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Sample records for stance susan wegmann

  1. Susan Smith

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    Soveel lesers soveel lokmiddele soveel re- sponse kan gelys word om toegang tot die lees van poësie te registreer. 'n Resep om ge- trou of in ontrou na te volg, bestaan nie. Ge- lukkig nie. Susan Smith se (debuut)bundel lok my helaas nie deur die voorblad as vertrek- punt te neem nie. Aan visuele prikkelkrag gaan.

  2. SUSANS With Polarized Neutrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Apoorva G; Rakhecha, Veer Chand; Strobl, Makus; Treimer, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Super Ultra-Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SUSANS) studies over wave vector transfers of 10(-4) nm(-1) to 10(-3) nm(-1) afford information on micrometer-size agglomerates in samples. Using a right-angled magnetic air prism, we have achieved a separation of ≈10 arcsec between ≈2 arcsec wide up- and down-spin peaks of 0.54 nm neutrons. The SUSANS instrument has thus been equipped with the polarized neutron option. The samples are placed in a uniform vertical field of 8.8 × 10(4) A/m (1.1 kOe). Several magnetic alloy ribbon samples broaden the up-spin neutron peak significantly over the ±1.3 × 10(-3) nm(-1) range, while leaving the down-spin peak essentially unaltered. Fourier transforms of these SUSANS spectra corrected for the instrument resolution, yield micrometer-range pair distribution functions for up- and down-spin neutrons as well as the nuclear and magnetic scattering length density distributions in the samples.

  3. Susan Flannery lahkub? / Harro Puusild

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Puusild, Harro

    2008-01-01

    Ameerika teleseriaali "Vaprad ja ilusad" Stephanie Forresteri osatäitja Susan Flannery (1943) on seriaalis mänginud algusest peale s.o. 21 aastat. Lisatud intervjuu näitlejatariga. Sama ka Teleleht nr. 15, lk. 8-9 : ill

  4. Quality assurance when refitting - SUSAN example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, R.

    1992-01-01

    The most important points of quality assurance for the realisation of the SUSAN project (special independent system for the dissipation of post-decay heat) at the Muehleberg nuclear power station are discussed in this article. The periodic controls and function tests which have been performed since August 1989, confirm the quality of the products used

  5. Design package lazy susan for the fuel retrieval system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TEDESCHI, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    This is a design package that contains the details for a Lazy Susan style small tool for the Fuel Retrieval System. The Lazy Susan tool is used to help rotate an MCO Fuel Basket when loading it. This document contains requirements, development design information, tests and test reports that pertain to the production of Lazy Susan small tool

  6. Psychoanalytic Interpretation of Blueberries by Susan Gibb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Zalbidea Paniagua

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Blueberries (2009 by Susan Gibb, published in the ELO (Electronic Literature Organization, invites the reader to travel inside the protagonist’s mind to discover real and imaginary experiences examining notions of gender, sex, body and identity of a traumatised woman. This article explores the verbal and visual modes in this digital short fiction following semiotic patterns as well as interpreting the psychological states that are expressed through poetical and technological components. A comparative study of the consequences of trauma in the protagonist will be developed including psychoanalytic theories by Sigmund Freud, Jacques Lacan and the feminist psychoanalysts: Melanie Klein and Bracha Ettinger. The reactions of the protagonist will be studied: loss of reality, hallucinations and Electra Complex, as well as the rise of defence mechanisms and her use of the artistic creativity as a healing therapy. The interactivity of the hypermedia, multiple paths and endings will be analyzed as a literary strategy that increases the reader’s capacity of empathizing with the speaker.

  7. Susan Sontag — A Forgotten Mother?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kludia Ziewiec

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses new and republished translations of Susan Sontag’s work, recently launched by the Karakter publishing house: Regarding the Pan of Others, On Photography, and Against Interpretation and Other Essays. The article focuses on the elements of Sontag’s thought that make her a forgotten mother of feminist and gender theoreticians, as well as such influential critics as Michel Foucault and Roland Barthes. The article points out to continuations of Sontag’s thought in contemporary theoretical and social projects, and to the pertinence of her critical observations on theories based on metaphysics of presence: psychoanalysis, Marxism, or hermeneutics. The article also touches upon history of war photography and related war journalism, and upon the ambivalent quality of imaging of the misery of war. It also present historical and cultural circumstances of the development of Sontag’s thought in the intellectual milieu of New York in the 1960s. The discussion recapitulates the main statements of Sontag’s essays, relating them to a wider theoretical context, which is aimed at a reappraisal of the forgotten intelectual in the history of literature.

  8. Meet EPA Scientist Susan Yee, Ph.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Yee, Ph.D., is an ecologist at EPA's Gulf Ecology Division. She is working on the Puerto Rico Sustainable Communities program, developing decision support tools to evaluate how alternative decisions impact coastal ecosystem goods and services

  9. A conversation with Susan Band Horwitz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Susan Band; Goldman, I David

    2015-01-01

    Susan Band Horwitz is a Distinguished Professor and holds the Falkenstein Chair in Cancer Research at Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York. She is co-chair of the Department of Molecular Pharmacology and associate director for therapeutics at the Albert Einstein Cancer Center. After graduating from Bryn Mawr College, Dr. Horwitz received her PhD in biochemistry from Brandeis University. She has had a continuing interest in natural products as a source of new drugs for the treatment of cancer. Her most seminal research contribution has been in the development of Taxol(®). Dr. Horwitz and her colleagues made the discovery that Taxol had a unique mechanism of action and suggested that it was a prototype for a new class of antitumor drugs. Although Taxol was an antimitotic agent blocking cells in the metaphase stage of the cell cycle, Dr. Horwitz recognized that Taxol was blocking mitosis in a way different from that of other known agents. Her group demonstrated that the binding site for Taxol was on the β-tubulin subunit. The interaction of Taxol with the β-tubulin subunit resulted in stabilized microtubules, essentially paralyzing the cytoskeleton, thereby preventing cell division. Dr. Horwitz served as president (2002-2003) of the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR). She is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Medicine, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Philosophical Society. She has received numerous honors and awards, including the C. Chester Stock Award from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, the Warren Alpert Foundation Prize from Harvard Medical School, the Bristol-Myers Squibb Award for Distinguished Achievement in Cancer Research, the American Cancer Society's Medal of Honor, and the AACR Award for Lifetime Achievement in Cancer Research. The following interview was conducted on January 23, 2014.

  10. Epistemic stance in courtroom interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Sune Sønderberg; Mortensen, Janus

    2017-01-01

    The oral examination of defendants and witnesses is a cornerstone in most criminal trials, where the weight and credibility of what is said and the certainty with which testimony is delivered will often be decisive for the ruling of the court. This chapter presents a case study of the linguistic...... construction of certainty and uncertainty – or epistemic stance taking – in Danish courtroom interaction. Based on transcribed audio recordings from a criminal trial in Denmark in 2014, we examine the ways in which the defendant, the alleged victim and an eyewitness construct epistemic stances during...

