blood was drawn before angiography from CAD patients (n=60) and ...

  15. A practical multi-objective design approach for optimum exhaust heat recovery from hybrid stand-alone PV-diesel power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousefi, Moslem; Kim, Joong Hoon; Hooshyar, Danial; Yousefi, Milad; Sahari, Khairul Salleh Mohamed; Ahmad, Rodina Binti

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Heat recovery exchanger is designed based on practical conditions of a hybrid power system. • Off-the-grid electricity system modeling and analysis using micro-grid analysis software HOMER. • NSGA-II is used for the multi-objective design optimization task. • A new local search is proposed to incorporate the engineering knowledge in NSGA-II. • The proposed approach outperforms the existing ones. - Abstract: Integration of solar power and diesel generators (DGs) together with battery storage has proven to be an efficient choice for stand-alone power systems (SAPS). For higher energy efficiency, heat recovery from exhaust gas of the DG can also be employed to supply all or a portion of the thermal energy demand. Although the design of such heat recovery systems (HRSs) has been studied, the effect of solar power integration has not been taken into account. In this paper, a new approach for practical design of these systems based on varying engine loads is presented. Fast and elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) equipped with a novel local search was used for the design process, considering conflicting objectives of annual energy recovery and total cost of the system, and six design variables. An integrated power system, designed for a remote SAPS, was used to evaluate the design approach. The optimum power supply system was first designed using the commercial software Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources (HOMER), based on power demand and global solar energy in the region. Heat recovery design was based on the outcome of HOMER for DG hourly load, considering different power scenarios. The proposed approach improves the annual heat recovery of the PV/DG/battery system by 4%, PV/battery by 1.7%, and stand-alone DG by 1.8% when compared with a conventional design based on nominal DG load. The results prove that the proposed approach is effective and that load calculations should be taken into account prior to

  16. The Research on Second-Order ADRC Algorithm of Using Wind Turbine Virtual Inertia to Participate in Primary Frequency Regulation in a Small Stand-Alone Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the transient stability of frequency in a small stand-alone microgrid (SSM, this paper takes a SSM composed of a direct-drive permanent magnet synchronous generator (D-PMSG and a micro gas turbine (MGT as the background and uses wind turbine generator (WTG virtual inertia (VI to participate in the primary (short-term system frequency regulation. First of all, this paper constructs a grid-connected model composed of a WTG and a MGT, analyzes the WTG virtual inertia frequency regulation mechanism, and explains the principle of proportional-differentiation (PD virtual inertia control (VIC and its shortcomings. Secondly, the paper introduces the structure principle of n-order active disturbance rejection control (ADRC and deduces the design process of second-order ADRC-VIC. Finally, through the simulation and experimental verification, comparing the frequency perturbation of without-VIC, PD-VIC, and ADRC-VIC, it is concluded that PD-VIC and ADRC-VIC both can use the WTG virtual inertia to participate in the primary frequency regulation. The frequency regulation effect of ADRC-VIC is better than PD-VIC, ADRC-VIC can extend the rotor speed recovery time and avoid overshoot, and its frequency fluctuation amplitude and settling time are obviously improved, and ADRC-VIC can effectively avoid the overshoot phenomenon of the MGT output power.

  17. Optimal Sizing of a Stand-Alone Hybrid Power System Based on Battery/Hydrogen with an Improved Ant Colony Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqiang Dong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A distributed power system with renewable energy sources is very popular in recent years due to the rapid depletion of conventional sources of energy. Reasonable sizing for such power systems could improve the power supply reliability and reduce the annual system cost. The goal of this work is to optimize the size of a stand-alone hybrid photovoltaic (PV/wind turbine (WT/battery (B/hydrogen system (a hybrid system based on battery and hydrogen (HS-BH for reliable and economic supply. Two objectives that take the minimum annual system cost and maximum system reliability described as the loss of power supply probability (LPSP have been addressed for sizing HS-BH from a more comprehensive perspective, considering the basic demand of load, the profit from hydrogen, which is produced by HS-BH, and an effective energy storage strategy. An improved ant colony optimization (ACO algorithm has been presented to solve the sizing problem of HS-BH. Finally, a simulation experiment has been done to demonstrate the developed results, in which some comparisons have been done to emphasize the advantage of HS-BH with the aid of data from an island of Zhejiang, China.

  18. Stand-Alone Containment Analysis of the Phébus FPT Tests with the ASTEC and the MELCOR Codes: The FPT-0 Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Gonfiotti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The integral Phébus tests were probably one of the most important experimental campaigns performed to investigate the progression of severe accidents in light water reactors. In these tests, the degradation of a PWR fuel bundle was investigated employing different control rod materials and burn-up levels in strongly or weakly oxidizing conditions. From the results of such tests, numerical codes such as ASTEC and MELCOR have been developed to describe the evolution of a severe accident. After the termination of the experimental Phébus campaign, these two codes were furthermore expanded. Therefore, the aim of the present work is to reanalyze the first Phébus test (FPT-0 employing the updated ASTEC and MELCOR versions to ensure that the new improvements introduced in such codes allow also a better prediction of these Phébus tests. The analysis focuses on the stand-alone containment aspects of this test, and the paper summarizes the main thermal-hydraulic results and presents different sensitivity analyses carried out on the aerosols and fission products behavior. This paper is part of a series of publications covering the four executed Phébus tests employing a solid PWR fuel bundle: FPT-0, FPT-1, FPT-2, and FPT-3.

  19. Development of Stand Alone Application Tool for Processing and Quality Measurement of Weld Imperfection Image Captured by μ-Focused Digital Radiography Using MATLAB- Based Graphical User Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PZ Nadila

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital radiography incresingly is being applied in the fabrication industry. Compared to film- based radiography, digitally radiographed images can be acquired with less time and fewer exposures. However, noises can simply occur on the digital image resulting in a low-quality result. Due to this and the system’s complexity, parameters’ sensitivity, and environmental effects, the results can be difficult to interpret, even for a radiographer. Therefore, the need of an application tool to improve and evaluate the image is becoming urgent. In this research, a user-friendly tool for image processing and image quality measurement was developed. The resulting tool contains important components needed by radiograph inspectors in analyzing defects and recording the results. This tool was written by using image processing and the graphical user interface development environment and compiler (GUIDE toolbox available in Matrix Laboratory (MATLAB R2008a. In image processing methods, contrast adjustment, and noise removal, edge detection was applied. In image quality measurement methods, mean square error (MSE, peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR, modulation transfer function (MTF, normalized signal-to-noise ratio (SNRnorm, sensitivity and unsharpness were used to measure the image quality. The graphical user interface (GUI wass then compiled to build a Windows, stand-alone application that enables this tool to be executed independently without the installation of MATLAB.

  20. Methodology for predicting sequences of mean monthly clearness index and daily solar radiation data in remote areas: Application for sizing a stand-alone PV system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellit, A. [Department of Electronics, Institute of Sciences Engineering, Centre University of Medea, Medea 26000 (Algeria); Department of Electronics, Faculty of Science Engineering, Blida University, Blida 09000 (Algeria); Kalogirou, S.A. [Higher Technical Institute, P.O. Box 20423, Nicosia 2152 (Cyprus); Shaari, S. [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Salhi, H. [Department of Electronics, Faculty of Science Engineering, Blida University, Blida 09000 (Algeria); Hadj Arab, A. [Development Centre of Renewable Energy (CDER), P.O. Box 62, Bouzareah, Algiers 16000 (Algeria); Departamento de Energias Renerables, CIEMAT, Arda Complutense, 22, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    In this paper, a suitable adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model is presented for estimating sequences of mean monthly clearness index (anti K{sub t}) and total solar radiation data in isolated sites based on geographical coordinates. The magnitude of solar radiation is the most important parameter for sizing photovoltaic (PV) systems. The ANFIS model is trained by using a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) based on fuzzy logic (FL) rules. The inputs of the ANFIS are the latitude, longitude, and altitude, while the outputs are the 12-values of mean monthly clearness index anti K{sub t}. These data have been collected from 60 locations in Algeria. The results show that the performance of the proposed approach in the prediction of mean monthly clearness index anti K{sub t} is favorably compared to the measured values. The root mean square error (RMSE) between measured and estimated values varies between 0.0215 and 0.0235 and the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) is less than 2.2%. In addition, a comparison between the results obtained by the ANFIS model and artificial neural network (ANN) models, is presented in order to show the advantage of the proposed method. An example for sizing a stand-alone PV system is also presented. This technique has been applied to Algerian locations, but it can be generalized for any geographical position. It can also be used for estimating other meteorological parameters such as temperature, humidity and wind speed. (author)

  1. A Study on Electric Power Smoothing System for Lead-Acid Battery of Stand-Alone Natural Energy Power System Using EDLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yan; Shibata, Ryosuke; Yamamura, Naoki; Ishida, Muneaki

    To resolve energy shortage and global warming problem, renewable natural resource and its power system has been gradually generalizing. However, the power fluctuation suppressing in short period and the balance control of consumption and supply in long period are two of main problems that need to be resolved urgently in natural energy power system. In Stand-alone Natural Energy Power System (SNEPS) with power energy storage devices, power fluctuation in short period is one of the main reasons that recharge cycle times increase and lead-acid battery early failure. Hence, to prolong the service life of lead-acid battery and improve power quality through suppressing the power fluctuation, we proposed a method of electric power smoothing for lead-acid battery of SNEPS using bi-directional Buck/Boost converter and Electric Double Layer Capacitor (EDLC) in this paper. According to the test data of existing SNEPS, a power fluctuation condition is selected and as an example to analyze the validity of the proposed method. The analysis of frequency characteristics indicates the power fluctuation is suppressed a desired range in the target frequency region. The experimental results of confirmed the feasibility of the proposed system and the results well satisfy the requirement of system design.

  2. A case study of a typical 2.32 kW{sub P} stand-alone photovoltaic (SAPV) in composite climate of New Delhi (India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chel, Arvind; Tiwari, G.N. [Center for Energy Studies (CES), Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 (India)

    2011-04-15

    This paper presents rigorous experimental outdoor performance of a 2.32 kW{sub P} stand-alone photovoltaic (SAPV) system in New Delhi (India) for four weather types in each month such as clear, hazy, partially cloudy/foggy and fully cloudy/foggy weather conditions respectively. The daily power generated from the existing SAPV system was experimentally found in the range of 4-6 kW h/day depending on the prevailing sky conditions. The number of days and daily power generated corresponding to four weather types in each month were used to determine monthly and subsequently annual power generation from the existing SAPV system. There are three daily load profiles with and without earth to air heat exchanger suitable for three seasons like summer (3.75-6.15 kW h/day), winter (2.79-5.19 kW h/day) and rainy (3.75 kW h/day). The hourly efficiency of the SAPV system components are determined and presented in this paper. The life cycle cost (LCC) analysis for the existing typical SAPV system is carried out to determine unit cost of electricity. The effect of annual degradation rate of PV system efficiency is also presented in this paper. The energy production factor (EPF) and the energy payback time (EPBT) of the SAPV system was also determined and presented in this paper. (author)

  3. CRionScan: A stand-alone real time controller designed to perform ion beam imaging, dose controlled irradiation and proton beam writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daudin, L.; Barberet, Ph.; Serani, L.; Moretto, Ph.

    2013-07-01

    High resolution ion microbeams, usually used to perform elemental mapping, low dose targeted irradiation or ion beam lithography needs a very flexible beam control system. For this purpose, we have developed a dedicated system (called “CRionScan”), on the AIFIRA facility (Applications Interdisciplinaires des Faisceaux d'Ions en Région Aquitaine). It consists of a stand-alone real-time scanning and imaging instrument based on a Compact Reconfigurable Input/Output (Compact RIO) device from National Instruments™. It is based on a real-time controller, a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), input/output modules and Ethernet connectivity. We have implemented a fast and deterministic beam scanning system interfaced with our commercial data acquisition system without any hardware development. CRionScan is built under LabVIEW™ and has been used on AIFIRA's nanobeam line since 2009 (Barberet et al., 2009, 2011) [1,2]. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) embedded in the Compact RIO as a web page is used to control the scanning parameters. In addition, a fast electrostatic beam blanking trigger has been included in the FPGA and high speed counters (15 MHz) have been implemented to perform dose controlled irradiation and on-line images on the GUI. Analog to Digital converters are used for the beam current measurement and in the near future for secondary electrons imaging. Other functionalities have been integrated in this controller like LED lighting using Pulse Width Modulation and a “NIM Wilkinson ADC” data acquisition.

  4. CRionScan: A stand-alone real time controller designed to perform ion beam imaging, dose controlled irradiation and proton beam writing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daudin, L., E-mail: daudin@cenbg.in2p3.fr [Université Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Barberet, Ph.; Serani, L.; Moretto, Ph. [Université Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France)

    2013-07-01

    High resolution ion microbeams, usually used to perform elemental mapping, low dose targeted irradiation or ion beam lithography needs a very flexible beam control system. For this purpose, we have developed a dedicated system (called “CRionScan”), on the AIFIRA facility (Applications Interdisciplinaires des Faisceaux d’Ions en Région Aquitaine). It consists of a stand-alone real-time scanning and imaging instrument based on a Compact Reconfigurable Input/Output (Compact RIO) device from National Instruments™. It is based on a real-time controller, a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), input/output modules and Ethernet connectivity. We have implemented a fast and deterministic beam scanning system interfaced with our commercial data acquisition system without any hardware development. CRionScan is built under LabVIEW™ and has been used on AIFIRA’s nanobeam line since 2009 (Barberet et al., 2009, 2011) [1,2]. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) embedded in the Compact RIO as a web page is used to control the scanning parameters. In addition, a fast electrostatic beam blanking trigger has been included in the FPGA and high speed counters (15 MHz) have been implemented to perform dose controlled irradiation and on-line images on the GUI. Analog to Digital converters are used for the beam current measurement and in the near future for secondary electrons imaging. Other functionalities have been integrated in this controller like LED lighting using Pulse Width Modulation and a “NIM Wilkinson ADC” data acquisition.

  5. Stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) integrated with earth to air heat exchanger (EAHE) for space heating/cooling of adobe house in New Delhi (India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chel, Arvind; Tiwari, G.N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with an experimental outdoor annual performance evaluation of 2.32 kW P photovoltaic (PV) power system located at solar energy park in New Delhi composite climatic conditions. This PV system operates the daily electrical load nearly 10 kW h/day which comprises of various applications such as electric air blower of an earth to air heat exchanger (EAHE) used for heating/cooling of adobe house, ceiling fan, fluorescent tube-light, computer, submersible water pump, etc. The outdoor efficiencies, power generated and lost in PV system components were determined using hourly experimental measured data for 1 year on typical clear day in each month. These realistic data are useful for design engineers for outdoor assessment of PV system components. The energy conservation, mitigation of CO 2 emission and carbon credit potential of the existing PV integrated EAHE system is presented in this paper. Also, the energy payback time (EPBT) and unit cost of electricity were determined for both stand-alone PV (SAPV) and building roof integrated PV (BIPV) systems.

  6. Direct Flux Control for Stand-Alone Operation Brushless Doubly Fed Induction Generators Using a Resonant-Based Sliding-Mode Control Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Ji

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel voltage control strategy for stand-alone operation brushless doubly fed induction generators for variable speed constant frequency wind energy conversion systems was presented and discussed. Based on the model of the power generation system, the proposed direct flux control strategy employs a nonlinear reduced-order generalized integrator-based resonant sliding-mode control approach to directly calculate and regulate the output value of converter which the control winding stator requires so as to eliminate its instantaneous errors, without involving any synchronous rotating coordinate transformations. The stability, robustness and convergence capability of the proposed control strategy were described and analyzed. Owing to the fact no additional current control inner loops are involved, the system configuration is therefore simplified and the dynamic performance enhanced. A constant converter switching frequency was achieved by using space vector pulse width modulation, which reduces the harmonics of the generator terminal voltage. In addition, the feasibility and validity of the proposed scheme is verified by experiments, and excellent steady and transient performance is achieved.

  7. Contaminating fibrin in CPD-blood: solubility in plasma and distribution in blood components following separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjonsberg, O.H.; Kierulf, P.; Gravem, K.; Fagerhol, M.K.; Godal, H.C.

    1986-01-01

    In order to estimate the solubility of contaminating fibrin in CPD-blood, thrombin induced fibrin polymerzation in CPD-plasma was examined by light scattering and fibrinopeptide A (FPA) determinations. In addition, I-125 fibrin monomer enriched CPD-blood was used to investigate fibrin monomer retention in blood bags and transfusion filters (170 microns) and fibrin distribution in blood components derived from CPD-blood. Initial fibrin polymerization in CPD-blood occurred after conversion of 15 per cent of the fibrinogen to fibrin, implying that substantial amounts of fibrin may be kept solubilized in CPD-blood bags. Only minor amounts of I-125 fibrin monomers were retained in blood bags (2.4 per cent) and in transfusion filters (2.9 per cent) after sham transfusions. After separating I-125-fibrin monomer enriched CPD-blood into its constituent components, the major part of fibrin (75.0 per cent) could be traced in the cryoprecipitate

  8. Blood sampling and hemolysis affect concentration of plasma metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2012-01-01

    design and blood was collected after restraint via vein puncture 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after morning feeding. Plasma samples were categorized as without or with minor or major hemolysis [clear (n = 218), yellow (n = 97), or red (n = 37)] upon centrifugation. Plasma NEFA (P ...Two experiments were carried out to reveal and quantify plasma metabolites that are sensitive to hemolysis and animal stress due to the blood sampling procedure (vein puncture vs. catheter). In Exp. 1, 48 sows were fed 4 diets either once (0800 h) or twice daily (0800 h and 1500 h) in a crossover......, a subset of samples from 24 sows fed twice daily in Exp. 1 was combined with data obtained from 30 sows sampled using jugular vein catheters. All sows in Exp. 2 were fed twice daily (0800 h and 1500 h) and blood samples collected repeatedly 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after morning feeding (other conditions were...

  9. A microfluidic chip for blood plasma separation using electro-osmotic flow control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Hai; Weng, Xuan; Chon, Chan Hee; Wu, Xudong; Li, Dongqing

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a microfluidic-based chip with two straight microchannels and five branch microchannels was designed and tested to separate blood plasma from a small sample of fresh human blood. The electro-osmotic flow method was used to control the separation of blood plasma. Blood cell removal and blood plasma extraction were realized in experiments. The efficiency of extracting blood plasma can be as high as 26%

  10. Blood and plasma volumes in normal west African dwarf sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood and plasma volumes were determined using T-1824 in 36 normal adult West African Dwarf sheep. In the rams, dry ewes, pregnant ewes and lactating ewes, the mean values for the blood volume (ml/kg body weight) were 64.08 ± 6.11, 55.74 ± 9.31, 71.46 ± 6.46 and 147.12 ± 12.79 respectively, while the mean values ...

  11. Viable bacteria associated with red blood cells and plasma in freshly drawn blood donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, Christian; Magnussen, Karin; Enevold, Christian; Nilsson, Martin; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Holmstrup, Palle; Nielsen, Claus Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Infection remains a leading cause of post-transfusion mortality and morbidity. Bacterial contamination is, however, detected in less than 0.1% of blood units tested. The aim of the study was to identify viable bacteria in standard blood-pack units, with particular focus on bacteria from the oral cavity, and to determine the distribution of bacteria revealed in plasma and in the red blood cell (RBC)-fraction. Cross-sectional study. Blood were separated into plasma and RBC-suspensions, which were incubated anaerobically or aerobically for 7 days on trypticase soy blood agar (TSA) or blue lactose plates. For identification colony PCR was performed using primers targeting 16S rDNA. Blood donors attending Capital Region Blood Bank, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Hvidovre, Denmark, October 29th to December 10th 2013. 60 donors (≥50 years old), self-reported medically healthy. Bacterial growth was observed on plates inoculated with plasma or RBCs from 62% of the blood donations. Growth was evident in 21 (35%) of 60 RBC-fractions and in 32 (53%) of 60 plasma-fractions versus 8 of 60 negative controls (p = 0.005 and p = 2.6x10-6, respectively). Propionibacterium acnes was found in 23% of the donations, and Staphylococcus epidermidis in 38%. The majority of bacteria identified in the present study were either facultative anaerobic (59.5%) or anaerobic (27.8%) species, which are not likely to be detected during current routine screening. Viable bacteria are present in blood from donors self-reported as medically healthy, indicating that conventional test systems employed by blood banks insufficiently detect bacteria in plasma. Further investigation is needed to determine whether routine testing for anaerobic bacteria and testing of RBC-fractions for adherent bacteria should be recommended.

  12. Prehospital use of plasma: the blood bankers' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervig, Tor; Doughty, Heidi; Ness, Paul; Badloe, John F; Berseus, Olle; Glassberg, Elon; Heier, Hans E

    2014-05-01

    At the 2013 Traumatic Hemostasis and Oxygenation Research Network's Remote Damage Control Resuscitation symposium, a panel of senior blood bankers with both civilian and military background was invited to discuss their willingness and ability to supply prehospital plasma for resuscitation of massively bleeding casualties and to comment on the optimal preparations for such situations. Available evidence indicates that prehospital use of plasma may improve remote damage control resuscitation, although level I evidence is lacking. This practice is well established in several military services and is also being introduced in civilian settings. There are few, if any, clinical contraindications to the prehospital use of plasma, except for blood group incompatibility and the danger of transfusion-induced acute lung injury, which can be circumvented in various ways. However, the choice of plasma source, plasma preparation, and logistics including stock management require consideration. Staff training should include hemovigilance and traceability as well as recognition and management of eventual adverse effects. Prehospital use of plasma should occur within the framework of clinical algorithms and prospective clinical studies. Clinicians have an ethical responsibility to both patients and donors; therefore, the introduction of new clinical capabilities of transfusion must be safe, efficacious, and sustainable. The panel agreed that although these problems need further attention and scientific studies, now is the time for both military and civilian transfusion systems to prepare for prehospital use of plasma in massively bleeding casualties.

  13. The international phase 4 validation study of the EORTC QLQ-SWB32: A stand-alone measure of spiritual well-being for people receiving palliative care for cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vivat, B.; Young, T. E.; Winstanley, J.; Arraras, J. I.; Black, K.; Boyle, F.; Bredart, A.; Costantini, A.; Guo, J.; Irarrazaval, M. E.; Kobayashi, K.; Kruizinga, R.; Navarro, M.; Omidvari, S.; Rohde, G. E.; Serpentini, S.; Spry, N.; van Laarhoven, H. W. M.; Yang, G. M.

    2017-01-01

    The EORTC Quality of Life Group has just completed the final phase (field-testing and validation) of an international project to develop a stand-alone measure of spiritual well-being (SWB) for palliative cancer patients. Participants (n = 451)-from 14 countries on four continents; 54% female; 188

  14. The Impact of Course Delivery Systems on Student Achievement and Sense of Community: A Comparison of Learning Community versus Stand-Alone Classroom Settings in an Open-Enrollment Inner City Public Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of two types of course delivery systems (learning community classroom environments versus stand-alone classroom environments) on the achievement of students who were simultaneously enrolled in remedial and college-level social science courses at an inner city open-enrollment public community college. This study was…

  15. CANGS DB: a stand-alone web-based database tool for processing, managing and analyzing 454 data in biodiversity studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlötterer Christian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Next generation sequencing (NGS is widely used in metagenomic and transcriptomic analyses in biodiversity. The ease of data generation provided by NGS platforms has allowed researchers to perform these analyses on their particular study systems. In particular the 454 platform has become the preferred choice for PCR amplicon based biodiversity surveys because it generates the longest sequence reads. Nevertheless, the handling and organization of massive amounts of sequencing data poses a major problem for the research community, particularly when multiple researchers are involved in data acquisition and analysis. An integrated and user-friendly tool, which performs quality control, read trimming, PCR primer removal, and data organization is desperately needed, therefore, to make data interpretation fast and manageable. Findings We developed CANGS DB (Cleaning and Analyzing Next Generation Sequences DataBase a flexible, stand alone and user-friendly integrated database tool. CANGS DB is specifically designed to organize and manage the massive amount of sequencing data arising from various NGS projects. CANGS DB also provides an intuitive user interface for sequence trimming and quality control, taxonomy analysis and rarefaction analysis. Our database tool can be easily adapted to handle multiple sequencing projects in parallel with different sample information, amplicon sizes, primer sequences, and quality thresholds, which makes this software especially useful for non-bioinformaticians. Furthermore, CANGS DB is especially suited for projects where multiple users need to access the data. CANGS DB is available at http://code.google.com/p/cangsdb/. Conclusion CANGS DB provides a simple and user-friendly solution to process, store and analyze 454 sequencing data. Being a local database that is accessible through a user-friendly interface, CANGS DB provides the perfect tool for collaborative amplicon based biodiversity surveys

  16. Hydrogen-based energy storage unit for stand alone PV systems; L'hydrogene electrolytique comme moyen de stockage d'electricite pour systemes photovoltaiques isoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labbe, J

    2006-12-15

    Stand alone systems supplied only by a photovoltaic generator need an energy storage unit to be fully self sufficient. Lead acid batteries are commonly used to store energy because of their low cost, despite several operational constraints. A hydrogen-based energy storage unit (HESU) could be another candidate, including an electrolyser, a fuel cell and a hydrogen tank. However many efforts still need to be carried out for this technology to reach an industrial stage. In particular, market outlets must be clearly identified. The study of small stationary applications (few kW) is performed by numerical simulations. A simulator is developed in the Matlab/Simulink environment. It is mainly composed of a photovoltaic field and a storage unit (lead acid batteries, HESU, or hybrid storage HESU/batteries). The system component sizing is achieved in order to ensure the complete system autonomy over a whole year of operation. The simulator is tested with 160 load profiles (1 kW as a yearly mean value) and three locations (Algeria, France and Norway). Two coefficients are set in order to quantify the correlation between the power consumption of the end user and the renewable resource availability at both daily and yearly scales. Among the tested cases, a limit value of the yearly correlation coefficient came out, enabling to recommend the use of the most adapted storage to a considered case. There are cases for which using HESU instead of lead acid batteries can increase the system efficiency, decrease the size of the photovoltaic field and improve the exploitation of the renewable resource. In addition, hybridization of HESU with batteries always leads to system enhancements regarding its sizing and performance, with an efficiency increase by 10 to 40 % depending on the considered location. The good agreement between the simulation data and field data gathered on real systems enabled the validation of the models used in this study. (author)

  17. Further development of LLNA:DAE method as stand-alone skin-sensitization testing method and applied for evaluation of relative skin-sensitizing potency between chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Kunihiko; Shinoda, Shinsuke; Hagiwara, Saori; Itagaki, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    To date, there has been no well-established local lymph node assay (LLNA) that includes an elicitation phase. Therefore, we developed a modified local lymph node assay with an elicitation phase (LLNA:DAE) to discriminate true skin sensitizers from chemicals that gave borderline positive results and previously reported this assay. To develop the LLNA:DAE method as a useful stand-alone testing method, we investigated the complete procedure for the LLNA:DAE method using hexyl cinnamic aldehyde (HCA), isoeugenol, and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) as test compounds. We defined the LLNA:DAE procedure as follows: in the dose-finding test, four concentrations of chemical applied to dorsum of the right ear on days 1, 2, and 3 and dorsum of both ears on day 10. Ear thickness and skin irritation score were measured on days 1, 3, 5, 10, and 12. Local lymph nodes were excised and weighed on day 12. The test dose for the primary LLNA:DAE study was selected as the dose that gave the highest left ear lymph node weight in the dose-finding study, or the lowest dose that produced a left ear lymph node of over 4 mg. This procedure was validated using nine different chemicals. Furthermore, qualitative relationship was observed between the degree of elicitation response in the left ear lymph node and the skin sensitizing potency of 32 chemicals tested in this study and the previous study. These results indicated that LLNA:DAE method was as first LLNA method that was able to evaluate the skin sensitizing potential and potency in elicitation response.

  18. studies on blood and plasma biochemical characteristics of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    A study to determine the blood parameters and plasma biochemical values of ... highest in animals at the 4th month state (9.75g/dl) and lowest at the 12th ... study is indicative of satisfactory physiological, nutritional and pathological ... domestication and integration into the micro-livestock farming system is ..... Principles and.

  19. 21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma warming device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood and plasma warming device. 864.9205 Section 864.9205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture...

  20. Determination of cortisol in blood plasma by isotopic dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, T.

    1978-01-01

    A method to measure cortisol in blood plasma is developed using tritium a tracer. Thin-layer chromatographer is used for very accurate separation and determination of cortisol free of impurities. Results show a concentration of 14,02+-5,79 μg/100ml for cortisol in blod. This method appears to be especially useful when interfering substances are present [pt

  1. Measurement of Uranium in Blood-Plasma of Bavarian Females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhri, M.A.; Watling, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    It has recently been reported that the water supply in some parts of Bavaria (Germany) contains Uranium. In order to study its effects we have determined the concentrations of U in the blood plasma of 25 females. All the females came from Bavaria and were not on any medication. Blood samples were drawn from a superficial arm vein, centrifuged and plasma extracted. The plasma samples were freeze-dried and analysed in our Analytical Laboratory in Perth, Western Australia by using the technique of ICP-MS. The U contents found varied from less than 0.1 to 8.2 ppb (6.6 ng/L to 543 ng/L)

  2. Assessment of light stability of drugs in blood and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Ronald; Diels, Luc; Dillen, Lieve; Sips, Luc; Van Roosbroek, Dirk; Verhaeghe, Tom; Timmerman, Philip

    2016-10-01

    A procedure was developed for the assessment of photochemical stability of drugs in blood and plasma under standardized conditions. The procedure avoids a variable outcome of photochemical stability experiments and tests relevant worst case conditions so that unnecessary light protection is avoided. Results/methodology: Blood and plasma were spiked with a mixture of drugs and incubated in a Suntest CPS(+), in the laboratory on the bench and near the window on a sunny summer day. The results were compared. No protection from light, limited protection from light and full protection from light are advised for drugs that are stable in plasma in the Suntest CPS(+) at 250 W/m(2) for at least 30 min, for 5-30 min and for <5 min, respectively.

  3. [Distribution of chemical elements in whole blood and plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barashkov, G K; Zaĭtseva, L I; Kondakhchan, M A; Konstantinova, E A

    2003-01-01

    The distribution factor (Fd) of 35 elements of plasma and whole blood in 26 healthy men and women was detected by ICP-OES. Usilig this parameter the elements were subdivided in 3 pools. 9 of them have Fd higher than 1.5 ("elements of plasma"-Ag, Ca, Cu, In, Li, Na, Se, Si, Sr); 6 have lower than 0.5 ("elements of blood cells"-Fe, K, Mn, Ni, V, Zn), other 20-about 1 ("blood elements"). Fd of all elements depends on ionic radius. Elements of 2nd sub-groups of all groups of Mendeleev's periodic table ("heavy metals") depend on the similar law: "with growing of ionic radius the concentration of elements in plasma enhances". In alkaline metals Fd depends on the opposite law:" with growing of ionic radius of alkaline metal the quantity of elements in blood cells enhance". Dependence of Fd on the value of atomic mass in periods or in exterior electronic cloud (s-, p-, d-, f-) was not established. The table of distribution of all detected elements in whole blood in relation to 8 macroelements (Ca, Mg, K, Na, S, P, Fe, Zn,) is presented, as a basic diagnostic criteria in metal-ligand homeostasis disturbance.

  4. Variety of RNAs in Peripheral Blood Cells, Plasma, and Plasma Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuligina, Elena V.; Bariakin, Dmitry N.; Kozlov, Vadim V.; Richter, Vladimir A.; Semenov, Dmitry V.

    2017-01-01

    Human peripheral blood contains RNA in cells and in extracellular membrane vesicles, microvesicles and exosomes, as well as in cell-free ribonucleoproteins. Circulating mRNAs and noncoding RNAs, being internalized, possess the ability to modulate vital processes in recipient cells. In this study, with SOLiD sequencing technology, we performed identification, classification, and quantification of RNAs from blood fractions: cells, plasma, plasma vesicles pelleted at 16,000g and 160,000g, and vesicle-depleted plasma supernatant of healthy donors and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. It was determined that 16,000g blood plasma vesicles were enriched with cell-free mitochondria and with a set of mitochondrial RNAs. The variable RNA set of blood plasma 160,000g pellets reflected the prominent contribution of U1, U5, and U6 small nuclear RNAs' fragments and at the same time was characterized by a remarkable depletion of small nucleolar RNAs. Besides microRNAs, the variety of fragments of mRNAs and snoRNAs dominated in the set of circulating RNAs differentially expressed in blood fractions of NSCLC patients. Taken together, our data emphasize that not only extracellular microRNAs but also circulating fragments of messenger and small nuclear/nucleolar RNAs represent prominent classes of circulating regulatory ncRNAs as well as promising circulating biomarkers for the development of disease diagnostic approaches. PMID:28127559

  5. Effect of solvent/detergent-treated pooled plasma on fibrinolysis in reconstituted whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadah, Nicholas H; van der Meer, Pieter F; Brinkman, Herm Jan M; de Korte, Dirk; Bontekoe, Ido J; Korsten, Herbert H; Middelburg, Rutger A; van der Bom, Johanna G; Schipperus, Martin R

    2017-10-01

    Hyperfibrinolysis has been observed in patients heavily transfused with solvent/detergent-treated pooled plasma (S/D plasma). We compared coagulation and fibrinolytic variables in blood containing S/D plasma with blood containing fresh-frozen plasma (FFP), with and without α2-antiplasmin or tranexamic acid (TXA) supplementation. Whole blood samples were reconstituted from red blood cells, platelet (PLT) concentrates, and varying mixtures of FFP and S/D plasma. Hematocrit and PLT count of reconstituted whole blood samples were varied. For a subset of runs, α2-antiplasmin or TXA was added to S/D plasma whole blood samples. Thromboelastography (TEG) analysis was performed to assess 50% clot lysis time (CLT 50% ), maximum amplitude (MA), and initial clotting time (R-time). The change in CLT 50% of whole blood as the plasma compartment transitions from FFP to S/D plasma was -52% (95% confidence interval [CI], -60% to -45%; p plasma in whole blood. α2-Antiplasmin and TXA restored clot lysis time in S/D plasma whole blood. Whole blood with S/D plasma has shorter clot lysis times in vitro compared to whole blood with FFP. α2-Antiplasmin and TXA restore clot lysis time of S/D plasma whole blood to that of FFP whole blood. Clinicians should be aware of the decreased clot lysis time associated with S/D plasma transfusion. © 2017 AABB.

  6. Egg beater as centrifuge: isolating human blood plasma from whole blood in resource-poor settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Amy P; Gupta, Malancha; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S; Whitesides, George M

    2008-12-01

    This paper demonstrates that a hand-powered egg beater can be modified to serve as a centrifuge for separating plasma from human whole blood. Immunoassays used to diagnose infectious diseases often require plasma from whole blood, and obtaining plasma typically requires electrically-powered centrifuges, which are not widely available in resource-limited settings. Human whole blood was loaded into polyethylene (PE) tubing, and the tubing was attached to the paddle of an egg beater. Spinning the paddle pelleted the blood cells to the distal end of the PE tubing; the plasma remained as the supernatant. A cholesterol assay (run on patterned paper) demonstrated the suitability of this plasma for use in diagnostic assays. The physics of the system was also analyzed as a guide for the selection of other rotating systems for use in centrifugation. Egg beaters, polyethylene tubing, and paper are readily available devices and supplies that can facilitate the use of point-of-care diagnostics at sites far from centralized laboratory facilities.

  7. Viable Bacteria Associated with Red Blood Cells and Plasma in Freshly Drawn Blood Donations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian; Magnussen, Karin; Enevold, Christian

    2015-01-01

    ) or blue lactose plates. For identification colony PCR was performed using primers targeting 16S rDNA. SETTING: Blood donors attending Capital Region Blood Bank, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Hvidovre, Denmark, October 29th to December 10th 2013. PARTICIPANTS: 60 donors (≥50 years old....... CONCLUSIONS: Viable bacteria are present in blood from donors self-reported as medically healthy, indicating that conventional test systems employed by blood banks insufficiently detect bacteria in plasma. Further investigation is needed to determine whether routine testing for anaerobic bacteria and testing......OBJECTIVES: Infection remains a leading cause of post-transfusion mortality and morbidity. Bacterial contamination is, however, detected in less than 0.1% of blood units tested. The aim of the study was to identify viable bacteria in standard blood-pack units, with particular focus on bacteria from...

  8. Turnover of adenosine in plasma of human and dog blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeser, G.H.S.; Schrader, J.; Deussen, A.

