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Sample records for stance susan wegmann

  1. Susan Smith

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    'n Resep om ge- trou of in ontrou na te volg, bestaan nie. Ge- lukkig nie. Susan Smith se (debuut)bundel lok ... word gesteun deur die De Jong-motto, “we pass the words along”, maar in besonder ook die motto waarmee ... de ingrif “teen die gewels en fasades van ver- ganklike strukture”. Herhaling, duur en ver- wisseling is ...

  2. Susan Flannery lahkub? / Harro Puusild

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Puusild, Harro

    2008-01-01

    Ameerika teleseriaali "Vaprad ja ilusad" Stephanie Forresteri osatäitja Susan Flannery (1943) on seriaalis mänginud algusest peale s.o. 21 aastat. Lisatud intervjuu näitlejatariga. Sama ka Teleleht nr. 15, lk. 8-9 : ill

  3. In Conversation with Susan Holtz | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-11-26

    Nov 26, 2010 ... Susan Holtz is a private consultant and Adjunct Professor in the Environmental Planning Department of the Nova Scotia College for Art and Design. As a consultant, Ms. Holtz specializes in energy, environment, and sustainable development policy, and works on related issues as a mediator and facilitator.

  4. A polarised SUSANS facility to study magnetic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using a right-angled magnetic air prism, we have achieved a separation of ∼ 10 arcsec between ∼ 2 arcsec wide up- and down-spin peaks of 5.4 Å neutrons. The polarised neutron option has thus been introduced into the SUSANS instrument. Strongly spin-dependent SUSANS spectra have been observed over ±1.3 ...

  5. Susan Sontag — A Forgotten Mother?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kludia Ziewiec

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses new and republished translations of Susan Sontag’s work, recently launched by the Karakter publishing house: Regarding the Pan of Others, On Photography, and Against Interpretation and Other Essays. The article focuses on the elements of Sontag’s thought that make her a forgotten mother of feminist and gender theoreticians, as well as such influential critics as Michel Foucault and Roland Barthes. The article points out to continuations of Sontag’s thought in contemporary theoretical and social projects, and to the pertinence of her critical observations on theories based on metaphysics of presence: psychoanalysis, Marxism, or hermeneutics. The article also touches upon history of war photography and related war journalism, and upon the ambivalent quality of imaging of the misery of war. It also present historical and cultural circumstances of the development of Sontag’s thought in the intellectual milieu of New York in the 1960s. The discussion recapitulates the main statements of Sontag’s essays, relating them to a wider theoretical context, which is aimed at a reappraisal of the forgotten intelectual in the history of literature.

  6. Psychoanalytic Interpretation of Blueberries by Susan Gibb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Zalbidea Paniagua

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Blueberries (2009 by Susan Gibb, published in the ELO (Electronic Literature Organization, invites the reader to travel inside the protagonist’s mind to discover real and imaginary experiences examining notions of gender, sex, body and identity of a traumatised woman. This article explores the verbal and visual modes in this digital short fiction following semiotic patterns as well as interpreting the psychological states that are expressed through poetical and technological components. A comparative study of the consequences of trauma in the protagonist will be developed including psychoanalytic theories by Sigmund Freud, Jacques Lacan and the feminist psychoanalysts: Melanie Klein and Bracha Ettinger. The reactions of the protagonist will be studied: loss of reality, hallucinations and Electra Complex, as well as the rise of defence mechanisms and her use of the artistic creativity as a healing therapy. The interactivity of the hypermedia, multiple paths and endings will be analyzed as a literary strategy that increases the reader’s capacity of empathizing with the speaker.

  7. Susan swan and the female grotesque Susan swan and the female grotesque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Bornéo Funck

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduced to readers as “the tallest woman freelance writer in Canada”, Susan Swan belongs to a generation of writers whose experimental, innovative fiction has proved vital in the contemporary project of de/re/constructing narrative practice. Her 1983 novel The Biggest Modern Woman of the World constitutes an excellent example of what critic Linda Hutcheon has termed “historiographic metafiction”—”fiction that is intensely, self-reflexively art, but is also grounded in historical, social, and political realities” (Canadian 13. As a conscious engagement with social and historical contexts, such fiction aims at destabilizing and subverting accepted patterns of belief by reconceptualizing and narrating possible subjectivities. By means of intertextuality, especially parody, it engages in an ideological critique in terms of both sexual and national politics. Introduced to readers as “the tallest woman freelance writer in Canada”, Susan Swan belongs to a generation of writers whose experimental, innovative fiction has proved vital in the contemporary project of de/re/constructing narrative practice. Her 1983 novel The Biggest Modern Woman of the World constitutes an excellent example of what critic Linda Hutcheon has termed “historiographic metafiction”—”fiction that is intensely, self-reflexively art, but is also grounded in historical, social, and political realities” (Canadian 13. As a conscious engagement with social and historical contexts, such fiction aims at destabilizing and subverting accepted patterns of belief by reconceptualizing and narrating possible subjectivities. By means of intertextuality, especially parody, it engages in an ideological critique in terms of both sexual and national politics.

  8. Epistemic Stance in Courtroom Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Sune Sønderberg; Mortensen, Janus

    2017-01-01

    The oral examination of defendants and witnesses is a cornerstone in most criminal trials, where the weight and credibility of what is said and the certainty with which testimony is delivered will often be decisive for the ruling of the court. This chapter presents a case study of the linguistic...... construction of certainty and uncertainty – or epistemic stance taking – in Danish courtroom interaction. Based on transcribed audio recordings from a criminal trial in Denmark in 2014, we examine the ways in which the defendant, the alleged victim and an eyewitness construct epistemic stances during...

  9. A polarised SUSANS facility to study magnetic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A polarised SUSANS facility to study magnetic systems. APOORVA G WAGH1, VEER CHAND RAKHECHA1, MARKUS STROBL2 and. WOLFGANG TREIMER2. 1Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India. 2Berlin Neutron Scattering Center, Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Glienicker ...

  10. A polarised SUSANS facility to study magnetic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . The sum of convolutions of |Fu(Q)|2 and |Fd(Q)|2 with the respective fits to the instrument resolution, peaked at parameterised Q-centres, is least-square fit- ted (figure 3) to the sample SUSANS spectrum to extract ρu(r) and ρd(r). The.

  11. Ranking-based Method for News Stance Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qiang

    2018-04-18

    A valuable step towards news veracity assessment is to understand stance from different information sources, and the process is known as the stance detection. Specifically, the stance detection is to detect four kinds of stances (

  12. Astronaut Susan J. Helms Mounts a Videao Camera in Zarya

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Astronaut Susan J. Helms, Expedition Two flight engineer, mounts a video camera onto a bracket in the Russian Zarya or Functional Cargo Block (FGB) of the International Space Station (ISS). Launched by a Russian Proton rocket from the Baikonu Cosmodrome on November 20, 1998, the Unites States-funded and Russian-built Zarya was the first element of the ISS, followed by the U.S. Unity Node.

  13. Susan Dicklitch. The Elusive Promise of NGO's | Heck | Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Susan Dicklitch. The Elusive Promise of NGO's. Simon Heck. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/uj.v46i1.23044 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  14. The intentional stance and cultural learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michael, John Andrew

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I propose a developmental explanation of the reliability of the intentional stance as an interpretive strategy, and by doing so counter an objection to Dennett’s intentional stance theory (i.e.the ‘If it isn’t true, why does it work?’ objection). Specifically, young children’s use...... of the intentional stance enables them to learn from and thereby to become more similar to the adults in their culture. Asa result, they themselves become increasingly intelligible to other people taking the intentional stance.Thus, the intentional stance and cultural learning constitute a feedback loop...... that (partially) explainsthe reliability of the intentional stance, and does so – contra Dennett’s realist critics – without appealing to a realist interpretation of the descriptions speakers attach to intentional terms. However, I also suggest that this developmental perspective provides grist to the mill...

  15. Parallax adjustment algorithm based on Susan-Zernike moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yan; Zhang, Kun; Shen, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Huiyun

    2018-02-01

    Precise parallax detection through definition evaluation and the adjustment of the assembly position of the objective lens or the reticle are important means of eliminating the parallax of the telescope system, so that the imaging screen and the reticle are clearly focused at the same time. An adaptive definition evaluation function based on Susan-Zernike moments is proposed. First, the image is preprocessed by the Susan operator to find the potential boundary edge. Then, the Zernike moments operator is used to determine the exact region of the reticle line with sub-pixel accuracy. The image definition is evaluated only in this related area. The evaluation function consists of the gradient difference calculated by the Zernike moments operator. By adjusting the assembly position of the objective lens, the imaging screen and the reticle will be simultaneously in the state of maximum definition, so the parallax can be eliminated. The experimental results show that the definition evaluation function proposed in this paper has the advantages of good focusing performance, strong anti-interference ability compared with the other commonly used definition evaluation functions.

  16. Practitioner Profile: An Interview with Susan Bross, AFC®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Bross

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Susan Bross is a nationally accredited financial counselor who established her private practice in 1992. She currently lives in San Rafael, California. She brings a multi-faceted background and a combination of skills to her work. As a financial counselor, she works with individuals, couples, and entrepreneurs throughout the nation to help clients develop a practical and emotionally healthy relationship with money. When asked, she will tell you that she is passionate about her work because it mirrors her own hard-won path with money. Readers of the Journal will find Ms. Bross’s approach to financial therapy inspiring. She teaches simple tools for effortless and sustainable cash flow and money management. She also guides her clients to balanced attitudes and beliefs about money and success.

  17. [The Durkheim Test. Remarks on Susan Leigh Star's Boundary Objects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gießmann, Sebastian

    2015-09-01

    The article reconstructs Susan Leigh Star's conceptual work on the notion of 'boundary objects'. It traces the emergence of the concept, beginning with her PhD thesis and its publication as Regions of the Mind in 1989. 'Boundary objects' attempt to represent the distributed, multifold nature of scientific work and its mediations between different 'social worlds'. Being addressed to several 'communities of practice', the term responded to questions from Distributed Artificial Intelligence in Computer Science, Workplace Studies and Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), and microhistorical approaches inside the growing Science and Technology Studies. Yet the interdisciplinary character and interpretive flexibility of Star’s invention has rarely been noticed as a conceptual tool for media theory. I therefore propose to reconsider Star's 'Durkheim test' for sociotechnical media practices.

  18. Toward a Situated Stance in Organizational Institutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boxenbaum, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Organizational Institutionalism is gradually embracing a more situated, actor-centered stance that is prompting empirical inquiry into how embedded actors respond to institutional complexity. French Pragmatist Sociology can contribute to this endeavor because it provides a situated, relational......, and practice-oriented framework for studying how actors negotiate and justify actions through shared moral “worlds” that are akin to institutional logics. French Pragmatist Sociology can help illuminate three questions that are key to a situated stance in Organizational Institutionalism: (a) How free...

  19. Defining Affect in Relation to Cognition: A Response to Susan McLeod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleckenstein, Kristie S.

    1991-01-01

    Responds to Susan McLeod's "The Affective Domain and the Writing Process: Working Definitions." Suggests and defends an alternate way to define affect, based on the interweaving of affect and cognition. Discusses the "cognitive-affective dance." (PRA)

  20. Interpersonal Stance in Conflict Conversation: Police Interviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnes, Merijn

    2013-01-01

    In this work we focus on the dynamics of the conflict that often arises in a police interview between suspects and police officers. Police interviews are a special type of social encounter, primarily because of the authority role of the police interviewer and the often uncooperative stance that the

  1. Diasporic Reconciliations of Politics, Love and Trauma: Susan Abulhawa’s Quest for Identity in Mornings in Jenin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman M Abu-Shomar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Negotiating human conditions is an emblematic critical impetus of diaspora informed by multiple cultural possibilities practiced through the creation of multiple spaces that cross the realm of the ‘self’ to that of the ‘other’. It offers a locale to cross from the oppressed ‘self’ to an understanding of an oppressor ‘other’. Yet, diasporic negotiation is politically involved in the most responsible manner; it engages the contextual social realities in order to enable creative possibilities for overcoming the logic of the politics altogether. It invites a kind of political involvement that assures the ‘situatedness of the ethical’ in a framework of moral humanistic realisations. The realisation of diasporic negotiations is dialogically engaged in manners that will give birth to new possibilities for human togetherness. In this essay, I trace the signs of diasporic negotiations of politics, love and trauma in Susan Abulhawa’s Mornings in Jenin by focusing on the Diasporic identity of Amal (the central character. I consider the intersections between diaspora, dislocation of identity and the creation of negotiating spaces that qualify an 'epistemology of Diaspora' against essentialised and ethnocentric construction of realities. I argue that Abulhawa creates diasporic spaces and immense moral scenes to transcend a particular stance of politics via transcending love in opposition to suffering and tribulation. I contend that Abulhawa’s conceptualisation of Diasporic negotiations enables her to depict and gauge two extreme human sentiments: love and trauma, yet, without yielding or compromising the right of just resistance and dissent. Keywords: Diaspora, humanism, Trauma, identity, negotiating difference, and 'Otherness'

  2. Cortical control of upright stance in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Recep A; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L; Paloski, William H

    2018-01-01

    This study examined differences between young and elderly volunteers in cortical involvement to human posture control during quiet stance with normal and altered sensory stimulation (Experiment-1), and biomechanical perturbations (Experiment-2). The primary focus of the first part was to monitor changes in cortical activity when unexpectedly altering the sensory conditions of upright stance, such as switching from stable (eyes open, fixed support surface) to less-stable (eyes closed, sway-referenced support surface) conditions. Our results demonstrate increased cortical activations in delta (0.2-4 Hz) and gamma (30-50 Hz) oscillations, primarily over central-frontal, central, and central parietal cortices during challenging postural conditions. While increased delta rhythms were observed in both groups during challenging sensory conditions, elderly individuals also showed increased gamma band activity over sensorimotor and parietal cortices, when compared to the younger group. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show age differences in balance related cortical activations during continuous postural tasks with challenging sensory conditions. Preliminary correlations also suggest that increased cerebral activity became more relevant to the control of Center of Mass (COM) dynamics when upright stance is threatened. The results of Experiment-2 also showed for the first time that oscillatory rhythms of the cortex are coherent with muscle firing characteristics suggesting increased corticospinal drive from leg motor cortex to lower limb motoneurons following postural perturbations. Finally, perturbation evoked potential (PEP) analyses suggest that, rather than motor system malfunctioning, impairments in perceptual processing of sensory afference forms the basis of prolonged muscle response delays during perturbed balance in the elderly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Kitybė Susan Hill novelėje ,,The Woman in Black“

    OpenAIRE

    Kučinskaitė, Martyna

    2016-01-01

    Otherness in the Novella by Susan Hill “The Woman in Black” The present BA paper considers the representation of otherness in Susan Hill’s horror novella The Woman in Black (1983). The novella’s story is set in the Victorian England where the main concerns are the ghost of Jennet Humfrye who haunts the village, Crythin Gifford, and the haunted Eel Marsh House. Whenever she is seen by someone in the village, or in the house she haunts, a child dies under mysterious circumstances. The present p...

  4. Enhancing Student Interest in the Psychology of Aging: An Interview with Susan Krauss Whitbourne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingerman, Karen L.

    2000-01-01

    Presents an interview with Susan Krauss Whitbourne in which she discusses issues such as the challenge in teaching a course on the psychology of aging; types of assignments and active learning she uses in her course; resources she recommends; and how her research influences the adult development courses she has taught. (CMK)

  5. Binding in the Lazy Susan of the 1 MW TRIGA at the Centro Nuclear de Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, J.; Mulas, P.; Mariano, G.; Hernandez, R.

    1974-01-01

    Problems with the original Lazy Susan were reported in a previous conference, where the procedure followed for its removal was described. A new Lazy Susan was supplied by the fabricant and it was judged convenient to perform an out-of-core test of the dispositive. A rig was built to produce temperature gradients similar to the ones encountered in the operation at high power levels. After a temperature difference (estimated between 130 o C and 170 o C) between the rotating part and the outside surface was established, the Lazy Susan started to bind. This was reported to the fabricant and it was concluded that a new design was needed and since it would take at least two years before the new unit could be acquired, it was decided to install the Lazy Susan recently supplied. The unit now rotates for approximately 20 minutes when the reactor is operating at 1 MW and then binds. At lower power levels it is operative for longer periods of time. (author)

  6. Don't Take Touch for Granted: An Interview with Susan Lederman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verry, Rene

    1998-01-01

    Presents an interview with Susan Lederman that contains a fascinating and informative overview of the recent developments in neuropsychological research concerning the sense of touch. Discusses the physiological processes that support this sensory experience and reveals them to be much more flexible, intricate, and adaptive than previously…

  7. Pilot Susan L. Still chats with white room closeout crew member

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-83 Pilot Susan L. Still chats with white room closeout crew member Rene Arriens as she prepares to enter the Space Shuttle Columbia at Launch Pad 39A with assistance from closeout crew worker Bob Saulnier (behind Still).

  8. Re-Establishing Social Studies as a Core Subject: An Interview with Susan Griffin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Susan

    2014-01-01

    NCSS Executive Director Susan Griffin was chair of the Task Force of Professional Organizations that worked with the Social Studies Assessment, Curriculum, and Instruction Collaborative (SSACI) of the Council of Chief State School Officers to initiate and guide the development of the "College, Career and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social…

  9. Imaging the Intentional Stance in a Competitive Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallagher, Helen; Jack, Anthony I.; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    The "intentional stance" is the disposition to treat an entity as a rational agent, possessing particular beliefs, desires, and intentions, in order to interpret and predict it's behavior. The intentional stance is a component of a broader social cognitive function, mentalizing. Here we report a ...

  10. Detection algorithm of infrared small target based on improved SUSAN operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingmiao; Wang, Shicheng; Zhao, Jing

    2010-10-01

    The methods of detecting small moving targets in infrared image sequences that contain moving nuisance objects and background noise is analyzed in this paper. A novel infrared small target detection algorithm based on improved SUSAN operator is put forward. The algorithm selects double templates for the infrared small target detection: one size is greater than the small target point size and another size is equal to the small target point size. First, the algorithm uses the big template to calculate the USAN of each pixel in the image and detect the small target, the edge of the image and isolated noise pixels; Then the algorithm uses the another template to calculate the USAN of pixels detected in the first step and improves the principles of SUSAN algorithm based on the characteristics of the small target so that the algorithm can only detect small targets and don't sensitive to the edge pixels of the image and isolated noise pixels. So the interference of the edge of the image and isolate noise points are removed and the candidate target points can be identified; At last, the target is detected by utilizing the continuity and consistency of target movement. The experimental results indicate that the improved SUSAN detection algorithm can quickly and effectively detect the infrared small targets.

  11. Detecting Underlying Stance Adopted When Human Construe Behavior of Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Kazunori; Ono, Kouhei; Ito, Akira

    Whether or not humans can construe the behaviors of entities depends on their psychological stance. The philosopher Dennett proposed human cognitive strategies (three stances) in which humans construe the behavior of other animated objects, including other humans, artifacts, and physical phenomena:‘intentional’, ‘design’ and ‘physical’ stances. Detecting the psychological stance taken toward entities is difficult, because such mental state attribution is a subjective cognitive process and hard to measure. In the present study, we proposed a novel method for detecting underlying stance adopted when human construe behavior of entities. In our method the subject was asked to select the most suitable action sequence shown in three movies each of which representing Dennett’s three stances. To valid our method we have conducted an experiment in which the subjects were presented thirty short videos and asked to compare them to the three movies. The result indicated that the subjects did not focused on prior knowledge about the entity but could focused on motion characteristics per se, owing to simple and typical motion of an abstract shaped object.

  12. Comparison of human and humanoid robot control of upright stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterka, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable recent interest in developing humanoid robots. An important substrate for many motor actions in both humans and biped robots is the ability to maintain a statically or dynamically stable posture. Given the success of the human design, one would expect there are lessons to be learned in formulating a postural control mechanism for robots. In this study we limit ourselves to considering the problem of maintaining upright stance. Human stance control is compared to a suggested method for robot stance control called zero moment point (ZMP) compensation. Results from experimental and modeling studies suggest there are two important subsystems that account for the low- and mid-frequency (DC to approximately 1Hz) dynamic characteristics of human stance control. These subsystems are (1) a "sensory integration" mechanism whereby orientation information from multiple sensory systems encoding body kinematics (i.e. position, velocity) is flexibly combined to provide an overall estimate of body orientation while allowing adjustments (sensory re-weighting) that compensate for changing environmental conditions and (2) an "effort control" mechanism that uses kinetic-related (i.e., force-related) sensory information to reduce the mean deviation of body orientation from upright. Functionally, ZMP compensation is directly analogous to how humans appear to use kinetic feedback to modify the main sensory integration feedback loop controlling body orientation. However, a flexible sensory integration mechanism is missing from robot control leaving the robot vulnerable to instability in conditions where humans are able to maintain stance. We suggest the addition of a simple form of sensory integration to improve robot stance control. We also investigate how the biological constraint of feedback time delay influences the human stance control design. The human system may serve as a guide for improved robot control, but should not be directly copied because the

  13. Specificity of foot configuration during bipedal stance in ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casabona, Antonino; Leonardi, Giuseppa; Aimola, Ettore; La Grua, Giovanni; Polizzi, Cristina Maria; Cioni, Matteo; Valle, Maria Stella

    2016-05-01

    Learning highly specialized upright postures may be of benefit for more common as well as for novel stances. In this study, we asked whether this generalization occurs with foot configurations previously trained or depends on a generic increase in balance difficulty. We also explored the possibility that the benefit may concern not only the level of postural performance but also the structural organization of the upright standing. Ten elite professional ballet dancers were compared to ten untrained subjects, measuring the motion of the center of pressure (COP) across a set of five stances with different foot configurations. The balance stability was measured computing the area, the sway path, and the root mean square of the COP motion, whereas the structure of the postural control was assessed by compute approximate entropy, fractal dimension and the mean power frequency. The foot position included common and challenging stances, with the level of difficulty changed across the configurations. Among these conditions, only one foot configuration was familiar to the dancers. Statistically significant differences between the two groups, for all the parameters, were observed only for the stance with the foot position familiar to the dancers. Stability and structural parameters exhibited comparable differences. We concluded that the benefit from classical ballet is limited to a specific foot configuration, regardless of the level of stance difficulty or the component of postural control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. "A hint of it, with initials": adultery, textuality and publicity in Jane Austen's Lady Susan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    In spite of Jane Austen's professed “eye” for an adulteress, comparatively little attention has been paid to adultery and divorce as themes and contexts of her fiction. Her unpublished epistolary novel Lady Susan has a distinctive status in Austen's oeuvre, recognized as being exemplary of her “style” and yet atypical of her later achievement. A neglected context for the novel is the extensive reporting of adultery trials in contemporary print culture and the moral panic concerning adultery in the 1780s and 1790s, focusing initially on the adulteress as the brazen woman of fashion and later as a figure of sentimentalized abjection. A particularly notorious case, that involving Lady Henrietta Grosvenor and George III's brother, the Duke of Cumberland, is directly alluded to in Lady Susan. The textual strategies of adultery trial literature, particularly its emphasis on indirection through the use of detail or “hint”, had a long-term influence on the development of Austen's fiction and her positioning of herself as a professional writer after the 1790s.

  15. A New Approach: The Feminist Musicology Studies of Susan McClary and Marcia J. Citron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Reitsma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the currently prevalent analytic approaches in academia is feminist theory and criticism. Its combination with musicology has influenced the field for the past four decades. The goal of the new approach, loosely termed “feminist musicology,” has been to discover, analyze, discuss, and promote the representation of women and the “feminine” essence in various disciplines of music. Today, feminist musicology is highly researched, published in books and journals, and presented as scholarly papers at various musicological conferences around the world. This new approach introduces the ideologies of feminism to the study of music. Susan McClary and Marcia J. Citron are two musicologists who were influenced by these ideologies and have guided the musicological world in this direction of feminist musicology. Both have made serious contributions to the emerging field of feminist musicology. Both researched the ideas of gender musical construction within musical narratives, music as a gendered discourse, and historical and social factors that affected women in music. Although they have met with considerable resistance, Susan McClary and Marcia J. Citron have significantly expanded the scope of musicology through their application of feminist theory.

  16. Single leg stance control in individuals with symptomatic gluteal tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Kim; Bennell, Kim L; Grimaldi, Alison; Vicenzino, Bill; Wrigley, Tim V; Hodges, Paul W

    2016-09-01

    Lateral hip pain during single leg loading, and hip abductor muscle weakness, are associated with gluteal tendinopathy, but it has not been shown how or whether kinematics in single leg stance differ in those with gluteal tendinopathy. To compare kinematics in preparation for, and during, single leg stance between individuals with and without gluteal tendinopathy, and the effect of hip abductor muscle strength on kinematics. Twenty individuals with gluteal tendinopathy and 20 age-matched pain-free controls underwent three-dimensional kinematic analysis of single leg stance and maximum isometric hip abductor strength testing. Maximum values of hip adduction, pelvic obliquity (contralateral pelvis rise/drop), lateral pelvic translation (ipsilateral/contralateral shift) and ipsilateral trunk lean during preparation for leg lift and average values in steady single leg stance, were compared between groups using an analysis of covariance, with and without anthropometric characteristics and strength as covariates. Individuals with gluteal tendinopathy demonstrated greater hip adduction (standardized mean difference (SMD)=0.70, P=0.04) and ipsilateral pelvic shift (SMD=1.1, P=0.002) in preparation for leg lift, and greater hip adduction (SMD=1.2, P=0.002) and less contralateral pelvic rise (SMD=0.86, P=0.02) in steady single leg stance than controls. When including strength as a covariate, only between-group differences in lateral pelvic shift persisted (SMD=1.7, P=0.01). Individuals with gluteal tendinopathy use different frontal plane kinematics of the hip and pelvis during single leg stance than pain-free controls. This finding is not influenced by pelvic dimension or the potentially modifiable factor of body mass index, but is by hip abductor muscle weakness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Initial Stance of Quadruped Trotting on Walking Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peisun Ma

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available It is very important for quadruped walking machine to keep its stability in high speed walking. It has been indicated that moment around the supporting diagonal line of quadruped in trotting gait largely influences walking stability. In this paper, moment around the supporting diagonal line of quadruped in trotting gait is modeled and its effects on body attitude are analyzed. The degree of influence varies with different initial stances of quadruped and we get the optimal initial stance of quadruped in trotting gait with maximal walking stability. Simulation results are presented.

  18. Choosing an Epistemic Stance | Gabriel | African Journal of Finance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The connection of what we claim to know (ontology) and how do we claim to know (epistemology) will be addressed in this paper. Some mapping tools will be used to make understanding easier. It should be understood that making a choice of a certain epistemic stance is not the end of the journey. The critical aspect is to ...

  19. In the postmodern mirror: intertextuality in Angels and Insects by Antonia Susan Byatt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buda Agata

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to analyse the novel Angels and Insects by Antonia Susan Byatt in terms of intertextual references. The author’s assumptions are based on the categorisation by Ryszard Nycz, who distinguishes three major types of intertexts: text versus text, text versus literary genre and text versus mimesis. Byatt uses intertextuality mainly to comment on the role of nature in the world, as well as to enhance the importance of human relationship with nature. Moreover, the writer moves towards literary criticism, discussing poems by famous artists, such as Alfred Tennyson or John Milton. In this way, the novel by Byatt is also an example of metafiction. All the narration techniques used by the English writer make the novel a typically postmodern work of art.

  20. (REREADING INDEX CARDS: THE ARCHIVIST AS INTERPRETER IN SUSAN PUI SAN LOK'S 'NEWS'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Camacho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Looking at susan pui san lok's projects News (2005 and RoCH (2013, this paper contemplates the notions put forward by Michel-Rolph Trouillot and Jacques Derrida on the power of archivists, not solely as guardians of documents but also as their interpreters. Taking into consideration that photographic and moving image archives present unique difficulties in their cataloguing processes, I examine silences that might be generated by a thematic classification that is not impervious to archivists' biases. Moreover, I consider if the silences created by manual processes of classification and retrieval might be surpassed through digital technologies, or if it is possible that new technologies simply create different types of silencing.

  1. Intermittent large amplitude internal waves observed in Port Susan, Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J. C.; Decker, L.

    2017-07-01

    A previously unreported internal tidal bore, which evolves into solitary internal wave packets, was observed in Port Susan, Puget Sound, and the timing, speed, and amplitude of the waves were measured by CTD and visual observation. Acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) measurements were attempted, but unsuccessful. The waves appear to be generated with the ebb flow along the tidal flats of the Stillaguamish River, and the speed and width of the resulting waves can be predicted from second-order KdV theory. Their eventual dissipation may contribute significantly to surface mixing locally, particularly in comparison with the local dissipation due to the tides. Visually the waves appear in fair weather as a strong foam front, which is less visible the farther they propagate.

  2. Enhancing the Instructional Program with Creative Arts: Q&A with Susan Riley, M.Ed. Educator Effectiveness Webinar Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This document provides Q&A with webinar presenter, Susan Riley. Riley's presentation looks at broad ideas of clarifying best practices in using arts integration (AI) and/or STEAM at any grade level. Questions cover topics such as: the creativity crisis in US schools, integrating art into math adult education (GED and ESL), theater arts in the…

  3. 78 FR 75676 - Mark W. Dobronski and Susan K. Dobronski-Acquisition of Control Exemption-Adrian & Blissfield...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... Ferrovia, L.L.C. (Ferrovia), also a noncarrier and a limited liability company, which, until very recently... and Susan K. Dobronski--Acquisition of Control Exemption--Adrian & Blissfield Rail Road Company, Charlotte Southern Railroad Company, Detroit Connecting Railroad Company, Lapeer Industrial Railroad Company...

  4. Psychology and Schooling: The Impact of Susan Isaacs and Jean Piaget on 1960s Science Education Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jody S.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the tensions between two psychological frameworks in the negotiation of teaching practices, curriculum, and ideas about what constitutes childhood: (1) the theories of Jean Piaget focused on behavior at different developmental stages; or (2) the Susan Isaacs research that took a general view of children's intellectual capabilities. (CMK)

  5. "I Am Not a Fairy Tale": Contextualizing Sioux Spirituality and Story Traditions in Susan Power's "The Grass Dancer"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Vanessa Holford

    2009-01-01

    Standing Rock Sioux writer Susan Power's best-selling novel "The Grass Dancer" (1994) includes depictions of the supernatural and spiritual that do not conform to the Judeo-Christian or, in some cases, the atheist or rationalist worldviews of many readers. Power writes of ghost characters and haunted places, communication between the living and…

  6. Students' stance-taking in the literature classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabel, Kristine

    In this paper, I present and discuss two key findings from a recent study on disciplinary literacy in the literature classroom in L1 Danish (Kabel, 2016). In particular, I explore students’ choices of resources for stance-taking in their written interpretations of literature and I relate these ch...... these choices to students’ reflections on the discipline and to aspects of the pedagogical context, namely which resources the students are encouraged to apply in writing.......In this paper, I present and discuss two key findings from a recent study on disciplinary literacy in the literature classroom in L1 Danish (Kabel, 2016). In particular, I explore students’ choices of resources for stance-taking in their written interpretations of literature and I relate...

  7. House Prices and the stance of Monetary Policy.

    OpenAIRE

    Jarociński, Marek; Smets, Frank

    2008-01-01

    This paper estimates a Bayesian VAR for the US economy which includes a housing sector and addresses the following questions. Can developments in the housing sector be explained on the basis of developments in real and nominal GDP and interest rates? What are the effects of housing demand shocks on the economy? How does monetary policy affect the housing market? What are the implications of house price developments for the stance of monetary policy? Regarding the latter question, we implement...

  8. Alternative Indicator of Monetary Policy Stance for Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Petrovska, Magdalena; Georgievska, Ljupka

    2015-01-01

    This paper applies a SVAR model which combines different monetary policy instruments to construct an alternative indicator of monetary policy stance in Macedonia. It employs the approach introduced by Bernanke and Mihov (1998) of isolating monetary policy shocks from the whole set of monetary policy instruments that otherwise react to real developments. The residuals from such VAR are cleaned from the central bank's reaction function and represent true monetary policy innovations. Furthermore...

  9. Two Mechanisms of Sensorimotor Set Adaptation to Inclined Stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Hyun Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Orientation of posture relative to the environment depends on the contributions from the somatosensory, vestibular, and visual systems mixed in varying proportions to produce a sensorimotor set. Here, we probed the sensorimotor set composition using a postural adaptation task in which healthy adults stood on an inclined surface for 3 min. Upon returning to a horizontal surface, participants displayed a range of postural orientations – from an aftereffect that consisted of a large forward postural lean to an upright stance with little or no aftereffect. It has been hypothesized that the post-incline postural change depends on each individual’s sensorimotor set: whether the set was dominated by the somatosensory or vestibular system: Somatosensory dominance would cause the lean aftereffect whereas vestibular dominance should steer stance posture toward upright orientation. We investigated the individuals who displayed somatosensory dominance by manipulating their attention to spatial orientation. We introduced a distraction condition in which subjects concurrently performed a difficult arithmetic subtraction task. This manipulation altered the time course of their post-incline aftereffect. When not distracted, participants returned to upright stance within the 3-min period. However, they continued leaning forward when distracted. These results suggest that the mechanism of sensorimotor set adaptation to inclined stance comprises at least two components. The first component reflects the dominant contribution from the somatosensory system. Since the postural lean was observed among these subjects even when they were not distracted, it suggests that the aftereffect is difficult to overcome. The second component includes a covert attentional component which manifests as the dissipation of the aftereffect and the return of posture to upright orientation.

  10. Balance (perceived and actual) and preferred stance width during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, John; Hsiao, Katherine T; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

    2008-05-01

    Pregnant women often remark that their balance degrades during pregnancy; however, it appears that no studies have documented the gravida's perception of her balance nor measured direction-specific changes in balance throughout pregnancy or after delivery. Thirty women, fifteen pregnant and fifteen non-pregnant controls, were tested monthly and through 6-month postpartum. For each session, perceived degradation in sense of balance, laboratory-based balance measures, stance width, and the number of falls since the previous session were recorded. Laboratory-based balance measures, quantified by direction-specific measures of postural sway, were computed from ten 30s quiet-standing trials on a stationary force platform. Repeated-measures analysis of variance, paired t-tests, and Pearson correlations were use to examine group and time effects. For the pregnant group, perceived balance degradation and stance width were highly correlated (r = 0.94). Both increased during pregnancy (P r > 0.72) and also decreased significantly between the third trimester and postpartum (P pregnancy, but increased after delivery. Contrary to recent work suggesting fall rates of 25%, only 13% of our subjects (n = 2) fell during pregnancy. Perceived degradation in balance during pregnancy was strongly related to increasing postural sway instability in the anterior-posterior direction. Lateral stability was maintained during pregnancy and likely accomplished by increasing stance width.

  11. Stance and influence of Twitter users regarding the Brexit referendum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grčar, Miha; Cherepnalkoski, Darko; Mozetič, Igor; Kralj Novak, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Social media are an important source of information about the political issues, reflecting, as well as influencing, public mood. We present an analysis of Twitter data, collected over 6 weeks before the Brexit referendum, held in the UK in June 2016. We address two questions: what is the relation between the Twitter mood and the referendum outcome, and who were the most influential Twitter users in the pro- and contra-Brexit camps? First, we construct a stance classification model by machine learning methods, and are then able to predict the stance of about one million UK-based Twitter users. The demography of Twitter users is, however, very different from the demography of the voters. By applying a simple age-adjusted mapping to the overall Twitter stance, the results show the prevalence of the pro-Brexit voters, something unexpected by most of the opinion polls. Second, we apply the Hirsch index to estimate the influence, and rank the Twitter users from both camps. We find that the most productive Twitter users are not the most influential, that the pro-Brexit camp was four times more influential, and had considerably larger impact on the campaign than the opponents. Third, we find that the top pro-Brexit communities are considerably more polarized than the contra-Brexit camp. These results show that social media provide a rich resource of data to be exploited, but accumulated knowledge and lessons learned from the opinion polls have to be adapted to the new data sources.

  12. The cat vertebral column: stance configuration and range of motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, J. M.; Ye, Y.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the configuration of the vertebral column of the cat during independent stance and in various flexed positions. The range of motion in the sagittal plane is similar across most thoracic and lumbar joints, with the exception of a lesser range at the transition region from thoracic-type to lumbar-type vertebrae. The upper thoracic column exhibits most of its range in dorsiflexion and the lower thoracic and lumbar in ventroflexion. Lateral flexion is limited to less than 5 degrees at all segments. The range in torsion is almost 180 degrees and occurs primarily in the midthoracic region, T4-T11. Contrary to the depiction in most atlases, the standing cat exhibits several curvatures, including a mild dorsiflexion in the lower lumbar segments, a marked ventroflexion in the lower thoracic and upper lumbar segments, and a profound dorsiflexion in the upper thoracic (above T9) and cervical segments. The curvatures are not significantly changed by altering stance distance but are affected by head posture. During stance, the top of the scapula lies well above the spines of the thoracic vertebrae, and the glenohumeral joint is just below the bodies of vertebrae T3-T5. Using a simple static model of the vertebral column in the sagittal plane, it was estimated that the bending moment due to gravity is bimodal with a dorsiflexion moment in the lower thoracic and lumbar region and a ventroflexion moment in the upper thoracic and cervical region. Given the bending moments and the position of the scapula during stance, it is proposed that two groups of scapular muscles provide the major antigravity support for the head and anterior trunk. Levator scapulae and serratus ventralis form the lateral group, inserting on the lateral processes of cervical vertebrae and on the ribs. The major and minor rhomboids form the medial group, inserting on the spinous tips of vertebrae from C4 to T4. It is also proposed that the hypaxial muscles, psoas major, minor, and quadratus

  13. 'Speaking Kleinian': Susan Isaacs as Ursula Wise and the Inter-War Popularisation of Psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Michal

    2017-10-01

    How did the complex concepts of psychoanalysis become popular in early twentieth-century Britain? This article examines the contribution of educator and psychoanalyst Susan Isaacs (1885-1948) to this process, as well as her role as a female expert in the intellectual and medical history of this period. Isaacs was one of the most influential British psychologists of the inter-war era, yet historical research on her work is still limited. The article focuses on her writing as 'Ursula Wise', answering the questions of parents and nursery nurses in the popular journal Nursery World, from 1929 to 1936. Researched in depth for the first time, Isaacs' important magazine columns reveal that her writing was instrumental in disseminating the work of psychoanalyst Melanie Klein in Britain. Moreover, Isaacs' powerful rebuttals to behaviourist, disciplinarian parenting methods helped shift the focus of caregivers to the child's perspective, encouraging them to acknowledge children as independent subjects and future democratic citizens. Like other early psychoanalysts, Isaacs was not an elitist; she was in fact committed to disseminating her ideas as broadly as possible. Isaacs taught British parents and child caregivers to 'speak Kleinian', translating Klein's intellectual ideas into ordinary language and thus enabling their swift integration into popular discourse.

  14. A Journey, the Pain of Others, and Historical Experience: Susan Silas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sendyka, Roma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The author interprets Susan Silas' Helmbrechts walk (1998-2003, a unique series of forty-five photographs and supplementing visual and textual materials collected during the walk along the route of two hundred and twenty-five miles. The walk repeats the route which in 1945 had to undertake women prisoners from the concentration camp in Helmbrechts near Flossenbürg in their death march to Prachatice in Czech Republic. The pictures Silas takes, the people she meets, and finally the trees, the very materiality of the road become the factors of creating her own, individual memory of the event from the past. Silas selects an object from "the margins of the Holocaust" – a forgotten event that she re-presents by reacting to contemporary objects placed along the route of the event. Silas' work offers an opportunity to critically review the concept of memory landscapes (where is memory located in a landscape? and the phenomenon of dark tourism (is following in the footsteps of the prisoners a kind of pilgrimage, tourism, or therapy?. Silas problematises the question of memory, as well as examines different kinds of non-memory. Her camera is directed at locations that can be termed "the non-sites of memory."

  15. UNDERSTANDİNG SUSAN BORDO AND HER WORK; UNBEARABLE WEİGHT :FEMİNİSM, WESTERN CULTURE, BODY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÇAĞLAR DEMİR

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history of thought, there have been many views about the women, their status in society, their struggle with patriarchy, and inequality  applied to them in all areas. There are different ways of oppression on women, such as confinement to home, inequality in wages between both sexes.  However, few scholars have written and declared their own views about how the patriarchal world and companies form women as they wish. Susan Bordo is one of  the most outstanding and distinguished feminist writers in the world who focuses on  how patriarchal capitalist understanding works on women’s body in terms of weight and weakness. According to Susan Bordo, male dominated capital world decides on women about what to wear and what to eat and women try to lose weight to be in the form men wish. State of  starving all the time leads to an illness called anorexia. The writer bases her views on the thoughts of literary critic and thinker, Foucault. The  objective of this article is to help the readers understand Susan Bordo’s views and analyse her impressive work; Unbearable Weight: Feminism, Western Culture and  the Body  and make her known in academic world.

  16. Bárbara Mujica, ed., Shakespeare and the Spanish «Comedia». Translation, Interpretation, Performance. Essays in Honor of Susan L. Fischer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro García-Reidy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reseña de Bárbara Mujica, ed., Shakespeare and the Spanish «Comedia». Translation, Interpretation, Performance. Essays in Honor of Susan L. Fischer, Bucknell University Press, Lewisburg, 2013, 298 pp. ISBN 9781611485172.

  17. Toward a Critical Stance: Citizenship Education in the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane M. Vetter

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author presents the argument that through the use of rich classroom talk, students can be motivated to take a critical stance on issues of citizenship, such as social justice, equity and environmental concern. Suggesting that students who are not part of the solution are, indeed, part of the problem, the author advocates giving young children a voice through the integration of citizenship education and critical literacy across the curriculum to promote student awareness and to empower students to become pro active global citizens.

  18. Evaluation of a single leg stance balance test in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumbrunn, Thomas; MacWilliams, Bruce A; Johnson, Barbara A

    2011-06-01

    Balance is a major determinate of gait. In high functioning individuals without significant vestibular or vision impairments, a ceiling effect may be present when using a double limb support protocol to assess balance function. For these populations, a single leg stance protocol may be more suitable. 47 typically developing (TD) subjects and 10 patients with CEV performed a single leg stance test on a force plate. The center of pressure (COP) was determined and several COP derived variables were calculated. Included measurements were: standard deviation, maximum excursion, area, average radial displacement, path velocity and frequency of the COP. Directional components of suitable variables were used to analyze anterior/posterior and medial/lateral contributions. Correlations with age of TD subjects indicated that all balance variables except frequency were significantly correlated. Most parameters were highly inter-correlated. Age adjusted COP balance variables also correlated to the Bruininks-Oseretsky balance subtest. Highest correlations were determined by the maximum excursion and velocity of the COP in the anterior/posterior direction. Statistical comparisons between the CEV group and a 4-6 TD group indicated significant differences between groups for most COP balance parameters. These results indicated that a single limb balance assessment may be a useful assessment for determining balance impairments in higher functioning children with orthopedic impairments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Students’ Resources for Stance-taking in the Literature Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabel, Kristine

    Making aspects of privileged ways of participating visible is central to support students’ literacy development within different educational disciplines (Hasan, 1996, 2011). In my doctoral work I focus on the discipline of literature in lower secondary school in the school subject of Danish......, exploring students’ resources for stance-taking in their written literary response texts. In my presentation on Friday I will outline the theoretical grounding of the study and the preliminary findings. Drawing on the appraisal system within SFL (Hood, 2011; Martin & White, 2005) and the dimension...... of specialization within LCT (Maton, 2007, 2010), my analyses show a variation in students’ interpersonal meaning-making choices, linking their literary response texts within the same task to either primarily a knower or a knowledge code. This variation suggests a tension in the literature education at this time...

  20. Human vs. Computer performance in voice-based recognition of interpersonal stance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Formolo, Daniel; Bosse, Tibor

    2017-01-01

    © 2017, Springer International Publishing AG. This paper presents an algorithm to automatically detect interpersonal stance in vocal signals. The focus is on two stances (referred to as ‘Dominant’ and ‘Empathic’) that play a crucial role in aggression de-escalation. To develop the algorithm, first a

  1. Signaling Organization and Stance: Academic Language Use in Middle Grade Persuasive Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Christina L.

    2014-01-01

    Effective academic writing is accessible to readers because writers follow shared conventions for organization and signal their stance on particular topics; however, few specifics are known about how middle graders might develop knowledge of and use these academic language forms and functions to signal their organization and stance in persuasive…

  2. Linguistic Markers of Stance in Early and Advanced Academic Writing: A Corpus-Based Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aull, Laura L.; Lancaster, Zak

    2014-01-01

    This article uses corpus methods to examine linguistic expressions of stance in over 4,000 argumentative essays written by incoming first-year university students in comparison with the writing of upper-level undergraduate students and published academics. The findings reveal linguistic stance markers shared across the first-year essays despite…

  3. Exploring Valued Patterns of Stance in Upper-Level Student Writing in the Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Zak

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on the appraisal framework from systemic functional linguistics (SFL), this article examines patterns of stance in a corpus of 92 high- and low-graded argumentative papers written in the context of an upper-level course in economics. It interprets differential patterns of stance in students' texts in light of interview commentaries…

  4. Explicit Learning of Authorial Stance-taking by L2 Doctoral Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peichin Chang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on the texts of apprentice academic writers has found that they often exhibit weaknesses related to presenting an authoritative argumentative stance. This study rendered explicit linguistic resources for stance-taking and engaged advanced L2 writers in exploring stance expressions in published research. Both linguistic and language learning theories informed this study. Seven Mandarin-speaking learners of English from fields in social sciences engaged in three writing sessions in which they consulted a concordance tool organized and created to present genre moves (Swales 1990; 2004 and engagement strategies (Martin & White, 2005 used by academic authors in research introductions. Analysis of their drafts showed improvement in rhetorical move structure and stance deployment after using the tool. They were found to be more accurate in applying and identifying stances that present assertive claims and factual statements than moderately assertive stance expressions that present expansive meanings. Despite some success in learning, close text analysis reveals that more help is needed to support students in deploying appropriately assertive claims, substantiating strong claims, and managing their stance expression across several clauses. Overall, this study found that an explicit approach to learning about authorial stance has the potential to raise L2 writers’ consciousness and improve their writing.

  5. A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Stance in Disaster News Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lian; Stevenson, Marie

    2013-01-01

    This study examines stance in cross-cultural media discourse by comparing disaster news reports on the Sichuan earthquake of May 2008 in a Chinese, an Australian Chinese, and an Australian newspaper. The stance taken in the news reports is examined using the Attitude sub-system of Martin and White's (2005) Appraisal framework. The analysis…

  6. Susan Loucks-Horsley learning model in light pollution theme: based on a new taxonomy for science education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liliawati, W; Utama, J A; Fauziah, H

    2016-01-01

    The curriculum in Indonesia recommended that science teachers in the elementary and intermediate schools should have interdisciplinary ability in science. However, integrated learning still has not been implemented optimally. This research is designing and applying integrated learning with Susan Loucks-Horsley model in light pollution theme. It can be showed how the student's achievements based on new taxonomy of science education with five domains: knowing and understanding, science process skill, creativity, attitudinal and connecting and applying. This research use mixed methods with concurrent embedded design. The subject is grade 8 of junior high school students in Bandung as many as 27 students. The Instrument have been employed has 28 questions test mastery of concepts, observations sheet and moral dilemma test. The result shows that integrated learning with model Susan Loucks-Horsley is able to increase student's achievement and positive characters on light pollution theme. As the results are the average normalized gain of knowing and understanding domain reach in lower category, the average percentage of science process skill domain reach in good category, the average percentage of creativity and connecting domain reach respectively in good category and attitudinal domain the average percentage is over 75% in moral knowing and moral feeling. (paper)

  7. The influence of the boxing stance on performance in professional boxers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorokowski Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In boxing, athletes choose between two strategies: the orthodox stance characteristic of right handed competitors, or the southpaw stance characteristic of left-handers. Despite a conviction popular among the practitioners of this sport that fighting against a southpaw opponent constitutes a handicap, the effectiveness of the type of stance has so far not been examined. We extracted the statistics of the top twenty active male professionals boxing in each of the seventeen weight divisions. Out of the 340 boxers who composed our group, 75% used the orthodox stance and 25% were southpaw. Generally, we found that boxing stance had no effect on the percentage of 340 top professional boxers’ victories. However, both the southpaw and the orthodox athletes had a higher percentage of victories against orthodox boxers than against southpaws.

  8. A multisensory integration model of human stance control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kooij, H; Jacobs, R; Koopman, B; Grootenboer, H

    1999-05-01

    A model is presented to study and quantify the contribution of all available sensory information to human standing based on optimal estimation theory. In the model, delayed sensory information is integrated in such a way that a best estimate of body orientation is obtained. The model approach agrees with the present theory of the goal of human balance control. The model is not based on purely inverted pendulum body dynamics, but rather on a three-link segment model of a standing human on a movable support base. In addition, the model is non-linear and explicitly addresses the problem of multisensory integration and neural time delays. A predictive element is included in the controller to compensate for time delays, necessary to maintain erect body orientation. Model results of sensory perturbations on total body sway closely resemble experimental results. Despite internal and external perturbations, the controller is able to stabilise the model of an inherently unstable standing human with neural time delays of 100 ms. It is concluded, that the model is capable of studying and quantifying multisensory integration in human stance control. We aim to apply the model in (1) the design and development of prostheses and orthoses and (2) the diagnosis of neurological balance disorders.

  9. Stance disturbance in multiple sclerosis: brainstem lesions and posturographic assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schalek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Background. Balance disorders are commonly evidenced during the course of multiple sclerosis (MS. The aim of this study is to report characteristics of MS patient stance control disorders, measured by means of posturography and related to the brainstem lesions.

    Methods. Thirty-eight patients affected by MS, mildly to moderately disable according to Kurtzke’s Expanded Disability Status Scale, underwent a complete clinical neurological and vestibular evaluation and brain MRI scanning. All patients were then tested on a static posturography platform (Tetrax, Israel in four conditions: eyes open and closed standing on a firm surface and on a foam pad.

    Results. Clinical and/or MRI evidence of brainstem involvement was observed in 55.3 % of patients. When brainstem lesion was detected, Fourier analysis showed a typical pattern characterized by inversion of the  0- 0.1 Hz and  0.1 - 0.25 Hz. frequency bands.

    Conclusions. MS leads to pervasive postural disturbances in the majority of subjects, including the visuo-vestibular loops and proprioception involving vestibulo-spinal pathways in at least 55.3 % of patients. Our results may also suggest the presence of Fourier inversion in patients with brainstem lesions.