  11. Susan swan and the female grotesque Susan swan and the female grotesque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Bornéo Funck

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduced to readers as “the tallest woman freelance writer in Canada”, Susan Swan belongs to a generation of writers whose experimental, innovative fiction has proved vital in the contemporary project of de/re/constructing narrative practice. Her 1983 novel The Biggest Modern Woman of the World constitutes an excellent example of what critic Linda Hutcheon has termed “historiographic metafiction”—”fiction that is intensely, self-reflexively art, but is also grounded in historical, social, and political realities” (Canadian 13. As a conscious engagement with social and historical contexts, such fiction aims at destabilizing and subverting accepted patterns of belief by reconceptualizing and narrating possible subjectivities. By means of intertextuality, especially parody, it engages in an ideological critique in terms of both sexual and national politics. Introduced to readers as “the tallest woman freelance writer in Canada”, Susan Swan belongs to a generation of writers whose experimental, innovative fiction has proved vital in the contemporary project of de/re/constructing narrative practice. Her 1983 novel The Biggest Modern Woman of the World constitutes an excellent example of what critic Linda Hutcheon has termed “historiographic metafiction”—”fiction that is intensely, self-reflexively art, but is also grounded in historical, social, and political realities” (Canadian 13. As a conscious engagement with social and historical contexts, such fiction aims at destabilizing and subverting accepted patterns of belief by reconceptualizing and narrating possible subjectivities. By means of intertextuality, especially parody, it engages in an ideological critique in terms of both sexual and national politics.

  12. International Literacy Crusader: An Interview with Susan Mandel Glazer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Valerie K.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Susan Mandel Glazer, past president of both the International Reading Association and the College Reading Association. Dr. Glazer received her doctorate in education from the University of Pennsylvania and her master of arts from New York University. Her most recent books are "Beyond the Looking Glass:…

  13. Ranking-based Method for News Stance Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qiang; Yilmaz, Emine; Liang, Shangsong

    2018-01-01

    A valuable step towards news veracity assessment is to understand stance from different information sources, and the process is known as the stance detection. Specifically, the stance detection is to detect four kinds of stances (

  14. Ranking-based Method for News Stance Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qiang

    2018-04-18

    A valuable step towards news veracity assessment is to understand stance from different information sources, and the process is known as the stance detection. Specifically, the stance detection is to detect four kinds of stances (

  15. Infrared image background modeling based on improved Susan filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuehua, Xia

    2018-02-01

    When SUSAN filter is used to model the infrared image, the Gaussian filter lacks the ability of direction filtering. After filtering, the edge information of the image cannot be preserved well, so that there are a lot of edge singular points in the difference graph, increase the difficulties of target detection. To solve the above problems, the anisotropy algorithm is introduced in this paper, and the anisotropic Gauss filter is used instead of the Gauss filter in the SUSAN filter operator. Firstly, using anisotropic gradient operator to calculate a point of image's horizontal and vertical gradient, to determine the long axis direction of the filter; Secondly, use the local area of the point and the neighborhood smoothness to calculate the filter length and short axis variance; And then calculate the first-order norm of the difference between the local area of the point's gray-scale and mean, to determine the threshold of the SUSAN filter; Finally, the built SUSAN filter is used to convolution the image to obtain the background image, at the same time, the difference between the background image and the original image is obtained. The experimental results show that the background modeling effect of infrared image is evaluated by Mean Squared Error (MSE), Structural Similarity (SSIM) and local Signal-to-noise Ratio Gain (GSNR). Compared with the traditional filtering algorithm, the improved SUSAN filter has achieved better background modeling effect, which can effectively preserve the edge information in the image, and the dim small target is effectively enhanced in the difference graph, which greatly reduces the false alarm rate of the image.

  16. Values and stances towards expert knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Ahola, Salla

    2016-01-01

    Laypeople’s stances towards expert knowledge and the relationships of personal values to such stances are little studied and remain less than clear. The purpose of this dissertation was to shed more light on these stances and their relationships to personal values, and thereby to contribute to a greater understanding of them. More specifically, this study focusses on the readiness of laypeople to question experts’ views, their non-adherence to doctors’ instructions, and their preferences to ...

  17. Resurrecting Absence: Iconic Ghosts in the Poetry of Susan Howe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Wilkinson

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the opinions of Susan Howe in her book A Bibliography of the King's Book, Or Eikon Basilike. It cites that Howe's work reflects her evocative visual and verbal landscapes as well as her enthusiasm of leading readers to the obscurities of textual and historical respresentation. It also discusses the strange tyrannical martyrdom of King Charles the First and his publication as well as her understanding of Edward Almack's bibliographical project.

  18. The intentional stance and cultural learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michael, John Andrew

    2015-01-01

    that (partially) explainsthe reliability of the intentional stance, and does so – contra Dennett’s realist critics – without appealing to a realist interpretation of the descriptions speakers attach to intentional terms. However, I also suggest that this developmental perspective provides grist to the mill...... conceptualize the assumption of rationality that is at the core of the intentional stance theory....

  19. Parallax adjustment algorithm based on Susan-Zernike moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yan; Zhang, Kun; Shen, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Huiyun

    2018-02-01

    Precise parallax detection through definition evaluation and the adjustment of the assembly position of the objective lens or the reticle are important means of eliminating the parallax of the telescope system, so that the imaging screen and the reticle are clearly focused at the same time. An adaptive definition evaluation function based on Susan-Zernike moments is proposed. First, the image is preprocessed by the Susan operator to find the potential boundary edge. Then, the Zernike moments operator is used to determine the exact region of the reticle line with sub-pixel accuracy. The image definition is evaluated only in this related area. The evaluation function consists of the gradient difference calculated by the Zernike moments operator. By adjusting the assembly position of the objective lens, the imaging screen and the reticle will be simultaneously in the state of maximum definition, so the parallax can be eliminated. The experimental results show that the definition evaluation function proposed in this paper has the advantages of good focusing performance, strong anti-interference ability compared with the other commonly used definition evaluation functions.

  20. Practitioner Profile: An Interview with Susan Bross, AFC®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Bross

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Susan Bross is a nationally accredited financial counselor who established her private practice in 1992. She currently lives in San Rafael, California. She brings a multi-faceted background and a combination of skills to her work. As a financial counselor, she works with individuals, couples, and entrepreneurs throughout the nation to help clients develop a practical and emotionally healthy relationship with money. When asked, she will tell you that she is passionate about her work because it mirrors her own hard-won path with money. Readers of the Journal will find Ms. Bross’s approach to financial therapy inspiring. She teaches simple tools for effortless and sustainable cash flow and money management. She also guides her clients to balanced attitudes and beliefs about money and success.

  1. [The Durkheim Test. Remarks on Susan Leigh Star's Boundary Objects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gießmann, Sebastian

    2015-09-01

    The article reconstructs Susan Leigh Star's conceptual work on the notion of 'boundary objects'. It traces the emergence of the concept, beginning with her PhD thesis and its publication as Regions of the Mind in 1989. 'Boundary objects' attempt to represent the distributed, multifold nature of scientific work and its mediations between different 'social worlds'. Being addressed to several 'communities of practice', the term responded to questions from Distributed Artificial Intelligence in Computer Science, Workplace Studies and Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), and microhistorical approaches inside the growing Science and Technology Studies. Yet the interdisciplinary character and interpretive flexibility of Star’s invention has rarely been noticed as a conceptual tool for media theory. I therefore propose to reconsider Star's 'Durkheim test' for sociotechnical media practices.

  2. Exploring Individual Differences in Preschoolers' Causal Stance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Aubry; Booth, Amy E.