    1989-01-01

    To determine half-life and turnover of plasma adenosine, heparinized blood from healthy volunteers was incubated with radiolabeled adenosine in the physiological concentration range of 0.1-1 microM. Plasma levels of adenosine in vitro were 82 +/- 14 nM and were similar to those determined immediately after blood collection with a ''stopping solution.'' Dipyridamole (83 microM) and erythro-9(2-hydroxynon-3yl)-adenine (EHNA) (8 microM) did not measurably alter basal adenosine levels but completely blocked the uptake of added adenosine. Inhibition of ecto-5'-nucleotidase with 100 microM alpha, beta-methyleneadenosine 5'-diphosphate (AOPCP) reduced plasma adenosine to 22 +/- 6 nM. For the determination of adenosine turnover, the decrease in specific radioactivity of added [ 3 H]adenosine was measured using a dipyridamole-containing stopping solution. Without altering basal adenosine levels, the half-life was estimated to be 0.6 s. Similar experiments were carried out with washed erythrocytes or in the presence of AOPCP, yielding half-lives of 0.7 and 0.9 s, respectively. When the initial adenosine concentration was 1 microM, its specific activity decreased by only 11% within 5 s, whereas total plasma adenosine exponentially decreased with a half-life of 1.5 s. Venous plasma concentrations were measured after relief of a 3-min forearm ischemia. Changes in plasma adenosine did not correlate well with changes in blood flow but were augmented in the presence of dipyridamole

  9. Aminotransferases and Leucine Aminopeptidase Activity in Blood Plasma of Chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraljevic, P.; Stojevic, Z.; Milinkovic-Tur, S.; Simpraga, M.; Miljanic, S.

    1998-01-01

    It has been reported that irradiation of mammals by gama-rays cause increase of some enzyme activity in their blood plasma (Miller and Gates 1949; Milch and Albaum 1959; Hughes 1958; Miholjcic et al. 1979). In our previous papers (Kraljevic et al., 1982; Kraljevic and Emanovic 1993) it has been shown that activities of some enzymes in the blood plasma of chickens after an intramuscular injection of radioactive isotope 32 P. In this paper an attempt has been made to investigate the influence of gamma-ray irradiation of the whole body of chickens upon activity of some enzymes in their blood plasma. We also wanted to investigate whether the activity of aspartate-aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and leucine-aminopeptidase (LAP) may serve as an additional test for functional liver damage in chickens caused by gamma-ray. Fifty day old hybrid male chickens of heavy Jata breeds were irradiated by gamma-ray in the dose of 7,23±0,95 Gy. Blood samples were taken from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 15 after irradiation. Activity of AST, ALT, and LAP in the blood plasma were determined spectrophotometrically using Boehringer Mannheim GmbH optimized kits. At the end of the experiment all birds were sacrificed and, as well as died birds were photomorphologically and histologically investigated. The obtained results showed decrease of activity of all three enzymes during the whole period of investigation, but significant decrease showed only AST and LAP. It seems that both enzymes may serve as additional test for functional liver damage in chickens by external gamma-rays. (author)

  10. Stand-alone containment analysis of Phébus FPT tests with ASTEC and MELCOR codes: the FPT-2 test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonfiotti, Bruno; Paci, Sandro

    2018-03-01

    During the last 40 years, many studies have been carried out to investigate the different phenomena occurring during a Severe Accident (SA) in a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Such efforts have been supported by the execution of different experimental campaigns, and the integral Phébus FP tests were probably some of the most important experiments in this field. In these tests, the degradation of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel bundle was investigated employing different control rod materials and burn-up levels in strongly or weakly oxidizing conditions. From the findings on these and previous tests, numerical codes such as ASTEC and MELCOR have been developed to analyze the evolution of a SA in real NPPs. After the termination of the Phébus FP campaign, these two codes have been furthermore improved to implement the more recent findings coming from different experimental campaigns. Therefore, continuous verification and validation is still necessary to check that the new improvements introduced in such codes allow also a better prediction of these Phébus tests. The aim of the present work is to re-analyze the Phébus FPT-2 test employing the updated ASTEC and MELCOR code versions. The analysis focuses on the stand-alone containment aspects of this test, and three different spatial nodalizations of the containment vessel (CV) have been developed. The paper summarizes the main thermal-hydraulic results and presents different sensitivity analyses carried out on the aerosols and fission products (FP) behavior. When possible, a comparison among the results obtained during this work and by different authors in previous work is also performed. This paper is part of a series of publications covering the four Phébus FP tests using a PWR fuel bundle: FPT-0, FPT-1, FPT-2, and FPT-3, excluding the FPT-4 one, related to the study of the release of low-volatility FP and transuranic elements from a debris bed and a pool of melted fuel.

  11. Stand-alone containment analysis of Phébus FPT tests with ASTEC and MELCOR codes: the FPT-2 test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Gonfiotti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last 40 years, many studies have been carried out to investigate the different phenomena occurring during a Severe Accident (SA in a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP. Such efforts have been supported by the execution of different experimental campaigns, and the integral Phébus FP tests were probably some of the most important experiments in this field. In these tests, the degradation of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR fuel bundle was investigated employing different control rod materials and burn-up levels in strongly or weakly oxidizing conditions. From the findings on these and previous tests, numerical codes such as ASTEC and MELCOR have been developed to analyze the evolution of a SA in real NPPs. After the termination of the Phébus FP campaign, these two codes have been furthermore improved to implement the more recent findings coming from different experimental campaigns. Therefore, continuous verification and validation is still necessary to check that the new improvements introduced in such codes allow also a better prediction of these Phébus tests. The aim of the present work is to re-analyze the Phébus FPT-2 test employing the updated ASTEC and MELCOR code versions. The analysis focuses on the stand-alone containment aspects of this test, and three different spatial nodalizations of the containment vessel (CV have been developed. The paper summarizes the main thermal-hydraulic results and presents different sensitivity analyses carried out on the aerosols and fission products (FP behavior. When possible, a comparison among the results obtained during this work and by different authors in previous work is also performed. This paper is part of a series of publications covering the four Phébus FP tests using a PWR fuel bundle: FPT-0, FPT-1, FPT-2, and FPT-3, excluding the FPT-4 one, related to the study of the release of low-volatility FP and transuranic elements from a debris bed and a pool of melted fuel. Keywords: Safety

  12. Dynamics of blood plasma by spectropolarimetry and biochemical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voloshynska, Katerina; Ilashchuka, Tetjana; Prydij, Olexander; Gruia, Maria

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to establish objective parameters of the field of laser and incoherent radiation of different spectral ranges (UV, visible, IR) as a non-invasive optical method of interaction with different samples of biological tissues and fluids of patients to determine the dynamics of metabolic syndrome and choosing the best personal treatment. As diagnostic methods have been used ultraviolet spectrometry samples of blood plasma in the liquid state, infrared spectroscopy middle range (2,5 - 25 microns) dry residue of plasma polarization and laser diagnostic technique of thin histological sections of biological tissues.

  13. Spectropolarimetry of blood plasma in optimal molecular targeted therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voloshynska, Katerina; Ilashchuk, Tetjana; Yermolenko, Sergey

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to establish objective parameters of the field of laser and incoherent radiation of different spectral ranges (UV, visible, IR) as a non-invasive optical method of interaction with different samples of biological tissues and fluids of patients to determine the dynamics of metabolic syndrome and choosing the best personal treatment. As diagnostic methods have been used ultraviolet spectrometry samples of blood plasma in the liquid state, infrared spectroscopy middle range (2,5 - 25 microns) dry residue of plasma polarization and laser diagnostic technique of thin histological sections of biological tissues.

  14. Altering plasma sodium concentration rapidly changes blood pressure during haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, Rebecca J; Swift, Pauline A; He, Feng J; Markandu, Nirmala D; MacGregor, Graham A

    2013-08-01

    Plasma sodium is increased following each meal containing salt. There is an increasing interest in the effects of plasma sodium concentration, and it has been suggested that it may have direct effects on blood pressure (BP) and possibly influences endothelial function. Experimental increases of plasma sodium concentration rapidly raise BP even when extracellular volume falls. Ten patients with end-stage renal failure established on haemodialysis were studied during the first 2 h of dialysis without fluid removal during this period. They were randomized to receive haemodialysis with (i) dialysate sodium concentration prescribed to 135 mmol/L and (ii) 145 mmol/L in random order in a prospective, single-blinded crossover study. BP measurements and blood samples were taken every 30 min. Pre-dialysis sitting BP was 137/76 ± 7/3 mmHg. Lower dialysate sodium concentration (135 mmol/L) reduced plasma sodium concentration [139.49 ± 0.67 to 135.94 ± 0.52 mmol/L (P area under the curve (AUC) 15823.50 ± 777.15 (mmHg)min] compared with 145 mmol/L [AUC 17018.20 ± 1102.17 (mmHg)min], mean difference 1194.70 ± 488.41 (mmHg)min, P < 0.05. There was a significant positive relationship between change in plasma sodium concentration and change in systolic BP. This direct relationship suggests that a fall of 1 mmol/L in plasma sodium concentration would be associated with a 1.7 mmHg reduction in systolic BP (P < 0.05). The potential mechanism for the increase in BP seen with salt intake may be through small but significant changes in plasma sodium concentration.

  15. Wireless network of stand-alone end effect probes for soil in situ permittivity measurements over the 100MHZ-6GHz frequency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demontoux, François; Bircher, Simone; Ruffié, Gilles; Bonnaudiin, Fabrice; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre; Kerr, Yann

    2017-04-01

    , it should be useful to install many probes on the same site to obtain permittivity measurements over a large area. To reach this goal, the probes should communicate with each other to send data to a record device. Furthermore, it is needed to record measurements over a long time period (many months) to study the in-situ dielectric soil property variations according to changing weather conditions and seasonal trends. The goal of the research work presented is to develop a dielectric sensor system based on end effect probes able to communicate the data using wireless technology. It must be stand-alone from an electric and data recording point of view so it must integrate a VNA circuit instead of the ANRITSU VNA used for the moment. The LoRa wireless technology has been selected because of its low electric consumption and the large distance between equipment available. LoRaWAN™ is a Low Power Wide Area Network specification intended for wireless battery operated devices. The LoRaWAN data rates range from 0.3 kbps to 50 kbps which is sufficient for our probes' data exchanges. We will present the work done to perform the VNA and the LoRa communication board as well as the work done to improve the probes and the permittivity computation algorithm.

  16. The influence of platelets, plasma and red blood cells on functional haemostatic assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsen, Louise; Johansson, Pär I.; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri

    2011-01-01

    concentrates, fresh frozen plasma and stored RBC. Pure platelets were investigated by removing plasma components from platelet concentrates by diafiltration against the platelet storage solution Intersol. Plasma was readded by diafiltration against plasma in Intersol. Haemostatic function was evaluated by TEG...... plasma from platelet concentrates eliminated the TEG response and diminished the Multiplate aggregation response, but readding plasma to the pure platelet concentrates restored the response. Each of the elements in whole blood, plasma, platelets and RBC, affected the Multiplate and TEG results...

  17. Radioimmunossay of hormones and metabolites in blood serum and plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khare, G.P.

    1978-01-01

    Hormones or metabolites which are capable of producing antibodies can be detected and precisely quantitated by this method. Antibodies, to various hormones or metabolites whose assay is desired, are adsorbed onto commercially available imitation or cultured pearls. These pearls coated with antibody are contacted with a buffered reaction mixture containing blood serum or plasma specimen and respective radioactive antigen. The entire reaction is allowed to proceed for a time sufficient to form antigen (radioactive or non-radioactive)-antibody complex. These complexes on the pearls are washed and the total amount of radioactivity emanating from the complex is measured. This is indicative of the extent of binding of radioactive antigen and provides an indirect correlation of the amount of non-radioactive antigen present in the serum or plasma sample

  18. IEA PVPS Task 3. Use of photovoltaic systems in stand-alone and island applications. 'Swiss participation'; IEA PVPS Task 3. Use of photovoltaic systems in stand-alone and island applications. 'Participation Suisse'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villoz, M. [Dynatex SA, Morges (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This report describes the work done during five years of the second phase of Task 3 of the photovoltaic power systems programme of the International Energy Agency (IEA-PVPS). Task 3 activities were concentrated on stand-alone photovoltaic systems with the main effort on improving the quality and reducing the cost of these systems. The work was divided in 2 sub-tasks whose first one was concentrated on quality insurance schemes and second one on technical recommendations coming from practical experience. Twelve original reports have been published covering topics that can be sorted in 4 categories: the first one is dedicated on quality issues with a review of existing standards in the participating countries and a double paper giving quality assurance recommendations on project management and examples of applying these rules in practical cases. The second category dwelled on photovoltaic systems with papers on charge controllers, on lightning protection and monitoring of systems. The third category presents interesting studies on the storage of energy which remains the main subject where improvements should be made in order to lower the cost of energy; four papers describe the management and the test procedures of lead-acid batteries, how to choose a lead-acid battery and finally are there alternatives to lead-acid batteries for the storage of photovoltaic electricity. The last category worked on loads and users of renewable energy and gives a large amount of experience with loads, how to choose them and how the energy can be better used through demand side management. (author)

  19. Search Improvement Process-Chaotic Optimization-Particle Swarm Optimization-Elite Retention Strategy and Improved Combined Cooling-Heating-Power Strategy Based Two-Time Scale Multi-Objective Optimization Model for Stand-Alone Microgrid Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The optimal dispatching model for a stand-alone microgrid (MG is of great importance to its operation reliability and economy. This paper aims at addressing the difficulties in improving the operational economy and maintaining the power balance under uncertain load demand and renewable generation, which could be even worse in such abnormal conditions as storms or abnormally low or high temperatures. A new two-time scale multi-objective optimization model, including day-ahead cursory scheduling and real-time scheduling for finer adjustments, is proposed to optimize the operational cost, load shedding compensation and environmental benefit of stand-alone MG through controllable load (CL and multi-distributed generations (DGs. The main novelty of the proposed model is that the synergetic response of CL and energy storage system (ESS in real-time scheduling offset the operation uncertainty quickly. And the improved dispatch strategy for combined cooling-heating-power (CCHP enhanced the system economy while the comfort is guaranteed. An improved algorithm, Search Improvement Process-Chaotic Optimization-Particle Swarm Optimization-Elite Retention Strategy (SIP-CO-PSO-ERS algorithm with strong searching capability and fast convergence speed, was presented to deal with the problem brought by the increased errors between actual renewable generation and load and prior predictions. Four typical scenarios are designed according to the combinations of day types (work day or weekend and weather categories (sunny or rainy to verify the performance of the presented dispatch strategy. The simulation results show that the proposed two-time scale model and SIP-CO-PSO-ERS algorithm exhibit better performance in adaptability, convergence speed and search ability than conventional methods for the stand-alone MG’s operation.

  20. [Blood plasma volume dynamics in monkeys during immersion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotov, V P; Burkovskaia, T E; Dotsenko, M A; Gordeev, Iu V; Nosovskiĭ, A M; Chel'naia, N A

    2004-01-01

    Dynamics of blood plasma volume (PV) was studied with indirect methods (hematocrit count, hemoglobin, total protein and high-molecular protein) during 9-d immersion of monkeys Macaca mulatta. The animals were donned in waterproof suits, motor restrained in space seat liners and immersed down to the xiphisternum. Two monkeys were immersed in the bath at one time. The suits were changed every day under ketamine (10 mg/kg of body mass). There were two groups with 12 animals in each. The first group was kept in the bath 3 days and the second--9 days. Prior to the experiment, the animals had been trained to stay in the seat liner put down into the dry bath. It was shown that already two days of exposure to the hydrostatic forces (approximately 15 mm Hg) and absence of negative pressure breathing reduced PV by 18-20% on the average in all animals. Subsequent PV dynamics was individual by character; however, PV deficit persisted during 4 days of immersion in the whole group. In this period, albumin filtration was increased significantly, whereas high-molecular protein filtration was increased to a less degree. During the remaining days in immersion PV regained normal values. Ten days of readaptation (reclined positioning of monkeys brought back into cage) raised VP beyond baseline values. This phenomenon can be attributed to the necessity to provide appropriate venous return and sufficient blood supply of organs and tissues following extension of blood vessels capacity.

  1. The international phase 4 validation study of the EORTC QLQ-SWB32: a stand-alone measure of spiritual wellbeing (SWB) for people receiving palliative care for cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Vivat, B.; Young, T.; Winstanley, J.; Arraras, J.; Black, K.; Boyle, F.; Brédart, A.; Costantini, A.; Guo, J.; Irarrazaval, M. E.; Kobayashi, K.; Kruizinga, R.; Navarro, M.; Omidvari, S.; Rohde, G. E.

    2017-01-01

    The EORTC Quality of Life (QL) Group has just completed the final phase (field-testing and validation) of an international project to develop a stand-alone measure of spiritual wellbeing (SWB) for palliative cancer patients. Participants (n= 451) - from 14 countries on four continents; 54% female; 188 Christian, 50 Muslim, 156 with no religion - completed a provisional 36-item measure of SWB plus the EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL (PAL), then took part in a structured debriefing interview. All items showe...

  2. [Isolation and characterization of exosomes from blood plasma of breast cancer and colorectal cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamkovich, S N; Yunusova, N V; Stakheeva, М N; Somov, A K; Frolova, А Y; Kirushina, N А; Afanasyev, S G; Grigoryeva, А E; Laktionov, P P; Kondakova, I V

    2017-03-01

    A simple approach for isolation of exosomes from the blood plasma, which allows to obtain highly purified preparations of microvesicles no larger than 100 nm has been proposed. The presence of different subpopulations of exosomes in the blood plasma of healthy donors and cancer patients has been recognized. We found the presence of the universal markers CD9, CD24 and CD81 on exosomes isolated from blood plasma that can be used to their routine typing.

  3. Immobilized enzymes in blood plasma exchangers via radiation grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombotz, Wayne; Hoffman, Allan; Schmer, Gottfried; Uenoyama, Satoshi

    The enzyme asparaginase was immobilized onto a porous hollow polypropylene (PP) fiber blood plasma exchange device for the treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia. The devices were first radiation grafted with polymethacrylic acid (poly(MAAc)). This introduces carboxyl groups onto the surface of the fibers. Several variables were studied in the grafting reaction including the effects of solvent type and monomer concentration. The carboxyl groups were activated with N-hydroxy succinimide (NHS) using carbodiimide chemistry. Asparaginase was then covalently immobilized on the activated surfaces. Quantitative relationships were found relating the percent graft to the amount of immobilized enzyme which was active. The enzyme reactor was tested both in vitro and in vivo using a sheep as an animal model.

  4. Feasibility Analysis and Simulation of a Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Energy System for Electricity Generation and Environmental Sustainability – Equivalent to 650VA Fuel-Powered Generator – Popularly Known as “I Pass My Neighbour”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ani, Vincent Anayochukwu

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) power system can be used to replace wholly 650VA generator for electricity generation for household use in Nigeria. This paper presented the feasibility analysis of load data and simulation study of a stand-alone PV power system that produced the electrical needs of a household. This study is based on designing of PV energy system for household use. The patterns of load consumption within the household were studied and suitably modeled for simulation. The simulation study indicates that energy requirements to provide electricity, which is equivalent to 650VA generator for household use in Nigeria, can be accomplished by 520 W solar PV array, 2312 Ah nominal capacity battery, and a 1 kW DC/AC inverter. This would be suitable for deployment of 100% clean energy for environmental sustainability and uninterruptable power performance in the household. The results of this research show that, with a low-power consuming appliances, it is possible to meet the entire annual electricity demand of a single household solely through a stand-alone PV energy supply. Installing solar panels by most Nigerian home can significantly reduce home reliance on government power thereby reduce the strain on the current capacity of our power generation infrastructure. A detailed design and description of the system were presented in this paper.

  5. Feasibility Analysis and Simulation of a Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Energy System for Electricity Generation and Environmental Sustainability – Equivalent to 650VA Fuel-Powered Generator – Popularly Known as “I Pass My Neighbour”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ani, Vincent Anayochukwu, E-mail: vincent_ani@yahoo.com [Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Nsukka (Nigeria)

    2015-09-11

    Photovoltaic (PV) power system can be used to replace wholly 650VA generator for electricity generation for household use in Nigeria. This paper presented the feasibility analysis of load data and simulation study of a stand-alone PV power system that produced the electrical needs of a household. This study is based on designing of PV energy system for household use. The patterns of load consumption within the household were studied and suitably modeled for simulation. The simulation study indicates that energy requirements to provide electricity, which is equivalent to 650VA generator for household use in Nigeria, can be accomplished by 520 W solar PV array, 2312 Ah nominal capacity battery, and a 1 kW DC/AC inverter. This would be suitable for deployment of 100% clean energy for environmental sustainability and uninterruptable power performance in the household. The results of this research show that, with a low-power consuming appliances, it is possible to meet the entire annual electricity demand of a single household solely through a stand-alone PV energy supply. Installing solar panels by most Nigerian home can significantly reduce home reliance on government power thereby reduce the strain on the current capacity of our power generation infrastructure. A detailed design and description of the system were presented in this paper.

  6. Effects of blood sample handling procedures on measurable inflammatory markers in plasma, serum and dried blood spot samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogstrand, K.; Thorsen, P.; Vogel, I.

    2008-01-01

    of whole blood samples at low temperatures and rapid isolation of plasma and serum. Effects of different handling procedures for all markers studied are given. DBSS proved to be a robust and convenient way to handle samples for immunoassay analysis of inflammatory markers in whole blood Udgivelsesdato......The interests in monitoring inflammation by immunoassay determination of blood inflammatory markers call for information on the stability of these markers in relation to the handling of blood samples. The increasing use of stored biobank samples for such ventures that may have been collected...... and stored for other purposes, justifies the study hereof. Blood samples were stored for 0, 4, 24, and 48 h at 4 degrees C, room temperature (RT), and at 35 degrees C, respectively, before they were separated into serum or plasma and frozen. Dried blood spot samples (DBSS) were stored for 0, 1, 2, 3, 7...

  7. Is the radiographic subsidence of stand-alone cages associated with adverse clinical outcomes after cervical spine fusion? An observational cohort study with 2-year follow-up outcome scoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonz, Dirk; Franke, Anne-Catherine; von der Höh, Nicolas; Voelker, Anna; Moche, Michael; Gulow, Jens; Heyde, Christoph-Eckhard

    2014-01-01

    The stand-alone treatment of degenerative cervical spine pathologies is a proven method in clinical practice. However, its impact on subsidence, the resulting changes to the profile of the cervical spine and the possible influence of clinical results compared to treatment with additive plate osteosynthesis remain under discussion until present. This study was designed as a retrospective observational cohort study to test the hypothesis that radiographic subsidence of cervical cages is not associated with adverse clinical outcomes. 33 cervical segments were treated surgically by ACDF with stand-alone cage in 17 patients (11 female, 6 male), mean age 56 years (33-82 years), and re-examined after eight and twenty-six months (mean) by means of radiology and score assessment (Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (MOS-SF 36), Oswestry Neck Disability Index (ONDI), painDETECT questionnaire and the visual analogue scale (VAS)). Subsidence was observed in 50.5% of segments (18/33) and 70.6% of patients (12/17). 36.3% of cases of subsidence (12/33) were observed after eight months during mean time of follow-up 1. After 26 months during mean time of follow-up 2, full radiographic fusion was seen in 100%. MOS-SF 36, ONDI and VAS did not show any significant difference between cases with and without subsidence in the two-sample t-test. Only in one type of scoring (painDETECT questionnaire) did a statistically significant difference in t-Test emerge between the two groups (p = 0.03; α = 0.05). However, preoperative painDETECT score differ significantly between patients with subsidence (13.3 falling to 12.6) and patients without subsidence (7.8 dropped to 6.3). The radiological findings indicated 100% healing after stand-alone treatment with ACDF. Subsidence occurred in 50% of the segments treated. No impact on the clinical results was detected in the medium-term study period.

  8. High plasma corticosterone levels persist during frequent automatic blood sampling in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Adem, Bashir; Royo, Felix

    2005-01-01

    Corticosterone levels in blood may be used as a marker of stress in rodents, provided that the blood sampling procedure itself is non-stressful. Automated blood sampling equipment (Accusampler) allows blood sampling without any interference with the animal and might be useful as a tool for an on......-line measurement of stress markers in blood. However, the impact of the blood sampling itself on the corticosterone levels in blood is unknown. The present study was designed to evaluate whether the frequency of blood sampling influences the plasma corticosterone levels in male and female rats. During anaesthesia...... the importance of considering the frequency of blood withdrawal during automated blood sampling. This parameter may have an impact on the experimental results when using blood corticosterone levels as a stress marker, but also during any in vivo study where blood is collected, since high corticosterone levels...

  9. Treatment goals for ambulatory blood pressure and plasma lipids after stroke are often not reached

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Aase Worså; Kofoed, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    In Danish health care, secondary prevention after stroke is currently handled mainly by general practitioners using office blood pressure (OBP) assessment of hypertension. The aim of this study was to compare the OBP approach to 24-hour assessment by ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring....... Furthermore, we aimed to record the degree of adherence to recommended therapy goals for blood pressure and plasma lipids....

  10. Plasma and blood volume in the calf from birth till 90 days of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moellerberg, L.; Ekman, L.; Jacobsson, S.-O.

    1975-01-01

    Determinations of plasma volume were made of 9 clinically healthy Swedish Red and White calves from birth to 90 days of age by means of the isotop dilution technique. Commercially available 131 I labelled human serum albumin was used. Calculation of the total blood volume was based on the plasma volume and packed cell volume. The plasma and blood volumes increased per kg body weight in average 17 and 14 percent respectively from directly after birth to 24 hrs. old. From 1 to 90 days of age the plasma and blood volume fell steadily per kg body weight. Plasma volume expressed as a percentage of body weight was 5.3 percent at birth, 6.5 percent at 1 day old, and 4.9 percent at 90 days old. Corresponding values for blood were 8.4, 9.3 and 7.0 percent. (author)

  11. Trends of Blood and Plasma Donations in Kazakhstan: 12-Years Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igissinov, Nurbek; Kulmirzayeva, Dariyana; Magzumova, Raushan; Sibinga, Cees Th Smit; Alpeissova, Sholpan

    2014-05-01

    Each country faces a continuing challenge to collect enough blood to meet the national needs. According to WHO, there should be at least 20 blood donations per 1,000 population for developing countries, in Kazakhstan this indicator was only 16.8 in 2011. Thus, we conducted an epidemiological assessment and drew a map of the regional distribution of blood and plasma donations in Kazakhstan during the years 2000-2011. The retrospective study was conducted from 2000 to 2011. Data on blood and its components donations were acquired from the Ministry of Health (annual statistical reporting form N° 39). During 2000-2011, number of blood donors decreased to 17.4% and blood donations to 6.3%. The proportion of non-remunerated blood donations and donors decreased from 97.6% to 77.9% and 97.9% to 87.7%, respectively. The paid donations had the opposite trend. Number of plasma donors increased in 2.1 times, plasma donations in 2.4 times, nevertheless the proportion of non-remunerated plasma donations decreased from 60.1% to 29.8%. The average number of blood donations per 1,000 population decreased from 19.8 (2000) to 16.8 (2011), plasma donations increased from 1.4 to 3.1. Regionally, annual average rates of blood and plasma donations per 1,000 population over 12 years varied greatly. This is the first study conducted in Kazakhstan to provide detailed information, including the regional characteristics of blood and plasma donations over an extended period of time, which can be used in blood transfusion services work.

  12. A high plasma: red blood cell transfusion ratio during liver transplantation is associated with decreased blood utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, M B; Metcalf, R A; Hess, J R; Reyes, J; Perkins, J D; Montenovo, M I

    2018-04-01

    During massive transfusion, the volume ratio of administered plasma (PL Vol) to red blood cell (RBC Vol) appears to be associated with reduced blood utilization and improved survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate the optimal component ratio in the setting of liver transplantation. This is a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent liver transplantation and received at least 500 ml of red blood cells from January 2013 through December 2015. Kernel smoothing analysis determined the proper component ratios to evaluate were a ≥0·85:1 ratio (high) to a ≤0·85:1 ratio (low). Two groups, plasma volume to RBC volume (PL Vol/RBC Vol) and plasma contained in the platelet units added to the plasma calculation [PL + PLT (platelet)] Vol/RBC Vol, were used to evaluate the component ratios. A total of 188 patients were included in the analysis. In the PL Vol/RBC Vol evaluation, a low ratio revealed that 1238 ml (977-1653 ml) (P ratio, in the univariable and multivariable analysis, respectively. In the PL +PLT Vol/RBC Vol evaluation, a low ratio used 734 ml (193-1275) (P = 0·008) and 886 ml (431-1340) (P ratio in the univariable and multivariable analysis, respectively. In patients undergoing liver transplantation, the transfusion of plasma to RBC ratio ≥0·85 was associated with decreased need of RBC transfusions. © 2018 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  13. Stand alone biofuel production from algae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijffels, R.H.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Barbosa, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this feature, leading researchers in the field of microbial biotechnology speculate on the technical and conceptual developments that will drive innovative research and open new vistas over the next few years

  14. Informing Approaches in Establishing Stand Alone Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Literacy is usually considered the ability to read at a basic level. Now it is beginning to be defined more broadly to include applying reading, writing, and mathematical skills to obtain and use information and solve problems at levels of proficiency necessary to function in society, to achieve one's goals and develop one's ...

  15. Stand Alone Battery Thermal Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodie, Brad [Denso International America, Incorporated, Southfield, MI (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The objective of this project is research, development and demonstration of innovative thermal management concepts that reduce the cell or battery weight, complexity (component count) and/or cost by at least 20%. The project addresses two issues that are common problems with current state of the art lithium ion battery packs used in vehicles; low power at cold temperatures and reduced battery life when exposed to high temperatures. Typically, battery packs are “oversized” to satisfy the two issues mentioned above. The first phase of the project was spent making a battery pack simulation model using AMEsim software. The battery pack used as a benchmark was from the Fiat 500EV. FCA and NREL provided vehicle data and cell data that allowed an accurate model to be created that matched the electrical and thermal characteristics of the actual battery pack. The second phase involved using the battery model from the first phase and evaluate different thermal management concepts. In the end, a gas injection heat pump system was chosen as the dedicated thermal system to both heat and cool the battery pack. Based on the simulation model. The heat pump system could use 50% less energy to heat the battery pack in -20°C ambient conditions, and by keeping the battery cooler at hot climates, the battery pack size could be reduced by 5% and still meet the warranty requirements. During the final phase, the actual battery pack and heat pump system were installed in a test bench at DENSO to validate the simulation results. Also during this phase, the system was moved to NREL where testing was also done to validate the results. In conclusion, the heat pump system can improve “fuel economy” (for electric vehicle) by 12% average in cold climates. Also, the battery pack size, or capacity, could be reduced 5%, or if pack size is kept constant, the pack life could be increased by two years. Finally, the total battery pack and thermal system cost could be reduced 5% only if the system is integrated with the vehicle cabin air conditioning system. The reason why we were not able to achieve the 20% reduction target is because of the natural decay of the battery cell due to the number of cycles. Perhaps newer battery chemistries that are not so sensitive to cycling would have more potential for reducing the battery size due to thermal issues.

  16. Chapter 2: Stand-alone Applications - TOPCAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. J.

    Tool for OPerations on Catalogues And Tables or TOPCAT is a graphical viewer for table data. It offers a variety of ways to work with data tables, including a browser for the cell data, viewers for information about table and column metadata, dataset visualization, and even analysis. We discuss a small subset of TOPCAT's functionalities in this chapter. TOPCAT was originally developed as part of the Starlink program in the United Kingdom. It is now maintained by AstroGrid. The program is written in pure Java and available under the GNU General Public License. It is available for download and a version is included in the software distribution accompanying this book. TOPCAT is a GUI interface on top of the STIL library. A command line interface to this library, STILTS, described in Chapter 21 provides scriptable access to many of the capabilities described here. The purpose of this tutorial is to provide an overview of TOPCAT to the novice user. The best place to look for and learn about TOPCAT is the web page maintained by Mark B. Taylor. There, TOPCAT documentation is provided in HTML, PDF, via screen shots, etc. In this chapter we take the user through a few examples that give the general idea of how TOPCAT works. The majority of the functionality of TOPCAT is not included in this short tutorial. Our goal in this tutorial is to lead the reader through an exercise that would result in a publication quality figure (e.g. for a journal article). Specifically, we will use TOPCAT to show how the color-magnitude relation of a galaxy cluster compares to that of all galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (York et al. 2000). This diagnostic is used not only in cluster finding, but its linear fit can provide insight into the age and/or metallicity of the oldest galaxies in galaxy clusters (which are some of the oldest galaxies in the Universe). The data we need for this exercise are: 1) the entire spectroscopic galaxy catalog from the SDSS, with galaxy positions, galaxy redshifts, and galaxy magnitudes and 2) galaxy members of a known galaxy cluster. For the former, we will download data directly from the SDSS servers to our local machine for analysis. For the latter, we will use TOPCAT's ability to call live cone search services.

  17. Cysteine peroxidase activity in rat blood plasma | Razygraev ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rat plasma found to be able to accelerate greatly the H2O2-dependent oxidation of cysteine. The activity was a characteristic of a protein fraction precipitated at 30—44% ammonium sulfate saturation, and the specific activity in protein fraction was significantly higher than in plasma. Cysteine:H2O2 oxidoreductase ...

  18. Abnormalities in plasma and red blood cell fatty acid profiles of patients with colorectal cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Bar??, L.; Hermoso, J. C.; N????ez, M. C.; Jim??nez-Rios, J. A.; Gil, A.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated total plasma fatty acid concentrations and percentages, and the fatty acid profiles for the different plasma lipid fractions and red blood cell lipids, in 17 patients with untreated colorectal cancer and 12 age-matched controls with no malignant diseases, from the same geographical area. Cancer patients had significantly lower total plasma concentrations of saturated, monounsaturated and essential fatty acids and their polyunsaturated derivatives than healthy controls; when the v...

  19. Recovery from Bell Palsy after Transplantation of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and Platelet-Rich Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Seffer, Istvan; Nemeth, Zoltan

    2017-01-01

    Summary: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are multipotent, and plasma contains growth factors involving tissue regeneration. We hypothesized that transplantation of PBMC-plasma will promote the recovery of paralyzed facial muscles in Bell palsy. This case report describes the effects of PBMC-plasma transplantations in a 27-year-old female patient with right side Bell palsy. On the affected side of the face, the treatment resulted in both morphological and functional recovery includi...

  20. Effect of processing on functional properties of animal blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Hoyo, P; Rendueles, M; Díaz, M

    2008-04-01

    A number of functional and physical properties such as solubility, foam capacity, emulsifying stability and interfacial tension were compared for standard plasma, plasma decationed by ion exchange and plasma deionized by ultrafiltration (UF). The changes in functional properties can determine the use of a protein as an additive to a food product or invalidate its use. All samples had good functional properties and hence could be used in the formulation of food products. Results showed that ion exchange and UF improved emulsifying capacity while having little effect on the other functional properties.

  1. Determination of telmisartan in human blood plasma: Part I: Immunoassay development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hempen, C.M.; Gläsle-Schwarz, Liane; Kunz, Ulrich; Karst, U.

    2006-01-01

    Telmisartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist and a known drug against high blood pressure. In this report, the development of a new and rapid analytical technique, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the determination of telmisartan in human blood plasma is described. The

  2. Blood and plasma viscosity in diabetes: possible contribution to late organ complications?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, N. H.; van Arkel, E. C.; Hardeman, M. R.; Bilo, H. J.; Michels, R. P.; Vreeken, J.

    1992-01-01

    It has been postulated that an increased whole blood and plasma viscosity contribute to diabetic organ complications. Blood viscosity was measured in 30 controls and four groups of insulin-dependent diabetic patients at three shear rates: 70 sec-1, 0.5 sec-1 and 0.05 sec-1. Results were compared

  3. The effect of chronic erythrocytic polycythemia and high altitude upon plasma and blood volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    Comparison of two kinds of physiological chronic erythrocytic polycythemias in order to differentiate the specific effect of erythrocytic polycythemia from the general effects of high altitude upon the plasma volume. The two kinds were produced hormonally in female chickens, at sea level, or by protracted high-altitude exposures. It appears that the vascular system of the body may account for an increase in red blood cell mass either by reduction in plasma volume, or by no change in plasma volume, resulting in differential changes in total blood volumes.

  4. Multi-site evaluation of a computer aided detection (CAD) algorithm for small acute intra-cranial hemorrhage and development of a stand-alone CAD system ready for deployment in a clinical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Ruchi R.; Fernandez, James; Lee, Joon K.; Chan, Tao; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, H. K.