  10. Does Iliopsoas Tightness Affects Synergistic Muscle Activity in Hip Extension During Stance Phase of Gait?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Aali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Iliopsoas stiffness and restricted hip extension ROM affect muscle balance and lumbopelvic alignment. The purpose of this research is study of iliopsoas tightness’ effect on electromyographic activity of hip extensor synergists during gait. Methods: In this case-control study 15 adolescents with iliopsoas tightness as experimental group, and 15 healthy adolescents which matched based on age, height, weight, BMI, dominant leg, and sport experience participated voluntarily as control group. Surface electromyographic (sEMG activity of the gluteus maximus, adductor magnus, and biceps femoris, were measured between groups during stance phase of gait. Results: Individuals with restricted hip flexor muscle length demonstrated more gluteus maximus activation during terminal stance (p=0.001, more biceps femoris activation during mid stance (p=0.002 and late stance (p=0.001 and more adductor magnus activation during mid stance (p=0.04 and late stance (p=0.001. Discussion and conclusion: Adolescent soccer athletes with hip flexor muscle tightness exhibit more biceps femoris and adductor magnus and gluteus maximus activation during stance phase of gait. Thus, individuals with hip flexor muscle tightness appear to utilize different neuromuscular strategies to control lower extremity motion.

  11. Susan Magoffin’s Santa Fe Days in 1846: The Value of Testimony Les journées de Santa Fé en 1846 de Susan Magoffin : la valeur du témoignage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Berthier-Foglar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Susan Magoffin, la jeune épouse d’un commerçant de la piste de Santa Fe, accompagna son mari en 1846 pour un voyage où la caravane suivait de près l’Armée de l’Ouest et pendant lequel elle tint un journal. Cet article traite des 37 jours que dura la pause de la caravane à Santa Fe et aborde plus spécifiquement la façon dont l’auteur appréhendait l’altérité dans un environnement inhabituel et parfois dangereux. Pour apprécier la valeur du témoignage, je combine une analyse du discours avec une évaluation statistique du contenu. La description, parfois naïve, de Santa Fe sous l’occupation américaine illustre les raisons de la guerre contre le Mexique. En tant qu’agent de la destinée manifeste, Susan Magoffin admirait le général Kearny en lui attribuant des qualités surhumaines et en participant à ses efforts de propagande. Alors qu’elle était enracinée dans sa classe et sa culture, elle voyait la population mexicaine et les Amérindiens avec un esprit ouvert bien que ses motifs pour apprendre l’espagnol, ainsi que le métier de commerçante, avaient une fonction plus prosaïque.

  12. Walking with wider steps increases stance phase gluteus medius activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubinski, Samantha N; McQueen, Christina A; Sittloh, Keir A; Dean, Jesse C

    2015-01-01

    Increases in step width have been reported for several clinical populations, including older adults and stroke survivors. These populations often also exhibit decreased hip abductor strength, suggesting that walking with wider steps may be an adaptive response in order to reduce the mechanical demands on the hip abductors. The purpose of this study was to quantify the relationship between step width and gluteus medius (GM) activity during walking. Fourteen young, uninjured adults walked on a treadmill at 1.25 m/s for four step width conditions (Normal, Narrow, Medium, and Wide) while step width and stance phase GM electromyographic (EMG) activity were quantified. We also measured hip abduction torque and GM activity during maximum voluntary isometric contractions (MVICs) at three hip angles (neutral, abducted 10°, and abducted 20°). During walking trials, GM activity was significantly (p < 0.0001) influenced by step width; compared to Normal walking, GM activity was 47% higher with Wide steps and 24% lower with Narrow steps. We also observed a weak positive correlation (r = 0.18 ± 0.14) between step width and GM activity during Normal walking, as GM activity was higher with wider steps. These results cannot be attributed to changes in GM conformation under the recording electrode, as GM activity was not influenced by hip angle during MVICs. The increased GM activity with wider steps does not support the proposal that increasing step width would be a beneficial adaptation to weakened hip abductors. A likely alternative explanation is that increased step width is a response to decreased gait balance. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Postural stability during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance in anterior cruciate ligament injured subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingenen, Bart; Janssens, Luc; Luyckx, Thomas; Claes, Steven; Bellemans, Johan; Staes, Filip F

    2015-03-01

    An anterior cruciate ligament injury may lead to deteriorations in postural stability. The goal of this study was to evaluate postural stability during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance of both legs in anterior cruciate ligament injured subjects and non-injured control subjects with a standardized methodology. Fifteen control subjects and 15 anterior cruciate ligament injured subjects (time after injury: mean (SD)=1.4 (0.7) months) participated in the study. Both groups were similar for age, gender, height, weight and body mass index. Spatiotemporal center of pressure outcomes of both legs of each subject were measured during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance in eyes open and eyes closed conditions. Movement speed was standardized. The center of pressure displacement after a new stability point was reached during the single-leg stance phase was significantly increased in the anterior cruciate ligament injured group compared to the control group in the eyes closed condition (Plegs within both groups (P>.05). No significant differences were found during the transition itself (P>.05). The anterior cruciate ligament injured group showed postural stability deficits during the single-leg stance phase compared to the non-injured control group in the eyes closed condition. Using the non-injured leg as a normal reference when evaluating postural stability of the injured leg may lead to misinterpretations, as no significant differences were found between the injured and non-injured leg of the anterior cruciate ligament injured group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Adaptive behaviour of the spinal cord in the transition from quiet stance to walking

    OpenAIRE

    Serrao Mariano; Ranavolo Alberto; Andersen Ole; Conte Carmela; Don Romildo; Cortese Francesca; Mari Silvia; Draicchio Francesco; Padua Luca; Sandrini Giorgio; Pierelli Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Modulation of nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) excitability was evaluated during gait initiation in 10 healthy subjects to investigate how load- and movement-related joint inputs activate lower spinal centres in the transition from quiet stance to walking. A motion analysis system integrated with a surface EMG device was used to acquire kinematic, kinetic and EMG variables. Starting from a quiet stance, subjects were asked to walk forward, at their natural speed. The su...

  15. Tibialis anterior stretch reflex in early stance is suppressed by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuur, Abraham T; Christensen, Mark Schram; Sinkjær, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A rapid plantar flexion perturbation in the early stance phase of walking elicits a large stretch reflex in tibialis anterior (TA). In this study we use repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) to test if this response is mediated through a transcortical pathway. TA stretch...... reflexes were elicited in the early stance phase of the step cycle during treadmill walking. 20 minutes of 1 Hz rTMS at 115% resting motor threshold (MTr) significantly decreased (p

  16. Homunculi, the mereological fallacy and crypto-dualism. Two dilemmas for the intentional stance

    OpenAIRE

    Balderas-Rosas, G.C. (Gloria del Carmen)

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscientist Maxwell Bennett and philosopher Peter Hacker defend the need to eradicate the mereological fallacy of cognitive neuroscience. This fallacy attributes to the parts of an animal psychological predicates that make sense only when applied to the whole animal. In contrast, philosopher Daniel Dennett argues that it is possible to explain behavior and cognitive abilities by applying the Intentional Stance (IS) to the brain, a stance that attributes increasingly simple psychological ca...

  17. As Go the Feet … : On the Estimation of Attentional Focus from Stance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, Francis; Ehrich, Roger; Lockhart, Thurmon

    2010-01-01

    The estimation of the direction of visual attention is critical to a large number of interactive systems. This paper investigates the cross-modal relation of the position of one's feet (or standing stance) to the focus of gaze. The intuition is that while one CAN have a range of attentional foci from a particular stance, one may be MORE LIKELY to look in specific directions given an approach vector and stance. We posit that the cross-modal relationship is constrained by biomechanics and personal style. We define a stance vector that models the approach direction before stopping and the pose of a subject's feet. We present a study where the subjects' feet and approach vector are tracked. The subjects read aloud contents of note cards in 4 locations. The order of `visits' to the cards were randomized. Ten subjects read 40 lines of text each, yielding 400 stance vectors and gaze directions. We divided our data into 4 sets of 300 training and 100 test vectors and trained a neural net to estimate the gaze direction given the stance vector. Our results show that 31% our gaze orientation estimates were within 5°, 51% of our estimates were within 10°, and 60% were within 15°. Given the ability to track foot position, the procedure is minimally invasive. PMID:20830212

  18. PROJECTING GENDER IDENTITY THROUGH METADISCOURSE MARKING: INVESTIGATING WRITERS’ STANCE TAKING IN WRITTEN DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zari Sadat Seyyedrezaie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at investigating gender identity through the expression of interpersonal metadiscourse stance marking. The current study investigated male and female authors' pattern of stance markers utilization, focusing on totally 60 English and Persian articles, and English articles written by Persian speakers. Based on Xu and Longs'(2008 classification, five categories of stance markers (textual, epistemic, attitudinal, deontic and causation were identified and the frequencies of their occurrences were computed. The differences in each group were investigated separately through running chi-square tests. Regarding English articles, it was found that both male and female writers used the same pattern of stance taking except the epistemic markers. Another finding of this study was that both male and female writers followed the same pattern of stance taking in Persian articles except the deontic ones. In English articles written by Persian speakers, female writers used the same pattern as their native counterparts, while male ones were affected mostly by their native language. Attending to stance taking patterns, this article provides an informative picture which illustrates the common preferences of disciplinary community especially between male and female writers. Hence, the implications of this study can be helpful in academic writing, in assessment, and textbooks.

  19. Comparison of Open and Closed Stance Forehand Strokes among Intermediate Tennis Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajul Arifin Muhamad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays tennis is becoming faster and players are able to hit powerful from virtually anywhere on the tennis court. Training programmers and effective planning will help in designing safe, effective, and productive programs designed to help optimize the tennis performance of players. Objective: This research examine the effectiveness of open and closed stance forehand strokes in terms of percentage of success, accuracy and also to investigate whether there is a relation between level of accuracy and the choice of forehand strokes used by tennis player. Method: Participants were divided into two groups, namely, male and female who learned forehand strokes for one month. The participants were tested by using a two skill test for percentage of success and level of accuracy. Result: Founding showed that the closed stance forehand stroke has far better percentage of success and accuracy among the intermediate tennis players, but the difference was not significant. In addition, male players showed more accuracy and success in this research. And also accuracy did not have any influence to choice of forehand stroke among the intermediate tennis players. Conclusion: This research could improve the training protocol design for teaching the closed stance and open stance strokes. Keywords: Forehand stroke, open stance, closed stance, tennis accuracy, percentage of success

  20. Social support satisfaction in adults with eating disorders: Does stance matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Josie; Iyar, Megumi; Srikameswaran, Suja; Zelichowska, Joanna; Dunn, Erin C

    2017-07-01

    Although the role of social support is clearly established in the recovery of youth with eating disorders, little is known about factors that contribute to support satisfaction and improved treatment outcome in adults. This study examined the contribution of patient factors and perceived support stance used by family and friends in determining social support satisfaction. Individuals meeting DSM-IV criteria for an eating disorder (n = 182) completed measures of eating disorder and psychiatric severity, interpersonal functioning, perceived support stance used by family and friends, and social support satisfaction. Correlations indicated that both patient factors (lower psychiatric distress and fewer interpersonal difficulties) and perceived support stance (higher concerned and lower directive support) were associated with patient support satisfaction. Multiple regression analyses indicated that perceived support stance accounted for greater variance in social support satisfaction than did patient factors. Patient age was associated with differences in preferred support stance: expressions of caring were most critical for younger patients, whereas not being criticized or told what to do was most significant for older patients. This research suggests that the stance used when offering support is vital to the care of individuals with eating disorders. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Lower extremity muscle activation onset times during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingenen, Bart; Janssens, Luc; Claes, Steven; Bellemans, Johan; Staes, Filip F

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies mainly focused on muscles at the operated knee after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, less on muscles around other joints of the operated and non-operated leg. The aim of this study was to investigate muscle activation onset times during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed subjects. Lower extremity muscle activation onset times of both legs of 20 fully returned to sport anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed subjects and 20 non-injured control subjects were measured during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance in eyes open and eyes closed conditions. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to evaluate differences between groups and differences between legs within both groups, while controlling for peak center of pressure velocity. Significantly delayed muscle activation onset times were found in the anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed group compared to the control group for gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, vastus medialis obliquus, medial hamstrings, lateral hamstrings and gastrocnemius in both eyes open and eyes closed conditions (Panterior cruciate ligament reconstructed group, no significant different muscle activation onset times were found between the operated and non-operated leg (P>.05). Despite completion of rehabilitation and full return to sport, the anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed group showed neuromuscular control deficits that were not limited to the operated knee joint. Clinicians should focus on relearning multi-segmental anticipatory neuromuscular control strategies after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Climate Literacy for Kids: Finding Medium, Message, and Stance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, D. K.; Leon, N.; Jackson, R.; Greene, M. P.

    2011-12-01

    . Various recycling bins (glass, plastic, metal, and paper) are lined up on the left and right sides of the screen, with a trash bin at the bottom. As an item drops, the player must quickly decide what kind of material it is made of and whether it is recyclable, then guide it into the appropriate bin. As the rate of items entering play increases, any missed items fall into the trash and stay there for a length of time proportional to their decomposition time. If the trash bin gets full, the game is over. While enjoying the increasing challenge of the game, players learn to identify many items as recyclable that they may not have recognized as recyclable before. Another feature on Climate Kids is "Climate Tales," a slightly edgy animated cartoon series (two episodes so far) about the adventures of a blundering polar bear, a chirpy tamarin monkey, and a grumpy old fish as "accidental tourists" around the planet, observing and dealing with the environmental conditions they encounter. Fairly complex concepts (such as reasons and implications of the declining abundance of phytoplankton) are woven into the tales. Climate Kids is a fun site for kids, educational and realistic, and yet positive and hopeful-the only reasonable stance to present to this young audience.

  3. Single Stance Stability and Proprioceptive Control in Older Adults Living at Home: Gender and Age Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Riva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In developed countries, falls in older people represent a rising problem. As effective prevention should start before the risk becomes evident, an early predictor is needed. Single stance instability would appear as a major risk factor. Aims of the study were to describe single stance stability, its sensory components, and their correlation with age and gender. A random sample of 597 older adults (319 men, 278 women living at home, aged 65–84, was studied. Stability tests were performed with an electronic postural station. The single stance test showed the impairment of single stance stability in older individuals (75–84 yrs. The significant decline of stability in the older subjects may be explained by the impairment of proprioceptive control together with the decrease in compensatory visual stabilization and emergency responses. Younger subjects (65–74 yrs exhibited better, but still inadequate, proprioceptive control with compensatory visual stabilization. Gender differences appeared in older subjects: women were significantly less stable than men. The measurement of the sensory components of single stance stability could aid in the early detection of a decay in antigravity movements many years before the risk of falling becomes evident. Adequate proprioceptive control could mitigate the effects of all other risks of falling.

  4. Stance limb ground reaction forces in high functioning stroke and healthy subjects during gait initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sheena; McMorland, Angus J C; Stinear, James W

    2015-08-01

    Following stroke, little is known about ground reaction forces during gait initiation. To compare stroke patients' with healthy subjects' anterior, medial, and lateral ground reaction forces generated during gait initiation. Patients with left paresis, right paresis, and age-similar healthy subjects were recruited. During gait initiation the average peak anterior, medial, and lateral ground reaction forces acting on each lower limb were calculated when it was the stance limb. Anterior ground reaction forces acting on the right and left stance limbs of healthy subjects were greater than anterior forces acting on the nonparetic and paretic limbs of stroke patients. Medial ground reaction forces for the nonparetic and paretic limbs of stroke patients and for the right and left stance limbs of healthy subjects were equivalent. While lateral ground reaction forces acting on the nonparetic and paretic limbs were equivalent for left paretic patients, for right paretic patients lateral forces acting on the nonparetic limb were greater compared to the paretic limb and also greater compared to the left limb of healthy subjects. An effect of side-of-lesion was revealed in average peak lateral ground reaction force data. Larger lateral ground reaction forces acting on the left nonparetic stance limb of right paretic patients compared to the right nonparetic stance limb of left paretic patients during gait initiation may be an indication of differing adaptations that depend on the side-of-lesion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhancing Organizational Survivability in a Crisis: Perceived Organizational Crisis Responsibility, Stance, and Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JiYeon Jeong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of enhancing organizational sustainability during a crisis, an organization takes a position in decision-making, how to respond toward its public, and that is supposed to determine which stance or tactic to employ. This study aims to examine whether publics’ perceptions of organizational crisis responsibility affect their expectations that an organization should choose certain stances and strategies toward the public in a crisis. To address these concerns, an experiment was conducted. As the specific public of this research, health journalists were selected, since they affect public perceptions significantly and public opinion can ultimately put pressure on an organization. Results from an analysis of the experimental data with health journalists confirm that they expect a more accommodative stance/strategy when they perceive that the organization is highly responsible for a health-related crisis. Conversely, when the journalists perceive that an organization has a low level of responsibility for a crisis, they expect a more advocative stance/strategy. By taking into account the health journalists’ expectations along with the needs of the organization, public relations practitioners are better able to make optimal decisions regarding their client organizations’ adopted stance and strategy, and finally, enhance organizational sustainability in a crisis.

  6. ‘Speaking Kleinian’: Susan Isaacs as Ursula Wise and the Inter-War Popularisation of Psychoanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Michal

    2017-01-01

    How did the complex concepts of psychoanalysis become popular in early twentieth-century Britain? This article examines the contribution of educator and psychoanalyst Susan Isaacs (1885–1948) to this process, as well as her role as a female expert in the intellectual and medical history of this period. Isaacs was one of the most influential British psychologists of the inter-war era, yet historical research on her work is still limited. The article focuses on her writing as ‘Ursula Wise’, answering the questions of parents and nursery nurses in the popular journal Nursery World, from 1929 to 1936. Researched in depth for the first time, Isaacs’ important magazine columns reveal that her writing was instrumental in disseminating the work of psychoanalyst Melanie Klein in Britain. Moreover, Isaacs’ powerful rebuttals to behaviourist, disciplinarian parenting methods helped shift the focus of caregivers to the child’s perspective, encouraging them to acknowledge children as independent subjects and future democratic citizens. Like other early psychoanalysts, Isaacs was not an elitist; she was in fact committed to disseminating her ideas as broadly as possible. Isaacs taught British parents and child caregivers to ‘speak Kleinian’, translating Klein’s intellectual ideas into ordinary language and thus enabling their swift integration into popular discourse. PMID:28901872

  7. Immediate effects of the trunk stabilizing exercise on static balance parameters in double-leg and one-leg stances

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jwa-jun; Park, Se-yeon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate effect of stabilizing exercise using the PNF technique on standing balance in one-leg and double-leg stances. [Subjects and Methods] The present study recruited 34 healthy participants from a local university. The Participants performed four balance tests (double-leg stance with and without vision, one-leg stance with and without vision), before and after exercise. The exercise consisted of exercises performed using PNF techniq...

  8. Effects of taping and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation for stance phase duration of stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Youn-Bum; Lee, Jun-Cheol; Kim, Kyoung

    2017-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of taping and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty patients who were diagnosed with hemiparalysis due to stroke were selected as subjects of study. Experiment group 1 patients had Kinesio taping applied before applying the PNF, while experiment group 2 patients had McConell taping applied before applying the PNF. The control group had only the PNF applied. The dartfish program was used to evaluate the stance phase of stroke patients. [Results] Experiment group 1 and experiment group 2 showed a significantly longer stance phase duration of the affected side than the control group in week 6. [Conclusion] Application of Kinesio taping has a more positive effect on the stance phase duration than McConell taping in the patients with stroke.

  9. Adolescent social media interaction and authorial stance in Indonesian teen fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Noverini Djenar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines representations of adolescent social media interaction in two Indonesian teen novels to show how adolescent communication styles are typified. It is argued that public discourse on the potential danger of social media interaction is resounded in the novels. The article demonstrates that the authors of both novels take a similar moral stance on the issue of social media but use different rhetorical strategies for indexing that stance. Both draw on the social values of registers to communicate the stance. In Online addicted, standard Indonesian is used in narration to convey an authoritative voice and a stern moral tone, while the gaul register indexes an alignment with favourable aspects of the protagonist’s character. In Jurnal Jo online, gaul is similarly given a positive value by virtue of its juxtaposition with the Alay register. In this novel, gaul is the preferred, standard register. In both novels, there is a strong orientation toward “standardness”.

  10. Organization position statements and the stance of "studied neutrality" on euthanasia in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, palliative care and related organizations have increasingly adopted a stance of "studied neutrality" on the question of whether euthanasia should be legalized as a bona fide medical regimen in palliative care contexts. This stance, however, has attracted criticism from both opponents and proponents of euthanasia. Pro-euthanasia activists see the stance as an official position of indecision that is fundamentally disrespectful of a patient's right to "choose death" when life has become unbearable. Some palliative care constituents, in turn, are opposed to the stance, contending that it reflects an attitude of "going soft" on euthanasia and as weakening the political resistance that has hitherto been successful in preventing euthanasia from becoming more widely legalized. In this article, attention is given to examining critically the notion and possible unintended consequences of adopting a stance of studied neutrality on euthanasia in palliative care. It is argued that although palliative care and related organizations have an obvious stake in the outcome of the euthanasia debate, it is neither unreasonable nor inconsistent for such organizations to be unwilling to take a definitive stance on the issue. It is further contended that, given the long-standing tenets of palliative care, palliative care organizations have both a right and a responsibility to defend the integrity of the principles and practice of palliative care and to resist demands for euthanasia to be positioned either as an integral part or logical extension of palliative care. Copyright © 2012 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. How Can a Taxonomy of Stances Help Clarify Classical Debates on Scientific Change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakob Barseghyan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate how a systematic taxonomy of stances can help elucidate two classic debates of the historical turn—the Lakatos–Feyerabend debate concerning theory rejection and the Feyerabend–Kuhn debate about pluralism during normal science. We contend that Kuhn, Feyerabend, and Lakatos were often talking at cross-purposes due to the lack of an agreed upon taxonomy of stances. Specifically, we provide three distinct stances that scientists take towards theories: acceptance of a theory as the best available description of its domain, use of a theory in practical applications, and pursuit (elaboration of a theory. We argue that in the Lakatos–Feyerabend debate, Lakatos was concerned with acceptance whereas Feyerabend was mainly concerned with pursuit. Additionally, we show how Feyerabend and Kuhn’s debate on the role of pluralism/monism in normal science involved a crucial conflation of all three stances. Finally, we outline a few general lessons concerning the process of scientific change.

  12. Effect of a Wide Stance on Block Start Performance in Sprint Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Mitsuo; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Isaka, Tadao

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effect of widened stance width at the set position during the block start phase in sprint running on kinematics and kinetics at the hip joint and block-induced power. Fourteen male sprinters volunteered to participate in this study. They performed three block-start trials with a normal stance width (25 ± 1 cm, normal condition) and a widened stance width (45 ± 2 cm, widened condition) at the set position. The block start movements were recorded at 250 Hz with high-speed cameras and the ground reaction forces at 1250 Hz with force plates. During the block phase in the widened condition, the hip abduction and external rotation angles in both legs were significantly larger and smaller, respectively, than those in the normal condition. The positive peak value of the hip power in the rear leg was significantly greater in the widened condition than that in the normal condition. However, no significant difference was seen in the normalized block-induced power between the widened and normal conditions. We conclude that a widened stance width at the set position affects the hip-joint kinematics and rear hip power generation during the block start phase, but no effect on the block-induced power when considering sprinting performance during the whole block start phase.

  13. Changing and Changed Stance toward Norm Selection in Philippine Universities: Its Pedagogical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Alejandro S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey which involved College English teachers from three leading universities in the Philippines. The results point to one conclusion--College English teachers now have a changing and changed stance toward norm selection in Philippine Universities. The results give the impression that a good number of College…

  14. Taking things at face value: how stance informs politeness of virtual agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linssen, Johannes Maria; Theune, Mariet; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Hindriks, K.; de Weerdt, M.; van Riemsdijk, B.; Warnier, M.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a combination of theories about interpersonal stances and politeness to inform virtual agent behaviour in a serious game, aimed at social interaction training in the domain of law enforcement. A pilot study we conducted showed promising results based on which we will refine our model.

  15. Influence of virtual reality on postural stability during movements of quiet stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horlings, Corinne G C; Carpenter, Mark G; Küng, Ursula M; Honegger, Flurin; Wiederhold, Brenda; Allum, John H J

    2009-02-27

    Balance problems during virtual reality (VR) have been mentioned in the literature but seldom investigated despite the increased use of VR systems as a training or rehabilitation tool. We examined the influence of VR on body sway under different stance conditions. Seventeen young subjects performed four tasks (standing with feet close together or tandem stance on firm and foam surfaces for 60s) under three visual conditions: eyes open without VR, eyes closed, or while viewing a virtual reality scene which moved with body movements. Angular velocity transducers mounted on the shoulder provided measures of body sway in the roll and pitch plane. VR caused increased pitch and roll angles and angular velocities compared to EO. The effects of VR were, for the most part, indistinguishable from eyes closed conditions. Use of a foam surface increased sway compared to a firm surface under eyes closed and VR conditions. During the movements of quiet stance, VR causes an increase in postural sway in amplitude similar to that caused by closing the eyes. This increased sway was present irrespective of stance surface, but was greatest on foam.

  16. Stance and Engagement in Pure Mathematics Research Articles: Linking Discourse Features to Disciplinary Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Lisa; Kuteeva, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Recent ESP research into academic writing has shown how writers convey their stance and interact with readers across different disciplines. However, little research has been carried out into the disciplinary writing practices of the pure mathematics academic community from an ESP genre analysis perspective. This study begins to address this gap by…

  17. The Stance Leads the Dance: The Emergence of Role in a Joint Supra-Postural Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tehran J. Davis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Successfully meeting a shared goal usually requires co-actors to adopt complementary roles. However, in many cases, who adopts what role is not explicitly predetermined, but instead emerges as a consequence of the differences in the individual abilities and constraints imposed upon each actor. Perhaps the most basic of roles are leader and follower. Here, we investigated the emergence of “leader-follower” dynamics in inter-personal coordination using a joint supra-postural task paradigm (Ramenzoni et al., 2011; Athreya et al., 2014. Pairs of actors were tasked with holding two objects in alignment (each actor manually controlled one of the objects as they faced different demands for stance (stable vs. difficult and control (which actor controlled the larger or smaller object. Our results indicate that when actors were in identical stances, neither led the inter-personal (between actors coordination by any systematic fashion. Alternatively, when asymmetries in postural demands were introduced, the actor with the more difficult stance led the coordination (as determined using cross-recurrence quantification analysis. Moreover, changes in individual stance difficulty resulted in similar changes in the structure of both intra-personal (individual and inter-personal (dyadic coordination, suggesting a scale invariance of the task dynamics. Implications for the study of interpersonal coordination are discussed.

  18. Stances and Dances: The Negotiation of Subjectivities in a Reading/Language Arts Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Mary A.; Fairbanks, Colleen M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how in the examination of a sixth-grade girl's participation in the language arts classroom that is driven by high-stakes testing and by a regimented classroom culture, the authors came to view students' approaches to literacy events as "stances" and their negotiation of their subjectivities in response to literacy events as…

  19. Changes in the fiscal stance and the composition of public spending

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stančík, Juraj; Välilä, T.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 1 (2012), s. 199-217 ISSN 0377-7332 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : fiscal policy * public expenditure * fiscal stance Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.614, year: 2012

  20. The recognition of acted interpersonal stance in police interrogations and the influence of actor proficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnes, Merijn; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Spitters, Sophie; Sanders, Merijn; Fu, Quihua

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on judgement studies regarding the perception of interpersonal stances taken by humans playing the role of a suspect in a police interrogation setting. Our project aims at building believable embodied conversational characters to play the role of suspects in a serious game for

  1. Turkish Language Teachers' Stance Taking Movements in the Discourse on Globalization and Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how Turkish teachers take and give stances in the discourse on globalization and language by using linguistic resources. According to the findings obtained through the discourse analysis of the corpus that consisted of 36 h of recording of the discussion among 4 teachers with 5 to 10 years of teaching experience, the…

  2. Communicating Epistemic Stance: How Speech and Gesture Patterns Reflect Epistemicity and Evidentiality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseano, Paolo; González, Montserrat; Borràs-Comes, Joan; Prieto, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how epistemic stance is encoded and perceived in face-to-face communication when language is regarded as comprised by speech and gesture. Two studies were conducted with this goal in mind. The first study consisted of a production task in which participants performed opinion reports. Results showed that speakers communicate…

  3. Explanations pertaining to the hip joint flexor moment during the stance phase of human walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Erik B; Cappelen, Katrine L; Skorini, Ragnhild ί; Larsen, Peter K; Alkjær, Tine; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul

    2012-11-01

    A hip joint flexor moment in the last half of the stance phase during walking has repeatedly been reported. However, the purpose of this moment remains uncertain and it is unknown how it is generated. Nine male subjects were instructed to walk at 4.5 km/h with their upper body in three different positions: normal, inclined and reclined. Net joint moments were calculated about the hip, knee and ankle joint. The peak hip joint flexor moment during late stance was significantly lower during inclined walking than in the two other conditions. During normal walking the iliacus muscle showed no or very weak activity and first at the transition from stance to swing. When walking reclined, a clear but rather low activity level of the iliacus muscle was seen in the first half of the stance phase, which could contribute to the hip moment. In the inclined condition the iliacus showed much increased activity but only in the swing phase. It is concluded that the hip flexor moment in question is largely generated by passive structures in the form of ligaments resisting hip joint extension.

  4. EFL Doctoral Students' Conceptions of Authorial Stance in Academic Knowledge Claims and the Tie to Epistemic Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Peichin; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Taking an effective authorial stance in research argumentation has been designated as both vitally important and challenging. The study investigated English as a foreign language (EFL) doctoral students' conceptions of authorial stance, the role of domains in affecting their conceptions, and the ties of the conceptions to the participants'…

  5. "Seeing the Everyday through New Lenses": Pedagogies and Practices of Literacy Teacher Educators with a Critical Stance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharamshi, Pooja

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the practices and pedagogies of six literacy teacher educators with a critical stance. In this qualitative research study, three semi-structured interviews were conducted with each participant over a three-year period. They were able to negotiate a critical stance into their teacher education courses in several ways: using an…

  6. A three-dimensional biomechanical analysis of the squat during varying stance widths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla, R F; Fleisig, G S; Lowry, T M; Barrentine, S W; Andrews, J R

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify biomechanical parameters employing two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) analyses while performing the squat with varying stance widths. Two 60-Hz cameras recorded 39 lifters during a national powerlifting championship. Stance width was normalized by shoulder width (SW), and three stance groups were defined: 1) narrow stance squat (NS), 107 +/- 10% SW; 2) medium stance squat (MS), 142 +/- 12% SW; and 3) wide stance squat (WS), 169 +/- 12% SW. Most biomechanical differences among the three stance groups and between 2-D and 3-D analyses occurred between the NS and WS. Compared with the NS at 45 degrees and 90 degrees knee flexion angle (KF), the hips flexed 6-11 degrees more and the thighs were 7-12 degrees more horizontal during the MS and WS. Compared with the NS at 90 degrees and maximum KF, the shanks were 5-9 degrees more vertical and the feet were turned out 6 degrees more during the WS. No significant differences occurred in trunk positions. Hip and thigh angles were 3-13 degrees less in 2-D compared with 3-D analyses. Ankle plantar flexor (10-51 N.m), knee extensor (359-573 N.m), and hip extensor (275-577 N.m) net muscle moments were generated for the NS, whereas ankle dorsiflexor (34-284 N.m), knee extensor (447-756 N.m), and hip extensor (382-628 N.m) net muscle moments were generated for the MS and WS. Significant differences in ankle and knee moment arms between 2-D and 3-D analyses were 7-9 cm during the NS, 12-14 cm during the MS, and 16-18 cm during the WS. Ankle plantar flexor net muscle moments were generated during the NS, ankle dorsiflexor net muscle moments were produced during the MS and WS, and knee and hip moments were greater during the WS compared with the NS. A 3-D biomechanical analysis of the squat is more accurate than a 2-D biomechanical analysis, especially during the WS.

  7. Support stance in carers of adults with eating disorders: Factors associated with collaborative versus directive approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Josie; Srikameswaran, Suja; Iyar, Megumi; Zelichowska, Joanna; Thibodeau, Michel; Brown, Krista E; Dunn, Erin C

    2017-05-01

    The support provided by family and friends is integral to patient motivation and clinical outcomes across health care populations. However, little is known about factors that promote or interfere with the type of support offered. This research examined factors associated with collaborative versus directive support among carers of adults with eating disorders. Participants were mothers, fathers, partners, friends, and siblings (N = 141) of eating disorder patients in hospital or residential treatment. Two methodologies were used to assess directive and collaborative support stance: a questionnaire of support behaviors and coded responses to clinical vignettes. Measures of interpersonal functioning, psychiatric distress, caregiving experience, and closeness with their loved one were also completed. Although carers rated a collaborative stance as more helpful than a directive stance, 60% of responses to the clinical vignettes were directive. Across both methodologies, collaborative support behaviors were associated with beliefs about helpful support and with a less vindictive and cold interpersonal style. Whereas use of a directive support stance was exclusively associated with negative caregiving experiences, collaborative responses were associated with both positive and negative experiences. Although the benefits of collaborative support have been well established, this is the first study to examine factors associated with the use of support stance. Findings suggest a number of ways to help carers create and maintain collaborative relationships, including addressing beliefs and interpersonal style and capitalizing on both positive and negative experiences with their loved one. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:498-505). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Postural control strategies during single limb stance following acute lateral ankle sprain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Cailbhe; Bleakley, Chris; Hertel, Jay; Caulfield, Brian; Ryan, John; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2014-06-01

    Single-limb stance is maintained via the integration of visual, vestibular and somatosensory afferents. Musculoskeletal injury challenges the somatosensory system to reweight distorted sensory afferents. This investigation supplements kinetic analysis of eyes-open and eyes-closed single-limb stance tasks with a kinematic profile of lower limb postural orientation in an acute lateral ankle sprain group to assess the adaptive capacity of the sensorimotor system to injury. Sixty-six participants with first-time acute lateral ankle sprain completed a 20-second eyes-open single-limb stance task on their injured and non-injured limbs (task 1). Twenty-three of these participants successfully completed the same 20-second single-limb stance task with their eyes closed (task 2). A non-injured control group of 19 participants completed task 1, with 16 completing task 2. 3-dimensional kinematics of the hip, knee and ankle joints, as well as associated fractal dimension of the center-of-pressure path were determined for each limb during these tasks. Between trial analyses revealed significant differences in stance limb kinematics and fractal dimension of the center-of-pressure path for task 2 only. The control group bilaterally assumed a position of greater hip flexion compared to injured participants on their side-matched "involved"(7.41 [6.1°] vs 1.44 [4.8]°; η(2)=.34) and "uninvolved" (9.59 [8.5°] vs 2.16 [5.6°]; η(2)=.31) limbs, with a greater fractal dimension of the center-of-pressure path (involved limb=1.39 [0.16°] vs 1.25 [0.14°]; uninvolved limb=1.37 [0.21°] vs 1.23 [0.14°]). Bilateral impairment in postural control strategies present following a first time acute lateral ankle sprain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Commentary on Susan Isaacs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jane

    2011-01-01

    A central principle of 1970s feminism was a concern with making women visible and the historical creation of women's public voices is an important methodological premise of feminist research. When written, biographies of female actors "recovered" from the condescension of posterity, can illuminate the telling of individual and collective…

  10. The impact of the initial stance position on lower limb joint kinetics in the taekwondo roundhouse kick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jandačka

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To achieve good performance, taekwondo athletes should optimize the stance position of the foot on the ground. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to compare generated net joint power (hip, knee and ankle during stance phase, magnitude of peak foot velocity of the attacking lower extremity and execution stance time produced from three stance positions (forward "0°", diagonal "45°", orthogonal "90°" in the taekwondo roundhouse kick. METHODS: Ten taekwondo athletes participated in the study; their experience of practicing taekwondo ranged between 13.8 ± 5.8 years. The kinetics and kinematics of the athletes’ movement during the roundhouse kick were recorded. The execution stance time and the magnitude of peak foot velocity were determined. The net joint power of the kicking lower extremity during the stance phase was calculated using the inverse dynamics method. Then the peak net joint power was determined. RESULTS: The analysis of variance for repeated measures showed that there is a significant main effect of the stance position on the peak net hip joint power in the three planes. In addition, the stance position does not affect the magnitude of the peak foot velocity of the kicking lower extremity and execution stance time. CONCLUSIONS: The necessity to produce a higher net hip joint power in the stance phase of the roundhouse kick from the position when the feet are placed orthogonal to the target of the kick, compared with the execution of the kick from the forward or diagonal position, must be taken into account for purposes of rationalizing strength training of taekwondo athletes or for selecting the technique of the roundhouse kick.

  11. Postural stability deficits during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingenen, Bart; Janssens, Luc; Claes, Steven; Bellemans, Johan; Staes, Filip F

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate postural stability during the transition from double-leg stance (DLS) to single-leg stance (SLS) in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed (ACLR) (n=20) and non-injured control subjects (n=20). All ACLR subjects had fully returned to their pre-injury sport participation. Both groups were similar for age, gender, height, weight, body mass index and activity level. Spatiotemporal center of pressure outcomes of both legs of each subject were measured during the transition from DLS to SLS in eyes open and eyes closed conditions. Movement speed was standardized. The center of pressure displacement after a new stability point was reached during the SLS phase was significantly increased in the ACLR group compared to the control group in the eyes closed condition (P=.001). No significant different postural stability outcomes were found between the operated and non-operated legs. In conclusion, the ACLR group showed postural stability deficits, indicating that these persons may have a decreased ability to stabilize their body after the internal postural perturbation created by the transition from DLS to SLS. The non-operated leg may not be the best reference when evaluating postural stability of the operated leg after ACLR, as no differences were found between legs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Safety and walking ability of KAFO users with the C-Brace? Orthotronic Mobility System, a new microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis

    OpenAIRE

    Pr?bsting, Eva; Kannenberg, Andreas; Zacharias, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are clear indications for benefits of stance control orthoses compared to locked knee ankle foot orthoses. However, stance control orthoses still have limited function compared with a sound human leg. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential benefits of a microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis compared to stance control orthoses and locked knee ankle foot orthoses in activities of daily living. Study design: Survey of lower limb orthosis user...

  13. Quantitative estimation of foot-flat and stance phase of gait using foot-worn inertial sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Benoit; Rouhani, Hossein; Crevoisier, Xavier; Aminian, Kamiar

    2013-02-01

    Time periods composing stance phase of gait can be clinically meaningful parameters to reveal differences between normal and pathological gait. This study aimed, first, to describe a novel method for detecting stance and inner-stance temporal events based on foot-worn inertial sensors; second, to extract and validate relevant metrics from those events; and third, to investigate their suitability as clinical outcome for gait evaluations. 42 subjects including healthy subjects and patients before and after surgical treatments for ankle osteoarthritis performed 50-m walking trials while wearing foot-worn inertial sensors and pressure insoles as a reference system. Several hypotheses were evaluated to detect heel-strike, toe-strike, heel-off, and toe-off based on kinematic features. Detected events were compared with the reference system on 3193 gait cycles and showed good accuracy and precision. Absolute and relative stance periods, namely loading response, foot-flat, and push-off were then estimated, validated, and compared statistically between populations. Besides significant differences observed in stance duration, the analysis revealed differing tendencies with notably a shorter foot-flat in healthy subjects. The result indicated which features in inertial sensors' signals should be preferred for detecting precisely and accurately temporal events against a reference standard. The system is suitable for clinical evaluations and provides temporal analysis of gait beyond the common swing/stance decomposition, through a quantitative estimation of inner-stance phases such as foot-flat. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Towards a Critical Health Equity Research Stance: Why Epistemology and Methodology Matter More Than Qualitative Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowleg, Lisa

    2017-10-01

    Qualitative methods are not intrinsically progressive. Methods are simply tools to conduct research. Epistemology, the justification of knowledge, shapes methodology and methods, and thus is a vital starting point for a critical health equity research stance, regardless of whether the methods are qualitative, quantitative, or mixed. In line with this premise, I address four themes in this commentary. First, I criticize the ubiquitous and uncritical use of the term health disparities in U.S. public health. Next, I advocate for the increased use of qualitative methodologies-namely, photovoice and critical ethnography-that, pursuant to critical approaches, prioritize dismantling social-structural inequities as a prerequisite to health equity. Thereafter, I discuss epistemological stance and its influence on all aspects of the research process. Finally, I highlight my critical discourse analysis HIV prevention research based on individual interviews and focus groups with Black men, as an example of a critical health equity research approach.

  15. Mobility function of a prosthetic knee joint with an automatic stance phase lock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrysek, Jan; Klejman, Susan; Torres-Moreno, Ricardo; Heim, Winfried; Steinnagel, Bryan; Glasford, Shane

    2011-06-01

    There is a need for a prosthetic knee joint design that is technologically and functionally appropriate for use in developing countries. To develop and clinically evaluate a new type of stance phase controlled prosthetic knee joint that provides stance phase stability without inhibiting swing phase flexion. A crossover repeated measures study design comparing the new knee joint to the participant's conventional low- or high-end prosthetic knee joint. The new knee joint was fitted to fourteen individuals aged 15 to 67 years with unilateral lower limb amputations. Walk tests were performed to measure walking speed. Energy expenditure was estimated using the physiological cost index (PCI). Walking speeds with the new knee joint were on average 0.14 m/s faster than conventional low-end knees (p < 0.0001), but 0.07 m/s slower than conventional high-end prosthetic knees (p = 0.008). The PCI was similar across all three knee joint technologies (p = 0.276). Mobility function with the new knee joint, in terms of walking speed, was more closely matched to high-end than low-end prosthetic knee joints. Therefore, given its relatively simple design, the new stance phase control mechanism may offer a functional and cost effective solution for active transfemoral amputees. This paper describes a new type of prosthetic knee joint mechanism that is intended to be cost-effective while providing high-level stance phase function to active individuals with a transfemoral amputation. Initial clinical testing suggests that the new knee joint may have some functional advantages over existing technologies in this category.

  16. The Sacrifice and the Ludic Stances Reflected Through the Theatre Practice of the 20th Century

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koubová, Alice

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 6 (2017), s. 451-462 ISSN 0046-385X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-23046S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : performative turn * performance * sacrifice * ludic stance * play * postmodern condition * Brecht * Benjamin * Grotowski Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Philosophy , History and Philosophy of science and technology http://www.klemens.sav.sk/fiusav/doc/filozofia/2017/6/451-462.pdf

  17. Mosaic structures in living beings in the light of several modern stances

    OpenAIRE

    Chapouthier , Georges

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Biocosmology implies that the laws of the microcosm (i.e. the laws governing living beings and their minds) mimic the laws of the macrocosm. These laws are based on a mosaic structure and triune organisation, with some roots that may be in the classical dialectical movement. A number of modern stances can be seen in relation to the Biocosmological perspective. The relationship to the mosaic structure may be direct, as with the experimental work of Michod, or indirect, ...

  18. Stance and strategy: post-structural perspective and post-colonial engagement to develop nursing knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochan, Anne M

    2011-07-01

    How should nursing knowledge advance? This exploration contextualizes its evolution past and present. In addressing how it evolved in the past, a probable historical evolution of its development draws on the perspectives of Frank & Gills's World System Theory, Kuhn's treatise on Scientific Revolutions, and Foucault's notions of Discontinuities in scientific knowledge development. By describing plausible scenarios of how nursing knowledge evolved, I create a case for why nursing knowledge developers should adopt a post-structural stance in prioritizing their research agenda(s). Further, by adopting a post-structural stance, I create a case on how nurses can advance their disciplinary knowledge using an engaging post-colonial strategy. Given an interrupted history caused by influence(s) constraining nursing's knowledge development by power structures external, and internal, to nursing, knowledge development can evolve in the future by drawing on post-structural interpretation, and post-colonial strategy. The post-structural writings of Deleuze & Guattari's understanding of 'Nomadology' as a subtle means to resist being constrained by existing knowledge development structures, might be a useful stance to understanding the urgency of why nursing knowledge should advance addressing the structural influences on its development. Furthermore, Bhabha's post-colonial elucidation of 'Hybridity' as an equally discreet means to change the culture of those constraining structures is an appropriate strategy to enact how nursing knowledge developers can engage with existing power structures, and simultaneously influence that engagement. Taken together, 'post-structural stance' and 'post-colonial strategy' can refocus nursing scholarship to learn from its past, in order to develop relevant disciplinary knowledge in its future. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. The Effect of Single-Leg Stance on Dancer and Control Group Static Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilroy, Elisabeth A; Crabtree, Olivia M; Crosby, Brittany; Parker, Amanda; Barfield, William R

    The purpose of this study was to compare kinetic differences of static balance between female dancers (D) with at least seven years of dance experience and female non-dancers (ND) who were typical college students. Participants were tested in single-leg stance. Both the dominant leg (DL) and non-dominant leg (NDL) were tested with the participants shod (S) and barefoot (BF). Kinetic variables (vertical, medio-lateral [ML], antero-posterior [AP] maximum ground reaction forces (GRF), and center of pressure (COP) ML and AP) were measured by a Bertec force platform at 1000 Hz with participants S and BF. Each subject's stance was measured over 3 × 30-second intervals. No significant differences (p≥0.05) existed between groups for height, body mass, or age. Significant differences existed between groups for balance time, AP GRF in both BF and S conditions for both DL and NDL, and ML GRF in BF NDL and S DL and NDL conditions. D and ND in BF and S conditions with DL and NDL static stance demonstrate different AP and ML GRF when balancing over a 30-second time interval. Data may suggest that ND are more prone to lose their balance. Further investigation is warranted to understand whether individuals in the rehabilitative field and athletic populations can use dance therapy for injury prevention and rehabilitation.

  20. Distal muscle activity alterations during the stance phase of gait in restless leg syndrome (RLS) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafkin, Chloe; Green, Andrew; Olivier, Benita; McKinon, Warrick; Kerr, Samantha

    2018-05-01

    To assess if there is a circadian variation in electromyographical (EMG) muscle activity during gait in restless legs syndrome (RLS) patients and healthy control participants. Gait assessment was done in 14 RLS patients and 13 healthy control participants in the evening (PM) and the morning (AM). Muscle activity was recorded bilaterally from the tibialis anterior (TA), lateral gastrocnemius (GL), rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles. A circadian variation during the stance phase in only TA (PM > AM, p  Controls, p < 0.05) during early stance and decreased GL activity (RLS < Controls, p < 0.01) during terminal stance in comparison to control participants in the evening. No other significant differences were noted between RLS patients and control participants. Activation of GL during the swing phase was noted in 79% of RLS patients and in 23% of control participants in the morning compared to 71% and 38% in the evening, respectively. EMG muscle activity shows no circadian variation in RLS patients. Evening differences in gait muscle activation patterns between RLS patients and control participants are evident. These results extend our knowledge about alterations in spinal processing during gait in RLS. A possible explanation for these findings is central pattern generator sensitization caused by increased sensitivity in cutaneous afferents in RLS patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Estimation of Human Ankle Impedance During the Stance Phase of Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Elliott J.; Hargrove, Levi J.; Perreault, Eric J.; Kuiken, Todd A.

    2018-01-01

    Human joint impedance is the dynamic relationship between the differential change in the position of a perturbed joint and the corresponding response torque; it is a fundamental property that governs how humans interact with their environments. It is critical to characterize ankle impedance during the stance phase of walking to elucidate how ankle impedance is regulated during locomotion, as well as provide the foundation for future development of natural, biomimetic powered prostheses and their control systems. In this study, ankle impedance was estimated using a model consisting of stiffness, damping and inertia. Ankle torque was well described by the model, accounting for 98 ± 1.2% of the variance. When averaged across subjects, the stiffness component of impedance was found to increase linearly from 1.5 Nm/rad/kg to 6.5 Nm/rad/kg between 20% and 70% of stance phase. The damping component was found to be statistically greater than zero only for the estimate at 70% of stance phase, with a value of 0.03 Nms/rad/kg. The slope of the ankle’s torque-angle curve—known as the quasi-stiffness—was not statistically different from the ankle stiffness values, and showed remarkable similarity. Finally, using the estimated impedance, the specifications for a biomimetic powered ankle prosthesis were introduced that would accurately emulate human ankle impedance during locomotion. PMID:24760937

  2. From relational ontology to transformative activist stance on development and learning: expanding Vygotsky's (CHAT) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetsenko, Anna

    2008-07-01

    This paper offers steps towards overcoming current fragmentation within sociocultural approaches by expansively reconstructing a broad dialectical view on human development and learning (drawing on Vygotsky's project) underwritten by ideology of social justice. The common foundation for sociocultural approaches is developed by dialectically supplanting relational ontology with the notion that collaborative purposeful transformation of the world is the core of human nature and the principled grounding for learning and development. An activist transformative stance suggests that people come to know themselves and their world as well as ultimately come to be human in and through (not in addition to) the processes of collaboratively transforming the world in view of their goals. This means that all human activities (including psychological processes and the self) are instantiations of contributions to collaborative transformative practices that are contingent on both the past and the vision for the future and therefore are profoundly imbued with ideology, ethics, and values. And because acting, being, and knowing are seen from a transformative activist stance as all rooted in, derivative of, and instrumental within a collaborative historical becoming, this stance cuts across and bridges the gaps (a) between individual and social and (b) among ontological, epistemological, and moral-ethical (ideological) dimensions of activity.

  3. Explanations pertaining to the Hip Joint Flexor Moment During the Stance Phase of Human Walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik B; Cappelen, Katrine L; Skorini, Ragnhild

    2012-01-01

    A hip joint flexor moment in the last half of the stance phase during walking has repeatedly been reported. However, the purpose of this moment remains uncertain and it is unknown how it is generated. Nine male subjects were instructed to walk at 4.5 km/h with their upper body in three different ...... activity but only in the swing phase. It is concluded that the hip flexor moment in question is largely generated by passive structures in the form of ligaments resisting hip joint extension.......A hip joint flexor moment in the last half of the stance phase during walking has repeatedly been reported. However, the purpose of this moment remains uncertain and it is unknown how it is generated. Nine male subjects were instructed to walk at 4.5 km/h with their upper body in three different...... positions: normal, inclined and reclined. Net joint moments were calculated about the hip, knee and ankle joint. The peak hip joint flexor moment during late stance was significantly lower during inclined walking than in the two other conditions. During normal walking the iliacus muscle showed no or very...