    2016-01-01

    Preschoolers, as a group, are highly attuned to causality, and this attunement is known to facilitate memory, learning, and problem solving. However, recent work reveals substantial individual variability in the strength of children's "causal stance," as demonstrated by their curiosity about and preference for new causal information. In…

  3. Interpersonal Stance in Conflict Conversation: Police Interviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnes, Merijn

    2013-01-01

    In this work we focus on the dynamics of the conflict that often arises in a police interview between suspects and police officers. Police interviews are a special type of social encounter, primarily because of the authority role of the police interviewer and the often uncooperative stance that the

  4. Thinking about rumination: the scholarly contributions and intellectual legacy of Susan Nolen-Hoeksema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubomirsky, Sonja; Layous, Kristin; Chancellor, Joseph; Nelson, S Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Our article reviews and celebrates Susan Nolen-Hoeksema's remarkable contributions to psychological and clinical science, focusing on her vast body of theoretical and empirical work and her influence on colleagues and students. Susan spent her career trying to understand how and why a style of regulating emotions called rumination increases vulnerability to depression and exacerbates and perpetuates negative moods. More broadly, we describe research by Susan and her colleagues on the predictors of depression in childhood and adolescence; gender differences in depression and rumination in adolescence and adulthood; roots, correlates, and adverse consequences of ruminative response styles; and rumination as a transdiagnostic risk factor for not only depression but also a host of psychological disorders, including anxiety, substance abuse, and eating disorders. Susan's intellectual legacy is evident in her impressive publication and citation record, the clinical applications of her work, and the flourishing careers of the students she mentored.

  5. The expressive stance: intentionality, expression, and machine art

    OpenAIRE

    Linson, Adam

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new interpretive stance for interpreting artistic works and performances that is relevant to artificial intelligence research but also has broader implications. Termed the expressive stance, this stance makes intelligible a critical distinction between present-day machine art and human art, but allows for the possibility that future machine art could find a place alongside our own. The expressive stance is elaborated as a response to Daniel Dennett's notion of the intent...

  6. Kitybė Susan Hill novelėje ,,The Woman in Black“

    OpenAIRE

    Kučinskaitė, Martyna

    2016-01-01

    Otherness in the Novella by Susan Hill “The Woman in Black” The present BA paper considers the representation of otherness in Susan Hill’s horror novella The Woman in Black (1983). The novella’s story is set in the Victorian England where the main concerns are the ghost of Jennet Humfrye who haunts the village, Crythin Gifford, and the haunted Eel Marsh House. Whenever she is seen by someone in the village, or in the house she haunts, a child dies under mysterious circumstances. The present p...

  7. Binding in the Lazy Susan of the 1 MW TRIGA at the Centro Nuclear de Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, J.; Mulas, P.; Mariano, G.; Hernandez, R.

    1974-01-01

    Problems with the original Lazy Susan were reported in a previous conference, where the procedure followed for its removal was described. A new Lazy Susan was supplied by the fabricant and it was judged convenient to perform an out-of-core test of the dispositive. A rig was built to produce temperature gradients similar to the ones encountered in the operation at high power levels. After a temperature difference (estimated between 130 o C and 170 o C) between the rotating part and the outside surface was established, the Lazy Susan started to bind. This was reported to the fabricant and it was concluded that a new design was needed and since it would take at least two years before the new unit could be acquired, it was decided to install the Lazy Susan recently supplied. The unit now rotates for approximately 20 minutes when the reactor is operating at 1 MW and then binds. At lower power levels it is operative for longer periods of time. (author)

  8. Teaching Students About Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination: An Interview with Susan Fiske

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Amy

    2005-01-01

    Susan T. Fiske is professor of psychology, Princeton University (PhD, Harvard University; honorary doctorate, Universite Catholique de Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium). She wrote Social Cognition (with Taylor) on how people make sense of each other. Currently, she investigates emotional prejudices (pity, contempt, envy, and pride) at cultural,…

  9. Binding in the Lazy Susan of the 1 MW TRIGA at the Centro Nuclear de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, J; Mulas, P; Mariano, G; Hernandez, R [Instituto Nacional de Energia Nuclear (Mexico)

    1974-07-01

    Problems with the original Lazy Susan were reported in a previous conference, where the procedure followed for its removal was described. A new Lazy Susan was supplied by the fabricant and it was judged convenient to perform an out-of-core test of the dispositive. A rig was built to produce temperature gradients similar to the ones encountered in the operation at high power levels. After a temperature difference (estimated between 130{sup o}C and 170{sup o}C) between the rotating part and the outside surface was established, the Lazy Susan started to bind. This was reported to the fabricant and it was concluded that a new design was needed and since it would take at least two years before the new unit could be acquired, it was decided to install the Lazy Susan recently supplied. The unit now rotates for approximately 20 minutes when the reactor is operating at 1 MW and then binds. At lower power levels it is operative for longer periods of time. (author)

  10. Re-Establishing Social Studies as a Core Subject: An Interview with Susan Griffin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Susan

    2014-01-01

    NCSS Executive Director Susan Griffin was chair of the Task Force of Professional Organizations that worked with the Social Studies Assessment, Curriculum, and Instruction Collaborative (SSACI) of the Council of Chief State School Officers to initiate and guide the development of the "College, Career and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social…

  11. Unipedal stance testing in the assessment of peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurvitz, E A; Richardson, J K; Werner, R A

    2001-02-01

    To define further the relation between unipedal stance testing and peripheral neuropathy. Prospective cohort. Electroneuromyography laboratory of a Veterans Affairs medical center and a university hospital. Ninety-two patients referred for lower extremity electrodiagnostic studies. A standardized history and physical examination designed to detect peripheral neuropathy, 3 trials of unipedal stance, and electrodiagnostic studies. Peripheral neuropathy was identified by electrodiagnostic testing in 32%. These subjects had a significantly shorter (p unipedal stance time (15.7s, longest of 3 trials) than the patients without peripheral neuropathy (37.1s). Abnormal unipedal stance time (unipedal stance time had a negative predictive value of 90%. Abnormal unipedal stance time was associated with an increased risk of having peripheral neuropathy on univariate analysis (odds ratio = 8.8, 95% confidence interval = 2.5--31), and was the only significant predictor of peripheral neuropathy in the regression model. Aspects of the neurologic examination did not add to the regression model compared with abnormal unipedal stance time. Unipedal stance testing is useful in the clinical setting both to identify and to exclude the presence of peripheral neuropathy.

  12. Towards a Moderate Stance on Human Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikil Mukerji

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, we argue against radical ethical views about human enhancement that either dismiss or endorse it tout court. Instead, we advocate the moderate stance that issues of enhancement should be examined with an open mind and on a case-by-case basis. To make this view plausible, we offer three reasons. The first lies in the fact that it is difficult to delineate enhancement conceptually, which makes it hard to argue for general ethical conclusions about it. The second is that an appropriate view of the edifice of moral theory suggests that tenable moral judgements about human enhancement are the result of a careful consideration of the pros and cons that attach to the use of a specific enhancement technology. Lastly, we show that important normative factors in the enhancement debate can be used both in arguments for and in arguments against enhancement. The bottom line of our discussion is that we should treat issues of human enhancement like we do any other ethical issue, viz. by weighing up the reasons pro and con.