    2010-03-01

    Timely detection of Acute Intra-cranial Hemorrhage (AIH) in an emergency environment is essential for the triage of patients suffering from Traumatic Brain Injury. Moreover, the small size of lesions and lack of experience on the reader's part could lead to difficulties in the detection of AIH. A CT based CAD algorithm for the detection of AIH has been developed in order to improve upon the current standard of identification and treatment of AIH. A retrospective analysis of the algorithm has already been carried out with 135 AIH CT studies with 135 matched normal head CT studies from the Los Angeles County General Hospital/ University of Southern California Hospital System (LAC/USC). In the next step, AIH studies have been collected from Walter Reed Army Medical Center, and are currently being processed using the AIH CAD system as part of implementing a multi-site assessment and evaluation of the performance of the algorithm. The sensitivity and specificity numbers from the Walter Reed study will be compared with the numbers from the LAC/USC study to determine if there are differences in the presentation and detection due to the difference in the nature of trauma between the two sites. Simultaneously, a stand-alone system with a user friendly GUI has been developed to facilitate implementation in a clinical setting.

  5. The international phase 4 validation study of the EORTC QLQ-SWB32: A stand-alone measure of spiritual well-being for people receiving palliative care for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivat, B; Young, T E; Winstanley, J; Arraras, J I; Black, K; Boyle, F; Bredart, A; Costantini, A; Guo, J; Irarrazaval, M E; Kobayashi, K; Kruizinga, R; Navarro, M; Omidvari, S; Rohde, G E; Serpentini, S; Spry, N; Van Laarhoven, H W M; Yang, G M

    2017-11-01

    The EORTC Quality of Life Group has just completed the final phase (field-testing and validation) of an international project to develop a stand-alone measure of spiritual well-being (SWB) for palliative cancer patients. Participants (n = 451)-from 14 countries on four continents; 54% female; 188 Christian; 50 Muslim; 156 with no religion-completed a provisional 36-item measure of SWB plus the EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL (PAL), then took part in a structured debriefing interview. All items showed good score distribution across response categories. We assessed scale structure using principal component analysis and Rasch analysis, and explored construct validity, and convergent/divergent validity with the PAL. Twenty-two items in four scoring scales (Relationship with Self, Relationships with Others, Relationship with Someone or Something Greater, and Existential) explained 53% of the variance. The measure also includes a global SWB item and nine other items. Scores on the PAL global quality-of-life item and Emotional Functioning scale weakly-moderately correlated with scores on the global SWB item and two of the four SWB scales. This new validated 32-item SWB measure addresses a distinct aspect of quality-of-life, and is now available for use in research and clinical practice, with a role as both a measurement and an intervention tool. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Fluorescence spectra of blood plasma treated with ultraviolet irradiation in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesskaya, G. A.; Maslova, T. O.

    2010-09-01

    We have studied the fluorescence spectra of blood plasma from patients with acute coronary syndrome, and also the effect of therapeutic doses of in vivo ultraviolet blood irradiation (UBI) on the spectra. We have established that the maxima in the fluorescence spectra of the original plasma samples, obtained from unirradiated blood, are located in the wavelength interval 330-340 nm, characteristic for the fluorescence of tryptophan residues. In extracorporeal UBI ( λ = 254 nm), we observed changes in the shape and also both a blue and a red shift in the maxima of the fluorescence spectra, differing in magnitude for blood plasma samples from different patients in the test group. We show that UBI-initiated changes in the fluorescence spectra of the plasma depend on the original pathological disturbances of metabolite levels, and also on the change in the oxygen-transport function of the blood and the acid-base balance, affecting the oxidative stability of the plasma. We have concluded that UV irradiation, activating buffer systems in the blood, has an effect on the universal and specific interactions of the tryptophan residue with the amino acid residues and water surrounding it.

  7. Detection of melanoma cells suspended in mononuclear cells and blood plasma using photoacoustic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spradling, Emily M.; Viator, John A.

    2009-02-01

    Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer. Although the initial malignant cells are removed, it is impossible to determine whether or not the cancer has metastasized until a secondary tumor forms that is large enough to detect with conventional imaging. Photoacoustic detection of circulating melanoma cells in the bloodstream has shown promise for early detection of metastasis that may aid in treatment of this aggressive cancer. When blood is irradiated with energy from an Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm, photoacoustic signals are created and melanoma cells can be differentiated from the surrounding cells based on waveforms produced by an oscilloscope. Before this can be used as a diagnostic technique, however, we needed to investigate several parameters. Specifically, the current technique involves the in vitro separation of blood through centrifugation to isolate and test only the white blood cell layer. Using this method, we have detected a single cultured melanoma cell among a suspension of white blood cells. However, the process could be made simpler if the plasma layer were used for detection instead of the white blood cell layer. This layer is easier to obtain after blood separation, the optical difference between plasma and melanoma cells is more pronounced in this layer than in the white blood cell layer, and the possibility that any stray red blood cells could distort the results is eliminated. Using the photoacoustic apparatus, we detected no melanoma cells within the plasma of whole blood samples spiked with cultured melanoma cells.

  8. Relative Abundance of Proteins in Blood Plasma Samples from Patients with Chronic Cerebral Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysheva, Anna L; Kopylov, Artur T; Ponomarenko, Elena A; Kiseleva, Olga I; Teryaeva, Nadezhda B; Potapov, Alexander A; Izotov, Alexander А; Morozov, Sergei G; Kudryavtseva, Valeria Yu; Archakov, Alexander I

    2018-03-01

    A comparative protein profile analysis of 17 blood plasma samples from patients with ischemia and 20 samples from healthy volunteers was carried out using ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry. The analysis of measurements was performed using the proteomics search engine OMSSA. Normalized spectrum abundance factor (NSAF) in the biological samples was assessed using SearchGUI. The findings of mass spectrometry analysis of the protein composition of blood plasma samples demonstrate that the depleted samples are quite similar in protein composition and relative abundance of proteins. By comparing them with the control samples, we have found a small group of 44 proteins characteristic of the blood plasma samples from patients with chronic cerebral ischemia. These proteins contribute to the processes of homeostasis maintenance, including innate immune response unfolding, the response of a body to stress, and contribution to the blood clotting cascade.

  9. Recovery from Bell Palsy after Transplantation of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and Platelet-Rich Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seffer, Istvan; Nemeth, Zoltan

    2017-06-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are multipotent, and plasma contains growth factors involving tissue regeneration. We hypothesized that transplantation of PBMC-plasma will promote the recovery of paralyzed facial muscles in Bell palsy. This case report describes the effects of PBMC-plasma transplantations in a 27-year-old female patient with right side Bell palsy. On the affected side of the face, the treatment resulted in both morphological and functional recovery including voluntary facial movements. These findings suggest that PBMC-plasma has the capacity of facial muscle regeneration and provides a promising treatment strategy for patients suffering from Bell palsy or other neuromuscular disorders.

  10. 77 FR 7 - Revisions to Labeling Requirements for Blood and Blood Components, Including Source Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... uniform container label for blood and blood components and recommended labels that incorporated barcode... Protein Fraction (part 640, subpart I), and Immune Globulin (part 640, subpart J)). The comment noted that...

  11. Plasma volume changes during hypoglycaemia: the effect of arterial blood sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Bendtsen, Flemming; Christensen, N J

    1990-01-01

    To investigate whether previously reported changes in venous blood volume and composition induced by acute hypoglycaemia in humans are representative for the entire body we measured erythrocyte 51Cr content, haematocrit, plasma volume, intravascular albumin content and transcapillary escape rate...... hypoglycaemia. The magnitude of the changes in arterial and venous blood were not significantly different. These results indicate that the above changes in blood volume and composition are whole-body phenomena: furthermore, the major part of the changes are likely to occur in tissues other than upper extremity...... of albumin in arterial and venous blood in seven healthy subjects before and during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. In both vascular sites blood 51Cr content and the haematocrit increased, plasma volume and intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin increased during...

  12. Blood pressure and plasma catecholamines in acute and prolonged hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, I L; Poulsen, T D; Hansen, J M

    1999-01-01

    This study measured the pressor and plasma catecholamine response to local hypothermia during adaptation to hypobaric hypoxia. Eight healthy men were studied at rest and after 10 and 45 min of local cooling of one hand and forearm as well as after 30 min of rewarming at sea level and again 24 h...

  13. Study on the changes in blood plasma electroconductivity and dielectric constant in irradiated mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paskalev, Z.; Bancheva, E.

    1975-01-01

    Blood plasma electroconductivity and dielectric constant were measured in C57BL mice exposed to an uncontaminated gamma or neutron field or a mixed gamma-neutron field at a total dose of 5, 10, 15, 20, or 25 rad. Measurements were also made with blood plasma from Wistar rats given 200, 400, or 600 R X-rays. The results obtained revealed a characteristic pattern of radiation-induced changes in electroconductivity and dielectric constant, these end-points being indicative, respectively, or shifts in saline concentrations and in conformation of protein fractions of blood plasma. Analysis of the data showed that within a few days after exposure there were changes occurring in cellular and tissue water-salt metabolism, followed by enhancement or recovery to norm, depending on the dose. A possibility is thus rendered to use the blood plasma parameters studied as a test for detecting early shifts in cellular water-salt metabolism and in conformation of protein fractions at a time when no characteristic changes are yet to be observed in amounts of individual types of protein fractions from blood plasma of irradiated organisms. (author)

  14. Plasma fractionation, a useful means to improve national transfusion system and blood safety: Iran experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghali, A M; Abolghasemi, H

    2009-03-01

    In 1974, the government of Iran established Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization (IBTO) as national and centralized transfusion system. Since then donations of blood may not be remunerated and therapy with blood and its components are free of charges for all Iranian patients. Donations are meticulously screened through interviewing donors and lab testing the donations using serological methods. Currently, Iranian donors donate 1735 00 units of blood annually (donation index: 25/1000 population). Implementation of a highly efficient donor selection programme, including donors interview, establishment of confidential unit exclusion programme and laboratory screening of donated bloods by IBTO have led to seroprevalence rates of 0.41%, 0.12% and 0.004% for HBV, HCV and HIV in donated bloods respectively. Since 2004, IBTO has initiated a programme to enter into a contract fractionation agreement for the surplus of recovered plasma produced in its blood collecting centres. Although IBTO has used this project as a mean to improve national transfusion system through upgrading its quality assurance systems, IBTO fractionation project has played a major role in improving availability of plasma-derived medicines in Iran. During 2006-2007, this project furnished the Iran market with 44% and 14% of its needs to the intravenous immunoglobulin and albumin, respectively. Iranian experience showed that contract fractionation of plasma in countries with organized centralized transfusion system, which lack national plasma fractionation facility, in addition to substantial saving on national health resource and enhancing availability of plasma-derived medicines, could serve as a useful means to improve national blood safety profile.

  15. Blood plasma glucose regulation in Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frugivores feed on fruits and nectars that contain different types of sugars in different proportions, which provide these animals with energy. Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat (Epomophorus wahlbergi) has a high glucose intake irrespective of sugar concentration of nectar. It is not known how these bats regulate their blood ...

  16. Changes in blood glucose and plasma lipids during gestation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten female Chinchilla rabbits with mean weight (1.9±0.1kg) were randomly assigned into two groups comprising of five each, to evaluate the changes in blood glucose and lipid profile during pregnancy. Control Group A was mated without prior synchronization, while rabbits in group B were synchronized with 0.15mg/kg ...

  17. Studies on blood and plasma biochemical characteristics of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rats were fed on commercial grower mash and water provided ad libitum. Two separate blood samples were collected from the jugular veins of eight rats at 4th, 8th and 12th month stages of the experiment. One group of the samples was used for haematological studies and the other for biochemical tests. Data collected

  18. Red blood cell morphology and plasma proteins electrophoresis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The European pond terrapin(Emys orbicularis) is a turtle found in southern and central Europe, West Asia and North Africa. In this study, we used juvenile E. orbicularis (females of 4 - 5 years old) which was captured from the different area of the Mazandaran province in April 2006. Blood was collected from the dorsal sinus ...

  19. Red blood cell morphology and plasma proteins electrophoresis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-04

    Jul 4, 2007 ... The European pond terrapin (Emys orbicularis) is a turtle found in southern and central Europe, West. Asia and North Africa. In this study, we used juvenile E. orbicularis (females of 4 - 5 years old) which was captured from the different area of the Mazandaran province in April 2006. Blood was collected.

  20. Power law relation between particle concentrations and their sizes in the blood plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirichenko, M N; Chaikov, L L; Zaritskii, A R

    2016-01-01

    This work is devoted to the investigation of sizes and concentrations of particles in blood plasma by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Blood plasma contains many different proteins and their aggregates, microparticles and vesicles. Their sizes, concentrations and shapes can give information about donor's health. Our DLS study of blood plasma reveals unexpected dependence: with increasing of the particle sizes r (from 1 nm up to 1 μm), their concentrations decrease as r -4 (almost by 12 orders). We found also that such dependence was repeated for model solution of fibrinogen and thrombin with power coefficient is -3,6. We believe that this relation is a fundamental law of nature that shows interaction of proteins (and other substances) in biological liquids. (paper)

  1. A high confidence, manually validated human blood plasma protein reference set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schenk, Susann; Schoenhals, Gary J; de Souza, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The immense diagnostic potential of human plasma has prompted great interest and effort in cataloging its contents, exemplified by the Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) Plasma Proteome Project (PPP) pilot project. Due to challenges in obtaining a reliable blood plasma protein list......-trap-Fourier transform (LTQ-FT) and a linear ion trap-Orbitrap (LTQ-Orbitrap) for mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. Both instruments allow the measurement of peptide masses in the low ppm range. Furthermore, we employed a statistical score that allows database peptide identification searching using the products of two...... consecutive stages of tandem mass spectrometry (MS3). The combination of MS3 with very high mass accuracy in the parent peptide allows peptide identification with orders of magnitude more confidence than that typically achieved. RESULTS: Herein we established a high confidence set of 697 blood plasma proteins...

  2. PIXE elemental analysis of erythrocyte and blood plasma samples from human pregnancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borbely-Kiss, I.; Koltay, E.; Laszlo, S.; Szabo, Gy.

    1984-01-01

    Elemental concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb have been determined in erythrocyte and blood plasma samples from normal and diabetic human pregnancies. Average values, the dependence of the concentrations on the time during gestation period, the correlation coefficients for pairs of elements as well as for the same elements in plasma and erythrocyte samples are given. A marked difference appeared in a number of cases between normal and diabetic pregnancies. (author)

  3. Digitalis-like activity in human plasma: Relation to blood pressure and sodium balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, A.; Yamada, K.; Ishii, M.; Sugimoto, T. (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-10-01

    PURPOSE: On the assumption that renal tubular cells are more important as the target cells for a natriuretic factor than blood cells, we used a well-characterized cultured renal tubular cell line, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK), cells to monitor the circulating digitalis-like factor in human plasma and examine its role in the regulation of blood pressure and sodium balance. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We investigated the effects of plasma on binding of radioactive ouabain to monolayered MDCK cells in order to determine the level of a circulating digitalis-like factor. First, we measured specific 3H-ouabain binding to MDCK cells in the presence of plasma from 71 outpatients (34 normotensive subjects and 37 hypertensive patients) after incubation for 4 hours. Second, we measured specific 3H-ouabain binding after incubation of cells with plasma from 16 hospitalized subjects (eight normotensive subjects and eight hypertensive patients) receiving low and high sodium diets. RESULTS: In Study 1, ouabain binding was lower by 30% with plasma from hypertensive patients than with plasma from normotensive subjects (p less than 0.01). There was a significant negative correlation between individual subject's systolic or mean blood pressure and ouabain binding (r = -0.34, p less than 0.01 or r = -0.29, p less than 0.01). In Study 2, ouabain binding was also significantly reduced by 25% in the presence of plasma from hypertensive subjects as compared with plasma from normotensive subjects irrespective of sodium intake (p less than 0.01). A significant negative correlation was also found for all subjects between either systolic, diastolic, or mean blood pressure and ouabain binding (r = -0.58, p less than 0.01, r = -0.51, p less than 0.01, or r = -0.55, p less than 0.01, respectively).

  4. PIXE elemental analysis of erythrocyte and blood plasma samples from human pregnancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borbely-Kiss, I; Koltay, E; Laszlo, S; Szabo, Gy [Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia, Debrecen. Atommag Kutato Intezete; Goedeny, S [Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Szeged (Hungary). Szueleszeti es Noegyogyaszati Klinika; Seif El-Nasr, S [Teachers' Coll. for Women, Samia (Kuwait)

    1984-07-01

    Elemental concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb have been determined in erythrocyte and blood plasma samples from normal and diabetic human pregnancies. Average values, the dependence of the concentrations on the time during gestation period, the correlation coefficients for pairs of elements as well as for the same elements in plasma and erythrocyte samples are given. A marked difference appeared in a number of cases between normal and diabetic pregnancies. 11 refs.

  5. Liver insulinase and insulin-like activity of the blood plasma in irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhikhareva, A I; Dokshina, G A [Tomskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR)

    1975-05-01

    Comparative quantitative analysis of the functional effect of radiation on the activity of liver insulinase of irradiated rats has shown that the insulinase activity of the blood plasma decreases (21-45%) one to three days after the exposure at betatron. Insulinase activity of the liver extracts is also inhibited (16-22%) as compared to intact liver extracts. Twelve days after the exposure and later, insulin-like activity of the plasma and the enzyme activity increase up to 37 per cent.

  6. Discriminating the hemolytic risk of blood type A plasmas using the complement hemolysis using human erythrocytes (CHUHE) assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnion, Kenji M; Hair, Pamela S; Krishna, Neel K; Sass, Megan A; Enos, Clinton W; Whitley, Pamela H; Maes, Lanne Y; Goldberg, Corinne L

    2017-03-01

    The agglutination-based cross-matching method is sensitive for antibody binding to red blood cells but is only partially predictive of complement-mediated hemolysis, which is important in many acute hemolytic transfusion reactions. Here, we describe complement hemolysis using human erythrocytes (CHUHE) assays that directly evaluate complement-mediated hemolysis between individual serum-plasma and red blood cell combinations. The CHUHE assay is used to evaluate correlations between agglutination titers and complement-mediated hemolysis as well as the hemolytic potential of plasma from type A blood donors. Plasma or serum from each type A blood donor was incubated with AB or B red blood cells in the CHUHE assay and measured for free hemoglobin release. CHUHE assays for serum or plasma demonstrate a wide, dynamic range and high sensitivity for complement-mediated hemolysis for individual serum/plasma and red blood cell combinations. CHUHE results suggest that agglutination assays alone are only moderately predictive of complement-mediated hemolysis. CHUHE results also suggest that plasma from particular type A blood donors produce minimal complement-mediated hemolysis, whereas plasma from other type A blood donors produce moderate to high-level complement-mediated hemolysis, depending on the red blood cell donor. The current results indicate that the CHUHE assay can be used to assess complement-mediated hemolysis for plasma or serum from a type A blood donor, providing additional risk discrimination over agglutination titers alone. © 2016 AABB.

  7. Quantitative evaluation of plasma after methylene blue and white light treatment in four Chinese blood centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunhui, Yang; Guohui, Bian; Hong, Yang; Xiaopu, Xiao; Zherong, Bai; Mingyuan, Wang; Xinsheng, Zhang; Juanjuan, Wang; Changqing, Li; Wuping, Li

    2013-12-01

    Pathogen reduction technology is an important process in the blood safety system, including solvent/detergent treatment, filtration and methylene blue-photochemical technology (MB-PCT). To investigate the quality of MB-PCT-treated plasma, plasma samples from four Chinese blood centers were analyzed over 12 months of storage to determine the recovery of activities and levels of various plasma proteins. Ten plasma units each from the Suzhou, Yancheng, Chongqing and Shandong blood centers were divided into two aliquots. One was subjected to treatment with one of two methylene blue-photochemical technology instruments and the other was used as control. The treated and untreated sample pairs were stored at -30°C. The recovery rates of coagulation factors, inhibitor proteins, total protein, immunoglobulins, and complement proteins were measured at different time points after storage. The mean recovery of most proteins exceeded 80% after MB treatment. The exceptions were factor XI and fibrinogen, of which only 71.3-74% and 69.0-92.3% were retained during storage. The two equipment types differed in terms of residual MB concentration in the plasma samples (0.18 μM and 0.29 μM, respectively). They had similar protein recovery rates at 0.5 month but differed at later time points. The four blood centers differed significantly with regard to factor II, V, VIII and fibrinogen activities. Only the samples from the Shandong blood center met the methylene blue treated fresh frozen plasma requirement. The major factor that influenced the quality of the MB-FFP samples was the time taken between blood collection and storage. Methylene blue treated plasma showed reduced coagulation factor (CF) activity and protein levels. The MB treatment-induced damage to the proteins was acceptable at the four Chinese blood centers, but the quality of the MB-treated plasma in general was not satisfactory. The main factor affecting plasma quality may be the duration of the collection and

  8. Plasma fractionation for blood products: isolation and purification of coagulating factors, albumin and immunoglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Najila Mohd Janib; Shaharuddin Mohd; Wan Hamirul Bahrin Wan Kamal

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 12 million liters of human plasma are fractionated world-wide annually. However, with the market for clotting factors and other haemoderivatives steadily increasing from year to year, the amount processed will also increase correspondingly to keep up with the demand. In Malaysia, part of the need for the blood products are obtained commercially but a major portion of the requirement involves sending the plasma collected by the National Blood Centre to Australia for processing. Following purification and isolation of the blood products, they are sent back to Malaysia for local consumption. As yet there are no plasma fractionation plants in the South East Asia region, it would be advantageous to establish a local fractionation plant as it would be able to cater for local demands of the haemoderivatives and thus reduces the cost of importing these products. Besides, this facility will be able to provide contract fractionation services to the surrounding region. Early work in MINT has started in trying to purify plasma obtained from rats. Purification of the plasma was performed by using Sephadex G-25 column. Short term objective of this project is to develop the technique of extraction, fractionation and purification of blood products such as albumin, globulin and clotting factors (Factor VIII and Factor IX). The long term emphasis will be to scale up the production facility to a pilot plant stage and eventually to a national fractionation and purification plant. (Author)

  9. Autologous Blood and Platelet-Rich Plasma Injections for Treatment of Lateral Epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandruccio, James H; Steiner, Murphy M

    2017-07-01

    Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) is a frequent cause of elbow pain; most patients (80%-90%) are successfully treated with standard nonoperative methods (rest, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, bracing, and physical therapy). Autologous blood injections and platelet-rich plasma injections are the two most frequently used orthobiologic techniques in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. Studies of the effectiveness of autologous blood injections and platelet-rich plasma report varying outcomes, some citing significant clinical relief and others reporting no beneficial effect. More research is needed to determine how to best use orthobiologics in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A method for estimation of plasma albumin concentration from the buffering properties of whole blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rees, Stephen Edward; Diemer, Tue; Kristensen, Søren Risom

    2012-01-01

    measurements of acid-base and oxygenation status. This article presents and evaluates a new method for doing so. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mathematical method for estimating plasma albumin concentration is described. To evaluate the method at numerous albumin concentrations, blood from 19 healthy subjects......PURPOSE: Hypoalbuminemia is strongly associated with poor clinical outcome. Albumin is usually measured at the central laboratory rather than point of care, but in principle, information exists in the buffering properties of whole blood to estimate plasma albumin concentration from point of care...

  11. Adsorption of viral particles from the blood plasma of patients with viral hepatitis on nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, A V; Osipov, N V; Yashchenko, S V; Kokotukha, Yu A; Baron, I J; Puzyr, A P; Olkhovskiy, I A; Bondar, V S

    2016-07-01

    Adsorption of viral particles from the blood plasma of patients with viral hepatitis B and C on modified nanodiamonds (MNDs) was shown in the in vitro experiments. PCR method showed the treatment of plasma with MNDs leads to a decrease in the viral load by 2-3 orders of magnitude or more in both cases studied. These results make it possible to predict the applicability of MNDs for the development of new technologies of hemodialysis and plasmapheresis for binding and removal of viral particles from the blood of infected patients.

  12. Imaging of blood plasma coagulation at supported lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faxälv, Lars; Hume, Jasmin; Kasemo, Bengt; Svedhem, Sofia

    2011-12-15

    The blood coagulation system relies on lipid membrane constituents to act as regulators of the coagulation process upon vascular trauma, and in particular the 2D configuration of the lipid membranes is known to efficiently catalyze enzymatic activity of blood coagulation factors. This work demonstrates a new application of a recently developed methodology to study blood coagulation at lipid membrane interfaces with the use of imaging technology. Lipid membranes with varied net charges were formed on silica supports by systematically using different combinations of lipids where neutral phosphocholine (PC) lipids were mixed with phospholipids having either positively charged ethylphosphocholine (EPC), or negatively charged phosphatidylserine (PS) headgroups. Coagulation imaging demonstrated that negatively charged SiO(2) and membrane surfaces exposing PS (obtained from liposomes containing 30% of PS) had coagulation times which were significantly shorter than those for plain PC membranes and EPC exposing membrane surfaces (obtained from liposomes containing 30% of EPC). Coagulation times decreased non-linearly with increasing negative surface charge for lipid membranes. A threshold value for shorter coagulation times was observed below a PS content of ∼6%. We conclude that the lipid membranes on solid support studied with the imaging setup as presented in this study offers a flexible and non-expensive solution for coagulation studies at biological membranes. It will be interesting to extend the present study towards examining coagulation on more complex lipid-based model systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Role of red cells and plasma composition on blood sessile droplet evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanotte, Luca; Laux, Didier; Charlot, Benoît; Abkarian, Manouk

    2017-11-01

    The morphology of dried blood droplets derives from the deposition of red cells, the main components of their solute phase. Up to now, evaporation-induced convective flows were supposed to be at the base of red cell distribution in blood samples. Here, we present a direct visualization by videomicroscopy of the internal dynamics in desiccating blood droplets, focusing on the role of cell concentration and plasma composition. We show that in diluted suspensions, the convection is promoted by the rich molecular composition of plasma, whereas it is replaced by an outward red blood cell displacement front at higher hematocrits. We also evaluate by ultrasounds the effect of red cell deposition on the temporal evolution of sample rigidity and adhesiveness.

  14. Dialyzer-augmented whole blood and plasma exchange for patients with hepatic or hepatorenal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buselmeier, T J; Merino, G E; Rodrigo, F; Meyer, R M; Bosl, B H; Kjellstrand, C M; Simmons, R L; Najarian, J S

    1975-01-01

    We have utilized new methods of dialyzer-augmented whole blood and plasma exchange tranfusion in the treatment of hepatic coma. The method employs the new fast flow Buselmeier shunt so that the exchange can be done from a peripheral radial artery shunt site rather than a shunt site in a more major vessel, such as the brachial artery. The method employs in-line dialysis of citrated (CPD) blood or plasma to normalize pH, electrolytes, and blood sugar while infusion heparinization decreases heparin requirements. The application of a single roller pump to the administration and withdrawal lines (placed in opposite directions) helps equalize inflow and outflow where whole blood exchange is done while identical opposing pumps accomplish the same with plasma exchange. The administration of albumin and metaraminol bitartate prevents hypotension due to fluid shifts or compartmental venous dilatation. A closed circuit which does not require disconnection throughout the 30- 60-minute whole blood exchange or the 2 1/2-hour plasma exchange decreases the risk of septic contamination to both medical staff and patients.

  15. DYNAMIC OF CHANGES OF BLOOD PLASMA ENERGY METABOLISM PARAMETERS IN SUCKLING COWS DURING CALVING INTERVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ales Pavlik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effect of environmental condition changes during gazing period on energy metabolism parameters was investigated. Totally 40 Aberdeen Angus cows were selected for observation. Calving all of cows was situated into March. The feeding ration for the animals was comprised by pasture during the grazing period and corn silage, hay and granulated distiller’s grains during the winter period. At average age 9 days before calving, and subsequently 10, 81, 151, 189 and 273 days after calving, blood was sampled and analysed for glucose and NEFA (non-esterified fatty acid concentrations on KONELAB T20xt automatic analyser (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Finland and currently available commercial kits (Biovendor-Laboratorni medicina, Czech Republic. A rapid increase (p < 0.05 of glucose concentration was detected in blood plasma of cows in period before calving to 81 days post partum. Average value of glucose concentration at 273 days postpartum was significant (p < 0.05 lower comparing to day 189. The highest concentrations of NEFA in blood plasma of cows were found at 10 day postpartum. After that, during the persisted higher temperature period the NEFA concentration decreased significantly (p < 0.01 till 189 days postpartum. At the end of monitored period concentration of NEFA in blood plasma significantly decreased (p < 0.05. Changes of hot and cold season during the grazing period probably according to forage quality and had significant effects on blood plasma NEFA and glucose concentrations.

  16. Alkaline and Acid Phosphatase Activity in Blood Plasma of Chickens Irradiated by Low dose Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petar, K.; Marinko, V.; Saveta, M.; Miljenko, S.

    2004-01-01

    In our previous paper (Kraljevic et, al, 2000; Kraljevic et al 2002) we showed that the growth of the chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy gamma-rays before incubation was significantly higher than in controls during the fattening period (1-42 days). The concentration of total protein, glucose and cholesterol in the blood plasma of the same chickens was also significantly changed. In this paper an attempt was made to determine the effect of irradiation of eggs by low dose ionizing radiation before incubation upon activity of alkaline and acid phosphatase in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. The eggs of heavy breeding chickens were irradiated by dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation (60 Co) before incubation. Along with the chickens which were hatched from irradiated eggs, there was a control group of chickens hatched from nonirradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for both groups. After hatching, blood samples were taken from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 6, 10, 20, 30 and 42. The activity of both enzymes was determined spectrophotometrically by using Boehring Mannheim GmbH optimized kits. the activity of alkaline phosphatase in blood plasma was decreased on days 42, and the activity of acid phosphatase in the blood plasma of the same chickens was increased on day 42. Obtained results confirm our early obtained results that low dose of gamma radiation has effects upon metabolic processes in the chickens hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation. (Author)

  17. The influence of blood plasma of irradiated animals on activity of Ca2+ - ATPase and Mg2+ - ATPase in plasma membrane of thymocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreval', V.I.

    1994-01-01

    Rats were irradiated at doses 1.5, 4.0, 7.0 and 10 Gy. After 1, 8, 15, 22 and 30 days the effect of blood plasma on activity of Ca 2+ -ATPase and Mg 2+ -ATPase in plasma membrane of thymocytes was investigated. It was found that the raise of irradiation dose leads to increasing of blood plasma effect on membrane-bound enzymes

  18. Lipoperoxides, alpha-tocopherol and ceruloplasmin in gamma-irradiated blood plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aladzhov, E.; Popzakharieva, V.

    1995-01-01

    Ceruloplasmin, alpha-tocopherol and lipid peroxide concentrations are evaluated in blood plasma for transfusion following exposure to irradiation with 60 Co gamma rays at doses 23, 50, 100 and 200 Gy. In plasma exposed to irradiation an increase in lipid peroxides and decrease in alpha-tocopherol and ceruloplasmin are observed. The addition of 2.3 U/ml ceruloplasmin to plasma prior to irradiation reduces the quantity of lipid peroxides and protects alpha-tocopherol. The possible explanation is that the metal helates prevent the formation of free hydroxyl radicals and thus inhibit the oxidation of lipid membranes. 15 refs., 1 tab. (author)

  19. Prospects of Vitamin C as an Additive in Plasma of Stored Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a dire necessity to improve blood storage and prolong shelf-life of blood. Very few studies have focused on oxidative stress (OS in blood and its influence on plasma with storage. This study attempts to (i elucidate the continuous changes occurring in plasma during storage through oxidant levels and antioxidant status and (ii evaluate the influence of vitamin C (VC as an additive during blood storage. Blood was drawn from male Wistar rats and stored for 25 days at 4°C. Blood samples were divided into control and experimental groups. Plasma was isolated every 5 days and the OS markers, antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation products, were studied. Catalase activity increased in all groups with storage. Lipid peroxidation decreased in VC (10 but was maintained in VC (30 and VC (60. Although there were variations in all groups, carbonyls were maintained towards the end of storage. Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP increased in VC (30 and were maintained in VC (10 and VC (60. Sulfhydryls were maintained in all groups. Vitamin C could not sufficiently attenuate OS and hence, this opens the possibilities for further studies on vitamin C in combination with other antioxidants, in storage solutions.

  20. Serial changes in plasma K concentration during storage of irradiation blood products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togashi, Kazue; Yamada, Keiko; Otake, Sachiko; Saito, Yukiko; Sugimura, Kazuhito; Takahashi, Hoyu

    1996-01-01

    Irradiation of blood products is highly effective in the prevention of transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In order to assess the safe storage period of irradiated blood products, serial changes in plasma K, red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) and lactic acid concentrations of whole blood and M·A·P-added red cell concentrate (RC-M·A·P) during storage at 5degC were measured after irradiation with 137 Cs by IBL 437C (CIS bio international). Plasma K concentration did not change immediately after irradiation, but increased more rapidly and in a radiation dose-dependent manner in the irradiated products than nonirradiated products. The changes in red cell 2,3-DPG and lactic acid concentrations were not affected by irradiation but were rather dependent on the storage period after blood collection. Plasma K concentrations of whole blood and RC-M·A·P irradiated with 25 Gy increased at 5 and 3 days, respectively, to the K levels observed after the storage of nonirradiated products for 21 days. It is therefore recommended that whole blood be used within 5 days and RC-M·A·P within 3 days when stored after irradiation with 25 Gy. (author)

  1. Preparing Platelet-Rich Plasma with Whole Blood Harvested Intraoperatively During Spinal Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bin; Zhang, Zheng; Zhou, Ning-Feng; Huang, Yu-Feng; Bao, Yu-Jie; Wu, De-Sheng; Zhang, Ya-Dong

    2017-07-22

    BACKGROUND Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has gained growing popularity in use in spinal fusion procedures in the last decade. Substantial intraoperative blood loss is frequently accompanied with spinal fusion, and it is unknown whether blood harvested intraoperatively qualifies for PRP preparation. MATERIAL AND METHODS Whole blood was harvested intraoperatively and venous blood was collected by venipuncture. Then, we investigated the platelet concentrations in whole blood and PRP, the concentration of growth factors in PRP, and the effects of PRP on the proliferation and viability of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HBMSCs). RESULTS Our results revealed that intraoperatively harvested whole blood and whole blood collected by venipuncture were similar in platelet concentration. In addition, PRP formulations prepared from both kinds of whole blood were similar in concentration of platelet and growth factors. Additional analysis showed that the similar concentrations of growth factors resulted from the similar platelet concentrations of whole blood and PRP between the two groups. Moreover, these two kinds of PRP formulations had similar effects on promoting cell proliferation and enhancing cell viability. CONCLUSIONS Therefore, intraoperatively harvested whole blood may be a potential option for preparing PRP spinal fusion.

  2. Plasma volume changes during hypoglycaemia: the effect of arterial blood sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Bendtsen, F; Christensen, N J

    1990-01-01

    To investigate whether previously reported changes in venous blood volume and composition induced by acute hypoglycaemia in humans are representative for the entire body we measured erythrocyte 51Cr content, haematocrit, plasma volume, intravascular albumin content and transcapillary escape rate...... hypoglycaemia. The magnitude of the changes in arterial and venous blood were not significantly different. These results indicate that the above changes in blood volume and composition are whole-body phenomena: furthermore, the major part of the changes are likely to occur in tissues other than upper extremity...

  3. Photooptical response of the blood plasma to the low-intensity red light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mints, R.I.; Skopinov, S.A.; Yakovleva, S.V.

    1990-01-01

    Photooptical response to low-intensity red light by irradiation of the whole blood as well as of its pigmentless plasma part is investigated. It is shown by the example of blood irradiation that the mechanism of action of low-intensity red light on the blood is not directly related to pigmented molecular complexes. The conclusion is made, that the effect of low-intensity red light on living organisms includes mechanism not utilizing light absorption by a specialized molecule-photoreceptor as a primary photophysical act

  4. Plasma concentrations of blood coagulation factor VII measured by immunochemical and amidolytic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Gram, J; Jespersen, J

    2000-01-01

    Ever since the coagulant activity of blood coagulation factor VII (FVII:C) was identified as a risk indicator of cardiac death, a large number of studies have measured FVII protein concentrations in plasma. FVII protein concentrations are either measured immunologically with an ELISA method (FVII...