  4. Influence of shoes and foot orthoses on lower extremity muscle activation onset times in healthy subjects during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingenen, B; Peeraer, L; Deschamps, K; Fieuws, S; Janssens, L; Staes, F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of shoes and foot orthoses on lower extremity muscle activation patterns in healthy subjects during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance. Eight male and seven female young asymptomatic adults who wear foot orthoses were recruited. Muscle activation onset times of 9 lower extremity muscles were recorded using surface electromyography during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance, performed with eyes open and with eyes closed. This was tested in 4 experimental conditions: 1) barefoot (BF); 2) shoes only (SO); 3) shoes with standardized FO (SSFO); and 4) shoes with customized FO (SCFO). Based on a four-way (condition-region-leg-vision) linear model for repeated measures, we found a significant condition effect (P=0.025). Differences between conditions did not depend on the leg and/or the vision condition, but on the region (ankle-knee-hip). Based on a two-way (condition-muscle) linear model within each region, only significant differences between conditions for peroneus longus (P=0.003) were found. The onset times of peroneus longus were significantly earlier in SO (P=0.029) and SCFO (P=0.001) compared to BF. These results indicate that SO and SCFO can accelerate peroneus longus muscle activation onset times during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance. Further research is required to determine how these adaptations may develop over time.

  5. Recovery times of stance and gait balance control after an acute unilateral peripheral vestibular deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allum, John H J; Honegger, Flurin

    2016-01-01

    Acute unilateral peripheral vestibular deficit (aUPVD) patients have balance deficits that can improve after several weeks. Determining differences in vestibulo-spinal reflex (VSR) influences on balance control and vestibular ocular reflex (VOR) responses with peripheral recovery and central compensation would provide insights into CNS plasticity mechanisms. Also, clinically, knowing when balance control is approximately normal again should contribute to decisions about working ability after aUPVD. Usually VORs are employed for this purpose, despite a lack of knowledge about correlations with balance control. Given this background, we examined whether balance and VOR measures improve similarly and are correlated. Further whether balance improvements are different for stance and gait. 26 patients were examined at onset of aUPVD, and 3, 6 and 13 weeks later. To measure balance control and thereby assess the contribution of VSR influences during stance and gait, body-worn gyroscopes mounted at lumbar 1-3 recorded the angular velocity of the lower trunk in the roll (lateral) and pitch (anterior-posterior) directions. These signals were integrated to yield angle deviations. To measure VOR function, rotating chair (ROT) tests were performed with triangular velocity profiles with accelerations of 20°/s(2) and 5°/s(2), and caloric tests with bithermal (44 and 30°C) water irrigation of the external auditory meatus. Changes in average balance and VOR measures at the 4 examination time points were modelled with exponential decays. Improvements were assumed to plateau when model values were to within 10% of steady state. Balance improvement rates were task and direction dependent, ranging from 3-9 weeks post aUPVD, similar to the range of ROT VOR improvement rates. Stance balance control improved similarly in the pitch and roll directions. Both reached steady state at 7.5 weeks. However, changes in visual and proprioceptive influences on stance sway velocities continued to

  6. The intentional stance as structure learning: a computational perspective on mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dindo, Haris; Donnarumma, Francesco; Chersi, Fabian; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    Recent theories of mindreading explain the recognition of action, intention, and belief of other agents in terms of generative architectures that model the causal relations between observables (e.g., observed movements) and their hidden causes (e.g., action goals and beliefs). Two kinds of probabilistic generative schemes have been proposed in cognitive science and robotics that link to a "theory theory" and "simulation theory" of mindreading, respectively. The former compares perceived actions to optimal plans derived from rationality principles and conceptual theories of others' minds. The latter reuses one's own internal (inverse and forward) models for action execution to perform a look-ahead mental simulation of perceived actions. Both theories, however, leave one question unanswered: how are the generative models - including task structure and parameters - learned in the first place? We start from Dennett's "intentional stance" proposal and characterize it within generative theories of action and intention recognition. We propose that humans use an intentional stance as a learning bias that sidesteps the (hard) structure learning problem and bootstraps the acquisition of generative models for others' actions. The intentional stance corresponds to a candidate structure in the generative scheme, which encodes a simplified belief-desire folk psychology and a hierarchical intention-to-action organization of behavior. This simple structure can be used as a proxy for the "true" generative structure of others' actions and intentions and is continuously grown and refined - via state and parameter learning - during interactions. In turn - as our computational simulations show - this can help solve mindreading problems and bootstrap the acquisition of useful causal models of both one's own and others' goal-directed actions.

  7. Influence of enhanced visual feedback on postural control and spinal reflex modulation during stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taube, Wolfgang; Leukel, Christian; Gollhofer, Albert

    2008-07-01

    The present study assessed the influence of visual feedback on stance stability and soleus H-reflex excitability. The centre of pressure (COP) displacement was measured in upright stance on a rigid surface (stable surface) and on a spinning top (unstable surface) while subjects either received "normal" visual feedback (without laser pointer = WLP) or pointed with a laser pointer on a target on the wall (LP). In order to verify that laser pointing influenced visual feedback, two additional experiments were conducted: (1) Subjects performed a finger reaction task which was thought to increase attention and cognitive demands without alteration of the visual feedback. (2) The effect of laser pointing on the wall was compared with pointing at a board, which was attached to the subjects themselves. In this case, the laser point could not serve as a reference for sway because the board moved in synchrony with the body. On stable and unstable surface, COP displacement was reduced in the LP compared to the WLP task (-17 cm +/- 6, P < 0.05; -14 cm +/- 6, P < 0.05). Conversely, H-reflexes were greater in the LP condition (stable: +20 microV +/- 30, not significant; unstable +115 microV +/- 40, P < 0.05). Stance stability and H-reflex modulation were negatively correlated (R(2) = -0.5; P < 0.001). The finger reaction task did neither influence COP displacement nor H-reflexes. Pointing at the body-fixed target did not alter COP displacement. These findings suggest that postural sway can be reduced by a handheld laser pointer targeting on an external reference point. It is argued that altered visual input was responsible for modulating the H-reflex.

  8. Balance in Astronauts Performing Jumps, Walking and Quiet Stance Following Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, Millard F.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Wood, S. J.; Harm, D. L.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Both balance and locomotor ataxia is severe in astronauts returning from spaceflight with serious implications for unassisted landings. As a part of an ongoing effort to demonstrate the functional significance of the postflight ataxia problem our laboratory has evaluated jumping, walking heel-to-toe and quite stance balance immediately following spaceflight. Methods: Six astronauts from 12-16 day flights and three from 6-month flights were asked to perform three self-initiated two-footed jumps from a 30-cm-high platform, walking for 10 steps (three trials) placing the feet heel to toe in tandem, arms folded across the chest and the eyes closed, and lastly, recover from a simulated fall by standing from a prone position on the floor and with eyes open maintain a quiet stance for 3 min with arms relaxed along the side of the body and feet comfortably positioned on a force plate. Crewmembers were tested twice before flight, on landing day (short-duration), and days 1, 6, and 30 following all flight durations. Results/Conclusions: Many of astronauts tested fell on their first postflight jump but recovered by the third jump showing a rapid learning progression. Changes in take-off strategy were clearly evident in duration of time in the air between the platform and the ground (significant reduction in time to land), and also in increased asymmetry in foot latencies on take-off postflight. During the tandem heel-to-toe walking task there was a significant decrease in percentage of correct steps on landing day (short-duration crew) and on first day following landing (long-duration) with only partial recovery the following day. Astronauts for both short and long duration flight times appeared to be unaware of foot position relative to their bodies or the floor. During quite stance most of crewmembers tested exhibited increased stochastic activity (larger short-term COP diffusion coefficients postflight in all planes and increases in mean sway speed).

  9. Limb-bone scaling indicates diverse stance and gait in quadrupedal ornithischian dinosaurs.

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    Susannah C R Maidment

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The most primitive ornithischian dinosaurs were small bipeds, but quadrupedality evolved three times independently in the clade. The transition to quadrupedality from bipedal ancestors is rare in the history of terrestrial vertebrate evolution, and extant analogues do not exist. Constraints imposed on quadrupedal ornithischians by their ancestral bipedal bauplan remain unexplored, and consequently, debate continues about their stance and gait. For example, it has been proposed that some ornithischians could run, while others consider that none were cursorial. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Drawing on biomechanical concepts of limb bone scaling and locomotor theory developed for extant taxa, we use the largest dataset of ornithischian postcranial measurements so far compiled to examine stance and gait in quadrupedal ornithischians. Differences in femoral midshaft eccentricity in hadrosaurs and ceratopsids may indicate that hadrosaurs placed their feet on the midline during locomotion, while ceratopsids placed their feet more laterally, under the hips. More robust humeri in the largest ceratopsids relative to smaller taxa may be due to positive allometry in skull size with body mass in ceratopsids, while slender humeri in the largest stegosaurs may be the result of differences in dermal armor distribution within the clade. Hadrosaurs are found to display the most cursorial morphologies of the quadrupedal ornithischian cades, indicating higher locomotor performance than in ceratopsids and thyreophorans. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Limb bone scaling indicates that a previously unrealised diversity of stances and gaits were employed by quadrupedal ornithischians despite apparent convergence in limb morphology. Grouping quadrupedal ornithischians together as a single functional group hides this disparity. Differences in limb proportions and scaling are likely due to the possession of display structures such as horns, frills and dermal armor

  10. Limb-bone scaling indicates diverse stance and gait in quadrupedal ornithischian dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidment, Susannah C R; Linton, Deborah H; Upchurch, Paul; Barrett, Paul M

    2012-01-01

    The most primitive ornithischian dinosaurs were small bipeds, but quadrupedality evolved three times independently in the clade. The transition to quadrupedality from bipedal ancestors is rare in the history of terrestrial vertebrate evolution, and extant analogues do not exist. Constraints imposed on quadrupedal ornithischians by their ancestral bipedal bauplan remain unexplored, and consequently, debate continues about their stance and gait. For example, it has been proposed that some ornithischians could run, while others consider that none were cursorial. Drawing on biomechanical concepts of limb bone scaling and locomotor theory developed for extant taxa, we use the largest dataset of ornithischian postcranial measurements so far compiled to examine stance and gait in quadrupedal ornithischians. Differences in femoral midshaft eccentricity in hadrosaurs and ceratopsids may indicate that hadrosaurs placed their feet on the midline during locomotion, while ceratopsids placed their feet more laterally, under the hips. More robust humeri in the largest ceratopsids relative to smaller taxa may be due to positive allometry in skull size with body mass in ceratopsids, while slender humeri in the largest stegosaurs may be the result of differences in dermal armor distribution within the clade. Hadrosaurs are found to display the most cursorial morphologies of the quadrupedal ornithischian cades, indicating higher locomotor performance than in ceratopsids and thyreophorans. Limb bone scaling indicates that a previously unrealised diversity of stances and gaits were employed by quadrupedal ornithischians despite apparent convergence in limb morphology. Grouping quadrupedal ornithischians together as a single functional group hides this disparity. Differences in limb proportions and scaling are likely due to the possession of display structures such as horns, frills and dermal armor that may have affected the center of mass of the animal, and differences in locomotor

  11. Numerical time-domain modelling of hoof-ground interaction during the stance phase.

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    Behnke, R

    2017-11-09

    Hoof-ground interaction impacts on the health and performance characteristics of horses. Due to complex interactions between hoof and ground during the stance phase, previous experimentally dominated studies concentrated on subproblems of the phenomena observed. A multidisciplinary methodology with mathematical modelling, material testing and in vivo experimental measurements seems promising. With the help of a mathematical approach, this contribution aims to explain from a biomechanical point of view the phenomena observed during experimental investigations (hoof acceleration, interacting forces) and aims to contribute to an overall experimental-mathematical multidisciplinary approach. In silico modelling of hoof-ground interaction (limb, hoof and horizontally unbounded ground). Hoof-ground interaction is represented by a time-domain finite element model including the limb, the hoof and the unbounded representation of the ground via the scaled boundary finite element method to capture radiation damping during the stance phase. Motoric forces (driving forces) of the horse during locomotion are included. Numerical model results for acceleration-time relations (hoof) at different trotting velocities are compared with previously published acceleration-time relations and show qualitative agreement. From the model approach, power loss due to different ground properties and ground damping is computed in combination with the maximum limb force during the stance phase. Intentionally, a simplified model approach for the material and structural representation of the limb, the hoof and the ground in terms of material features and spatial resolution has been used for this study, which might be the basis for a model refinement in terms of contact properties as well as the integration of bone and joint structures. The comparison to experimentally obtained results demonstrates the applicability of the model, which, in turn, enables an insight into the processes taking place

  12. How Joint Torques Affect Hamstring Injury Risk in Sprinting Swing–Stance Transition

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    SUN, YULIANG; WEI, SHUTAO; ZHONG, YUNJIAN; FU, WEIJIE; LI, LI; LIU, YU

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose The potential mechanisms of hamstring strain injuries in athletes are not well understood. The study, therefore, was aimed at understanding hamstring mechanics by studying loading conditions during maximum-effort overground sprinting. Methods Three-dimensional kinematics and ground reaction force data were collected from eight elite male sprinters sprinting at their maximum effort. Maximal isometric torques of the hip and knee were also collected. Data from the sprinting gait cycle were analyzed via an intersegmental dynamics approach, and the different joint torque components were calculated. Results During the initial stance phase, the ground reaction force passed anteriorly to the knee and hip, producing an extension torque at the knee and a flexion torque at the hip joint. Thus, the active muscle torque functioned to produce flexion torque at the knee and extension torque at the hip. The maximal muscle torque at the knee joint was 1.4 times the maximal isometric knee flexion torque. During the late swing phase, the muscle torque counterbalanced the motion-dependent torque and acted to flex the knee joint and extend the hip joint. The loading conditions on the hamstring muscles were similar to those of the initial stance phase. Conclusions During both the initial stance and late swing phases, the large passive torques at both the knee and hip joints acted to lengthen the hamstring muscles. The active muscle torques generated mainly by the hamstrings functioned to counteract those passive effects. As a result, during sprinting or high-speed locomotion, the hamstring muscles may be more susceptible to high risk of strain injury during these two phases. PMID:24911288

  13. Non-Gaussian center-of-pressure velocity distribution during quiet stance

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    Santos, E. S. D.; Picoli, S.; Deprá, P. P.; Mendes, R. S.

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, we investigate patterns in the postural sway that characterize the static balance in human beings. To measure the postural sway, sixteen healthy young subjects performed quiet stance tasks providing the center-of-pressure (COP) trajectories. From these trajectories, we obtained the COP velocities. We verified that the velocity distributions exhibit non-normal behavior and can be approximated by generalized Gaussians with fat tails. We also discuss possible implications of modeling COP velocity by using generalized Fokker-Planck equations related to Tsallis statistics and Richardson anomalous diffusion.

  14. Prediction of three-dimensional contact stress and ligament tension in the ankle during stance determined from computational modeling.

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    Haraguchi, Naoki; Armiger, Robert S; Myerson, Mark S; Campbell, John T; Chao, Edmund Y S

    2009-02-01

    Our goal was to quantify and visualize the three-dimensional loading relationship between the ligaments and articular surfaces of the ankle to identify and determine the stabilizing roles of these anatomical structures during the stance phase of gait. We applied discrete element analysis to computationally model the three-dimensional contact characteristics and ligament loading of the ankle joint. Physiologic loads approximating those at five positions in the stance phase of a normal walk cycle were applied. We analyzed joint contact pressures and periankle ligament tension concurrently. Most ankle joint loading during the stance phase occurred across the articular surfaces of the joint, and the amount of ligament tension was small. The tibiotalar articulation showed full congruency throughout most of the stance phase, with peak pressure developing anteriorly toward the toe-off frame. Of the periankle ligaments, the deep deltoid ligament transferred the most force during the stance phase (57.2%); the superficial deltoid ligament transferred the second-most force (26.1%). The anterior talofibular ligament transferred force between the talus and fibula continuously, whereas the calcaneofibular ligament did not carry force during gait. The distal tibiofibular ligaments and the interosseous membrane were loaded throughout the stance phase. Force transmission through the ankle joint during the stance phase is predominantly through the articular surfaces, and the periankle ligaments do not play a major stabilizing role in constraining ankle motion. The medial ligaments have a more important role than do the lateral ligaments in stabilizing the ankle joint. In addition to ligament insufficiency, other factors, such as varus tilt of the tibial plafond, may be important in the development of recurrent instability. Continuous loading of syndesmosis ligaments provides a theoretical basis for evidence of syndesmosis screw breakage or loosening. The analysis method has

  15. The relation between patient characteristics and their carers' use of a directive versus collaborative support stance.

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    Geller, Josie; Iyar, Megumi; Srikameswaran, Suja; Zelichowska, Joanna; Zhou, Yuan; Dunn, Erin C

    2018-01-01

    Collaborative support provided by carers (family and friends) of individuals with eating disorders has been shown to be integral to patient motivation and clinical outcome. Little is known about factors that contribute to carers' use of collaborative, as opposed to directive, support stance. This exploratory research investigated associations between patient characteristics and carers' support beliefs and behaviors. Eating disorder patients (n = 72) completed measures of readiness for change, eating disorder, and psychiatric symptom severity, and interpersonal functioning. Their carers (n = 72) completed measures of collaborative and directive support. Patient demographic variables, readiness for change, and psychiatric symptom severity were not associated with carer beliefs or behaviors. However, some patient interpersonal functioning scores were; higher Domineering/Controlling scores were associated with carers viewing directive support as more helpful, and with their use of more directive support behaviors. Higher Vindictive/Self-Centered and Intrusive/Needy scores in patients were also associated with carers viewing directive support as more helpful. This exploratory study suggests that carers may be more prone to utilizing a directive, rather than a collaborative, support stance with patients experiencing higher levels of threat, anger, and hostility, and lower levels of safety, closeness, and trust. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A simple new device to examine human stance: the totter-slab.

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    Roth, Robin; Wank, Veit; Müller, Otto; Hochwald, Harald; Günther, Michael

    2010-02-01

    This article describes a new measuring device to investigate balancing strategies of human stance: the totter-slab, i.e., a standing plate suspended with steel cables to hooks on a steel frame. First, we analysed the physical properties of the device by recording free oscillations under different conditions [varying amplitude, mass and centre of mass (COM) height]. This allowed us to determine the eigenfrequency f and the damping coefficient Dslab. We found that the totter-slab is a useful, well-defined, reliable and developable measuring device for different non-rigid-ground stance conditions. In a second part of the investigation, we compared the frequency spectra of six subjects balancing on the totter-slab with their spectra while standing quietly on a force plate fixed to the ground. The totter-slab spectra showed two distinct, dominant peak regions at approximately 0.3 and 1.1 Hz. This finding enforces the double inverted pendulum to be an adequate model particularly for balancing on the totter-slab. Compared with the firm ground condition, these two peak regions were more pronounced when balancing on the totter-slab. However, there is a variety of frequencies in the region 0.2...1.5 Hz specific for an individual subject in both balancing conditions.

  17. TENS to the Lateral Aspect of the Knees During Stance Attenuates Postural Sway in Young Adults

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    Yocheved Laufer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Somatosensory input is known to be essential for postural control. The present study examined the effects on postural sway of sensory input delivered via transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS applied to the knees during stance. Electrodes from a dual-channel portable TENS unit were adhered to the skin overlying the lateral and medial aspect of both knees of 20 young healthy volunteers (mean age 24.0 years, standard deviation 4.0. Postural sway parameters were obtained during static bipedal stance with an AMTI force platform. Four stimulation conditions were tested with eyes open and with eyes closed: no TENS; TENS applied bilaterally; and TENS applied to either the right or the left knee. Participants underwent two eight-trial blocks, with each trial lasting 30 seconds. The order of conditions was randomized for each participant. Stimulation consisted of a biphasic symmetrical stimulus delivered at the sensory detection level, with a pulse duration of 200μsec and a pulse frequency of 100Hz. The application of TENS induced significant reductions in mean sway velocity and in the medio-lateral dispersion of the center of pressure, with no corresponding effect on the anterior-posterior dispersion. These findings suggest that electrical stimulation delivered at the sensory detection level to the lateral aspects of the knees may be effective in improving balance control, and that this effect may be directionally specific.

  18. Muscle activity of leg muscles during unipedal stance on therapy devices with different stability properties.

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    Wolburg, Thomas; Rapp, Walter; Rieger, Jochen; Horstmann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    To test the hypotheses that less stable therapy devices require greater muscle activity and that lower leg muscles will have greater increases in muscle activity with less stable therapy devices than upper leg muscles. Cross-sectional laboratory study. Laboratory setting. Twenty-five healthy subjects. Electromyographic activity of four lower (gastrocnemius medialis, soleus, tibialis anterior, peroneus longus) and four upper leg muscles (vastus medialis and lateralis, biceps femoris, semitendinosus) during unipedal quiet barefoot stance on the dominant leg on a flat rigid surface and on five therapy devices with varying stability properties. Muscle activity during unipedal stance differed significantly between therapy devices (P leg) and therapy device (P = 0.985). Magnitudes of additional relative muscle activity for the respective therapy devices differed substantially among lower extremity muscles. The therapy devices offer a progressive increase in training intensity, and thus may be useful for incremental training programs in physiotherapeutic practice and sports training programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Estimation of quasi-stiffness of the human knee in the stance phase of walking.

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    Kamran Shamaei

    Full Text Available Biomechanical data characterizing the quasi-stiffness of lower-limb joints during human locomotion is limited. Understanding joint stiffness is critical for evaluating gait function and designing devices such as prostheses and orthoses intended to emulate biological properties of human legs. The knee joint moment-angle relationship is approximately linear in the flexion and extension stages of stance, exhibiting nearly constant stiffnesses, known as the quasi-stiffnesses of each stage. Using a generalized inverse dynamics analysis approach, we identify the key independent variables needed to predict knee quasi-stiffness during walking, including gait speed, knee excursion, and subject height and weight. Then, based on the identified key variables, we used experimental walking data for 136 conditions (speeds of 0.75-2.63 m/s across 14 subjects to obtain best fit linear regressions for a set of general models, which were further simplified for the optimal gait speed. We found R(2 > 86% for the most general models of knee quasi-stiffnesses for the flexion and extension stages of stance. With only subject height and weight, we could predict knee quasi-stiffness for preferred walking speed with average error of 9% with only one outlier. These results provide a useful framework and foundation for selecting subject-specific stiffness for prosthetic and exoskeletal devices designed to emulate biological knee function during walking.

  20. Use of physical therapy in a dog with bilateral severe plantigrade stance.

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    Ree, Jennifer; Hayashi, Kei; Woelz, Jacqueline; Kim, Sun Young

    2015-01-01

    A 3.5 yr old spayed female Staffordshire terrier weighing 25.5 kg was presented with a 7 wk history of bilateral plantigrade stance in the pelvic limbs directly following an ovariohysterectomy procedure. Upon presentation, the dog had bilateral atrophy of the distal pelvic limb muscles, enlarged popliteal lymph nodes, and ulcerative wounds on the dorsa of her rear paws. Orthopedic examination revealed intact calcaneal tendons bilaterally and neurologic examination localized the lesion to the distal sciatic nerve. A diagnosis of compressive and stretch neuropathy was made affecting the distal sciatic nerve branches. Physical therapy modalities included neuromuscular electrical stimulation, ultrasound, and low-level laser therapy. Other therapeutic modalities included the use of orthotics and progressive wound care. The dog had increased muscle mass, return of segmental reflexes, return of nociception, and the ability to walk on pelvic limbs with higher carriage of the hock 15 mo following presentation. The use of custom orthotics greatly increased the quality of life and other physical therapy modalities may have improved the prognosis in this dog with severe bilateral plantigrade stance due to neuropathy.

  1. Irony as a figure of speech and moral stance (with regard to Wittlin and Kierkegaard

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    Katarzyna Szewczyk-Haake

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In his work as a writer, Józef Wittlin searched for literature able to grant the   reader moral support, while at the same time being artistically successful. In his novel Salt of the Earth, the way to com-bine these two, to a certain extent contradictionary aims, is found in the use of irony. An analysis of the classical types of irony appearing in the novel (naive irony, irony of the sender, verbal irony leads to the conclusion that each of those was remarkably modified by the author. As a result, the “ironical anthropology” created by Wittlin in his novel lacks any elements of simple moralizing or giving ready-made moral solutions, but brings a striking image of a human commu-nity, unified not by a common status, but by a common fate. In the novel, irony turns out to be not only a textual figure, but first and foremost a moral stance, approximate to that of Socrates as described by Kierkegaard. Thanks to this stance, Wittlin enthuses his readers with the longing for the ideal, shaping their moral sensibility, at the same time granting them the sovereignty to which the reader of a literary work should be entitled.

  2. Generation of the Human Biped Stance by a Neural Controller Able to Compensate Neurological Time Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ping; Chiba, Ryosuke; Takakusaki, Kaoru; Ota, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The development of a physiologically plausible computational model of a neural controller that can realize a human-like biped stance is important for a large number of potential applications, such as assisting device development and designing robotic control systems. In this paper, we develop a computational model of a neural controller that can maintain a musculoskeletal model in a standing position, while incorporating a 120-ms neurological time delay. Unlike previous studies that have used an inverted pendulum model, a musculoskeletal model with seven joints and 70 muscular-tendon actuators is adopted to represent the human anatomy. Our proposed neural controller is composed of both feed-forward and feedback controls. The feed-forward control corresponds to the constant activation input necessary for the musculoskeletal model to maintain a standing posture. This compensates for gravity and regulates stiffness. The developed neural controller model can replicate two salient features of the human biped stance: (1) physiologically plausible muscle activations for quiet standing; and (2) selection of a low active stiffness for low energy consumption. PMID:27655271

  3. "It's a wild thing, waiting to get me": stance analysis of African Americans with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Boyd H; Pope, Charlene; Mason, Peyton R; Magwood, Gayenell; Jenkins, Carolyn M

    2011-01-01

    This mixed methods study uses a unique approach from social science and linguistics methodologies, a combination of positioning theory and stance analysis, to examine how 20 African Americans with type 2 diabetes make sense of the practices that led to recurrent emergency department visits to identify needs for more effective intervention. In a purposive sample of postemergency department visit interviews with a same-race interviewer, people responded to open-ended questions reflecting on the decision to seek emergency department care. As applied to diabetes education, positioning theory explains that people use their language to position themselves toward their disease, their medications, and the changes in their lives. Transcriptions were coded using discourse analysis to categorize themes. As a form of triangulation, stance analysis measured language patterns using factor analysis to see when and how speakers revealed affect, attitude, and agentive choices for action. Final analysis revealed that one third of the sample exhibited high scores for positive agency or capacity for decision-making and self-management, while the rest expressed less control and more negative emotions and fears that may preclude self-management. This approach suggests a means to tailor diabetes education considering alternative approaches focused on communication for those facing barriers.

  4. Inter-joint coordination strategies during unilateral stance following first-time, acute lateral ankle sprain: A brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Cailbhe; Bleakley, Chris; Hertel, Jay; Caulfield, Brian; Ryan, John; Sweeney, Kevin; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2015-07-01

    This investigation combined measures of inter-joint coordination and stabilometry to evaluate eyes-open (condition 1) and eyes-closed (condition 2) static unilateral stance performance in a group of participants with an acute, first-time lateral ankle sprain injury in comparison to a control group. Sixty-six participants with an acute first-time lateral ankle sprain and 19 non-injured controls completed three 20-second unilateral stance task trials in conditions 1 and 2. An adjusted coefficient of multiple determination statistic was used to compare stance limb 3-D kinematic data for similarity in the aim of establishing patterns of inter-joint coordination for these groups. Between-group analyses revealed significant differences in stance limb inter-joint coordination strategies for conditions 1 and 2. Injured participants displayed increases in ankle-hip linked coordination compared to controls in condition 1 (sagittal/frontal plane: 0.12 [0.09] vs 0.06 [0.04]; η(2)=.16) and condition 2 (sagittal/frontal plane: 0.18 [0.13] vs 0.08 [0.06]; η(2)=0.37). Participants with acute first-time lateral ankle sprain exhibit a hip-dominant coordination strategy for static unilateral stance compared to non-injured controls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Discourse Motivations of Mental Construal and the Expression of Stance in Speech: A Case Study of English

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    Екатерина Юрьевна Хрисонопуло

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an account of the phenomenon of mental construal manifested in English expressions of stance through the distinction of clauses that are headed by subjects associated with two conceptual archetypes: participant (P invoked by the first-person pronoun ( I am certain that and abstract setting (S conveyed by anticipatory it ( It is certain that . With recourse to the main theoretical points on the anchoring of linguistic meaning in the acts of speech activity (Leontiev A.A., mental construal (Langacker R., processes of discourse-driven conceptualization and categorization (Kubryakova E.S. and with reference to discourse oriented studies of stance (Biber D., Finegan E., Kärkkäinen E., the conducted analysis focuses on a corpus of about 350 examples that represent narrative and dialogic discourse in English-language fiction. As evidenced by linguistic data, the choice of stance expressions with P- and S-subjects is motivated, respectively, by the distinctions that arise in discourse between actual and mentally represented types of reality, the contrast between reference-making and viewing as types of cognitive events and the distinction between event-schemas and mental experiences. These discursively relevant distinctions are further shown to be related to narrative and dialogic strategies that are used in literary texts for the expression of stance with the alternative stance-clauses.

  6. Safety and walking ability of KAFO users with the C-Brace®Orthotronic Mobility System, a new microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pröbsting, Eva; Kannenberg, Andreas; Zacharias, Britta

    2017-02-01

    There are clear indications for benefits of stance control orthoses compared to locked knee ankle foot orthoses. However, stance control orthoses still have limited function compared with a sound human leg. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential benefits of a microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis compared to stance control orthoses and locked knee ankle foot orthoses in activities of daily living. Survey of lower limb orthosis users before and after fitting of a microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis. Thirteen patients with various lower limb pareses completed a baseline survey for their current orthotic device (locked knee ankle foot orthosis or stance control orthosis) and a follow-up for the microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis with the Orthosis Evaluation Questionnaire, a new self-reported outcome measure devised by modifying the Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire for use in lower limb orthotics and the Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire. The Orthosis Evaluation Questionnaire results demonstrated significant improvements by microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis use in the total score and the domains of ambulation ( p = .001), paretic limb health ( p = .04), sounds ( p = .02), and well-being ( p = .01). Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire results showed significant improvements with the microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis with regard to perceived safety and difficulty of activities of daily living. The microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis may facilitate an easier, more physiological, and safer execution of many activities of daily living compared to traditional leg orthosis technologies. Clinical relevance This study compared patient-reported outcomes of a microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis (C-Brace) to those with traditional knee ankle foot orthosis and stance control orthosis devices. The C-Brace offers new functions including controlled

  7. Individuals with a vestibular-related disorder use a somatosensory-dominant strategy for postural orientation after inclined stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, R; Berl, B; Cook, B; Turner, P; Walker, K

    2017-06-01

    The visual, somatosensory, and vestibular systems are critical for establishing a sensorimotor set for postural control and orientation. The goal of this study was to assess how individuals with a vestibular-related disorder keep their balance following prolonged stance on an inclined surface. We hypothesize that subjects will show greater reliance on the somatosensory system than age-matched controls as inferred by the presence of a forward postural lean aftereffect following the inclined stance (i.e., a positive response). The results revealed an underlying somatosensory-dominant strategy for postural control in the vestibular group: 100% of the subjects tested positive compared to 58% in the control group (P=.006). Individuals with a vestibular-related disorder use a somatosensory-dominant strategy for postural orientation following prolonged inclined stance. The implications for the management of this population are discussed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Assessment of AK (Above Knee) Prosthesis with Different Ankle Assembly Using GRF Pattern in Stance Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Min; Kim, Sung-Jae; Bae, Ha-Suk

    In this study, ground reaction force (GRF), absolute symmetry index (ASI) and coefficient of variation (CV) of fixed, single-axis and multi-axis prosthetic ankle assemblies were investigated by biomechanical evaluation of above knee amputees. In the experiments, 37 normal male volunteers, two male and two female Above Knee (AK) amputees GRF data were tested with fixed, single-axis and multi-axis prosthetic ankle assembly. A gait analysis was carried out to derive the ratio of GRF to weight as the percentage of total stance phase for ten points. The results showed that fixed-axis ankle assembly was superior to other two ankle assemblies for forwarding and braking forces. Multi-axis ankle was relatively superior to other two ankle assemblies for gait balancing and movement of the mass center. Single-axis ankle was relatively superior to the other two ankle assemblies for CV and ASI of GRF.

  9. Frontal Plane Modelling of Human Dynamics during Standing in Narrow-Stance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonobe, M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Hino, J.

    2016-09-01

    Standing ride type vehicles like electric skateboards have been developed in recent years. Although these vehicles have advantages as being compact and low cost due to their simple structure, it is necessary to improve the riding quality. Therefore, the system aiding riders to keep their balance on a skateboard by feedback control or feedforward control has been required. To achieve it, a human balance model should be built as simple as possible. In this study, we focus on the human balance modelling during standing when the support surface moves largely. We restricted the model on frontal plane and narrow stance because the restrictions allow us to assume single-degree-of-freedom model. The balance control system is generally assumed as a delayed feedback control system. The model was identified through impulse response test and frequency response test. As a result, we found the phase between acceleration of the skateboard and posture angle become opposite phase in low frequency range.

  10. Hysteresis in Center of Mass Velocity Control during the Stance Phase of Treadmill Walking

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    Raymond K. Chong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Achieving a soft landing during walking can be quantified by analyzing changes in the vertical velocity of the body center of mass (CoM just prior to the landing of the swing limb. Previous research suggests that walking speed and step length may predictably influence the extent of this CoM control. Here we ask how stable this control is. We altered treadmill walking speed by systematically increasing or decreasing it at fixed intervals. We then reversed direction. We hypothesized that the control of the CoM vertical velocity during the late stance of the walking gait may serve as an order parameter which has an attribute of hysteresis. The presence of hysteresis implies that the CoM control is not based on simply knowing the current input conditions to predict the output response. Instead, there is also the influence of previous speed conditions on the ongoing responses. We found that the magnitudes of CoM control were different depending on whether the treadmill speed (as the control parameter was ramped up or down. Changes in step length also influenced CoM control. A stronger effect was observed when the treadmill speed was speeded up compared to down. However, the effect of speed direction remained significant after controlling for step length. The hysteresis effect of CoM control as a function of speed history demonstrated in the current study suggests that the regulation of CoM vertical velocity during late stance is influenced by previous external conditions and constraints which combine to influence the desired behavioral outcome.

  11. Adaptive behaviour of the spinal cord in the transition from quiet stance to walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrao Mariano

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modulation of nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR excitability was evaluated during gait initiation in 10 healthy subjects to investigate how load- and movement-related joint inputs activate lower spinal centres in the transition from quiet stance to walking. A motion analysis system integrated with a surface EMG device was used to acquire kinematic, kinetic and EMG variables. Starting from a quiet stance, subjects were asked to walk forward, at their natural speed. The sural nerve was stimulated and EMG responses were recorded from major hip, knee and ankle muscles. Gait initiation was divided into four subphases based on centre of pressure and centre of mass behaviours, while joint displacements were used to categorise joint motion as flexion or extension. The reflex parameters were measured and compared between subphases and in relation to the joint kinematics. Results The NWR was found to be subphase-dependent. NWR excitability was increased in the hip and knee flexor muscles of the starting leg, just prior to the occurrence of any movement, and in the knee flexor muscles of the same leg as soon as it was unloaded. The NWR was hip joint kinematics-dependent in a crossed manner. The excitability of the reflex was enhanced in the extensor muscles of the standing leg during the hip flexion of the starting leg, and in the hip flexors of the standing leg during the hip extension of the starting leg. No notable reflex modulation was observed in the ankle muscles. Conclusions Our findings show that the NWR is modulated during the gait initiation phase. Leg unloading and hip joint motion are the main sources of the observed modulation and work in concert to prepare and assist the starting leg in the first step while supporting the contralateral leg, thereby possibly predisposing the lower limbs to the cyclical pattern of walking.

  12. Ankle muscle activity modulation during single-leg stance differs between children, young adults and seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Eduard; Faude, Oliver; Roth, Ralf; Zahner, Lukas; Donath, Lars

    2018-02-01

    Incomplete maturation and aging-induced declines of the neuromuscular system affect postural control both in children and older adults and lead to high fall rates. Age-specific comparisons of the modulation of ankle muscle activation and behavioral center of pressure (COP) indices during upright stance have been rarely conducted. The objective of the present study was to quantify aging effects on a neuromuscular level. Thus, surface electromyography (SEMG) modulation and co-activity of ankle muscles during single-leg standing was compared in healthy children, young adults and seniors. Postural steadiness (velocity and mean sway frequency of COP), relative muscle activation (SEMG modulation) and co-activation of two ankle muscles (tibialis anterior, TA; soleus, SO) were examined during single-leg stance in 19 children [age, 9.7 (SD 0.5) years], 30 adults [23.3 (1.5) years] and 29 seniors [62.7 (6.1) years]. Velocity of COP in medio-lateral and anterior-posterior directions, mean sway frequency in anterior-posterior direction, relative muscle activation (TA and SO) and co-activation revealed large age effects (P  0.14). Post-hoc comparisons indicated higher COP velocities, anterior-posterior frequencies, relative SO activation and co-activation in children and seniors when compared with adults. Relative TA activation was higher in children and adults compared with seniors (P modulation. However, TA modulation is higher in children and adults, whereas seniors' TA modulation capacity is diminished. An aging-induced decline of TA motor units might account for deteriorations of TA modulation in seniors.

  13. Center of mass control and multi-segment coordination in children during quiet stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianhua; McKay, Sandra; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa

    2009-07-01

    This study aimed to apply an uncontrolled manifold (UCM) approach to investigate how children utilize the variability of multiple body segment movement to facilitate the center of mass (COM) control during quiet stance. Three groups of participants were included in this study: younger children (YC, mean age 6.3 years), older children (OC, mean age 10.3 years), and young adults (YA, mean age 20.5 years). Participants stood on a force platform with their hands on the iliac crests for 40 s in each trial. Two visual conditions were examined including eyes-open and eyes-closed and three trials were collected for each condition. Results showed that all three groups partitioned more variability of multi-segment movement into the UCM subspace (maintaining the mean COM position) than into the ORT subspace (a subspace orthogonal to the UCM subspace, causing the deviation of the COM from its mean position) in both eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. Furthermore, both the YC and OC groups partitioned a significantly higher percentage of variability into the UCM subspace than the YA group regardless of visual condition. In addition, results of conventional COM variables indicated that only the YC group produced significantly faster sway velocity and greater standard deviation than the YA group. All the results together suggest that children at 6-10 years of age use a similar variability-partitioning strategy (a greater V(UCM) and a smaller V(ORT)) like young adults in quiet stance to facilitate the COM control, but it takes more than 10 years for children to refine this strategy and achieve an adult-like variability-partitioning capability (i.e., UCM ratio). It also suggests that postural development may include two phases in which children learn to regulate the position and movement of multiple body segments and the COM first and gain an adult-like variability-partitioning capability later.

  14. The Transformative Power of Taking an Inquiry Stance on Practice: Practitioner Research as Narrative and Counter-Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravitch, Sharon M.

    2014-01-01

    Within the ever-developing, intersecting, and overlapping contexts of globalization, top-down policy, mandates, and standardization of public and higher education, many conceptualize and position practitioner research as a powerful stance and a tool of social, communal, and educational transformation, a set of methodological processes that…

  15. The Correlation between Dynamic Balance Measures and Stance Sub-phase COP Displacement Time in Older Adults during Obstacle Crossing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seol; Ko, Yu-Min; Park, Ji-Won

    2013-09-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the relationship between the center of pressure (COP) displacement time during the stance subphases and dynamic balance ability when elderly cross obstacles 0, 10, and 40 cm in height. [Subjects] Fifteen older adults were enrolled in this study (≥65 years of age). [Methods] An F-Scan System was used to measure the COP displacement time when subjects crossed obstacles 0, 10, and 40 cm in height, and the Dynamic Gait Index, Berg Balance Scale, and Four Square Step Test were used to measure dynamic balance ability. [Results] The Dynamic Gait Index, Berg Balance Scale, and Four Square Step Test were correlated with each other. Dynamic balance tests were correlated with the COP displacement time during the stance phase. At obstacle heights of 10 and 40 cm during loading response and at all heights during pre-swing, there were correlations with dynamic balance ability. However, dynamic balance ability did not affect the COP displacement time during mid-stance and terminal stance. [Conclusion] People with a lower dynamic balance ability show a larger COP displacement time during loading response and pre-swing. Therefore, dynamic balance ability can be predicted by measuring the COP displacement time.

  16. Reading Sacred Texts in the Classroom: The Alignment between Students and Their Teacher's Interpretive Stances When Reading the Hebrew Bible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassenfeld, Ziva R.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the voices of students interpreting Hebrew Bible texts in one fourth-grade classroom. Through think-alouds on the Biblical text with each student, exit interviews, teacher interviews, and classroom observations, this study found that those students whose interpretive stances were more aligned with the teacher's were given…

  17. Why an Investigative Stance Matters in Intercultural Language Teaching and Learning: An Orientation to Classroom-Based Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    This paper develops the idea that classroom investigation can be an integral part of teaching and learning, an ongoing "stance" that enables us to gather valuable information about teaching and learning that may otherwise go unnoticed. This information can in turn inform how teachers understand and develop intercultural language teaching and…

  18. Long-Term Adaptations to Unexpected Surface Perturbations: Postural Control During Stance and Gait in Train Conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Christian; Hoppe, Matthias Wilhelm; Freiwald, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The authors aimed to evaluate the differences in postural control during stance and gait between train conductors and controls. Twenty-one train conductors and 21 office workers performed 6 unilateral and bilateral balance tests on stable and unstable surfaces as well as a gait analysis. In the balance tests, the mean velocity of the center of pressure and unstable surface was measured. In the bilateral balance tests the selected stance width was measured. During gait the length, width, frequency, and velocity of the steps were calculated from the ground reaction forces. Train conductors showed a significantly greater step width during gait (15.4 ± 4.7 vs. 13.0 ± 3.4 cm; p = .035) and stance width during the bilateral stance on the unstable surface (21.0 ± 5.1 vs. 17.8 ± 3.7 cm; p = .026) than the office workers, while no differences were revealed in balance variables. The revealed differences between train conductors and office workers may represent task-specific feedforward control strategies, which increase the base of support and may be helpful to resist unexpected perturbations in trains.

  19. The influence of visual information on multi-muscle control during quiet stance: a spectral analysis approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danna-Dos-Santos, A.; Degani, A.M.; Boonstra, T.W.; Mochizuki, L.; Harney, A.M.; Schmeckpeper, M.M; Tabor, L.C.; Leonard, C.T.

    2015-01-01

    Standing upright requires the coordination of neural drives to a large set of muscles involved in controlling human bipedal stance (i.e., postural muscles). The coordination may deteriorate in situations where standing is performed under more challenging circumstances, such as standing on a smaller

  20. Asymmetrical stabilization and mobilization exploited during static single leg stance and goal directed kicking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Adam C; Wang, Zheng

    2017-08-01

    The motor control properties of the right and left legs are dependent on the stabilization and mobilization features of the motor tasks. The current investigation examined the right and left leg control differences - interlateral asymmetries - during static single leg stance and dynamic goal directed kicking with an emphasis of the asymmetrical stabilization and mobilization components of movements. Ten young, healthy, right-leg preferred individuals with minimal kicking experience completed both tests on each limb. During static single leg stance, participants were requested to stand as still as possible with one leg in contact with a force platform. Interlateral asymmetries of the standing leg were quantified using postural variability measures of the center of pressure (COP) standard deviation in the anterior-posterior (SD-COP AP ) and medial-lateral (SD-COP ML ) directions, resultant COP length and velocity, and 95% COP elliptical area. During dynamic goal directed kicking, participants stood on two adjacent force platforms in a side-by-side foot position and kicked a soccer ball toward three different directions as soon as they received an auditory cue of kicking. Three targets were located -30°, 0° or 30° in front and 3.05 m away from the participants' midline. Participants kicked the ball toward the targets with each of their feet. The vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) of the kicking leg was used to define the preparation (from above two standard deviations of vGRF baseline to toe-off) and swing (from toe-off to toe-return) phases of dynamic kicking. To determine the presence of interlateral asymmetries during dynamic kicking, the magnitude and timing of the anticipatory postural adjustments (APA) during the preparation phase of kicking were quantified using the lateral net COP (COPnet-ML) time series derived from both force platforms. Postural variability measures of the support leg and the kinematic joint range of motion (JROM) trajectories of the

  1. Expressing epistemic stance in University lectures and TED talks: a contrastive corpu-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuditta Caliendo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – This study explores the web-mediated genre of TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design talks, speech events whereby experts in their field disseminate knowledge from different domains (e.g. science, technology, design, global issues addressing an audience of both co-present participants and web-users all over the world. The aim of this study is to investigate the way academics convey epistemic stance (Conrad, Biber 2000 and build up their image as experts on the TED stage. To this purpose, a contrastive analysis was carried out comparing two corpora of spoken discourse, i.e. a corpus of TED talks and a corpus of MICASE university lectures from different disciplines. Although in both genres the speaker is an academic, both the communicative purpose and audience expectations differ substantially in the two contexts under scrutiny. This comparison highlights some distinguishing traits of TED talks and provides a better insight into this genre. Adopting a corpus-based approach, attention is first paid to the most recurrent epistemic lexical verbs (ELVs and to the use of first and second person pronouns in the two corpora. The qualitative analysis then focuses on similarities and differences in the discourse functions of the four most frequent ELVs (see, show, know, think and of their clusters when they combine with first and second person pronouns in the two corpora. Previous studies in the field of English for Academic Purposes (Rounds 1987; Fortanet 2004; Walsh 2004; Artiga León 2006; Bamford 2009 are referred to as a starting point to investigate a novel, unexplored pragmatic space (i.e. that of TED wherein academics accomplish purposes other than merely disseminating knowledge and training students, such as promoting their research and building up their image as experts. Keywords: Languages for Special Purposes, popularization, web-mediated genres, evidentiality, epistemic stance  Abstract – I generi mediati dalla rete svolgono un

  2. Leg movement tracking in automatic video-based one-leg stance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, Jacek; Stępień, Paula; Kapko, Wojciech; Niedziela, Aleksandra; Derejczyk, Jarosław

    2018-04-01

    Falls are a major risk in elder population. Early diagnosis is therefore an important step towards increasing the safety of elders. One of the common diagnostic tests is the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), consisting of 14 exercises arranged from the easiest (sitting-to-standing) to the most demanding (one-leg stance). In this study a novel approach to the automatic assessment of the time in which the patient can remain in the one-leg stance position without loosing balance is introduced. The data is collected using a regular video camera. No markers, special garments, or system calibration are required. Two groups are examined. The first group consists of 16 students: healthy, young adults (12 female, 4 male, avg. 20yrs±1). The second group consists of 50 elders (39 female, 11 male, avg. 78.8yrs±5.9). Data (short, one minute recordings) are collected in a controlled environment using a digital video recorder (50fps, 1920×1080) fixed to a tripod. Data are processed off-line. First, the region of interest is determined. Next, the Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi tracking is performed. Best tracks are selected based on the registered vertical movement and two tracks are obtained corresponding to the left and right leg movements. Tracks are later subjected to the sparse signal baseline estimation, denoising and thresholding to detect the raised leg. Results are compared frame-wise to the ground truth reference obtained in the manual processing procedure. Both legs are evaluated in the elder group (in all cases several attempts featuring both legs were registered), resulting in 89.18%±11.27% DICE, 93.07%±5.43% sensitivity and 96.94%±6.11% specificity values for both legs. The signal of a single leg is evaluated in the student group (in all cases only one attempt was needed to perform the full examination) resulting in 98.96%±1.2% DICE, 98.78%±1.65% sensitivity and 98.73%±2.69% specificity values. This is the first step towards a video-based system enabling the automatic

  3. Pedunculopontine nucleus area oscillations during stance, stepping and freezing in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Fraix

    Full Text Available The pedunculopontine area (PPNa including the pedunculopontine and cuneiform nuclei, belongs to the mesencephalic locomotor region. Little is known about the oscillatory mechanisms underlying the function of this region in postural and gait control. We examined the modulations of the oscillatory activity of the PPNa and cortex during stepping, a surrogate of gait, and stance in seven Parkinson's disease patients who received bilateral PPNa implantation for disabling freezing of gait (FOG. In the days following the surgery, we recorded behavioural data together with the local field potentials of the PPNa during sitting, standing and stepping-in-place, under two dopaminergic medication conditions (OFF and ON levodopa. Our results showed that OFF levodopa, all subjects had FOG during step-in-place trials, while ON levodopa, stepping was effective (mean duration of FOG decreasing from 61.7±36.1% to 7.3±10.1% of trial duration. ON levodopa, there was an increase in PPNa alpha (5-12 Hz oscillatory activity and a decrease in beta (13-35 Hz and gamma (65-90 Hz bands activity. PPNa activity was not modulated during quiet standing and sitting. Our results confirm the role of the PPNa in the regulation of gait and suggest that, in Parkinson disease, gait difficulties could be related to an imbalance between low and higher frequencies.

  4. Mechanisms underlying center of pressure displacements in obese subjects during quiet stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priano Lorenzo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective the aim of this study was to assess whether reduced balance capacity in obese subjects is secondary to altered sensory information. Design cross sectional study. Subjects 44 obese (BMI = 40.6 ± 4.6 kg/m2 , age = 34.2 ± 10.8 years, body weight: 114,0 ± 16,0 Kg, body height 167,5 ± 9,8 cm and 20 healthy controls (10 females, 10 males, BMI: 21.6 ± 2.2 kg/m2, age: 30.5 ± 5.5 years, body weight: 62,9 ± 9,3 Kg, body height 170,1 ± 5,8 cm were enrolled. Measurements center of pressure (CoP displacements were evaluated during quiet stance on a force platform with eyes open (EO and closed (EC. The Romberg quotient (EC/EO was computed and compared between groups. Results we found statistically significant differences between obese and controls in CoP displacements (p 0.08. Conclusion the increased CoP displacements in obese subjects do not need an hypothesis about altered sensory information. The integration of different sensory inputs appears similar in controls and obese. In the latter, the increased mass, ankle torque and muscle activity may probably account for the higher CoP displacements.

  5. Influence of affective auditory stimuli on balance control during static stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingyu; Qu, Xingda

    2017-03-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the effects of affective auditory stimuli on balance control during static stance. Twelve female and 12 male participants were recruited. Each participant completed four upright standing trials including three auditory stimuli trials and one baseline trial (ie no auditory stimuli). The three auditory stimuli trials corresponded to the pleasant, neutral and unpleasant sound conditions. Center of pressure (COP) measures were used to quantify balance control performance. It was found that unpleasant auditory stimuli were associated with larger COP amplitude in the AP direction compared to the rest testing conditions. There were no significant interaction effects between 'auditory stimuli' and gender. These findings suggested that some specificities presented by auditory stimuli are important for balance control, and the effects of auditory stimuli on balance control were dependent on their affective components. Practitioner Summary: Findings from this study can aid in better understanding of the relationship between auditory stimuli and balance control. In particular, unpleasant auditory stimuli were found to result in poorer balance control and higher fall risks. Therefore, to prevent fall accidents, interventions should be developed to reduce exposures to unpleasant sound.