  13. Susan And Lucy: Two Outstanding Heroines Of Alan Ayckbourn / Susan ve Lucy: Alan Ayckbourn’un İki Sıradışı Kadın-Kahramanı

    OpenAIRE

    Parlak, Erdinç

    2012-01-01

    Alan Ayckbourn (1939-     ) has an important place among the twentieth century British playwrights. The playwright handles some present-day social problems such as insensitiveness, lack of communication, lack of love, collision, alienation, moral degeneration especially around his heroines. Susan, the protagonist of Woman in Mind, and Lucy, the little heroine in Invisible Friends, are among the outstanding heroines of the playwright. The life experiences of Susan and Lucy reflected from the s...

  14. Detection algorithm of infrared small target based on improved SUSAN operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingmiao; Wang, Shicheng; Zhao, Jing

    2010-10-01

    The methods of detecting small moving targets in infrared image sequences that contain moving nuisance objects and background noise is analyzed in this paper. A novel infrared small target detection algorithm based on improved SUSAN operator is put forward. The algorithm selects double templates for the infrared small target detection: one size is greater than the small target point size and another size is equal to the small target point size. First, the algorithm uses the big template to calculate the USAN of each pixel in the image and detect the small target, the edge of the image and isolated noise pixels; Then the algorithm uses the another template to calculate the USAN of pixels detected in the first step and improves the principles of SUSAN algorithm based on the characteristics of the small target so that the algorithm can only detect small targets and don't sensitive to the edge pixels of the image and isolated noise pixels. So the interference of the edge of the image and isolate noise points are removed and the candidate target points can be identified; At last, the target is detected by utilizing the continuity and consistency of target movement. The experimental results indicate that the improved SUSAN detection algorithm can quickly and effectively detect the infrared small targets.

  15. Specificity of foot configuration during bipedal stance in ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casabona, Antonino; Leonardi, Giuseppa; Aimola, Ettore; La Grua, Giovanni; Polizzi, Cristina Maria; Cioni, Matteo; Valle, Maria Stella

    2016-05-01

    Learning highly specialized upright postures may be of benefit for more common as well as for novel stances. In this study, we asked whether this generalization occurs with foot configurations previously trained or depends on a generic increase in balance difficulty. We also explored the possibility that the benefit may concern not only the level of postural performance but also the structural organization of the upright standing. Ten elite professional ballet dancers were compared to ten untrained subjects, measuring the motion of the center of pressure (COP) across a set of five stances with different foot configurations. The balance stability was measured computing the area, the sway path, and the root mean square of the COP motion, whereas the structure of the postural control was assessed by compute approximate entropy, fractal dimension and the mean power frequency. The foot position included common and challenging stances, with the level of difficulty changed across the configurations. Among these conditions, only one foot configuration was familiar to the dancers. Statistically significant differences between the two groups, for all the parameters, were observed only for the stance with the foot position familiar to the dancers. Stability and structural parameters exhibited comparable differences. We concluded that the benefit from classical ballet is limited to a specific foot configuration, regardless of the level of stance difficulty or the component of postural control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Initial Stance of Quadruped Trotting on Walking Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peisun Ma

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available It is very important for quadruped walking machine to keep its stability in high speed walking. It has been indicated that moment around the supporting diagonal line of quadruped in trotting gait largely influences walking stability. In this paper, moment around the supporting diagonal line of quadruped in trotting gait is modeled and its effects on body attitude are analyzed. The degree of influence varies with different initial stances of quadruped and we get the optimal initial stance of quadruped in trotting gait with maximal walking stability. Simulation results are presented.

  17. A New Approach: The Feminist Musicology Studies of Susan McClary and Marcia J. Citron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Reitsma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the currently prevalent analytic approaches in academia is feminist theory and criticism. Its combination with musicology has influenced the field for the past four decades. The goal of the new approach, loosely termed “feminist musicology,” has been to discover, analyze, discuss, and promote the representation of women and the “feminine” essence in various disciplines of music. Today, feminist musicology is highly researched, published in books and journals, and presented as scholarly papers at various musicological conferences around the world. This new approach introduces the ideologies of feminism to the study of music. Susan McClary and Marcia J. Citron are two musicologists who were influenced by these ideologies and have guided the musicological world in this direction of feminist musicology. Both have made serious contributions to the emerging field of feminist musicology. Both researched the ideas of gender musical construction within musical narratives, music as a gendered discourse, and historical and social factors that affected women in music. Although they have met with considerable resistance, Susan McClary and Marcia J. Citron have significantly expanded the scope of musicology through their application of feminist theory.

  18. Postural control of typical developing boys during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Kevin; Staes, Filip; Peerlinck, Kathelijne; Van Geet, Kristel; Hermans, Cedric; Lobet, Sebastien

    2017-02-01

    Literature is lacking information about postural control performance of typically developing children during a transition task from double-leg stance to single-leg stance. The purpose of the present study was therefore to evaluate the clinical feasibility of a transition task in typical developing age groups as well as to study the correlation between associated balance measures and age.Thirty-three typically developing boys aged 6-20 years performed a standard transition task from DLS to SLS with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC). Balance features derived from the center of pressure displacement captured by a single force platform were correlated with age on the one hand and considered for differences in the perspective of limb dominance on the other hand.All TDB (typically developing boys) were able to perform the transition task with EO. With respect to EC condition, all TDB from the age group 6-7 years and the youngest of the age group 8-12 years (N = 4) were unable to perform the task. No significant differences were observed between the balance measures of the dominant and non-dominant limbs.With respect to EO condition, correlation analyses indicated that time to new stability point (TNSP) as well as the sway measure after this TNSP were correlated with age (p postural balance of typically developing children during walking, running, sit-to-stand, and bipodal and unipodal stance has been well documented in the literature. • These reference data provided not only insight into the maturation process of the postural control system, but also served in diagnosing and managing functional repercussions of neurological and orthopedic pathologies. What is New: • Objective data regarding postural balance of typical developing children during a transition task from double-leg stance to single-leg stance. • Insight into the role of maturation on the postural control system.

  19. (REREADING INDEX CARDS: THE ARCHIVIST AS INTERPRETER IN SUSAN PUI SAN LOK'S 'NEWS'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Camacho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Looking at susan pui san lok's projects News (2005 and RoCH (2013, this paper contemplates the notions put forward by Michel-Rolph Trouillot and Jacques Derrida on the power of archivists, not solely as guardians of documents but also as their interpreters. Taking into consideration that photographic and moving image archives present unique difficulties in their cataloguing processes, I examine silences that might be generated by a thematic classification that is not impervious to archivists' biases. Moreover, I consider if the silences created by manual processes of classification and retrieval might be surpassed through digital technologies, or if it is possible that new technologies simply create different types of silencing.

  20. Intermittent large amplitude internal waves observed in Port Susan, Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J. C.; Decker, L.

    2017-07-01

    A previously unreported internal tidal bore, which evolves into solitary internal wave packets, was observed in Port Susan, Puget Sound, and the timing, speed, and amplitude of the waves were measured by CTD and visual observation. Acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) measurements were attempted, but unsuccessful. The waves appear to be generated with the ebb flow along the tidal flats of the Stillaguamish River, and the speed and width of the resulting waves can be predicted from second-order KdV theory. Their eventual dissipation may contribute significantly to surface mixing locally, particularly in comparison with the local dissipation due to the tides. Visually the waves appear in fair weather as a strong foam front, which is less visible the farther they propagate.

  1. An Interview with Susan Conners: An Educator's Observations about Living with and Educating Others about Tourette's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Steven P.