  5. Amperometric Sensor for Heparin: Sensing Mechanism and Application in Human Blood Plasma Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langmaier, Jan; Olšák, J.; Samcová, E.; Samec, Zdeněk; Trojánek, Antonín

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 18, 13-14 (2006), s. 1329-1338 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/04/0424 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : heparin * amperometry * PVC membrane electrode * sensing mechanism * human blood plasma Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.444, year: 2006

  6. Fast blood plasma separation device for point-of-care applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ďurč, P.; Foret, František; Kubáň, Petr

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 183, JUN (2018), s. 55-60 ISSN 0039-9140 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : blood plasma separation * capillary electrophoresis * point of care analysis * methanol * metabolites Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 4.162, year: 2016

  7. Blood plasma separation in ZnO nanoflowers-supported paper based microfluidic for glucose sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhimmah, Luthviyah Choirotul; Roekmono, Hadi, Harsono; Yuwono, Rio Akbar; Wahyuono, Ruri Agung

    2018-04-01

    Blood plasma separation is essential to analyze and quantify the bio-substances in the human blood and hence, allows for diagnosing various diseases. This paper presents the two layer paper-based microfluidic analytical devices coated with ZnO nanoflowers (ZnO NF-µPAD) for a rapid blood plasma separation and glucose sensing. Plasma separation in ZnO NF-µPAD was evaluated experimentally and numerically using computational fluid dynamics package for a flow over porous networks. Glucose detection was carried out using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) measurements. The glucose concentrations in the red blood samples investigated here vary in the range of 150 - 310 mg.dl-1. The plasma separation process on ZnO NF-μPAD requires 240 ± 93 s. The spectroscopic data reveals that the IR absorptions and Raman signals at the typical vibrational frequencies of glucose are increasing at higher glucose concentration. After subtraction from absorption background arising from ZnO NF and the paper, linearly increasing IR absorption (913 and 1349 cm-1) and Raman signals (1346 and 1461 cm-1) are observable with a relatively good sensitivity.

  8. Polarized Raman spectroscopic characterization of normal and oral cancer blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachaiappan, Rekha; Prakasarao, Aruna; Singaravelu, Ganesan

    2017-02-01

    In India oral cancer ranks the top due to the habitual usage of tobacco in its various forms and remains the major burden. Hence priority is given for early diagnosis as it is the better solution for cure or to improve the survival rate. For the past three decades, optical spectroscopic techniques have shown its capacity in the discrimination of normal and malignant samples. Many research works have conventional Raman in the effective detection of cancer using the variations in bond vibrations of the molecules. However in addition polarized Raman provides the orientation and symmetry of biomolecules. If so can polarized Raman be the better choice than the conventional Raman in the detection of cancer? The present study aimed to found the answer for the above query. The conventional and polarized Raman spectra were acquired for the same set of blood plasma samples of normal subjects and oral malignant (OSCC) patients. Thus, obtained Raman spectral data were compared using linear discriminant analysis coupled with artificial neural network (LDA-ANN). The depolarization ratio of biomolecules such as antioxidant, amino acid, protein and nucleic acid bases present in blood plasma was proven to be the best attributes in the categorization of the groups. The polarized Raman results were promising in discriminating oral cancer blood plasma from that of normal blood plasma with improved efficiency. The results will be discussed in detail.

  9. Analysis of multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on DNA traces from plasma and dried blood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catsburg, Arnold; van der Zwet, Wil C.; Morre, Servaas A.; Ouburg, Sander; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.

    2007-01-01

    Reliable analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA derived from samples containing low numbers of cells or from suboptimal sources can be difficult. A new procedure to characterize multiple SNPs in traces of DNA from plasma and old dried blood samples was developed. Six SNPs in the

  10. Hierarchical clustering analysis of blood plasma lipidomics profiles from mono- and dizygotic twin families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draisma, H.H.; Reijmers, T.H.; Meulman, J.J.; Greef, J. van der; Hankemeier, T.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2013-01-01

    Twin and family studies are typically used to elucidate the relative contribution of genetic and environmental variation to phenotypic variation. Here, we apply a quantitative genetic method based on hierarchical clustering, to blood plasma lipidomics data obtained in a healthy cohort consisting of

  11. The effect of colostrum intake on blood plasma proteome profile in newborn lambs: low abundance proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; de Almeida, André Martinho; Ventosa, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Colostrum intake by newborn lambs plays a fundamental role in the perinatal period, ensuring lamb survival. In this study, blood plasma samples from two groups of newborn lambs (Colostrum group and Delayed Colostrum group) at 2 and 14 h after birth were treated to reduce the content of high abund...

  12. Passive blood plasma separation at the microscale: a review of design principles and microdevices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, Siddhartha; Varun Kumar, Y V Bala; Joshi, Suhas S; Agrawal, Amit; Prabhakar, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Blood plasma separation is vital in the field of diagnostics and health care. Due to the inherent advantages obtained in the transition to microscale, the recent trend in these fields is a rapid shift towards the miniaturization of complex macro processes. Plasma separation in microdevices is one such process which has received extensive attention from researchers globally. Blood plasma separation techniques based on microfluidic platforms can be broadly classified into two categories. While active techniques utilize external force fields for separation, the passive techniques are dependent on biophysical effects, cell behavior, hydrodynamic forces and channel geometry for blood plasma separation. In general, passive separation methods are favored in comparison to active methods because they tend to avoid design complexities and are relatively easy to integrate with biosensors; additionally they are cost effective. Here we review passive separation techniques demonstrating separation and blood behavior at microscale. We present an extensive review of relevant biophysical laws, along with experimental details of various passive separation techniques and devices exploiting these physical effects. The relative performances, and the advantages and disadvantages of microdevices discussed in the literature, are compared and future challenges are brought about. (topical review)

  13. Nifedipine effect on the labelling of blood cells and plasma proteins with Tc-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutfilen, B.; Boasquevisque, E.M.; Bernardo Filho, M.

    1988-01-01

    The labeling of red blood cells (RBC) with Tc-99m depends on the presence of stannous ion (Sn) that helps this radionuclide's fixation on the hemoglobin molecule. Nifedipine is an agent capable to block a specific way where calcius (Ca) ion acrosses the cellular membrane and to bind itself on plasma proteins. The effect of nifedipine in the labeling of RBC and plasma proteins with Tc-99m was studied because of similarities between Ca and Sn ions. Blood with anticoagulant was treated with nifedipine concentration of 10 -6 M for 15 min at 37 0 C. The labeling of RBC with Tc-99m was done incubating with Sn ion solution (3 uM) for different times. The % of radioactivity in RBC was determined. Samples of plasma were precipited with trichloroacetic acid and the % of radiocctivity in insoluble fraction was calculated. The same procedure was done using different nifedipine concentrations and the blood was incubated for 60 min with Sn ion. The determination of the % of Tc-99m labeled in RBC and plasma proteins showed that this drug does not have the capability to alter this incorporation because the results are similar to control. It is suggested that the Sn ions passage across RBC is not altered by nifedipine although this drug could bind to plasma protein, it does not modify the Tc-99m fixation on it. (author) [pt

  14. Post-processing in cardiovascular computed tomography. Performance of a client server solution versus a stand-alone solution; Bildnachverarbeitung in der kardiovaskulaeren Computertomografie. Performance von Client-Server- versus Einzelplatzloesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luecke, C.; Foldyna, B.; Andres, C.; Grothoff, M.; Nitzsche, S.; Gutberlet, M.; Lehmkuhl, L. [Leipzig Univ. - Herzzentrum (Germany). Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Boehmer-Lasthaus, S. [Siemens Healthcare Sector, Erlangen (Germany). Imaging and Therapy Div.

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: To compare the performance of server-based (CSS) versus stand-alone post-processing software (ES) for the evaluation of cardiovascular CT examinations (cvCT) and to determine the crucial steps. Data of 40 patients (20 patients for coronary artery evaluation and 20 patients prior to transcatheter aortic valve implantation [TAVI]) were evaluated by 5 radiologists with CSS and ES. Data acquisition was performed using a dual-source 128-row CT unit (SOMATOM Definition Flash, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) and a 64-row CT unit (Brilliance 64, Philips, Hamburg, Germany). The following workflow was evaluated: Data loading, aorta and coronary segmentation, curved multiplanar reconstruction (cMPR) and 3 D volume rendering technique (3D-VRT), measuring of coronary artery stenosis and planimetry of the aortic annulus. The time requirement and subjective quality for the workflow were evaluated. The coronary arteries as well as the TAVI data could be evaluated significantly faster with CSS (5.5 ± 2.9 min and 8.2 ± 4.0 min, respectively) than with ES (13.9 ± 5.2 min and 15.2 ± 10.9 min, respectively, p = 0.01). Segmentation of the aorta (CSS: 1.9 ± 2.0 min, ES: 3.7 ± 3.3 min), generating cMPR of coronaries (CSS: 0.5 ± 0.2 min, ES: 5.1 ± 2.6 min), aorta and iliac vessels (CSS: 0.5 ± 0.4 min and 0.4 ± 0.4 min, respectively, ES: 1.6 ± 0.7 min and 2.8 ± 3 min, respectively) could be performed significantly faster with CSS than with ES with higher quality of cMPR, measuring of coronary stenosis and 3D-VRT (p < 0.05). Evaluation of cvCT can be accomplished significantly faster and better with CSS than with ES. The segmentation remains the most time-consuming workflow step, so optimization of segmentation algorithms could improve performance even further.

  15. [Application of a stand-alone interbody fusion cage based on a novel porous TiO2/glass composite. I. Implantation in the sheep cervical spine and radiological evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korinth, M C; Hero, T; Mahnken, A H; Ragoss, C; Scherer, K

    2004-12-01

    Animals are becoming more and more common as in vitro and in vivo models for the human spine. Especially the sheep cervical spine is stated to be of good comparability and usefulness in the evaluation of in vivo radiological, biomechanical and histological behaviour of new bone replacement materials, implants and cages for cervical spine interbody fusion. In preceding biomechanical in vitro examination human cervical spine specimens were tested after fusion with either a cubical stand-alone interbody fusion cage manufactured from a new porous TiO/glass composite (Ecopore) or polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) after discectomy. First experience with the use of the new material and its influence on the primary stability after in vitro application were gained. After fusion of 10 sheep cervical spines in the levels C2/3 and C4/5 in each case with PMMA and with an Ecopore-cage, radiologic as well as computertomographic examinations were performed postoperatively and every 4 weeks during the following 2 and 4 months, respectively. Apart from establishing our animal model, we analysed the radiological changes and the degree of bony fusion of the operated segments during the course. In addition we performed measurements of the corresponding disc space heights (DSH) and intervertebral angles (IVA) for comparison among each other, during the course and with the initial values. Immediately after placement of both implants in the disc spaces the mean DSH and IVA increased (34.8% and 53.9%, respectively). During the following months DSH decreased to a greater extent in the Ecopore-segments than in the PMMA-segments, even to a value below the initial value (p>0.05). Similarly, the IVA decreased in both groups in the postoperative time lapse, but more distinct in the Ecopore-segments (pmodel of the sheep cervical spine. Distinct radiological changes regarding evident subsidence and detectable fusion of the segments, operated on with the new biomaterial, were seen. We demonstrated the

  16. STAND-ALONE WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEM WITH MAXIMUM POWER TRANSFER CONTROL SISTEMA AISLADO DE CONVERSIÓN EÓLICA CON CONTROL DE MÁXIMA TRANSFERENCIA DE POTENCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel López

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A controlled wind generation system for a stand alone application is presented in this paper. A cascaded step-up/step-down power electronic converters topology is proposed to control the wind power system in the whole wind speed range. For the low wind speed range, the control strategy is aimed to follow the wind turbine’s maximal power coefficient by adjusting the generator’s rotational speed. For high wind speeds, the system power regulation is also made by controlling the generator speed. This control is made by the DC/DC power electronic converter, which modifies its input voltage, changing the machine voltage and consequently varying the generator’s rotor speed. The proposed system is validated by computer simulation. The proposed control system shows a good performance for its application in autonomous wind energy systems.Un sistema de generación eólica para una aplicación aislada es presentado en este artículo. Una topología de convertidores electrónicos de potencia elevador y reductor conectados en cascada es propuesta para controlar la producción eólica en todo el rango de velocidades del viento. Para el rango de vientos suaves, la estrategia de control permite seguir el máximo coeficiente de potencia de turbina eólica mediante el ajuste de la velocidad de rotación del generador. En el rango de vientos fuertes, la regulación de la potencia del sistema se hace igualmente por control de la velocidad de giro del generador. La acción de control es realizada mediante el convertidor DC/DC de potencia el cual modifica su tensión de entrada, cambiando así la tensión en los terminales de la máquina y por consecuencia variando la velocidad de rotación del generador. El sistema propuesto es validado mediante simulación por computador. Los resultados muestran que el sistema de control propuesto actúa de buena manera para su aplicación en sistemas autónomos de generación eólica.

  17. Single injection 51Cr EDTA plasma clearance determination in children using capillary blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broechner-Mortensen, J.; Christoffersen, J.

    1977-01-01

    The reliability of a determination of the total 51 Cr EDTA plasma clearance (e) (and with it the glomerular filtration rate), by a simplified single injection method (injected dose: 4.5 μCi per kg b.w.) using capillary blood samples (0.2 ml), was investigated in twenty children. Clearance values determined from capillary blood samples did not differ significantly from those measured simultaneously from venous blood samples, the mean ratio+-SD being 1.02+-0.06(n = 10). The reproducibility (total day-to-day variation) of E determined from capillary blood samples was 6.7% in children with decreased renal function (n = 3) and 6.9% in children with normal renal function (n = 7). The present data indicate that the use of capillary blood samples is an accurate and very precise approach for determination of E in children. (Auth.)

  18. Plasma surface reflectance spectroscopy for non-invasive and continuous monitoring of extracellular component of blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakota, Daisuke; Takatani, Setsuo

    2012-04-01

    To achieve the quantitative optical non-invasive diagnosis of blood during extracorporeal circulation therapies, the instrumental technique to extract extracellular spectra from whole blood was developed. In the circuit, the continuous blood flow was generated by a centrifugal blood pump. The oxygen saturation was maintained 100% by an oxygenator. The developed glass optical flow cell was attached to the outlet tubing of the oxygenator. The halogen lamp including the light from 400 to 900 nm wavelength was used for the light source. The light was guided into an optical fiber. The light emitted by the fiber was collimated and emitted to the flow cell flat surface at the incident angle of 45 degrees. The light just reflected on the boundary between inner surface of the flow cell and plasma at 45 degrees was detected by the detection fiber. The detected light was analyzed by a spectral photometer. The obtained spectrum from 400 to 600nm wavelength was not changed with respect to the hematocrit. In contrast, the signal in the spectral range was changed when the plasma free hemoglobin increased. By using two spectral range, 505+/-5 nm and 542.5+/-2.5 nm, the differential spectrum was correlated with the free hemoglobin at R2=0.99. On the other hand, as for the hematocrit, the differential spectrum was not correlated at R2=0.01. Finally, the plasma free hemoglobin was quantified with the accuracy of 22+/-19mg/dL. The result shows that the developed plasma surface reflectance spectroscopy (PSRS) can extract the plasma spectrum from flowing whole blood.

  19. Silenced uses and moral ideals in the exchange of Danish blood and plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheikh, Zainab Afshan; Deleuran, Ida; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the interplay between cultural discourses, moral reasoning and silenced uses in the international exchange of Danish blood plasma. Campaigns, policymakers, health professionals working in the blood banks – and even donors – consistently refer to ideals portraying blood....... However, we find that available cultural discourses poorly capture the moral reasoning among many donors. In fact, when informed about the existing forms of tender, plasma trade sounds like a good idea to most of them. Furthermore, they are not particularly interested in information. We argue...... that the silencing of trade is infusing the system with an unnecessary vulnerability that could easily be avoided with a different communication strategy towards donors. To arrive at new and better strategies, however, one must move beyond the immediate words and reactions of donors contemplating trade and seek...

  20. Inhibitors of serotonin reuptake and specific imipramine binding in human blood plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusov, O.S.; Fomenko, A.M.; Katasonov, A.B.; Lidemann, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a method of extraction of endogenous inhibitors of specific IMI binding and of 5-HT reuptake, from human blood plasma and the heterogeneity of these compounds is demonstrated. Specific binding was determined as the difference between binding of 3 H-IMI in the absence and in the presence of 50 microM IMI. Under these conditions, specific binding amounted to 70-80% of total binding of 3 H-IMI. It is shown that extract obtained from human blood contains a material which inhibits dose-dependently both 5-HT reuptake and specific binding of 3 H-IMI. Gel-chromatography of extracts of human blood plasma on Biogel P-2 is also shown

  1. Hormonal Influence on Coenzyme Q10 Levels in Blood Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Pontecorvi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, also known as ubiquinone for its presence in all body cells, is an essential part of the cell energy-producing system. However, it is also a powerful lipophilic antioxidant protecting lipoproteins and cell membranes. Due to these two actions, CoQ10 is commonly used in clinical practice in chronic heart failure, male infertility, and neurodegenerative disease. However, it is also taken as an anti-aging substance by healthy people aiming for long-term neuroprotection and by sportsmen to improve endurance. Many hormones are known to be involved in body energy regulation, in terms of production, consumption and dissipation, and their influence on CoQ10 body content or blood values may represent an important pathophysiological mechanism. We summarize the main findings of the literature about the link between hormonal systems and circulating CoQ10 levels. In particular the role of thyroid hormones, directly involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, is discussed. There is also a link with gonadal and adrenal hormones, partially due to the common biosynthetic pathway with CoQ10, but also to the increased oxidative stress found in hypogonadism and hypoadrenalism.

  2. Information content of the space-frequency filtering of blood plasma layers laser images in the diagnosis of pathological changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushenko, A. G.; Boychuk, T. M.; Mincer, O. P.; Bodnar, G. B.; Kushnerick, L. Ya.; Savich, V. O.

    2013-12-01

    The bases of method of the space-frequency of the filtering phase allocation of blood plasma pellicle are given here. The model of the optical-anisotropic properties of the albumen chain of blood plasma pellicle with regard to linear and circular double refraction of albumen and globulin crystals is proposed. Comparative researches of the effectiveness of methods of the direct polarized mapping of the azimuth images of blood plasma pcllicle layers and space-frequency polarimetry of the laser radiation transformed by divaricate and holelikc optical-anisotropic chains of blood plasma pellicles were held. On the basis of the complex statistic, correlative and fracta.1 analysis of the filtered frcquencydimensional polarizing azimuth maps of the blood plasma pellicles structure a set of criteria of the change of the double refraction of the albumen chains caused by the prostate cancer was traced and proved.

  3. Development of bio/blood compatible polypropylene through low pressure nitrogen plasma surface modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomathi, N.; Rajasekar, R.; Babu, R. Rajesh; Mishra, Debasish; Neogi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Surface modification of polypropylene by nitrogen containing plasma was performed in this work in order to improve the wettability which resulted in enhanced biocompatibility and blood compatibility. Various nitrogen containing functional groups as well as oxygen containing functional groups were found to be incorporated to the polymer surface during plasma treatment and post plasma reaction respectively. Wettability of the polymers was evaluated by static contact angle measurement to show the improvement in hydrophilicity of plasma treated polypropylene. Cross linking and surface modification were reported to be dominating in the case of nitrogen plasma treatment compared to degradation. The effect of various process variables namely power, pressure, flow rate and treatment time on surface energy and weight loss was studied at various levels according to the central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM). Except pressure the other variables resulted in increased weight loss due to etching whereas with increasing pressure weight loss was found to increase and then decrease. The effect of process variables on surface morphology of polymers was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Well spread fibroblast cells on nitrogen plasma treated polypropylene due to the presence of CO, NH 2+ and NH + was observed. Reduced platelet adhesion and increased partial thromboplastin time evidenced the increased blood compatibility. - Highlights: ► Improved biocompatibility and blood compatibility of polypropylene. ► Nitrogen plasma surface modification. ► Maintaining a balance between polar group incorporation and weight loss due to etching. ► Optimization of process conditions by response surface methodology.

  4. [Demography and donation frequencies of blood and plasma donor populations in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Sabine; Willand, L; Reinhard, B; Offergeld, R; Hamouda, O

    2008-08-01

    According to Article 22 of the Transfusion Act, the Robert Koch Institute collects and evaluates nationwide data on the prevalence and incidence of transfusion-relevant infections among blood and plasma donors in Germany. Due to revision of the Transfusion Act in 2005 not only the number of donations but also the number of donors has become available for analysis. Here we give a detailed account on the demographic profile and donation frequencies of German whole blood, plasma and platelet donors in 2006. Overall, 4 % of the German population eligible to donate were active as repeat whole blood donors in 2006; 0.3 % repeatedly donated plasma or platelets. Irrespective of the type of donation, the percentage of donors among the general population was highest among the youngest age group (18 to 24 years). While the age distribution of whole blood repeat donors roughly resembled that of the general population, with the greatest number among those aged 35 to 44, younger age groups were overrepresented among repeat plasma donors. Donation frequency varied depending on donor age and sex, with an average of 1.9 per year for whole blood donations, 11.9 for plasmapheresis and 4.0 for plateletpheresis. With the exception of the latter, men donated more frequently than women. For both sexes, donation frequency increased with age. Detailed knowledge of the demographic profile and changes in the composition of donor populations are essential for planning adequate blood supply. The data presented may serve as reference for assessing the consequences of measures that affect the number of donors and/or donations (for example changing deferral criteria) in Germany.

  5. Measurement of Epstein-Barr virus DNA loads in whole blood and plasma by TaqMan PCR and in peripheral blood lymphocytes by competitive PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadowsky, Robert M; Laus, Stella; Green, Michael; Webber, Steven A; Rowe, David

    2003-11-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA load values were measured in samples of whole blood (n = 60) and plasma (n = 59) by TaqMan PCR and in samples of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) (n = 60) by competitive PCR (cPCR). The samples were obtained from 44 transplant recipients. The whole-blood and PBL loads correlated highly (r(2) > 0.900), whereas the plasma and PBL loads correlated poorly (r(2) = 0.512). Testing of whole blood by TaqMan PCR is an acceptable alternative to testing of PBLs by cPCR for quantifying EBV DNA load.

  6. Blood compatibility of gas plasma-treated diamond-like carbon surface-Effect of physicochemical properties of DLC surface on blood compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Akira; Ogawa, Tatsuhisa; Okamoto, Keishi; Nakatani, Tatsuyuki; Nitta, Yuki

    2011-01-01

    From the knowledge that zwitterion-type polymers show good blood compatibility, the introduction of both cationic and anionic functional groups onto diamond-like carbon (DLC) surface is expected to improve blood compatibility. Thus, DLC films were treated with oxygen and ammonia gas plasmas. The surfaces were characterized in terms of chemical composition by XPS, contact angle, and zeta potential. XPS analysis showed the introductions of a carboxyl group by oxygen plasma treatment and nitrogen atoms by ammonia plasma treatment. The evaluation of blood compatibility for the DLC surfaces was carried out in terms of platelets and the coagulation system. Excellent improvement of platelet compatibility was observed by the treatment with the gas plasmas, regardless of the plasma species. As for the compatibility with the coagulation system, DLC surfaces with a high concentration of carboxyl groups (COOH) markedly activated the system via the intrinsic pathway. However, the surfaces treated with ammonia plasma did not activate the system even though they had high COOH concentration. Measurement of the zeta potential revealed that the ammonia plasma treatment raised the potential from a negative value to a positive one. Though the introduction of amino groups to the surface was not detected directly, the treatment of ammonia plasma changed the electrical state of the DLC surface having COOH group, causing a difference in blood compatibility among the DLCs obtained by various plasma conditions.

  7. Plasma selenium levels in healthy blood bank donors in the central-eastern part of Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cauwenbergh, Rudy; Robberecht, Harry; Van Vlaslaer, Veerle; De Smet, Annie; Emonds, Marie-Paule; Hermans, Nina

    2007-01-01

    Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, with Zeeman background correction and after improved matrix modification, was used to measure the plasma selenium content of healthy blood bank donors in the central part of Belgium. The mean plasma selenium concentration of 80 men and 80 women was 79.7+/-4.4ng/mL with a range of 55.0-117.4ng/mL. There was no gender difference observed. Plasma selenium level was significantly highest for the adult group, aged 45-64 years, compared to the others, except the young adults (18-24 years). The mean plasma selenium concentration measured corresponded well with literature data for Belgium. The obtained values were found to be in the medium range, compared with recent literature values for the European countries.

  8. Measurement of apolipoprotein B radioactivity in whole blood plasma by precipitation with isopropanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, N.; Havel, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    A method to measure apolipoprotein B radioactivity in whole blood plasma is described that is suitable for routine use in kinetic experiments in vivo. Radiolabeled apolipoprotein B is precipitated from plasma diluted 15- to 30-fold in the presence of carrier low density lipoproteins by 50% isopropanol. The amount of radioiodine in apoB is estimated from the difference between total radioiodine concentration in whole plasma and the fraction soluble in 50% isopropanol. Addition of up to 100 microliters of plasma to radioiodinated lipoproteins did not alter the percent of radioiodine precipitated in 1500 microliters of 50% isopropanol. The percent of radioiodine precipitated by isopropanol 3 min after intravenous injection of homologous radioiodinated very low density lipoproteins, intermediate density lipoproteins, and low density lipoproteins into rabbits was almost identical to that in the injected lipoproteins (y = 1.009 X +/- 0.462; r = 0.997)

  9. Discrepant fibrinolytic response in plasma and whole blood during experimental endotoxemia in healthy volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisse R Ostrowski

    Full Text Available Sepsis induces early activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis followed by late fibrinolytic shutdown and progressive endothelial damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the functional hemostatic response in whole blood and plasma during experimental human endotoxemia by the platelet function analyzer, Multiplate and by standard and modified thrombelastography (TEG.Prospective physiologic study of nine healthy male volunteers undergoing endotoxemia by means of a 4-hour infusion of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.5 ng/kg/hour, with blood sampled at baseline and at 4 h and 6 h. Physiological and standard biochemical data and coagulation tests, TEG (whole blood: TEG, heparinase-TEG, Functional Fibrinogen; plasma: TEG±tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA and Multiplate (TRAPtest, ADPtest, ASPItest, COLtest were recorded. Mixed models with Tukey post hoc tests and correlations were applied.Endotoxemia induced acute SIRS with increased HR, temperature, WBC, CRP and procalcitonin and decreased blood pressure. It also induced a hemostatic response with platelet consumption and reduced APTT while INR increased (all p<0.05. Platelet aggregation decreased (all tests, p<0.05, whereas TEG whole blood clot firmness increased (G, p = 0.05. Furthermore, during endotoxemia (4 h, whole blood fibrinolysis increased (clot lysis time (CLT, p<0.001 and Functional Fibrinogen clot strength decreased (p = 0.049. After endotoxemia (6 h, whole blood fibrinolysis was reduced (CLT, p<0.05. In contrast to findings in whole blood, the plasma fibrin clot became progressively more resistant towards tPA-induced fibrinolysis at both 4 h and 6 h (p<0.001.Endotoxemia induced a hemostatic response with reduced primary but enhanced secondary hemostasis, enhanced early fibrinolysis and fibrinogen consumption followed by downregulation of fibrinolysis, with a discrepant fibrinolytic response in plasma and whole blood. The finding that blood cells are

  10. Intestinal Microbiota-Derived Metabolomic Blood Plasma Markers for Prior Radiation Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ó Broin, Pilib; Vaitheesvaran, Bhavapriya; Saha, Subhrajit; Hartil, Kirsten; Chen, Emily I.; Goldman, Devorah; Fleming, William Harv; Kurland, Irwin J.; Guha, Chandan; Golden, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Assessing whole-body radiation injury and absorbed dose is essential for remediation efforts following accidental or deliberate exposure in medical, industrial, military, or terrorist incidents. We hypothesize that variations in specific metabolite concentrations extracted from blood plasma would correlate with whole-body radiation injury and dose. Methods and Materials: Groups of C57BL/6 mice (n=12 per group) were exposed to 0, 2, 4, 8, and 10.4 Gy of whole-body gamma radiation. At 24 hours after treatment, all animals were euthanized, and both plasma and liver biopsy samples were obtained, the latter being used to identify a distinct hepatic radiation injury response within plasma. A semiquantitative, untargeted metabolite/lipid profile was developed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, which identified 354 biochemical compounds. A second set of C57BL/6 mice (n=6 per group) were used to assess a subset of identified plasma markers beyond 24 hours. Results: We identified a cohort of 37 biochemical compounds in plasma that yielded the optimal separation of the irradiated sample groups, with the most correlated metabolites associated with pyrimidine (positively correlated) and tryptophan (negatively correlated) metabolism. The latter were predominantly associated with indole compounds, and there was evidence that these were also correlated between liver and plasma. No evidence of saturation as a function of dose was observed, as has been noted for studies involving metabolite analysis of urine. Conclusions: Plasma profiling of specific metabolites related to pyrimidine and tryptophan pathways can be used to differentiate whole-body radiation injury and dose response. As the tryptophan-associated indole compounds have their origin in the intestinal microbiome and subsequently the liver, these metabolites particularly represent an attractive marker for radiation injury within blood plasma

  11. Intestinal Microbiota-Derived Metabolomic Blood Plasma Markers for Prior Radiation Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ó Broin, Pilib [Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Department of Mathematical Sciences, Yeshiva University, New York, New York (United States); Vaitheesvaran, Bhavapriya [Department of Medicine, Diabetes Center, Stable Isotope and Metabolomics Core Facility, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Saha, Subhrajit [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Hartil, Kirsten [Department of Medicine, Diabetes Center, Stable Isotope and Metabolomics Core Facility, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Chen, Emily I. [Department of Pharmacology, Proteomics Shared Resource, Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Goldman, Devorah; Fleming, William Harv [Department of Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Kurland, Irwin J. [Department of Medicine, Diabetes Center, Stable Isotope and Metabolomics Core Facility, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Guha, Chandan, E-mail: cguha@montefiore.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Golden, Aaron, E-mail: aaron.golden@einstein.yu.edu [Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Department of Mathematical Sciences, Yeshiva University, New York, New York (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Assessing whole-body radiation injury and absorbed dose is essential for remediation efforts following accidental or deliberate exposure in medical, industrial, military, or terrorist incidents. We hypothesize that variations in specific metabolite concentrations extracted from blood plasma would correlate with whole-body radiation injury and dose. Methods and Materials: Groups of C57BL/6 mice (n=12 per group) were exposed to 0, 2, 4, 8, and 10.4 Gy of whole-body gamma radiation. At 24 hours after treatment, all animals were euthanized, and both plasma and liver biopsy samples were obtained, the latter being used to identify a distinct hepatic radiation injury response within plasma. A semiquantitative, untargeted metabolite/lipid profile was developed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, which identified 354 biochemical compounds. A second set of C57BL/6 mice (n=6 per group) were used to assess a subset of identified plasma markers beyond 24 hours. Results: We identified a cohort of 37 biochemical compounds in plasma that yielded the optimal separation of the irradiated sample groups, with the most correlated metabolites associated with pyrimidine (positively correlated) and tryptophan (negatively correlated) metabolism. The latter were predominantly associated with indole compounds, and there was evidence that these were also correlated between liver and plasma. No evidence of saturation as a function of dose was observed, as has been noted for studies involving metabolite analysis of urine. Conclusions: Plasma profiling of specific metabolites related to pyrimidine and tryptophan pathways can be used to differentiate whole-body radiation injury and dose response. As the tryptophan-associated indole compounds have their origin in the intestinal microbiome and subsequently the liver, these metabolites particularly represent an attractive marker for radiation injury within blood plasma.

  12. Intestinal microbiota-derived metabolomic blood plasma markers for prior radiation injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ó Broin, Pilib; Vaitheesvaran, Bhavapriya; Saha, Subhrajit; Hartil, Kirsten; Chen, Emily I; Goldman, Devorah; Fleming, William Harv; Kurland, Irwin J; Guha, Chandan; Golden, Aaron

    2015-02-01

    Assessing whole-body radiation injury and absorbed dose is essential for remediation efforts following accidental or deliberate exposure in medical, industrial, military, or terrorist incidents. We hypothesize that variations in specific metabolite concentrations extracted from blood plasma would correlate with whole-body radiation injury and dose. Groups of C57BL/6 mice (n=12 per group) were exposed to 0, 2, 4, 8, and 10.4 Gy of whole-body gamma radiation. At 24 hours after treatment, all animals were euthanized, and both plasma and liver biopsy samples were obtained, the latter being used to identify a distinct hepatic radiation injury response within plasma. A semiquantitative, untargeted metabolite/lipid profile was developed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, which identified 354 biochemical compounds. A second set of C57BL/6 mice (n=6 per group) were used to assess a subset of identified plasma markers beyond 24 hours. We identified a cohort of 37 biochemical compounds in plasma that yielded the optimal separation of the irradiated sample groups, with the most correlated metabolites associated with pyrimidine (positively correlated) and tryptophan (negatively correlated) metabolism. The latter were predominantly associated with indole compounds, and there was evidence that these were also correlated between liver and plasma. No evidence of saturation as a function of dose was observed, as has been noted for studies involving metabolite analysis of urine. Plasma profiling of specific metabolites related to pyrimidine and tryptophan pathways can be used to differentiate whole-body radiation injury and dose response. As the tryptophan-associated indole compounds have their origin in the intestinal microbiome and subsequently the liver, these metabolites particularly represent an attractive marker for radiation injury within blood plasma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Blood plasma proteins and protein fractions in roe deer Capreolus capreolus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota CYGAN-SZCZEGIELNIAK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to investigate some selected biochemical blood parameters in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.. The experiment covered 15 from 2 to 3-year-old bucks from Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship. The animals were shot by individual hunters on the shooting grounds during the hunting season of 2008/2009 (in the accordance with the Journal of Laws No 48. The material for the research was blood plasma obtained after centrifuging full, nonhemolyzed blood. The blood was collected from the zygomatic vein directly to the test tubes with EDTA and transported in cooling conditions to the laboratory. After transporting the samples of blood to a certified analytical laboratory, the following elements of the obtained blood plasma were examined: ceruloplasmin . using turbidimetric method; transferrin . using immunoturbimetric method; troponin- using a third generation assay on an Elecsys; total protein, albumin, globulin . using spectrophotometric method and total iron . using colorimetric method. The results were statistically analyzed, i.e. the correlation between the parameters was measured by means of Pearsonfs correlation coefficient. The analysis of the results revealed a number of statistically significant relations between the parameters under the investigation, especially among the compounds directly responsible for metabolism of iron and copper. A statistically important positive correlation was observed between ceruloplasmin and ferritin (r = 0.563; P.0.05 and a negative one between transferrin and troponin (r = -0.609; P.0.05. Moreover, the content of transferrin . an iron-binding protein . was 0.17 g/l, while the concentration of iron was 58 ƒĘmol/l. The content of ceruloplasmin . a protein responsible for metabolism of copper . was very low (0.036 g/l. The level of proteins in the blood plasma of the animals under the research was approximately 72 g/l, with the share of albumins about 46%. The albumin-globulin ratio was 0.86.

  14. Basic characteristics of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF): blood cell components and biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Kazuhiko; Okudera, Toshimitsu; Watanabe, Taisuke; Isobe, Kazushige; Suzuki, Masashi; Masuki, Hideo; Okudera, Hajime; Uematsu, Kohya; Nakata, Koh; Kawase, Tomoyuki

    2016-11-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is widely used in regenerative medicine because of its high concentrations of various growth factors and platelets. However, the distribution of blood cell components has not been investigated in either PRP or other PRP derivatives. In this study, we focused on plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF), a PRP derivative, and analyzed the distributions of platelets and white blood cells (WBCs). Peripheral blood samples were collected from healthy volunteers ( N  = 14) and centrifuged to prepare PRGF and PRP. Blood cells were counted using an automated hematology analyzer. The effects of PRP and PRGF preparations on cell proliferation were determined using human periosteal cells. In the PRGF preparations, both red blood cells and WBCs were almost completely eliminated, and platelets were concentrated by 2.84-fold, whereas in the PRP preparations, both platelets and WBCs were similarly concentrated by 8.79- and 5.51-fold, respectively. Platelet counts in the PRGF preparations were positively correlated with platelet counts in the whole blood samples, while the platelet concentration rate was negatively correlated with red blood cell counts in the whole blood samples. In contrast, platelet counts and concentration rates in the PRP preparations were significantly influenced by WBC counts in whole blood samples. The PRP preparations, but not the PRGF preparations, significantly suppressed cell growth at higher doses in vitro. Therefore, these results suggest that PRGF preparations can clearly be distinguished from PRP preparations by both inclusion of WBCs and dose-dependent stimulation of periosteal cell proliferation in vitro.