  6. The Effect of First-Step Techniques from the Staggered Stance in American Football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Nikolas Sten; Andersen, Thomas Bull

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate 3 different starting techniques from the staggered stance with regards to sprint time, reaction time, linear impulse and power. 11 male amateur American football players volunteered to participate in a testing session consisting of twelve 5 m sprints, 4...... in each technique (normal (NORM), backwards false step (BFS) and forwards false step (FFS)) in random order. Sprint starts were performed on force plates to investigate ground reaction forces, reaction time and total sprint time. Analysis showed significant differences in sprint times, with NORM (1.......77±0.10 s) being faster than FFS (1.81±0.12 s) and BFS (2.01±0.13 s), and FFS being faster than BFS, although no differences were found in reaction time. In terms of mean force and power, NORM (331.1±39.2N, 542.2±72.3W) and FFS (320.8±43.2N, 550.9±81.4W) were significantly larger than BFS (256.9±36.2N, 443...

  7. Inter-joint coordination strategies during unilateral stance 6-months following first-time lateral ankle sprain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Cailbhe; Bleakley, Chris; Hertel, Jay; Caulfield, Brian; Ryan, John; Sweeney, Kevin; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2015-02-01

    Longitudinal analyses of participants with a history of lateral ankle sprain are lacking. This investigation combined measures of inter-joint coordination and stabilometry to evaluate eyes-open (condition 1) and eyes-closed (condition 2) static unilateral stance performance in a group of participants, 6-months after they sustained an acute, first-time lateral ankle sprain in comparison to a control group. Sixty-nine participants with a 6-month history of first-time lateral ankle sprain and 20 non-injured controls completed three 20-second unilateral stance task trials in conditions 1 and 2. An adjusted coefficient of multiple determination statistic was used to compare stance limb 3-dimensional kinematic data for similarity in the aim of establishing patterns of lower-limb inter-joint coordination. The fractal dimension of the stance limb centre of pressure path was also calculated. Between-group analyses revealed significant differences in stance limb inter-joint coordination strategies for conditions 1 and 2, and in the fractal dimension of the centre-of-pressure path for condition 2 only. Injured participants displayed increases in ankle-hip linked coordination compared to controls in condition 1 (sagittal/frontal plane: 0.15 [0.14] vs 0.06 [0.04]; η(2)=.19; sagittal/transverse plane: 0.14 [0.11] vs 0.09 [0.05]; η(2)=0.14) and condition 2 (sagittal/frontal plane: 0.15 [0.12] vs 0.08 [0.06]; η(2)=0.23), with an associated decrease in the fractal dimension of the centre-of-pressure path (injured limb: 1.23 [0.13] vs 1.36 [0.13]; η(2)=0.20). Participants with a 6-month history of first-time lateral ankle sprain exhibit a hip-dominant coordination strategy for static unilateral stance compared to non-injured controls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. "If you thought this story sour, sweeten it with your own telling" - a feminist poetics of rewriting in Susan Price's Ghost dance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Lehtonen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The attempts to challenge conventional gendered discourses in children's fantasy have often resulted in feminist rewritings of earlier stories. Ghost dance (1994 by the English author Susan Price is a novel that reflects a specific feminist poetics of rewriting: metafictional passages highlight the constructedness of the narrative and at the end readers are invited to tell their own versions of the story. Moreover, the rewriting freely combines and recontextualises elements from different source texts and reformulates them to create a narrative that challenges conventional discourses of gender. While this poetics has an appeal from a feminist perspective, the play with cross-cultural intertexts and gender becomes more complex when the novel is examined in a postcolonialist framework in relation to ethnicity and the issue of cultural appropriation. Ghost dance is situated in a setting that has a real-world equivalent (Russia, involves characters that are identified with names of real-world ethnic groups (Lapps (Sámi, Russian, and mixes elements from Russian wonder tales, Nordic mythology and an Ojibwe legend. The novel does not aim at historical accuracy in its representations nor is it a direct retelling of any of the pre-texts but combines motifs, themes, names, characters and settings freely from each source. In this textual melting pot, the protagonist Shingebiss is, on one level, a revision of the witch Baba Yaga, but also described as a Lappish shaman with an Ojibwe name. To rewrite gendered discourses, certain elements from the pretexts are chosen and others left out – the question is, then, what effects does this recontextualisation have on the representation of ethnicity? Or, are the feminist rewriting strategies actually a form of cultural appropriation?

  9. Employing Questionnaires in terms of a Constructivist Epistemological Stance: Reconsidering Researchers' Involvement in the Unfolding of Social Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma R. A. Romm D Litt et Phil

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I delve into what it might mean to employ questionnaires without regarding them simply as a way of attempting to discern relationships of correlation or causality between defined variables (as in positivist and post-positivist conceptions of questionnaires. I shall consider the implications of researchers using questionnaires on the basis of alternative paradigmatic orientations. I shall discuss, in particular, interpretivist stances and more constructively-oriented stances (as qualitatively-oriented paradigmatic positions with reference to different understandings of questionnaire use. I shall also reflect on how qualitative positions that embrace a constructivist epistemological stance can lead to a redirection of questionnaires in relation to more “usual” (post-positivist-directed usages. In the course of the discussion I make a case, drawing on a version of constructivism, for researchers taking responsibility for their involvement—no matter what methods are used—in the unfolding of the social worlds of which research is a part. Taking into account the constructivist epistemological understanding that questionnaires—as well as other research methods—contribute to the construction of responses rather than merely “finding” responses from research participants, I suggest that some responsibility needs to be taken by those employing questionnaires for the potential social impact of these on research participants as well as wider audiences.

  10. The effect of voluntary lateral trunk bending on balance recovery following multi-directional stance perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küng, U M; Horlings, C G C; Honegger, F; Allum, J H J

    2010-05-01

    Stabilising shifts of the centre of mass (COM) are observed during balance recovery when subjects simultaneously execute voluntary unilateral knee flexion or unilateral arm raising. Here, we examined whether voluntary lateral trunk bending provided more beneficial stabilising effects, and how motor programs of balance corrections are combined with those of the focal voluntary action. The upright balance of 24 healthy young subjects (19-33 years of age) was perturbed using multi-directional rotations of the support-surface. The perturbations consisted of combined pitch and roll rotations (7.5 degrees and 60 degrees/s) presented randomly in six different directions. Three conditions were tested: perturbation of stance only (PO); combined balance perturbation and cued uphill bending of the trunk (CONT); and combined perturbation and cued downhill bending of the trunk (IPS). For comparison, subjects were required to perform trunk bending alone (TO). Outcome measures were biomechanical responses and surface EMG activity of several muscles. Calculated predicted outcomes (PO + TO) were compared with combined measures (CONT or IPS). CONT trunk bending uphill showed two phases of benefit in balance recovery for laterally but, in contrast to voluntary knee bending, not for posterior directed components of the perturbations. IPS trunk bending had negative effects on balance. Early balance correcting muscle responses were marginally greater than PO responses. Prominent secondary balance correcting responses, having a similar timing as voluntary responses observed under TO conditions, were seen under CONT only in trunk muscles. These, and later stabilising, responses had amplitudes as expected from PO + TO conditions being significantly greater than PO responses. The ability with which different muscle synergies for balance corrections and voluntary trunk bending were integrated into one indicates a flexible adjustment of the CNS programs to the demands of both tasks.

  11. Idufirma Silicon Valleyta / Susan Adams

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Adams, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Tarkvarafirma Apprenda toodab teenindusplatvormi tarkvara, mis võimaldab klientidel luua ja hoida käigus uusi mobiilseid ja pilvetehnoloogiapõhiseid rakendusi. Oma töötajatele pakub odavaid elamispindu ja madalaid makse

  12. The Relationship of Anticipatory Gluteus Medius Activity to Pelvic and Knee Stability in the Transition to Single-Leg Stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daehan; Unger, Janelle; Lanovaz, Joel L; Oates, Alison R

    2016-02-01

    The knee abduction moment in a weight-bearing limb is an important risk factor of conditions such as patellofemoral pain and knee osteoarthritis. Excessive pelvic drop in single-leg stance can increase the knee abduction moment. The gluteus medius muscle is crucial to prevent pelvic drop and must be activated in anticipation of the transition from double-leg to single-leg stance. To examine the relationship of anticipatory activity of the gluteus medius to pelvic drop and knee abduction moment. Observational, cross-sectional correlational study. Research laboratory. Twenty female adults (mean age 22.6 years, standard deviation 2.5) were recruited and fully participated. Participant selection was limited to healthy women who did not have a history of knee and ankle ligament injuries, any indication of knee, hip, and/or low back pain, and/or knowledge of the proper squat technique. Participants performed 16 single-leg mini squats on their nondominant leg. The onset and magnitude of anticipatory gluteus medius activity were measured in relation to toe-off of the dominant leg during the transition from double-leg to single-leg stance. Preplanned correlations between anticipatory gluteus medius onset and its activation magnitude, pelvic obliquity, and knee abduction moment were examined. The magnitude of anticipatory gluteus medius activity was significantly correlated with the knee abduction moment (rs (18) = -0.303, P pelvic obliquity (rs (18) = 0.361, P pelvic obliquity. The amount of gluteus medius activity is more important for controlling knee and pelvic stability in the frontal plane than the onset of activation. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Kinematic analysis of knee varus and rotation movements at the initial stance phase with severe osteoarthritis of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukaya, Takashi; Mutsuzaki, Hirotaka; Wadano, Yasuyoshi

    2015-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to understand the kinematics changes in the frontal and horizontal planes with severe medial knee OA at the stance phase and to examine the relationship between varus and rotational movements. The OA group comprised 18 knees in 12 subjects (five men, seven women) with a Kellgren-Lawrence grade of three or four in at least one knee. From the results of gait analysis, we calculated Spearman rank-correlation coefficients for the following items: varus angle at initial contact (IC); varus angle at loading response (LR); amount of varus thrust from IC to LR; rotational angle at IC; rotational angle at LR and amount of rotational angle change from IC to LR. The results indicated that, as the external rotation angle at IC and internal rotational movement from IC to LR increased, the maximum varus angle to LR showed a tendency to become large. In addition, varus thrust showed a tendency to become larger as the external rotation angles increased at IC and LR. The subjects with severe knee OA showed a strong correlation between the knee varus angle at IC and at LR. Furthermore, an increase in movement to internal rotation of the knee during the initial stance phase increased the knee varus angle at LR. The control of the rotational movement according to the extent of varus thrust during the initial stance phase may have possible effects to decrease the load on the medial compartment of the knee. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Plantar pressures are higher in cases with diabetic foot ulcers compared to controls despite a longer stance phase duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Malindu E; Crowther, Robert G; Lazzarini, Peter A; Sangla, Kunwarjit S; Wearing, Scott; Buttner, Petra; Golledge, Jonathan

    2016-09-15

    Current international guidelines advocate achieving at least a 30 % reduction in maximum plantar pressure to reduce the risk of foot ulcers in people with diabetes. However, whether plantar pressures differ in cases with foot ulcers to controls without ulcers is not clear. The aim of this study was to assess if plantar pressures were higher in patients with active plantar diabetic foot ulcers (cases) compared to patients with diabetes without a foot ulcer history (diabetes controls) and people without diabetes or a foot ulcer history (healthy controls). Twenty-one cases with diabetic foot ulcers, 69 diabetes controls and 56 healthy controls were recruited for this case-control study. Plantar pressures at ten sites on both feet and stance phase duration were measured using a pre-established protocol. Primary outcomes were mean peak plantar pressure, pressure-time integral and stance phase duration. Non-parametric analyses were used with Holm's correction to correct for multiple testing. Binary logistic regression models were used to adjust outcomes for age, sex and body mass index. Median differences with 95 % confidence intervals and Cohen's d values (standardised mean difference) were reported for all significant outcomes. The majority of ulcers were located on the plantar surface of the hallux and toes. When adjusted for age, sex and body mass index, the mean peak plantar pressure and pressure-time integral of toes and the mid-foot were significantly higher in cases compared to diabetes and healthy controls (p diabetic foot ulcers despite having a longer stance phase duration which would be expected to lower plantar pressure. Whether plantar pressure changes can predict ulcer healing should be the focus of future research. These results highlight the importance of offloading feet during active ulceration in addition to before ulceration.

  15. Using Argument-Driven Inquiry to enhance students' argument sophistication when supporting a stance in the context of Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grooms, Jonathon A.

    This quasi-experimental study assesses the extent to which the Argument-Driven Inquiry (ADI) instructional model enhances undergraduate students' abilities to generate quality arguments supporting their stance in the context of a Socioscientific Issue (SSI) as compared to students experiencing a traditional style of instruction. Enhancing the quality of undergraduate students' arguments in the context of SSI can serve as an indirect measure of their scientific literacy and their ability to make sound decisions on issues that are inherently scientific but also involve social implications. Data collected in this study suggest that the undergraduate students experiencing the ADI instruction more readily provide rationales in their arguments supporting their decisions regarding two SSI-tasks as compared to a group of undergraduate students experiencing traditional instruction. This improvement in argument quality and gain in scientific literacy was achieved despite the overall lower SSI related content knowledge of the ADI students. Furthermore, the gap between the argument quality of those students with high versus low SSI related content knowledge was closed within the ADI group, while the same gap persisted post-intervention within the traditional instruction students. The role of students' epistemological sophistication was also investigated, which showed that neither instructional strategy was effective at shifting students' epistemological sophistication toward an evaluativist stance. However, the multiplists within the ADI group were able to significantly increase the sophistication of their arguments whereas the traditional students were not. There were no differences between the quality of arguments generated by the evaluativist students with either the treatment or comparison groups. Finally, the nature of the justifications used by the students revealed that the students (both comparison and treatment groups) did not invoke science-based justifications when

  16. Balance in single-limb stance after surgically treated ankle fractures: a 14-month follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ageberg Eva

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maintenance of postural control is fundamental for different types of physical activity. This can be measured by having subjects stand on one leg on a force plate. Many studies assessing standing balance have previously been carried out in patients with ankle ligament injuries but not in patients with ankle fractures. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether patients operated on because of an ankle fracture had impaired postural control compared to an uninjured age- and gender-matched control group. Methods Fifty-four individuals (patients operated on because of an ankle fracture were examined 14 months postoperatively. Muscle strength, ankle mobility, and single-limb stance on a force-platform were measured. Average speed of centre of pressure movements and number of movements exceeding 10 mm from the mean value of centre of pressure were registered in the frontal and sagittal planes on a force-platform. Fifty-four age- and gender-matched uninjured individuals (controls were examined in the single-limb stance test only. The paired Student t-test was used for comparisons between patients' injured and uninjured legs and between side-matched legs within the controls. The independent Student t-test was used for comparisons between patients and controls. The Chi-square test, and when applicable, Fisher's exact test were used for comparisons between groups. Multiple logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with belonging to the group unable to complete the single-limb stance test on the force-platform. Results Fourteen of the 54 patients (26% did not manage to complete the single-limb stance test on the force-platform, whereas all controls managed this (p Conclusion One in four patients operated on because of an ankle fracture had impaired postural control compared to an age- and gender-matched control group. Age over 45 years and decreased strength in the ankle plantar flexors and dorsiflexors

  17. Computational stability of human knee joint at early stance in Gait: Effects of muscle coactivity and anterior cruciate ligament deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, M; Shirazi-Adl, A; Marouane, H

    2017-10-03

    As one of the most complex and vulnerable structures of body, the human knee joint should maintain dynamic equilibrium and stability in occupational and recreational activities. The evaluation of its stability and factors affecting it is vital in performance evaluation/enhancement, injury prevention and treatment managements. Knee stability often manifests itself by pain, hypermobility and giving-way sensations and is usually assessed by the passive joint laxity tests. Mechanical stability of both the human knee joint and the lower extremity at early stance periods of gait (0% and 5%) were quantified here for the first time using a hybrid musculoskeletal model of the lower extremity. The roles of muscle coactivity, simulated by setting minimum muscle activation at 0-10% levels and ACL deficiency, simulated by reducing ACL resistance by up to 85%, on the stability margin as well as joint biomechanics (contact/muscle/ligament forces) were investigated. Dynamic stability was analyzed using both linear buckling and perturbation approaches at the final deformed configurations in gait. The knee joint was much more stable at 0% stance than at 5% due to smaller ground reaction and contact forces. Muscle coactivity, when at lower intensities (knee joint at the heel strike. It also markedly diminishes forces in lateral hamstrings (by up to 39%) and contact forces on the lateral plateau (by up to 17%). Current work emphasizes the need for quantification of the lower extremity stability margin in gait. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Shoe drop reduction influences the lower limb biomechanics of children tennis players during an open stance forehand: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbaut, Alexis; Simoneau-Buessinger, Emilie; Barbier, Franck; Gillet, Christophe; Roux, Maxime; Guéguen, Nils; Chavet, Pascale

    2017-11-01

    Compared to traditional tennis shoes, using 0-drop shoes was shown to induce an immediate switch from rear- to forefoot strike pattern to perform an open stance tennis forehand for 30% of children tennis players. The purpose of the study was to examine the long-term effects of a gradual reduction in the shoe drop on the biomechanics of children tennis players performing open stance forehands. Thirty children tennis players participated in 2 laboratory biomechanical test sessions (intermediate: +4 months and final: +8 months) after an inclusion visit where they were randomly assigned to control (CON) or experimental (EXP) group. CON received 12-mm-drop shoes twice, whereas EXP received 8 mm then 4-mm-drop shoes. Strike index indicated that all CON were rearfoot strikers in intermediate and final test sessions. All EXP were rearfoot strikers in intermediate test session, but half the group switched towards a forefoot strike pattern in final test session. This switch resulted in a decreased loading rate of the ground reaction force (-73%, p = .005) but increased peak ankle plantarflexors moment (+47%, p = .050) and peak ankle power absorption (+107%, p = .005) for these participants compared with CON. Biomechanical changes associated with the long-term use of partial minimalist shoes suggest a reduction in heel compressive forces but an increase in Achilles tendon tensile forces.

  19. Effects of external loads on postural sway during quiet stance in adults aged 20-80 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M W; Duncan, M J; Oxford, S W; Kay, A D; Price, M J

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of holding external loads on postural sway during upright stance across age decades. Sixty-five healthy adults (females, n = 35), aged 18-80 years were assessed in four conditions; (1) standing without holding a load, holding a load corresponding to 5% body mass in the (2) left hand, (3) right hand and (4) both hands. The centre of pressure (COP) path length and anteroposterior and mediolateral COP displacement were used to indirectly assess postural sway. External loading elicited reductions in COP measures of postural sway in older age groups only (P  0.05). Holding external loads during standing is relevant to many activities of daily living (i.e. holding groceries). The reduction in postural sway may suggest this type of loading has a stabilising effect during quiet standing among older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of two Backpack Designs on Cop Displacement and Plantar Force Distribution in Children during Upright Stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mastalerz Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Many studies have compared different backpack designs and their influence on the carrier; however, no data referring to school students aged 7-8 years are currently available. Therefore, the aim of the research was to assess the influence of backpack design on centre of pressure (COP displacement and plantar force distribution in children during an upright stance. Material and methods. Nineteen school students (9 males and 10 females volunteered for the study. Two Polish backpacks intended for school use were evaluated: backpack A, which had two main compartments, and backpack B, which had one main compartment. The backpack load was composed of books, binders, and regular school equipment. During the measurements, the subjects were asked to look ahead with the head straight and arms at the sides in a comfortable position and to stand barefoot on the F-Scan® sensors (Tekscan, F-Scan® attached to the force platform (Kistler, carrying a load corresponding to 10% of their body mass. Results. The study found insignificant differences between the two backpack designs. Moreover, COP parameters increased significantly during an upright stance while carrying backpack B in comparison to the empty backpack condition. Additionally, we observed significantly higher values of plantar force distribution in the heel region for the condition without load and insignificantly higher ones for carrying backpack A. Conclusions. The results of the current study suggest that the differences between the two backpack designs are too marginal to be detected through COP displacement. Disturbances in plantar force distribution suggest a lack of posture control and a lower stability of the standing position with a backpack, but these disturbances were significant only when the backpack with one main compartment was used.

  1. Trunk's natural inclination influences stance limb kinetics, but not body kinematics, during gait initiation in able men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Leteneur

    Full Text Available The imposing mass of the trunk in relation to the whole body has an important impact on human motion. The objective of this study is to determine the influence of trunk's natural inclination--forward (FW or backward (BW with respect to the vertical--on body kinematics and stance limb kinetics during gait initiation.Twenty-five healthy males were divided based on their natural trunk inclination (FW or BW during gait initiation. Instantaneous speed was calculated at the center of mass at the first heel strike. The antero-posterior impulse was calculated by integrating the antero-posterior ground reaction force in time. Ankle, knee, hip and thoraco-lumbar (L5 moments were calculated using inverse dynamics and only peaks of the joint moments were analyzed. Among all the investigated parameters, only joint moments present significant differences between the two groups. The knee extensor moment is 1.4 times higher (P<0.001 for the BW group, before the heel contact. At the hip, although the BW group displays a flexor moment 2.4 times higher (P<0.001 before the swing limb's heel-off, the FW group displays an extensor moment 3.1 times higher (P<0.01 during the swing phase. The three L5 extensor peaks after the toe-off are respectively 1.7 (P<0.001, 1.4 (P<0.001 and 1.7 (P<0.01 times higher for the FW group. The main results support the idea that the patterns described during steady-state gait are already observable during gait initiation. This study also provides reference data to further investigate stance limb kinetics in specific or pathologic populations during gait initiation. It will be of particular interest for elderly people, knowing that this population displays atypical trunk postures and present a high risk of falling during this forward stepping.

  2. Repeatability of stance phase kinematics from a multi-segment foot model in people aged 50 years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, John B; Mackintosh, Shylie; Jones, Sara; Thewlis, Dominic

    2013-06-01

    Confidence in 3D multi-segment foot models has been limited by a lack of repeatability data, particularly in older populations that may display unique functional foot characteristics. This study aimed to determine the intra and inter-observer repeatability of stance phase kinematic data from a multi-segment foot model described by Leardini et al. [2] in people aged 50 years or older. Twenty healthy adults participated (mean age 65.4 years SD 8.4). A repeated measures study design was used with data collected from four testing sessions on two days from two observers. Intra (within-day and between-day) and inter-observer coefficient of multiple correlations revealed moderate to excellent similarity of stance phase joint range of motion (0.621-0.975). Relative to the joint range of motion (ROM), mean differences (MD) between sessions were highest for the within-day comparison for all planar ROM at the metatarsus-midfoot articulation (sagittal plane ROM 5.2° vs. 3.9°, MD 3.1°; coronal plane ROM 3.9 vs. 3.1°, MD 2.3°; transverse plane ROM 6.8° vs. 5.16°, MD 3.5°). Consequently, data from the metatarsus-midfoot articulation in the Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli (IOR) foot model in adults aged over 50 years needs to be considered with respect to the findings of this study. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Trunk's natural inclination influences stance limb kinetics, but not body kinematics, during gait initiation in able men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leteneur, Sébastien; Simoneau, Emilie; Gillet, Christophe; Dessery, Yoann; Barbier, Franck

    2013-01-01

    The imposing mass of the trunk in relation to the whole body has an important impact on human motion. The objective of this study is to determine the influence of trunk's natural inclination--forward (FW) or backward (BW) with respect to the vertical--on body kinematics and stance limb kinetics during gait initiation.Twenty-five healthy males were divided based on their natural trunk inclination (FW or BW) during gait initiation. Instantaneous speed was calculated at the center of mass at the first heel strike. The antero-posterior impulse was calculated by integrating the antero-posterior ground reaction force in time. Ankle, knee, hip and thoraco-lumbar (L5) moments were calculated using inverse dynamics and only peaks of the joint moments were analyzed. Among all the investigated parameters, only joint moments present significant differences between the two groups. The knee extensor moment is 1.4 times higher (P<0.001) for the BW group, before the heel contact. At the hip, although the BW group displays a flexor moment 2.4 times higher (P<0.001) before the swing limb's heel-off, the FW group displays an extensor moment 3.1 times higher (P<0.01) during the swing phase. The three L5 extensor peaks after the toe-off are respectively 1.7 (P<0.001), 1.4 (P<0.001) and 1.7 (P<0.01) times higher for the FW group. The main results support the idea that the patterns described during steady-state gait are already observable during gait initiation. This study also provides reference data to further investigate stance limb kinetics in specific or pathologic populations during gait initiation. It will be of particular interest for elderly people, knowing that this population displays atypical trunk postures and present a high risk of falling during this forward stepping.

  4. A finite element model of the lower limb during stance phase of gait cycle including the muscle forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffo Kaze, Arnaud; Maas, Stefan; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean; Wolf, Claude; Pape, Dietrich

    2017-12-07

    Results of finite element (FE) analyses can give insight into musculoskeletal diseases if physiological boundary conditions, which include the muscle forces during specific activities of daily life, are considered in the FE modelling. So far, many simplifications of the boundary conditions are currently made. This study presents an approach for FE modelling of the lower limb for which muscle forces were included. The stance phase of normal gait was simulated. Muscle forces were calculated using a musculoskeletal rigid body (RB) model of the human body, and were subsequently applied to a FE model of the lower limb. It was shown that the inertial forces are negligible during the stance phase of normal gait. The contact surfaces between the parts within the knee were modelled as bonded. Weak springs were attached to the distal tibia for numerical reasons. Hip joint reaction forces from the RB model and those from the FE model were similar in magnitude with relative differences less than 16%. The forces of the weak spring were negligible compared to the applied muscle forces. The maximal strain was 0.23% in the proximal region of the femoral diaphysis and 1.7% in the contact zone between the tibia and the fibula. The presented approach based on FE modelling by including muscle forces from inverse dynamic analysis of musculoskeletal RB model can be used to perform analyses of the lower limb with very realistic boundary conditions. In the present form, this model can be used to better understand the loading, stresses and strains of bones in the knee area and hence to analyse osteotomy fixation devices.

  5. How does postural stability following a single leg drop jump landing task relate to postural stability during a single leg stance balance task?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransz, Duncan P.; Huurnink, Arnold; Kingma, Idsart; van Dieën, Jaap H.

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to verify whether the static phase after a single leg drop jump (DJ) landing on a force plate may serve as a proxy for a single leg stance (SLS) balance task, as this would increase the application possibilities of landing tasks in the evaluation of sensorimotor function in relation to

  6. Short-latency stretch reflexes do not contribute to premature calf muscle activity during the stance phase of gait in spastic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niet, M. de; Latour, H.; Hendricks, H.T.; Geurts, A.C.H.; Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    de Niet M, Latour H, Hendricks H, Geurts AC, Weerdesteyn V. Short-latency stretch reflexes do not contribute to premature calf muscle activity during the stance phase of gait in spastic patients. OBJECTIVE: To identify whether a relationship exists between stretch and activity of the calf muscles

  7. Computerized identification and classification of stance phases as made by front og hind feet of walking cows based on 3-dimensional ground reaction forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth, F; Thorup, Vivi Mørkøre; do Nascimento, Omar Feix

    2013-01-01

    Lameness is a frequent disorder in dairy cows and in large dairy herds manual lameness detection is a time-consuming task. This study describes a method for automatic identification of stance phases in walking cows, and their classification as made by a front or a hind foot based on ground reacti...

  8. The dynamics of postural sway cannot be captured using a one-segment inverted pendulum model: a PCA on segment rotations during unperturbed stance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinter, I.J.; van Swigchem, R.; van Soest, A.J.; Rozendaal, L.A.

    2008-01-01

    Research on unperturbed stance is largely based on a one-segment inverted pendulum model. Recently, an increasing number of studies report a contribution of other major joints to postural control. Therefore this study evaluates whether the conclusions originating from the research based on a

  9. Peak medial (but not lateral) hamstring activity is significantly lower during stance phase of running. An EMG investigation using a reduced gravity treadmill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Clint; Einarson, Einar; Thomson, Athol; Whiteley, Rodney

    2017-09-01

    The hamstrings are seen to work during late swing phase (presumably to decelerate the extending shank) then during stance phase (presumably stabilizing the knee and contributing to horizontal force production during propulsion) of running. A better understanding of this hamstring activation during running may contribute to injury prevention and performance enhancement (targeting the specific role via specific contraction mode). Twenty active adult males underwent surface EMG recordings of their medial and lateral hamstrings while running on a reduced gravity treadmill. Participants underwent 36 different conditions for combinations of 50%-100% altering bodyweight (10% increments) & 6-16km/h (2km/h increments, i.e.: 36 conditions) for a minimum of 6 strides of each leg (maximum 32). EMG was normalized to the peak value seen for each individual during any stride in any trial to describe relative activation levels during gait. Increasing running speed effected greater increases in EMG for all muscles than did altering bodyweight. Peak EMG for the lateral hamstrings during running trials was similar for both swing and stance phase whereas the medial hamstrings showed an approximate 20% reduction during stance compared to swing phase. It is suggested that the lateral hamstrings work equally hard during swing and stance phase however the medial hamstrings are loaded slightly less every stance phase. Likely this helps explain the higher incidence of lateral hamstring injury. Hamstring injury prevention and rehabilitation programs incorporating running should consider running speed as more potent stimulus for increasing hamstring muscle activation than impact loading. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The good, the bad and the ugly: The shifting ethical stance of Malaysian consumers The good, the bad and the ugly: The shifting ethical stance of Malaysian consumers The good, the bad and the ugly: The shifting ethical stance of Malaysian consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teck-Chai Lau

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the recent business ethical problems in Malaysia such as tax fraud, deceptive advertising, production of unsafe products and copyright piracy, the current research aim to examine ethical issues in the marketplace from the perspective of consumers. There are three objectives of this research. The first objective is to investigate the effect of moral ideologies and Machiavellianism on consumer ethical beliefs. The second objective is to determine which of these ideologies exert the greatest influence on consumer ethical beliefs and the third objective is to discover whether Malaysian consumers have evolved in their ethical stance over the last ten years. The dependent variable in this research is the recently modified consumer ethics scale developed by Vitell and Muncy (2005. An online survey was adopted as data collection method as it was inexpensive, fast and could ensure high response rates. However it has several limitations such as the possible non-representativeness of Internet respondents to the Malaysian population and higher non-response error. The results indicated that idealism exerted the greatest influence on all the four dimensions of consumer ethics. It was also revealed that Malaysian consumers had evolved over the past ten years in their moral ideology: from relativism to idealism.Due to the recent business ethical problems in Malaysia such as tax fraud, deceptive advertising, production of unsafe products and copyright piracy, the current research aim to examine ethical issues in the marketplace from the perspective of consumers. There are three objectives of this research. The first objective is to investigate the effect of moral ideologies and Machiavellianism on consumer ethical beliefs. The second objective is to determine which of these ideologies exert the greatest influence on consumer ethical beliefs and the third objective is to discover whether Malaysian consumers have evolved in their ethical stance over the

  11. "Not Brain-washed, but Heart-washed": A Qualitative Analysis of Benevolent Sexism in the Anti-Choice Stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerksen, Kari N; Lawson, Karen L

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, anti-choice dialog has shifted from a focus on the fetus to a focus on the woman. This new movement constructs itself as positive and pro-woman, while perpetuating harmful stereotypes about women and the effects of abortion. Research has shown a relationship between benevolent sexism (beliefs that women are morally pure creatures in need of protection and nurturing) and restrictive attitudes towards abortion, although no research has qualitatively explored this relationship. The present study seeks to explore this by interpreting the content of one-on-one interviews with Canadian individuals holding an anti-choice stance through the theoretical framework of benevolent sexism. Thematic analysis of the interviews revealed three main themes: (1) protective paternalism, (2) complementary gender differentiation, and (3) the categorization of women. These themes connect strongly with benevolent sexism, providing evidence that abortion is still a stigmatized procedure. This stigma has shifted from viewing women who have abortions in an overtly negative way to viewing them as pitiable and poor decision makers.

  12. Understanding developing country stances on post-2012 climate change negotiations: Comparative analysis of Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong Fang

    2010-01-01

    An essential issue in future climate negotiations is how to bring developing countries on board. This paper proposes and applies the two-level interest-based model to analyze the factors that affect the likely stances of the 'Plus Five' countries (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa) on international climate negotiations. This study finds mitigation capability to be a crucial factor which consists of at least such sub-factors as per capita income, energy endowment, and economic structure, while ecological vulnerability does not seem to play an important role which includes reductions in agricultural outputs, sea-level rise, climate-related natural disasters, and others. The paper proposes six options in an ascending order of stringency that the Plus Five are likely to adopt. The paper suggests that the 'Basic Four' (the Plus Five excluding Mexico), particularly China and India, are less likely to adopt a voluntary commitment to an emissions cap on the national economy in the near future than Mexico, which has the highest mitigation capability among all five. The Basic Four are likely to adopt more stringent climate polices with increasing mitigation capabilities, suggesting the importance of effective international financial and technology transfer mechanisms and further tighten emission reduction targets from developed countries.

  13. A systematic review of the relationship between physical activities in sports or daily life and postural sway in upright stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiers, Henri; van Dieën, Jaap; Dekkers, Henk; Wittink, Harriët; Vanhees, Luc

    2013-11-01

    In many sports, maintaining balance is necessary to compete at a high level. Also, in many health problems, balance is impaired. Postural sway (PS) is often used as an indicator of upright balance control, and physical activity (PA) might enhance balance control. However, the relationship between PS and PA has never been systematically reviewed. Our objective was to summarize the evidence regarding the relationship between PS in upright bipedal and unipedal standing and PA. We conducted a literature search in MEDLINE, EmBase, CINAHL, the Cochrane Database, and PEDro, up to March 2012, with no limit on the starting date. Characteristics and methodological aspects of each article were extracted by two reviewers. We used centre of pressure (CoP) velocity, and variables related to the CoP area, to compare studies. A total of 39 articles were reviewed from an initial yield of 2,058. Of these 39 studies, 37 used a comparative design, one was a cohort study, and one was a randomized controlled trial. The main conclusion was that in general, sport practitioners sway less than controls, and high-level athletes sway less than low-level athletes. Additionally, we identified specific effects dependent on the use of vision, sport-specific postures, and frequency and duration of the (sports) activity. PS in unperturbed bipedal stance appears to have limited sensitivity to detect subtle differences between groups of healthy people.

  14. Comparison of three definitions of the mid-stance and mid-swing events of the gait cycle in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, T; Jeffery, R S; Bakheit, A M O

    2006-05-30

    Different criteria are used to define the terms mid-stance (MST) and mid-swing (MSW) when describing the gait cycle. None of these definitions is universally accepted. This causes difficulties with the interpretation of gait analysis data and hinders the comparison between the different studies. The aim of the present study was to compare three definitions of MST and MSW by examining the gait of a group of healthy children. A prospective comparison of three commonly used definitions of the MST and MSW events of the gait cycle. The timing of the temporal, kinematic and kinetic MST and MSW of the gait cycle. Thirty healthy 8 - 10-year-old children were studied. There was no consistent correlation between the timing of the chosen definitions of MST and MSW. However, there was a tendency for the timing of the temporal and kinetic MST and MSW to occur, respectively, at approximately 30 and 80% of the gait cycle. The temporal definition of MST and MSW as the midpoints in time of the respective phases of the gait cycle appears to be more appropriate than other definitions. The use of this definition may prevent misunderstanding and permit comparison of the results of the different gait analysis studies.

  15. A Study on the Defensive Stance and Position of Handball Goalkeepers: Facing a Forward Jump Shot Made from 9 Meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jong Hyun; Lee, Young Suk

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the defensive stance and calculate an optimal defense position for goalkeepers while blocking forward jump shots made from a distance of 9 m. Nine men's handball matches were recorded and 78 video clips were selected for analysis. These are the top class goalkeepers, which included players from the national team and reserve team of Korea. The goalkeeper's actual defensive position was significantly different from instructional suggestions; the width of both feet of the goalkeeper was approximately 2.5 times the width of the shoulders, and the hands were at waist height. The goalkeeper's actual defense position was about 1.10 (± 0.3) m from the goal line and also significantly different than instructional material (0.75 m). The optimal defense position, which was calculated from the goalkeeper's actual movement, was 1.44 m from the goal line, because the ratio of goalkeeper's defensive area in relation to the total area to be defended is highest at this point. In summary, we recommended that handball goalkeepers move forward, about a half step (0.34 m), when defending a forward jump shot made from 9 m, and instructional material should be modified according to the findings from this study.

  16. Using the Technology of the Confessional as an Analytical Resource: Four Analytical Stances Towards Research Interviews in Discourse Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan K. O'Rourke

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Among the various approaches that have developed from FOUCAULT's work is an Anglophone discourse analysis that has attempted to combine FOUCAULTian insights with the techniques of Conversation Analysis. An important current methodological issue in this discourse analytical approach is its theoretical preference for "naturally occurring" rather than research interview data. A FOUCAULTian perspective on the interview as a research instrument, questions the idea of "naturally-occurring discourse". The "technology of the confessional" operates, not only within research interviews, but permeates other interactions as well. Drawing on FOUCAULT does not dismiss the problems of the interview as research instrument rather it shows they cannot be escaped by simply switching to more "natural" interactions. Combining these insights with recent developments within discourse analysis can provide analytical resources for, rather than barriers to, the discourse analysis of research interviews. To aid such an approach, we develop a four-way categorisation of analytical stances towards the research interview in discourse analysis. A demonstration of how a research interview might be subjected to a discourse analysis using elements of this approach is then provided. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs070238

  17. Muscle activity during stance phase of walking: comparison of males with transfemoral amputation with osseointegrated fixations to nondisabled male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantall, Annette; Ewins, David

    2013-01-01

    A recent development in prosthetics is the osseointegrated fixation (OF), with improvements in comfort, fatigue, hip movement, and ease of prosthetic attachment reported. However, little information is available regarding muscle function. This study reports on selected gait parameters of the residual limb during the stance phase of level overground walking, focusing on muscle activity. Five males with transfemoral amputation (TFA) with OFs were recruited. Ground reaction force (GRF), lower-limb kinematics, and surface electromyography (sEMG) from residual-limb muscles were recorded. sEMG data were also collected from a group of 10 nondisabled male subjects. Interstance variability of gait parameters was assessed by coefficient of multiple correlations. Repeatability of GRF and hip kinematics was high, whereas repeatability of the sEMG was low for four of the five individuals with TFA. Interstance variability of the sEMG for gluteus medius (GMED) was significantly greater in the group with TFA. The main difference in sEMG between the groups was the phase, with GMED and adductor magnus displaying greater differences than their counterparts in the nondisabled group. Results demonstrate that muscles in the residual limb retain aspects of their previous functional pattern.

  18. Understanding developing country stances on post-2012 climate change negotiations: Comparative analysis of Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rong Fang, E-mail: rongfang98@hotmail.co [Laboratory on International Law and Regulation, School of International Relations and Pacific Studies, University of California, San Diego, 92093 (United States); Center for Industrial Development and Environmental Governance, School of Public Policy and Management, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-08-15

    An essential issue in future climate negotiations is how to bring developing countries on board. This paper proposes and applies the two-level interest-based model to analyze the factors that affect the likely stances of the 'Plus Five' countries (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa) on international climate negotiations. This study finds mitigation capability to be a crucial factor which consists of at least such sub-factors as per capita income, energy endowment, and economic structure, while ecological vulnerability does not seem to play an important role which includes reductions in agricultural outputs, sea-level rise, climate-related natural disasters, and others. The paper proposes six options in an ascending order of stringency that the Plus Five are likely to adopt. The paper suggests that the 'Basic Four' (the Plus Five excluding Mexico), particularly China and India, are less likely to adopt a voluntary commitment to an emissions cap on the national economy in the near future than Mexico, which has the highest mitigation capability among all five. The Basic Four are likely to adopt more stringent climate polices with increasing mitigation capabilities, suggesting the importance of effective international financial and technology transfer mechanisms and further tighten emission reduction targets from developed countries.

  19. Understanding developing country stances on post-2012 climate change negotiations. Comparative analysis of Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rong, Fang [Laboratory on International Law and Regulation, School of International Relations and Pacific Studies, University of California, San Diego, 92093 (United States); Center for Industrial Development and Environmental Governance, School of Public Policy and Management, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-08-15

    An essential issue in future climate negotiations is how to bring developing countries on board. This paper proposes and applies the two-level interest-based model to analyze the factors that affect the likely stances of the Plus Five countries (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa) on international climate negotiations. This study finds mitigation capability to be a crucial factor which consists of at least such sub-factors as per capita income, energy endowment, and economic structure, while ecological vulnerability does not seem to play an important role which includes reductions in agricultural outputs, sea-level rise, climate-related natural disasters, and others. The paper proposes six options in an ascending order of stringency that the Plus Five are likely to adopt. The paper suggests that the Basic Four (the Plus Five excluding Mexico), particularly China and India, are less likely to adopt a voluntary commitment to an emissions cap on the national economy in the near future than Mexico, which has the highest mitigation capability among all five. The Basic Four are likely to adopt more stringent climate polices with increasing mitigation capabilities, suggesting the importance of effective international financial and technology transfer mechanisms and further tighten emission reduction targets from developed countries. (author)

  20. Individuals with chronic ankle instability exhibit decreased postural sway while kicking in a single-leg stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Marcio José; Gorges, Ana Luiza; Rios, Jaqueline Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI) usually experience deficits in balance control, which increase displacement in the body's center of pressure (COP) when they balance on a single leg. Little is known, however, about whether or not these individuals use the strategies of postural adjustment properly, especially during functional tasks that may predispose them to ankle sprain. The aim of this study was to investigate anticipatory (APA) and compensatory (CPA) postural adjustments in individuals with and without CAI as they kick a ball while standing in a single-leg stance with their ankle in neutral and supinated positions. COP displacements were calculated and their magnitudes (range) analyzed during APA and CPA intervals and over the duration of the whole task, represented by the COP area of sway and mean velocity. The CAI group exhibited a significant decrease in CPA and area of sway over the whole task, relative to controls. These results suggest that the decreased balance sway could be caused by the need for further stabilization of the ankle in more unstable postures to prevent recurrent sprain. Our findings could help clinicians to better understand the strategies of postural adjustments in individuals with CAI, and may assist and motivate new investigations into balance control interventions in such individuals, as well as proactively address recurrent ankle sprain conditions. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Activation of the gluteus medius according to load during horizontal hip abduction in a one-leg stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Woong; Kim, Yeong-Ju; Koo, Hyun-Mo

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] This study researched the influences of different loads on muscle activity of the posterior fibers of the gluteus medius in a one-leg standing position. [Subjects] Twenty-four healthy adult men participated in this study. [Methods] All participants performed the one-leg standing position under four conditions: the standard no-load condition, in which the non-weight-bearing leg was lifted and kept parallel to the back and then pelvic or lumbar rotation was performed without thorax rotation, and the 0 kg, 1 kg, and 3 kg load conditions, in which horizontal shoulder abduction was performed with a load of 0 kg, 1 kg, or 3 kg added to the hand. The electromyographic activity of the posterior fibers of the gluteus medius was measured using a wireless surface electromyography under all conditions. The electromyographic activity of each muscle under the four conditions during the one-leg stance was analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. [Results] The electromyographic activity of the posterior fiber of the gluteus medius was significantly increased under the 3 kg load condition compared with the no-load, 0 kg load, and 1 kg load conditions. [Conclusion] These findings indicated that muscle activation is affected by increases in load in the one-leg standing position. The load on the upper extremity influences the muscle activity of the contralateral lower extremity.

  2. Characteristics of multiple sclerosis patient stance control disorders, measured by means of posturography and related to brainstem lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Alpini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Balance disorders are commonly observed during the course of multiple sclerosis (MS. The aim of this study is to report characteristics of MS patient stance control disorders, measured by means of posturography and related to the brainstem lesions. Thirty-eight patients affected by MS, mildly to moderately disable according to Kurtzke’s Expanded Disability Status Scale, underwent a complete clinical neurological and vestibular evaluation and brain MRI scanning. All patients were then tested on a static posturography platform (Tetrax, Israel in four conditions: eyes open and eyes closed standing on a firm surface and on a foam pad. Clinical and/or magnetic resonance imaging evidence of brainstem involvement was observed in 55.3% of patients. When brainstem lesion was detected, Fourier analysis showed a typical pattern characterized by inversion of the 0- 0.1 Hz and 0.1-0.25 Hz frequency bands. In conclusion, MS leads to pervasive postural disturbances in the majority of subjects, including the visuo-vestibular loops and proprioception involving vestibulospinal pathways in at least 55.3% of patients. Our results may also suggest the presence of Fourier inversion in patients with brainstem lesions.

  3. Clinical outcomes and frontal plane two-dimensional biomechanics during the 30-second single leg stance test in patients before and after hip abductor tendon reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxtable, Rose E; Ackland, Timothy R; Janes, Gregory C; Ebert, Jay R

    2017-07-01

    Hip abductor tendon tears are a common cause of Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome. Conservative treatments are often ineffective and surgical reconstruction may be recommended. This study investigated the improvement in clinical outcomes and frontal plane two-dimensional biomechanics during a 30-second single leg stance test, in patients undergoing reconstruction. We hypothesized that clinical scores and pertinent biomechanical variables would significantly improve post-surgery, and these outcomes would be significantly correlated. Twenty-one patients with symptomatic tendon tears underwent reconstruction. Patients were evaluated pre-surgery, and at 6 and 12months post-surgery, using patient-reported outcome measures, assessment of hip abductor strength and six-minute walk capacity. Frontal plane, two-dimensional, biomechanical variables including pelvis-on-femur angle, pelvic drop, trunk lean and lateral pelvic shift, were evaluated throughout a 30-second single leg stance test. ANOVA evaluated outcomes over time, while Pearson's correlations investigated associations between clinical scores, pain, functional and biomechanical outcome variables. While clinical and functional measures significantly improved (P0.05) were observed in biomechanical variables from pre- to post-surgery. While five patients displayed a positive Trendelenburg sign pre-surgery, only one was positive post-surgery. Clinical outcomes and biomechanical variables during the single leg stance test were not correlated. Despite improvements in clinical and functional measures over time, biomechanical changes during a weight bearing single leg stance test were not significantly different following tendon repair. Follow up beyond 12months may be required, whereby symptomatic relief may precede functional and biomechanical improvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Plantar-flexion of the ankle joint complex in terminal stance is initiated by subtalar plantar-flexion: A bi-planar fluoroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Seungbum; Lee, Kyoung Min; Cha, Young Joo

    2015-10-01

    Gross motion of the ankle joint complex (AJC) is a summation of the ankle and subtalar joints. Although AJC kinematics have been widely used to evaluate the function of the AJC, the coordinated movements of the ankle and subtalar joints are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to accurately quantify the individual kinematics of the ankle and subtalar joints in the intact foot during ground walking by using a bi-planar fluoroscopic system. Bi-planar fluoroscopic images of the foot and ankle during walking and standing were acquired from 10 healthy subjects. The three-dimensional movements of the tibia, talus, and calcaneus were calculated with a three-dimensional/two-dimensional registration method. The skeletal kinematics were quantified from 9% to 86% of the full stance phase because of the limited camera speed of the X-ray system. At the beginning of terminal stance, plantar-flexion of the AJC was initiated in the subtalar joint on average at 75% ranging from 62% to 76% of the stance phase, and plantar-flexion of the ankle joint did not start until 86% of the stance phase. The earlier change to plantar-flexion in the AJC than the ankle joint due to the early plantar-flexion in the subtalar joint was observed in 8 of the 10 subjects. This phenomenon could be explained by the absence of direct muscle insertion on the talus. Preceding subtalar plantar-flexion could contribute to efficient and stable ankle plantar-flexion by locking the midtarsal joint, but this explanation needs further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of tuning of ankle foot orthoses-footwear combination using wedges on stance phase knee hyperextension in children with cerebral palsy - preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadamma, Kavi C; Coutts, Fiona J; Mercer, Thomas H; Herman, Janet; Yirrel, Jacqueline; Forbes, Lyndsay; Van Der Linden, Marietta L

    2009-11-01

    This pilot study investigated the feasibility of reducing stance phase knee hyperextension in children with cerebral palsy by tuning the ankle foot orthoses-footwear combination (AFO-FC) using different sizes of wedges. Five children with cerebral palsy underwent three dimensional gait analysis and tuning of their AFO-FC using wedges. Data analysis was carried out by comparing relevant gait parameters between the non-tuned and tuned prescription. Knee hyperextension during stance significantly decreased, and the shank to vertical angle was closer to normal after tuning. Although none of the other parameters showed statistically significant changes, the wide confidence intervals and lack of power indicated the likelihood of a type II error. Further, it was noted that the influence of tuning on temporal-spatial parameters was different between children with diplegia and those with hemiplegia. It was estimated that a sample size of 15 is required to detect significant changes at p = 0.05 and power of 0.8. The findings of this study clearly indicate the potential clinical utility of tuning using wedges to correct knee hyperextension during the stance phase in children with cerebral palsy. However, observations support the need for an adequately powered study to assess the long-term effects of tuning on gait parameters, activity level and quality of life.

  6. Olecranon orientation as an indicator of elbow joint angle in the stance phase, and estimation of forelimb posture in extinct quadruped animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Shin-Ichi

    2009-09-01

    Reconstruction of limb posture is a challenging task in assessing functional morphology and biomechanics of extinct tetrapods, mainly because of the wide range of motions possible at each limb joint and because of our poor knowledge of the relationship between posture and musculoskeletal structure, even in the extant taxa. This is especially true for extinct mammals such as the desmostylian taxa Desmostylus and Paleoparadoxia. This study presents a procedure that how the elbow joint angles of extinct quadruped mammals can be inferred from osteological characteristics. A survey of 67 dried skeletons and 113 step cycles of 32 extant genera, representing 25 families and 13 orders, showed that the olecranon of the ulna and the shaft of the humerus were oriented approximately perpendicular to each other during the stance phase. At this angle, the major extensor muscles maximize their torque at the elbow joint. Based on this survey, I suggest that olecranon orientation can be used for inferring the elbow joint angles of quadruped mammals with prominent olecranons, regardless of taxon, body size, and locomotor guild. By estimating the elbow joint angle, it is inferred that Desmostylus would have had more upright forelimbs than Paleoparadoxia, because their elbow joint angles during the stance phase were approximately 165 degrees and 130 degrees , respectively. Difference in elbow joint angles between these two genera suggests possible differences in stance and gait of these two mammals. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. (Positive) Power to the Child: The Role of Children's Willing Stance toward Parents in Developmental Cascades from Toddler Age to Early Preadolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Kim, Sanghag; Boldt, Lea J.