    2003-01-01

    In this interview with Susan Conners, a middle school French teacher who has lived with Tourette syndrome (TS) since age 6, she discusses her lack of diagnosis until age 36, difficulties in school, why TS should be listed under "Other Health Impaired" in federal legislation, characteristics of TS, and interventions. (Contains…

  2. Lesson Plans for "Not for Ourselves Alone: The Story of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prososki, Lisa; Krouse, Judith; Harper, Judith E.

    These lesson plans for high school students were developed to accompany the documentary film by Ken Burns and Paul Barnes which tells the story of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony and their lifelong fight for women's rights. In the lessons students write editorials about women's rights around the world today, interview senior citizens…

  3. "I Am Not a Fairy Tale": Contextualizing Sioux Spirituality and Story Traditions in Susan Power's "The Grass Dancer"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Vanessa Holford

    2009-01-01

    Standing Rock Sioux writer Susan Power's best-selling novel "The Grass Dancer" (1994) includes depictions of the supernatural and spiritual that do not conform to the Judeo-Christian or, in some cases, the atheist or rationalist worldviews of many readers. Power writes of ghost characters and haunted places, communication between the living and…

  4. 78 FR 75676 - Mark W. Dobronski and Susan K. Dobronski-Acquisition of Control Exemption-Adrian & Blissfield...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... Ferrovia, L.L.C. (Ferrovia), also a noncarrier and a limited liability company, which, until very recently... and Susan K. Dobronski--Acquisition of Control Exemption--Adrian & Blissfield Rail Road Company, Charlotte Southern Railroad Company, Detroit Connecting Railroad Company, Lapeer Industrial Railroad Company...

  5. House Prices and the stance of Monetary Policy.

    OpenAIRE

    Jarociński, Marek; Smets, Frank

    2008-01-01

    This paper estimates a Bayesian VAR for the US economy which includes a housing sector and addresses the following questions. Can developments in the housing sector be explained on the basis of developments in real and nominal GDP and interest rates? What are the effects of housing demand shocks on the economy? How does monetary policy affect the housing market? What are the implications of house price developments for the stance of monetary policy? Regarding the latter question, we implement...

  6. Two Mechanisms of Sensorimotor Set Adaptation to Inclined Stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Hyun Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Orientation of posture relative to the environment depends on the contributions from the somatosensory, vestibular, and visual systems mixed in varying proportions to produce a sensorimotor set. Here, we probed the sensorimotor set composition using a postural adaptation task in which healthy adults stood on an inclined surface for 3 min. Upon returning to a horizontal surface, participants displayed a range of postural orientations – from an aftereffect that consisted of a large forward postural lean to an upright stance with little or no aftereffect. It has been hypothesized that the post-incline postural change depends on each individual’s sensorimotor set: whether the set was dominated by the somatosensory or vestibular system: Somatosensory dominance would cause the lean aftereffect whereas vestibular dominance should steer stance posture toward upright orientation. We investigated the individuals who displayed somatosensory dominance by manipulating their attention to spatial orientation. We introduced a distraction condition in which subjects concurrently performed a difficult arithmetic subtraction task. This manipulation altered the time course of their post-incline aftereffect. When not distracted, participants returned to upright stance within the 3-min period. However, they continued leaning forward when distracted. These results suggest that the mechanism of sensorimotor set adaptation to inclined stance comprises at least two components. The first component reflects the dominant contribution from the somatosensory system. Since the postural lean was observed among these subjects even when they were not distracted, it suggests that the aftereffect is difficult to overcome. The second component includes a covert attentional component which manifests as the dissipation of the aftereffect and the return of posture to upright orientation.

  7. Balance (perceived and actual) and preferred stance width during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, John; Hsiao, Katherine T; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

    2008-05-01

    Pregnant women often remark that their balance degrades during pregnancy; however, it appears that no studies have documented the gravida's perception of her balance nor measured direction-specific changes in balance throughout pregnancy or after delivery. Thirty women, fifteen pregnant and fifteen non-pregnant controls, were tested monthly and through 6-month postpartum. For each session, perceived degradation in sense of balance, laboratory-based balance measures, stance width, and the number of falls since the previous session were recorded. Laboratory-based balance measures, quantified by direction-specific measures of postural sway, were computed from ten 30s quiet-standing trials on a stationary force platform. Repeated-measures analysis of variance, paired t-tests, and Pearson correlations were use to examine group and time effects. For the pregnant group, perceived balance degradation and stance width were highly correlated (r = 0.94). Both increased during pregnancy (P r > 0.72) and also decreased significantly between the third trimester and postpartum (P pregnancy, but increased after delivery. Contrary to recent work suggesting fall rates of 25%, only 13% of our subjects (n = 2) fell during pregnancy. Perceived degradation in balance during pregnancy was strongly related to increasing postural sway instability in the anterior-posterior direction. Lateral stability was maintained during pregnancy and likely accomplished by increasing stance width.

  8. The cat vertebral column: stance configuration and range of motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, J. M.; Ye, Y.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the configuration of the vertebral column of the cat during independent stance and in various flexed positions. The range of motion in the sagittal plane is similar across most thoracic and lumbar joints, with the exception of a lesser range at the transition region from thoracic-type to lumbar-type vertebrae. The upper thoracic column exhibits most of its range in dorsiflexion and the lower thoracic and lumbar in ventroflexion. Lateral flexion is limited to less than 5 degrees at all segments. The range in torsion is almost 180 degrees and occurs primarily in the midthoracic region, T4-T11. Contrary to the depiction in most atlases, the standing cat exhibits several curvatures, including a mild dorsiflexion in the lower lumbar segments, a marked ventroflexion in the lower thoracic and upper lumbar segments, and a profound dorsiflexion in the upper thoracic (above T9) and cervical segments. The curvatures are not significantly changed by altering stance distance but are affected by head posture. During stance, the top of the scapula lies well above the spines of the thoracic vertebrae, and the glenohumeral joint is just below the bodies of vertebrae T3-T5. Using a simple static model of the vertebral column in the sagittal plane, it was estimated that the bending moment due to gravity is bimodal with a dorsiflexion moment in the lower thoracic and lumbar region and a ventroflexion moment in the upper thoracic and cervical region. Given the bending moments and the position of the scapula during stance, it is proposed that two groups of scapular muscles provide the major antigravity support for the head and anterior trunk. Levator scapulae and serratus ventralis form the lateral group, inserting on the lateral processes of cervical vertebrae and on the ribs. The major and minor rhomboids form the medial group, inserting on the spinous tips of vertebrae from C4 to T4. It is also proposed that the hypaxial muscles, psoas major, minor, and quadratus

  9. 'Speaking Kleinian': Susan Isaacs as Ursula Wise and the Inter-War Popularisation of Psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Michal

    2017-10-01

    How did the complex concepts of psychoanalysis become popular in early twentieth-century Britain? This article examines the contribution of educator and psychoanalyst Susan Isaacs (1885-1948) to this process, as well as her role as a female expert in the intellectual and medical history of this period. Isaacs was one of the most influential British psychologists of the inter-war era, yet historical research on her work is still limited. The article focuses on her writing as 'Ursula Wise', answering the questions of parents and nursery nurses in the popular journal Nursery World, from 1929 to 1936. Researched in depth for the first time, Isaacs' important magazine columns reveal that her writing was instrumental in disseminating the work of psychoanalyst Melanie Klein in Britain. Moreover, Isaacs' powerful rebuttals to behaviourist, disciplinarian parenting methods helped shift the focus of caregivers to the child's perspective, encouraging them to acknowledge children as independent subjects and future democratic citizens. Like other early psychoanalysts, Isaacs was not an elitist; she was in fact committed to disseminating her ideas as broadly as possible. Isaacs taught British parents and child caregivers to 'speak Kleinian', translating Klein's intellectual ideas into ordinary language and thus enabling their swift integration into popular discourse.