  15. The feed gas composition determines the degree of physical plasma-induced platelet activation for blood coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekeschus, Sander; Brüggemeier, Janik; Hackbarth, Christine; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; von Woedtke, Thomas; Partecke, Lars-Ivo; van der Linde, Julia

    2018-03-01

    Cold atmospheric (physical) plasma has long been suggested to be a useful tool for blood coagulation. However, the clinical applicability of this approach has not been addressed sufficiently. We have previously demonstrated the ability of a clinically accepted atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet (kINPen® MED) to coagulate liver incisions in mice with similar performance compared to the gold standard electrocauterization. We could show that plasma-mediated blood coagulation was dependent on platelet activation. In the present work, we extended on this by investigating kINPen®-mediated platelet activation in anticoagulated human donor blood ex vivo. With focus on establishing high-throughput, multi-parametric platelet activation assays and performing argon feed gas parameter studies we achieved the following results: (i) plasma activated platelets in heparinized but not in EDTA-anticoagulated blood; (ii) plasma decreased total platelet counts but increased numbers of microparticles; (iii) plasma elevated the expression of several surface activation markers on platelets (CD62P, CD63, CD69, and CD41/61); (iv) in platelet activation, wet and dry argon plasma outperformed feed gas admixtures with oxygen and/or nitrogen; (v) plasma-mediated platelet activation was accompanied by platelet aggregation. Platelet aggregation is a necessary requirement for blood clot formation. These findings are important to further elucidate molecular details and clinical feasibility of cold physical plasma-mediated blood coagulation.

  16. Disturbance of binding of corticosteroids with blood plasma proteins during acute radiation sickness of different experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroz, B.B.; Omel'chuk, N.N.

    1979-01-01

    In experiments on different animals a study was made of the effect of total-body γ-irradiation on binding of corticosteroids with blood plasma proteins. It was demonstrated that the increase in the number of physiologically active corticosteroids at the peak of radiation sickness is due to diminution of linking ability of corticosteroid-binding globulin of blood plasma and independent ot the total concentration of hormones in blood which is, evidently, a general radiobiological law

  17. HEMOFILTRATION AND COUPLED PLASMA FILTRATION ADSORPTION IMPACT ON TACROLIMUS BLOOD CONCENTRATION IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Vatazin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the effect of hemofi ltration and coupled plasma fi ltration adsorption on tacrolimus blood concentration in renal transplant recipients.Methods and results. The study included 8 renal transplant recipients. In these patients immediately after the operation was performed the coupled plasma fi ltration adsorption with hemofiltration using a cartridge Mediasorb to reduce the severity of reperfusion injury. We have found that during this extracorporeal blood correction procedure there was statistically not signifi cant decrease of tacrolimus blood concentration. However, concentration of tacrolimus remained in the therapeutic range even after the procedure and it was not signifi cantly different from the control point С0.Conclusion. Coupled plasma fi ltration adsorption is safe in renal transplant recipients and has no signifi cant impact on tacrolimus blood concentration. However, the downward trend in the concentration of tacrolimus in the course of these procedures, especially in continuous or semicontinuous mode, as well as in patients with low hematocrit and hypoalbuminemia, requires individual monitoring.

  18. The determination of phenazone in blood plasma for obtained sistem suitable test of monitoring drug level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Lazuardi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The determining of Phenazone to human blood plasma from healthy man after separated by solid phase extraction (SPE and spectroscopic measurements has been investigated. The objective of that research was to obtain system suitable test for determine the Phenazone level in biological fluids (human blood plasma, for new performed dosage regimented in clinical dentistry. The method can be divided into the following four steps. 1. Centrifugation the blood sample, 2. Extraction from blood plasma and, 3. Separation by SPE with manual pressured, 4. Elution to SPE followed by the measurement on a spectrophotometer in the ultra violet region. The critical value of  │t │at the 5% confidence level indicates that there is no systematic error in the linearity proposed method. Recoveries for this research were obtained at ranging 93.460 to 95.598%. The coefficient variation precision of this procedure was clearly good at smallest than 2%. The analytical procedure can be carried out in one working operation as a monitored therapeutic activity.

  19. Effect of Low Dose Gamma Radiation on Some Biochemical Indicators in the Blood Plasma of Chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraljevic, P.; Simpraga, M.; Vilic, M.; Miljanic, S.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: An attempt was made to determine the effect of irradiation of eggs by low dose ionising radiation before incubation on concentration of total protein, glucose and cholesterol in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. The eggs of heavy breeding chickens were irradiated by dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation ( 60 Co) before incubation. Along with the chickens which were hatched from irradiated eggs, there was the control group of chickens hatched from nonirradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for the both groups. After hatching, blood samples were taken from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20, 30 and 42. The concentration of all three parameters was determined spectrophotometrically using Boehringer Mannheim GmbH optimized kits. The concentration of total protein was significantly decreased in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs on days 3, 7 and 30 and increased only on day 5. The concentration of glucose in the blood plasma was increased in the same chickens on days 1 and 30. The concentration of the cholesterol was decreased in the same chickens on day 7, and increased on day 10. Obtained results indicate that low-dose of gamma radiation has effects on some metabolic processes in the chickens hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation. (author)

  20. Blood plasma lipidomic signature of epicardial fat in healthy obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Max; Montoliu, Ivan; Qanadli, Salah D; Collino, Sebastiano; Rezzi, Serge; Kussmann, Martin; Giusti, Vittorio; Martin, François-Pierre J

    2015-01-01

    A lipidomic approach was employed in a clinically well-defined cohort of healthy obese women to explore blood lipidome phenotype ascribed to body fat deposition, with emphasis on epicardial adipose tissue (EAT). The present investigation delivered a lipidomics signature of epicardial adiposity under healthy clinical conditions using a cohort of 40 obese females (age: 25-45 years, BMI: 28-40 kg/m(2) ) not showing any metabolic disease traits. Lipidomics analysis of blood plasma was employed in combination with in vivo quantitation of mediastinal fat depots by computerized tomography. All cardiac fat depots correlated to indicators of hepatic dysfunctions (ALAT and ASAT), which describe physiological connections between hepatic and cardiac steatosis. Plasma lipidomics encompassed overall levels of lipid classes, fatty acid profiles, and individual lipid species. EAT and visceral fat associated with diacylglycerols (DAG), triglycerides, and distinct phospholipid and sphingolipid species. A pattern of DAG and phosphoglycerols was specific to EAT. Human blood plasma lipidomics appears to be a promising clinical and potentially diagnostic readout for patient stratification and monitoring. Association of blood lipidomics signature to regio-specific mediastinal and visceral adiposity under healthy clinical conditions may help provide more biological insights into obese patient stratification for cardiovascular disease risks. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  1. Stability of magnetite nanoparticles with different coatings in a simulated blood plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favela-Camacho, Sarai E.; Pérez-Robles, J. Francisco [Center for Research and Advanced Studies of National Polytechnic Institute, CINVESTAV-Querétaro Unit (Mexico); García-Casillas, Perla E. [Autonomous University of Juarez, Department of Materials Science, Institute of Engineering and Technology (Mexico); Godinez-Garcia, Andrés, E-mail: andgodinez@xanum.uam.mx [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Departamento de Ingeniería de Procesos e Hidráulica (Mexico)

    2016-07-15

    Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) have demonstrated to be a potential platform for simultaneous anticancer drug delivery and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, magnetite is unstable at the blood plasma conditions. Therefore, to study their stability in a broad range of particle size, the MNPs were synthesized using two methods, the fast injection co-precipitation method (FIC) and the reflux co-precipitation method (RC). The MNPs obtained by the RC and the FIC methods have an average size of agglomerates of 200 and 45 nm respectively. They were dispersed using sodium citrate as surfactant and were coated with silica and chitosan. A total of four kind of coated MNPs were synthesized: magnetite/sodium citrate, magnetite/silica, magnetite/sodium citrate/silica and magnetite/sodium citrate/silica/chitosan. Different samples of the coated MNPs were immersed in a simulated blood plasma solution (Phosphate-Buffered Saline, PBS, Gibco{sup ®}), for periods of 24, 48 and 72 h. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) technique was used to analyze the composition of the simulated plasma after those periods of time. The obtained results suggest that the uncoated samples showed an appreciable weight loss, and the iron composition in the simulated plasma increased. This last means that the used coatings avoid iron dissolution from the MNPs.Graphical abstract.

  2. Fish oil affects blood pressure and the plasma lipid profile in healthy Danish infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C.T.; Schack-Nielsen, L.; Michaelsen, K.F.

    2006-01-01

    with an oscillometric device, and blood was sampled for analysis of erythrocyte fatty acid composition and the plasma lipid profile. This paper examines the effects of the fish oil supplement, with adjustment for the effects of the milk intervention when relevant. The fish oil intervention increased erythrocyte (n-3......Animal and epidemiologic studies indicate that early nutrition has lasting effects on metabolism and cardiovascular disease risk. In adults, (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils improve blood pressure, the lipid profile, and possibly cardiovascular disease mortality. This randomized trial...... is the first to investigate the effects of fish oil on blood pressure and the lipid profile in infancy. Healthy term 9-mo old infants In 83) were randomly assigned to 5 mL fish oil daily or no fish oil for 3 mo and to 2 different milk types. Before and after the intervention, blood pressure was measured...

  3. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Cold Plasma Plume Mixing with Blood Using Level Set Method Coupled with Heat Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Shahmohammadi Beni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cold plasmas were proposed for treatment of leukemia. In the present work, conceptual designs of mixing chambers that increased the contact between the two fluids (plasma and blood through addition of obstacles within rectangular-block-shaped chambers were proposed and the dynamic mixing between the plasma and blood were studied using the level set method coupled with heat transfer. Enhancement of mixing between blood and plasma in the presence of obstacles was demonstrated. Continuous tracking of fluid mixing with determination of temperature distributions was enabled by the present model, which would be a useful tool for future development of cold plasma devices for treatment of blood-related diseases such as leukemia.

  4. [Effectiveness of different methods of blood separation in performing plasma- and cytapheresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhko, V V; Gorodetskiĭ, V M; Rogova, E M

    1988-01-01

    Obtaining of a therapeutic dose of platelets from donors, necessary to stop spontaneous hemorrhage and sufficient enough to correct hemostasis in surgical interventions in patients with amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia, therapeutic plasmapheresis with the removal of 1.5-2.01 of plasma, effective erythrocytapheresis can be done with the help of refrigerator centrifuges and plastic containers. This method can be also employed for effective leukocytapheresis in patients with the leukocyte level exceeding 100.10(9)/l. It is simple, economical, reliable; several donors (patients) can be involved in the procedure at a time. Blood cell separators can be most effectively used for therapeutic lymphocytoplasmapheresis, massive plasmapheresis with the removal of over 2.51 of plasma, for obtaining a large number of platelets and granulocytes. The CS-3000 blood cell separator ensures automatic control over blood separation and possible complications during a procedure; a constant temperature regimen of blood separation; one-time use of equipment in direct contact with patient's (donor's) blood; a high efficacy and safety of the procedure.

  5. A Systematic Evaluation of Blood Serum and Plasma Pre-Analytics for Metabolomics Cohort Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Jobard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent thriving development of biobanks and associated high-throughput phenotyping studies requires the elaboration of large-scale approaches for monitoring biological sample quality and compliance with standard protocols. We present a metabolomic investigation of human blood samples that delineates pitfalls and guidelines for the collection, storage and handling procedures for serum and plasma. A series of eight pre-processing technical parameters is systematically investigated along variable ranges commonly encountered across clinical studies. While metabolic fingerprints, as assessed by nuclear magnetic resonance, are not significantly affected by altered centrifugation parameters or delays between sample pre-processing (blood centrifugation and storage, our metabolomic investigation highlights that both the delay and storage temperature between blood draw and centrifugation are the primary parameters impacting serum and plasma metabolic profiles. Storing the blood drawn at 4 °C is shown to be a reliable routine to confine variability associated with idle time prior to sample pre-processing. Based on their fine sensitivity to pre-analytical parameters and protocol variations, metabolic fingerprints could be exploited as valuable ways to determine compliance with standard procedures and quality assessment of blood samples within large multi-omic clinical and translational cohort studies.

  6. Self-driven filter-based blood plasma separator microfluidic chip for point-of-care testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madadi, Hojjat; Casals-Terré, Jasmina; Mohammadi, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    There is currently a growing need for lab-on-a-chip devices for use in clinical analysis and diagnostics, especially in the area of patient care. The first step in most blood assays is plasma extraction from whole blood. This paper presents a novel, self-driven blood plasma separation microfluidic chip, which can extract more than 0.1 μl plasma from a single droplet of undiluted fresh human blood (∼5 μl). This volume of blood plasma is extracted from whole blood with high purity (more than 98%) in a reasonable time frame (3 to 5 min), and without the need for any external force. This would be the first step towards the realization of a single-use, self-blood test that does not require any external force or power source to deliver and analyze a fresh whole-blood sample, in contrast to the existing time-consuming conventional blood analysis. The prototypes are manufactured in polydimethylsiloxane that has been modified with a strong nonionic surfactant (Silwet L-77) to achieve hydrophilic behavior. The main advantage of this microfluidic chip design is the clogging delay in the filtration area, which results in an increased amount of extracted plasma (0.1 μl). Moreover, the plasma can be collected in one or more 10 μm-deep channels to facilitate the detection and readout of multiple blood assays. This high volume of extracted plasma is achieved thanks to a novel design that combines maximum pumping efficiency without disturbing the red blood cells’ trajectory through the use of different hydrodynamic principles, such as a constriction effect and a symmetrical filtration mode. To demonstrate the microfluidic chip’s functionality, we designed and fabricated a novel hybrid microdevice that exhibits the benefits of both microfluidics and lateral flow immunochromatographic tests. The performance of the presented hybrid microdevice is validated using rapid detection of thyroid stimulating hormone within a single droplet of whole blood. (paper)

  7. Effects of imipramine of the orthostatic changes in blood pressure, heart rate and plasma catecholamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J R; Johansen, Torben; Arentoft, A

    1983-01-01

    The effect of imipramine on the orthostatic changes in heart rate, blood pressure and plasma catecholamines were examined in six healthy male subjects on two occasions on high sodium balance (Na+ excretion greater than 120 mmol per day) and on low sodium balance (Na+ excretion less than 110 mmol...... per day), respectively. Orthostatic tests were carried out before and 2 h after ingestion of 150 mg imipramine hydrochloride. Imipramine caused a moderate increase in supine systolic blood pressure, and a pronounced increase in the rise in heart rate, when the subjects assumed erect position...

  8. Investigation on the correlationship between plasma homocysteine and blood glucose, insulin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhongwei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the correlationship between plasma homocysteine and blood glucose, insulin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Plasma homocysteine (with ELISA), blood glucose (with hexokinase method) and insulin (with RIA) levels were measured in 66 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus as well as in 35 controls. Results: Plasma homocysteine levels in the diabetic patients (n=66) were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01), especially in those patients complicated with nephropathy (n=32). The homocysteine levels were positively correlated with those of blood glucose and insulin (r=0.3515, r=0.3486, both P<0.01). Conclusion: Plasma homocysteine is an independent risk factor for vascular diseases. The levels of plasma cysteine are significantly increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, especially in those complicated with nephropathy. Therefore, monitoring of plasma homocysteine level changes is clinically useful. (authors)

  9. A continuous flow micro filtration device for plasma/blood separation using submicron vertical pillar gap structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Tae Goo; Ji, Hongmiao; Lim, Pei Yi; Chen, Yu; Yoon, Yong-Jin

    2014-01-01

    This work demonstrates a continuous flow plasma/blood separator using a vertical submicron pillar gap structure. The working principle of the proposed separator is based on size exclusion of cells through cross-flow filtration, in which only plasma is allowed to pass through submicron vertical pillars located tangential to the main flow path of the blood sample. The maximum filtration efficiency of 99.9% was recorded with a plasma collection rate of 0.67 µl min −1 for an input blood flow rate of 12.5 µl min −1 . The hemolysis phenomenon was observed for an input blood flow rate above 30 µl min −1 . Based on the experimental results, we can conclude that the proposed device shows potential for the application of on-chip plasma/blood separation as a part of integrated point-of-care (POC) diagnostics systems. (technical note)

  10. Phase transitions during compression and decompression of clots from platelet-poor plasma, platelet-rich plasma and whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaojun; Chernysh, Irina; Purohit, Prashant K; Weisel, John W

    2017-09-15

    Blood clots are required to stem bleeding and are subject to a variety of stresses, but they can also block blood vessels and cause heart attacks and ischemic strokes. We measured the compressive response of human platelet-poor plasma (PPP) clots, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) clots and whole blood clots and correlated these measurements with confocal and scanning electron microscopy to track changes in clot structure. Stress-strain curves revealed four characteristic regions, for compression-decompression: (1) linear elastic region; (2) upper plateau or softening region; (3) non-linear elastic region or re-stretching of the network; (4) lower plateau in which dissociation of some newly made connections occurs. Our experiments revealed that compression proceeds by the passage of a phase boundary through the clot separating rarefied and densified phases. This observation motivates a model of fibrin mechanics based on the continuum theory of phase transitions, which accounts for the pre-stress caused by platelets, the adhesion of fibrin fibers in the densified phase, the compression of red blood cells (RBCs), and the pumping of liquids through the clot during compression/decompression. Our experiments and theory provide insights into the mechanical behavior of blood clots that could have implications clinically and in the design of fibrin-based biomaterials. The objective of this paper is to measure and mathematically model the compression behavior of various human blood clots. We show by a combination of confocal and scanning electron microscopy that compression proceeds by the passage of a front through the sample that separates a densified region of the clot from a rarefied region, and that the compression/decompression response is reversible with hysteresis. These observations form the basis of a model for the compression response of clots based on the continuum theory of phase transitions. Our studies may reveal how clot rheology under large compression in vivo due

  11. Use of pooled blood plasmas in the assessment of fouling resistance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar; Surman, František; Riedel, Tomáš; Bologna Alles, A.; Brynda, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 5 (2014), s. 2318-2321 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0029; GA ČR GAP106/12/1451; GA ČR GAP205/12/1702; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : blood plasma * fouling * biomaterials Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.840, year: 2014

  12. A simple method to quantitate IP-10 in dried blood and plasma spots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine G Aabye

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antigen specific release of IP-10 is an established marker for infection with M.tuberculosis. Compared to IFN-γ, IP-10 is released in 100-fold higher concentrations enabling the development of novel assays for detection. Dried blood spots are a convenient sample for high throughput newborn screening. AIM: To develop a robust and sensitive ELISA-based assay for IP-10 detection in plasma, dried blood spots (DBS and dried plasma spots (DPS; to validate the ELISA in clinically relevant samples; and to assess the performance of the assay for detection of Cytomegalovirus (CMV and M.tuberculosis specific immune responses. METHOD: We raised mice and rat monoclonal antibodies against human IP-10 and developed an ELISA. The assay was validated and applied to the detection of CMV and M.tuberculosis specific responses in 18 patients with immune reactivity towards M.tuberculosis and 32 healthy controls of which 22 had immune reactivity towards CMV and none towards M.tuberculosis. We compared the performance of this new assay to IFN-γ. RESULTS: The ELISA was reliable for IP-10 detection in both plasma and filter paper samples. The linear range of the ELISA was 2.5-600 pg/ml. IFN-γ was not readily detectable in DPS samples. IP-10 was stabile in filter paper samples for at least 4 weeks at 37 °C. The correlation between IP-10 detected in plasma, DPS and DBS samples was excellent (r(2>0.97. CONCLUSIONS: This newly developed assay is reliable for IP-10 quantification in plasma, DBS and DPS samples from antigen stimulated and non-stimulated whole blood. The filter paper assays enable easy sample acquisition and transport at ambient temperature e.g. via the postal system. The system can potentially simplify diagnostic assays for M.tuberculosis and CMV infection.

  13. Alpha-synuclein levels in blood plasma decline with healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Niklas K U; Stransky, Elke; Meyer, Mirjam; Gaertner, Susanne; Shing, Mona; Schnaidt, Martina; Celej, Maria S; Jovin, Thomas M; Leyhe, Thomas; Laske, Christoph; Batra, Anil; Buchkremer, Gerhard; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Wernet, Dorothee; Richartz-Salzburger, Elke

    2015-01-01

    There is unequivocal evidence that alpha-synuclein plays a pivotal pathophysiological role in neurodegenerative diseases, and in particular in synucleinopathies. These disorders present with a variable extent of cognitive impairment and alpha-synuclein is being explored as a biomarker in CSF, blood serum and plasma. Considering key events of aging that include proteostasis, alpha-synuclein may not only be useful as a marker for differential diagnosis but also for aging per se. To explore this hypothesis, we developed a highly specific ELISA to measure alpha-synuclein. In healthy males plasma alpha-synuclein levels correlated strongly with age, revealing much lower concentrations in older (avg. 58.1 years) compared to younger (avg. 27.6 years) individuals. This difference between the age groups was enhanced after acidification of the plasmas (phealthy aging. Thus, alpha-synuclein may be a novel biomarker of aging, a factor that should be considered when analyzing its presence in biological specimens.

  14. Diode laser irradiation of rat blood and its effect on hemoglobin and plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad-El-Din, A.A.; El-Ahdaal, M.A.; Omran, M.F.

    2002-01-01

    Blood was exposed to diode laser irradiation of wavelength 830 nm and maximum powe of 31.4 MW, with exposure times 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes. Hemoglobin IR spectra and X-ray crystallography, plasma Na + , K + , Ca + +. cholesterol concentrations and viscosity were measured. There were changes in hemoglobin amide groups as well as changes in the X-ray in hemoglobin structure. Decreases in both Na concentration and plasma viscosity occurred at 15 and 30 minutes of laser exposure. On increasing time to 45 and 60 minutes, the Na concentration and viscosity were increased. K, Ca and cholesterol concentration were decreased linearly with time. Na / K ratio was increased also with time of exposure. The results have been indicated that the diode laser affect the secondary structure of hemoglobin, membranes structures and plasma

  15. Effect of PTA on blood pressure, renal plasma flow and renal venous renin activity in renovascular hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlart, I.P.; Dewitz, H. von; Rosenthal, J.

    1983-01-01

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) is more and more accepted for interventional management of renal artery stenosis in hypertensive patients. This study was carried out to assess the behaviour of arterial blood-pressure, renal plasma flow and renal venous rening activity in renovascular hypertension following catheter dilatation. Using the data the possibility is calculated to predict the effect of PTA on blood pressure preinterventionally. The results demonstrate that a successful employment of PTA depends on a normal contralateral renal plasma flow and a normalization of plasma flow of the poststenotic kidney. Determination of plasma renin activity is only of restricted value. (orig.)

  16. Diagnosing impaired glucose tolerance using direct infusion mass spectrometry of blood plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr G Lokhov

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the capacity for mass spectrometry of blood plasma to diagnose impaired glucose tolerance (IGT. For this study, blood plasma samples from control subjects (n = 30 and patients with IGT (n = 20 were treated with methanol and low molecular weight fraction were then analyzed by direct infusion mass spectrometry. A total of 51 metabolite ions strongly associated with IGT were detected. The area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve (AUC for diagnosing IGT that was based on an analysis of all these metabolites was 0.93 (accuracy 90%, specificity 90%, and sensitivity 90%. The associated reproducibility was 85%. The metabolites identified were also consistent with risk factors previously associated with the development of diabetes. Thus, direct infusion mass spectrometry of blood plasma metabolites represents a rapid, single-step, and reproducible method for the analysis of metabolites. Moreover, this method has the potential to serve as a prototype for clinical analyses that could replace the currently used glucose tolerance test with a more patient-friendly assay.

  17. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in maternal and cord blood plasma of several northern Canadian populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, J.J. [Bureau Chemical Safety, Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Oostdam, J. van [Management Toxic Substances Div., Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada)

    2004-09-15

    The Northern Contaminants Program (NCP) funded by Indian and Northern Affairs Canada has carried out a number of baseline studies in Nunavut and the North West Territories of northern Canada (figure 1) to assess the exposure of indigenous peoples to a variety of chemical classes including POPs and metals. These studies, summarized by Walker et al, have used both maternal and cord human blood plasma as the media from sampling which took place in four phases over the years 1994-1999. Small amounts of individual blood plasma have remained from these investigations. We combined these individual samples into 23 composite samples of maternal and cord blood based mainly on the region and ethnicity of the donors. These composites have been used to study the exposure of northern peoples to PBDEs and to estimate, where possible, the influence of ethnicity, region of collection, and time on such exposure. Comparison is also made between the levels in plasma from northern populations and in human milk from those inhabiting the more numerous south.

  18. Automated processing of whole blood samples into microliter aliquots of plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtis, C A; Johnson, W W; Walker, W A

    1988-01-01

    A rotor that accepts and automatically processes a bulk aliquot of a single blood sample into multiple aliquots of plasma has been designed and built. The rotor consists of a central processing unit, which includes a disk containing eight precision-bore capillaries. By varying the internal diameters of the capillaries, aliquot volumes ranging 1 to 10 mul can be prepared. In practice, an unmeasured volume of blood is placed in a centre well, and, as the rotor begins to spin, is moved radially into a central annular ring where it is distributed into a series of processing chambers. The rotor is then spun at 3000 rpm for 10 min. When the centrifugal field is removed by slowly decreasing the rotor speed, an aliquot of plasma is withdrawn by capillary action into each of the capillary tubes. The disk containing the eight measured aliquots of plasma is subsequently removed and placed in a modifed rotor for conventional centrifugal analysis. Initial evaluation of the new rotor indicates that it is capable of producing discrete, microliter volumes of plasma with a degree of accuracy and precision approaching that of mechanical pipettes.

  19. Plasma free hemoglobin and microcirculatory response to fresh or old blood transfusions in sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Damiani

    Full Text Available Free hemoglobin (fHb may induce vasoconstriction by scavenging nitric oxide. It may increase in older blood units due to storage lesions. This study evaluated whether old red blood cell transfusion increases plasma fHb in sepsis and how the microvascular response may be affected.This is a secondary analysis of a randomized study. Twenty adult septic patients received either fresh or old (15 days storage, respectively RBC transfusions. fHb was measured in RBC units and in the plasma before and 1 hour after transfusion. Simultaneously, the sublingual microcirculation was assessed with sidestream-dark field imaging. The perfused boundary region was calculated as an index of glycocalyx damage. Tissue oxygen saturation (StO2 and Hb index (THI were measured with near-infrared spectroscopy and a vascular occlusion test was performed.Similar fHb levels were found in the supernatant of fresh and old RBC units. Despite this, plasma fHb increased in the old RBC group after transfusion (from 0.125 [0.098-0.219] mg/mL to 0.238 [0.163-0.369] mg/mL, p = 0.006. The sublingual microcirculation was unaltered in both groups, while THI increased. The change in plasma fHb was inversely correlated with the changes in total vessel density (r = -0.57 [95% confidence interval -0.82, -0.16], p = 0.008, De Backer score (r = -0.63 [95% confidence interval -0.84, -0.25], p = 0.003 and THI (r = -0.72 [95% confidence interval -0.88, -0.39], p = 0.0003.Old RBC transfusion was associated with an increase in plasma fHb in septic patients. Increasing plasma fHb levels were associated with decreased microvascular density.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01584999.

  20. Hypergravity-induced increase in plasma catecholamine and corticosterone levels in telemetrically collected blood of rats during centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrak, Juraj; Mravec, Boris; Jurani, Marian; Baranovska, Magda; Tillinger, Andrej; Hapala, Ivan; Frollo, Ivan; Kvetnanský, Richard

    2008-12-01

    Rats subjected to various accelerations (+G) exhibited increased levels of plasma epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine (NE), and corticosterone. However, the collection of blood was performed after a centrifugation finished, and therefore the levels could be affected by the process of deceleration. The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma EPI, NE, and corticosterone levels in blood collected directly during centrifugation after reaching different G (2-6), using newly developed remote-controlled equipment. Animals placed into the centrifuge cabins had inserted polyethylene tubing in the tail artery, which was connected with a preprogrammed device for blood withdrawals. Plasma EPI, NE, and corticosterone levels were measured at different time intervals of hypergravity of 2-6G. Plasma EPI levels showed a huge, hypergravity-level-dependent increase. After the last blood collection was completed during hypergravity, the centrifuge was turned off and another blood sampling was performed immediately after the centrifuge stopped (10 min). In these samples, plasma EPI showed significantly lower levels compared to centrifugation intervals. Plasma NE levels were significantly increased after 6G only. The increase in plasma corticosterone was dependent on level of G, however after the centrifuge stopped, corticosterone levels remained elevated. Thus, our data show that hypergravity highly activates the adrenomedullary and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical systems, whereas the sympathoneural system is activated only at high hypergravity. Immediately after centrifugation is over, EPI levels quickly return to control values. Our technique of blood collection during centrifugation allows assessment of the real hormonal levels at the particular hypergravity value.

  1. Blood and Plasma Biochemistry Reference Intervals for Wild Juvenile American Alligators ( Alligator mississippiensis ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Matthew T; Kupar, Caitlin A; Kelley, Meghan D; Finger, John W; Tuberville, Tracey D

    2016-07-01

    : American alligators ( Alligator mississippiensis ) are one of the most studied crocodilian species in the world, yet blood and plasma biochemistry information is limited for juvenile alligators in their northern range, where individuals may be exposed to extreme abiotic and biotic stressors. We collected blood samples over a 2-yr period from 37 juvenile alligators in May, June, and July to establish reference intervals for 22 blood and plasma analytes. We observed no effect of either sex or blood collection time on any analyte investigated. However, our results indicate a significant correlation between a calculated body condition index and aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase. Glucose, total protein, and potassium varied significantly between sampling sessions. In addition, glucose and potassium were highly correlated between the two point-of-care devices used, although they were significantly lower with the i-STAT 1 CG8+ cartridge than with the Vetscan VS2 Avian/Reptile Rotor. The reference intervals presented herein should provide baseline data for evaluating wild juvenile alligators in the northern portion of their range.

  2. Effects of imipramine of the orthostatic changes in blood pressure, heart rate and plasma catecholamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J R; Johansen, Torben; Arentoft, A

    1983-01-01

    The effect of imipramine on the orthostatic changes in heart rate, blood pressure and plasma catecholamines were examined in six healthy male subjects on two occasions on high sodium balance (Na+ excretion greater than 120 mmol per day) and on low sodium balance (Na+ excretion less than 110 mmol...... per day), respectively. Orthostatic tests were carried out before and 2 h after ingestion of 150 mg imipramine hydrochloride. Imipramine caused a moderate increase in supine systolic blood pressure, and a pronounced increase in the rise in heart rate, when the subjects assumed erect position....... The orthostatic drop in systolic blood pressure was in most cases only moderately increased after ingestion of imipramine, but in three subjects pronounced orthostatic hypotension developed when the sodium balance was low, whereas no clinical symptoms were seen in the same subjects when tested after imipramine...

  3. Pulsed cold plasma-induced blood coagulation and its pilot application in stanching bleeding during rat hepatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keping, YAN; Qikang, JIN; Chao, ZHENG; Guanlei, DENG; Shengyong, YIN; Zhen, LIU

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents plasma-induced blood coagulation and its pilot application in rat hepatectomy by using a home-made pulsed cold plasma jet. Experiments were conducted on blood coagulation in vitro, the influence of plasma on tissue in vivo, and the pilot application of rat hepatectomy. Experimental results show that the cold plasma can lead to rapid blood coagulation. Compared with the control sample, the plasma-induced agglomerated layer of blood is thicker and denser, and is mostly composed of broken platelets. When the surface of the liver was treated by plasma, the influence of the plasma can penetrate into the liver to a depth of about 500 μm. During the rat hepatectomy, cold plasma was proved to be effective for stanching bleeding on incision. No obvious bleeding was found in the abdominal cavities of all six rats 48 h after the hepatectomy. This implies that cold plasma can be an effective modality to control bleeding during surgical operation.

  4. Quantitative, multiplexed workflow for deep analysis of human blood plasma and biomarker discovery by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshishian, Hasmik; Burgess, Michael W; Specht, Harrison; Wallace, Luke; Clauser, Karl R; Gillette, Michael A; Carr, Steven A

    2017-08-01

    Proteomic characterization of blood plasma is of central importance to clinical proteomics and particularly to biomarker discovery studies. The vast dynamic range and high complexity of the plasma proteome have, however, proven to be serious challenges and have often led to unacceptable tradeoffs between depth of coverage and sample throughput. We present an optimized sample-processing pipeline for analysis of the human plasma proteome that provides greatly increased depth of detection, improved quantitative precision and much higher sample analysis throughput as compared with prior methods. The process includes abundant protein depletion, isobaric labeling at the peptide level for multiplexed relative quantification and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to accurate-mass, high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry analysis of peptides fractionated off-line by basic pH reversed-phase (bRP) chromatography. The overall reproducibility of the process, including immunoaffinity depletion, is high, with a process replicate coefficient of variation (CV) of 4,500 proteins are detected and quantified per patient sample on average, with two or more peptides per protein and starting from as little as 200 μl of plasma. The approach can be multiplexed up to 10-plex using tandem mass tags (TMT) reagents, further increasing throughput, albeit with some decrease in the number of proteins quantified. In addition, we provide a rapid protocol for analysis of nonfractionated depleted plasma samples analyzed in 10-plex. This provides ∼600 quantified proteins for each of the ten samples in ∼5 h of instrument time.

  5. The effect of quercetin on plasma oxidative status, C-reactive protein and blood pressure in women with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Javadi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: In this study, quercetin had no effect on oxidative and inflammatory status of plasma and blood pressure in patients with RA. Further studies are needed to ensure the effect of quercetin on oxidative stress and inflammation in human.

  6. Relationships between organohalogen contaminants and blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters in chicks of three raptor species from Northern Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Herzke, Dorte

    2010-01-01

    :creatinine were significantly positively correlated to various OHCs (all: praptor chicks of Northern Scandinavia may impact blood plasma biochemistry in a way that indicates impacts on liver, kidney, bone...

  7. Effects of spontaneously hypertensive rat plasma on blood pressure and tail artery calcium uptake in normotensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewanczuk, R.Z.; Wang, J.; Zhang, Z.R.; Pang, P.K.

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies have described the presence of humoral hypertensive factors in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Other studies have described factors that increase calcium uptake in vascular tissue. In this study, we attempted to confirm, and thereby correlate, the presence of both types of factors in SHR plasma. Intravenous infusion or bolus administration of dialyzed SHR plasma consistently induced an increase in blood pressure in normotensive rats. This hypertensive response was somewhat delayed, with peak blood pressures occurring 45 minutes after bolus administration and 90 minutes after infusion of SHR plasma. Spontaneously hypertensive rat plasma also increased 45 Ca uptake in isolated normotensive rat tail arteries in a dose-dependent manner, with a time course similar to that for the hypertensive response to bolus administration. These findings suggest, therefore, that a substance exists in SHR plasma that can increase intracellular calcium in vascular tissues and thereby increase blood pressure

  8. Plasma and White Blood Cells Show Different miRNA Expression Profiles in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwienbacher, Christine; Foco, Luisa; Picard, Anne; Corradi, Eloina; Serafin, Alice; Panzer, Jörg; Zanigni, Stefano; Blankenburg, Hagen; Facheris, Maurizio F; Giannini, Giulia; Falla, Marika; Cortelli, Pietro; Pramstaller, Peter P; Hicks, Andrew A

    2017-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) diagnosis is based on the assessment of motor symptoms, which manifest when more than 50% of dopaminergic neurons are degenerated. To date, no validated biomarkers are available for the diagnosis of PD. The aims of the present study are to evaluate whether plasma and white blood cells (WBCs) are interchangeable biomarker sources and to identify circulating plasma-based microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for an early detection of PD. We profiled plasma miRNA levels in 99 L-dopa-treated PD patients from two independent data collections, in ten drug-naïve PD patients, and in unaffected controls matched by sex and age. We evaluated expression levels by reverse transcription and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and combined the results from treated PD patients using a fixed effect inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis. We revealed different expression profiles comparing plasma and WBCs and drug-naïve and L-dopa-treated PD patients. We observed an upregulation trend for miR-30a-5p in L-dopa-treated PD patients and investigated candidate target genes by integrated in silico analyses. We could not analyse miR-29b-3p, normally expressed in WBCs, due to the very low expression in plasma. We observed different expression profiles in WBCs and plasma, suggesting that they are both suitable but not interchangeable peripheral sources for biomarkers. We revealed miR-30a-5p as a potential biomarker for PD in plasma. In silico analyses suggest that miR-30a-5p might have a regulatory role in mitochondrial dynamics and autophagy. Further investigations are needed to confirm miR-30a-5p deregulation and targets and to investigate the influence of L-dopa treatment on miRNA expression levels.