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to once dominant views of children as passive in the parent-led process of socialization, they are now seen as active agents who can considerably influence that process. But those newer perspectives typically focus on the child's antagonistic influence, due either to a difficult temperament or aversive, resistant, negative behaviors that elicit adversarial responses from the parent and lead to future coercive cascades in the relationship. Children's capacity to act as receptive, willing, even enthusiastic, active socialization agents is largely overlooked. Informed by attachment theory and other relational perspectives, we depict children as able to adopt an active willing stance and to exert robust positive influence in the mutually cooperative socialization enterprise. A longitudinal study of 100 community families (mothers, fathers, and children) demonstrates that willing stance (a) is a latent construct, observable in diverse parent-child contexts parallel at 38, 52, and 67 months, and longitudinally stable, (b) originates within an early secure parent-child relationship at 25 months, and (c) promotes a positive future cascade toward adaptive outcomes at age 10. The outcomes include the parent's observed and child-reported positive, responsive behavior, as well as child-reported internal obligation to obey the parent and parent-reported low level of child behavior problems. The construct of willing stance has implications for basic research in typical socialization and in developmental psychopathology, and for prevention and intervention. PMID:26439058

  8. A Secure Base from which to Cooperate: Security, Child and Parent Willing Stance, and Adaptive and Maladaptive Outcomes in two Longitudinal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffin, Kathryn C; Boldt, Lea J; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2017-10-17

    Early secure attachment plays a key role in socialization by inaugurating a long-term mutual positive, collaborative interpersonal orientation within the parent-child dyad. We report findings from Family Study (community mothers, fathers, and children, from age 2 to 12, N = 102, 51 girls) and Play Study (exclusively low-income mothers and children, from age 3.5 to 7, N = 186, 90 girls). We examined links among observed secure attachment at toddler age, child and parent receptive, willing stance to each other, observed in parent-child contexts at early school age, and developmental outcomes. The developmental outcomes included parent-rated child antisocial behavior problems and observed positive mutuality with regard to conflict issues at age 12 in Family Study, and mother-rated child antisocial behavior problems and observed child regard for rules and moral self at age 7 in Play Study. In mother-child relationships, the child's willing stance mediated indirect effects of child security on positive mutuality in Family Study and on all outcomes in Play Study. In father-child relationships, both the child's and the parent's willing stance mediated indirect effects of child security on both outcomes. Early security initiates an adaptive developmental cascade by enlisting the child and the parent as active, willingly receptive and cooperative agents in the socialization process. Implications for children's parenting interventions are noted.

  9. (Positive) power to the child: The role of children's willing stance toward parents in developmental cascades from toddler age to early preadolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Kim, Sanghag; Boldt, Lea J

    2015-11-01

    In a change from the once-dominant view of children as passive in the parent-led process of socialization, children are now seen as active agents who can considerably influence that process. However, these newer perspectives typically focus on the child's antagonistic influence, due either to a difficult temperament or aversive, resistant, negative behaviors that elicit adversarial responses from the parent and lead to future coercive cascades in the relationship. Children's capacity to act as receptive, willing, even enthusiastic, active socialization agents is largely overlooked. Informed by attachment theory and other relational perspectives, we depict children as able to adopt an active willing stance and to exert robust positive influence in the mutually cooperative socialization enterprise. A longitudinal study of 100 community families (mothers, fathers, and children) demonstrates that willing stance (a) is a latent construct, observable in diverse parent-child contexts, parallel at 38, 52, and 67 months and longitudinally stable; (b) originates within an early secure parent-child relationship at 25 months; and (c) promotes a positive future cascade toward adaptive outcomes at age 10. The outcomes include the parent's observed and child-reported positive, responsive behavior, as well as child-reported internal obligation to obey the parent and parent-reported low level of child behavior problems. The construct of willing stance has implications for basic research in typical socialization and in developmental psychopathology as well as for prevention and intervention.

  10. Sample entropy characteristics of movement for four foot types based on plantar centre of pressure during stance phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Zhanyong; Zhao, Guoru; Ivanov, Kamen; Guo, Yanwei; Zhu, Qingsong; Zhou, Yongjin; Wang, Lei

    2013-10-10

    Motion characteristics of CoP (Centre of Pressure, the point of application of the resultant ground reaction force acting on the plate) are useful for foot type characteristics detection. To date, only few studies have investigated the nonlinear characteristics of CoP velocity and acceleration during the stance phase. The aim of this study is to investigate whether CoP regularity is different among four foot types (normal foot, pes valgus, hallux valgus and pes cavus); this might be useful for classification and diagnosis of foot injuries and diseases. To meet this goal, sample entropy, a measure of time-series regularity, was used to quantify the CoP regularity of four foot types. One hundred and sixty five subjects that had the same foot type bilaterally (48 subjects with healthy feet, 22 with pes valgus, 47 with hallux valgus, and 48 with pes cavus) were recruited for this study. A Footscan® system was used to collect CoP data when each subject walked at normal and steady speed. The velocity and acceleration in medial-lateral (ML) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions, and resultant velocity and acceleration were derived from CoP. The sample entropy is the negative natural logarithm of the conditional probability that a subseries of length m that matches pointwise within a tolerance r also matches at the next point. This was used to quantify variables of CoP velocity and acceleration of four foot types. The parameters r (the tolerance) and m (the matching length) for sample entropy calculation have been determined by an optimal method. It has been found that in order to analyze all CoP parameters of velocity and acceleration during the stance phase of walking gait, for each variable there is a different optimal r value. On the contrary, the value m=4 is optimal for all variables.Sample entropies of both velocity and acceleration in AP direction were highly correlated with their corresponding resultant variables for r>0.91. The sample entropy of the velocity in

  11. The Effect of Continuous and Discretized Presentations of Concurrent Augmented Visual Biofeedback on Postural Control in Quiet Stance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen D'Anna

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a continuous and a discretized Visual Biofeedback (VBF on balance performance in upright stance. The coordinates of the Centre of Pressure (CoP, extracted from a force plate, were processed in real-time to implement the two VBFs, administered to two groups of 12 healthy participants. In the first group, a representation of the CoP was continuously shown, while in the second group, the discretized VBF was provided at an irregular frequency (that depended on the subject's performance by displaying one out of a set of five different emoticons, each corresponding to a specific area covered by the current position of the CoP. In the first case, participants were asked to maintain a white spot within a given square area, whereas in the second case they were asked to keep the smiling emoticon on. Trials with no VBF were administered as control. The effect of the two VBFs on balance was studied through classical postural parameters and a subset of stabilogram diffusion coefficients. To quantify the amount of time spent in stable conditions, the percentage of time during which the CoP was inside the stability area was calculated. Both VBFs improved balance maintainance as compared to the absence of any VBF. As compared to the continuous VBF, in the discretized VBF a significant decrease of sway path, diffusion and Hurst coefficients was found. These results seem to indicate that a discretized VBF favours a more natural postural behaviour by promoting a natural intermittent postural control strategy.

  12. The Effect of Continuous and Discretized Presentations of Concurrent Augmented Visual Biofeedback on Postural Control in Quiet Stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anna, Carmen; Schmid, Maurizio; Bibbo, Daniele; Bertollo, Maurizio; Comani, Silvia; Conforto, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a continuous and a discretized Visual Biofeedback (VBF) on balance performance in upright stance. The coordinates of the Centre of Pressure (CoP), extracted from a force plate, were processed in real-time to implement the two VBFs, administered to two groups of 12 healthy participants. In the first group, a representation of the CoP was continuously shown, while in the second group, the discretized VBF was provided at an irregular frequency (that depended on the subject's performance) by displaying one out of a set of five different emoticons, each corresponding to a specific area covered by the current position of the CoP. In the first case, participants were asked to maintain a white spot within a given square area, whereas in the second case they were asked to keep the smiling emoticon on. Trials with no VBF were administered as control. The effect of the two VBFs on balance was studied through classical postural parameters and a subset of stabilogram diffusion coefficients. To quantify the amount of time spent in stable conditions, the percentage of time during which the CoP was inside the stability area was calculated. Both VBFs improved balance maintainance as compared to the absence of any VBF. As compared to the continuous VBF, in the discretized VBF a significant decrease of sway path, diffusion and Hurst coefficients was found. These results seem to indicate that a discretized VBF favours a more natural postural behaviour by promoting a natural intermittent postural control strategy.

  13. Optimizing ankle performance when taped: Effects of kinesiology and athletic taping on proprioception in full weight-bearing stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zhi; Wang, Renwei; Han, Jia; Waddington, Gordon; Adams, Roger; Anson, Judith

    2017-03-01

    To explore the effects of kinesiology taping (KT) and athletic taping (AT) on ankle proprioception when tested in functional, full weight-bearing stance. Cross-sectional study. Twenty-four healthy university students participated. Proprioception was measured using the Active Movement Extent Discrimination Apparatus (AMEDA). The three testing conditions: no-taping, KT, AT, and foot tested were randomly assigned. Perceived comfort, support and proprioceptive performance under two taping conditions were recorded. Proprioceptive discrimination scores with 95% CIs for no-taping, KT and AT were 0.81 (0.79-0.84), 0.81 (0.79-0.83), and 0.79 (0.77-0.81). Repeated measures ANOVA showed neither any significant difference associated with taping compared with no-taping (p=0.30), nor any difference between KT and AT (p=0.19). The group was then divided, according to their no-taping scores, into two sub-groups: with scores below the no-taping mean (n=13), and above the mean (n=11). ANOVA revealed a significant interaction (p=0.008) indicating that above-average no-taping performers proprioception scores were worse when taped, whereas below-average performers improved. For both KT and AT, only ratings of perceived comfort when taped were significantly associated with actual proprioceptive performance (both r>0.44, p≤0.03). Other perception ratings (support and performance) were significantly inter-correlated (both r>0.42, p0.31). Taping of the foot and ankle may amplify sensory input in a way that enhances proprioception of poor performers but produces an input overload that impairs proprioception in those who originally performed well when no-taping. Screening of ankle proprioception may identify those who would benefit most from taping. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Timed up and go right and left unipodal stance results in Chilean older people with different degrees of disability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla S, Eladio; Valenzuela H, José; Escobar C, Máximo

    2015-01-01

    The Preventive Health Examination of older people in Chile incorporates the timed up and go (TUG) and right and left unipodal stance test (RUPS and LUPS) as functional assessment methods. To assess if TUG and LUPS discriminate older people with different degrees of disability. TUG, RUPS and LUPS were assessed in 860 participants aged 71.3 ± 6.9 years (591 females) attending a primary health care clinic. The results of the three tests were expressed in seconds. Participants were classified as non-disabled without any risk, non-disabled with risk and in risk of dependence, using the Functional Assessment of Older People of EFAM (the Spanish acronym), previously validated for Chilean older people. In all participants TUG, LUPS and RUPS values were 8.9 ± 3.6, 10 ± 10.6 and 9.7 ± 10.3 seconds (sec) respectively. Among non-disabled participants without risk, the values for TUG, RUPS and LUPS were: 7.9 ± 2.3, 12.7 ± 11.1 and 12.2 ± 10.9 sec respectively. The figures for non-disabled participants with risk were 8.4 ± 2.6, 8.8 ± 9.8 and 8.9 ± 9.8 sec respectively. The figures for participants in risk of dependence were 11.7 ± 5.3, 5.1 ± 7.8 and 4.5 ± 7.1 sec, respectively. In this group of older participants there is an association between the degree of disability and the results of TUG, RUPS and LUPS.

  15. Evidence in Support of the Independent Channel Model Describing the Sensorimotor Control of Human Stance Using a Humanoid Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantsje H. Pasma

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Independent Channel (IC model is a commonly used linear balance control model in the frequency domain to analyze human balance control using system identification and parameter estimation. The IC model is a rudimentary and noise-free description of balance behavior in the frequency domain, where a stable model representation is not guaranteed. In this study, we conducted firstly time-domain simulations with added noise, and secondly robot experiments by implementing the IC model in a real-world robot (PostuRob II to test the validity and stability of the model in the time domain and for real world situations. Balance behavior of seven healthy participants was measured during upright stance by applying pseudorandom continuous support surface rotations. System identification and parameter estimation were used to describe the balance behavior with the IC model in the frequency domain. The IC model with the estimated parameters from human experiments was implemented in Simulink for computer simulations including noise in the time domain and robot experiments using the humanoid robot PostuRob II. Again, system identification and parameter estimation were used to describe the simulated balance behavior. Time series, Frequency Response Functions, and estimated parameters from human experiments, computer simulations, and robot experiments were compared with each other. The computer simulations showed similar balance behavior and estimated control parameters compared to the human experiments, in the time and frequency domain. Also, the IC model was able to control the humanoid robot by keeping it upright, but showed small differences compared to the human experiments in the time and frequency domain, especially at high frequencies. We conclude that the IC model, a descriptive model in the frequency domain, can imitate human balance behavior also in the time domain, both in computer simulations with added noise and real world situations with a

  16. Investigation of Anticipatory Postural Adjustments during One-Leg Stance Using Inertial Sensors: Evidence from Subjects with Parkinsonism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Bonora

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The One-Leg Stance (OLS test is a widely adopted tool for the clinical assessment of balance in the elderly and in subjects with neurological disorders. It was previously showed that the ability to control anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs prior to lifting one leg is significantly impaired by idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (iPD. However, it is not known how APAs are affected by other types of parkinsonism, such as frontal gait disorders (FGD. In this study, an instrumented OLS test based on wearable inertial sensors is proposed to investigate both the initial anticipatory phase and the subsequent unipedal balance. The sensitivity and the validity of the test have been evaluated. Twenty-five subjects with iPD presenting freezing of gait (FOG, 33 with iPD without FOG, 13 with FGD, and 32 healthy elderly controls were recruited. All subjects wore three inertial sensors positioned on the posterior trunk (L4–L5, and on the left and right frontal face of the tibias. Participants were asked to lift a foot and stand on a single leg as long as possible with eyes open, as proposed by the mini-BESTest. Temporal parameters and trunk acceleration were extracted from sensors and compared among groups. The results showed that, regarding the anticipatory phase, the peak of mediolateral trunk acceleration was significantly reduced compared to healthy controls (p < 0.05 in subjects with iPD with and without FOG, but not in FGD group (p = 0.151. Regarding the balance phase duration, a significant shortening was found in the three parkinsonian groups compared to controls (p < 0.001. Moreover, balance was significantly longer (p < 0.001 in iPD subjects without FOG compared to subjects with FGD and iPD subjects presenting FOG. Strong correlations between balance duration extracted by sensors and clinical mini-BESTest scores were found (ρ > 0.74, demonstrating the method’s validity. Our findings support the validity of the proposed

  17. Short-latency stretch reflexes do not contribute to premature calf muscle activity during the stance phase of gait in spastic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Niet, Mark; Latour, Hilde; Hendricks, Henk; Geurts, Alexander C; Weerdesteyn, Vivian

    2011-11-01

    To identify whether a relationship exists between stretch and activity of the calf muscles during the stance phase of gait in patients with upper motor neuron syndrome (UMNS), while taking into account the physiologic phase shift between these entities. Survey. Ambulatory care and general community. Patients with UMNS (n=15; 9 patients with stroke, 6 patients with hereditary spastic paraparesis) with premature calf muscle activity during the stance phase of gait and healthy controls (n=13). Not applicable. Timing of optimal association (phase shift) between the lengthening velocity of the gastrocnemius muscle and its electromyographic activity as revealed by cross-correlation analyses. Although premature calf muscle activity was evident in the patient groups, the phase shift between calf muscle stretch and its activity did not correspond with the monosynaptic stretch reflex latency (40- to 80-ms time window). However, there was a main effect of group on the phase shifts (F(3,33)=3.23, P=.035). Post hoc analysis revealed that in the paretic leg of stroke patients, the electromyographic activity preceded the lengthening velocity by 9 ± 54ms, whereas in the control group, the electromyographic activity followed the pattern of the muscle-lengthening velocity with a delay of 61 ± 54ms (P=.029). Short-latency stretch reflexes do not significantly contribute to premature calf muscle activity in the stance phase of (spastic) gait. This notion questions the validity of the clinical assessment of hyperreflexia and clonus of the calf as a predictor of calf muscle spasticity during gait. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Non-linear stimulus-response behavior of the human stance control system is predicted by optimization of a system with sensory and motor noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kooij, Herman; Peterka, Robert J

    2011-06-01

    We developed a theory of human stance control that predicted (1) how subjects re-weight their utilization of proprioceptive and graviceptive orientation information in experiments where eyes closed stance was perturbed by surface-tilt stimuli with different amplitudes, (2) the experimentally observed increase in body sway variability (i.e. the "remnant" body sway that could not be attributed to the stimulus) with increasing surface-tilt amplitude, (3) neural controller feedback gains that determine the amount of corrective torque generated in relation to sensory cues signaling body orientation, and (4) the magnitude and structure of spontaneous body sway. Responses to surface-tilt perturbations with different amplitudes were interpreted using a feedback control model to determine control parameters and changes in these parameters with stimulus amplitude. Different combinations of internal sensory and/or motor noise sources were added to the model to identify the properties of noise sources that were able to account for the experimental remnant sway characteristics. Various behavioral criteria were investigated to determine if optimization of these criteria could predict the identified model parameters and amplitude-dependent parameter changes. Robust findings were that remnant sway characteristics were best predicted by models that included both sensory and motor noise, the graviceptive noise magnitude was about ten times larger than the proprioceptive noise, and noise sources with signal-dependent properties provided better explanations of remnant sway. Overall results indicate that humans dynamically weight sensory system contributions to stance control and tune their corrective responses to minimize the energetic effects of sensory noise and external stimuli.

  19. Postural instability detection: aging and the complexity of spatial-temporal distributional patterns for virtually contacting the stability boundary in human stance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa C Kilby

    Full Text Available Falls among the older population can severely restrict their functional mobility and even cause death. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the mechanisms and conditions that cause falls, for which it is important to develop a predictive model of falls. One critical quantity for postural instability detection and prediction is the instantaneous stability of quiet upright stance based on motion data. However, well-established measures in the field of motor control that quantify overall postural stability using center-of-pressure (COP or center-of-mass (COM fluctuations are inadequate predictors of instantaneous stability. For this reason, 2D COP/COM virtual-time-to-contact (VTC is investigated to detect the postural stability deficits of healthy older people compared to young adults. VTC predicts the temporal safety margin to the functional stability boundary ( =  limits of the region of feasible COP or COM displacement and, therefore, provides an index of the risk of losing postural stability. The spatial directions with increased instability were also determined using quantities of VTC that have not previously been considered. Further, Lempel-Ziv-Complexity (LZC, a measure suitable for on-line monitoring of stability/instability, was applied to explore the temporal structure or complexity of VTC and the predictability of future postural instability based on previous behavior. These features were examined as a function of age, vision and different load weighting on the legs. The primary findings showed that for old adults the stability boundary was contracted and VTC reduced. Furthermore, the complexity decreased with aging and the direction with highest postural instability also changed in aging compared to the young adults. The findings reveal the sensitivity of the time dependent properties of 2D VTC to the detection of postural instability in aging, availability of visual information and postural stance and potential applicability as a

  20. Determining the activation of gluteus medius and the validity of the single leg stance test in chronic, nonspecific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Tracy; Ploughman, Michelle; Austin, Mark W; Behm, David G; Byrne, Jeannette M

    2014-10-01

    To determine the activation of the gluteus medius in persons with chronic, nonspecific low back pain compared with that in control subjects, and to determine the association of the clinical rating of the single leg stance (SLS) with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and gluteus medius weakness. Cohort-control comparison. Academic research laboratory. Convenience sample of people (n=21) with CLBP (>12wk) recruited by local physiotherapists, and age- and sex-matched controls (n=22). Subjects who received specific pain diagnoses were excluded. Not applicable. Back pain using the visual analog scale (mm); back-related disability using the Oswestry Back Disability Index (%); strength of gluteus medius measured using a hand dynamometer (N/kg); SLS test; gluteus medius onset and activation using electromyography during unipedal stance on a forceplate. Individuals in the CLBP group exhibited significant weakness in the gluteus medius compared with controls (right, P=.04; left, P=.002). They also had more pain (CLBP: mean, 20.50mm; 95% confidence interval [CI], 13.11-27.9mm; control subjects: mean, 1.77mm; 95% CI, -.21 to 3.75mm) and back-related disability (CLBP: mean, 18.52%; 95% CI, 14.46%-22.59%; control subjects: mean, .68%; 95% CI, -.41% to 1.77%), and reported being less physically active. Weakness was accompanied by increased gluteus medius activation during unipedal stance (R=.50, P=.001) but by no difference in muscle onset times. Although greater gluteus medius weakness was associated with greater pain and disability, there was no difference in muscle strength between those scoring positive and negative on the SLS test (right: F=.002, P=.96; left: F=.1.75, P=.19). Individuals with CLBP had weaker gluteus medius muscles than control subjects without back pain. Even though there was no significant difference in onset time of the gluteus medius when moving to unipedal stance between the groups, the CLBP group had greater gluteus medius activation. A key finding was that

  1. Entretien avec Susan Holtz | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    26 nov. 2010 ... Au seuil du prochain millénaire, le développement planétaire durable pose des défis complexes et d'envergure. Partout dans le monde, on cherche à relever ces défis en intégrant les politiques environnementales, sociales et économiques.

  2. Susan G. Komen for the Cure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma ... com About Us Corporate Partners Grants Central Komen en Español FAQs Newsroom Contact Us Message Boards Site ...

  3. Susan Isaacs and the Malting House School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Philip

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that psychoanalysis has over the years had a significant impact on the education of children with mental health problems. Its contribution to the theory and practice of mainstream education is less well documented. This paper gives an account of the five-year (1924-1929) history of the Malting House School in Cambridge. The school…

  4. Roberts, Dennis C. & Komives, Susan R.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    term study-abroad experience between the Universities of Maryland and San Diego with the Qatar Foundation's Education City in Doha in 2010. This partnership challenged the way in which higher education internalisation was viewed – in such ...

  5. Impact of stance phase microprocessor-controlled knee prosthesis on ramp negotiation and community walking function in K2 level transfemoral amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnfield, Judith M; Eberly, Valerie J; Gronely, Joanne K; Perry, Jacquelin; Yule, William Jared; Mulroy, Sara J

    2012-03-01

    Microprocessor controlled prosthetic knees (MPK) offer opportunities for improved walking stability and function, but some devices' swing phase features may exceed needs of users with invariable cadence. One MPK offers computerized control of only stance (C-Leg Compact). To assess Medicare Functional Classification Level K2 walkers' ramp negotiation performance, function and balance while using a non-MPK (NMPK) compared to the C-Leg Compact. Crossover. Gait while ascending and descending a ramp (stride characteristics, kinematics, electromyography) and function were assessed in participant's existing NMPK and again in the C-Leg Compact following accommodation. Ramp ascent and descent were markedly faster in the C-Leg Compact compared to the NMPK (p ≤ 0.006), owing to increases in stride length (p ≤ 0.020) and cadence (p ≤ 0.020). Residual limb peak knee flexion and ankle dorsiflexion were significantly greater (12.9° and 4.9° more, respectively) during single limb support while using the C-Leg Compact to descend ramps. Electromyography (mean, peak) did not differ significantly between prosthesis. Function improved in the C-Leg Compact as evidenced by a significantly faster Timed Up and Go and higher functional questionnaire scores. Transfemoral K2 walkers exhibited significantly improved function and balance while using the stance-phase only MPK compared to their traditional NMPK.

  6. Effect of body mass index and fat mass on balance force platform measurements during a one-legged stance in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Camila; Silva, Rubens A da; de Oliveira, Marcio R; Souza, Rejane D N; Borges, Renata J; Vieira, Edgar R

    2017-07-05

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of body mass index (BMI) and fat mass on balance force platform measurements in older adults. The sample consisted of 257 participants who were stratified into four groups by BMI: low weight, normal weight, pre-obesity and obesity. For fat mass variables, older individuals were classified into low and high-fat mass. All groups investigated performed three trials of one-legged stance balance on a force platform. Center of pressure (COP) domain parameters were computed from the mean across trials. Analysis of variance results revealed no significant interactions for groups and sexes for all COP parameters. Comparable balance results were found for BMI and fat groups for all COP parameters. A statistical effect (P COP parameters, regardless of BMI and fat mass variables. Overall, women presented better balance than men. In conclusion, BMI and fat mass do not seem to influence the balance of older adults during a one-leg stance task.

  7. Frontal Plane Motion of the Pelvis and Hip during Gait Stance Discriminates Children with Diplegia Levels I and II of the GMFCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, Renata Noce; Franco, Rosa de Lourdes Lima Dias; Furtado, Sheyla Cavalcanti; Barela, Ana Maria Forti; Deluzio, Kevin John; Mancini, Marisa Cotta

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To determine if gait waveform could discriminate children with diplegic cerebral palsy of the GMFCS levels I and II. Patients. Twenty-two children with diplegia, 11 classified as level I and 11 as level II of the GMFCS, aged 7 to 12 years. Methods. Gait kinematics included angular displacement of the pelvis and lower limb joints during the stance phase. Principal components (PCs) analyses followed by discriminant analysis were conducted. Results. PC1s of the pelvis and hip in the frontal plane differ significantly between groups and captured 80.5% and 86.1% of the variance, respectively. PC1s captured the magnitude of the pelvic obliquity and hip adduction angle during the stance phase. Children GMFCS level II walked with reduced pelvic obliquity and hip adduction angles, and these variables could discriminate the groups with a cross-validation of 95.5%. Conclusion. Reduced pelvic obliquity and hip adduction were observed between children GMFCS level II compared to level I. These results could help the classification process of mild-to-moderate children with diplegia. In addition, it highlights the importance of rehabilitation programs designed to improve pelvic and hip mobility in the frontal plane of diplegic cerebral palsy children level II of the GMFCS.

  8. A contrastive analysis of the use of modal verbs in the expression of epistemic stance in Business Management research articles in English and Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Vázquez Orta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper an intercultural quantitative and qualitative analysis of the use of modal verbs as epistemic stance markers in SERAC (Spanish-English Research Article Corpus, a corpus of research articles (RAs in different disciplines, is carried out. The corpus selected for this research consists of 48 Business Management research articles. Special emphasis is laid on the introduction and discussion sections of RAs, where stance devices are most frequently located to pursue convergence with the readership. This kind of intercultural analysis has been achieved through both a bottom-up research approach and a top-down research approach. The results obtained in this study point in the direction that there are obvious differences between the use of modal verbs by native writers and the use of modal verbs by non-native Spanish writers. The most remarkable aspect is that Spanish writers show a deviant handling of hedges and boosters. Therefore, they have difficulties in establishing a proper tenor when they write in English.

  9. “I Feel a Deep Sense of Responsibility for the People we have Hurt…” – Explicit Stance Attribution in Crisis Communication Contested

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachfał Edyta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The theme of crisis, and consequently of crisis response, has been extensively studied within the disciplines of crisis communication (see Rachfał (2013a for an overview of crisis communication as an independent academic discipline and its place among other allied sub-disciplines of public relations and public relations with the aim of protecting organisations or reducing the damage caused by a crisis episode (Fediuk, Pace and Botero, 2010. Nowadays, with the growing recognition of crisis response as persuasive communication there is a need for an interdisciplinary approach which would help researchers understand the effects that crisis messages have on the perceptions and behaviours of stakeholders. Therefore, this paper seeks to bridge the aforementioned disciplines and examines crisis from the perspective of linguistics. Thus, it analyses grammatical stance-marking devices (Biber, et al., 1999, which might provide insights into how speakers manipulate linguistic resources for persuasive purposes. The paper focuses on explicit stance attribution and explores how the first-person plural pronoun we is used in crisis response to alter the stakeholders’ perceptions concerning people and events. The analysis draws on statements issued in 2011 by people in top public positions in the wake of the phone-hacking scandal at the News of the World.

  10. Philip Morris's website and television commercials use new language to mislead the public into believing it has changed its stance on smoking and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Lissy C

    2007-12-01

    This paper analyses Philip Morris's evolving website and the legal strategies employed in its creation and dissemination. Internal tobacco documents were searched and examined and their substance verified and triangulated using media accounts, legal and public health research papers, and visits to Philip Morris's website. Various drafts of website language, as well as informal discussion of the website's creation, were located in internal Philip Morris documents. I compared website statements pertaining to Philip Morris's stance on cigarette smoking and disease with statements made in tobacco trials. Philip Morris created and disseminated its website's message that it agreed that smoking causes disease and is addictive in an effort to sway public opinion, while maintaining in a litigation setting its former position that it cannot be proved that smoking causes disease or is addictive. Philip Morris has not changed its position on smoking and health or addiction in the one arena where it has the most to lose-in the courtroom, under oath.

  11. Comparison of a laboratory grade force platform with a Nintendo Wii Balance Board on measurement of postural control in single-leg stance balance tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huurnink, Arnold; Fransz, Duncan P; Kingma, Idsart; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2013-04-26

    Training and testing of balance have potential applications in sports and medicine. Laboratory grade force plates (FP) are considered the gold standard for the measurement of balance performance. Measurements in these systems are based on the parameterization of center of pressure (CoP) trajectories. Previous research validated the inexpensive, widely available and portable Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB). The novelty of the present study is that FP and WBB are compared on CoP data that was collected simultaneously, by placing the WBB on the FP. Fourteen healthy participants performed ten sequences of single-leg stance tasks with eyes open (EO), eyes closed (EC) and after a sideways hop (HOP). Within trial comparison of the two systems showed small root-mean-square differences for the CoP trajectories in the x and y direction during the three tasks (mean±SD; EO: 0.33±0.10 and 0.31±0.16 mm; EC: 0.58±0.17 and 0.63±0.19 mm; HOP: 0.74±0.34 and 0.74±0.27 mm, respectively). Additionally, during all 420 trials, comparison of FP and WBB revealed very high Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) of the CoP trajectories (x: 0.999±0.002; y: 0.998±0.003). A general overestimation was found on the WBB compared to the FP for 'CoP path velocity' (EO: 5.3±1.9%; EC: 4.0±1.4%; HOP: 4.6±1.6%) and 'mean absolute CoP sway' (EO: 3.5±0.7%; EC: 3.7±0.5%; HOP: 3.6±1.0%). This overestimation was highly consistent over the 140 trials per task (r>0.996). The present findings demonstrate that WBB is sufficiently accurate in quantifying CoP trajectory, and overall amplitude and velocity during single-leg stance balance tasks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Long-term clinical evaluation of the automatic stance-phase lock-controlled prosthetic knee joint in young adults with unilateral above-knee amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrysek, Jan; Wright, F Virginia; Rotter, Karin; Garcia, Daniela; Valdebenito, Rebeca; Mitchell, Carlos Alvarez; Rozbaczylo, Claudio; Cubillos, Rafael

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to clinically evaluate the automatic stance-phase lock (ASPL) knee mechanism against participants' existing weight-activated braking (WAB) prosthetic knee joint. This prospective crossover study involved 10 young adults with an above-knee amputation. Primary measurements consisted of tests of walking speeds and capacity. Heart rate was measured during the six-minute walk test and the Physiological Cost Index (PCI) which was calculated from heart rate estimated energy expenditure. Activity was measured with a pedometer. User function and quality of life were assessed using the Lower Limb Function Questionnaire (LLFQ) and Prosthetic Evaluation Questionnaire (PEQ). Long-term follow-up over 12 months were completed. Walking speeds were the same for WAB and APSL knees. Energy expenditure (PCI) was lower for the ASPL knees (p = 0.007). Step counts were the same for both knees, and questionnaires indicated ASPL knee preference attributed primarily to knee stability and improved walking, while limitations included terminal impact noise. Nine of 10 participants chose to keep using the ASPL knee as part of the long-term follow-up. Potential benefits of the ASPL knee were identified in this study by functional measures, questionnaires and user feedback, but not changes in activity or the PEQ.

  13. Impact of a stance phase microprocessor-controlled knee prosthesis on level walking in lower functioning individuals with a transfemoral amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberly, Valerie J; Mulroy, Sara J; Gronley, JoAnne K; Perry, Jacquelin; Yule, William J; Burnfield, Judith M

    2014-12-01

    For individuals with transfemoral amputation, walking with a prosthesis presents challenges to stability and increases the demand on the hip of the prosthetic limb. Increasing age or comorbidities magnify these challenges. Computerized prosthetic knee joints improve stability and efficiency of gait, but are seldom prescribed for less physically capable walkers who may benefit from them. To compare level walking function while wearing a microprocessor-controlled knee (C-Leg Compact) prosthesis to a traditionally prescribed non-microprocessor-controlled knee prosthesis for Medicare Functional Classification Level K-2 walkers. Crossover. Stride characteristics, kinematics, kinetics, and electromyographic activity were recorded in 10 participants while walking with non-microprocessor-controlled knee and Compact prostheses. Walking with the Compact produced significant increase in velocity, cadence, stride length, single-limb support, and heel-rise timing compared to walking with the non-microprocessor-controlled knee prosthesis. Hip and thigh extension during late stance improved bilaterally. Ankle dorsiflexion, knee extension, and hip flexion moments of the prosthetic limb were significantly improved. Improvements in walking function and stability on the prosthetic limb were demonstrated by the K-2 level walkers when using the C-Leg Compact prosthesis. Understanding the impact of new prosthetic designs on gait mechanics is essential to improve prescription guidelines for deconditioned or older persons with transfemoral amputation. Prosthetic designs that improve stability for safety and walking function have the potential to improve community participation and quality of life. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2013.

  14. Stability of equilibrium in upright stance and voluntary motion control in athletes-shooters in the process of ready position and target shooting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Pryimakov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: consists in studying the relationships between the system of equilibrium regulation in upright stance and voluntary motion control in athletes-shooters during ready position and target shooting. Material: 19 highly skilled athletes specialized in pistol shooting were studied. Physiological and biomechanical characteristics of posture and voluntary motions were assessed by methods of stabilography, electromyography and tremorometry; besides, accuracy of target shooting was registered. Results: high degree of shooting accuracy dependence on posture somatic parameters has been revealed, of which the greatest impact upon the result is exerted by low-frequency vibrations of the body general centre of mass, subjected to voluntary control. Prognostic models of shooting accuracy dependence upon the character of posture regulation during ready position and the shot have been developed. Conclusions: obtained results reveal the mechanisms of functioning and interacting of two systems of management - posture and voluntary motion. Elaborated regression models permit to model and predict posture stability and shooting accuracy during ready position and the shot.

  15. A unified deformable (UD) segment model for quantifying total power of anatomical and prosthetic below-knee structures during stance in gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kota Z; Kepple, Thomas M; Stanhope, Steven J

    2012-10-11

    Anatomically-relevant (AR) biomechanical models are traditionally used to quantify joint powers and segmental energies of lower extremity structures during gait. While AR models contain a series of rigid body segments linked together via mechanical joints, prosthetic below-knee structures are often deformable objects without a definable ankle joint. Consequently, the application of AR models for the study of prosthetic limbs has been problematic. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a unified deformable (UD) segment model for quantifying the total power of below-knee structures. Estimates of total below-knee power derived via the UD segment model were compared to those derived via an AR model during stance in gait of eleven healthy subjects. The UD segment model achieved similar results to the AR model. Differences in peak power, total positive work, and total negative work were 1.91±0.31%, 3.97±0.49%, and 1.39±0.33%, relative to the AR model estimates. The main advantage of the UD segment model is that it does not require the definition of an ankle joint or foot structures. Therefore, this technique may be valuable for facilitating direct comparisons between anatomical and disparate prosthetic below-knee structures in future studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of subtalar inversion/eversion on the dynamic function of the tibialis anterior, soleus, and gastrocnemius during the stance phase of gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruoli; Gutierrez-Farewik, Elena M

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how gait deviation in one plane (i.e. excessive subtalar inversion/eversion) can affect the dynamic function of the tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, and soleus to accelerate the subtalar, ankle, knee and hip joints, as well as the body center of mass. Induced acceleration analysis was performed based on a subject-specific three-dimensional linkage model configured by stance phase gait data and driven by one unit of muscle force. Eight healthy adult subjects were examined in gait analysis. The subtalar inversion/eversion was modeled by offsetting up to 20° from the normal subtalar angle while other configurations remained unaltered. This study showed that the gastrocnemius, soleus and tibialis anterior generally functioned as their anatomical definition in normal gait, but counterintuitive function was occasionally found in the bi-articular gastrocnemius. The plantarflexors play important roles in the body support and forward progression. Excessive subtalar eversion was found to enlarge the plantarflexors and tibialis anterior's function. Induced acceleration analysis demonstrated its ability to isolate the contributions of individual muscle to a given factor, and as a means of studying effect of pathological gait on the dynamic muscle functions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Balance failure in single limb stance due to ankle sprain injury: an analysis of center of pressure using the fractal dimension method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Cailbhe; Bleakley, Chris; Hertel, Jay; Caulfield, Brian; Ryan, John; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2014-01-01

    Instrumented postural control analysis plays an important role in evaluating the effects of injury on dynamic stability during balance tasks, and is often conveyed with measures based on the displacement of the center-of-pressure (COP) assessed with a force platform. However, the desired outcome of the task is frequently characterized by a loss of dynamic stability, secondary to injury. Typically, these failed trials are discarded during research investigations, with the potential loss of informative data pertaining to task success. The novelty of the present study is that COP characteristics of failed trials in injured participants are compared to successful trial data in another injured group, and a control group of participants, using the fractal dimension (FD) method. Three groups of participants attempted a task of eyes closed single limb stance (SLS): twenty-nine participants with acute ankle sprain successfully completed the task on their non-injured limb (successful injury group); twenty eight participants with acute ankle sprain failed their attempt on their injured limb (failed injury group); sixteen participants with no current injury successfully completed the task on their non-dominant limb (successful non-injured group). Between trial analyses of these groups revealed significant differences in COP trajectory FD (successful injury group: 1.58±0.06; failed injury group: 1.54±0.07; successful non-injured group: 1.64±0.06) with a large effect size (0.27). These findings demonstrate that successful eyes-closed SLS is characterized by a larger FD of the COP path when compared to failed trials, and that injury causes a decrease in COP path FD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of external pelvic compression on electromyographic activity of the hamstring muscles during unipedal stance in sportsmen with and without hamstring injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Ashokan; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Woodley, Stephanie; Sole, Gisela

    2015-06-01

    There is some evidence that hamstring function can be influenced by interventions focusing on the pelvis via an anatomic and neurophysiologic link between these two segments. Previous research demonstrated increased electromyographic activity from injured hamstrings during transition from bipedal to unipedal stance (BUS). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a pelvic compression belt (PCB) on electromyographic activity of selected muscles during BUS in sportsmen with and without hamstring injury. Electromyographic amplitudes (normalised to maximum voluntary isometric contraction [MVIC]) of the hamstrings, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius and lumbar multifidus were obtained during BUS from 20 hamstring-injured participants (both sides) and 30 healthy participants (one side, randomly selected). There was an increase in biceps femoris (by 1.23 ± 2.87 %MVIC; p = 0.027) and gluteus maximus (by 0.63 ± 1.13 %MVIC; p = 0.023) electromyographic activity for the hamstring-injured side but no significant differences other than a decrease in multifidus activity (by 1.36 ± 2.92 %MVIC; p = 0.023) were evident for healthy participants while wearing the PCB. However, the effect sizes for these findings were small. Wearing the PCB did not significantly change electromyographic activity of other muscles in either participant group (p > 0.050). Moreover, the magnitude of change induced by the PCB was not significantly different between groups (p > 0.050) for the investigated muscles. Thus, application of a PCB to decrease electromyographic activity of injured hamstrings during BUS is likely to have little effect. Similar research is warranted in participants with acute hamstring injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Epistemic Stance in Courtroom Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Janus; Mortensen, Sune Sønderberg

    2017-01-01

    The oral examination of defendants and witnesses is a cornerstone in most criminal trials, where the weight and credibility of what is said and the certainty with which testimony is delivered will often be decisive for the ruling of the court. This chapter presents a case study of the linguistic ...

  20. Influence of Electrotactile Tongue Feedback on Controlling Upright Stance during Rotational and/or Translational Sway-referencing with Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Scott J.; Tyler, Mitchell E.; Bach-y-Rita, Paul; MacDougall, Hamish G.; Moore, Steven T.; Stallings, Valerie L.; Paloski, William H.; Black, F. Owen

    2007-01-01

    Integration of multi-sensory inputs to detect tilts relative to gravity is critical for sensorimotor control of upright orientation. Displaying body orientation using electrotactile feedback to the tongue has been developed by Bach-y-Rita and colleagues as a sensory aid to maintain upright stance with impaired vestibular feedback. MacDougall et al. (2006) recently demonstrated that unpredictably varying Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) significantly increased anterior-posterior (AP) sway during rotational sway referencing with eyes closed. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of electrotactile feedback on postural control performance with pseudorandom binaural bipolar GVS. Postural equilibrium was measured with a computerized hydraulic platform in 10 healthy adults (6M, 4F, 24-65 y). Tactile feedback (TF) of pitch and roll body orientation was derived from a two-axis linear accelerometer mounted on a torso belt and displayed on a 144-point electrotactile array held against the anterior dorsal tongue (BrainPort, Wicab, Inc., Middleton, WI). Subjects were trained to use TF by voluntarily swaying to draw figures on their tongue, both with and without GVS. Subjects were required to keep the intraoral display in their mouths on all trials, including those that did not provide TF. Subjects performed 24 randomized trials (20 s duration with eyes closed) including four support surface conditions (fixed, rotational sway-referenced, translating the support surface proportional to AP sway, and combined rotational-translational sway-referencing), each repeated twice with and without GVS, and with combined GVS and TF. Postural performance was assessed using deviations from upright (peak-to-peak and RMS sway) and convergence toward stability limits (time and distance to base of support boundaries). Postural stability was impaired with GVS in all platform conditions, with larger decrements in performance during trials with rotation sway

  1. Determinantes Sociales de la Salud: postura oficial y perspectivas críticas / Social Determinants of Health: official stance and critical views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Acero A

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available La relación entre las desigualdades socioeconómicas y el proceso salud enfermedad ha sido demostrada desde hace ya algún tiempo. Su estudio y posibilidades de intervención, han sido motivo de análisis de actores académicos e institucionales que asumen posturas según la ideología o corriente de pensamiento en la que se inscriben. Con el ánimo de analizar las causas de las inequidades en salud y hacer algunas recomendaciones, la Organización Mundial de la Salud estableció en el año 2005 la Comisión sobre Determinantes Sociales de la Salud. Perspectivas latinoamericanas como la Medicina Social y la Salud Colectiva reconocen la preocupación de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, sin embargo critican la posición asumida por la Comisión y organizan la discusión alrededor de los ejes conceptual, ético y de acción política, proponiendo, a diferencia de la Comisión, buscar las causas de la inequidad y sus vías de solución en lo que significa la determinación social. Cuestionamientos al enfoque de los determinantes sociales de la Comisión llegaron también desde autores como Vicente Navarro, para quien no son las desigualdades las que matan, sino los responsables de esas desigualdades, llamando la atención sobre las relaciones de poder que se ocultan y sobre los responsables y beneficiarios de la inequidad. Finalmente con el objetivo de analizar la determinación social y la ubicación jerárquica de los determinantes sociales, se presenta el problema del hambre, inscrito en un circuito de reproducción y determinación que permite ubicar la particularidad y la generalidad en permanente interrelación The relationship between socioeconomic inequalities and the health-disease process has long been demonstrated. Its study and possibilities for intervention have been submitted to analysis by academic and institutional actors which take more or less critical stances depending on their paradigms. In order to analyze the causes of

  2. In Conversation with Susan Holtz | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Canada has played a leading role in the institutional development of sustainable development thinking, starting with its strong financial and moral support of the Brundtland Commission and continuing with the Canadian contribution of policy round tables for sustainable development at all levels of governance, from local to ...

  3. Rene Valner ja Mikk Suursild - lihtsa elu tegelased / Susan Lahesalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lahesalu, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Arhitekt Rene Valner ja Mikk Suursild - tandem nimega UNITe - ehitavad ökonoomseid ja ökoloogilisi looduslikest materjalidest maju. Nende koostöös on valminud ka Peipsi ääres Nina külas 3 põhumaja. Ott Kadariku, Margit Mutso ja Kuido Kartau kommentaarid

  4. Contravene, write ... About the pain of others of Susan Sontag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Belén Couso

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the pain of others challenges our knowledge, challenges what is held as true. We appreciate this attitude condensed in the verb “to defy”. We analyze how Sontag develops her hypothesis and, from that point onward, which is the idea of criticism that emerges from the writing of Regarding the pain of others. Our analysis focuses on three of its topics: the reviewing of the ideas about the war that Virginia Woolf establishes on Three Guineas, the discussion of her own text On photography, and the criticism about Sebastião Salgado’s photography.

  5. Book Review Corpora in Applied Linguistics By Susan Hunston ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2002( ISBN 0 521 80171 0 (hardback) 0 521 80583 X (paperback) Southern African Linguistics and. Applied Language Studies 2003, 21(4): 345–347. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.2989/ ...

  6. Interview with Pennsylvania PUC chairman Susan M. Shanaman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utroska, D.

    1981-01-01

    Chairman Shanaman notes that Pennsylvania law justifies the Public Utility Commission (PUC) refusal to charge ratepayers for the cost of Three Mile Island units 1 and 2, neither of which are providing service, because ratepayers are already paying the costs of replacement power. The PUC chairman points to other service territories around the country where rates are kept below national averages because the average income level is low. The Metropolitan Edison Company is seeking Federal relief as well as legislative permission to put TMI-1 back into the rate base in fairness to ratepayers, but the PUC does not see bankruptcy for the utility as an appropriate way to force Federal assistance. The Administration needs to understand the local impact of Federal policies, especially those which are incompatible with state situations. Appropriate involvement includes nuclear waste research and underwriting some of the cleanup costs of onsite accidents that are too large for a single utility to handle. Chairman Shanaman feels that ratepayers should contribute to the insurance premium for future accidents, but not retroactively to support TMI-2. Nuclear power plant construction in the US will not progress until the issues of TMI-2 are resolved

  7. From Estonian Exile to Executive Office / Susan Frith

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Frith, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Vabariigi Presidendi Toomas Hendrik Ilvese elukäigust, haridusteest, poliitilistest vaadetest. T. H. Ilves lõpetas Pennsylvania ülikooli psühholoogia alal magistrikraadiga 1978. a. Artiklis on kasutatud telefoniintervjuud presidendiga. T. H. Ilvese kohta avaldavad arvamust ülikoolikaaslane Brian Wandell ja Eesti Rahvuskomitee Ühendriikides endine president Juhan Simonson. Ülevaade artiklist ilmunud ka: Vaba Eesti Sõna, 24. jaan. 2008, lk. 7, 10: Vaga, Airi. Eesti president Toomas H. Ilves Pennsylvania ülikooli ajakirjas

  8. Entretien avec Susan Holtz | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    26 nov. 2010 ... La production de rapports publics est importante, car pour produire des rapports qui veulent vraiment dire quelque chose, il faut préciser clairement les ... politiques et écologiques idéalistes avec ce que les êtres humains semblent vouloir en réalité comme croissance économique, automobiles et biens ...

  9. Análise cinemática comparativa da fase de apoio da corrida em adultos e idosos Comparative kinematic analysis during the stance phase of running in adults and elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Kisho Fukuchi

    2008-01-01

    stance phase kinematics of running in adults and elderly runners. Seventeen adults (31±5 years old and 17 elderly runners (69±2 years old ran on a treadmill at 11 km/h while they were filmed by four digital cameras at 120 Hz. Rearfoot and knee joint movements were measured during the stance phase of running. The elderly runners showed lower knee flexion and lower tibial internal rotation excursion. Elderly runners apparently presented greater asynchrony between rearfoot and knee joint movement than adults. These findings suggest that during running stance elderly runners adopt different movement patterns when compared to adults. Prescription of physical activities for the elderly and prevention strategies in elderly runners should consider these findings.

  10. Energy expenditure during walking in amputees after disarticulation of the hip. A microprocessor-controlled swing-phase control knee versus a mechanical-controlled stance-phase control knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, T; Sawamura, S; Shiba, R; Oyabu, H; Nagakura, Y; Nakagawa, A

    2005-01-01

    We have compared the energy expenditure during walking in three patients, aged between 51 and 55 years, with unilateral disarticulation of the hip when using the mechanical-controlled stance-phase control knee (Otto Bock 3R15) and the microprocessor-controlled pneumatic swing-phase control knee (Intelligent Prosthesis, IP). All had an endoskeletal hip disarticulation prosthesis with an Otto Bock 7E7 hip and a single-axis foot. The energy expenditure was measured when walking at speeds of 30, 50, and 70 m/min. Two patients showed a decreased uptake of oxygen (energy expenditure per unit time, ml/kg/min) of between 10.3% and 39.6% when using the IP compared with the Otto Bock 3R15 at the same speeds. One did not show any significant difference in the uptake of oxygen at 30 m/min, but at 50 and 70 m/min, a decrease in uptake of between 10.5% and 11.6% was found when using the IP. The use of the IP decreased the energy expenditure of walking in these patients.

  11. Atividade eletromiográfica durante exercícios de propriocepção de tornozelo em apoio unipodal Electromyographic activity during ankle proprioception exercises on one-foot stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Callegari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Propriocepção refere-se à percepção dos mecanorreceptores para discriminar a posição do corpo e movimentos articulares, bem como tensões sobre os tendões na fase estática ou dinâmica da marcha. Objetivou-se avaliar por eletromiografia a ativação muscular do gastrocnêmio e tibial anterior em diferentes exercícios de propriocepção do tornozelo em apoio unipodal, comparando graus de dificuldade. Foram selecionados 54 voluntários, sedentários, destros, do sexo masculino (20-35 anos. Exercícios foram feitos no balancinho, prancha de equilíbrio, cama elástica e solo, à razão de três repetições de 15 segundos cada, com intervalo de 15 segundos entre as repetições. Ao final dos testes os voluntários indicaram a maior dificuldade. A atividade elétrica de ambos os músculos foi significativamente maior durante o teste no balancinho. No solo, ambos os músculos apresentaram menor atividade, mas apenas no gastrocnêmio essa diferença foi significativa. No exercício na prancha de equilíbrio e na cama elástica não se encontrou diferença quanto à ativação dos músculos. Na análise intermúsculo foi observada maior atividade do tibial anterior, exceto no balancinho. Assim, para o treino do apoio unipodal na aquisição do ganho proprioceptivo, o equipamento adotado deve ser escolhido com cuidado: no balancinho é maior o recrutamento dos músculos tibial anterior e gastrocnêmio, assim como é maior o grau de dificuldade para manutenção do equilíbrio.Proprioception refers to the ability of mechanoreceptors to discriminate body position and joint movements, as well as tensions during static or dynamic phases. The aim of this study was to assess, by means of surface electromyography, activation patterns of the gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles in proprioception exercises, also comparing difficulty levels. Fifty-four sedentary, right-handed, 20-to-35 year-old male volunteers performed single-leg stance

  12. An Evaluation of the Correlation between the Free Moments Applied on the Lower Extremity and the Knee Extensor Mechanism Force in Pronated Foot Subjects during the Stance Phase of Gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Yazdani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the rotatory nature of the excessive subtalar pronation and the possible impairment of the tibial rotation-knee flexion mechanism, changes of the free moment (FM and changes of the extensor mechanism force are expected in hyper-pronated foot subjects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the FM applied on the lower extremity and the knee extensor mechanism force in subjects with flexible pronated feet. Methods: Fifteen asymptomatic female subjects (21.32±1.66 y, 56.30±6.08 kg, 159±6.3 cm participated in the study. Excessive subtalar pronation was determined by measuring the resting calcaneal stance position (RCSP in the frontal plane during weight bearing. A neutrally aligned foot was defined as having an RCSP between 2° of inversion and 2° of eversion. On the other hand, a flat foot had an RCSP of more than or equal to 4° of eversion. Both kinetic and kinematic data were collected using a six-camera motion analysis system and a single force plate. Three successful barefoot walking trials were recorded at selfselected speeds. The extensor mechanism force and the adductory component of the free moment (ADD FM were calculated. The correlation between the ADD FM and the knee extensor mechanism force was examined using the Pearson correlation test. Results: The Pearson correlation analysis showed a high positive correlation between the ADD FM and the extensor mechanism force (r=0.917, P<0.001. Conclusion: Excessive subtalar pronation, along with a possible impairment of the tibial rotation-knee flexion mechanism, may affect the extensor mechanism force at the knee joint. From a clinical perspective, the possible biomechanical linkage between the knee and the foot complex in the physical examination and treatment of patients should be considered.