  10. A Journey, the Pain of Others, and Historical Experience: Susan Silas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sendyka, Roma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The author interprets Susan Silas' Helmbrechts walk (1998-2003, a unique series of forty-five photographs and supplementing visual and textual materials collected during the walk along the route of two hundred and twenty-five miles. The walk repeats the route which in 1945 had to undertake women prisoners from the concentration camp in Helmbrechts near Flossenbürg in their death march to Prachatice in Czech Republic. The pictures Silas takes, the people she meets, and finally the trees, the very materiality of the road become the factors of creating her own, individual memory of the event from the past. Silas selects an object from "the margins of the Holocaust" – a forgotten event that she re-presents by reacting to contemporary objects placed along the route of the event. Silas' work offers an opportunity to critically review the concept of memory landscapes (where is memory located in a landscape? and the phenomenon of dark tourism (is following in the footsteps of the prisoners a kind of pilgrimage, tourism, or therapy?. Silas problematises the question of memory, as well as examines different kinds of non-memory. Her camera is directed at locations that can be termed "the non-sites of memory."

  11. The haunting of Susan Lay: servants and mistresses in seventeenth-century England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowing, Laura

    2002-01-01

    At Easter 1650, Susan Lay, a servant in an Essex alehouse, saw the ghost of her mistress, who had been buried three days before. This article explores the history that lay behind her experience: of sexual relationships with both her master and his son, the births and deaths of two bastard children, and beneath it all, a relationship of antagonism, competition, and intimacy with her mistress. It uses this and other legal records to examine the relationship between women in early modern households, arguing that, while antagonisms between women are typically part of effective patriarchies, the domestic life and social structures of mid seventeenth-century England bound servants and mistresses peculiarly tightly together, giving servants licence to dream of replacing their mistresses and mistresses cause to feel threatened by their servants, and making the competitive relations between women functional to patriarchal order. It suggests, finally, that at this moment in time and in this context, seeing a ghost was the best, perhaps the only, way this servant had to tell a suppressed story and stake a claim to a household that had excluded her.

  12. Imaging the Intentional Stance in a Competitive Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallagher, Helen; Jack, Anthony I.; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    a study that investigates the neural substrates of "on-line" mentalizing, using PET, by asking volunteers to second-guess an opponent. In order to identify brain activity specifically associated with adoption of an intentional stance, we used a paradigm that allowed tight control of other cognitive...... demands. Volunteers played a computerised version of the children's game "stone, paper, scissors." In the mentalizing condition volunteers believed they were playing against the experimenter. In the comparison condition, volunteers believed they were playing against a computer. In fact, during the actual...

  13. Toward a Critical Stance: Citizenship Education in the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane M. Vetter

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author presents the argument that through the use of rich classroom talk, students can be motivated to take a critical stance on issues of citizenship, such as social justice, equity and environmental concern. Suggesting that students who are not part of the solution are, indeed, part of the problem, the author advocates giving young children a voice through the integration of citizenship education and critical literacy across the curriculum to promote student awareness and to empower students to become pro active global citizens.

  14. Three components of postural control associated with pushing in symmetrical and asymmetrical stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Ju; Aruin, Alexander S

    2013-07-01

    A number of occupational and leisure activities that involve pushing are performed in symmetrical or asymmetrical stance. The goal of this study was to investigate early postural adjustments (EPAs), anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs), and compensatory postural adjustments (CPAs) during pushing performed while standing. Ten healthy volunteers stood in symmetrical stance (with feet parallel) or in asymmetrical stance (staggered stance with one foot forward) and were instructed to use both hands to push forward the handle of a pendulum attached to the ceiling. Bilateral EMG activity of the trunk and leg muscles and the center of pressure (COP) displacements in the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) directions were recorded and analyzed during the EPAs, APAs, and CPAs. The EMG activity and the COP displacement were different between the symmetrical and asymmetrical stance conditions. The COP displacements in the ML direction were significantly larger in staggered stance than in symmetrical stance. In staggered stance, the EPAs and APAs in the thigh muscles of the backward leg were significantly larger, and the CPAs were smaller than in the forward leg. There was no difference in the EMG activity of the trunk muscles between the stance conditions. The study outcome confirmed the existence of the three components of postural control (EPAs, APAs, and CPAs) in pushing. Moreover, standing asymmetrically was associated with asymmetrical patterns of EMG activity in the lower extremities reflecting the stance-related postural control during pushing. The study outcome provides a basis for studying postural control during other daily activities involving pushing.

  15. Bárbara Mujica, ed., Shakespeare and the Spanish «Comedia». Translation, Interpretation, Performance. Essays in Honor of Susan L. Fischer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro García-Reidy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reseña de Bárbara Mujica, ed., Shakespeare and the Spanish «Comedia». Translation, Interpretation, Performance. Essays in Honor of Susan L. Fischer, Bucknell University Press, Lewisburg, 2013, 298 pp. ISBN 9781611485172.

  16. Podróż, cudze cierpienie i doświadczenie historyczne: Susan Silas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sendyka, Roma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Autorka interpretuje pracę Susan Silas Helmbrechts walk (1998-2003, szczególny cykl czterdziestu pięciu zdjęć i dołączonych do nich materiałów wizualnych oraz tekstowych zbudowany podczas przejścia trasy dwustu dwudziestu pięciu mil, które w 1945 roku musiały przebyć kobiety pędzone w marszu śmierci z Helmbrecht koło Flossenbürga do czeskich Prachatic. Wykonywane zdjęcia, napotykani ludzie, w końcu – drzewa, sama materialność drogi stają się czynnikami wytwarzania własnej, indywidualnej pamięci wydarzenia sprzed lat. Silas wybiera szczególny obiekt "z marginesów Zagłady" – zapomniane zdarzenie, które przedstawia obserwując współczesne obiekty położone wzdłuż trasy tego zdarzenia. Praca Silas pozwala przyjrzeć się krytycznie koncepcji memory landscapes (gdzie w krajobrazie umiejscawia się pamięć? i zjawisku dark tourism (czy podążanie śladami więźniarek to pielgrzymka, turystyka czy terapia?. Silas problematyzuje nie tylko kwestię pamięci, bada również rodzaje nie-pamiętania. Jej kamera zostaje zwrócona ku lokalizacjom, które można nazwać "nie-miejscami pamięci".