  9. Hemocompatible control of sulfobetaine-grafted polypropylene fibrous membranes in human whole blood via plasma-induced surface zwitterionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Han; Chang, Yung; Lee, Kueir-Rarn; Wei, Ta-Chin; Higuchi, Akon; Ho, Feng-Ming; Tsou, Chia-Chun; Ho, Hsin-Tsung; Lai, Juin-Yih

    2012-12-21

    In this work, the hemocompatibility of zwitterionic polypropylene (PP) fibrous membranes with varying grafting coverage of poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (PSBMA) via plasma-induced surface polymerization was studied. Charge neutrality of PSBMA-grafted layers on PP membrane surfaces was controlled by the low-pressure and atmospheric plasma treatment in this study. The effects of grafting composition, surface hydrophilicity, and hydration capability on blood compatibility of the membranes were determined. Protein adsorption onto the different PSBMA-grafted PP membranes from human fibrinogen solutions was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with monoclonal antibodies. Blood platelet adhesion and plasma clotting time measurements from a recalcified platelet-rich plasma solution were used to determine if platelet activation depends on the charge bias of the grafted PSBMA layer. The charge bias of PSBMA layer deviated from the electrical balance of positively and negatively charged moieties can be well-controlled via atmospheric plasma-induced interfacial zwitterionization and was further tested with human whole blood. The optimized PSBMA surface graft layer in overall charge neutrality has a high hydration capability and keeps its original blood-inert property of antifouling, anticoagulant, and antithrmbogenic activities when it comes into contact with human blood. This work suggests that the hemocompatible nature of grafted PSBMA polymers by controlling grafting quality via atmospheric plasma treatment gives a great potential in the surface zwitterionization of hydrophobic membranes for use in human whole blood.

  10. Improving Blood Plasma Glycoproteome Coverage by Coupling Ultracentrifugation Fractionation to Electrostatic Repulsion-Hydrophilic Interaction Chromatography Enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adav, Sunil S.; Hwa, Ho Hee; De Kleijn, Dominique; Sze, Siu Kwan

    2015-01-01

    Blood plasma is considered to be an excellent source of disease biomarkers because it contains proteins, lipids, metabolites, cell, and cell-derived extracellular vesicles from different cellular origins including diseased tissues. Most secretory and membranous proteins that can be found in plasma

  11. The characterization of exosome from blood plasma of patients with colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunusova, N. V., E-mail: Bochkarevanv@oncology.tomsk.ru [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634009 (Russian Federation); Siberian State Medical University, Moskovsky Trakt 2, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Tamkovich, S. N., E-mail: s.tamk@niboch.nsc.ru [Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine SB RAS, Lavrentiev Avenue 8, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogov Street 2, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Stakheeva, M. N., E-mail: StakheyevaM@oncology.tomsk.ru; Afanas’ev, S. G., E-mail: Afanasievsg@oncology.tomsk.ru; Kondakova, I. V., E-mail: Kondakova@oncology.tomsk.ru [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634009 (Russian Federation); Frolova, A. Y., E-mail: Frolovalenya@mail.ru [Siberian State Medical University, Moskovsky Trakt 2, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    Exosomes are extracellular membrane structures involved in many physiological and pathological processes including cancerogenesis and metastasis. The clarification of the criteria for exosome isolating and identifying is the purpose of this study. Exosome samples from the plasma of patients with colorectal cancer and healthy donors were examined using transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry in accordance with the minimum requirements of “International Society for Extracellular Vesicles”. The choice of the method for isolation of exosomes from the blood plasma by ultrafiltration and ultracentrifugation allowed obtaining highly purified samples of exosomes, in which all the structural components were clearly seen. The results obtained with flow cytometry suggest that exosomes of blood plasma from patients with colorectal cancer can be produced by epithelial cells. Moreover, cells produce different types of exosomes, which correspond to different mechanisms in sorting macromolecules in the membrane of multivesicular bodies. Determination of significant differences in the expression of specific exosomal proteins from colorectal cancer patients compared to healthy donors suggests a high diagnostic potential significance of circulating exosomes.

  12. The characterization of exosome from blood plasma of patients with colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunusova, N. V.; Tamkovich, S. N.; Stakheeva, M. N.; Afanas’ev, S. G.; Kondakova, I. V.; Frolova, A. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are extracellular membrane structures involved in many physiological and pathological processes including cancerogenesis and metastasis. The clarification of the criteria for exosome isolating and identifying is the purpose of this study. Exosome samples from the plasma of patients with colorectal cancer and healthy donors were examined using transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry in accordance with the minimum requirements of “International Society for Extracellular Vesicles”. The choice of the method for isolation of exosomes from the blood plasma by ultrafiltration and ultracentrifugation allowed obtaining highly purified samples of exosomes, in which all the structural components were clearly seen. The results obtained with flow cytometry suggest that exosomes of blood plasma from patients with colorectal cancer can be produced by epithelial cells. Moreover, cells produce different types of exosomes, which correspond to different mechanisms in sorting macromolecules in the membrane of multivesicular bodies. Determination of significant differences in the expression of specific exosomal proteins from colorectal cancer patients compared to healthy donors suggests a high diagnostic potential significance of circulating exosomes.

  13. The characterization of exosome from blood plasma of patients with colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunusova, N. V.; Tamkovich, S. N.; Stakheeva, M. N.; Afanas'ev, S. G.; Frolova, A. Y.; Kondakova, I. V.

    2016-08-01

    Exosomes are extracellular membrane structures involved in many physiological and pathological processes including cancerogenesis and metastasis. The clarification of the criteria for exosome isolating and identifying is the purpose of this study. Exosome samples from the plasma of patients with colorectal cancer and healthy donors were examined using transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry in accordance with the minimum requirements of "International Society for Extracellular Vesicles". The choice of the method for isolation of exosomes from the blood plasma by ultrafiltration and ultracentrifugation allowed obtaining highly purified samples of exosomes, in which all the structural components were clearly seen. The results obtained with flow cytometry suggest that exosomes of blood plasma from patients with colorectal cancer can be produced by epithelial cells. Moreover, cells produce different types of exosomes, which correspond to different mechanisms in sorting macromolecules in the membrane of multivesicular bodies. Determination of significant differences in the expression of specific exosomal proteins from colorectal cancer patients compared to healthy donors suggests a high diagnostic potential significance of circulating exosomes.

  14. Relationship between gestational fasting plasma glucose and neonatal birth weight, prenatal blood pressure and dystocia in pregnant Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Cai, Jing; Liu, Shujuan; Huang, Mingwei; Chen, Yao; Lai, Xiaolan; Chen, Yuyu; Zhao, Zhongwen; Wu, Fangzhen; Wu, Dongmei; Miu, Haiyan; Lai, Shenghan; Chen, Gang

    2014-09-01

    Little is known about the optimal cut-off point of fasting plasma glucose for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus for pregnant Chinese women. This study investigates the relationship between gestational fasting plasma glucose and several variables: neonatal birth weight, prenatal blood pressure and dystocia rate of pregnant women. In this study, we hoped to provide a useful tool to screen gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant Chinese women. For 1058 pregnant women enrolled in our hospital at pregnancy weeks 22-30, fasting plasma glucose, neonatal birth weight and prenatal blood pressure, as well as dystocia conditions, were examined. We analysed the correlations between the following: gestational fasting plasma glucose and neonatal birth weight; prenatal blood pressure and gestational fasting plasma glucose as well as dystocia rate and gestational fasting plasma glucose group. A modest correlation was observed between gestational fasting plasma glucose and neonatal birth weight (r = 0.093, p = 0.003). The macrosomia rate was smallest when the gestational fasting plasma glucose was in the range 3.51-5.5 mmol/L. Prenatal blood pressure increased linearly with increasing gestational fasting plasma glucose (p = 0.000). There was a significant difference between the dystocia rates in different fasting plasma glucose groups (chi-squared = 13.015, p = 0.043). The results showed that the dystocia rate significantly increased when gestational fasting plasma glucose was >4.9 mmol/L; p = 0.03, OR = 2.156 (95% CI, 1.077-4.318). We suggest that the optimal range of gestational fasting plasma glucose for pregnant Chinese women is in the range 3.5-4.9 mmol/L. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Molecular typing for blood group antigens within 40 minutes by direct PCR from plasma or serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Franz Friedrich; Flegel, Willy Albert; Bittner, Rita; Döscher, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Determining blood group antigens by serological methods may be unreliable in certain situations, such as in patients after chronic or massive transfusion. Red cell genotyping offers a complementary approach, but current methods may take much longer than conventional serological typing, limiting their utility in urgent situations. To narrow this gap, we devised a rapid method using direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification while avoiding the DNA extraction step. DNA was amplified by PCR directly from plasma or serum of blood donors followed by a melting curve analysis in a capillary rapid-cycle PCR assay. We evaluated the single nucleotide polymorphisms underlying the clinically relevant Fya, Fyb, Jka and Jkb antigens, with our analysis being completed within 40 min of receiving a plasma or serum sample. The positive predictive value was 100% and the negative predictive value at least 84%. Direct PCR with melting point analysis allowed faster red cell genotyping to predict blood group antigens than any previous molecular method. Our assay may be used as a screening tool with subsequent confirmatory testing, within the limitations of the false-negative rate. With fast turnaround times, the rapid-cycle PCR assay may eventually be developed and applied to red cell genotyping in the hospital setting. PMID:27991657

  16. Impact of Ficoll density gradient centrifugation on major and trace element concentrations in erythrocytes and blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying; Ahmed, Sultan; Harari, Florencia; Vahter, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Ficoll density gradient centrifugation is widely used to separate cellular components of human blood. We evaluated the suitability to use erythrocytes and blood plasma obtained from Ficoll centrifugation for assessment of elemental concentrations. We determined 22 elements (from Li to U) in erythrocytes and blood plasma separated by direct or Ficoll density gradient centrifugation, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Compared with erythrocytes and blood plasma separated by direct centrifugation, those separated by Ficoll had highly elevated iodine and Ba concentration, due to the contamination from the Ficoll-Paque medium, and about twice as high concentrations of Sr and Mo in erythrocytes. On the other hand, the concentrations of Ca in erythrocytes and plasma were markedly reduced by the Ficoll separation, to some extent also Li, Co, Cu, and U. The reduced concentrations were probably due to EDTA, a chelator present in the Ficoll medium. Arsenic concentrations seemed to be lowered by Ficoll, probably in a species-specific manner. The concentrations of Mg, P, S, K, Fe, Zn, Se, Rb, and Cs were not affected in the erythrocytes, but decreased in plasma. Concentrations of Mn, Cd, and Pb were not affected in erythrocytes, but in plasma affected by EDTA and/or pre-analytical contamination. Ficoll separation changed the concentrations of Li, Ca, Co, Cu, As, Mo, I, Ba, and U in erythrocytes and blood plasma, Sr in erythrocytes, and Mg, P, S, K, Fe, Zn, Se, Rb and Cs in blood plasma, to an extent that will invalidate evaluation of deficiencies or excess intakes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationship of zinc concentrations in blood and seminal plasma with various semen parameters in infertile subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, H.; Ahmed, M.; Baig, M.; Ali, M.

    2007-01-01

    To find out relationship of zinc concentrations in blood and seminal plasma with various semen parameters between fertile and infertile men. (JPMC), Karachi and Department of Biochemistry. Basic Medical Sciences Institute, JPMC, Karachi. Fifty eight primary infertile male subjects, without any treatment, who had regular unprotected intercourse for at least 12 months without conception with their partners, aged 20-40 years, were selected from Infertility Clinic Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center, Karachi. After semen analyses they were grouped as, oligospermic (30), and azoospermic (28). Twenty five known fertile male selected from general population and after semen analysis were taken as normospermic control group. Semen analyzed according to WHO criteria. Serum and seminal plasma zinc were estimated by 5Br. PAPS Colorimetric method. This study showed significant difference in serum and seminal zinc levels in normospermic, oligospermic (p<0.05) and azoospermic (p<0.005). Seminal plasma zinc showed a positive correlation with sperm count and negative with sperm motility in normospermic and oligospermic and negative correlation with volume, pH, WBC concentration in all three groups. There was no correlation found with sperm morphology. On the basis of the findings of this study and those of other reports, zinc may contribute to fertility through its significant effects on various semen parameters. It seems that the estimation of seminal plasma zinc may help in investigation and treatment of infertile males. (author)

  18. Using NMR metabolomics to identify responses of an environmental estrogen in blood plasma of fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuelsson, Linda M.; Foerlin, Lars; Karlsson, Goeran; Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha; Larsson, D.G. Joakim

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics in combination with multivariate data analysis may become valuable tools to study environmental effects of pharmaceuticals and other chemicals in aquatic organisms. To explore the usefulness of this approach in fish, we have used 1 H NMR metabolomics to compare blood plasma and plasma lipid extracts from rainbow trout exposed to the synthetic contraceptive estrogen ethinylestradiol (EE 2 ) with plasma from control fish. The plasma metabolite profile was affected in fish exposed to 10 ng/L but not 0.87 ng/L of EE 2 , which was in agreement with an induced vitellogenin synthesis in the high dose group only, as measured by ELISA. The main affected metabolites were vitellogenin, alanine, phospholipids and cholesterol. The responses identified by this discovery-driven method could be put in context with previous knowledge of the effects of estrogens on fish. This adds confidence to the approach of using NMR metabolomics to identify environmental effects of pharmaceuticals and other contaminants

  19. Long-term lead elimination from plasma and whole blood after poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentschler, Gerda; Broberg, K; Lundh, T; Skerfving, S

    2012-04-01

    Blood lead (B-Pb), one of the most used toxicological biomarker all kind, has serious limitations. Thus, the objective is to evaluate whether plasma lead (P-Pb) is more adequate. A long-term follow-up study of five cases of lead poisoning. P-Pb was analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Kinetics after end of exposure was modelled. P-Pb at severe poisoning was about 20 μg/L; haematological effects at about 5 μg/L. Biological half-time of P-Pb was about 1 month; B-Pb decay was much slower. P-Pb is a valuable biomarker of exposure to and risk, particularly at high exposure.

  20. Alkaline saponification results in decomposition of tocopherols in milk and ovine blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czauderna, M; Kowalczyk, J

    2007-10-15

    Alkaline saponification of entire sample matrixes for quantification of alpha-, gamma-, delta-tocopherols (alpha-T, gamma-T, delta-T) and alpha-tocopherol acetate (alpha-TAc) was examined. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to measure alpha-T, gamma-T, delta-T and alpha-TAc in tocopherol standard solutions, milk and ovine blood plasma. Saponification in the presence of vitamin C decreases the concentration of tocopherols, especially alpha-T and gamma-T. The poor recovery of tocopherols is due to the decomposition of tocopherols in saponified standard solutions, milk or plasma. Saponification of samples in the presence of 2,[6]-ditertbutyl-p-cresol or flushed only with a stream of Ar resulted in a major decrease in the concentrations of alpha-T, gamma-T, delta-T and alpha-TAc in comparison with saponification in the presence of vitamin C.

  1. Microcantilever based disposable viscosity sensor for serum and blood plasma measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Onur; Elbuken, Caglar; Ermek, Erhan; Mostafazadeh, Aref; Baris, Ibrahim; Erdem Alaca, B; Kavakli, Ibrahim Halil; Urey, Hakan

    2013-10-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for measuring blood plasma and serum viscosity with a microcantilever-based MEMS sensor. MEMS cantilevers are made of electroplated nickel and actuated remotely with magnetic field using an electro-coil. Real-time monitoring of cantilever resonant frequency is performed remotely using diffraction gratings fabricated at the tip of the dynamic cantilevers. Only few nanometer cantilever deflection is sufficient due to interferometric sensitivity of the readout. The resonant frequency of the cantilever is tracked with a phase lock loop (PLL) control circuit. The viscosities of liquid samples are obtained through the measurement of the cantilever's frequency change with respect to a reference measurement taken within a liquid of known viscosity. We performed measurements with glycerol solutions at different temperatures and validated the repeatability of the system by comparing with a reference commercial viscometer. Experimental results are compared with the theoretical predictions based on Sader's theory and agreed reasonably well. Afterwards viscosities of different Fetal Bovine Serum and Bovine Serum Albumin mixtures are measured both at 23°C and 37°C, body temperature. Finally the viscosities of human blood plasma samples taken from healthy donors are measured. The proposed method is capable of measuring viscosities from 0.86 cP to 3.02 cP, which covers human blood plasma viscosity range, with a resolution better than 0.04 cP. The sample volume requirement is less than 150 μl and can be reduced significantly with optimized cartridge design. Both the actuation and sensing are carried out remotely, which allows for disposable sensor cartridges. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Renal blood flow, early distal sodium, and plasma renin concentrations during osmotic diuresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leyssac, P P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Skøtt, O

    2000-01-01

    .6 mmHg. Urine flow increased 10-fold, and sodium excretion increased by 177%. Plasma renin concentration (PRC) increased by 58%. Renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate decreased, however end-proximal flow remained unchanged. After a similar volume of hypotonic glucose (152 mM), ED......(NaCl) increased by 3.6 mM, (P renal hemodynamics, urine flow, sodium excretion rate, or PRC. Infusion of 300 micromol NaCl in a smaller volume caused ED(NaCl) to increase by 6.4 mM without significant changes in PRC. Urine flow and sodium excretion increased significantly...

  3. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction of new psychoactive substances in plasma and whole blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vårdal, Linda; Askildsen, Hilde-Merete; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction (PALME) was combined with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC–MS) and the potential for screening of new psychoactive substances (NPS) was investigated for the first time. PALME was performed in 96-well format...... comprising a donor plate, a supported liquid membrane (SLM), and an acceptor plate. Uncharged NPS were extracted from plasma or whole blood, across an organic SLM, and into an aqueous acceptor solution, facilitated by a pH gradient. MDAI (5,6-methylenedioxy-2-aminoindane), methylone, PFA (para...

  4. Evaluating the optimum rest period prior to blood collection for fractionated plasma free metanephrines analysis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Griffin, T.P.

    2016-05-01

    The high diagnostic accuracy of plasma metanephrines (PMets) in the di-agnosis of Phaeochromocytoma\\/Paraganglioma (PPGL) is well established. Considerable controversy exists regarding optimum sampling conditions for PMets. The use of reference intervals that do not compromise diagnostic sensitivity is recommended. However, the optimum rest period prior to sampling has yet to be clearly established. The aim of this study was to evaluate PMets concentrations in paired blood samples collected following 30 and 40 min seated-rest prior to sampling, in patients in whom it was clinically rea-sonable to suspect that PPGL may be present.

  5. Quantitation of 5-Methyltetrahydrofolic Acid in Dried Blood Spots and Dried Plasma Spots by Stable Isotope Dilution Assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Kopp

    Full Text Available Because of minimal data available on folate analysis in dried matrix spots (DMSs, we combined the advantages of stable isotope dilution assays followed by LC-MS/MS analysis with DMS sampling to develop a reliable method for the quantitation of plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in dried blood spots (DBSs and dried plasma spots (DPSs as well as for the quantitation of whole blood 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs. We focused on two diagnostically conclusive parameters exhibited by the plasma and whole blood 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid levels that reflect both temporary and long-term folate status. The method is performed using the [2H4]-labeled isotopologue of the vitamin as the internal standard, and three steps are required for the extraction procedure. Elution of the punched out matrix spots was performed using stabilization buffer including Triton X-100 in a standardized ultrasonication treatment followed by enzymatic digestion (whole blood only and solid-phase extraction with SAX cartridges. This method is sensitive enough to quantify 27 nmol/L whole blood 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs and 6.3 and 4.4 nmol/L plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs and DPSs, respectively. The unprecedented accurate quantification of plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs was achieved by thermal treatment prior to ultrasonication, inhibiting plasma conjugase activity. Mass screenings are more feasible and easier to facilitate for this method in terms of sample collection and storage compared with conventional clinical sampling for the assessment of folate status.

  6. Culture of normal human blood cells in a diffusion chamber system II. Lymphocyte and plasma cell kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikkappa, G.; Carsten, A.L.; Chanana, A.D.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1979-01-01

    Normal human blood leukocytes were cultured in Millipore diffusion chambers implanted into the peritoneal cavities of irradiated mice. The evaluation of survival and proliferation kinetics of cells in lymphyocytic series suggested that the lymphoid cells are formed from transition of small and/or large lymphocytes, and the lymphoblasts from the lymphoid cells. There was also evidence indicating that some of the cells in these two compartments are formed by proliferation. The evaluation of plasmacytic series suggested that the plasma cells are formed from plasmacytoid-lymphocytes by transition, and the latter from the transition of lymphocytes. In addition, relatively a small fraction of cells in these two compartments are formed by proliferation. mature plasma cells do not and immature plasma cells do proliferate. Estimation of magnitude of plasma cells formed in the cultures at day 18 indicated that at least one plasma cell is formed for every 6 normal human blood lymphocytes introduced into the culture

  7. COMPARISON OF WHOLE BLOOD AND PLASMA GLUCOSE CONCENTRATIONS IN GREEN TURTLES ( CHELONIA MYDAS) DETERMINED USING A GLUCOMETER AND A DRY CHEMISTRY ANALYZER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, Justin R; Bresette, Michael J; Mott, Cody R; Stacy, Nicole I

    2018-01-01

    :  We compared glucose concentrations in whole blood and plasma from green turtles ( Chelonia mydas) using a glucometer with plasma glucose analyzed by dry chemistry analyzer. Whole blood glucose (glucometer) and plasma glucose (dry chemistry) had the best agreement ( r s =0.85) and a small negative bias (-0.08 mmol/L).

  8. [Demography and donation frequencies of blood and plasma donor populations in Germany. Update 2010 and 5-year comparison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, S; Hamouda, O; Offergeld, R

    2012-08-01

    The Robert Koch Institute collects and evaluates nationwide data on the incidence and prevalence of transfusion-relevant infections among blood and plasma donors in Germany. Since 2006 data not only on the number of donations tested but also on the number of the respective donors have become available. The demographic profile and donation frequencies of German whole blood, plasma and platelet donors in 2010 and the percentages among the general population are described and compared to data from 2006. Although the general population eligible to donate blood is on the decline since 2003, with a loss of 2% between 2006 and 2010, this has not led to a decrease in the number of blood donors and donations. Instead, the number of new and repeat whole blood donors increased by 8% and 7%, respectively. At the same time, the number of new plasma donors grew by 23%, that of repeat plasma donors by 41%. In 2010 more than 4.3% of the population aged 18-68 years was active as repeat whole blood donors; 0.4% repeatedly donated plasma or platelets. Since 2006 the percentage of donors among the general population increased significantly, especially among the youngest age group (18-24 years). Donation frequency varied depending on donor age and sex, with an average of 1.9 per year for whole blood donations, 12.5 for plasmapheresis and 5.0 for plateletpheresis. While the donation frequency for whole blood remained unchanged since 2006, the frequency of apheresis donations increased, especially among older donors. By recruiting more new donors and retaining and reactivating existing ones more effectively, the number of whole blood and apheresis donations was augmented.

  9. Comparison of human whole blood, plasma, and serum matrices for the determination of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and other fluorochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehresman, David J.; Froehlich, John W.; Olsen, Geary W.; Chang, Shu-Ching; Butenhoff, John L.

    2007-01-01

    Interest in human exposure to perfluorinated acids, including perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHS), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) has led to their measurement in whole blood, plasma and serum. Comparison of measurements in these different blood-based matrices, however, has not been rigorously investigated to allow for across-matrix comparisons. This research evaluated concentrations of PFBS, PFHS, PFOS, and PFOA in whole blood collected in heparin (lithium) and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), plasma samples collected in heparin and EDTA, and serum (from whole blood allowed to clot). Blood samples were collected from 18 voluntary participants employed at 3M Company. Solid phase extraction methods were used for all analytical sample preparations, and analyses were completed using high-pressure liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry methods. Serum concentrations ranged from: limit of quantitation (LOQ, 5 ng/mL) to 25 ng/mL for PFBS; LOQ (5 ng/mL) to 75 ng/mL for PFHS; LOQ (5 ng/mL) to 880 ng/mL for PFOS; and LOQ (5 or 10 ng/mL) to 7320 ng/mL for PFOA. Values less than the LOQ were not included in the statistical analyses of the mean of the ratios of individual values for the matrices. PFBS was not quantifiable in most samples. Serum to plasma ratios for PFHS, PFOS, and PFOA were 1:1 and this ratio was independent of the level of concentrations measured. Serum or plasma to whole blood ratios, regardless of the anticoagulant used, approximated 2:1. The difference between plasma and serum and whole blood corresponded to volume displacement by red blood cells, suggesting that the fluorochemicals are not found intracellularly or attached to the red blood cells

  10. High wavenumber Raman spectroscopic characterization of normal and oral cancer using blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachaiappan, Rekha; Prakasarao, Aruna; Suresh Kumar, Murugesan; Singaravelu, Ganesan

    2017-02-01

    Blood plasma possesses the biomolecules released from cells/tissues after metabolism and reflects the pathological conditions of the subjects. The analysis of biofluids for disease diagnosis becomes very attractive in the diagnosis of cancers due to the ease in the collection of samples, easy to transport, multiple sampling for regular screening of the disease and being less invasive to the patients. Hence, the intention of this study was to apply near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy in the high wavenumber (HW) region (2500-3400 cm-1) for the diagnosis of oral malignancy using blood plasma. From the Raman spectra it is observed that the biomolecules protein and lipid played a major role in the discrimination between groups. The diagnostic algorithms based on principal components analysis coupled with linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA) with the leave-one-patient-out cross-validation method on HW Raman spectra yielded a promising results in the identification of oral malignancy. The details of results will be discussed.

  11. Surface modifying of microporous PTFE capillary for bilirubin removing from human plasma and its blood compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Gu; Yao Qizhi; Zhang Shanzi; Zhang Lei

    2008-01-01

    In this study, human serum albumin (HSA) was covalently immobilized onto the inner surface of microporous poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (MPTFE) capillaries for direct bilirubin removal from human plasma. To obtain active binding sites for HSA, the MPTFE capillaries were chemically functionalized by using a coating of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) copolymers. Characterization of grafted MPTFE capillaries was verified by XPS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Non-specific adsorption on the PVA-GMA coated capillary remains low (< 0.38 mg bilirubin/g), and higher affinity adsorption capacity, of up to 73.6 mg bilirubin/g polymer was obtained after HSA is immobilized. Blood compatibility of the grafted MPTFE capillary was evaluated by SEM and platelet rich plasma (PRP) contacting experiments. The experimental data on blood compatibility indicated that PVA-coated and PVA-GMA-HSA coated PTFE capillary showed a sharp suppress on platelets adhesion. The proposed method has the potential of serving in bilirubin removal in clinical application

  12. Hippophae rhamnoides L. Fruits Reduce the Oxidative Stress in Human Blood Platelets and Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Olas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the phenolic fraction from Hippophae rhamnoides fruits on the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, a marker of lipid peroxidation and the generation of superoxide anion (O2-∙ in human blood platelets (resting platelets and platelets stimulated by a strong physiological agonist, thrombin were studied in vitro. We also examined antioxidant properties of this fraction against human plasma lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation induced by a strong biological oxidant, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 or H2O2/Fe (a donor of hydroxyl radicals. The tested fraction of H. rhamnoides (0.5– 50 µg/mL; the incubation time: 15 and 60 min inhibited lipid peroxidation induced by H2O2 or H2O2/Fe. The H. rhamnoides phenolic fraction inhibited not only plasma lipid peroxidation, but also plasma protein carbonylation stimulated by H2O2 or H2O2/Fe. Moreover, the level of O2-∙ in platelets significantly decreased. In comparative experiments, the H. rhamnoides fraction was a more effective antioxidant than aronia extract or grape seed extract (at the highest tested concentration, 50 µg/mL. The obtained results suggest that H. rhamnoides fruits may be a new, promising source of natural compounds with antioxidant and antiplatelet activity beneficial not only for healthy people, but also for those with oxidative stress-associated diseases.

  13. Alpha-synuclein levels in blood plasma decline with healthy aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas K U Koehler

    Full Text Available There is unequivocal evidence that alpha-synuclein plays a pivotal pathophysiological role in neurodegenerative diseases, and in particular in synucleinopathies. These disorders present with a variable extent of cognitive impairment and alpha-synuclein is being explored as a biomarker in CSF, blood serum and plasma. Considering key events of aging that include proteostasis, alpha-synuclein may not only be useful as a marker for differential diagnosis but also for aging per se. To explore this hypothesis, we developed a highly specific ELISA to measure alpha-synuclein. In healthy males plasma alpha-synuclein levels correlated strongly with age, revealing much lower concentrations in older (avg. 58.1 years compared to younger (avg. 27.6 years individuals. This difference between the age groups was enhanced after acidification of the plasmas (p<0.0001, possibly reflecting a decrease of alpha-synuclein-antibody complexes or chaperone activity in older individuals. Our results support the concept that alpha-synuclein homeostasis may be impaired early on, possibly due to disturbance of the proteostasis network, a key component of healthy aging. Thus, alpha-synuclein may be a novel biomarker of aging, a factor that should be considered when analyzing its presence in biological specimens.

  14. [Clinical use of virally inactived plasma. The experience of Blood Transfusion Unit in Mantova, Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepri, Debora; Capuzzo, Enrico; Mattioli, Anna Vittoria; Dall'Oglio, Daniela; Sgarioto, Vincenzo; Terenziani, Isabella; Caramaschi, Giacomo; Manzato, Franco; Franchini, Massimo

    2013-03-01

    Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP) is a blood component whose clinical use is widespread worldwide. Transfusion safety of this product is ensured by legally obligatory tests. Although these tests are carried out on each plasma donation, safety levels can be further improved by using some technical procedures, such as, among others, methylene blue (MB) and solvent-detergent (SD) viral inactivation methods. The DMTE (Blood Transfusion Unit) in Mantova has used the pharmaceutical-like SD virally inactivated plasma since 2007 (Plasmasafe, Kedrion) as replacement of the PFC by each single donor. Guidelines for the usage of both products are the same. With the main aim of assessing the therapeutic effectiveness and safety of Plasmasafe, we decided to clinically monitor transfusions performed with this product on patients of the Intensive Care Unit at the city hospital in Mantova. In addition, we controlled some coagulation parameters (PT, aPTT, ATIII, Fibrinogen, PC, PS, FV, FVII, FVIII) before and 24 hours after the Plasmasafe infusion. From a clinical point of view, the use of Plasmasafe always led to a significant reduction, or complete stop, of the bleeding. No transfusion-related adverse events were recorded. As regards, the most relevant laboratory results, a marked increase in the above mentioned hemostatic parameters was detected. Furthermore, patients transfused with this product received a mean volume significantly lower than an historical cohort of patients treated with FFP (503 mL with Plasmasafe versus 1549 mL with FFP, Pcost-effective treatment, able to rapidly correct hemostatic abnormalities, for critical patients.

  15. The Effect of Rast Exercise on Plasma Levels of Apelin and Blood Pressure in Elite Women Runner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaibani Sh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Intense exercise increases heart susceptibility to the disorder in this physiological factor.The purpose of this study is to study the effect of sprint interval training on plasma levels of apelin, blood pressure and heart rate in elite female runner. Methods: Plasma levels of apelin, Heart rate (HR & blood pressure (BP, analyzed before, after and 24 hours after exercise. 15 elite female runner, whom were playing in Shiraz track & field league, selected for this study. They all were homogenized according to any kind of disease.Results: Rast exercise made plasma level of Apelin decrease after exercise compared with plasma level before exercise and this decrease was significant (p=0.001. Also, plasma level of apelin increased significantly 24 hrs after finishing exercise (p=0.001, but there were no significant differences before exercise (p=0.375. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate increased immediately after exercise and decreased significantly after 24 hrs (p=0.001. However, significant difference was not observed in diastolic pressure before and after exercise (p=0.338.Conclusion: The finding of this study shows that sprint interval training decreases plasma levels of apelin, so we can say that apelin and blood pressure must be in balance in natural position. With knowing the role of apelin, changes in this peptide during exercise can be an alarm to cardiovascular risk factor, during or after exercise in elite athletes.

  16. Knowledge, attitude and practice of exercise for plasma blood glucose control among patients with type-2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awotidebe, Taofeek O; Adedoyin, Rufus A; Afolabi, Mubaraq A; Opiyo, Rose

    2016-01-01

    Exercise plays significant role in the health outcomes of patients with diabetes, however, little is known about patients' knowledge of exercise for plasma blood glucose control among patients with type-2 diabetes (T2D). This study investigated knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of exercise for plasma blood glucose control among patients with T2D. This cross-sectional study recruited 299 patients with T2D (male=105; female=194) from selected government hospitals in Osun State, Nigeria using purposive sampling technique. Validated questionnaires were used to assess of exercise for plasma blood glucose control and socioeconomic status (SES) of the patients. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Alpha level was set at exercise whilst 269(90.0%) had negative attitude to exercise practice. Less than a third, 82(27.4%) engaged in exercise practice for plasma blood glucose control. There was significant association between knowledge and practice of exercise ((2)=12.535; p=0.002). Furthermore, significant associations were found between knowledge and gender ((2)=11.453; p=0.003), and socioeconomic status ((2)=29.127, p=0.001) but not associated with attitude towards exercise (p>0.05). Patients with demonstrated good knowledge of exercise for plasma blood glucose control but reported negative attitude and poor practice of exercise. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Fiscal 2000 regional new energy vision formulation - Financially aided project. Report on regional new energy vision formulation for Ueno village (Object of survey: Commercialization feasibility study for a stand-alone type wind power generation system at Ueno German Culture Village); 2000 nendo Uenoson chiiki shin energy vision sakutei hokokusho. Ueno Doitsu bunkamura dokuritsugata furyoku hatsuden system jigyoka feasibility study chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    A survey is conducted about the profitability of installing a stand-alone type wind power system at Ueno village (Miyako Island), Okinawa Prefecture. The German Culture Village, which is an integrated resort house provided with accommodations (500 people), educational and cultural facilities, and sports facilities consumes 272 MWh/year in electric power. The results of the survey are summarized in six chapters, which are (1) the survey of the business under the project to be the object of feasibility study, (2) project to be the object of feasibility study, (3) outline of the Okinawa Electric Power Co., Inc., Miyakojima system and problems to ensue from its interconnection with wind turbines, (4) survey of stand-alone type wind turbine power generation systems, (5) technical/economic feasibility study, and (6) project management and future tasks. It is concluded that there will be profit in the presence of a subsidy that covers 65% or more of the total cost of constructing a system comprising three 600 KW wind turbines, three 400 kW class diesel generators, and storage batteries. (NEDO)

  18. Antioxidant efficacy of Kalanchoe daigremontiana bufadienolide-rich fraction in blood plasma in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczyk-Czepas, Joanna; Nowak, Pawel; Wachowicz, Barbara; Piechocka, Justyna; Głowacki, Rafał; Moniuszko-Szajwaj, Barbara; Stochmal, Anna

    2016-12-01

    The main source of bufadienolides is toad venom; however, plants such as members of Kalanchoe Adans. (Crassulaceae) genus may also synthesize these bioactive substances. This is the first study on antioxidant effects and cytotoxicity of bufadienolide-rich fraction isolated from Kalanchoe daigremontiana Raym.-Hamet & H. Perrier. The methanolic fraction was extracted from the plant roots and contained 0.48 mg bufadienolides/mg of dry mass (11α,19-dihydroksytelocinobufagin, bersaldegenin-1-acetate, bersaldegenin-1,3,5-orthoacetate, 19-(acetyloxy)-3β,5β,11α,14-tetrahydroxyl-12-oxo-bufa-20,22-dienolide and 19-(acetyloxy)-1β,3β,5β,14-tetrahydroxyl-bufa-20,22-dienolide, mainly). The cytotoxicity of K. daigremontiana fraction was evaluated in an in vitro experimental model of blood platelets. The viability of blood platelets was determined on the basis of a release of lactate dehydrogenase. The fraction scavenged DPPH • radicals, with EC 50 of 21.80 μg/mL. Studies on an experimental model of blood plasma under peroxynitrite-induced oxidative stress revealed that the plant preparation had moderate antioxidant properties. Levels of 3-nitrotyrosine and thiol groups indicated that the protective effect of K. daigremontiana was significant mainly for its concentration of 50 μg/mL. No effect was found in prevention of oxidation of low-molecular plasma thiols (glutathione, cysteine and cysteinylglycine). Simultaneously, measurements of lipid hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) indicated that the examined fraction might be effective antioxidant at broader concentration range, that is 1-5 and 25-50 μg/mL for hydroperoxides and TBARS generation, respectively. No cytotoxicity was observed at the concentration range of 1-50 μg/mL. Based on the obtained results, we suggest that antioxidant activity may additionally contribute to beneficial properties of K. daigremontiana-derived extracts.