  13. Asymmetric sensory reweighting in human upright stance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Logan

    Full Text Available To investigate sensory reweighting as a fundamental property of sensor fusion during standing, we probed postural control with simultaneous rotations of the visual scene and surface of support. Nineteen subjects were presented with pseudo-random pitch rotations of visual scene and platform at the ankle to test for amplitude dependencies in the following conditions: low amplitude vision: high amplitude platform, low amplitude vision: low amplitude platform, and high amplitude vision: low amplitude platform. Gain and phase of frequency response functions (FRFs to each stimulus were computed for two body sway angles and a single weighted EMG signal recorded from seven muscles. When platform stimulus amplitude was increased while visual stimulus amplitude remained constant, gain to vision increased, providing strong evidence for inter-modal reweighting between vision and somatosensation during standing. Intra-modal reweighting of vision was also observed as gains to vision decreased as visual stimulus amplitude increased. Such intra-modal and inter-modal amplitude dependent changes in gain were also observed in muscular activity. Gains of leg segment angle and muscular activity relative to the platform, on the other hand, showed only intra-modal reweighting. That is, changing platform motion amplitude altered the responses to both visual and support surface motion whereas changing visual scene motion amplitude did not significantly affect responses to support surface motion, indicating that the sensory integration scheme between somatosensation (at the support surface and vision is asymmetric.

  14. Narrative Transparency: Adopting a Rhetorical Stance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnould, Eric; Press, Melea

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we look at how alternative marketing organisations communicate transparency in a climate of generalised risk and scepticism. We contrast the traditional numeric approach to transparency, which involves auditing and third-party certifications; with an alternative approach that we call...... transparency to their stakeholders. These rhetorical tactics include persona, allegory, consumer sovereignty and enlightenment. Community supported agriculture programmes from across the United States are the context for this study. Findings enrich discussions about best practices for transparency...

  15. The changing stance of the Canadian Government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d'Haenens, L.S.J.; Proulx, S.

    2000-01-01

    This article looks at policy options taken by the Canadian government in an age of globalization and information. A first part explores federal government initiatives pertaining to Canada's preparedness for the information society. A second part assesses some provincial government policy options,

  16. Narrative Transparency: Adopting a Rhetorical Stance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnould, Eric; Press, Melea

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we look at how alternative marketing organisations communicate transparency in a climate of generalised risk and scepticism. We contrast the traditional numeric approach to transparency, which involves auditing and third-party certifications; with an alternative approach that we call...

  17. Stances of (invisibility of the female Negro body: focusing on portinari’s pictorial aesthetics = Regimes de (invisibilidade do corpo negro feminino: a estética pictural portinariana em tela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismara Eliane Vidal de Souza Tasso

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Current analysis investigates the manner identity constitution and black female’s visual representation in Portinari’s iconography is shown within the theoretical presuppositions of the French Discourse Analysis in alignment with the theoretical bases of Peirce’s Semiotics, the History of the Body and Cultural Studies. The social and the political factors are understood through an interpretative stance, within the paradoxical state of intangible significant materiality. The descriptive, interpretative, archeological andgenealogical movement showed that the half-naked body is presented as erotic, perceived as exotic and treated as profane. The movement also showed that sensuality is signified and resignified by the marginal since it works with discursive memory which conceives the exotic as an order opposed to existence, namely the profane order, and the place in which the subjects of difference encounter one another.O objetivo deste artigo é demonstrar o modo de constituição identitária e de representação visual da mulher negra na iconografiaportinariana, sob os pressupostos teóricos da Análise do Discurso de linha francesa, em diálogo com os fundamentos teóricos da Semiótica peirceana, da História do Corpo e dos Estudos Culturais. Dessa forma, buscamos apreender, no estado paradoxal da materialidade significante intangível, o social e o político, por meio de um gesto de leitura. O movimento descritivo-interpretativo arqueogenealógico empreendido demonstrou que o corpo semidesnudo é apresentado como erótico, visto como exótico e tratado como profano e a sensualidade significada e ressignificada pelo marginal, em razão de operar com a memória discursiva de que o exótico constitui uma ordem contrária de existência, a do profano, lugar em que se encontram os sujeitos da diferença.

  18. Will this work for Susan? Challenges for Delivering Usable and Useful Generic Linked Data Browsers

    OpenAIRE

    schraefel, monica; Smith, Daniel Alexander; Popov, Igor; Van Kleek, Max; Shadbolt, Nigel

    2010-01-01

    While we witness an explosion of exploration tools for simple datasets on Web 2.0 designed for use by ordinary citizens, the goal of a usable interface for supporting navigation and sense-making over arbitrary linked data has remained elusive. The purpose of this paper is to analyse why - what makes exploring linked data so hard? Through a user-centered use case scenario, we work through requirements for sense making with data to extract functional requirements and to compare these against ou...

  19. Cracking the finger code: an interview with CCR’s Susan Mackem | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The creation of the digits in our hand—the thumb, index-middle-ring fingers and pinky—begins early in development, but little is known about the exact programming that occurs to produce the different digit types. Investigators in the Cancer and Developmental Biology Laboratory, (CDBL), provide the first genetic evidence of how the tuning of signals sets digit identity by studying the effects of dysregulation (abnormal regulation) in several mutations. Read more…

  20. 77 FR 73663 - Susan F. Knott; Denial of Hearing; Final Debarment Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... Research International, Inc. (TRI). BOTOX is a biological product derived from botulinum toxin type A that... facial wrinkles in 1991. According to the records of the criminal proceedings, Knott, in following a... criminal proceedings, however, Knott pled guilty to misbranding and causing the misbranding of a drug in...

  1. Comment on "Revisiting the 1872 owens valley, California, earthquake" by Susan E. Hough and Kate Hutton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakun, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    Bakun (2009) argues that the conclusions of Hough and Hutton (2008) are wrong because the study failed to take into account the Sierra Nevada attenuation model of Bakun (2006). In particular, Bakun (2009) argues that propagation effects can explain the relatively high intensities generated by the 1872 Owens Valley earthquake. Using an intensity attenuation model that attempts to account for attenuation through the Sierra Nevada, Bakun (2006) infers the magnitude estimate (Mw 7.4–7.5) that is currently accepted by National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC).

  2. Diasporic Reconciliations of Politics, Love and Trauma: Susan Abulhawa's Quest for Identity in "Mornings in Jenin"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Shomar, Ayman M.

    2015-01-01

    Negotiating human conditions is an emblematic critical impetus of diaspora informed by multiple cultural possibilities practiced through the creation of multiple spaces that cross the realm of the "self" to that of the "other." It offers a locale to cross from the oppressed "self" to an understanding of an oppressor…

  3. In Appreciation of Claude Warren and Susan Rose's "William Pengelly's Techniques of Archaeological Excavation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Browman

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available The short (40 pages pamphlet by Warren and Rose (1994 provides the answer to a complex question regarding credit for an important archaeological methodology, stratigraphic excavation. Let me set the stage for this appreciation. Continuing research on the beginnings of stratigraphic excavations in North America (Browman and Givens 1996, I sought the origins of the idea of actually excavating by strata, rather than post-facto interpretation, seen in North American as early as 1895 in the work of Henry Chapman Mercer, but not really introduced into the repertoire of American techniques until the work of Gamio, Kidder and Nelson between 1911 and 1914. The roots of the latter three seemed to lie with individuals such as Reisner, Boas, Uhle, who in turn seemed to rely on Hugo Obennaier, Gabriel de Mortillet, Marcellin Boule, and perhaps Pitt-Rivers, while Mercer's work could be traced to Boule and Albert Gaudry. Doggedly following back the roots, I found that Chapman (1989 could make a reasonable case that Pitt-Rivers had actually learned of the idea of strati­graphic excavation from Evans, Prestwich, and Lubbock, from the British scientists working with the Upper and Middle Paleolithic excavations during 1858-1868.

  4. Nõukogude "kaasaegne stiil" : sotsialistlik modernism = The Soviet "contemporary style" : a socialist modernism / Susan E. Reid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reid, Susan E., 1959-

    2009-01-01

    Modernismile lähenemisest nõukogude kunstis. Nõukogude kunstikriitikast ja -praktikast. Kaasaegne stiil sünteesis arhitektuuriga. Nõukogude Palee teostamata projektist Moskvas. 1962. aastal valminud Moskva Pioneeride Paleest kui stalinistliku praktika hülgamise näitest

  5. The institutional stance in agent-based simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sileno, G.; Boer, A.; van Engers, T.; Filipe, J.; Fred, A.L.N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-agent framework intended to animate scenarios of compliance and non-compliance in a normative system. With the purpose of describing social human behaviour, we choose to reduce social complexity by creating models of the involved agents starting from stories, and

  6. Students' Resources for Stance-Taking in the Literature Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabel, Kristine

    Making aspects of privileged ways of participating visible is central to support students’ literacy development within different educational disciplines (Hasan, 1996, 2011). In my doctoral work I focus on the discipline of literature in lower secondary school in the school subject of Danish...... of schooling, and as such the study aims at supporting discussions of privileged ways of participating and of co-constructing codes in the discipline, and thereby support the lower secondary teacher in a visible pedagogy....

  7. A Kantian stance on teleology in biology | Cohen | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No Abstract. South African Journal of Philosophy Vol.26 (2) 2007: pp. 109-121. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sajpem.v26i2.31466 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  8. Illuminating a dialectical transformative activist stance in education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Stephen M.

    2008-07-01

    In this essay I comment on Stetsenko's (2008) essay that draws together the work of Vygotsky, Piaget and Dewey, as she attempts to counter the `new' reductionist synthesis in public educational policy. While this theoretical work is helpful, it could be enhanced further by illuminating everyday practices of learners. I pose some questions that might provoke ongoing discussions by researchers as they transform collaboratively cultural-historical activity theory.

  9. Quantifying balance control during stance: a multivariate system identification approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhart, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Balance control involves the contribution of neural, muscular and sensory systems, which work together via complex feedback pathways in a closed loop. With age or disease, the underlying systems in balance control can deteriorate; e.g. muscle strength decreases, the sensory systems become less

  10. Urban Teacher Education in Partnership: An Inquiry Stance Sustains Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stairs, Andrea J.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between Brighton High School (BHS) and Boston College (BC) spans several decades. Professors from multiple departments at the university--not only teacher educators but professors of psychology, measurement, and arts and sciences--have walked, as regular parts of the school community, the halls of the gothic-style high school…

  11. Exploring stance and listener alignment in public discourse | Thuube ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses public speakers' discursive use of modality markers to persuade their audiences in political discourse. Although modality has been a subject of much investigation in different research areas recently, there has been no empirical examination of their role or functions in political discourse in Lesotho.

  12. Diagnostic frameworks and nursing diagnoses: a normative stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanotti, Renzo; Chiffi, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic frameworks are essential to many scientific and technological activities and clinical practice. This study examines the main fundamental aspects of such frameworks. The three components required for all diagnoses are identified and examined, i.e. their normative dimension, temporal nature and structure, and teleological perspective. The normative dimension of a diagnosis is based on (1) epistemic values when associated with Hempel's inductive risk concerning the balance between false-positive and false-negative outcomes, leading to probabilistic judgements; and (2) non-epistemic values when related to ideas such as well-being, normality, illness, etc, as idealized norms or ideal points of reference. It should be noted that medical diagnoses match the three necessary components, while some essential diagnostic frameworks - the taxonomies of Gordon and NANDA - in nursing lack some components. The main lack is normative as the most popular frameworks in nursing diagnosis seem to be descriptions of observed reality rather than normative and value-based judgements in which both epistemic and non-epistemic values may coexist. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Reading, writing, rebelling. Propositions for a renewed critical stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Doubinsky

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available What is reading? What is writing? What connects the two? These questions have been the fertile ground for many literary and philosophical theories, from New Criticism to Deconstruction. This essay does not pretend answering to these two questions, but rather to question the question themselves and try to shed a different light of this essential problematic. Choosing not to consider literature as a stable concept, but rather as an ontologically impermanent one, I try to reflect upon the terms that condition our approach of works and of the creation of these works. In a large perspective, the notions of “reading” and “writing” are examined through the prism of their incarnations as “works”, and the consequences of this identity have on our critical discourse. In order to read critically, one must thus recognize this immanent instability of our notions and definitions, and begin from there instead of ending there. In other words, the instability of the reading is the only way to mirror the instability of the works, and to acknowledge their ever-changing form. Far from being innocent, critical reading therefore appears as a radical, but necessary action, a rebellion against the obvious and accepted definitions to which works are too often attached.

  14. The Empirical Stance vs. The Critical Attitude | Rowbottom | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    But this characterisation emerges from his recognition that to be an empiricist cannot be to believe, or decide to commit to belief in, a foundational proposition, without removing any basis for a non-dogmatic empiricist critique of other philosophical approaches, such as materialism. However, noticeable by its absence in Van ...

  15. Leadership Development From A Systems Psychodynamic Consultancy Stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. De Jager

    2003-11-01

    Hierdie navorsing poog om die impak van ‘n leierskapsontwikkelingsprogram wat aangebied is vanuit die sistemiese psigodinamiese perspektief, te evalueer. Die doel was om psigoanalitiese ingeligte leiers te ontwikkel om verandering en transformasie in die gedurige veranderende en transformerende Nuwe Ekonomie netwerk organisasie, te lei. Ten einde dit te bolwerk is. ‘n Groep -verhoudinge-opleidingsprogram is aangebied vir 30 leiers. Kwalitatiewe evaluasie deur van begrondingsteorie gebruik te maak gedurende, die post-intervensie fokus groepe het ‘n groepbewustheid aangedui van psigodinamiese leierskapgedrag soos die regressie na dikwelse patologiese leierskapspersoonlikheidskenmerke, regressie in onbewustelike groep- en organisatoriese prosesse soos die basiese aanname-groep, die koverte-koalisie- en sosiaal-gestruktureerde-verdedigingsisteme teen verandering en transformasie. Insig is ook in die nuwe leierskap rol en die opneem van persoonlike outoriteit in die netwerk organisasie wat moet funksioneer as ‘n sistemiese geheel, bekom. Aanbevelings word gemaak om die leierskapsrol in verandering in terme van vaardighede in die Nuwe Ekonomienetwerkorganisasie, te bevorder.

  16. Eastern Mediterranean Natural Gas: Analyzing Turkey’s Stance

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Tanrıverdi

    2013-01-01

    Recent large-scale natural gas discoveries in East Mediterranean have drawn attention to the region. The discoveries caused both hope and tension in the region. As stated, the new resources may serve as a new hope for all relevant parties as well as the region if managed in a collaborative and conciliatory way. Energy may be a remedy to Cyprus' financial predicament, initiate a process for resolving differences between Turkey and Cyprus, normalize Israel-Turkey relations and so on. On the con...

  17. Government take cautious stance on curbing top salaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünell, M.

    2008-01-01

    At the end of 2007, the Frijns Committee, which makes recommendations on policy concerning top salaries, published its third annual report. The committee wants to maintain self-regulation in companies and again spoke out against legislation. Although the finance minister repeatedly referred to the

  18. Morality and Foreign Policy. A Symposium on President Carter's Stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefever, Ernest W., Ed.

    This monograph contains a critical examination of President Carter's view on ethics and foreign policy as expressed in his commencement speech at Notre Dame University on May 22, 1977. The book is organized into three parts. Part 1 contains Mr. Carter's speech entitled, "Power for Humane Purposes." Part 2 contains nine responses to the…

  19. Links between Parents' Epistemological Stance and Children's Evidence Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, Megan R.; Callanan, Maureen A.; Smilovic, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Recent experimental research highlights young children's selectivity in learning from others. Little is known, however, about the patterns of information that children actually encounter in conversations with adults. This study investigated variation in parents' tendency to focus on testable evidence as a way to answer science-related questions…

  20. Postural responses to multidirectional stance perturbations in cerebellar ataxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Maaike; Allum, John H J; Visser, Jasper E; Grüneberg, Christian; van de Warrenburg, Bart P; Kremer, H P H; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies of patients with focal cerebellar damage underscored the importance of the cerebellum for balance control. These studies were restricted to postural control in the pitch plane, and focused mainly on leg muscle responses. Here, we examined the effect of degenerative cerebellar

  1. Human Genetic Engineering: A Survey of Student Value Stances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sara McCormack; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Assesses the values of high school and college students relative to human genetic engineering and recommends that biology educators explore instructional strategies merging human genetic information with value clarification techniques. (LS)

  2. Reasons Given by UK Churchgoers for Their Stance on Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Village, Andrew; Baker, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    A sample of 661 churchgoers from a range of Christian denominations in the United Kingdom was asked about Darwinian evolution (defined as the common origin of all species, including humans). Respondents were categorised as those who accepted the idea, those who rejected it, and those who were unsure or neutral. People in each category were given a…

  3. Unilateral Stance Strategies of Athletes With ACL Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stasi, Stephanie L.; Hartigan, Erin H.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant movement strategies are characteristic of ACL-deficient athletes with recurrent knee instability (non-copers), and may instigate premature or accelerate joint degradation. Biomechanical evaluation of kinematic changes over time may elucidate noncopers’ responses to neuromuscular intervention and ACL reconstruction (ACLR). Forty noncopers were randomized into a perturbation group or a strength training only group. We evaluated the effects of perturbation training, and then gender on knee angle and tibial position during a unilateral standing task before and after ACLR. No statistically significant interactions were found. Before surgery, the strength training only group demonstrated knee angle asymmetry, but 6 months after ACLR, both groups presented with similar knee flexion between limbs. Aberrant and asymmetrical tibial position was found only in females following injury and ACLR. Neither treatment group showed distinct unilateral standing strategies following intervention; however, males and female noncopers appear to respond uniquely to physical therapy and surgery. PMID:22983931

  4. Conveying a Stance of Religious Pluralism in Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Jennifer; Foyil, Kris; Graff, Jennifer M.

    2010-01-01

    Religious discrimination is a global concern, as social dissonance and devastating violence result from religious intolerance. In order to develop socially competent, global citizens and create a peaceful society, religious diversity must be explored in public school classrooms; yet it remains a controversial and seldom addressed topic. Children's…

  5. Detection of knee unlock during stance using accelerometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltink, Petrus H.; Franken, Henry M.; Franken, H.M.

    1996-01-01

    Detection of knee unlock is a crucial part of finite state artificial reflex control of paraplegic standing supported by functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS). This paper investigates knee unlock detection schemes using small uniaxial accelerometers mounted on the thigh and shank. Four single

  6. 75 FR 22012 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List Susan's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... the Hydroptilidae have been described as eating the cellular content of algae (Vieira and Kondratieff... that incidental dispersal via wind or adhesion to animals or humans could occur, but neither dispersal...

  7. Uncovering Our History, Teaching Primary Sources (Tarihimizi Keşfetme, Birincil Kaynaklarla Öğretim - Susan H. Veccia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Alphan Şentuna

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Okul yıllarından bahseden insanların büyük bir çoğunluğu için tarih dersi, not almak için isimlerin ve tarihlerin ezberlendiği, sınavdan sonra ise unutulduğu bir ders olarak hatıralarda yer alır. Günümüzde tarih öğretiminde önemli gelişmeler olmasına rağmen hala derslerde öğretmenlerin isim, tarih ve ders kitabı merkezli bir öğretim izledikleri görülmektedir. Öğrencilerin eleştirel ve tarihsel düşünme becerisi elde etmeleri için ilk önce bilgiye sahip olmaları gerektiği inancı, öğretmenlerin derslerde yenilikçi yöntemlere yeterli zaman ayırmalarını engellemektedir. Bu durum öğrencilerin tarih dersinden soğumalarına ve dersi zaman kaybı olarak görmelerine neden olmaktadır.

  8. Understanding Unlikeness, in John Chamberlain: Choices, Susan Davidson, ed. (New York: Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, 2012), pp. 45–55

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Kohn

    2017-01-01

    ere is just some of what we are given to understand John Chamberlain’s art as being like: car wrecks and dancers, artichokes and mummies and giant phalluses, drapery, a football player, ornaments for an immense Christmas tree and monstrous jungle-gyms, a sucked egg, and Titans beside themselves with rage. Next, a long list of the art-historical movements that his pieces have brought to mind: the baroque and rococo, neoclassicism, Cubism, Dada and Surrealism, both Abstract Expressionism and Po...

  9. The COlIStruction of the Self: A Developmental Perspective. Susan Harter. New York, NY: Guilford Press, 1999.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Leanne Bosacki

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the fields of educational and developmental psychology, interest has grown concerning the question of how cognitive and socioemotional processes work together to construct pathways for the self. In particular, researchers and educators have become increasingly interested in the role that the school plays in children's self-development. According to Jerome Bruner, "the single most universal thing about human experience is the phenomenon of the 'Self" (1996, p. 35 and advocates that education is crucial to its formation. However, despite the strong theoretical claims linking a child's sense of self to school experience, there has been a lack of systematic research on the self within the school context.

  10. Anti-immigration stance in the context of crisis tendencies of European policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V Marusyk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the formation of contemporary migration flows to Europe, factors and characteristics of ambiguous perception of the process by the local population, particularly in the context of crisis tendencies at the beginning of XXI century. The key features of the new far-right parties, the fundamental differences between the ruling parties of totalitarian regimes and neo-Nazi or neo-fascist organizations, the problems of their positioning in the realities of the European integration process and the use of anti-immigration rhetoric are distinguished. The peculiarities of electoral success at the national and European level, the reasons of differences in results at these levels are defined. The differences of electoral systems and the impact of new voting behavior in elections to the legislatures of various levels are analyzed. The author highlighted the trends of mitigation of anti-immigration rhetoric of the far-right and the spread of this theme among less radical parties. A special attention is also drawn to the referendum in Switzerland, as an example of the majority of voters’ support of immigration restrictions. The analysis is made of electoral processes in recent years, which have become increasingly linked and actively respond to general European crisis. Through the prism of this crisis the anti-immigration position is one of the brightest, but it’s no longer self-sufficient problem of European integration processes.

  11. Diagnosis or Diagnosing? From Symptoms to a Phenomenological-Psychoanalytic Stance on the Patient's World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi Monti, Mario; D'Agostino, Alessandra

    2018-04-01

    While on the one hand therapists can count on a number of codified and standardized diagnostic procedures, on the other hand it is hard to believe that in their daily work therapists slavishly follow these standardized procedures. In a clinical assessment, the diagnosis seems to be the outcome of a naïve and fuzzy process that is strongly influenced by personal training, by, theoretical models, and by one's masters as well as the experience gained in the field. What happens inside the no man's land of the clinical encounter? Can we identify some landmarks in these "amoeboid" exploratory moves? This paper addresses diagnosis not only as a noun or name ("diagnosis"), but also as a verb ("diagnosing"), arguing that a diagnostic space opens up thanks to an oscillatory state of mind that emerges at the intersection of different ways of looking "through" the symptom.

  12. Effect of plantar cutaneous inputs on center of pressure during quiet stance in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Wang

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: The findings indicate that mechanical facilitation of sensation on the plantar soles enhanced postural stability in older adults. The results show that plantar cutaneous inputs provide information that leads to reduced postural sway in healthy older adults. This could have implications in clinical and rehabilitative areas.

  13. Liberating literacies: L1-students resources for stance-taking in the literature classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabel, Kristine; Brok, Lene Storgaard

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Reflection literacy, students’ meaning-making resources, literature education, lower secondary school, qualitative case studies Making aspects of privileged ways of participating visible is central to supporting students’ literacy development within different disciplines. However......, educational linguistics and literacy studies on students’ meaning-making resources in lower secondary school indicate that some significant resources within L1 at this stage of schooling are often part of an invisible curriculum (Christie, 2012; Folkeryd, 2007; Macken-Horarik,1996,2006; Penne, 2006......) and their resources for negotiation and collaboration (Year 5). The purpose of both studies is to develop a metalanguage adequate to characterize interpersonal aspects of students’ actual meaning-making resources, a metalanguage that can support discussions of privileged ways of participating and of co-constructing L...

  14. Postural control during one-leg stance in active and sedentary older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo George Victorio Victor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity and aging are functional disability factors for older individuals, causing loss of balance and increasing the risk of falls. The purpose of this study was to compare the balance of physically independent older individuals, both participants and non-participants in a regular exercise program. Fifty six physically independent older participants were divided into G1ACTIVE = 28 individuals who participate in a regular exercise program and G2SEDENTARY = 28 individuals who did not participate in any physical exercise program. All participants underwent an eyes-open during one-leg balance test on a force platform. The postural oscillation parameters included center of pressure (COP; sway mean velocity and frequency of COP oscillations. G2 SEDENTARY showed higher postural instability than G1ACTIVE. Significant differences were observed for the main balance parameters. The results of this study support the concept that participation in regular physical activity is beneficial for postural balance of older individuals.

  15. Palliative Nursing and Sacred Medicine: A Holistic Stance on Entheogens, Healing, and Spiritual Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, William E; Hope, Stephanie; Matzo, Marianne

    2018-04-01

    The fields of palliative and holistic nursing both maintain a commitment to the care of the whole person, including a focus on spiritual care. Advanced serious illness may pose a plethora of challenges to patients seeking to create meaning and purpose in their lives. The purpose of this article is to introduce scholarly dialogue on the integration of entheogens, medicines that engender an experience of the sacred, into the spiritual and holistic care of patients experiencing advanced serious illness. A brief history of the global use of entheogens as well as a case study are provided. Clinical trials show impressive preliminary findings regarding the healing potential of these medicinal agents. While other professions, such as psychology, pharmacy, and medicine, are disseminating data related to patient outcomes secondary to entheogen administration, the nursing literature has not been involved in raising awareness of such advancements. Research is illustrating their effectiveness in achieving integrative experiences for patients confronting advanced serious illness and their ability to promote presence, introspection, decreased fear, and increased joy and acceptance. Evidence-based knowledge surrounding this potentially sensitive topic is necessary to invite understanding, promote scientific knowledge development, and create healing environments for patients, nurses, and researchers alike.

  16. Teachers' Stances on Cell Phones in the ESL Classroom: Toward a "Theoretical" Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    In the ongoing and constantly expanding discussion surrounding cell phones in the classroom, a theoretical complement to the practical side of the issue is generally lacking. This is perhaps understandable. Many teachers are still trying to deal with the simple presence of cell phones in the class, and managing a classroom in which the presence…

  17. Religious Pluralism, yet a Homogenous Stance on Interest Rate: The Case of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Abou-Zaid

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the conventional consensus that interest rates are efficient mechanism of allocating loanable funds and the most influential monetary policy instrument in modern economies, the three major monotheistic religions, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, prohibit the use of interest and consider charging interest as an act of exploitation and extortion. Several passages and verses in the Torah, the Bible, and the Quran make their position on interest clear and definitive, from the Bible’s dictum, “Do not charge your brother interest” to the Quran’s exhortation “give up what remains of your demand for usury.” This paper reviews those passages and verses, provides different scholars’ perspectives on these verses, and relates them to the current financial system. The paper also presents several recent events that support the religious position by showing the negative impact of interest on countries, societies, and individuals. These events have, in fact, inspired many economists and financial institutions to seek alternatives to the current system.

  18. Trying to be useful: three different interventions for one therapeutic stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingiardi, Vittorio

    2013-09-01

    This article is an attempt to analyze therapist's actions or strategies that contribute to an effective therapy session and are clinically useful to the therapeutic process. To link the clinical practice to the empirical research, three kinds of therapist interventions, based on the Psychotherapy Process Q-Set, are described. They include (1) an empathic attitude in dealing with the difficulties of the patient and his or her affective experience, (2) the identification and exploration of recurrent themes in the patient's experience or conduct, and (3) addressing a patient's defenses, to ward off awareness of threatening feelings. For each of these interventions, the author provides both clinical and research data that support their use, as well as verbatim clinical exchanges, which allow a better understanding of the mechanisms of therapeutic actions in real clinical practice. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  19. Teacher College Students' Views of Controversial Environmental Issues: Ambivalence and Readiness to Adopt a Stance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Yehudith; Dreyfus, Amos

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important goals of discussing controversial issues in the classroom is to educate students to possess an inclination towards reason, open mindedness and fairness. However, research tends to show that teachers are not adequately trained to lead fruitful discussions about controversial issues and do not possess the necessary skills…

  20. Virtual patients as activities: exploring the research implications of an activity theoretical stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellaway, Rachel H

    2014-09-01

    Virtual patients are computer-based simulators of patient encounters for the purposes of instruction, practice, and assessment. Although virtual patients have been around for some time they have yet to become part of mainstream medical education. A major reason for this would seem to be a lack of clarity as to what educational value virtual patients actually have. This paper argues that virtual patients should be seen as activities rather than artifacts and that activity theory can be used to generate different ways to frame scholarship in and around virtual patients. Drawing on the work of Leont'ev and Engeström this paper describes a range of perspectives based on the operations, actions, and objectives in and around virtual patients; the use of virtual patients to mediate activities; and the sociocultural context and the participants in virtual patient activities. This approach allows us to move beyond the 'does or does not work' discourse of much of the existing scholarship around virtual patients and, to an extent, around educational technologies as a whole. Activity perspectives, and activity theory in particular, offer new horizons for research and evaluation that address many of the limitations of intervention-based paradigms of inquiry.

  1. Experimental muscle pain challenges the postural stability during quiet stance and unexpected posture perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Rogério Pessoto; Ervilha, Ulysses Fernandes; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    Musculoskeletal pain impairs postural control and stability. Nine subjects stood as quietly as possible on a moveable force platform before, during, and after experimental pain in the right leg muscles. A moveable force platform was used to measure the center of pressure and provided unexpected perturbations. Lower limb muscle activity, joint angles, and foot pressure distributions were measured. Hypertonic saline was used to induce pain in the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, or biceps femoris muscle of the right leg. Compared to baseline and control sessions, pain in the knee extensor muscles during quiet standing evoked: 1) larger sway area, greater medial-lateral center of pressure displacement and higher speed (P Pain provoked longer time to return to an equilibrium posture after forward EMG activity for, and pain in vastus medialis muscle decreased the time for the maximum hip flexion during this perturbation (P pain impairs postural stability during quiet standing and after unexpected perturbation, which suggest that people suffering from leg muscle pain are more vulnerable to falls. This article presents the acute responses to leg muscle pain on the postural control. This measure could potentially help clinicians who seek to assess how pain responses may contribute to patient's postural control and stability during quiet standing and after recovering from unexpected perturbations. Copyright © 2011 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Overcoming Uncertainty: Agency, Stance and the Rise of Collective Action in Times of Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidemann, Kai

    2017-01-01

    How do people exert their agency in the face of large-scale societal crises? Merging strands of sociolinguistic scholarship with social movement theory, this article offers a way of looking at how grassroots actors work to overcome dramatic episodes of macro-structural instability and uncertainty

  3. Genetic counseling and the disabled: feminism examines the stance of those who stand at the gate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Annette; Satz, Martha

    2002-01-01

    This essay examines the possible systematic bias against the disabled in the structure and practice of genetic counseling. Finding that the profession's "nondirective" imperative remains problematic, the authors recommend that methodology developed by feminist standpoint epistemology be used to incorporate the perspective of disabled individuals in genetic counselors' education and practice, thereby reforming society's view of the disabled and preventing possible negative effects of genetic counseling on the self-concept and material circumstance of disabled individuals.

  4. Exploring Three White American Teachers' Dispositional Stances towards Learning about Racial, Cultural, and Linguistic Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Cynthia H.; Pennington, Julie L.

    2014-01-01

    This study, situated in the United States, is set in a context where large and growing numbers of children from non-dominant backgrounds populate American public schools while the vast majority of teachers teaching in US schools are White, monolingual women who may not have the requisite expertise to teach children from non-dominant backgrounds.…

  5. Leaving Mango Street: Speech, Action and the Construction of Narrative in Britton's Spectator Stance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford-Garrett, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to unite "The House on Mango Street" by Sandra Cisneros with the participant and spectator theories of James Britton and D. W. Harding in the hopes that such a union will provide new insights into each. In particular, this article explores how the speech acts of Esperanza, the novel's protagonist, are indicative of a shifting…

  6. Agreement on abortion unravels. Vatican criticized for tough stance at U.N. conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-08

    The International Conference on Population and Development, underway in Cairo, has been dominated by acrimonious debate on the issue of abortion. By the third day of the conference, agreement had been reached by 90% of the proposed Program of Action. Delegates appeared to have developed a compromise passage that urged governments to recognize illegal abortion as a major public health problem. However, hours after the compromise, delegations from Argentina, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Malta, Slovakia, Uruguay, and Guam--all of which have Roman Catholic majorities--withdrew their support, claiming that some phrases were pro-abortion. Many conference participants are concerned that the Vatican and its Muslim allies are forcing the issue of women's lives and health to become subordinated to a male-dominated political struggle.

  7. The Intentional Stance as Structure Learning: A Computational Perspective on Mindreading

    OpenAIRE

    Dindo, Haris; Donnarumma, Francesco; Chersi, Fabian; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Recent theories of mindreading explain the recognition of action, intention, and belief of other agents in terms of generative architectures that model the causal relations between observables (e.g., observed movements) and their hidden causes (e.g., action goals and beliefs). Two kinds of probabilistic generative schemes have been proposed in cognitive science and robotics that link to a "theory theory" and "simulation theory" of mindreading, respectively. The former compares perceived actio...

  8. The associations between early life circum-stances and later life health and employment in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores, M.; Kalwij, Adriaan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/090663497

    2014-01-01

    We use data from the Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe to estimate for thirteen European countries the associations of early life circumstances—measured by childhood health and socioeconomic status (SES)—with educational attainment, and later life health and employment (at ages

  9. Diachronic changes in subjectivity and stance: A corpus linguistic study of Dutch news texts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, K.; Sanders, J.M.; Spooren, W.P.M.S.

    2012-01-01

    In several studies of English data, researchers have observed a trend of 'informalization': a shift of stylistic preferences in public written discourse, such as journalistic texts, towards a more conversational, or oral, style. In this paper, we aim to contribute to this issue by empirically

  10. Skin Manifestations of Insulin Resistance: From a Biochemical Stance to a Clinical Diagnosis and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Saldivar, Gloria; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, René; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; González-González, José Gerardo; Gómez-Flores, Minerva

    2017-03-01

    Worldwide, more than 1.9 billion adults are overweight, and around 600 million people suffer from obesity. Similarly, ~382 million individuals live with diabetes, and 40-50% of the global population is labeled at "high risk" (i.e., prediabetes). The impact of these two chronic conditions relies not only on the burden of illnesses per se (i.e., associated increased morbidity and mortality), but also on their increased cost, burden of treatment, and decreased health-related quality of life. For this review a comprehensive search in several databases including PubMed (MEDLINE), Ovid EMBASE, Web of Science, and Scopus was conducted. In both diabetes and obesity, genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors overlap and are inclusive rather than exclusive. De facto, 70-80% of the patients with obesity and virtually every patient with type 2 diabetes have insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is a well-known pathophysiologic factor in the development of type 2 diabetes, characteristically appearing years before its diagnosis. The gold standard for insulin resistance diagnosis (the euglycemic insulin clamp) is a complex, invasive, costly, and hence unfeasible test to implement in clinical practice. Likewise, laboratory measures and derived indexes [e.g., homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR-)] are indirect, imprecise, and not highly accurate and reproducible tests. However, skin manifestations of insulin resistance (e.g., acrochordons, acanthosis nigricans, androgenetic alopecia, acne, hirsutism) offer a reliable, straightforward, and real-time way to detect insulin resistance. The objective of this review is to aid clinicians in recognizing skin manifestations of insulin resistance. Diagnosing these skin manifestations accurately may cascade positively in the patient's health by triggering an adequate metabolic evaluation, a timely treatment or referral with the ultimate objective of decreasing diabetes and obesity burden, and improving the health and the quality of care for these patients.

  11. Countering Asocial Justice: Consumer Culture, Stance and a Cartography of Encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Matthew Dean

    2013-01-01

    In Social Foundations classrooms, social justice approaches to questions of difference are certainly part of the curriculum. After teaching numerous Social Foundations courses, I encountered several issues related to the way rigid identity categories were complemented by neoliberal narratives that seemed to limit class conversation in troubling…

  12. Gamification of Learning and Teaching in Schools – A Critical Stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Fabian Buck

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing transformation of learning and teaching is one facet of the progressing digitalization of all aspects of life. Gamification’s aim is to change learning for the better by making use of the motivating effects of (digital games and elements typical of games, like experience points, levelling, quests, rankings etc. Especially in the light of the success of Pokémon Go, multiple actors call for gamification of learning and teaching in schools as means for motivating students.From the perspective I introduce in this paper, gamification shows itself as reversion from serious pedagogical and didactical endeavours. This threatens to lead to the replacement of teaching by gamification and the (self degradation of teachers to support personnel. In this paper, I argue that gamified learning and teaching suspends the fundamental, subversive, and critical moments only schools can offer. Furthermore, it can lead to subjugation and isolation of students due to its inherent closed and enclosing structure. I further show how the line of argumentation of gamification advocates iterates that of progressive education.

  13. Gamification of Learning and Teaching in Schools--A Critical Stance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Marc Fabian

    2017-01-01

    The ongoing transformation of learning and teaching is one facet of the progressing digitalization of all aspects of life. Gamification's aim is to change learning for the better by making use of the motivating effects of (digital) games and elements typical of games, like experience points, levelling, quests, rankings etc. Especially in the light…

  14. Identifying deficits in balance control following vestibular or proprioceptive loss using posturographic analysis of stance tasks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horlings, C.G.; Kung, U.M.; Bloem, B.R.; Honegger, F.; Alfen, N. van; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Allum, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To distinguish between normal and deficient balance control due to vestibular loss (VL) or proprioceptive loss (PL) using pelvis and shoulder sway measures. METHODS: Body-worn gyroscopes measured pelvis and shoulder sway in pitch (anterior-posterior) and roll (side-to-side) directions in

  15. Analysis of the aerodynamic impact of the dispenser stance for the separation of cluster munitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the effect on the dynamic characteristics of the submunitions when subject to different separation conditions during cluster munitions separation, the separation processes are simulated by combining compressible unsteady Arbitrary Lagrange-Euler equations with a six degree-of-freedom parallel calculation program. The separation dynamic characteristics are calculated for six sets of separation conditions: with initial separation velocities of 8 m/s and 16 m/s, and separation angles of 3°, 5° and 7°. The aerodynamic interaction processes of the shock wave and the nonlinear aerodynamic characteristics are also analyzed. To verify the accuracy of the simulation, supersonic wind tunnel experiments were also carried out, the results of which agreed well with the numerical results. The results reveal that the projectile shock wave acting on the submunition serves to provide the pitching moment for the separation motion and causes a sharp change in the dynamic characteristics. The nonlinear dynamic features are characterized by the shock wave interference process in the different separation options.

  16. Taking an Active Stance: How Urban Elementary Students Connect Sociocultural Experiences in Learning Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Bhaskar; Maruyama, Geoffrey; Albrecht, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    In this interpretive case study, we draw from sociocultural theory of learning and culturally relevant pedagogy to understand how urban students from nondominant groups leverage their sociocultural experiences. These experiences allow them to gain an empowering voice in influencing science content and activities and to work towards…

  17. Of risks and regulations: how leading U.S. nanoscientists form policy stances about nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheufele, Dietram A.; Hu, Qian

    2009-01-01

    Even though there is a high degree of scientific uncertainty about the risks of nanotechnology, many scholars have argued that policy-making cannot be placed on hold until risk assessments are complete (Faunce, Med J Aust 186(4):189–191, 2007; Kuzma, J Nanopart Res 9(1):165–182, 2007; O’Brien and Cummins, Hum Ecol Risk Assess 14(3):568–592, 2008; Powell et al., Environ Manag 42(3):426–443, 2008). In the absence of risk assessment data, decision makers often rely on scientists’ input about risks and regulation to make policy decisions. The research we present here goes beyond the earlier descriptive studies about nanotechnology regulation to explore the heuristics that the leading U.S. nanoscientists use when they make policy decisions about regulating nanotechnology. In particular, we explore the relationship between nanoscientists’ risk and benefit perceptions and their support for nanotech regulation. We conclude that nanoscientists are more supportive of regulating nanotechnology when they perceive higher levels of risks; yet, their perceived benefits about nanotechnology do not significantly impact their support for nanotech regulation. We also find some gender and disciplinary differences among the nanoscientists. Males are less supportive of nanotech regulation than their female peers and materials scientists are more supportive of nanotechnology regulation than scientists in other fields. Lastly, our findings illustrate that the leading U.S. nanoscientists see the areas of surveillance/privacy, human enhancement, medicine, and environment as the nanotech application areas that are most in need of new regulations. PMID:21170136

  18. Future oil supply: The changing stance of the International Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Richard G., E-mail: richardmiller99@aol.co [Oil Depletion Analysis Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    The IEA was established in 1974 with a mandate to promote energy security amongst its members, namely the states of the OECD, and to advise those members on sound energy policy. Its recent forecasts of the medium and long term prospects for oil supply, however, have wavered, alternating from optimistic to pessimistic and back again. For policy-makers, such inconsistency is difficult to deal with. Firstly we examine whether the changing outlooks seen in IEA forecasts made between 2007 and 2010 truly reflect a demonstrable, underlying change in the known facts, and we can find no such factual changes reported by the IEA. Secondly we examine whether the serious criticisms of the forecast made by other analysts have yet been addressed, and we conclude that they have not. Thirdly we consider the possible effects of the current economic downturn upon the IEA's assumptions and upon future oil supply. We conclude that all the forecasts made by the IEA appear to be too optimistic throughout this period. - Research highlights: {yields} IEA forecasts of oil supply have changed from optimistic to pessimistic and back. {yields} The reasons for the changes are listed, examined and found wanting. {yields} The most appropriate IEA forecast is nevertheless the most pessimistic one. {yields} Some criticisms of the forecast methodology and assumptions are described.

  19. Taking an Investigative Stance in Using the Professional Standards in the Languages Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Kylie

    2009-01-01

    The Professional Standards Project (PSP) is a nationally coordinated professional learning program for languages teachers, to improve the quality of languages teaching and, thereby, improve student learning. It is based on the use of the "Professional standards for accomplished teaching of languages and cultures" (hereafter, "the…

  20. Oral Nutritional Supplements and Taste Adherence in Malnourished Adults Inpatients, Effect on Adhesion during Hospital Stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, Daniel Antonio; Izaola, Olatz; Lopez, Juan Jose; Torres, Beatriz; Gomez Hoyos, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate a hypercaloric sweet milk-based oral nutrition supplement in a prospective 3-day study designed to assess the taste preferences of this oral nutritional supplement (ONS) in malnourished inpatients and the influence on adherence in daily intake. A total of 46 in patients with recent weight loss were included in this study. One flavor (chocolate, vanilla or strawberry) was administered each day in a random way to each patient during 3 consecutive days. In the first 3 days, patients were asked to fill 2 questionnaires intended for reflecting ONS tolerance and acceptance. Sweet was better for chocolate flavor (3.9 ± 2.4 points) than for vanilla flavor (2.7 ± 2.3 points; p < 0.02) and strawberry flavor (3.1 ± 2.3 points; p < 0.01). Chocolate flavored ONSs were rated as having more aftertaste (3.4 ± 2.1 points) than vanilla (2.4 ± 2.1 points; p < 0.01) and strawberry (2.6 ± 1.5 points; p < 0.03). Patients who chose chocolate took a total of 20.7 ± 20.9 average bricks during hospitalization (1.95 ± 0.2 per day), patients who chose vanilla took 18.6 ± 21.0 bricks (1.90 ± 0.7 per day) and finally patients who chose strawberry took 14.5 ± 13.5 bricks during admission (1.78 ± 0.1 per day; p < 0.01). The taste preferences of all the ONSs are similar although the consumption is high in chocolate flavored ONS during hospitalization. Sweetness may have influenced this finding. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. "The Horror" of Structural Racism: Helping Students Take a Critical Stance Using Classic Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCardle, Todd

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this piece is to provide educators with the knowledge and practical application needed to build critical literacy within their students using a traditional text that might not be considered multicultural. This essay challenges the idea that "outdated" literary works have no place in today's multicultural classroom, as it…

  2. Ethics of Sex Tourism in Thailand: Finnish Tourists’ Stance to Prostitution and Human Trafficking

    OpenAIRE

    Peltonen, Aino

    2016-01-01

    This thesis researches attitudes, justifications and judgements of sex tourists towards responsible travelling, sex tourism, prostitution, prostitutes and human trafficking. The aim was to find out how sex tourists are thinking about the con-cepts related to the phenomena. The research was executed by surveying using quantitative research method via webropol.com. The questionnaire was spread in discussion forums regard-ing sex and sex tourism. The questionnaire generated altogether 75 res...

  3. Culturally Sustaining Pedagogy: A Needed Change in Stance, Terminology, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Django

    2012-01-01

    Seventeen years ago Gloria Ladson-Billings (1995) published the landmark article "Toward a Theory of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy," giving a coherent theoretical statement for resource pedagogies that had been building throughout the 1970s and 1980s. I, like countless teachers and university-based researchers, have been inspired by what it means…

  4. To what degree are environmentally beneficial choices reflective of a general conservation stance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Ølander, Folke

    2006-01-01

    Whether or not different environmentally beneficial choices have common motivational causes are discussed in the framework of partial correlation analysis with structural equation modeling. Correlations between recycling, buying organic food products, and using public transport or bicycle...

  5. To what degree are environmentally beneficial choices reflective of a general conservation stance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Ølander, Carl Folke

    Whether or not different environmentally beneficial choices have common motivational causes are discussed in the framework of partial correlation analysis with structural equation modelling. Correlations between recycling, buying organic food products, and using public transport or bicycle...

  6. Teaching Business Ethics to Critical Students—Adopting the Stance of Political CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Kristian Høyer

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides ways of responding to critical students when teaching business ethics and corporate social responsibility (CSR). A common premise of teaching pedagogy is to approach students from their “zone of proximal development” (Vygotsky 1978). To get an understanding of students’ critical...... prior conceptions, the ideal type of the “liberal communist” (Žižek 2008) is invoked as suggestive of how students might think about business ethics and CSR. Two pedagogical approaches are suggested to address students’ a priori scepticism of business ethics and CSR. First, a framework of political...

  7. Of risks and regulations: how leading U.S. nanoscientists form policy stances about nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corley, Elizabeth A.; Scheufele, Dietram A.; Hu Qian

    2009-01-01

    Even though there is a high degree of scientific uncertainty about the risks of nanotechnology, many scholars have argued that policy-making cannot be placed on hold until risk assessments are complete (Faunce, Med J Aust 186(4):189-191, 2007; Kuzma, J Nanopart Res 9(1):165-182, 2007; O'Brien and Cummins, Hum Ecol Risk Assess 14(3):568-592, 2008; Powell et al., Environ Manag 42(3):426-443, 2008). In the absence of risk assessment data, decision makers often rely on scientists' input about risks and regulation to make policy decisions. The research we present here goes beyond the earlier descriptive studies about nanotechnology regulation to explore the heuristics that the leading U.S. nanoscientists use when they make policy decisions about regulating nanotechnology. In particular, we explore the relationship between nanoscientists' risk and benefit perceptions and their support for nanotech regulation. We conclude that nanoscientists are more supportive of regulating nanotechnology when they perceive higher levels of risks; yet, their perceived benefits about nanotechnology do not significantly impact their support for nanotech regulation. We also find some gender and disciplinary differences among the nanoscientists. Males are less supportive of nanotech regulation than their female peers and materials scientists are more supportive of nanotechnology regulation than scientists in other fields. Lastly, our findings illustrate that the leading U.S. nanoscientists see the areas of surveillance/privacy, human enhancement, medicine, and environment as the nanotech application areas that are most in need of new regulations.

  8. Acceptance of Serious Games in Psychotherapy: An Inquiry into the Stance of Therapists and Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Christiane; Grabmayer, Gloria; Green, Nikos

    2016-11-01

    Serious games are computer or video games that contain elements that are specifically designed for the purpose of education or training. Serious games are increasingly being used within healthcare, but their introduction into and application in psychotherapeutic settings as an e-mental health treatment modality raises questions for both patients and therapists. Current research demonstrates the potential role and effectiveness of serious games within a psychotherapeutic context. However, a limited understanding of patients' and therapists' existing knowledge and experience of serious games, as well as of their readiness to utilize and apply them for the treatment of psychological conditions, requires further investigation. Acceptance, experience, and requirements for the utilization of serious games in therapeutic contexts were assessed through online surveys with German-speaking patients (n = 260) and psychotherapists (n = 234). Respondents' answers were analyzed by a combination of descriptive and inferential statistics by using SPSS. Current knowledge regarding serious games was very limited, with only 10.4% of patients and 11.5% of therapists reporting existing knowledge. However, a general openness toward the concept was observed: 88% of patients and 90% of therapists could envisage a therapeutic use. Patients (rs = 0.169, p = 0.006) who self-rated their level of computer and video game expertise as high were more likely to consider use within psychotherapy, compared with patients who self-rated their expertise as low. Therapists who currently play computer and video games perceive fewer disadvantages of serious game application in a psychotherapeutic context (p = 0.097). Consideration of serious game use was differentiated by the therapeutic approach (p = 0.003), specific mental disorders (highest rated relevant cases: anxiety disorders, affective disorders, disorders regarding impulse control, and adjustment disorders), and patient age (i.e., use with young adults was deemed the most appropriate by 91.8% of therapists). The application of serious games is conceivable for patients and therapists, especially as a complementary element to traditional face-to-face psychotherapy. Acceptance is strongly related to therapeutic context. Only a small number of therapists and patients agree on the possibility of using a serious game instead of face-to-face therapy.