  17. Treasure Your Exceptions: An Interview with 2017 George Beadle Award Recipient Susan A. Gerbi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbi, Susan A

    2017-12-01

    THE Genetics Society of America's (GSA) George W. Beadle Award honors individuals who have made outstanding contributions to the community of genetics researchers and who exemplify the qualities of its namesake. The 2017 recipient is Susan A. Gerbi, who has been a prominent leader and advocate for the scientific community. In the course of her research on DNA replication, Gerbi helped develop the method of Replication Initiation Point (RIP) mapping to map replication origins at the nucleotide level, improving resolution by two orders of magnitude. RIP mapping also provides the basis for the now popular use of λ-exonuclease to enrich nascent DNA to map replication origins genome-wide. Gerbi's second area of research on ribosomal RNA revealed a conserved core secondary structure, as well as conserved nucleotide elements (CNEs). Some CNEs are universally conserved, while other CNEs are conserved in all eukaryotes but not in archaea or bacteria, suggesting a eukaryotic function. Intriguingly, the majority of the eukaryotic-specific CNEs line the tunnel of the large ribosomal subunit through which the nascent polypeptide exits. Gerbi has promoted the fly Sciara coprophila as a model organism ever since she used its enormous polytene chromosomes to help develop the method of in situ hybridization during her Ph.D. research in Joe Gall's laboratory. The Gerbi laboratory maintains the Sciara International Stock Center and manages its future, actively spreading Sciara stocks to other laboratories. Gerbi has also served in many leadership roles, working on issues of science policy, women in science, scientific training, and career preparation. This is an abridged version of the interview. The full interview is available on the Genes to Genomes blog, at genestogenomes.org/gerbi. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  18. Visual analysis of online social media to open up the investigation of stance phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucher, Kostiantyn; Schamp-Bjerede, Teri; Kerren, Andreas; Paradis, Carita; Sahlgren, Magnus

    2016-04-01

    Online social media are a perfect text source for stance analysis. Stance in human communication is concerned with speaker attitudes, beliefs, feelings and opinions. Expressions of stance are associated with the speakers' view of what they are talking about and what is up for discussion and negotiation in the intersubjective exchange. Taking stance is thus crucial for the social construction of meaning. Increased knowledge of stance can be useful for many application fields such as business intelligence, security analytics, or social media monitoring. In order to process large amounts of text data for stance analyses, linguists need interactive tools to explore the textual sources as well as the processed data based on computational linguistics techniques. Both original texts and derived data are important for refining the analyses iteratively. In this work, we present a visual analytics tool for online social media text data that can be used to open up the investigation of stance phenomena. Our approach complements traditional linguistic analysis techniques and is based on the analysis of utterances associated with two stance categories: sentiment and certainty. Our contributions include (1) the description of a novel web-based solution for analyzing the use and patterns of stance meanings and expressions in human communication over time; and (2) specialized techniques used for visualizing analysis provenance and corpus overview/navigation. We demonstrate our approach by means of text media on a highly controversial scandal with regard to expressions of anger and provide an expert review from linguists who have been using our tool.

  19. Students' Resources for Stance-Taking in the Literature Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabel, Kristine

    of specialization within LCT (Maton, 2007, 2010), my analyses show a variation in students’ interpersonal meaning-making choices, linking their literary response texts within the same task to either primarily a knower or a knowledge code. This variation suggests a tension in the literature education at this time......Making aspects of privileged ways of participating visible is central to support students’ literacy development within different educational disciplines (Hasan, 1996, 2011). In my doctoral work I focus on the discipline of literature in lower secondary school in the school subject of Danish......, exploring students’ resources for stance-taking in their written literary response texts. In my presentation on Friday I will outline the theoretical grounding of the study and the preliminary findings. Drawing on the appraisal system within SFL (Hood, 2011; Martin & White, 2005) and the dimension...

  20. The effect of vision elimination during quiet stance tasks with different feet positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabon, Nejc; Rosker, Jernej; Loefler, Stefan; Kern, Helmut

    2013-09-01

    Literature confirms the effects of vision and stance on body sway and indicates possible interactions between the two. However, no attempts have been made to systematically compare the effect of vision on the different types of stance which are frequently used in clinical and research practice. The biomechanical changes that occur after changing shape and size of the support surface suggest possible sensory re-weighting might take place. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of vision on body sway in relation to different stance configurations and width. Thirty-eight volunteers performed four quiet stance configurations (parallel, semi-tandem, tandem and single leg), repeating them with open and closed eyes. Traditional parameters, recurrence quantification analysis and sample entropy were analyzed from the CoP trajectory signal. Traditional and recurrence quantification analysis parameters were affected by vision removal and stance type. Exceptions were frequency of oscillation, entropy and trapping time. The most prominent effect of vision elimination on traditional parameters was observed for narrower stances. A significant interaction effect between vision removal and stance type was present for most of the parameters observed (p<0.05). The interaction effect between medio-lateral and antero-posterior traditional parameters differed in linearity between stances. The results confirm the effect of vision removal on the body sway. However, for the medio-lateral traditional parameters, the effects did not increase linearly with the change in width and stance type. This suggests that removal of vision could be more effectively compensated by other sensory systems in semi-tandem stance, tandem and single legged stance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Body sway at sea for two visual tasks and three stance widths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffregen, Thomas A; Villard, Sebastien; Yu, Yawen

    2009-12-01

    On land, body sway is influenced by stance width (the distance between the feet) and by visual tasks engaged in during stance. While wider stance can be used to stabilize the body against ship motion and crewmembers are obliged to carry out many visual tasks while standing, the influence of these factors on the kinematics of body sway has not been studied at sea. Crewmembers of the RN Atlantis stood on a force plate from which we obtained data on the positional variability of the center of pressure (COP). The sea state was 2 on the Beaufort scale. We varied stance width (5 cm, 17 cm, and 30 cm) and the nature of the visual tasks. In the Inspection task, participants viewed a plain piece of white paper, while in the Search task they counted the number of target letters that appeared in a block of text. Search task performance was similar to reports from terrestrial studies. Variability of the COP position was reduced during the Search task relative to the Inspection task. Variability was also reduced during wide stance relative to narrow stance. The influence of stance width was greater than has been observed in terrestrial studies. These results suggest that two factors that influence postural sway on land (variations in stance width and in the nature of visual tasks) also influence sway at sea. We conclude that--in mild sea states--the influence of these factors is not suppressed by ship motion.

  2. Linguistic Markers of Stance in Early and Advanced Academic Writing: A Corpus-Based Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aull, Laura L.; Lancaster, Zak

    2014-01-01

    This article uses corpus methods to examine linguistic expressions of stance in over 4,000 argumentative essays written by incoming first-year university students in comparison with the writing of upper-level undergraduate students and published academics. The findings reveal linguistic stance markers shared across the first-year essays despite…

  3. Brought-Along Identities and the Dynamics of Ideology: Accomplishing Bivalent Stances in a Multilingual Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ashley M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines how the interconnected aspects of the stance triangle (Du Bois 2007) allow speakers to tap into multiple ideological layers as they take a stance and reveal intra-ethnic group tensions. Using a detailed interaction analysis of a Chinese American family's multilingual interaction, the paper explores how such ideological dynamics…

  4. The influence of the boxing stance on performance in professional boxers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorokowski Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In boxing, athletes choose between two strategies: the orthodox stance characteristic of right handed competitors, or the southpaw stance characteristic of left-handers. Despite a conviction popular among the practitioners of this sport that fighting against a southpaw opponent constitutes a handicap, the effectiveness of the type of stance has so far not been examined. We extracted the statistics of the top twenty active male professionals boxing in each of the seventeen weight divisions. Out of the 340 boxers who composed our group, 75% used the orthodox stance and 25% were southpaw. Generally, we found that boxing stance had no effect on the percentage of 340 top professional boxers’ victories. However, both the southpaw and the orthodox athletes had a higher percentage of victories against orthodox boxers than against southpaws.