  19. Study on changes of the plasma cytokines in 60Co γ-ray irradiated blood and leukocyte reduction of whole blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhiqiang; Le Jiayi; Qu Yihua; Xu Wenhao

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of IL-2, IL-6, IFN-γ and TNF-α in 60 Co γ-ray irradiated and leukocyte reduction of whole blood, and to understand the fever phenomenon in patients received blood transfusion. Methods: ELISA method was used to measure changes of the cytokines. Results: The plasma levels of IL-2, IL-6, IFN-γ and TNF-α did not change significantly with extending the conservation period both in 60 Co-irradiated and leukocyte reduction of whole blood. The frequency of fever decreaed obviously with transfusion of 60 Co-irradiated and leukocyte reduction of whole blood. Conclusion: 60 Co-irradiated blood can not only prevent transfusion associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD), but also decrease non-hemolytic febrile transfusion reactions (NHFTR) effectively. (authors)

  20. Clinical value of indicators of cationic proteins, leukocytes myeloperoxidase and fibronectin blood plasma in viral meningitis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Kimirilova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: was to establish clinical and diagnostic value of cytochemical indices of peripheral blood leukocytes (cationic protein and myeloperoxidase, fibronectin blood plasma to assess the severity, predict the course and outcome of viral meningitis in children.Subjects and methods. In 450 patients with viral meningitis (enterovirus, arbovirus, parotitic, herpesviral, adenovirus etiology at the age of 14 years, the parameters of the microbicidal system of leukocytes (cation proteins, myeloperoxidase and fibronectin blood plasma were determined. Etiological diagnosis of meningitis was confirmed by release of viral RNA from blood and cerebrospinal fluid by the polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA.The results and conclusion. Found that severe, prolonged duration, lethal outcome of viral meningitis in children are accompanied by sugnificant suppression of cationic proteins, myeloperoxidase, fibronectin blood plasma, maximally expressed in lethal outcomes, compared with the severe form, but with a favorable outcome and control. Settings imbalance cationic proteins, myeloperoxidase, fibronectin blood plasma are objective criteria of the adaptation syndrome that reflects the state of the phagocytosis system in viral meningitis in children and can be considered as additional criteria for predicting the course and outcome of disease.

  1. Distinct kinetics of memory B-cell and plasma-cell responses in peripheral blood following a blood-stage Plasmodium chabaudi infection in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice W Nduati

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available B cell and plasma cell responses take place in lymphoid organs, but because of the inaccessibility of these organs, analyses of human responses are largely performed using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. To determine whether PBMC are a useful source of memory B cells and plasma cells in malaria, and whether they reflect Plasmodium-specific B cell responses in spleen or bone marrow, we have investigated these components of the humoral response in PBMC using a model of Plasmodium chabaudi blood-stage infections in C57BL/6 mice. We detected memory B cells, defined as isotype-switched IgD(- IgM(- CD19(+ B cells, and low numbers of Plasmodium chabaudi Merozoite Surface Protein-1 (MSP1-specific memory B cells, in PBMC at all time points sampled for up to 90 days following primary or secondary infection. By contrast, we only detected CD138(+ plasma cells and MSP1-specific antibody-secreting cells within a narrow time frame following primary (days 10 to 25 or secondary (day 10 infection. CD138(+ plasma cells in PBMC at these times expressed CD19, B220 and MHC class II, suggesting that they were not dislodged bone-marrow long-lived plasma cells, but newly differentiated migratory plasmablasts migrating to the bone marrow; thus reflective of an ongoing or developing immune response. Our data indicates that PBMC can be a useful source for malaria-specific memory B cells and plasma cells, but extrapolation of the results to human malaria infections suggests that timing of sampling, particularly for plasma cells, may be critical. Studies should therefore include multiple sampling points, and at times of infection/immunisation when the B-cell phenotypes of interest are likely to be found in peripheral blood.

  2. Ammonia concentrations in canine whole blood, EDTA-anticoagulated whole blood, and plasma measured by use of a point-of-care ammonia meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odunayo, Adesola; Tobias, Karen M; Okafor, Chika C; Flatland, Bente

    2017-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the use of canine whole blood (WB) for measurement of ammonia concentration by use of a point-of-care ammonia meter and to compare results of measuring ammonia concentrations in WB, EDTA-anticoagulated WB, and plasma. ANIMALS 40 client-owned dogs. PROCEDURES A blood sample (2 mL) was obtained from each dog. One drop of WB was immediately applied to a test strip for evaluation with an ammonia meter. The remainder of the blood sample was placed in an EDTA-containing tube, and 1 drop of EDTA-anticoagulated WB was applied to a test strip. The remaining EDTA-anticoagulated WB sample was centrifuged, and the plasma was harvested and placed on ice. One drop of plasma was applied to a test strip; the remainder of the plasma sample was transported on ice and used for ammonia measurement with a reference laboratory instrument. All samples were tested within 1 hour after sample collection. Results were evaluated to detect significant differences in ammonia concentration. RESULTS Ammonia concentrations did not differ significantly between WB and EDTA-anticoagulated WB and between plasma samples measured with the meter and reference laboratory instrument. However, median ammonia concentration was significantly higher in plasma than in WB or EDTA-anti-coagulated WB. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Anticoagulant-free WB was a valid sample for measurement by use of the ammonia meter. Plasma samples had higher ammonia concentrations than did WB samples. Results for each sample type should be interpreted by use of specimen- and method-specific reference intervals.

  3. Effect of ionic and non-ionic contrast media on whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity and hematocrit in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspelin, P.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of the ionic contrast media diatrizoate, iocarmate and metrizoate and the non-ionic metrizamide on whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity and hematocrit was investigated. All the contrast media increased whole blood and plasma viscosity and reduced the hematocrit. The whole blood viscosity increased with increasing osmolality of the contrast medium solutions, whereas the plasma viscosity increased with increasing viscosity of the contrast medium solutions. The higher the osmolality of the contrast media, the lower the hematocrit became. The normal shear-thinning (decreasing viscosity with increasing shear rate) property of blood was reduced when contrast medium was added to the blood. At 50 per cent volume ratio (contrast medium to blood), the ionic contrast media converted the blood into a shear-thickening (increasing viscosity with increasing shear rate) suspension, indicating a marked rigidification of the single red cell, while the non-ionic contrast medium still produced shear-thinning, indicating less rigidification of the red cell (p<0.01). (Auth.)

  4. Contribution of a portable air plasma torch to rapid blood coagulation as a method of preventing bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, S P; Chen, C Y; Fan, H W; Tarasenko, O; Scott, A; Lahiani, M; Alusta, P; Chang, J; Popovic, S; Drake, J D; Nikolic, M

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness and mechanism of a low temperature air plasma torch in clotting blood are explored. Both blood droplets and smeared blood samples were used in the tests. The treated droplet samples reveal how blood clotting depends on the distance at which the torch operated, and for how long the droplets have been exposed to the torch. Microscopy and cell count of smeared blood samples shed light on dependencies of erythrocyte and platelet counts on torch distance and exposure time. With an increase of torch distance, the platelet count of treated blood samples increases but is less than that of the control. The flux of reactive atomic oxygen (RAO) and the degree of blood clotting decreased. With an increase of exposure time, platelet count of treated samples decreased, while the degree of clot increased. The correlation among these dependencies and published data support a blood clotting mechanism that RAO as well as other likely reactive oxygen species generated by the plasma torch activate erythrocyte-platelets interactions and induces blood coagulation.

  5. Isotopic analysis of calcium in blood plasma and bone from mouse samples by multiple collector-ICP-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Takafumi; Tanoshima, Mina; Suga, Akinobu; Tanaka, Yu-ki; Nagata, Yuichi; Shinohara, Atsuko; Chiba, Momoko

    2008-01-01

    The biological processing of Ca produces significant stable isotope fractionation. The level of isotopic fractionation can provide key information about the variation in dietary consumption or Ca metabolism. To investigate this, we measured the 43 Ca/ 42 Ca and 44 Ca/ 42 Ca ratios for bone and blood plasma samples collected from mice of various ages using multiple collector-ICP-mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). The 44 Ca/ 42 Ca ratio in bones was significantly (0.44 - 0.84 per mille) lower than the corresponding ratios in the diet, suggesting that Ca was isotopically fractionated during Ca metabolism for bone formation. The resulting 44 Ca/ 42 Ca ratios for blood plasma showed almost identical, or slightly higher, values (0.03 - 0.2 per mille) than found in a corresponding diet. This indicates that a significant amount of Ca in the blood plasma was from dietary sources. Unlike that discovered for Fe, there were not significant differences in the measured 44 Ca/ 42 Ca ratios between female and male specimens (for either bone or blood plasma samples). Similarity, the 44 Ca/ 42 Ca ratios suggests that there were no significant differences in Ca dietary consumption or Ca metabolism between female and male specimens. In contrast, the 44 Ca/ 42 Ca ratios of blood plasma from mother mice during the lactation period were significantly higher than those for all other adult specimens. This suggests that Ca supplied to infants through lactation was isotopically lighter, and the preferential supply of isotropically lighter Ca resulted in isotopically heavier Ca in blood plasma of mother mice during the lactation period. The data obtained here clearly demonstrate that the Ca isotopic ratio has a potential to become a new tool for evaluating changes in dietary consumption, or Ca metabolism of animals. (author)

  6. Stable-isotope dilution GC-MS approach for nitrite quantification in human whole blood, erythrocytes, and plasma using pentafluorobenzyl bromide derivatization: nitrite distribution in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Alexandra; Modun, Darko; Heusser, Karsten; Tank, Jens; Gutzki, Frank-Mathias; Mitschke, Anja; Jordan, Jens; Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2011-05-15

    Previously, we reported on the usefulness of pentafluorobenzyl bromide (PFB-Br) for the simultaneous derivatization and quantitative determination of nitrite and nitrate in various biological fluids by GC-MS using their (15)N-labelled analogues as internal standards. As nitrite may be distributed unevenly in plasma and blood cells, its quantification in whole blood rather than in plasma or serum may be the most appropriate approach to determine nitrite concentration in the circulation. So far, GC-MS methods based on PFB-Br derivatization failed to measure nitrite in whole blood and erythrocytes because of rapid nitrite loss by oxidation and other unknown reactions during derivatization. The present article reports optimized and validated procedures for sample preparation and nitrite derivatization which allow for reliable quantification of nitrite in human whole blood and erythrocytes. Essential measures for stabilizing nitrite in these samples include sample cooling (0-4°C), hemoglobin (Hb) removal by precipitation with acetone and short derivatization of the Hb-free supernatant (5 min, 50°C). Potassium ferricyanide (K(3)Fe(CN)(6)) is useful in preventing Hb-caused nitrite loss, however, this chemical is not absolutely required in the present method. Our results show that accurate GC-MS quantification of nitrite as PFB derivative is feasible virtually in every biological matrix with similar accuracy and precision. In EDTA-anticoagulated venous blood of 10 healthy young volunteers, endogenous nitrite concentration was measured to be 486±280 nM in whole blood, 672±496 nM in plasma (C(P)), and 620±350 nM in erythrocytes (C(E)). The C(E)-to-C(P) ratio was 0.993±0.188 indicating almost even distribution of endogenous nitrite between plasma and erythrocytes. By contrast, the major fraction of nitrite added to whole blood remained in plasma. The present GC-MS method is useful to investigate distribution and metabolism of endogenous and exogenous nitrite in blood

  7. Fibrinogen measurements in plasma and whole blood: a performance evaluation study of the dry-hematology system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Satoru; Tanaka, Kenichi A; Nakajima, Yasufumi; Nakayama, Yoshinobu; Takeshita, Jun; Arai, Masatoshi; Mizobe, Toshiki

    2015-01-01

    An accurate and rapid determination of fibrinogen level is important during hemorrhage to establish a timely hemostatic intervention. The accuracy of fibrinogen measurements may be affected by the specific methodology for its determination, fluid therapies, and anticoagulant agents. The dry-hematology method (DRIHEMATO®) is a novel approach to determine fibrinogen levels in plasma and whole blood based on thrombin-activated coagulation time. We hypothesized that plasma or whole blood fibrinogen level using the dry-hematology method would be similar to those measured with conventional plasma fibrinogen assays. Acquired hypofibrinogenemia was modeled by serial dilutions of blood samples obtained from 12 healthy volunteers. Citrated whole blood samples were diluted with either normal saline, 5% human albumin, or 6% hydroxyethyl starch to achieve 25%, 50%, and 75% volume replacement. The dry-hematology method, the Clauss method, the prothrombin time (PT)-derived method, determination of antigen levels, and thromboelastometric fibrin formation were compared in plasma or whole blood samples. The effect of heparin on each assay was examined (0 to 6 IU/mL). Comparisons of dry-hematology and other methods were also conducted using ex vivo samples obtained from cardiac surgical patients (n = 60). In plasma samples, there were no significant differences between dry-hematology and the Clauss method, while dry-hematology showed lower fibrinogen levels compared with PT-derived and antigen level methods. The dry-hematology method yielded acceptable concordance correlation coefficients (Pc) with the Clauss method, the PT-derived method, and fibrinogen antigen levels (Pc = 0.91-0.99). The type of diluents and heparin affected the results of the PT-derived method and thromboelastometric assay, but not the dry-hematology method. In cardiac surgical patients, the overall correlation in fibrinogen levels between dry-hematology and the other methods was comparable to the results from

  8. Predictive Value of Whole Blood and Plasma Coagulation Tests for Intra- and Postoperative Bleeding Risk: A Systematic Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Julie Brogaard; Hvas, Anne-Mette

    2017-01-01

    review of the existing literature assessing the ability of whole blood coagulation (thromboelastography [TEG]/thromboelastometry [ROTEM]/Sonoclot), platelet function tests, and standard plasma-based coagulation tests to predict bleeding in the perioperative setting. We searched PubMed and Embase...... value of testing in patients receiving antithrombotic medication. In general, studies reported low positive predictive values for perioperative testing, whereas negative predictive values were high. The studies yielded moderate areas under receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve (for the majority...... recommend that both whole blood and plasma-based coagulation tests are primarily used in case of bleeding and not for screening in unselected patients prior to surgery....

  9. Analysis of protein profiles in diabetic rat blood plasma that induced by alloxan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayati, Dewi; Abdulgani, Nurlita; Setiyawan, Hengki; Trisnawati, Indah; Ashuri, Nova Maulidina; Sa'adah, Noor Nailis

    2017-06-01

    Proteomics is the study to identify the proteins involved in physiological metabolic pathway. The protein profiles of blood plasma from alloxan-induced diabetic rats has investigated using Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Data were analyzed descriptively based on variations of the type and intensity of the protein. There were identified the similarity of protein variant between diabetic and control rats included ankyrin (200kDa), IgG (150kDa), nephrin (136 kDa), IDE (112 kDA), albumin (66 kDa), prealbumin (55 kDA), CICP (43 kDa), ApoA-V (39 kDa), GAPDH (35 kDa), C-RP (27,1 kDa), leptin (16 kDa) and apelin (13 kDa). However, the apelin profile at diabetic rats shows the higher intensity than control.

  10. Fabrication of All Glass Bifurcation Microfluidic Chip for Blood Plasma Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungjun Jang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An all-glass bifurcation microfluidic chip for blood plasma separation was fabricated by a cost-effective glass molding process using an amorphous carbon (AC mold, which in turn was fabricated by the carbonization of a replicated furan precursor. To compensate for the shrinkage during AC mold fabrication, an enlarged photoresist pattern master was designed, and an AC mold with a dimensional error of 2.9% was achieved; the dimensional error of the master pattern was 1.6%. In the glass molding process, a glass microchannel plate with negligible shape errors (~1.5% compared to AC mold was replicated. Finally, an all-glass bifurcation microfluidic chip was realized by micro drilling and thermal fusion bonding processes. A separation efficiency of 74% was obtained using the fabricated all-glass bifurcation microfluidic chip.

  11. Effects of competitive red blood cell binding and reduced hematocrit on the blood and plasma levels of [14C]Indapamide in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettieri, J.T.; Portelli, S.T.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of chlorthalidone and acetazolamide on the red blood cell binding of indapamide were investigated. Both drugs caused a substantial decrease in the amount of indapamide bound to the erythrocytes in vitro. This effect was demonstrated by a change in the indapamide blood/plasma ratio from approximately 6 in control samples, to a value of 1 when either of the displacing agents was added. Coadministration of acetazolamide with 14 C-labeled indapamide to rats, resulted in a 5-fold drop in the blood levels of total radioactivity, relative to rats dosed with [ 14 C]indapamide alone. Concomitantly, there was a 2-fold increase in the plasma levels of total radioactivity after acetazolamide coadministration. In rats whose hematocrits had been reduced by extensive bleeding, there were only minor alterations in the blood/plasma partitioning of [ 14 C]indapamide. Thus, chlorthalidone and acetazolamide were able to displace indapamide from erythrocytes in vitro and in vivo, possibly by competition at a carbonic anhydrase binding site. The pharmacokinetics of drugs which are extensively bound to erythrocytes may be significantly altered by the presence of other agents capable of competitive binding

  12. Influence of green tea consumption on cigarette smoking-induced biochemical changes in plasma and blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthadu Shakeela Begum

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking causes numerous adverse biochemical changes in plasma and blood leading to ill health effects for which therapeutic approaches are sought. The present study investigates the effect of green tea consumption on confirmed cigarette smokers. Blood samples were collected from 120 selected human male volunteers categorized in to four groups viz., controls, smokers, control volunteers consuming green tea with no habit of smoking and smokers consuming green tea were analysed. Results showed that altered plasma glucose, HbA1c, hemoglobin, hematocrit, total cholesterol, lipoprotein patterns (HDL, LDL, VLDL and lipid peroxidation along with vitamins (vitamin-D, vitamin-B12, vitamin-C and minerals (iron, total iron binding capacity, calcium, sodium, potassium, phosphorous, chloride followed by the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, gamma glutamyl transferase (γGT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP. Furthermore, phytochemical analysis of green tea confirmed the presence of phenols, flavonoids and tannins. Antioxidants and free radical scavenging effects of green tea were assessed using 2, 2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS+ and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH+. Results of this study clearly demonstrated that the adverse changes observed in the above biochemical parameters in smokers were reversed upon green tea supplementation which can be attributed to the phytoconstituents present in green tea. In conclusion, both in vivo and in vitro studies revealed that phytocompounds present in green tea are able to scavenge free radicals and by there offers protection against smoking induced biochemical alterations.

  13. Hyperammonaemia, plasma aminoacid imbalance, and blood-brain aminoacid transport: a unified theory of portal-systemic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J H; Ziparo, V; Jeppsson, B; Fischer, J E

    1979-10-13

    It is proposed that hyperammonaemia in liver cirrhosis or after portacaval shunt contributes to plasma neutral aminoacid imbalance and to increased activity of the blood-brain neutral amino-acid transport system. Plasma neutral aminoacid concentrations are deranged, partly, but not completely, because ammonia stimulates glucagon secretion; a high rate of gluconeogenesis and hyperinsulinaemia follow. Brain uptake of neutral aminoacids rises because ammonia stimulates brain-glutamine synthesis, which results in rapid exchange of brain glutamine for plasma neutral aminoacids. Hyperammonaemia therefore contributes to encephalopathy indirectly, by raising the brain concentration of neutral aminoacids which after neurotransmitter metabolism, rather than directly, by toxic effects on neuronal metabolism.

  14. Connective tissue-activating peptide III: a novel blood biomarker for early lung cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, John; Sadar, Marianne D; Sin, Don D; Kuzyk, Michael; Xing, Li; Kondra, Jennifer; McWilliams, Annette; Man, S F Paul; Lam, Stephen

    2009-06-10

    There are no reliable blood biomarkers to detect early lung cancer. We used a novel strategy that allows discovery of differentially present proteins against a complex and variable background. Mass spectrometry analyses of paired pulmonary venous-radial arterial blood from 16 lung cancer patients were applied to identify plasma proteins potentially derived from the tumor microenvironment. Two differentially expressed proteins were confirmed in 64 paired venous-arterial blood samples using an immunoassay. Twenty-eight pre- and postsurgical resection peripheral blood samples and two independent, blinded sets of plasma from 149 participants in a lung cancer screening study (49 lung cancers and 100 controls) and 266 participants from the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Lung Health Study (45 lung cancer and 221 matched controls) determined the accuracy of the two protein markers to detect subclinical lung cancer. Connective tissue-activating peptide III (CTAP III)/ neutrophil activating protein-2 (NAP-2) and haptoglobin were identified to be significantly higher in venous than in arterial blood. CTAP III/NAP-2 levels decreased after tumor resection (P = .01). In two independent population cohorts, CTAP III/NAP-2 was significantly associated with lung cancer and improved the accuracy of a lung cancer risk prediction model that included age, smoking, lung function (FEV(1)), and an interaction term between FEV(1) and CTAP III/NAP-2 (area under the curve, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.91) compared to CAPIII/NAP-2 alone. We identified CTAP III/NAP-2 as a novel biomarker to detect preclinical lung cancer. The study underscores the importance of applying blood biomarkers as part of a multimodal lung cancer risk prediction model instead of as stand-alone tests.

  15. Dielectric parameters of blood plasma of rats treated with cerium-144 and external irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadzhidekova, E.; Kiradzhiev, G.; Paskalev, Z.; Miloslavov, V.

    1988-01-01

    Investigation was carried out of the dielectric parameters of blood plasma of male Wistar rats treated with cerium 144 in doses of 370 kBq/animal and external gamma irradiation in doses of 200 cGy and 400 cGy. The radioactive cerium was introduced intraperitoneally 1 h after the external irradiation with dose rate of 1,6 cGy/sec. The permittivity ε, the time of relaxation τ and the coefficient of Debaye κ of plasma protein molecules were determined at the 1st, 3rd, 10th, 15th, and 30th days after treatement for frequence ranges of 1,4, 2,2, 3,6 and 6 MHz. At the same terms the content of cerium 144 was measured in the organs of predilectional accumulation of cerium. It was established that the treatment only with cerium lead to most essential changes of dielectric parameters at frequence of 3,6 MHz. The external irradiation didn't influence essentially the kinetics of absorbed cerium. In combination of both radiation factors the action of cerium was predominant

  16. Blood plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones of rabbits after apricot seed exposure in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína MICHALCOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes possible changes in plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones induced by bitter apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. seeds in young female rabbits in vivo. Prunus armeniaca L. is an important medicinal edible plant species commonly known as “apricot”. The apricot is a member of the Rosaceae and subfamily Prunoideae. It is one of the most delicious and commercially traded fruits in the world. Apricot kernel is the inner part of the seed of the apricot fruit. The kernel is used to produce oil and other chemicals used for medicinal purposes. The seeds are potentially useful in human nutrition and for treatment several diseases especially cancer. In the present study apricot seeds were mixed with feed at different doses 0, 60, 300, 420 mg*kg-1 of body weight. ELISA was used to determine the levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and prolactin (PRL. 58-days application of apricot seeds did not affect the concentration (P≥0.05 of PRL, LH in blood plasma. Significant (P≤0.01 inhibition of FSH levels induced by the seeds was found at the dose of 420 mg*kg-1 but not at 60 and 300 mg*kg-1 of body weight. These results are suggesting that the natural substances present in apricot seeds may be involved in mechanisms of ovarian folliculogenesis.

  17. Comparison of p53 levels in lymphocytes and in blood plasma of nuclear power plant workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roessner, Pavel; Chvatalova, Irena; Schmuczerova, Jana; Milcova, Alena; Roessner, Pavel; Sram, Radim J.

    2004-01-01

    p53 levels were assessed in lymphocytes and in blood plasma of workers from two Czech nuclear power plants (NPP): 114 subjects working in Temelin and 108 subjects working in Dukovany. Ionizing radiation (IR) exposure data were available for 64 and 59 subjects working in the monitored zones from the NPP in Temelin and Dukovany, respectively. The short-term doses of IR for these subjects were 0.01 and 0.12 mSv, and the long-term doses were 0.46 and 5.68 mSv, in the Temelin and Dukovany NPP, respectively. As a control group, 46 subjects living in Ceske Budejovice, a city nearby the Temelin NPP, were analyzed. The concentration of p53 in lymphocytes was significantly higher in workers from the monitored zone in the Dukovany NPP (median value 6.4 pg/μg protein, P < 0.001) than in workers from the Temelin NPP (3.2 pg/μg) as well as in the control group (3.5 pg/μg). In contrast, plasma levels of p53 were comparable in the control group (median value 116 pg/ml plasma) and workers from the monitored zone of Dukovany NPP (102 pg/ml), but lower in workers from Temelin NPP (5 pg/ml). Other factors affecting p53 levels were studied. Smoking resulted in increased p53 lymphocyte levels. The effect of polymorphisms in metabolic and DNA repair genes on p53 levels was analyzed. The correlation was found between p53 levels in lymphocytes and p53 codon 72 polymorphism in subjects working in NPPs, but not in the control group. The results of measurement p53 levels in lymphocytes suggest that this biomarker could reflect the short-term as well as long-term effects of low doses IR. Its impact on human health should be further explored

  18. Blood pressure and plasma catecholamine responses to various challenges during exercise-recovery in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péronnet, F; Massicotte, D; Paquet, J E; Brisson, G; de Champlain, J

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a 2 h cycle exercise (50% VO2max) on heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), and on plasma epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) concentrations, during the recovery period in seven normotensive subjects. Measurements were made at rest in supine (20 min) and standing (10 min) positions, during isometric exercise (hand-grip, 3 min, 25% maximal voluntary, contraction), in response to a mild psychosocial challenge (Stroop conflicting color word task) and during a 5-min period of light exercise (42 +/- 3% VO2max). Data were compared to measurements taken on another occasion under similar experimental conditions, without a previous exercise bout (control). The results showed HR to be slightly elevated in all conditions following the exercise bout. However, diastolic and systolic BP during the recovery period following exercise were not significantly different from the values observed in the control situation. Plasma NE concentrations in supine position and in response to the various physiological and/or psychosocial challenges were similar in the control situation and during the recovery period following exercise. On the other hand plasma E (nmol.1-1) was about 50% lower at rest (0.11 +/- 0.03 vs 0.23 +/- 0.04) as well as in response to hand-grip (0.21 +/- 0.04 vs 0.41 +/- 0.20) and the Stroop-test (0.21 +/- 0.05 vs 0.41 +/- 0.15) following the exercise bout.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Effect of an extract of Artemisia vulgaris L. (Mugwort) on the in vitro labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terra, Danielle Amorim; Brandao-Neto, Jose; Medeiros, Aldo da Cunha; Amorim, Lucia de Fatima; Catanho, Maria Tereza Jansen de Almeida; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of an extract of the Artemisia vulgaris L. (mugwort) on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc). Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with a mugwort extract and the radiolabeling of blood constituents was carried out. Plasma and blood cells were separated by centrifugation. Aliquots of plasma and blood cells were also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and centrifuged to isolate soluble and insoluble fractions of plasma and blood cells. Radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentages of radioactivity (%ATI) was calculated. Mugwort extract decreased significantly (p<0.05) the %ATI on the blood compartments and on the blood cells proteins (insoluble fraction). The analysis of the results indicates that the extract could have substances that could interfere on the transport of stannous through the erythrocyte membrane altering the labeling of blood cells with 99mTc. (author)

  20. Blood Biochemistry and Plasma Corticosterone Concentration in Broiler Chickens Under Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Alexander Díaz López

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available High ambient temperatures cause susceptibility to heat stress in broiler chickens, generating metabolic changes. This paper seeks to determine the changes in blood biochemistry and plasma corticosterone concentration, as well as in glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, sodium, chlorine, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium in broiler chickens under chronic heat stress and at ambient temperature conditions at the Colombian Amazonian piedmont. 21-days-old male chickens of two lines were studied, distributed in an unrestricted random design, in a two-factor scheme, with four treatments. Five repetitions per treatment were performed, and 25 animals per experimental unit examined. Broilers were fed a basic diet of corn and soybean meal with 3,100 kcal ME and 19.5% protein until they reached 42 days of age. The line factor had no effect on the evaluated variables (p ≥ 0.05. However, there was statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.05 in all variables when concentrations of metabolites in broilers under chronic heat stress were compared to those of chickens exposed to ambient temperatures at the Colombian Amazon piedmont. In conclusion, blood biochemistry suffered significant changes under both experimental temperatures, with more physiological detriment in broilers under chronic heat stress. Concentration of corticosterone became the most sensitive and consistent indicator of the physiological condition of chronic heat stress.

  1. Effect of Low Dose Gamma Radiation Upon the Concentration of Calcium and Inorganic Phosphorus in the Blood Plasma of Chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraljevic, P.; Vilic, M.; Miljanic, S.; Simpraga, M.

    2003-01-01

    In our previous paper it has been showed that the irradiation of chickens eggs before incubation by low dose gamma irradiation effects upon growth of the chickens hatched from irradiated eggs as well as upon activity of ALT and AST, and on the concentration of total proteins, glucose and cholesterol in the blood plasma of those chickens. Therefore in this paper an attempt was made to determine the effects of irradiation of eggs by low dose of ionizing radiation on the 19th day of incubation upon the concentration of calcium (Ca) and inorganic phosphorus (P) in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. The eggs of heavy breeding chickens (Gent, line COBB 500) were irradiated by a dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation (6 0C o source) on the 19th day of incubation. Along with the chickens, which were hatched from irradiated eggs, there was a control group of chickens hatched from nonirradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for both groups. After hatching, blood samples were taken on day 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20, 30 and 42. The concentration of Ca was determined calorimetrically using Randox optimized kits, while the concentration of P was determined by Herbos dijagnostika Sisak (Croatia) optimized kits. The concentration of Ca in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs was significantly increased on the first day, while it was decreased on the day 42. The concentration of P was decreased on the first day in blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. The fact that the concentration of both minerals in blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs was significantly changed on the first day proves that the irradiation of eggs by low dose of ionizing radiation on the nineteenth day of incubation had an effect on metabolism of both minerals in those chickens. (author)

  2. Concentration of Proteins and Protein Fractions in Blood Plasma of Chickens Hatched from Eggs Irradiated with Low Level Gamma Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraljevic, P.; Vilic, M.; Simpraga, M.; Matisic, D.; Miljanic, S.

    2011-01-01

    In literature there are many results which have shown that low dose radiation can stimulate many physiological processes of living organism. In our earlier paper it was shown that low dose of gamma radiation has a stimulative effect upon metabolic process in chickens hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation. This was proved by increase of body weight gain and body weight, as well as by increase of two enzymes activities in blood plasma (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase) which play an important role in protein metabolism. Therefore, an attempt was made to determine the effect of eggs irradiation by low dose gamma rays upon concentration of total proteins and protein fractions in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. The eggs of heavy breed chickens were irradiated with a dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation (60Co) before incubation. Along with the chickens which were hatched from irradiated eggs, there was a control group of chickens hatched from nonirradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for both groups of chickens. Blood samples were taken from the right jugular vein on the 1 s t and 3 r d day, or from the wing vein on days 5 and 7 after hatching. The total proteins concentration in the blood plasma was determined by the biuret method using Boehringer Mannheim GmbH optimized kits. The protein fractions (albumin, α 1 -globulin, α 2 -globulin, β- and γ-globulins) were estimated electrophoretically on Cellogel strips. The total proteins concentration was significantly decreased in blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs on days 3 (P t h day (P 2 -globulin was decreased on days 1 (P t h day of life. Obtained results indicate that low dose of gamma radiation has mostly inhibitory effect upon concentration of total proteins and protein fractions in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs before incubation. (author)

  3. Free Amino Acids in the Blood Plasma of Pigs during Total Starvation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuperlovic, M.; Jovanovic, M.; Stosic, D. [Institute for the Application of Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, Veterinary Medicine and Forestry, Belgrade, Yugoslavia (Serbia)

    1968-07-01

    From the nutritional point of view it is interesting to establish whether the level of free amino acids in the blood plasma can be used as an indicator of protein anabolism and catabolism. Investigations to date have given no answer to this question. It is known that numerous exogenous and endogenous factors affect protein metabolism. These effects also vary with the level of protein intake and make the relationship between the quantitative and qualitative composition of the free amino acids pool and the total protein metabolism even more complicated. To reduce some of these factors, these investigations were done under the conditions of complete exclusion of exogenous nutrition. Piglets, aged 8-10 weeks, were subjected to total starvation in the course of 28 d. During this period, the body weight, serum protein content, plasma amino acid concentration and plasma urea concentration were followed. During the whole experimental period the body weight decreased, rapidly at the beginning and more slowly towards the end. The mean total body weight loss was 44.6 % of the first day's weight. The serum protein content increased slightly at the beginning of starvation and then, towards the end of the experiment, decreased, reaching a value that was only a little lower than the protein content determined before the onset of starvation. Changes of the quantitative composition.of the free amino acid pool did not follow the changes of the serum protein content. At the beginning of starvation, concentrations of a great number of amino acids increased in accordance with some earlier results. After long periods of starvation, however, differences between individual amino acids become more clear. Concentrations of some amino acids, e.g. lysine, increased continually during the whole period, while concentrations of most of the other amino acids remained for some time at high levels and only in the last week of starvation decreased to the values similar to those observed at the

  4. Influence of milk urea concentration on fractional urea disappearance rate from milk to blood plasma in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, J.W.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and urinary N excretion is affected, among others, by diurnal dynamics in MUN, which in turn is largely influenced by feed intake pattern and characteristics of urea transfer from blood plasma to milk and vice versa. This study aimed

  5. Quantification of Epstein-Barr virus-DNA load in lung transplant recipients : A comparison of plasma versus whole blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Nicolaas A.; Verschuuren, Erik A.; Veeger, Nic J.; van der Bij, Wim; van Imhoff, Gustaaf W.; Kallenberg, Cees G.; Hepkema, Bouke G.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Monitoring of the Epstein-Barr virus-DNA load is frequently used to identify patients at risk for post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD). Epstein-Barr virus DNA can be measured in the plasma and whole blood serum compartments. Methods: We compared levels of Epstein-Barr virus

  6. Blood plasma sample preparation method to determine thyroid hormone-disrupting compounds in Effect-Directed Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, E.; Bytingsvik, J.; Jonker, W.; Leonards, P.E.G.; de Boer, J.; Jenssen, B.M.; Lie, E.; Aars, J.; Hamers, T.H.M.; Lamoree, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    A sample preparation method combining solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) was developed to be used in Effect-Directed Analysis (EDA) of blood plasma. Until now such a method was not available. It can be used for extraction of a broad range of thyroid hormone

  7. [Classification of results of studying blood plasma with laser correlation spectroscopy based on semiotics of preclinical and clinical states].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternovoĭ, K S; Kryzhanovskiĭ, G N; Musiĭchuk, Iu I; Noskin, L A; Klopov, N V; Noskin, V A; Starodub, N F

    1998-01-01

    The usage of laser correlation spectroscopy for verification of preclinical and clinical states is substantiated. Developed "semiotic" classifier for solving the problems of preclinical and clinical states is presented. The substantiation of biological algorithms as well as the mathematical support and software for the proposed classifier for the data of laser correlation spectroscopy of blood plasma are presented.

  8. Plasma Vitamin E and Blood Selenium Concentrations in Norwegian Dairy Cows: Regional Differences and Relations to Feeding and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østerås O

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma α-tocopherol (vit E and blood selenium (Se concentrations in February were determined in samples from 314 dairy cows in Norway, selected to provide a representative subset of the Norwegian dairy cow population. Each sample was followed by a questionnaire with information about feeding of the cow at the time of sampling. The results were correlated to herd data and to calving and health data for each cow from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System and the Norwegian Cattle Health Recording System. The mean concentrations were 6.9 μg vit E per ml plasma and 0.16 μg Se per g blood. Both levels were highest in mid lactation. Plasma vit E varied with the amount of silage fed to the cow, while blood Se varied with the amount of concentrates and mineral supplements, and with geographical region. No differences in vit E or Se levels were found between cows with recorded treatments for mastitis, parturient paresis or reproductive disorders in the lactation during or immediately prior to sampling, and those without such treatments. For ketosis, a small difference in blood Se was found between the groups with or without recorded treatments. It is concluded that winter-fed lactating cows in Norway had an adequate plasma level of vit E and a marginal-to-adequate level of Se.