  9. Stance in TED talks: Strategic use of subjective adjectives in online popularisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Scotto di Carlo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses “stance” in TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design talks, which are popularising speeches aiming at knowledge dissemination. Based on a corpus of the TED talks presented between 2006 and 2012, this study focuses on how the speakers express judgments and take up positions through subjective adjectives. Drawing upon Kerbat-Orecchioni (1980 and Felices Lago’s (1997 adjective classifications, the quantitative and qualitative study attempts to analyse the use of axiological evaluative adjectives, which are fully subjective, as they imply a qualitative evaluation adding a judgement to the modified noun. It has been noticed that TEDsters use vivid, descriptive subjective adjectives to establish a connection with the audience, which perceives a sense of similarity with the speaker. Like traditional scientific presentations, TED talks use adjectives conveying the relevance of their findings, while they distinguish themselves for the role given to aesthetic and emotional adjectives, practicality and veracity, also including the moral, political, and economic aspects involved in science. The work suggests that maybe TEDsters’ approach to science might possibly contribute to breach the expert/non expert barrier, considering science not as something distant, but as a human experience for both laypersons and professionals.

  10. Causality vs. Plausibility: Alternative Stances for Inquiry into Human Behavior. Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guba, Egon G.; Lincoln, Yvonna S.

    Arguing that the concept of causality in human experience is archaic, unnecessary, and misleading, particularly in the social/behavioral sciences, a new plausibility approach is proposed for understanding relationships among entities. The epistemological history of causality includes positivist, deductive-nomological, essentialist, activity or…

  11. Mastering Academic Language: Organization and Stance in the Persuasive Writing of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uccelli, Paola; Dobbs, Christina L.; Scott, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Beyond mechanics and spelling conventions, academic writing requires progressive mastery of advanced language forms and functions. Pedagogically useful tools to assess such language features in adolescents' writing, however, are not yet available. This study examines language predictors of writing quality in 51 persuasive essays produced by high…

  12. Multi-muscle control during bipedal stance: an EMG–EMG analysis approach. Experimental Brain Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danna-Dos-Santos, A.; Boonstra, T.W.; Degani, A.M.; Cardoso, V.S.; Magalhaes, A.T.; Mochizuki, L.

    2014-01-01

    Posture and postural reactions to mechanical perturbations require the harmonic modulation of the activity of multiple muscles. This precision can become suboptimal in the presence of neuromuscular disorders and result in higher fall risk and associated levels of comorbidity. This study was designed

  13. Finding the Walls of Troy: Frank Calvert and Heinrich Schliemann at Hisarlik. Susan Heuck Allen. Uni­versity of California Press, Berkeley, 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew L. Christenson

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available As a teenager my parents received through the Book-of-the-Month Club a volume that could easily have led me to want to become an archaeologist if I had not already made that decision. Gods, Graves. and Scholars by C. W. Cerarn (pseudonym of German journalist Kurt W. Marek had been first published in Germany in 1949 and translated and published in the U.S. in 1951 (Ceram 1951. This book, still in print, was one of the few written in the first half of the century to bring the history of archaeology to a general audience.

  14. Kinematická analýza posturálních změn v bipedálním stoji při aplikaci podnětu ze zevního prostředí a modifikaci vizuální scény u pacientů po plastice předního zkříženého vazu Kinematic analysis of postural changes in bipedal stance at application of stimulus from external environment and modifi cation of visual scene in patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Janura

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Tato studie se zabývá změnami postury při modifikované zrakové scéně a při aplikaci podnětu ze zevního prostředí u zdravých jedinců a u pacientů po plastice předního zkříženého vazu (LCA za nezměněné a modifi kované vizuální scény. Do vyšetřovaného souboru bylo zahrnuto 11 pacientů po plastice LCA a 14 zdravých jedinců. Modifi kace vizuální scény bylo dosaženo prostřednictvím speciálního optického systému Olympus – Eye trek FMD-700. Zevní podnět byl realizován pomocí nárazu letícího míče. K hodnocení posturálních změn jsme využili kinematickou analýzu. U pacientů po rekonstrukci LCA i u zdravých jedinců jsme nejvíce diferencí v jednotlivých způsobech provedení nalezli pro kinematické parametry na dolních končetinách a trupu. U obou skupin probandů jsme zaznamenali podobné tendence k posturálním změnám. Při porovnávání kinematických parametrů mezi skupinou pacientů a zdravých jedinců jsme nalezli rozdíly v poloze horních končetin. Pro dolní končetiny a trup (s výjimkou minimální velikosti úhlu bérec – stehno při modifi kované scéně s reálným podnětem nejsou rozdíly mezi oběma skupinami statisticky významné. Tears and rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL, which has an important function in knee joint stability, are very common and more so in sports. ACL injury can be managed in two ways. One alternative pertains to conservative therapy whereas the second variant is surgical intervention (reconstruction. The number of ACL reconstructions has risen recently. The purpose of this study was to analyze the postural changes in bipedal stance at application of a stimulus from external environment and the resultant modifi cation in the visual scene in patients with ACL reconstruction. The examined group consisted of 25 subjects – 11 patients with ACL reconstruction and 14 healthy adults. The external stimulus was realized by striking

  15. Education in Transportation Systems Planning: Highway Research Record No. 462.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Transportation Research Board.

    The papers contained in the issue of Highway Research Record focus on current and emerging patterns of education and training related to transportation systems planning. The five papers are: Transportation Centers and Other Mechanisms to Encourage Interdisciplinary Research and Training Efforts in Transportation (Frederick J. Wegmann and Edward A.…

  16. The Physiology of Ultradian Rhythms and Their Role in Affecting Disease Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    characterized by fatigue, dysphoria , Impaired psychomotor performance (Hauty & Adams, 1966a,b; Klein & Wegmann, 1974, Taub & Berger, 1974), and frank...variability were seasonal change, prior stress history, gender and room temperature during restraint (Natelson et al., 1983). But even when these factors

  17. A systematic review of the relationship between physical activities in sports or daily life and postural sway in upright stance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, H.; van Dieen, J.H.; Dekkers, H.; Wittink, H.; Vanhees, L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In many sports, maintaining balance is necessary to compete at a high level. Also, in many health problems, balance is impaired. Postural sway (PS) is often used as an indicator of upright balance control, and physical activity (PA) might enhance balance control. However, the

  18. The Integration of Refugees into the German Education System: A Stance for Cultural Pluralism and Multicultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the integration of refugees into the Germany's educational system, focusing on K-12 schooling and Syrian refugees. It criticizes the current approach to integration because the system fails to address the specific needs of refugees and neglects the potential contribution they have to offer in terms of their cultural…

  19. "The Road to Freedom": How One Salvadoran Youth Takes an Agentive Stance to Narrate the Self across Time and Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Theresa Ann; Garcia, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we use narrative theory to analyze and discuss how one Salvadoran youth, Thomas, constructed three different yet overlapping narratives, including a digital story, on his family's movement across borders. We describe how each telling of his narratives is situated in time and space, where Thomas reveals his understandings of…

  20. [Parental stance towards alcohol consumption in 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from six urban areas in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    March Cerdá, Joan Carles; Prieto Rodríguez, María Angeles; Danet, Alina; Ruiz Azarola, Ainhoa; García Toyos, Noelia; Ruiz Román, Paloma

    2010-01-01

    To determine the opinions of urban parents on alcohol drinking in teenagers and their positioning regarding the legal restrictive measures. We performed a qualitative study of six focal groups including 42 mothers and fathers of adolescents from six different Spanish regions and from diverse social strata. The quantitative part of the study consisted of a 1-10 scale questionnaire, measuring parents' acceptance and opinion about legal measures restricting underage drinking. Means and standard deviation were calculated. Parents did not consider adolescent alcohol drinking to be a problem so long as it was moderate and leisure time-related. The social and cultural context was permissive with the alcohol consumption. Alcohol intake depended on both external (social pressure) and internal (family) factors. Fathers' preferred to exercise authority, while mothers preferred communication and education skills. Parents approved of teachers' interventions, especially when based on the student's overall education and not restricted to knowledge transmission. Public institutions and authorities were held responsible for adolescents' lack of information, the scarcity of leisure-time alternatives and for not ensuring compliance with current regulations. Parents approved restrictions regarding the sale and advertising of alcohol. Parents recognize adolescent alcohol drinking as a problem and tend to deal with it. Parents use distinct intervention strategies and generally approve legal measures. Copyright 2008 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Contribution of each leg to the control of unperturbed bipedal stance in lower limb amputees: new insights using entropy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Hlavackova

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the relative contribution of each leg to unperturbed bipedal posture in lower limb amputees. To achieve this goal, eight unilateral traumatic trans-femoral amputees (TFA were asked to stand as still as possible on a plantar pressure data acquisition system with their eyes closed. Four dependent variables were computed to describe the subject's postural behavior: (1 body weight distribution, (2 amplitude, (3 velocity and (4 regularity of centre of foot pressure (CoP trajectories under the amputated (A leg and the non-amputated (NA leg. Results showed a larger body weight distribution applied to the NA leg than to the A leg and a more regular CoP profiles (lower sample entropy values with greater amplitude and velocity under the NA leg than under the A leg. Taken together, these findings suggest that the NA leg and the A leg do not equally contribute to the control of unperturbed bipedal posture in TFA. The observation that TFA do actively control unperturbed bipedal posture with their NA leg could be viewed as an adaptive process to the loss of the lower leg afferents and efferents because of the unilateral lower-limb amputation. From a methodological point of view, these results demonstrate the suitability of computing bilateral CoP trajectories regularity for the assessment of lateralized postural control under pathological conditions.

  2. International law and arms control: Soviet Union and Russia’s stance on nuclear test ban treaties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Hessmann Dalaqua

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The long-lasting struggle against nuclear tests can be examined through different perspectives. In this paper, the focus will be on the part played by the USSR and Russia in the international efforts aimed at establishing legal instruments to outlaw nuclear explosions in space, underground, under water and in the atmosphere.  A luta contra os testes nucleares pode ser examinada sob diferentes perspectivas. Aqui, o foco recairá sobre o papel desempenhado pela União Soviética e Rússia na criação de instrumentos legais para proibir explosões nucleares no espaço, no subsolo, debaixo da água e na atmosfera.

  3. Young, Healthy Subjects Can Reduce the Activity of Calf Muscles When Provided with EMG Biofeedback in Upright Stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Taian M; Baudry, Stéphane; Botter, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests the minimization of muscular effort rather than of the size of bodily sway may be the primary, nervous system goal when regulating the human, standing posture. Different programs have been proposed for balance training; none however has been focused on the activation of postural muscles during standing. In this study we investigated the possibility of minimizing the activation of the calf muscles during standing through biofeedback. By providing subjects with an audio signal that varied in amplitude and frequency with the amplitude of surface electromyograms (EMG) recorded from different regions of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, we expected them to be able to minimize the level of muscle activation during standing without increasing the excursion of the center of pressure (CoP). CoP data and surface EMG from gastrocnemii, soleus and tibialis anterior muscles were obtained from 10 healthy participants while standing at ease and while standing with EMG biofeedback. Four sensitivities were used to test subjects' responsiveness to the EMG biofeedback. Compared with standing at ease, the two most sensitive feedback conditions induced a decrease in plantar flexor activity (~15%; P muscle when standing with EMG biofeedback. These results may therefore posit the basis for the development of training protocols aimed at assisting subjects in more efficiently controlling leg muscle activity during standing.

  4. Investigating the Impact of Dual Task Condition and Visual Manipulation on Healthy Young Old During Non-Dominant Leg Stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Zeynalzadeh Ghoochani

    2017-06-01

    Discussion: Standing on non-dominant leg is a challenging task that requires a well-balanced system to survive the primary decreased somatosensory input. Therefore, the examinee had to have the requisite capabilities to cope with the changes caused when extra manipulation was included. During the course of the study, the most challenging situation was encountered when the subjects were standing on their non-dominant leg with eyes shut, which should be exactingly checked not to create a risky point as an Achilles’ heel of balance system. It was observed that the non-dominant leg was more susceptible to be affected when an aging adult did not have access to the visual input or during performing dual tasks with eyes shut. It is thus recommended that such conditions should be included in balance assessment tests or interventions.

  5. Young, healthy subjects can reduce the activity of calf muscles when provided with EMG biofeedback in upright stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taian M. Vieira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests the minimisation of muscular effort rather than of the size of bodily sway may be the primary, nervous system goal when regulating the human, standing posture. Different programs have been proposed for balance training; none however has been focused on the activation of postural muscles during standing. In this study we investigated the possibility of minimising the activation of the calf muscles during standing through biofeedback. By providing subjects with an audio signal that varied in amplitude and frequency with the amplitude of surface electromyograms (EMG recorded from different regions of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, we expected them to be able to minimise the level of muscle activation during standing without increasing the excursion of the centre of pressure (CoP. CoP data and surface EMG from gastrocnemii, soleus and tibialis anterior muscles were obtained from ten healthy participants while standing at ease and while standing with EMG biofeedback. Four sensitivities were used to test subjects’ responsiveness to the EMG biofeedback. Compared with standing at ease, the two most sensitive feedback conditions induced a decrease in plantar flexor activity (~15%; P<0.05 and an increase in tibialis anterior EMG (~10%; P<0.05. Furthermore, CoP mean position significantly shifted backward (~30 mm. In contrast, the use of less sensitive EMG biofeedback resulted in a significant decrease in EMG activity of ankle plantar flexors with a marginal increase in TA activity compared with standing at ease. These changes were not accompanied by greater CoP displacements or significant changes in mean CoP position. Key results revealed subjects were able to keep standing stability while reducing the activity of gastrocnemius and soleus without loading their tibialis anterior muscle when standing with EMG biofeedback. These results may therefore posit the basis for the development of training protocols aimed at assisting subjects in more efficiently controlling leg muscle activity during standing.

  6. Political Incongruity between Students' Ideological Identity and Stance on Specific Public Policies in a Predominantly White Southeastern State Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Jeremy T.; Carstens, Brittany A.; Wright, Jennifer M.; Williams, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    The study determined whether or not a predominantly Caucasian sample (N = 187) attending a southeastern state's major public university embraced political policies consistent with their self-identified political ideology. The findings showed that the highest percentage of students identified with a conservative ideology and that a much lower…

  7. Development of multisensory reweighting is impaired for quiet stance control in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woei-Nan Bair

    Full Text Available Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD is a leading movement disorder in children that commonly involves poor postural control. Multisensory integration deficit, especially the inability to adaptively reweight to changing sensory conditions, has been proposed as a possible mechanism but with insufficient characterization. Empirical quantification of reweighting significantly advances our understanding of its developmental onset and improves the characterization of its difference in children with DCD compared to their typically developing (TD peers.Twenty children with DCD (6.6 to 11.8 years were tested with a protocol in which visual scene and touch bar simultaneously oscillateded medio-laterally at different frequencies and various amplitudes. Their data were compared to data on TD children (4.2 to 10.8 years from a previous study. Gains and phases were calculated for medio-lateral responses of the head and center of mass to both sensory stimuli. Gains and phases were simultaneously fitted by linear functions of age for each amplitude condition, segment, modality and group. Fitted gains and phases at two comparison ages (6.6 and 10.8 years were tested for reweighting within each group and for group differences. Children with DCD reweight touch and vision at a later age (10.8 years than their TD peers (4.2 years. Children with DCD demonstrate a weak visual reweighting, no advanced multisensory fusion and phase lags larger than those of TD children in response to both touch and vision.Two developmental perspectives, postural body scheme and dorsal stream development, are provided to explain the weak vision reweighting. The lack of multisensory fusion supports the notion that optimal multisensory integration is a slow developmental process and is vulnerable in children with DCD.

  8. Emotion Work and Affective Stance in the Mathematics Classroom: The Case of IRE Sequences in Finnish Classroom Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tainio, Liisa; Laine, Anu

    2015-01-01

    Although according to the Finnish curriculum the learning environment in mathematics lessons should promote supportive interaction, Finnish pupils' attitudes toward and self-beliefs regarding mathematics deteriorate during basic education. This article investigates emotion work in teacher-student interaction in Finnish mathematics classrooms; the…

  9. The effects of common footwear on stance-phase mechanical properties of the prosthetic foot-shoe system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Matthew J; Scham, Joel; Orendurff, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Prosthetic feet are prescribed based on their mechanical function and user functional level. Subtle changes to the stiffness and hysteresis of heel, midfoot, and forefoot regions can influence the dynamics and economy of gait in prosthesis users. However, the user's choice of shoes may alter the prosthetic foot-shoe system mechanical characteristics, compromising carefully prescribed and rigorously engineered performance of feet. Observe the effects of footwear on the mechanical properties of the prosthetic foot-shoe system including commonly prescribed prosthetic feet. Repeated-measures, Mechanical characterization. The stiffness and energy return was measured using a hydraulic-driven materials test machine across combinations of five prosthetic feet and four common shoes as well as a barefoot condition. Heel energy return decreased by an average 4%-9% across feet in all shoes compared to barefoot, with a cushioned trainer displaying the greatest effect. Foot designs that may improve perceived stability by providing low heel stiffness and rapid foot-flat were compromised by the addition of shoes. Shoes altered prosthesis mechanical characteristics in the sagittal and frontal planes, suggesting that shoe type should be controlled or reported in research comparing prostheses. Understanding of how different shoes could alter certain gait-related characteristics of prostheses may aid decisions on footwear made by clinicians and prosthesis users. Clinical relevance Shoes can alter function of the prosthetic foot-shoe system in unexpected and sometimes undesirable ways, often causing similar behavior across setups despite differences in foot design, and prescribing clinicians should carefully consider these effects on prosthesis performance.

  10. The benefits of a critical stance: a reflection on past papers on the theories of reasoned action and planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manstead, Antony S R

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, I reflect on past papers published in the British Journal of Social Psychology (BJSP) that have played a role in the development of the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). I focus on seven papers that fall into five categories: (1) those that critique the TRA/TPB for taking insufficient account of social factors; (2) those that critique the models on the grounds that many social behaviours are 'habitual'; (3) those that critically examine the construct of perceived behavioural control; (4) those that argue for the importance of affective factors, which appear to be overlooked in the TRA/TPB; and (5) those that argue for the importance of studying the role of moderating factors and interaction effects in the TRA/TPB. I conclude that BJSP's traditional focus on criticism and theory development is one that benefits the journal and the field. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Specific Interference between a Cognitive Task and Sensory Organization for Stance Balance Control in Healthy Young Adults: Visuospatial Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Raymond K. Y.; Mills, Bradley; Dailey, Leanna; Lane, Elizabeth; Smith, Sarah; Lee, Kyoung-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that a computational overload results when two activities, one motor and the other cognitive that draw on the same neural processing pathways, are performed concurrently. Healthy young adult subjects carried out two seemingly distinct tasks of maintaining standing balance control under conditions of low (eyes closed),…

  12. Ethnicity, Gender, Deprivation and Low Educational Attainment in England: Political Arithmetic, Ideological Stances and the Deficient Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Attainment data on England's school pupils are more extensive in coverage, detail, quantity, accessibility and of higher quality than monitoring statistics routinely available in other European countries. These data facilitate investigation of low attainment in England's schools and its relationship to ethnicity, gender and poverty. This article…

  13. Guide to advanced empirical software engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shull, Forrest; Singer, Janice; Sjøberg, Dag I. K

    2008-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Janice Singer, Susan E. Sim, and Timothy C. Lethbridge 9 Chapter 2 Qualitative Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Carolyn B...

  14. The Practice of Nursing Research: Appraisal, Synthesis, and Generation of Evidence - Seventh edition Grove Susan K The Practice of Nursing Research: Appraisal, Synthesis, and Generation of Evidence - Seventh edition 752pp Elsevier 9781455707362 1455707368 [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    This classic research text has been updated for nursing students and those in nursing practice. Though a substantial book, it is easy to dip in and out of, covering a wide range of topics from the research process and analysing data to sampling and seeking funding.

  15. Serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF binding protein-3 in relation to terminal duct lobular unit involution of the normal breast in Caucasian and African American women: The Susan G. Komen Tissue Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hannah; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Falk, Roni T; Horne, Hisani N; Xiang, Jackie; Pollak, Michael; Brinton, Louise A; Storniolo, Anna Maria V; Sherman, Mark E; Gierach, Gretchen L; Figueroa, Jonine D

    2018-02-22

    Lesser degrees of terminal duct lobular unit (TDLU) involution, as reflected by higher numbers of TDLUs and acini/TDLU, are associated with elevated breast cancer risk. In rodent models, the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system regulates involution of the mammary gland. We examined associations of circulating IGF measures with TDLU involution in normal breast tissues among women without precancerous lesions. Among 715 Caucasian and 283 African American (AA) women who donated normal breast tissue samples to the Komen Tissue Bank between 2009 and 2012 (75% premenopausal), serum concentrations of IGF-I and binding protein (IGFBP)-3 were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hematoxilyn and eosin-stained tissue sections were assessed for numbers of TDLUs ("TDLU count"). Zero-inflated Poisson regression models with a robust variance estimator were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) for association of IGF measures (tertiles) with TDLU count by race and menopausal status, adjusting for potential confounders. AA (vs. Caucasian) women had higher age-adjusted mean levels of serum IGF-I (137 vs. 131 ng/mL, p = 0.07) and lower levels of IGFBP-3 (4165 vs. 4684 ng/mL, p < 0.0001). Postmenopausal IGFBP-3 was inversely associated with TDLU count among AA (RR T3vs.T1  = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.28-0.84, p-trend = 0.04) and Caucasian (RR T3vs.T1 =0.64, 95% CI = 0.42-0.98, p-trend = 0.04) women. In premenopausal women, higher IGF-I:IGFBP-3 ratios were associated with higher TDLU count in Caucasian (RR T3vs.T1 =1.33, 95% CI = 1.02-1.75, p-trend = 0.04), but not in AA (RR T3vs.T1 =0.65, 95% CI = 0.42-1.00, p-trend = 0.05), women. Our data suggest a role of the IGF system, particularly IGFBP-3, in TDLU involution of the normal breast, a breast cancer risk factor, among Caucasian and AA women. © 2018 UICC.

  16. Shoot winter injury and nut cold tolerance: Possible limitations for American chestnut restoration in cold environments? In: Sniezko, Richard A.; Yanchuk, Alvin D.; Kliejunas, John T.; Palmieri, Katharine M.; Alexander, Janice M.; Frankel, Susan J., tech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas M. Saielli; Paul G. Schaberg; Gary J. Hawley; Joshua M. Halman; Kendra M. Gurney

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 100 years ago, American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) was rapidly removed as an overstory tree by the fungal pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica (the causal agent of chestnut blight). Currently, the most effective method of restoration involves the hybridization of American chestnut with the...

  17. Factor analysis for genetic evaluation of linear type traits in dual purpose breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Contiero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Type traits have become a selection goal in many breeder association due to the economic value recognised to some measurements. In dairy cattle, relationships of type with production (Veerkamp and Brotherstone, 1997; Kadarmideen and Wegmann, 2003 and/or with longevity (Larroque and Ducrocq, 2001; Vukasinovic et al., 2002 have been widely investigated in order to use type traits as predictors of herd life.

  18. The Comparison of Forces Applied to the Knee Extensor Mechanism during Stance Phase of Gait in Flat Footed Females Three Different in-Shoe Orthotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Razeghi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It has been postulated that subtalar position and movement would influence the function of the foot and the lower limb’s biomechanical alignment as a whole. The aim of this study was to compare the changes of force applied to the knee extensor mechanism of the female subjects while applying three different in-shoe orthotic appliances. Materials & Methods: Feiss Line test was used to assign a group of 10 healthy female subjects aged at 19-25 years as flat foot group. Retro reflective calibration and tracking markers were placed on the subjects over anatomically relevant locations. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected by employing a three dimensional motion capture system (Qualisys®Ltd, Sweden and a force platform (Kistler®, Switzerland respectively, while subjects walked at their preferred speed with 3 different in-shoe orthotics: simple insole, insole with medial arch support, insole with medial arch support and medial heel wedge, and insole with medial arch support and lateral forefoot wedge. Results: A statistically significant lower amount of the force applied to the extensor mechanism was found while applying medial arch support combined with lateral wedge (P=0.005. Conclusion: It could be concluded that changes of the different foot insoles would alter the force applied to the knee extensor mechanism. Results of this study emphasize the immediate effect of applying a medial arch support combined lateral wedge on reduction of the force applied to the extensor mechanism through which decrease a tendency towards musculoskeletal injuries.

  19. Reactive Balance Control in Response to Perturbation in Unilateral Stance: Interaction Effects of Direction, Displacement and Velocity on Compensatory Neuromuscular and Kinematic Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Freyler

    Full Text Available Unexpected sudden perturbations challenge postural equilibrium and require reactive compensation. This study aimed to assess interaction effects of the direction, displacement and velocity of perturbations on electromyographic (EMG activity, centre of pressure (COP displacement and joint kinematics to detect neuromuscular characteristics (phasic and segmental and kinematic strategies of compensatory reactions in an unilateral balance paradigm. In 20 subjects, COP displacement and velocity, ankle, knee and hip joint excursions and EMG during short (SLR, medium (MLR and long latency response (LLR of four shank and five thigh muscles were analysed during random surface translations varying in direction (anterior-posterior (sagittal plane, medial-lateral (frontal plane, displacement (2 vs. 3 cm and velocity (0.11 vs. 0.18 m/s of perturbation when balancing on one leg on a movable platform. Phases: SLR and MLR were scaled to increased velocity (P<0.05; LLR was scaled to increased displacement (P<0.05. Segments: phasic interrelationships were accompanied by segmental distinctions: distal muscles were used for fast compensation in SLR (P<0.05 and proximal muscles to stabilise in LLR (P<0.05. Kinematics: ankle joints compensated for both increasing displacement and velocity in all directions (P<0.05, whereas knee joint deflections were particularly sensitive to increasing displacement in the sagittal (P<0.05 and hip joint deflections to increasing velocity in the frontal plane (P<0.05. COP measures increased with increasing perturbation velocity and displacement (P<0.05. Interaction effects indicate that compensatory responses are based on complex processes, including different postural strategies characterised by phasic and segmental specifications, precisely adjusted to the type of balance disturbance. To regain balance after surface translation, muscles of the distal segment govern the quick regain of equilibrium; the muscles of the proximal limb serve as delayed stabilisers after a balance disturbance. Further, a kinematic distinction regarding the compensation for balance disturbance indicated different plane- and segment-specific sensitivities with respect to the determinants displacement and velocity.

  20. Comparison of a laboratory grade force platform with a Nintendo Wii balance board in measurement of postural control in single-legged stance balance tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurnink, A.; Fransz, D.P.; Kingma, I.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Training and testing of balance have potential applications in sports and medicine. Laboratory grade force plates (FP) are considered the gold standard for the measurement of balance performance. Measurements in these systems are based on the parameterization of center of pressure (CoP)

  1. Comparison of a laboratory grade force platform with a Nintendo Wii balance board in measurement of postural control in single-legged stance balance tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Huurnink, A.; Fransz, D.P.; Kingma, I.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Training and testing of balance have potential applications in sports and medicine. Laboratory grade force plates (FP) are considered the gold standard for the measurement of balance performance. Measurements in these systems are based on the parameterization of center of pressure (CoP) trajectories. Previous research validated the inexpensive, widely available and portable Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB). The novelty of the present study is that FP and WBB are compared on CoP data that was ...

  2. The Effect of a Socio-Cognitive Approach to Teaching Writing on Stance Support Moves and Topicality in Students' Epository Essays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasegaran, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    Ability to write focused expository essays in English is the key to academic success for students in an English-medium education system, but such writing can be a challenge for students for whom English is a Second Language. Focusing writing lessons on improving topic content and grammatical accuracy does not always achieve the expected results.…

  3. CUERPO Y CORPORALIDAD DESDE EL VIVENCIAR FEMENINO CORPO E CORPORALIDADE A PARTIR DA VIVÊNCIA FEMININA BODY AND CORPORALITY FROM A FEMININE STANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angélica Montenegro Medina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo revisa las acepciones comunes de los términos "cuerpo" y "corporalidad", las distingue y las sitúa en la vivencia de la imagen corporal femenina actual. Desde este análisis, propone algunas explicaciones en torno del culto al cuerpo, la vigorexia y los trastornos alimentarios. Concluye proponiendo un viraje desde la somatolisis actual a un proceso de integración cuerpo-corporalidadEste artigo revisa os conceitos comuns dos termos "corpo" e "corporalidade", as distingue e as situa na vivência da imagem corporal feminina atual. Desde esta análise, propõe algumas explicações em torno ao culto do corpo, a anorexia e os tanstornos alimentares. Conclui porpondo um olhar a partir da "somatolises" atual a um processo de integração corpo-corporalThis paper review the common definitions of body and corporality. These are distinguished and settled in the current feminine corporal image. From this analysis it proposes some explanations in relation to the body worship, the "vigorexia" and the alimentary disorders. This paper concludes proposing a change from the current "somatolysis" to an integrative process of the body and corporality

  4. Influence of physicians' life stances on attitudes to end-of-life decisions and actual end-of-life decision-making in six countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, J; van Delden, J; Mortier, F

    2008-01-01

    ) and Protestants (up to 20.4% in The Netherlands) reported ever having made such a decision. DISCUSSION: The results suggest that religious teachings influence to some extent end-of-life decision-making, but are certainly not blankly accepted by physicians, especially when dealing with real patients...... and circumstances. Physicians seem to embrace religious belief in a non-imperative way, allowing adaptation to particular situations....

  5. APPLICATION METHOD OF ANTIMICROBIAL SUB -STANCES FOR THE CONTROL OF schiZophyllum commuN e FR. CAUSING BROWN GERM AND SEED ROT OF OIL PALM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTARIO DIKIN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological seed treatment promotes to save the environment from toxic chemicals in the agricultural practices. Schizophyllum commune is one of the important seedborne pathogenic fungi causing brown germ and seed rot of oil palm which required effective and efficient treat -ment based on environmental friendly approaches. Anti-microbial substances are extracted from antagonistic bacteria of B. multivorans and M. testaceum after mass production in the liquid media. Application method of anti-microbial substances for the control of Schizophylllum commune was done by seed dipping for 30 minutes and vacuum infiltration at 400 mm Hg. vac. for 2 min. in supernatant of anti-microbial substances diluted in sterilized distilled water with concentra -tion ratio of 1:4. Application method using anti-microbial substances from antagonistic bacteria inhibited the growth of pathogenic fungus, enhanced seed germination, and without causing any abnormal growth of oil palm seedlings.

  6. A comparison of ballet dancers with different level of experience in performing single-leg stance on retiré position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Lin, Cheng-Feng; Hsue, Bih-Jen; Su, Fong-Chin

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the postural stability of single-leg standing on the retiré position in ballet dancers having three different levels of skill. Nine superior experienced female ballet dancers, 9 experienced, and 12 novice dancers performed single-leg standing in the retiré position. The parameters of center of pressure (COP) in the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions and the maximum distance between COP and the center of mass (COM) were measured. The inclination angles of body segments (head, torso, and supporting leg) in the frontal plane were also calculated. The findings showed that the novice dancers had a trend of greater torso inclination angles than the experienced dancers but that the superior experienced dancers had greater maximum COM-COP distance in the anterior-posterior direction. Furthermore, both experienced and novice dancers had better balance when standing on the nondominant leg, whereas the superior experienced dancers had similar postural stability between legs. Based on the findings, ballet training should put equal focus on both legs and frontal plane control (medial-lateral direction) should be integrated to ballet training program.

  7. The United States’ Engagement with International Law: An Analysis of the Social Complexities that Crystallized its Stance on Racial and Gender Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malia Lee Womack

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The United States ratified the International Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD but has yet to sanction the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW. This article investigates what social costs drove the state to pass only one of the two anti-discrimination treaties. It finds that the state perceives the race convention to be less socially costly than the gender statute’s objective mandates in regards to content about social and cultural patterns, family planning resources, and in tensions about the proposed reservations, understandings, and declarations.

  8. A pilot investigation into the relationship between static diagnosis of ankle equinus and dynamic ankle and foot dorsiflexion during stance phase of gait: Time to revisit theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatt, Alfred; De Giorgio, Stephanie; Chockalingam, Nachiappan; Formosa, Cynthia

    2017-03-01

    Although the clinical assessment of ankle dorsiflexion has traditionally been measured utilising various goniometric means, the validity of this static examination has never been investigated. Since any impairment in ankle flexibility is likely to result in injuries, it is imperative that the correct examination technique is conducted. To determine whether a clinical diagnosis of ankle equinus, or limited ankle dorsiflexion, correlates with a decreased dorsiflexion range of movement of the foot and ankle during gait. Twenty participants with a clinical diagnosis of ankle equinus underwent optoelectronic motion capture utilising the Rizzoli foot model. Participants were divided into two groups, Group A with dynamic ankle dorsiflexion angle of 13.9°, while those in Group A had a mean dorsiflexion angle of 4.4°, resulting in a significant difference (p=0.004) between the two groups. Likewise, foot mean dynamic dorsiflexion angle of Group B was 17.13° and Group A 8.6° (p=0.006). There is no relationship between a static diagnosis of ankle dorsiflexion at 0° with dorsiflexion during gait. On the other hand, those subjects with less than -5° of dorsiflexion during static examination did exhibit reduced ankle range of motion during gait. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Undisturbed stance control in healthy adults is achieved differently along anteroposterior and mediolateral axes: evidence from visual feedback of various signals from center of pressure trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougier, Patrice R

    2009-05-01

    Provided through the screen of a monitor, the participant's resultant center of pressure (CPRes) movements from a force platform device, modified the postural performance of a healthy individual. However, these effects could largely vary with the axis that researchers consider (mediolateral [ML] or anteroposterior [AP]), because they know these controls are involved in 2 distinct ankle and hip mechanisms. To demonstrate this organization, the author tested a group of healthy adults in several conditions that gave the whole or some part of the information in the CPRes displacements. Compared with the CPRes feedback, left and right plantar CP or body weight distribution feedback deteriorated the control of the vertically projected center of gravity (CGv) along the ML and AP axes, whose amplitudes increased, respectively. These data highlight the primary role of loading or unloading and pressure variations in the achievement of postural control along each ML or AP axis, respectively. It is interesting that merging these 2 pieces of information (CPRes displacements) helped participants optimize their postural performance.

  10. Extreme Scalability: Designing Interfaces and Algorithms for Soldier-Robotic Swarm Interaction, Year 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Christopher Stachowiak , Susan Hill, and Krishna Pillalamarri ARL-TR-5222 June 2010 Approved for...Interfaces and Algorithms for Soldier-Robotic Swarm Interaction, Year 2 Ellen C. Haas, Christopher Stachowiak , Susan Hill, and Krishna Pillalamarri Human...Haas, Susan Hill, Christopher Stachowiak , Krishna Pillalamarri, and MaryAnne Fields 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER

  11. Chandra Studies of Planets and Comets in the X-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, Carey; Bhardwaj, A.; Wolk, S. J.; Christian, D. J.; Dennerl, K.; Bodewits, D.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2009-09-01

    The discovery of high energy x-ray emission in 1996 from C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake) created a new class of solar system x-ray emitting objects [1]. Subsequent detections of the morphology, spectra, and time dependence of the x-rays from more than 20 comets have shown that the very soft (E Lisse et al., Science 274, 205 (1996)[2] R. Wegmann and K. Dennerl, A&A 430, L33 (2005)[3] D. Bodewits et al., A&A 469, 1183 (2007)[4] A. Bhardwaj et al., PSS 55, 1135 - 1189 (2007)

  12. Staffing an Academic Reference Desk with Librarians is not Cost-effective. A Review of: Ryan, Susan M. “Reference Transactions Analysis: The Cost-effectiveness of Staffing a Traditional Academic Reference Desk.” Journal of Academic Librarianship 34.5 (2008: 389-99.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cari Merkley

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine whether it is cost effective to staff an academic reference desk with librarians through an examination of the types of reference questions being asked and the qualifications required to answer them.Design – Content analysis of reference transaction logs and activity-based costing for reference services based on quantitative data derived from the logs.Setting – Stetson University, a private institution in the United States with an FTE of approximately 2500.Subjects – 6959 phone, email, and in-person reference transactions logged at the reference desk by four full-time and two part-time librarians.Methods – This study repurposes data originally collected to determine the frequency with which librarians turned to online versus print sources when responding to questions at the reference desk. Librarians working at the Stetson University library reference desk recorded all reference queries received in person, by phone, or by email for a total of eight months between 2002 and 2006. Data collection took place in two month intervals in fall 2002, spring 2003, spring 2006, and fall 2006. Each question and the sources used to address it were logged by the librarian. Directional questions that were not related to the library’s collections and technical questions dealing with printer or copier mechanical problems were counted, but the specifics of these questions were not recorded. It was felt that these queries would not yield data relevant to the original research question on sources used as they “did not directly relate to an information need” (391. A total of 6959 questions were logged by librarians during the four collection periods. Questions were recorded for only 4431 transactions; the remaining 2528 queries related to printer/copier problems or non-library specific directions and were described as “direction and machine: non- informational” (394. The 4431 recorded questions were then divided into four categories derived by the researcher: look-up (a search for a known item, directional (library-specific orientation to the space and collections, technology (assistance with using library technology and electronic resources, and reference. The category of reference was further subdivided into eight additional categories: catalogue search, citation help, database help, “guide to correct databases,” “personal knowledge or referral,” “quick internet search,” research, and Serials Solutions (392. “Guide to correct databases” referred to advice on the appropriate database to answer a question and serials solutions included questions that could be answered using the Serials Solutions product, such as the availability of a particular journal or article in the collection (392. Questions were assigned to the single most appropriate category by the researcher. Question categories were then mapped to “suggested staffing levels” (396. This determination was made by the researcher, and no details were given as to how the decision was made for each category. The three levels of staffing discussed were librarian, “trained student or staff,” and “well-trained staff/occasional librarian referral” (396. The cost of staffing the reference desk during the eight months captured in this study was calculated by multiplying the hours worked by each librarian by his/her individual average rate of pay across the four data collection periods. Indirect staff costs such as benefits were not included in this calculation. The average cost per reference transaction was determined by dividing the total salary costs by the total number of reference queries during the periods of study. Costs for those categories of questions best addressed by a librarian could then be determined. The actual number of librarians who participated in the study is unclear. The methodology refers to four full-time and two part-time librarians (391. However, later in the article there is reference to five full-time and three part-time librarians rather than the numbers initially stated (396

  13. Online Programs and Geographic Proximity are Key Determinants of Information Professionals’ Interest in Pursuing Post-Master’s Education at the Doctoral Level. A Review of: Powell, Ronald R. and Susan E. Boling. “Post-Master’s Educational Needs of Information Professionals.” Journal of Access Services 3.4 (2005: 29-43.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ingrid Preddie

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To investigate post-master’s educational needs and interests of information professionals.Design – Survey research using print and electronic questionnaires.Setting – The geographic area surrounding Wayne State University in Michigan, United States of America.Subjects – Members of the library associations of Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, and Southwestern Ontario, Canada.Methods – Systematic random samples were derived from the membership lists of the library associations in Ohio, Indiana, and Southwestern Ontario. Paper questionnaires were mailed to those selected. Michigan Library Association’s official policy barred the release of its membership list to researchers. Consequently, announcements of the survey were placed in three successive issues of the Association’s electronic newsletter. Interested members were directed to a website to complete an electronic version of the questionnaire. This option was also extended to members of the other three library associations. The overall research question was investigated through specific questions that sought to ascertain the overall level of interest in professional library and information studies (LIS education, levels of interest in specific types of programs, factors that favoured or deterred enrolment in doctoral programs, as well as the fields of study that were preferred for combination with LIS in doctoral programs. With the exception of demographic type questions (e.g., place of residence and educational qualifications and two questions that required open ended responses, the questionnaire design encompassed questions with Likert scale type responses. Analysis of the responses included descriptive statistics, the use of Pearson chi square to determine statistically significant relationships, and, to a lesser extent, content analysis.Main Results – A total of 270 questionnaires(33% were returned from three populations: Ohio, Indiana, and Ontario. A self-selected sample of 101 members (6% of the Michigan Library Association responded. In general, almost 80% of the respondents admitted some importance to adding to their LIS qualification. However, only 41% felt that this was important or extremely important. From a choice of six educational offerings, namely, continuing education activities, non-degree master’s coursework, a second master’s degree, post-master’s certification, doctoral programs, and other, continuing education activities was the most valued, by 65.5% of the respondents. Participants were asked about their reasons, and the importance of these, for considering or deciding to enrol in an LIS doctoral program. The yearning to acquire knowledge was reported by 69.7% as the major reason, followed by 45.8% of the respondents who cited the wish to increase their income potential. In terms of major factors, prestige received the lowest rating, 21.1%. The time involved (73.8%, cost(66.3%, and distance from the program (63.2% were cited as the major deterrents to enrolling in doctoral programs. When asked about the likelihood of pursuing a doctoral LIS program in combination with business administration, computer science, or without any combination, “not likely” was the most popular choice. Those who were very likely or likely to pursue a joint program totalled approximately 30% of the respondents, while 37% indicated an interest in undertaking a doctorate in LIS only. The most frequent reasons proffered by those who selected “not likely” or “definitely not” for any of the three doctoral offerings included lack of interest, mitigating factors (e.g. time, cost, age, and program location, unfavourable cost/benefit analysis, preference for another area of knowledge,and the view that Ph.D.s were only useful for university faculty. Given the option to name subject areas that they desired to see combined with LIS in a doctoral program, 23 of 101 respondents proposed education, while 19 opted for public administration. A question inviting any other comments on the issue of post-master’s education yielded a predominant desire for “non traditional instruction,” particularly online courses as well as classes held in convenient locations. In terms of relationships between geographic location and factors that influenced interest in enrolling in a doctoral program, the desire “to become a more effective manager,” and “other” were statistically significant. The analysis also revealed a strong positive relationship between willingness to pursue an LIS-only doctoral program and the availability of such a program in geographic proximity. Similarly, there was a strong relationship between willingness to pursue an LIS program in close vicinity and the importance that was given to further LIS education.Conclusion – Online instruction and geographic proximity are key determinants of information professionals’ interest in pursuing post-master’s education at the doctoral level. Continuing education activities, non-degree coursework, and certificate programs are preferred over doctoral LIS programs, despite the finding that the major reason for enrolling in doctoral LIS programs is to fulfill the desire for knowledge acquisition. Schools offering Library and Information Science studies need to explore options for providing distance-education doctoral LIS programs as a means of reversing the current shortage of LIS faculty.

  14. Reply to “Comment on ‘Ground motions from the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake constrained by a detailed assessment of macroseismic data’ by Stacey S. Martin, Susan E. Hough, and Charleen Hung” by Andrea Tertulliani, Laura Graziani, Corrado Castellano, Alessandra Maramai, and Antonio Rossi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stacey S.; Hough, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    We thank Andrea Tertulliani and his colleagues for their interest in our article on the 2015 Gorkha earthquake (Martin, Hough, et al., 2015), and for their comments pertaining to our study (Tertulliani et al., 2016). Indeed, as they note, a comprehensive assessment of macroseismic effects for an earthquake with far‐reaching effects as that of Gorkha is not only critically important but is also an extremely difficult undertaking. In the absence of a widely known web‐based system, employing a well‐calibrated algorithm with which to collect and systematically assess macroseismic information (e.g., Wald et al., 1999; Coppola et al., 2010; Bossu et al., 2015) in the Indian subcontinent, one is left with two approaches to characterize effects of an event such as the Gorkha earthquake: a comprehensive ground‐based survey such as the one undertaken in India following the 2001 Bhuj earthquake (Pande and Kayal, 2003), or an assessment such as Martin, Hough, et al. (2015) akin to other contemporary studies (e.g., Nuttli, 1973; Sieh, 1978; Meltzner and Wald, 1998; Martin and Szeliga, 2010; Ambraseys and Bilham, 2012; Mahajan et al., 2012; Gupta et al., 2013; Singh et al., 2013; Hough and Martin, 2015; Martin and Hough, 2015; Martin, Bradley, et al., 2015; Ribeiro et al., 2015), based primarily upon media reports and other available documentary accounts.

  15. SACRAMENTOS E IDENTIDAD EN LA ÚLTIMA CANOA: TRAVESÍA DE UN KAWESKAR AL BORDE DEL MAPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena López Torres

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo ahonda en el conflicto identitario que el kaweskar experimenta en su interacción con los religiosos y militares que se emplazan en las márgenes de Puerto Edén, zona periférica en la que son confinados los escasos descendientes. Dentro de sus fronteras los niños kaweskar inician un proceso educativo que difiere con los patrones de aprendizaje de su etnia, adquiriendo costumbres y conocimientos coincidentes con los preceptos de la religión católica. Wegmann cuestiona el perfil identitario que la nación chilena ha instaurado a nivel macro y la supuesta integración de los indígenas como ciudadanos chilenos.This article explores the identity conflict that the Kaweskar experience in interacting with religious and military groups located on the shores of Puerto Eden, a peripheral zone where few descendants are confined. Within these borders Kaweskar children begin an educational process that differs from the learning patterns of their ethnicity, thus assimilating customs and knowledge based on the precepts of the Catholic religion. Wegmann questions the identity profile that the Chilean nation has set at a macro level and the alleged integration of indigenous people as Chilean citizens.

  16. Os primeiros curadores da humanidade: abordagens psicológicas e psiquiátricas sobre os xamãs e o xamanismo Humanity’s first healers: psychological and psychiatric stances on shamans and shamanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Krippner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: o autor descreve os xamãs como curadores que deliberadamente modificam seu padrão fenomenológico de atenção, percepção, cognição e consciência para obter informações não disponíveis ordinariamente aos membros do grupo social que lhes concedeu status privilegiado. OBJETIVOS: descrever como estas alterações fenomenológicas foram alcançadas e utilizadas. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados estudos da literatura xamânica em arquivo e pesquisas de campo em comunidades onde xamãs estão atuando ativamente. RESULTADOS: a fonte das informações obtidas pelos xamãs é atribuída a forças e entidades desencarnadas, como espíritos, ancestrais, guias animais e campos energéticos. Essas fontes foram contatadas através de toques ritualizados de tambores, danças, sonhos lúcidos, uso de plantas psicotrópicas, atenção focalizada e outros recursos. Este estudo foi importante, pois mostrou que os xamãs utilizam as informações obtidas para atender às necessidades sociais, psicológicas e médicas de suas comunidades. CONCLUSÕES: o disseminado aparecimento dos xamãs, especialmente em tribos caçadoras e coletoras, indica que suas presenças possuem funções adaptativas em um grupo social. Além disso, estes dados podem trazer importantes contribuições para a neurociência cognitiva, psicologia social, psicoterapia e psicologia ecológica.BACKGROUND: the author describes shamans as practitioners who deliberately shift their phenomenological pattern of attention, perception, cognition, and awareness in order to obtain information not ordinarily available to members of the social group that granted them privileged status. OBJECTIVES: to describe how these phenomenological shifts were accomplished and used. METHODS: archival studies of shamanic literature as well as field research in communities where shamans are actively functioning. RESULTS: the source of shaman-derived information is attributed to such discarnate entities and forces as spirits, ancestors, animal guides, and energetic fields. These agencies were contacted through ritualized drumming, dancing, lucid dreaming, the use of psychotropic plants, focused attention, and other technologies. This study was important because it determined that shamans utilize the obtained information to attend to their community’s social, psychological, and medical needs. CONCLUSIONS: the ubiquitous appearance of shamans, especially in hunting and gathering tribes, indicates that their presence in a social group served adaptive functions. Further, these data can make important contributions to cognitive neuroscience, social psychology, psychotherapy, and ecological psychology.

  17. Breaking the Bathsheba Syndrome: Building a Performance Evaluation System that Promotes Mission Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    use of 360-degree feedback in either promotion or selection boards. Allan Mohrman, Susan Resnick -West, and Edward Lawler conducted a detailed review...The War for Talent. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 2007. Mohrman, Allan M., Susan M. Resnick -West, and Edward E. Lawler. Designing...12, 2013. 90. Ibid., 2c(2)(c). 91. Allan M. Mohrman, Susan M. Resnick -West, and Edward E. Lawler, Designing Performance Appraisal Systems: Aligning

  18. 77 FR 24491 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... Smyrna, Tennessee; James A. Campbell, Nashville, Tennessee; William Kent Coleman, Murfreesboro, Tennessee... River Hills, Wisconsin; David J. Lubar, Fox Point, Wisconsin; Susan Lubar Solvang, and Joan P. Lubar...

  19. Investigating Relationships Among Macrocognitive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    Donahue, A. K., Helms, S. J., Livingstone, S. M., O’Leary, R., & Wegner , W. (2005). Annex A.2: Observations by Dr. Dan L. Crippen, Dr. Charles C...Daniel, Dr. Amy K. Donahue, Col. Susan J. Helms, Ms. Susan Morrisey Livingstone, Dr. Rosemary O’Leary, and Mr. William Wegner . In Return to Flight Task

  20. Representing Evil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Analyse af billedmateriale, der forholder sig til krig, især krigen mod terror, med afsæt i Alain Badiou, Jürgen Habermas og Susan Sontag.......Analyse af billedmateriale, der forholder sig til krig, især krigen mod terror, med afsæt i Alain Badiou, Jürgen Habermas og Susan Sontag....

  1. New Class of Excimer-Pumped Atomic Lasers (XPALS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-27

    for Susan Ecker Contractor Support Tech Marine Business (TMB) Senior Program Analyst Code 333 Office of Naval Research Susan.Ecker.ctr...emitted photons was higher than the energy of the pump photons. This fact implies the extraction of thermal energy from the gain medium to compensate for

  2. Comparing rat and rabbit embryo-fetal developmental toxicity data for 379 pharmaceuticals: on systemic dose and developmental effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter T. Theunissen; Bruce Beyer; Sonia Beken

    2016-01-01

    And co-authors William J. Breslin, Gregg D. Cappon, Connie L. Chen, Gary Chmielewski, Luc de Schaepdrijver, Brian Enright, Jennifer E. Foreman, Wafa Harrouk, Kok-Wah Hew, Alan M. Hoberman, Julia Y. Hui, Thomas B. Knudsen, Susan B. Laffan, Susan L. Makris, Matthew Martin, Mary Ellen McNerney,

  3. Comparison of rat and rabbit embryo-fetal developmental toxicity data for 379 pharmaceuticals: on the nature and severity of developmental effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonja Beken; Peter T. Theunissen; Bruce K. Beyer

    2016-01-01

    nd co-authors , William J. Breslin, Gregg D. Cappon, Connie L. Chen, Gary Chmielewski, Luc De Schaepdrijver, Brian Enright, Jennifer E. Foreman, Wafa Harrouk, Kok-Wah Hew, Alan M. Hoberman, Julia Y. Hui, Thomas B. Knudsen, Susan B. Laffan, Susan L. Makris, Matt Martin, Mary Ellen McNerney, Christine

  4. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana. SEBA SUSAN. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 41 Issue 12 December 2016 pp 1393-1406. Image coding based on maximum entropy partitioning for identifying improbable intensities related to facial expressions · SEBA SUSAN NANDINI AGGARWAL SHEFALI CHAND AYUSH GUPTA.

  5. Big Data for Education: Data Mining, Data Analytics, and Web Dashboards. Governance Studies at Brookings

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Darrell M.

    2012-01-01

    Twelve-year-old Susan took a course designed to improve her reading skills. She read short stories and the teacher would give her and her fellow students a written test every other week measuring vocabulary and reading comprehension. A few days later, Susan's instructor graded the paper and returned her exam. The test showed that she did well on…

  6. The Mary Ingraham Bunting Institute of Radcliffe College Technical Report. Science Scholars Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-31

    include: Rama Bansil (Physics) Boston University "Biophysical Studies of Mucin" Susan Circone (Geology) Harvard University "Compressibility of Titanium...Culture in a French Textile Without Ice Azes Community of HopeTown. Troye~s. 1880-1939 DEBRA C. MINKOFF AMY C. TISHELMAN SUSAN CIRCONE Fellow (Sociology

  7. 76 FR 17474 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... p.m.-3 p.m.) --Risk Management (3 p.m.-5 p.m.) The proposed agenda for May 11 features: --Speakers.... Interested parties wishing to submit written statements should contact Susan Lender, DFO, (the Contact Person... in advance of the meeting. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Susan Lender (AST-5), Office of...

  8. 76 FR 51461 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... Launch Vehicles (1 p.m.-3 p.m.) --Risk Management (3 p.m.-5 p.m.) The proposed agenda for October 14... contact Susan Lender, DFO, (the Contact Person listed below) in writing (mail or e-mail) by October 5... the meeting. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Susan Lender (AST-5), Office of Commercial Space...

  9. The Development of the C3 Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Susan Griffin, executive director of NCSS, was chair of the Task Force of Professional Organizations that initiated and guided the development of "The College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards", which will soon be released. In this interview with "Social Education", Susan explains how the…

  10. The Utilization of Wireless Handheld Computers with MEDLINE is an Effective Mechanism for Answering Clinical Questions at the Point of Care. A Review of: Hauser, Susan E., Dina Demner-Fushman, Joshua L. Jacobs, Susanne M. Humphrey, Glenn Ford, and George R. Thoma. “Using Wireless Handheld Computers to Seek Information at the Point of Care: An Evaluation by Clinicians.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 14.6 (Nov./Dec. 2007: 807-15.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ingrid Preddie

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To assess the effectiveness of wireless handheld computers (HHCs for information retrieval in clinical environments and the role of MEDLINE in answering clinical questions at the point of care. Design – A prospective single-cohort study.Setting – Teaching rounds in the intensive care units and general medicine wards in two hospitals associated with a university’s school of medicine in the United States. Subjects – Five internal medicine residents with training in evidence-based practice.Methods – While accompanying medical teams on teaching rounds for approximately four consecutive weeks, each resident used MD on Tap (an application for handheld computers on a TreoTM 650 PDA/cell phone to find answers in real time, to questions that were raised by members of the medical teams. Using a special version of MD on Tap, each resident initialized a UserID. Serving as evaluators, the residents described and categorized clinical scenarios and recognized questions. They also formulated search terms, searched MEDLINE and identified citations determined to be useful for answering the questions. An intermediate server collected details of all MEDLINE search query transactions, including system response time, the user (based on UserIDs, citations selected for viewing, the saving of citations to HHC memory, as well as use of the Linkout and Notes features. In addition evaluators submitted daily summaries. These summaries included information on the scenarios, clinical questions, evidence-based methodology (EBM category, the team member who was the source of the question, the PubMed Identifiers (PMIDs of relevant citations, and comments. At the end of the data collection period, each evaluator submitted a summary report consisting of a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of his experience using MEDLINE via the handheld device to find relevant evidence based information at the point of care. The report also focused on the usefulness of MD on Tap features, along with suggestions for additional features. Data analysis encompassed matching the text of daily summaries to transaction records in order to identify sessions (containing a scenario, clinical question, oneor more search queries, citation fetches and selected PMIDs. A senior medical librarian/expert indexer reviewed all thecitations selected by evaluators and graded each citation as A (useful for answering the question, B (provided a partial answer or C (not useful for answering the question. Only those graded A were regarded as “relevant.” For the purpose of analysis asession was deemed to be successful “if at least one of the citations selected by the evaluator as relevant was also classified as Relevant” (810 by the expert indexer. Similarly, an individual query was successful “if at least one of the citations among the results of the query was Relevant, that citation was viewed by the evaluator during rounds, and it addressed the clinical question as recorded in the daily summary” (810. Various types of relationships were analyzed including the characteristics of clinical questions vis-a-vis successful sessions, search strategies in relation to successful queries, and the association between MD on Tap features and successful queries. SAS/SUDAAN version 9.1 was used for statistical analysis.Main Results – Evaluators answered 68% (246 of 363 clinical questions during rounding sessions. They identified 478 “relevant” citations, an average of 1.9 per successful session and 1.3 for each successful question. Session lengths averaged 3 minutes and 41 seconds. Characteristics of the evaluator (training, interest, experience and expertise were a significant predictor of a session’s success. The significant determinants of query success were “the number of search terms that could be mapped to Medical Subject Headings (MeSH” (812, the number of citations that were found for a query, and the use of MD on Tap’s auto-spellcheck feature. Narrative comments from the evaluators indicated that using MEDLINE on a HHC at the

  11. Sacramentos e identidad en La Última Canoa. Travesía de un Kaweskar al borde del mapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena López Torres

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo ahonda en el conflicto identitario que el kaweskar experimenta en su interacción con los religiosos y militares que se emplazan en las márgenes de Puerto Edén, zona periférica en la que son confinados los escasos descendientes. Dentro de sus fronteras los niños kaweskar inician un proceso educativo que difiere con los patrones de aprendizaje de su etnia, adquiriendo costumbres y conocimientos coincidentes con los preceptos de la religión católica. Wegmann cuestiona el perfil identitario que la nación chilena ha instaurado a nivel macro y la supuesta integración de los indígenas como ciudadanos chilenos.

  12. Constructing Ethics through Rhetoric: Isocrates and Piety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Kenneth R.

    2009-01-01

    Critical, postmodern, and constitutive rhetorics are typically guided by an ethical stance opposing domination and marginalization. However, this stance often functions as an unreflective morality operating outside the constitutive practices of rhetoric itself. To locate an ethical stance within rhetorical practice, we can turn to Isocrates, who…

  13. 75 FR 69158 - Quarterly Publication of Individuals, Who Have Chosen To Expatriate, as Required by Section 6039G

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... Hayden Sandra Juliet Ferera Heider Andy Henderson Lisa Marie Hesseln Wolfgang Hill David Carson Hill... Jan F. Pacheco Kent Richard Padovano Susan Goldlust Palisetti Ramana Pan Hai-Yen Alice Parschau...

  14. Kui kapital veab alt, siis turvaliselt / Aleksander Tsapov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tsapov, Aleksander

    2006-01-01

    Kuraatorinäitus "Kapital (see veab meid alt)" Tallinna Kunstihoones. Kuraator Simon Sheikh. Fia-Stina Sandlundi, Katya Sanderi, Oliver Ressleri, Ashley Hunti ja Susan Kelly&Stephen Mortoni töödest näitusel

  15. 78 FR 57675 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge Approvals and Disapprovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... efficient off-road vehicle. DETERMINATION: Disapproved. Each project was determined to not meet the... credits. DECISION DATE: March 20, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Susan Moore, Orlando Airports...

  16. Ämbliku jäljed kivimüüril / Sigrid Saarep

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saarep, Sigrid, 1963-

    2009-01-01

    Suurbritannia paviljonis 53. Veneetsia kunstibiennaalil esinevad kunstnikud Steve McQueen, John Cale (Wales), Martin Boyce (Šotimaa) ja Susan MacWilliam (Põhja-Iirimaa). Videokunstnik Steve McQueeni filmist "Giardini" (2009)

  17. 75 FR 36356 - Announcement of Changes to the Membership of the Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ..., ITA (new). 4. Edward C. Yang, Senior Director, China Non-Market Economy Compliance Unit, ITA. 5. Joel... Management, OS. Dated: June 18, 2010. Susan Boggs, Director, Office of Staffing, Recruitment and...

  18. 77 FR 59004 - Membership of the Senior Executive Service Standing Performance Review Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... DIRECTOR. ROGERS, MARK W SENIOR TRIAL ATTORNEY, CONSTITUTIONAL SECTION. RUDY, SUSAN K SENIOR TRIAL ATTORNEY..., OFFICE OF OVERSEAS PROSECUTORIAL DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE AND TRAINING. ALEXANDRE, CARL DIRECTOR, OPDAT..., DAVID ASSISTANT DIRECTOR, INVESTIGATIVE OPERATIONS. CAULK, CARL ASSISTANT DIRECTOR FOR JUDICIAL SECURITY...

  19. Travelers' Health: Cruise Ship Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Travel Chapter 6 - Death during Travel Cruise Ship Travel Joanna J. Regan, Kara Tardivel, Susan A. Lippold, ... Insurance, & Medical Evacuation Insurance ). Box 6-01. Cruise travel health precautions ADVICE FOR CLINICIANS GIVING PRETRAVEL CRUISE ...

  20. Biographies of Eminent Women in Psychology: Models for Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furumoto, Laurel; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In order to recognize women's contributions to the field of psychology, biographies of Margaret Floy Washburn, Mary Cover Jones, Karen Horney, Susan Grey, Edna Heidbreder, Ann Roe, and Mary Whitton Calkins are presented. (BEF)

  1. Foundations of health psychology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Friedman, Howard S; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2007-01-01

    ... and Effective Treatment 9 Adjustment to Chronic Disease: Progress and Promise in Research Annette L. Stanton and Tracey A. Revenson 203 10 Aging and Health 234 Karen S. Rook, Susan T. Charles, and...

  2. Investigation of manganese homeostasis in dogs with anaemia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation of manganese homeostasis in dogs with anaemia and chronic enteropathy. Marisa da Fonseca Ferreira, Arielle Elizabeth Ann Aylor, Richard John Mellanby, Susan Mary Campbell, Adam George Gow ...

  3. American Pain Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Edwards Susan Dorsey Beth Darnall Jill Fehrenbacher Ted Price Anna Long Jamie Rhudy Laura Frey Law Lisa ... pain-related news Avenues to meet and share knowledge Working to increase opportunities for research funding Developing ...

  4. 78 FR 67333 - Performance Review Board Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... Administration's Senior Executive Service and Senior Professional Performance Management Systems: Kenneth A. Arnold William G. Bostic, Jr. Stephen B. Burke Joanne Buenzli Crane Susan R. Helper Ron S. Jarmin Enrique...

  5. 75 FR 78266 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... accessing its Internet server http://www.usitc.gov . The public record for this investigation may be viewed..., Inc. of South El Monte, CA; Yongkang Boyu Auto Motor Company of Zhenjiang China; Wuxi Susan Auto Parts...

  6. Attentively listening to the speech

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    C.J. Zilverschoon, Peter Standley, Christian Roche, Jacques Blondel, Susan Neboux-Bland, Pierre Marti, Jurgen Knott; Roberto Cappi, Pierre Tetu, Charles Rufer, A. L'Aire, Patrick Lienard, Julienne de Winter

  7. Practice question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Chris Beech, nurse consultant, Services for Older People, NHS Forth Valley and member of the nurses' and allied health professionals' special interest group, British Geriatrics Society; Susan Nixon, service manager, Services for Older People, Falkirk Council.

  8. Nofretete muumia võib olla leitud / Evelyn Kaldoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaldoja, Evelyn, 1980-

    2001-01-01

    Briti uurija Susan Jamesi väitel võib Nofretete olla 1898. a. prantsuse arheoloogi Victor Lloret' poolt Kuningate orust leitud naisemuumia, mis meenutab hämmastavalt palju skulptuuridena kujutatud vaarao Ehnatoni naist

  9. The Tropenmuseum and the Colonial Heritage : Position paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legêne, Susan

    1998-01-01

    Policy document outlining the Tropenmuseum's intention to work on the colonial past as an essential aspect of its contemporary policies. Author: Susan Legêne, at the time head of the Curatorial Department of the tropenmuseum.

  10. Eesti president Toomas H. Ilves Pennsylvania ülikooli ajakirjas / Airi Vaga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaga, Airi, 1940-

    2008-01-01

    University of Pennsylvania ajakirjas "The Pennsylvania Gazette" ilmunud artiklist "From Estonian Exile to Executive Office", autor Susan Frith - järjekordsest võimalusest tutvustada Eestit ja eestlasi USA ülikoolide kaudu

  11. Raamatututvustus / Rein Põder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Põder, Rein, 1943-

    1995-01-01

    Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. Üksildase uitaja mõtisklused; Hill, Susan. Proua de Winter; Kõrvemaast põhjarannani : Kuusalu kihelkonna kirjanduslik-kodulooline antoloogia / Koost. Helmut Elstrok; Tead.toim. Oskar Kuningas

  12. Do You Have Work-Related Asthma? A Guide for You and Your Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also request a safety data sheet (SDS, formerly MSDS) for chemicals in the workplace from your patient’s ... Clinicians • Tarlo, Susan M., et al. “Diagnosis and Management of Work-Related Asthma: American College of Chest ...

  13. 78 FR 56720 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... cytotoxicity better than any of the agents alone. Development Stage: Early-stage. Inventors: Susan E. Bates, et... (NIBIB), Seulki Lee (NIBIB), KiYoung Choi (NIBIB), Gang Liu (North Sichuan Medical College, China...

  14. African Journal of Reproductive Health - Vol 9, No 2 (2005)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urogenital complications among girls with genital mutilation: a hospital-based study in Khartoum. Lars Almroth, Hibba Bedri, Susan El Musharaf, Alia Satti, Tayseer Idris, M SIR K Hashim, Gaafar I Suliman, Staffan Bergström ...

  15. Resistance ja Rootsi turvaühiskond / Peeter Linnap

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Linnap, Peeter, 1960-

    2001-01-01

    "Vastupanukunsti" näitus "The Path of Resistance : MoMa meets Moderna" Stockholmi Moodsa Kunsti Muuseumis, kuraatorid Susan Kismaric ja Joshua Siegel. Resistance'i kunsti raames käsitletakse ka nn. poliitilist kunsti

  16. Socio-demographic determinants of dengue infection during an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-demographic determinants of dengue infection during an outbreak in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania. Neema Camara, Billy Ngasala, Germana Leyna, Ahmed Abade, Susan F. Rumisha, Ndekya M. Oriyo, Leonard E.G. Mboera ...

  17. Kui sulg ei jookse... / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus

    2003-01-01

    Kuidas stsenarist Charlie Kaufman kirjutas stsenaariumi oma loomevaevadest Susan Orleani raamatu filmiks kirjutamisel : mängufilm "Kuidas kirjutada kassafilmi" ("Adaptation") : režissöör Spike Jonze : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2002

  18. A Habitat-Based Approach to Management of Tallgrass Prairies at the Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    consuming. Problems often exist with invasive exotic vegetation [e.g., leafy spurge { Euphorbia esculd), smooth bromegrass {Bromus inermis), Kentucky...Pycnanthemum virginianum (common mountain mint) Rudbeckia hirta (black-eyed susan) Senecio plattensis (prairie ragwort) Sisyrinchium campestre (prairie

  19. Õnnelikud kodud kahel pool eesriiet / Triin Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojari, Triin, 1974-

    2004-01-01

    Elukeskkonna konverents "Võistlevad õnned. Elukeskkond külma sõja perioodil" Eesti Kunstiakadeemias. Esinevad David Crowley, Jeremy Morris, Susan E. Reidi, Adrian Forty, Kirsi Saarikangas. Kodumaistel teemadel kõnelevad Liina Jänes ja etnoloog Anu Kannike

  20. 1. IV avati Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis šoti videokunstinäitus "Nähtamatud väljad"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Kuraatorid Sarah Felton ja Su Grierson, osalevad kunstnikud Victoria Clare Bernie, Samantha Clark, Maria Doyle, S. Felton, S. Grierson, Belinda Guidi, Anne Bjerge Hansen, Metacorpus, Jane McInally, Rosalind Nashashibi, Susannah Silver ja Susan Sloan

  1. A Feminist Sophistic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitanza, Victor J.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses Susan Jarratt's book "Rereading the Sophists," interrogating her notion of a "feminist sophistic." Discusses the author's own work in terms of a "third sophistic," and calls on writings by Gayatri, Spivak, J. Derrida, and Helene Cixous. (SR)

  2. HORMONAL CONTROL OF OVARIAN FUNCTION FOLLOWING CHLOROTRIAZINE EXPOSURE: EFFECT ON REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION AND MAMMARY GLAND TUMOR DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormonal Control of Ovarian Function Following Chlorotriazine Exposure: Effect on Reproductive Function and Mammary Gland Tumor Development. Ralph L. Cooper, Susan C. Laws, Michael G. Narotsky, Jerome M. Goldman, and Tammy E. StokerAbstractThe studies review...

  3. 76 FR 72013 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ...''); Colette J. Irwin-Knott, CIPFA, President, National Association of Independent Public Finance Advisors...''); and Susan Gaffney, Director, Federal Liaison Center, Government Finance Officers Association, dated... principles of trade, to foster cooperation and coordination with persons engaged in regulating, clearing...

  4. Echoes from the Past - Lessons for the Future: A Vietnam Oral History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-30

    8217SUSTAINMENT ’STRESS Folkman , Susan; Lazarus , Richard S.; Dunkel-Schetter, Christine; Delongis, Anita; and Gruen, Rand J. "Dynamics of a Stress- ful...David A. Hamburg, and John E. Adams. New York: Basic Books, 1974. Lazarus , Richard S. and Folkman , Susan. Stress Appraisal and Coppng. New York...Roseman, Ray H. Type A Behavior and Your Heart. New York: Fawcett Crest, 1974. Lazarus , Richard S. Personality and Adiustment. Inglewood Cliffs

  5. Possible Regulatory Improvements of the American Housing Finance System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Jens

    2018-01-01

    Book review of: Susan M. Wachter and Joseph Tracy (eds.): Principles of Housing Finance Reform. PENN—University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 282 pp, $65.00s, ISBN: 978-0-8122-4862-3......Book review of: Susan M. Wachter and Joseph Tracy (eds.): Principles of Housing Finance Reform. PENN—University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 282 pp, $65.00s, ISBN: 978-0-8122-4862-3...

  6. Wanna play?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderhoff, Merete

    2015-01-01

    Part of the online publication series CODE | WORDS. Technology and Theory in the Museum, edited by Ed Rodley (Peabody Essex Museum), Robert Stein (Dallas Museum of Art) and Susan Cairns (Baltimore Museum of Art)......Part of the online publication series CODE | WORDS. Technology and Theory in the Museum, edited by Ed Rodley (Peabody Essex Museum), Robert Stein (Dallas Museum of Art) and Susan Cairns (Baltimore Museum of Art)...

  7. Empowering Globally Integrated Operations and Mission Command: Revisiting Key West

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    vol. 5 of Historical Statistics of the United States: Earliest Times to the Present, Millenial Edition, ed. Richard Sutch and Susan B. Carter...States: Earliest Times to the Present, Millenial Edition. The author states that DoD is the primary source of his data, so he may have contacted the...to the Present, Millenial Edition, ed. Richard Sutch and Susan B. Carter (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006) and personnel data published

  8. Performance-Based Risk-Sharing Arrangements: U.S. Payer Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, Joseph A; Ung, Brian; van Boemmel-Wegmann, Sascha; Navarro, Robert P; Parece, Andrew

    2017-10-01

    modeling ranked highest among methods of manufacturer facilitation of PBRSAs. This study was limited by sample size and survey questions were limited to explanation of PBRSAs at the disease state level. On the basis of PBRSA experiences, respondents noted that drug use in chronic medical conditions and objective drug outcome performance measurements were favorable drug characteristics and serve as the primary source of satisfaction for these types of contracts. Third parties and manufacturers can facilitate the uptake and success of PBRSAs by developing standardized contracting templates in addition to other methods that increase their stake in the arrangement. Looking forward, mounting perceptions of success in this realm of contracting for pharmaceuticals may contribute in the quest for value-based payments in the U.S. health care system. The construction of the survey and payment for survey respondents were supported by Charles River Associates. Parece is an employee of Charles River Associates. Goble and Ung are completing fellowship training sponsored by Novartis and Celgene, respectively, but do not have any conflicts of interest and did not receive any funding related to this study. Navarro reports consulting fees from Analysis Group, TEVA, and Amgen, unrelated to this study. Van Boemmel-Wegmann declares no conflict of interest. Study concept and design were contributed by Navarro, Goble, Ung, and Parece. Navarro took the lead in data collection, along with Goble and Ung, and data interpretation was performed by van Boemmel-Wegmann, Goble, and Ung. The manuscript was written by Goble, Ung, Navarro, and van Boemmel-Wegmann and revised by all of the authors.

  9. Embodied Interactions in Human-Machine Decision Making for Situation Awareness Enhancement Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-09

    feet configuration (on dance pad controller), and body stance (using a Wii balance board ) (see Fig. 3). Each city in each TSP was randomly assigned a...gross gestures (Kinect) (b) speech (c) feet on dance pad (d) fine gestures (glove) (e) body stance on Wii balance board . DISTRIBUTION A...by Kinect; S for speech; W for body stance measured by Wii Balance Board . A similar procedure was followed for the two feedback modalities: V for

  10. Evaluation Of Gait Symmetry In Amputees Who Use Below Knee Prosthesis With Dynamic Foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin Yurt

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess inter limb symmetry while walking in unilateral transtibial amputees which use dynamic foot. Method: Gait velocity, cadence, step length, stance percentages and ambulation index results of amputees (n=20 were recorded. Comparison was made with control group. (n=21 Results: Gait velocity, cadence and ambulation index results were greater for control group. Cases had longer stance time on their intact limb than amputated side. Stance time difference between limbs were higher for amputee group than control group. Conclusion: Amputees had higher stance percentage on their intact limb than sound limb with regard to healthy people.

  11. Chandra Snapshot Spectral Imaging of Comets C/2001 Q4 (NEAT) and C/2002 T7 (LINEAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, Carey

    2003-09-01

    The highly favorable perigee passage of the very bright comets C/2001 Q4 (NEAT) and C/2002 T7 (LINEAR) in late May 2004 provides an opportunity to study cometary x-ray emission in conjunction with the new CHIPS spectroscopic mission. In 10 ksec of on-target time for each comet, ACIS-S will obtain snapshot images of the comets in the heart of the CHIPS 0.05 0.150 keV spectroscopic monitoring period in late-May 2004. The combined observations have the potential of directly detecting for the first time the ultra-soft emission due to Mg, S, Si, and Fe predicted by McCammon et al. (2002) from soft x-ray background measurements and by Kharchenko et al. (2000, 2003) from models of solar wind minor ion charge exchange emission. New work by Wegmann, Dennerl, and Lisse (2004) allows a determination of the neutral gas production rate from the spatial scale of the emission, and an independent determination of the solar wind minor ion flux density using the x-ray surface brightness.

  12. What Future for the United Nations Security Council?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    necessity. Like Ambassador Susan E. Rice said “the UN is imperfect but it is also indispensable”4. At the dawn of the twenty-first century, a lot of...membership (Antwerp, Intersentia, 2009), 12 4 Susan E. Rice , A new course in the world, a new approach at the UN, August 12 2009,http://www.state.gov/p...io/rm/2009/127927.htm 5 M. Bedjovi, La Charte des Nations Unies (Paris, PUF , 1990), 24 6 M. Benchikh, La Charte des Nations Unies, (Paris, 1990), 438

  13. Why the Combined Field Army?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-31

    COMBINED FIELD ARMY A September 1988 article in the Wall Street Journal points out the arenas of change underway on the Korean peninsula.16 Many important...with superior results. ENDNOTES 16. Susan Moffat, "Koreans Demanding Equality on Defense", The Wall Street Journal ., 28 September 1988,p20. 17. This...p46. 20. Roh Address, p6. 21. Susan Moffat, " In Korea, Reunification is a Family Matter", The Wall Street Journal , 23 January 1989, pAl0. 22. Bunge

  14. Fantastiske forbindelser relationer i undervisning og læringssamvær

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antologiens artikler er lavet af en række anerkendte forskere og ide-folk fra Danmark, Norge, Holland, England og USA. Herunder Peter Lang, Daniel Stern, Maria Aarts, Thomas Armstrong, Maria Aarts, Jan Tønnesvang, Stein Bråten, Jesper Juul og Susan Hart......Antologiens artikler er lavet af en række anerkendte forskere og ide-folk fra Danmark, Norge, Holland, England og USA. Herunder Peter Lang, Daniel Stern, Maria Aarts, Thomas Armstrong, Maria Aarts, Jan Tønnesvang, Stein Bråten, Jesper Juul og Susan Hart...

  15. A "Hyper- and Pessimistic Activism" in a Curriculum Master's Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brass, Jory

    2012-01-01

    In this article the author explores Foucault's counter-intuitive views on intellectuals and political activism--a stance he once described as "a hyper- and pessimistic activism" (Foucault, 1983). After contrasting the activist stance of critical pedagogy with Foucault's writing on political activism, the author outlines early attempts to…

  16. Emerging Voices: Unpredictable Encounters--Religious Discourse, Sexuality, and the Free Exercise of Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, T. J., II

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, I develop a pedagogical stance called the "free exercise of rhetoric" as a way to approach teaching and student writing at the intersection of LGBT and religious discourses. Through this stance, I work with students' personal commitments and build their rhetorical competence using a process that involves encountering uncommon…

  17. Validation of a musculoskeletal model of lifting and its application for biomechanical evaluation of lifting techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirakhorlo, Mojtaba; Azghani, Mahmood Reza; Kahrizi, Sedighe

    2014-01-01

    Lifting methods, including standing stance and techniques have wide effects on spine loading and stability. Previous studies explored lifting techniques in many biomechanical terms and documented changes in muscular and postural response of body as a function of techniques .However, the impact of standing stance and lifting technique on human musculoskeletal had not been investigated concurrently. A whole body musculoskeletal model of lifting had been built in order to evaluate standing stance impact on muscle activation patterns and spine loading during each distinctive lifting technique. Verified model had been used in different stances width during squat, stoop and semi-squat lifting for examining the effect of standing stance on each lifting technique. The model muscle's activity was validated by experimental muscle EMGs resulting in Pearson's coefficients of greater than 0.8. Results from analytical analyses show that the effect of stance width on biomechanical parameters consists in the lifting technique, depending on what kind of standing stance was used. Standing stance in each distinctive lifting technique exhibit positive and negative aspects and it can't be recommended either one as being better in terms of biomechanical parameters.

  18. The Internationalisation of Higher Education in Two Different Contexts: Catalan and Estonian Sociolinguistic Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Carbonell, Josep; Gallego-Balsà, Lídia

    2016-01-01

    The topic of the internationalisation of academia has recently attracted attention from sociolinguists and language-policy scholars. In this paper, we compare two different universities from two contrasting contexts in Europe in order to find out more about their projected stance [Jaffe, A. (2009). Stance in a Corsican School: Institutional and…

  19. The language of dogs: intermediate forms in global culture | Green ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It examines their own attitudes towards, and their epistemological stance in, our unsettled primate universe. Levaillant and Marais, in writing of captive and wild baboons, find they are writing more generally of the cost of domestication, of the loss of some original power. In the case of Levaillant, the stance he produces – that ...

  20. Karl Barth's epistemology: A critical appraisal | Veldsman | HTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In my appraisal of Barth's epistemological stance, I would like to argue in this article that his stance in the first place, does not only lead to a total isolation of theological reflection, but secondly through his highly exclusive claim, takes on the character of a personal religious credo expanded into a comprehensive doctrine ...

  1. Hand and eye dominance in sport: are cricket batters taught to bat back-to-front?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mann, D.L.; Runswick, O.R.; Allen, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: When first learning to bimanually use a tool to hit a target (e.g., when chopping wood or hitting a golf ball), most people assume a stance that is dictated by their dominant hand. By convention, this means that a ‘right-handed’ or ‘left-handed’ stance that places the dominant hand

  2. Are You in Recovery from Alcohol or Drug Problems? Know Your Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the FMLA, may include “sub- stance abuse.” The leave must be for treatment; absence because of the employee’s use of the ... taking leave. • In some circumstances, denying an employee leave for sub- stance use treatment may constitute a violation of the ADA or ...

  3. Countering Coloniality in Educational Research: From Ownership to Answerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    In this theoretical article, I argue for a relational stance on learning as a way of reckoning with educational research as part of the settler colonial structure of the United States. Because of my geopolitical location to the United States as a settler colony, I begin by contrasting the stances of anticolonial and decolonial. I then analyze the…

  4. Measuring hindfoot alignment radiographically: the long axial view is more reliable than the hindfoot alignment view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilingh, Mikel L.; Beimers, Lijkele; Tuijthof, Gabrielle J.M.; Stufkens, Sjoerd A.S.; Dijk, C.N. van [Academic Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Maas, Mario [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-11-15

    Hindfoot malalignment is a recognized cause of foot and ankle disability. For preoperative planning and clinical follow-up, reliable radiographic assessment of hindfoot alignment is important. The long axial radiographic view and the hindfoot alignment view are commonly used for this purpose. However, their comparative reliabilities are unknown. As hindfoot varus or valgus malalignment is most pronounced during mid-stance of gait, a unilateral weight-bearing stance, in comparison with a bilateral stance, could increase measurement reliability. The purpose of this study was to compare the intra- and interobserver reliability of hindfoot alignment measurements of both radiographic views in bilateral and unilateral stance. A hindfoot alignment view and a long axial view were acquired from 18 healthy volunteers in bilateral and unilateral weight-bearing stances. Hindfoot alignment was defined as the angular deviation between the tibial anatomical axis and the calcaneus longitudinal axis from the radiographs. Repeat measurements of hindfoot alignment were performed by nine orthopaedic examiners. Measurements from the hindfoot alignment view gave intra- and interclass correlation coefficients (CCs) of 0.72 and 0.58, respectively, for bilateral stance and 0.91 and 0.49, respectively, for unilateral stance. The long axial view showed, respectively, intra- and interclass CCs of 0.93 and 0.79 for bilateral stance and 0.91 and 0.58 for unilateral stance. The long axial view is more reliable than the hindfoot alignment view or the angular measurement of hindfoot alignment. Although intra-observer reliability is good/excellent for both methods, only the long axial view leads to good interobserver reliability. A unilateral weight-bearing stance does not lead to greater reliability of measurement. (orig.)

  5. Environmental, Health, and Safety Research Needs for Engineered Nanoscale Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Canady Forest Service (FS/USDA) Christopher Risbrudt Theodore Wegner Intelligence Technology Innovation Center (ITIC) Susan Durham International...tumor. Injected particles may be intended to target specific organs, tumors, and diseases or may serve as imaging and diagnostic agents. The...studies to better understand the exposure levels or factors that caused an observed excess disease incidence. PUBLIC HEALTH AND ExPOSURE

  6. African Zoology - Vol 32, No 2 (1997)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metabolic rate and body temperature of an African sun bird, Nectarinia chalybea: daily rhythm and the effect of ambient temperature · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Belle Leon, Susan W Nicolson ...

  7. A guide to innovation in informal settings | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    6 nov. 2012 ... Innovation in Informal Settings: A Research Agenda by Susan Cozzens and Judith Sutz presents a framework that can be used by researchers, policymakers, and others to ... Document de travail 6: A Conceptual Framework to Guide Research on Private Sector Development in Developing Countries.

  8. The Technology of Unequal Rights for Women: Patent Drawings of a Voting Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In 1878, Senator Aaron A. Sargent of California introduced to the Senate an amendment to the Constitution "Conferring upon Women the Right of Suffrage." Drafted by Susan B. Anthony, this same amendment would be introduced on a near-yearly basis until its final passage by Congress on May 19, 1919. Varying degrees of voting rights presented an…

  9. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana. NANDINI AGGARWAL. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 41 Issue 12 December 2016 pp 1393-1406. Image coding based on maximum entropy partitioning for identifying improbable intensities related to facial expressions · SEBA SUSAN NANDINI AGGARWAL SHEFALI CHAND AYUSH ...

  10. Medical Device Plug-and-Play (MD PnP) Interoperability Standardization Program Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    compliance testing (formal and/or informal). • Promotion (marketing, education, conferences, evangelists ). How to Participate One of the greatest... counsel from each of the institu- Patient Safety & Qual i ty Healthcare ■ January/February 200912 w w w . p s q h . c o m By Susan F. Whitehead

  11. Organization and Administration of Adult Education Programs: A Guide for Practitioners. Adult Education Special Topics: Theory, Research and Practice in LifeLong Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Steven W.; Biniecki, Susan M. Yelich

    2016-01-01

    Administrators of adult education programs work in dynamic and ever-changing environments. They are continually challenged with a myriad of issues related to program budgeting, marketing, strategic planning, funding, human resources, and other topics. With decades of real world experience in the field, Steven Schmidt and Susan Yelich Biniecki have…

  12. Protéger la biodiversité : Les lois nationales régissant l'accès aux ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les directeurs. Susan Perkoff Bass est directrice du Programme interaméricain à l'Environmental Law Institute de Washington, D.C., aux États-Unis. Manuel Ruiz Muller est chercheur principal du Programme sur la biodiversité de la Sociedad Peruana de Derecho Ambiental ( SPDA ) à Lima, au Pérou.

  13. Writing Ourselves into the Story: Unheard Voices from Composition Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Sheryl I., Ed.; Hunter, Susan, Ed.

    This book presents 23 essays, research studies, and personal narratives on topics that reflect the neglect and frustration experienced by the "silent majority" in the field of composition within academia. The essays and their authors are as follows: "Tosca Was a Woman" (Susan Pepper Robbins); "Invisible Diversity: Gay and Lesbian Students Writing…

  14. Women's business advocate to speak on successful entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Sookhan

    2006-01-01

    Women's business advocate Susan Phillips Bari will give a talk on successful entrepreneurship from 5:30 to 7 p.m., Wednesday, March 15, at 1670 Litton Reaves Hall at Virginia Tech. The event, which will include a question-and-answer session, is free and open to the public, no tickets required.

  15. Buy Our Spares Smart Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-19

    Wolfe Daniel R. Taylor William R. Wolfe effery E. Taylor Romona A. Williams Robert M. Tenta R.V. Yates Mary M. Thomas Richard V. Yates Jr. Pandora L...Cynthia Johnson Candice Bailey Christine McLaurin JoAnne Banks Charles McPherson Donna Barrineau Susan Medina Mildred Bates Jean Merritt * Willie Brame

  16. Editorial Team

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Editors. Siziwe S Khalatha, AJOL; Susan HL Murray, AJOL; Dr. Taddese Wondimu Godeto, South Africa; Mr Editorial Assistant, Ethiopia; Dr Zerihun Assefa, United States; Dr Gizachew Alemayehu, Lesotho; Dr Eduardo - Perez Velilla, Ethiopia; Dr. Shimelis Admassie, Ethiopia; Kate Snow, South Africa; Kim Barker, South ...

  17. Editorial Team

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Editors. Siziwe S Khalatha, AJOL; Susan HL Murray, AJOL; Mr. Gilbert Munyemana, National University of Rwanda, Rwanda; Kate Snow, South Africa; Kim Barker, South Africa; Alistair Barker, South Africa; Roza Carvalho, South Africa; Denise van Rensburg. ISSN: 2305-2678. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  18. Bodysuites and biodomes: The construction of the sonochronotopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I explore in this article the ways in which spatiotemporal construction through music plays a facilitating role in alleviating this perceived trauma. In circumscribing this process I have found the work of Susan Buck-Morss and Mikhail Bakhtin useful in approaching the overlapping 'symbolic' and 'material' discourses at play in ...

  19. Race, Feminine Power, and the Vietnam War in Philip Red Eagle's "Red Earth"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Scott

    2004-01-01

    In her book "The Remasculinization of America," Susan Jeffords discusses the dynamics of how differences such as race and class are erased in filmic and literary representations of the Vietnam War. She asserts that one difference is not overcome by the battlefield: gender, a barrier that is depicted in the literature as natural and…

  20. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    philosophy to physics to biology and molecular genetics. "It was a small book by. Isaac Asimov entitled The Genetic Code that changed my life." This impels him to write popular science books to inspire future generations and newspaper articles to explain to laymen the impact science has on our lives. Susan Greenfield,p.1 ...

  1. Media Violence and Freedom of Speech : How to Use Empirical Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, Boudewijn

    2008-01-01

    Susan Hurley has argued against a well known argument for freedom of speech, the argument from autonomy, on the basis of two hypotheses about violence in the media and aggressive behaviour. The first hypothesis says that exposure to media violence causes aggressive behaviour; the second, that humans

  2. Browse Author Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 61 ... Walker, L · Walker, Liz · Walraven, Gijs · Walsh, Corinna · Walwyn, David · Wamalwa, David · Wambua, MaryAnne · Wamoyi, Joyce · Wang'ombe, Joseph K · Wanyenze, Rhoda K · Wanzala, Peter N · Washington, Laura · Wathuta, Jane · Watkins, Susan Cotts · Wato, Samuel · Watson, Mada · Watson, Sharon

  3. Nime võimust : naine või artishokk / Leena Kurvet-Käosaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kurvet-Käosaar, Leena, 1969-

    2003-01-01

    Tagasivaade naisrežissööride filmifestivalile Helsingis. Lähemalt 4 mängufilmist : itaallanna Monica Stambrini "Benzina" (2001), inglanna Lynne Ramsay "Morvern Callar" (2002), prantslanna Sophie Tatscheffi "Baarilett" (1997) ja iraani päritolu rootsi režissööri Susan Taslimi "All Hell Let Loose" (2002)

  4. Exploring the world of human development and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red-Horse, Kristy; Drake, Penelope M; Fisher, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Susan Fisher has spent her career studying human development, proteomics, and the intersection between the two. When she began studying human placentation, there had been extensive descriptive studies of this fascinating organ that intertwines with the mother's vasculature during pregnancy. Susan can be credited with numerous major findings on the mechanisms that regulate placental cytotrophoblast invasion. These include the discovery that cytotrophoblasts undergo vascular mimicry to insert themselves into uterine arteries, the finding that oxygen tension greatly effects placentation, and identifying how these responses go awry in pregnancy complications such as preeclamsia. Other important work has focused on the effect of post-translational modifications such as glycosylation on bacterial adhesion and reproduction. Susan has also forayed into the world of proteomics to identify cancer biomarkers. Because her work is truly groundbreaking, many of these findings inspire research in other laboratories around the world resulting in numerous follow up papers. Likewise, her mentoring and support inspires young scientists to go on and make their own important discoveries. In this interview, Susan shares what drove her science, how she continued to do important research while balancing other aspects of life, and provides insights for the next generation.

  5. Kivirähk, muusika, kogupauk ja Nõud pealelõunal / Ülo Ignats ; fotod: Ülo Ignats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ignats, Ülo, 1951-2011

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Kultuuri Koondise korraldatud kultuuripärastlõunast kus Andrus Kivirähk luges oma loomingut, Ireen Koop-Lind ja Susan Yondti esitasid Franz Schuberti, Robert Schumanni ja Johannes Brahmsi muusikat. Helga ja Enn Nõu esitlesid oma uusi romaane

  6. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 250 of 338 ... Vol 28, No 3 (2016), Neurocognitive considerations when assessing Theory of Mind in Autism Spectrum Disorder, Abstract. Katie Hamilton, Michelle Hoogenhout, Susan Malcolm-Smith. Vol 26, No 2 (2014), New developments in diagnosis and treatment update: Schizophrenia/first episode psychosis ...

  7. Spectacles in Children‑ Do's and Don'ts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For correction of hypermetropia in preschool kids, Susan. J Leat has suggested that one should underprescribe so as to leave the uncorrected error just above the mean refractive error for the age, leaving enough stimulus for emmetropization.[8]. Guidelines for myopia. In infancy, only large amount of myopia needs to.

  8. Transgressions and Transcendence: Surpassing Disciplinary Boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wughalter, Emily H.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how women such as Amy Morris Homans, Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Mary Wollstonecraft transgressed boundaries, allowing others to transcend old boundary limitations in physical education, examining the Boston Normal School of Gymnastics established for training women as directors of physical education over 100 years ago…

  9. 76 FR 57036 - Notice of Open Meeting of the Advisory Committee of the Export-Import Bank of the United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... Place: Tuesday, September 27 from 11 a.m. to 3 p.m. A break for lunch will be at the expense of the... September 20, 2011, Susan Houser, Room 1273, 811 Vermont Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20571, Voice: (202) 565...

  10. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a developmental movement programme to enhance academic skills in grade 1 learners · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Claude R Fredericks, Shirley J Kokot, Susan Krog, 29-42. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sajrs.v28i1.25929 ...

  11. Remedial principles and meaningful engagement in education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article evaluates the meaningful engagement doctrine in the education rights jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court in the light of a set of normative principles developed by Susan Sturm for evaluating participatory public law remedies. It commences by identifying four principles for evaluating participatory remedies ...

  12. Bragg prism monochromator and analyser for super ultra-small ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    With this optimized monochromator–analyser pair, we have attained the narrowest and sharpest neutron angular profile to date. At this facility, we have recorded the first SUSANS spectra spanning wave vector transfers ∼ 10−6 Å-1 to characterize samples containing agglomerates up to tens of micrometres in size.

  13. Bragg prism monochromator and analyser for super ultra-small ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    At this facility, we have recorded the first SUSANS spectra spanning wave vector transfers Q ~ 10−6 Å−1 to characterize samples containing agglomerates up to tens of micrometres in size. Keywords. Neutron collimation; sub-arcsec collimation; Bragg prism; super ultra-small angle neutron scattering; dynamical diffraction.

  14. South African Medical Journal - Vol 87, No 9 (1997)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new model for the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease: Aluminium toxicity is exacerbated by hydrogen peroxide and attenuated by an amyloid protein fragment and melatonin · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Susan J. van Rensburg, Willie M.U. ...

  15. Fundamentals of Tribology Workshop Held at the University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida on 10-11 May 2010: Project Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    lubrications schemes. DLP technology (digital micromirror device) The technology of digital light processing (DLP) at the heart of optical...Polytechnic Institute Tom Scharf University of North Texas Susan Sinnott University of Florida Izabela Szlufarska University of Wisconsin John Tichy Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Oden Warren Hysitron

  16. Book Review | Dunn-Coetzee | Journal of Student Affairs in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Roberts, Dennis C. & Komives, Susan R. (Eds.) (2016). Enhancing Student Learning and Development in Cross- Border Higher Education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online.

  17. Start with Higher-Order Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    "Memorizing facts is boring. Drill-and-practice is boring. But thinking, for most students most of the time, is actually fun," writes Susan M. Brookhart. The author recommends that teachers build interest and engagement into every lesson plan by creating opportunities for deep thinking. She describes three strategies to accomplish this.…

  18. Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Programs: What Have We Learned? Meeting Highlights and Background Briefing Report. Report of a Family Impact Seminar (Washington, D.C., May 26, 1989).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooms, Theodora; Herendeen, Lisa

    This report contains highlights from a seminar on teenage pregnancy prevention programs. Comments by these panelists are summarized: Kristin Moore, senior research associate, Child Trends, Inc.; Dennis McBride, consultant for the Adolescent Family Life Office; Susan Newcomer, consultant for the National Institute of Child Health and Development;…

  19. Accelerating progress in obesity prevention: solving the weight of the nation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glickman, Dan

    2012-01-01

    .... This study was supported by Grant No. 61747 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and a grant between the National Academy of Sciences and the Michael & Susan Dell Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s)...

  20. Editorial Team

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Editors. Siziwe S Khalatha, AJOL; Susan HL Murray, AJOL; Kate Snow, South Africa; Kim Barker, South Africa; Alistair Barker, South Africa; Roza Carvalho, South Africa; Denise van Rensburg. ISSN: 1021-6790. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...

  1. Editorial Team

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Editors. Siziwe S Khalatha, AJOL; Susan HL Murray, AJOL; Kate Snow, South Africa; Dr Sherran Clarence, South Africa; Kim Barker, South Africa; Alistair Barker, South Africa; Roza Carvalho, South Africa; Denise van Rensburg. ISSN: 2310-7103. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  2. Editorial Team

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Editors. Siziwe S Khalatha, AJOL; Susan HL Murray, AJOL; Kate Snow, South Africa; Kim Barker, South Africa; Alistair Barker, South Africa; Roza Carvalho, South Africa; Denise van Rensburg. ISSN: 1680-6905. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...

  3. Making the Most of Multiple Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-choice questions draw criticism because many people perceive they test only recall or atomistic, surface-level objectives and do not require students to think. Although this can be the case, it does not have to be that way. Susan M. Brookhart suggests that multiple-choice questions are a useful part of any teacher's questioning repertoire…

  4. TB in Wild Asian Elephants

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-05-10

    Dr. Susan Mikota, co-founder of Elephant Care International, discusses TB in wild Asian elephants.  Created: 5/10/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/10/2017.

  5. Consequences of Inadequate Physical Activity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-03-27

    Listen as CDC Epidemiologist Susan Carlson, PhD, talks about her research, which estimates the percentage of US deaths attributed to inadequate levels of physical activity.  Created: 3/27/2018 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/27/2018.

  6. Arctic Capabilities: DOD Addressed Many Specified Reporting Elements in Its 2011 Arctic Report but Should Take Steps to Meet Near- and Long-term Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    gaps in particular have the potential to hamper Arctic operations across all time frames: (1) insufficient communications architecture , (2) degraded...contributors to this report were Suzanne Wren (Assistant Director), Susan Ditto, Nicole Harms, Timothy Persons, Steven Putansu, Frank Rusco, Jodie Sandel

  7. Persistent Patriarchy: Women Workers on Sri Lankan Plantations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kurian (Rachel); K. Jayawardena (Kumari)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The early suffragists in the United States had decried the “prolonged slavery of woman” as the “darkest page in human history” with one of the leaders, Susan B. Anthony, stating on Independence Day in 1876 that “Universal manhood suffrage, by establishing

  8. Action needed to help Cape Town adapt to climate change | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-09

    Jun 9, 2016 ... The impacts of climate change on the city of Cape Town, South Africa, are outlined in a new book, Climate Change at the City Scale. IDRC-supported researchers Anton Cartwright, Susan Parnell, Gregg Oelofse, and Sarah Ward argue that local governments and scientists need to work together to take ...

  9. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF HUMAN SPERMATOZOA: POTENTIAL FOR INFERTILITY RESEARCH AND SCREENING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molecular Analysis of Human Spermatozoa: Potential for Infertility Research and ScreeningDavid Miller1, David Dix2, Robert Reid3, Susan Wykes3 and Stephen Krawetz3 1Reproductive Biology Group, University of Leeds, UK2Reproductive Toxicology Division, U.S. Environmenta...

  10. Native Avatars, Online Hubs, and Urban Indian Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Gabriel S.

    2011-01-01

    Teaching American Indian literature with online resources can help diverse urban Indian and multicultural students connect with American Indian cultures, histories, and Nations. This online-enriched pedagogy adopts Susan Lobo's sense of the city as an "urban hub," or activist community center, an urban area linked to reservations in which Native…

  11. RESCUE OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE-INDUCED PREGNANCY LOSS IN THE F344 RAT BY EXOGENOUS PROGESTERONE AND HCG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescue of bromodichloromethane-induced pregnancy loss in the F344 rat by exogenous progesterone and hCG.Susan R. Bielmeier1, Deborah S. Best2 and Michael G. Narotsky21 Curriculum in Toxicology, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA2 Reproductive Toxico...

  12. The structure of the nasal chemosensory system in squamate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 25; Issue 2. The structure of the nasal chemosensory system in squamate reptiles. 1. The olfactory organ, with special reference to olfaction in geckos. Susan J Rehorek Bruce T Firth Mark N Hutchinson. Articles Volume 25 Issue 2 June 2000 pp 173-179 ...

  13. Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health - Vol 22, No 2 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Paper Bullying boys: the traumatic effects of bullying in male adolescent learners · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Susan Louise Penning, Anil Bhagwanjee, Kaymarlin Govender. http://dx.doi.org/10.2989/17280583.2010.528580 ...

  14. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Penning, Susan Louise. Vol 22, No 2 (2010) - Articles Research Paper Bullying boys: the traumatic effects of bullying in male adolescent learners. Abstract. ISSN: 1728-0591. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms ...

  15. 75 FR 60781 - Announcement of Funding Awards for Fiscal Year 2010 Doctoral Dissertation Research Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Street, New York, NY 10011. Grant: $25,000 to Jamie Taylor. 17. Board of Trustee of the University of... INFORMATION CONTACT: Susan Brunson, Office of University Partnerships, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban... awarded for a two-year period. The Office of University Partnerships under the Assistant Secretary for...

  16. Forum: Cultural Identity and (Dis)Continuities of Children of Immigrant Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obsiye, Mohamed; Cook, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Susan Harper's study centres on "funds of knowledge" as a pedagogical resource for the development of a science curriculum, drawing on Karen refugee parents' cultural knowledge and identity. She argues that engagement in this process helps the parent generation of this community to "rebuild their cultural resilience" and cope…

  17. Jemaah Islamiyah: Reevaluating the Most Dangerous Terrorist Threat in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Hambali’s arrest in 2003. Some reporting suggests leftover money from the 2003 attack funded the Australian embassy bombing in 2004. 105 lessened...Civil Society.” Perspectives on Politics. American Political Science Association, vol. 1, no. 2, June 2003. Blackburn, Susan. “Indonesian Women

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 350 ... Susan W. Karanja, Rohen Harrichandparsad, Duncan Royston, Samson M. Motebejane, Ayesha Mitha. Vol 11, No 2 (2007), Comparison of barium and gastrograffin swallow for radiation therapy planning in carcinoma of the oesophagus, Abstract PDF. V Sharma, DN Gumbi, M Mbhele, B Donde.

  19. Appalachian Literature for Young Adults: The Contributions of Rebecca Caudill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Describes the life and work of Rebecca Caudill, an author of young adult and children's literature, and discusses how she captures major characteristics of Appalachian culture. Examines four young adult novels: (1) "Tree of Freedom"; (2) "The Far-Off Land"; (3) "Barrie and Daughter"; and (4) "Susan Cornish."…

  20. Assessment of diagnostic technology in health care: rationale, methods, problems, and directions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sox, Harold C

    1989-01-01

    ... Rationale, Methods, Problems, and Directions Harold Sox, Susan Stern, Douglas Owens, and Herbert L. Abrams Institute of Medicine NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. 1989 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files XML from...