  9. Plasma Vitamin E and Blood Selenium Concentrations in Norwegian Dairy Cows: Regional Differences and Relations to Feeding and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivertsen T

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma α-tocopherol (vit E and blood selenium (Se concentrations in February were determined in samples from 314 dairy cows in Norway, selected to provide a representative subset of the Norwegian dairy cow population. Each sample was followed by a questionnaire with information about feeding of the cow at the time of sampling. The results were correlated to herd data and to calving and health data for each cow from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System and the Norwegian Cattle Health Recording System. The mean concentrations were 6.9 μg vit E per ml plasma and 0.16 μg Se per g blood. Both levels were highest in mid lactation. Plasma vit E varied with the amount of silage fed to the cow, while blood Se varied with the amount of concentrates and mineral supplements, and with geographical region. No differences in vit E or Se levels were found between cows with recorded treatments for mastitis, parturient paresis or reproductive disorders in the lactation during or immediately prior to sampling, and those without such treatments. For ketosis, a small difference in blood Se was found between the groups with or without recorded treatments. It is concluded that winter-fed lactating cows in Norway had an adequate plasma level of vit E and a marginal-to-adequate level of Se.

  10. Polymer brushes showing non-fouling in blood plasma challenge the currently accepted design of protein resistant surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar Adolfo; Brynda, Eduard; Riedel, Tomáš; Houska, Milan; Šubr, Vladimír; Bologna Alles, A.; Hasan, E.; Gautrot, J. E.; Huck, W. T. S.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 13 (2011), s. 952-957 ISSN 1022-1336 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200670701; GA AV ČR IAAX00500803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : biosensors * blood plasma * HPMA Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 4.596, year: 2011

  11. IFCC reference measurement procedure for substance concentration determination of total carbon dioxide in blood, plasma or serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burnett, RW; Covington, AK; Fogh-Andersen, N; Kulpmann, WR; Lewenstam, A; Mas, AHJ; VanKessel, AL; Zijlstra, WG

    A reference measurement procedure for substance concentration determination of total CO, in blood, plasma (the anticoagulant is usually heparin) or serum is described. The document covers the principle of the method, the materials and equipment needed and essential aspects of the procedure. The

  12. Generation of representative primary virus isolates from blood plasma after isolation of HIV-1 with CD44 MicroBeads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, M; Heeregrave, E.J.; Zorgdrager, F.; Pollakis, G.; Paxton, W.A.; van der Kuyl, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Infection of cell cultures with cell-free virus isolated from HIV-infected patients is notoriously difficult and results in a loss of viral variation. Here, we describe viral sequences from PBMC, U87.CD4.CCR5 and U87.CD4.CXCR4 cell cultures and compare them to those from blood plasma from 12

  13. Simultaneous determination of dapsone, monoacetyldapsone and pyrimethamine in whole blood and plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemnge, M M; Rønn, A; Flachs, H

    1993-01-01

    A sensitive, selective and rapid reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of dapsone, monoacetyldapsone and pyrimethamine in human whole blood and plasma. The procedure involved extraction of the compounds and the internal standard...

  14. Analytical sample preparation strategies for the determination of antimalarial drugs in human whole blood, plasma and urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Monica Escolà; Hansen, Martin; Krogh, Kristine A

    2014-01-01

    the available sample preparation strategies combined with liquid chromatographic (LC) analysis to determine antimalarials in whole blood, plasma and urine published over the last decade. Sample preparation can be done by protein precipitation, solid-phase extraction, liquid-liquid extraction or dilution. After...

  15. Gadolinium-based magnetic resonance contrast agents at 7 Tesla: in vitro T1 relaxivities in human blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noebauer-Huhmann, Iris M; Szomolanyi, Pavol; Juras, Vladimír; Kraff, Oliver; Ladd, Mark E; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2010-09-01

    PURPOSE/INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the T1 relaxivities (r1) of 8 gadolinium (Gd)-based MR contrast agents in human blood plasma at 7 Tesla, compared with 3 Tesla. Eight commercially available Gd-based MR contrast agents were diluted in human blood plasma to concentrations of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 mmol/L. In vitro measurements were performed at 37 degrees C, on a 7 Tesla and on a 3 Tesla whole-body magnetic resonance imaging scanner. For the determination of T1 relaxation times, Inversion Recovery Sequences with inversion times from 0 to 3500 ms were used. The relaxivities were calculated. The r1 relaxivities of all agents, diluted in human blood plasma at body temperature, were lower at 7 Tesla than at 3 Tesla. The values at 3 Tesla were comparable to those published earlier. Notably, in some agents, a minor negative correlation of r1 with a concentration of up to 2 mmol/L could be observed. This was most pronounced in the agents with the highest protein-binding capacity. At 7 Tesla, the in vitro r1 relaxivities of Gd-based contrast agents in human blood plasma are lower than those at 3 Tesla. This work may serve as a basis for the application of Gd-based MR contrast agents at 7 Tesla. Further studies are required to optimize the contrast agent dose in vivo.

  16. Alternative route of process modification for biofuel production by embedding the Fischer-Tropsch plant in existing stand-alone power plant (10 MW) based on biomass gasification - Part I: A conceptual modeling and simulation approach (a case study in Thailand)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunpinyo, Piyapong; Cheali, Peam; Narataruksa, Phavanee

    2014-01-01

    a base case process model coupled with techno-economic evaluation for the FT synthesis. In particular, the FT process configurations are designed and assessed using current kinetic laboratory data by our research group for modeling specific reactions in PFR reactor. The calculation of equipment sizing......The utilization of syngas shows a highly potential to improve the economic potential of the stand-alone power unit-based gasification plants as well as enhancing the growing demand of transportation fuels. The thermochemical conversion of biomass via gasification to heat and power generations from...... incurred several major unit operations is performed for once-through mode (no recycles of unconverted syngas) with electricity co-production. This study provides a detailed base-case model for the synthesis with the capacities of 1, 2 and 3 MW of syngas technology sharing and the comparison between...

  17. Plasma concentrations of endothelial vasoactive substances in clinically healthy subjects. associations with urinary albumin excretion and ambulatory blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Jensent, G

    2000-01-01

    controls with normoalbuminuria. Plasma concentration of ET-1 was measured using an ELISA method and plasma concentration of nitrate/nitrite using a photometric method. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure was measured using a portable recorder (TM-2421). No significant differences in the concentrations...... of nitrate/nitrite and ET-1 were found between the groups, e.g. 21 (10-105) vs. 18 (11 -152) (p=0.33) and 0.98 (0.58 1.95) vs. 1.10 (0.54 -1.50) (p = 0.27), respectively. However, plasma nitrate/nitrite was significantly positively correlated to systolic and diastolic blood pressure in subjects...... in clinically healthy subjects. However, nitrate/nitrite is positively correlated to BP only in subjects with normoalbuminuria, and ET-1 is positively correlated to BP only in subjects with elevated UAE....

  18. Study of a stand alone power system based on a photovoltaic field, an electrolyser and a fuel cell: test bench and modelling; Etude d'un systeme autonome de production d'energie couplant un champ photovoltaique, un electrolyseur et une pile a combustible: realisation d'un banc d'essai et modelisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busquet, S.

    2003-12-01

    Our energetic future has to be based on non-polluting energies with long-term resources. Renewable energies are the best candidates but as their production is intermittent, storage way is necessary as well efficient as environmentally friendly. Coupled an electrolyser and a fuel cell allows to store electricity in gas form and furthermore to produce heat energy. The goal of this work is to evaluate performances of a stand-alone power system, producing electricity and heat, coupling a photovoltaic field and a hydrogen storage system, made of an electrolyser, a gas storage unit and a fuel cell. Hydrogen is the unique way to store electricity. To complete this task, two tools have been developed: a 3,6 kW test bench and a simulation tool. To select the test bench, a bibliographic study enables to collect the necessary information to size and to choice the system and its components. The low availability of components adapted to our application, forces us to create new devices (electrolyser, fuel cell, power management unit). The test bench is automatic and safe. Experimental analysis evaluates the efficiency of the hydrogen storage system, determining the different losses occurring in each component. Modifications are proposed to increase the performances of the storage system. The simulation tool enables to plan the operating of the test bench for a fixed load and place. This model can simulate any system based on experimental data of each component. Simulation results enable to characterise the functioning of the test bench in a stand-alone operation, to determine its performances and to evaluate the influence of the different losses. (author)

  19. Assessment of the effect of phytic acid on the labeling of blood cells and plasma proteins with Technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima-Filho, Guilherme L.; Freitas, Rosimeire S.; Moreno, Silvana R.F.; Boasquevisque, Edson M.; Bernardo-Filho, Mario; Lima, Glaydes M.T.; Catanho, Maria T.J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Blood elements labeled with technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) have been used in various procedures in nuclear medicine. We have investigated if phytic acid (PHY) could alter the labeling of blood elements with 99m Tc. Blood was incubated with different concentrations of PHY. Stannous chloride and 99m Tc, as sodium pertechnetate, were added. Blood was centrifuged and plasma (P) and blood cell (BC) were isolated. Samples of P and BC were also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and centrifuged, and insoluble (IF) and soluble (SF) fractions were separated. The percentages of radioactivity (%ATI) in BC, IF-P and IF-BC were calculated. The %ATI decreased significantly (p 99m Tc with possible undesirable effects, it is relevant to verify the necessity to repeat the examination and to evaluate the increase of the radiation dose to the patient. (author)

  20. High-intensity interval training lowers blood pressure and improves apelin and NOx plasma levels in older treated hypertensive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Mohammad Reza; Ghardashi Afousi, Alireza; Asvadi Fard, Maryam; Babaee Bigi, Mohammad Ali

    2018-02-01

    Hypertension is the major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and is one of the primary causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Apelin levels and NO bioavailability are impaired in older hypertensive patients. Exercise is an effective intervention for treating hypertension. Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of high-intensity interval training on blood pressure, apelin, and NOx plasma levels in older treated hypertensive individuals. Thirty treated hypertensive subjects (61.70 ± 5.78 years, 17 males, 13 females) were randomly divided into 6 weeks of high-intensity interval training (n = 15) and control (n = 15). The exercise training was conducted for three 35-min sessions a week (1.5-min interval at 85-90% of heart rate reserve [HRR] and 2 min active phase at 50-55% of HRR). Assessment of plasma apelin, nitrite/nitrate (NOx), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) was performed before and after the intervention. At the end of the study, apelin, and NOx plasma levels increased significantly in the high-intensity interval training (HIIT) group (P = 0.021, P = 0.003, respectively). Conversely, ET-1 plasma levels significantly decreased in the training group after the intervention (P = 0.015). Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the change of plasma apelin and change of plasma NOx (r = 0. 771, P = 0.0008). In addition, there was a negative correlation between the change of plasma ET-1, change of plasma apelin (r = - 0.595, P = 0.019), and variation of NOx (r = - 0.572, P = 0.025). This study indicates that, by increasing of apelin and NOx plasma levels, HIIT may be effective in reducing blood pressure.

  1. Comparison of glucose concentration and glucose absorption from the GI-tract in pigs in whole blood and in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Jørgensen, Henry; Larsen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    using a biosensitive electrode (Exp. 1) or a standard colourimetric method (Exp. 2). In general, glucose measured in whole blood was 7-11% lower than in plasma at low glucose levels (3.5-5 mM), whereas the methods agreed well at high glucose levels (10-14 mM). Evaluation of the regression lines between......The present investigation was undertaken to compare glucose absorption from the gastro-intestinal tract quantified in either whole blood or plasma using the arterio-venous differences and portal blood flow measurements. Pigs were surgically modified with catheters in the portal vein...... three different diets with similar contents of starch (470-506 g/kg DM). The diets in both studies differed regarding amount and solubility of fibre. Blood samples were collected repeatedly 0-10 h after morning feeding. Glucose was measured in whole blood using a glucometer (Accu-Chek®) and in plasma...

  2. Effect of Ichthyophonus on blood plasma chemistry of spawning Chinook salmon and their resulting offspring in a Yukon River tributary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd-Rump, T P; Horstmann-Dehn, L A; Atkinson, S; Skaugstad, C

    2017-01-24

    Ichthyophonus is a protozoan parasite of Alaska Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. In this study, we determined whether spawning Chinook salmon in the Yukon River drainage exhibited a measurable stress response (i.e. elevated plasma cortisol concentrations) and detectable changes in selected blood plasma chemistry parameters when infected with Ichthyophonus. The resulting alevin were also analyzed for any differences in blood plasma chemistry caused by parental infection with Ichthyophonus. In 2010, 2011, and 2012, spawning adult Chinook salmon were collected from the Salcha River, Alaska, USA, and the prevalence of Ichthyophonus in these fish was 7.8, 6.3, and 8.3%, respectively. Fish with no clinical signs of Ichthyophonus and Ichthyophonus-positive parents were cross-fertilized to investigate potential second-generation effects as a result of Ichthyophonus infection. We found no significant difference in cortisol concentrations in blood plasma between Ichthyophonus-positive and -negative adults or between alevin from Ichthyophonus-positive and -negative parents. There were no significant differences in blood plasma parameters (e.g. alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase, glucose) of Ichthyophonus-negative and -positive adults, with the exception of aspartate aminotransferase, which was significantly higher in plasma of Ichthyophonus-negative adults. All clinical chemistry parameters for alevin resulting from both Ichthyophonus-negative and -positive parents were not significantly different. Based on this study, which has a limited sample size and low prevalence of Ichthyophonus, offspring of Chinook salmon appear to suffer no disadvantage as a result of Ichthyophonus infection in their parents on the Salcha River.

  3. Influence of weaning regimen on intake, growth characteristics and plasma blood metabolites in male buffalo calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, M A; Pasha, T N; Jabbar, M A; Ijaz, A; Rehman, H; Yousaf, M S

    2013-09-01

    Experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of weaning age on growth performance, feed intake, feed efficiency (FE) and blood metabolites in Nili-Ravi male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves. Twenty-four male buffalo calves were assigned to one of the three treatment groups: continuous milk feeding (CMF), limited milk feeding (LMF) and early weaning (EW), and weaned off milk at 12, 10 and 8 weeks of age, respectively. For the first 3 days after birth, calves in all three treatments were fed colostrum, and were then moved to individual milk feeding at 10% of BW for the next 6 weeks. Thereafter, the provision of milk to the CMF group was gradually tapered to zero through week 12, using week 6 intakes as a base. The LMF calves were fed milk at 7.5%, 5.0%, 3.5%, and 1.5% of BW during weeks 7 to 10, respectively. Lastly, calves in the EW group were fed milk at 5.0% and 2.5% of BW at weeks 7 and 8, respectively. Calf starter (CS) feed was also provided ad libitum from weeks 2 to 12 and individual intakes were recorded on a daily basis. Blood samples were taken from weeks 6 to 12, on a weekly basis; whereas, the BW, heart girth, withers height and hip width were measured at the start of experiment and later on a weekly basis. Weight gain, average daily gain, and body measurements were the same across all three groups. Milk intake was lower (P intake was greater (P calves compared with the other treatment groups. Dry matter intake was greater (P calves compared with the CMF calves. The FE was greater (P calves compared with the LMF and EW treatment groups. Blood glucose concentration was similar among the treatments; however, blood urea nitrogen was greater (P calves compared with the CMF and LMF groups. Plasma concentration of non-esterified fatty acids was higher (P calves compared with the CMF calves. In light of these results, it is evident that buffalo calves can be successfully weaned as early as 8 weeks of age without negatively affecting their growth performance.

  4. Mesoporous silica particles modified with graphitic carbon: interaction with human red blood cells and plasma proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Diego Stefani Teodoro; Franqui, Lidiane Silva; Bettini, Jefferson; Strauss, Mathias, E-mail: diego.martinez@lnnano.cnpem.br [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa em Energia e Materiais (CNPEM), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Damasceno, Joao Paulo Vita; Mazali, Italo Odone [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: In this work the interaction of the mesoporous silica particles (SBA-15, ∼700 nm) modified with graphitic carbon (SBA-15/C) on human red blood cells (hemolysis) and plasma proteins (protein corona formation) is studied. XPS and CHN analysis showed that the carbon content on the SBA-15/C samples varied from 2 to 10% and was tuned by the functionalization step. The formed carbon structures where associated to graphitic nanodomains coating the pores surface as verified by Raman spectroscopy and {sup 13}C NMR. Advanced TEM/EELS analysis showed that the carbon structures are distributed along the SBA-15 mesopores. SAXS and textural analyses were used to confirm that the porous structure of the silica support is kept after the modification procedure and to calculate the number of graphitic carbon stacked layers coating the mesopores. After incubation of SBA-15 with human red blood cells (RBCs), it was observed a dose-dependent hemolytic effect, probably, due to binding of the material silanol-rich surface to the phosphatidylcholine molecules from the RBC membrane. The graphitic carbon modifications have mitigated this effect, indicating that the graphitic carbon coating protected the silanol groups of the particle surface hindering the hemolysis. Considering the protein corona formation, selective biomolecular interaction of proteins was observed for the different materials using gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis. Besides, graphitic carbon modification decreased the amount of proteins on the corona. Together, the in vitro hemolysis and protein corona assays are promising biological models to understand the influence of silica surface functionalization on their bionano-interactions. Finally, our work contributes to the development of fundamental research on such nanomaterials chemistry in the emerging field of nanobioscience and nanotoxicology. (author)

  5. Effect of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and antihistamines on postirradiation cerebral blood flow and plasma levels of histamine and neurotensin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Pautler, E.L.; Carraway, R.E.; Cochrane, D.E.; Hampton, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    In an attempt to elucidate mechanisms underlying the irradiation-induced decrease in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in primates, hippocampal and visual cortical blood flows of rhesus monkeys were measured by hydrogen clearance, before and after exposure to 100 Gy, whole-body, gamma irradiation. Systemic blood pressures were monitored simultaneously. Systemic arterial plasma histamine and neurotensin levels were determined preirradiation and postirradiation. Compared to control animals, the irradiated monkeys exhibited an abrupt decline in systemic blood pressure to 23% of the preirradiation level within 10 min postirradiation, falling to 12% by 60 min. A decrease in hippocampal blood flow to 32% of the preirradiation level was noted at 10 min postirradiation, followed by a slight recovery to 43% at 30 min and a decline to 23% by 60 min. The cortical blood flow for the same animals showed a steady decrease to 29% of the preirradiation levels by 60 min postirradiation. Animals given the mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate and the antihistamines mepyramine and cimetidine before irradiation did not exhibit an abrupt decline in blood pressure but displayed a gradual decrease to a level 33% below preirradiation levels by 60 min postirradiation. Also, the treated, irradiated monkeys displayed rCBF values that were not significantly different from the nonirradiated controls. The plasma neurotensin levels in the irradiated animals, treated and untreated, indicated a nonsignificant postirradiation increase above control levels. However, the postirradiation plasma histamine levels in both irradiated groups showed an increase of approximately 1600% above the preirradiation levels and the postirradiation control levels

  6. [Blood plasma protein adsorption capacity of perfluorocarbon emulsion stabilized by proxanol 268 (in vitro and in vivo studies)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklifas, A N; Zhalimov, V K; Temnov, A A; Kukushkin, N I

    2012-01-01

    The adsorption abilities of the perfluorocarbon emulsion stabilized by Proxanol 268 were investigated in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, the saturation point for the blood plasma proteins was nearly reached after five minutes of incubation of the emulsion with human/rabbit blood plasma and was stable for all incubation periods studied. The decrease in volume ratio (emulsion/plasma) was accompanied by the increase in the adsorptive capacity of the emulsion with maximal values at 1/10 (3.2 and 1.5 mg of proteins per 1 ml of the emulsion, for human and rabbit blood plasma, respectively) that was unchanged at lower ratios. In vivo, in rabbits, intravenously injected with the emulsion, the proteins with molecular masses of 12, 25, 32, 44, 55, 70, and 200 kDa were adsorbed by the emulsion (as in vitro) if it was used 6 hours or less before testing. More delayed testing (6 h) revealed elimination of proteins with molecular masses of 25 and 44 kDa and an additional pool of adsorpted new ones of 27, 50, and 150 kDa. Specific adsorptive capacity of the emulsion enhanced gradually after emulsion injection and reached its maximum (3.5-5 mg of proteins per 1 ml of the emulsion) after 24 hours.

  7. Clovamide-rich extract from Trifolium pallidum reduces oxidative stress-induced damage to blood platelets and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczyk, Joanna; Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Szajwaj, Barbara; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wieslaw

    2011-09-01

    Numerous plants (including clovers) have been widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of different disorders. This in vitro study was designed to examine the antioxidative effects of the clovamide-rich fraction, obtained from aerial parts of Trifolium pallidum, in the protection of blood platelets and plasma against the nitrative and oxidative damage, caused by peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). Carbonyl groups and 3-nitrotyrosine in blood platelet and plasma proteins were determined by ELISA tests. Thiol groups level was estimated by using 5,5'-dithio-bis(2-nitro-benzoic acid, DTNB). Plasma lipid peroxidation was measured spectrophotometrically as the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The results from our work indicate that clovamide-rich T. pallidum extract may reveal the protective properties in the prevention against oxidative stress. The presence of clovamide-rich T. pallidum extract (12.5-100 μg/ml) partly inhibited ONOO(-)-mediated protein carbonylation and nitration. All the used concentrations of T. pallidum extract reduced lipid peroxidation in plasma. The antioxidative action of the tested extract in the protection of blood platelet lipids was less effective; the extract at the lowest final concentration (12.5 μg/ml) had no protective effect against lipid peroxidation. The present results indicate that the extract from T. pallidum is likely to be a source of compounds with the antioxidative properties, useful in the prevention against the oxidative stress-related diseases.

  8. The associations of a marine diet with plasma lipids, blood glucose, blood pressure and obesity among the inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Pedersen, H S; Mulvad, G

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the associations between the intake of fish and marine mammals and risk factors for cardiovascular disease, ie lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, blood pressure and obesity, in a population whose average consumption of n-3 fatty acids is high compared with Western countries...... and not statistically significant. The pattern was similar within groups with low, medium and high consumption of marine food. CONCLUSIONS: There are statistically significant associations between the consumption of marine food and certain lipid fractions in the blood also in this population with a very high average...... intake of marine food. The observation that blood glucose is positively associated with marine diet in a population survey is new and should be repeated. There was good agreement between the results for the reported consumption of seal and those for the biomarkers. SPONSORSHIP: The study was financially...

  9. Comparison of EBV DNA viral load in whole blood, plasma, B-cells and B-cell culture supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, David Eric; Bollore, Karine; Viljoen, Johannes; Foulongne, Vincent; Reynes, Jacques; Cartron, Guillaume; Vendrell, Jean-Pierre; Van de Perre, Philippe; Tuaillon, Edouard

    2014-05-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome quantitation in whole blood is used widely for therapeutic monitoring of EBV-associated disorders in immunosuppressed individuals and in patients with EBV-associated lymphoma. However, the most appropriate biological material to be used for EBV DNA quantitation remains a subject of debate. This study compare the detection rate and levels of EBV DNA from whole blood, plasma, enriched B-cells, and B-cell short-term culture supernatant using quantitative real-time PCR. Samples were collected from 33 subjects with either HIV infection or B-cell lymphoma. Overall, EBV DNA was detected in 100% of enriched B-cell samples, in 82% of B-cell culture supernatants, in 57% of plasma, and 42% of whole blood samples. A significant correlation for EBV viral load was found between enriched B-cell and B-cell culture supernatant material (ρ = 0.92; P cells (ρ = -0.02; P = 0.89), whole blood and plasma (ρ = 0.24; P = 0.24), or enriched B-cells and plasma (ρ = 0.08; P = 0.77). Testing of enriched B-cells appeared to be the most sensitive method for detection of EBV DNA as well as for exploration of the cellular reservoir. Quantitation of EBV DNA in plasma and B-cell culture supernatant may be of interest to assess EBV reactivation dynamics and response to treatment as well as to decipher EBV host-pathogen interactions in various clinical scenarios. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Does sugar content matter? Blood plasma glucose levels in an occasional and a specialist avian nectarivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witteveen, Minke; Brown, Mark; Downs, Colleen T

    2014-01-01

    Nectar composition within a plant pollinator group can be variable, and bird pollinated plants can be segregated into two groups based on their adaptations to either a specialist or an occasional bird pollination system. Specialist nectarivores rely primarily on nectar for their energy requirements, while occasional nectarivores meet their energy requirements from nectar as well as from seeds, fruit and insects. Avian blood plasma glucose concentration (PGlu) is generally high compared with mammals. It is also affected by a range of factors including species, gender, age, ambient temperature, feeding pattern, reproductive status, circadian rhythm and moult status, among others. We examined whether sugar content affected PGlu of two avian nectarivores, a specialist nectarivore the Amethyst Sunbird Chalcomitra amethystina, and an occasional nectarivore the Cape White-eye Zosterops virens, when fed sucrose-hexose sugar solution diets of varying concentrations (5%-35%). Both species regulated PGlu within a range which was affected by sampling time (fed or fasted) and not dietary sugar concentration. The range in mean PGlu was broader in Amethyst Sunbirds (11.52-16.51mmol/L) compared with Cape White-eyes (14.33-15.85mmol/L). This suggests that these birds are not constrained by dietary sugar concentration with regard to PGlu regulation, and consequently selective pressure on plants for their nectar characteristics is due to reasons other than glucose regulation. © 2013.

  11. Detection of Antibodies in Blood Plasma Using Bioluminescent Sensor Proteins and a Smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts, Remco; den Hartog, Ilona; Zijlema, Stefan E; Thijssen, Vito; van der Beelen, Stan H E; Merkx, Maarten

    2016-04-19

    Antibody detection is of fundamental importance in many diagnostic and bioanalytical assays, yet current detection techniques tend to be laborious and/or expensive. We present a new sensor platform (LUMABS) based on bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) that allows detection of antibodies directly in solution using a smartphone as the sole piece of equipment. LUMABS are single-protein sensors that consist of the blue-light emitting luciferase NanoLuc connected via a semiflexible linker to the green fluorescent acceptor protein mNeonGreen, which are kept close together using helper domains. Binding of an antibody to epitope sequences flanking the linker disrupts the interaction between the helper domains, resulting in a large decrease in BRET efficiency. The resulting change in color of the emitted light from green-blue to blue can be detected directly in blood plasma, even at picomolar concentrations of antibody. Moreover, the modular architecture of LUMABS allows changing of target specificity by simple exchange of epitope sequences, as demonstrated here for antibodies against HIV1-p17, hemagglutinin (HA), and dengue virus type I. The combination of sensitive ratiometric bioluminescent detection and the intrinsic modularity of the LUMABS design provides an attractive generic platform for point-of-care antibody detection that avoids the complex liquid handling steps associated with conventional immunoassays.

  12. Progesterone and estradiol-17β concentrations in blood plasma of buffaloes during different reproductive disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Harjit; Arora, S.P.; Sawhney, Ajay

    1982-01-01

    Six Murrah buffaloes in group I were fed as per NRC requirements and the same number in group II were kept at low level of nutrition. Blood samples were collected from all the buffaloes during estrus, anoestrus or even pregnancy, for estimation of progesterone and estradiol-17β. Progesterone levels were consistently low during anoestrus period (<1.0 ng/ml), but, peak occurred on day minus 10 of the next following estrus indicating that luteal activity preceded the first estrus after a prolonged anoestrum. The estradiol-17β levels did not show any distinct trend during anoestrus and subsequent estrous cycles. Underfed buffaloes required more services per conception. The mean progesterone concentrations during early pregnancy were 6.12 +- 0.21 and 5.31 +- 0.29 ng/ml in groups I and II, respectively, which were persistent. Plasma progesterone drop was recorded in buffaloes which aborted or showed foetal resorption, abrupt in the former case and at a slow rate in the latter case. (author)

  13. Persistent organic pollutants in maternal blood plasma and breast milk from Russian arctic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopov, V; Odland, J O; Burkow, I C

    1998-10-01

    Under the auspices of Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), a Russian-Norwegian co-operation project was established to assess the exposure of delivering women to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Arctic areas of Russia. In the period 1993-95 blood and breast milk samples were collected from 94 delivering women in Yamal and Tajmyr Autonomous Regions of Siberia. Concentrations of chlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined by high resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The POP levels in maternal plasma among the non-indigenous women were higher than the native population, especially in total PCB, HCHs (hexachlorocyclohexanes) and the DDT-group. The dietary questionnaires showed that the non-indigenous populations consumed considerably less local food items like reindeer meat and fresh water fish. There was no correlation between local food consumption and elevated levels of pollutants. Even if the indigenous groups had lower concentrations of the most important pollutants than the non-indigenous population, they were still higher than the levels measured in the Scandinavian countries of the AMAP-study and up to levels of medical concern. The most important sources of organic pollutants for the Russian Arctic populations of Yamal and Tajmyr seems to be imported food from other areas of Russia and local use of pesticides. It must be a high priority concern to further elucidate these trends and initiate prophylactic measures for the exposed population groups.

  14. Concentration of total proteins in blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs with low dose gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilic, M.; Kraljevic, P.; Miljanic, S.; Simpraga, M.

    2005-01-01

    It is known that low-dose ionising radiation may have stimulating effects on chickens. Low doses may also cause changes in the concentration of blood plasma total proteins, glucose and cholesterol in chickens. This study investigates the effects of low dose gamma-radiation on the concentration of total proteins in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with a dose of 0.15 Gy on incubation days 7 and 19. Results were compared with the control group (chickens hatched from non-irradiated eggs). After hatching, all other conditions were the same for both groups. Blood samples were drawn from the heart, and later from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 7,10, 20, 30 and 42. The concentration of total proteins was determined spectrophotometrically using Boehringer Mannheim GmbH optimised kits. The concentration of total proteins in blood plasma in chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy on incubation day 7 showed a statistically significant decrease on the sampling day 3 (P less than 0.05) and 7 (P less than 0.01). The concentration of total proteins in blood plasma in chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy on incubation day 19 showed a statistically significant increase only on sampling day 1 (P less than 0.05). These results suggest that exposure of eggs to 0.15 Gy of gamma-radiation on the 7th and 19th day of incubation could produce different effects on the protein metabolism in chickens.(author)

  15. Successful implementation of a packed red blood cell and fresh frozen plasma transfusion protocol in the surgical intensive care unit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin E Szpila

    Full Text Available Blood product transfusions are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine if implementation of a restrictive protocol for packed red blood cell (PRBC and fresh frozen plasma (FFP transfusion safely reduces blood product utilization and costs in a surgical intensive care unit (SICU.We performed a retrospective, historical control analysis comparing before (PRE and after (POST implementation of a restrictive PRBC/FFP transfusion protocol for SICU patients. Univariate analysis was utilized to compare patient demographics and blood product transfusion totals between the PRE and POST cohorts. Multivariate logistic regression models were developed to determine if implementation of the restrictive transfusion protocol is an independent predictor of adverse outcomes after controlling for age, illness severity, and total blood products received.829 total patients were included in the analysis (PRE, n=372; POST, n=457. Despite higher mean age (56 vs. 52 years, p=0.01 and APACHE II scores (12.5 vs. 11.2, p=0.006, mean units transfused per patient were lower for both packed red blood cells (0.7 vs. 1.2, p=0.03 and fresh frozen plasma (0.3 vs. 1.2, p=0.007 in the POST compared to the PRE cohort, respectively. There was no difference in inpatient mortality between the PRE and POST cohorts (7.5% vs. 9.2%, p=0.39. There was a decreased risk of urinary tract infections (OR 0.47, 95%CI 0.28-0.80 in the POST cohort after controlling for age, illness severity and amount of blood products transfused.Implementation of a restrictive transfusion protocol can effectively reduce blood product utilization in critically ill surgical patients with no increase in morbidity or mortality.

  16. Chromatographic profiles of blood plasma free oligosaccharides in patients with cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. U. Pismenetskaya

    2015-03-01

    approaches allowed predicting a range of glycan structures for each of the main peaks of HPLC profiles of plasma free oligosaccharides and managing ways for their future experimental analysis. In the case of cardiovascular disorders, HPLC profiles of FOS revealed a changing pattern of heterogeneity, depending on the severity of the disease. Three main enlarged glycan species in the netral fraction and one peak in the charged fraction distinguished the FOS of the patients from those of the healthy volunteers. It has been revealed that the neutral marker peaks were represented by polimannose glycans with 5–7 mannose residues and 1–2 residues of N-acetylglucosamine, and one of the major peaks of the charged fraction – by two-antennary complex N-glycan with two sialic acid residues. The study of free oligosaccharides of blood plasma is a new field of glycobiology allowing an evaluation of an organism state at the level of the cell organelle functional status and openning up broad prospects for finding early diagnostic and prognostic markers of cardiac insufficiency.

  17. Differential Impact of Plasma Proteins on the Adhesion Efficiency of Vascular-Targeted Carriers (VTCs) in Blood of Common Laboratory Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdee, Katawut; Sobczynski, Daniel J; Onyskiw, Peter J; Eniola-Adefeso, Omolola

    2015-12-16

    Vascular-targeted carrier (VTC) interaction with human plasma is known to reduce targeted adhesion efficiency in vitro. However, the role of plasma proteins on the adhesion efficiency of VTCs in laboratory animals remains unknown. Here, in vitro blood flow assays are used to explore the effects of plasma from mouse, rabbit, and porcine on VTC adhesion. Porcine blood exhibited a strong negative plasma effect on VTC adhesion while no significant plasma effect was found with rabbit and mouse blood. A brush density poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) on VTCs was effective at improving adhesion of microsized, but not nanosized, VTCs in porcine blood. Overall, the results suggest that porcine models, as opposed to mouse, can serve as better models in preclinical research for predicting the in vivo functionality of VTCs for use in humans. These considerations hold great importance for the design of various pharmaceutical products and development of reliable drug delivery systems.

  18. A RAPID Method for Blood Processing to Increase the Yield of Plasma Peptide Levels in Human Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuffel, Pauline; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Hofmann, Tobias; Prinz, Philip; Scharner, Sophie; Körner, Jan L; Grötzinger, Carsten; Rose, Matthias; Klapp, Burghard F; Stengel, Andreas

    2016-04-28

    Research in the field of food intake regulation is gaining importance. This often includes the measurement of peptides regulating food intake. For the correct determination of a peptide's concentration, it should be stable during blood processing. However, this is not the case for several peptides which are quickly degraded by endogenous peptidases. Recently, we developed a blood processing method employing Reduced temperatures, Acidification, Protease inhibition, Isotopic exogenous controls and Dilution (RAPID) for the use in rats. Here, we have established this technique for the use in humans and investigated recovery, molecular form and circulating concentration of food intake regulatory hormones. The RAPID method significantly improved the recovery for (125)I-labeled somatostatin-28 (+39%), glucagon-like peptide-1 (+35%), acyl ghrelin and glucagon (+32%), insulin and kisspeptin (+29%), nesfatin-1 (+28%), leptin (+21%) and peptide YY3-36 (+19%) compared to standard processing (EDTA blood on ice, p processing, while after standard processing 62% of acyl ghrelin were degraded resulting in an earlier peak likely representing desacyl ghrelin. After RAPID processing the acyl/desacyl ghrelin ratio in blood of normal weight subjects was 1:3 compared to 1:23 following standard processing (p = 0.03). Also endogenous kisspeptin levels were higher after RAPID compared to standard processing (+99%, p = 0.02). The RAPID blood processing method can be used in humans, yields higher peptide levels and allows for assessment of the correct molecular form.

  19. Performance evaluation of stand alone hybrid PV-wind generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Saharuddin, N. Z.; Sulaima, M. F.; Jali, Mohd Hafiz; Bukhari, W. M.; Bohari, Z. H.; Yahaya, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of standalone hybrid system on Photovoltaic (PV)-Wind generator at Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FKE), UTeM. The hybrid PV-Wind in UTeM system is combining wind turbine system with the solar system and the energy capacity of this hybrid system can generate up to charge the battery and supply the LED street lighting load. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the performance of PV-Wind hybrid generator. Solar radiation meter has been used to measure the solar radiation and anemometer has been used to measure the wind speed. The effectiveness of the PV-Wind system is based on the various data that has been collected and compared between them. The result shows that hybrid system has greater reliability. Based on the solar result, the correlation coefficient shows strong relationship between the two variables of radiation and current. The reading output current followed by fluctuate of solar radiation. However, the correlation coefficient is shows moderate relationship between the two variables of wind speed and voltage. Hence, the wind turbine system in FKE show does not operate consistently to produce energy source for this hybrid system compare to PV system. When the wind system does not fully operate due to inconsistent energy source, the other system which is PV will operate and supply the load for equilibrate the extra load demand

  20. Radon Monitoring in Army Stand-Alone Housing Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    damage lung tissue and lead I to increased risk of developing lang cancer . Your risk of developing lung cancer from exposure to radon depends upon the...of developing lung cancer than exposure to a significantly elevated level for a short time. In general, your risk increases as the level of radon and...000mm 0Mmm *000 OOO 0 0w 0 0 000 -0-0 *4 0 880 mama 0 0000000000 000 000Eca ( el cN) 00 9 ’ qqO .00 1(10 0 -U M w co SEE wSS SEES NSEwESO m v MM O v mm