  5. Consequences of lower oil prices and stranded assets for Russia's sustainable fiscal stance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malova, Aleksandra; Ploeg, Frederick van der

    2017-01-01

    Despite substantial oil and gas revenue Russia's fiscal stance is unsustainable. Under our benchmark assumptions the permanent-income rule requires a permanent tightening of the fiscal stance by 4.6%-points of GDP. Delaying it by a decade implies that the fiscal stance needs to be tightened by a further 0.9%-point. This benchmark optimal policy ensures that depletion of oil and gas wealth is matched by an equal increase in above-ground financial wealth. Its merits are highlighted by comparing it with the tougher alternative of the bird-in-hand rule and with projecting the current fiscal stance. If oil and gas revenue rises by a half due to higher prices or more discoveries, the fiscal stance needs to be tightened by only 3.2%-points of GDP. However, if a large chunk of oil and gas has to be kept in the soil to meet international agreements to keep global warming below 2 °C, the permanent transfer drops to 2.0% of GDP and the fiscal stance needs to be tightened by 5.5%-points of GDP. - Highlights: • Sustained lower oil prices mean that Russia has to tighten its fiscal stance by 4.6%-points of GDP. • If oil & gas revenue rise by half, the fiscal stance only needs to be tightened by 3.2%-points of GDP. • Delaying by a decade means that the fiscal stance has to be tightened by a further 0.9%-points of GDP. • If Russia commits to Paris COP21, a large chunk of reserves cannot be burnt. • The fiscal stance then needs to be tightened by 5.5%-points of GDP.

  6. Susan Loucks-Horsley learning model in light pollution theme: based on a new taxonomy for science education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liliawati, W; Utama, J A; Fauziah, H

    2016-01-01

    The curriculum in Indonesia recommended that science teachers in the elementary and intermediate schools should have interdisciplinary ability in science. However, integrated learning still has not been implemented optimally. This research is designing and applying integrated learning with Susan Loucks-Horsley model in light pollution theme. It can be showed how the student's achievements based on new taxonomy of science education with five domains: knowing and understanding, science process skill, creativity, attitudinal and connecting and applying. This research use mixed methods with concurrent embedded design. The subject is grade 8 of junior high school students in Bandung as many as 27 students. The Instrument have been employed has 28 questions test mastery of concepts, observations sheet and moral dilemma test. The result shows that integrated learning with model Susan Loucks-Horsley is able to increase student's achievement and positive characters on light pollution theme. As the results are the average normalized gain of knowing and understanding domain reach in lower category, the average percentage of science process skill domain reach in good category, the average percentage of creativity and connecting domain reach respectively in good category and attitudinal domain the average percentage is over 75% in moral knowing and moral feeling. (paper)

  7. Susan Loucks-Horsley learning model in light pollution theme: based on a new taxonomy for science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liliawati, W.; Utama, J. A.; Fauziah, H.

    2016-08-01

    The curriculum in Indonesia recommended that science teachers in the elementary and intermediate schools should have interdisciplinary ability in science. However, integrated learning still has not been implemented optimally. This research is designing and applying integrated learning with Susan Loucks-Horsley model in light pollution theme. It can be showed how the student's achievements based on new taxonomy of science education with five domains: knowing & understanding, science process skill, creativity, attitudinal and connecting & applying. This research use mixed methods with concurrent embedded design. The subject is grade 8 of junior high school students in Bandung as many as 27 students. The Instrument have been employed has 28 questions test mastery of concepts, observations sheet and moral dilemma test. The result shows that integrated learning with model Susan Loucks-Horsley is able to increase student's achievement and positive characters on light pollution theme. As the results are the average normalized gain of knowing and understanding domain reach in lower category, the average percentage of science process skill domain reach in good category, the average percentage of creativity and connecting domain reach respectively in good category and attitudinal domain the average percentage is over 75% in moral knowing and moral feeling.

  8. Stance disturbance in multiple sclerosis: brainstem lesions and posturographic assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schalek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Background. Balance disorders are commonly evidenced during the course of multiple sclerosis (MS. The aim of this study is to report characteristics of MS patient stance control disorders, measured by means of posturography and related to the brainstem lesions.

    Methods. Thirty-eight patients affected by MS, mildly to moderately disable according to Kurtzke’s Expanded Disability Status Scale, underwent a complete clinical neurological and vestibular evaluation and brain MRI scanning. All patients were then tested on a static posturography platform (Tetrax, Israel in four conditions: eyes open and closed standing on a firm surface and on a foam pad.

    Results. Clinical and/or MRI evidence of brainstem involvement was observed in 55.3 % of patients. When brainstem lesion was detected, Fourier analysis showed a typical pattern characterized by inversion of the  0- 0.1 Hz and  0.1 - 0.25 Hz. frequency bands.

    Conclusions. MS leads to pervasive postural disturbances in the majority of subjects, including the visuo-vestibular loops and proprioception involving vestibulo-spinal pathways in at least 55.3 % of patients. Our results may also suggest the presence of Fourier inversion in patients with brainstem lesions.


  9. [Unipedal stance time and fall risk in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Carrillo, Luis Gerardo; Arellano-Aguilar, Gregorio; Leos-Zierold, Héctor

    2007-01-01

    We undertook this study to relate unipodal stance time (UST) as a falls indicator in the elderly and to corroborate with UST exercise increments. One hundred sixty eight elderly subjects (age >70 years) with two or more falls during the previous 12 months were compared with 150 similar subjects without falls. UST chronometry and quadriceps and triceps brachialis strength dynamometry were used. Equilibrium and antigravity muscle-strengthening exercise program with 20 work sessions were carried out. Results were analyzed with chi(2), Student's t-test, and Fisher tests. UST of the control group showed 28.84 +/- 4.73 sec (mean +/- SD). The UST sample showed 19.18 +/- 4.24 sec. The test was initially impossible to carry out in 42 cases (p = 0.05). The final evaluation showed 142 cases with 30 sec of UST (p = 0.00001), isometric force increased in 70% and 30%, respectively (p = 0.05). At 6-month follow-up, 53 falls were reported, 29 were in patients who could not accomplish UST measurement on initial evaluation. UST falls in elderly people, and exercise programs increase UST.

  10. The single-leg-stance test in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomiak, Taylor; Pereira, Fernando Vieira; Hu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    Timed single-leg-stance test (SLST) is widely used to assess postural control in the elderly. In Parkinson's disease (PD), it has been shown that an SLST around 10 seconds or below may be a sensitive indicator of future falls. However, despite its role in fall risk, whether SLST times around 10 seconds marks a clinically important stage of disease progression has largely remained unexplored. A cross-sectional study where 27 people with PD were recruited and instructed to undertake timed SLST for both legs was conducted. Disease motor impairment was assessed with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part 3 (UPDRS-III). This study found that: 1) the SLST in people with PD shows good test-retest reliability; 2) SLST values can be attributed to two non-overlapping clusters: a low (10.4 ± 6.3 seconds) and a high (47.6 ± 11.7 seconds) value SLST group; 3) only the low value SLST group can be considered abnormal when age-matched normative SLST data are taken into account for comparison; and 4) lower UPDRS-III motor performance, and the bradykinesia sub-score in particular, are only associated with the low SLST group. These results lend further support that a low SLST time around 10 seconds marks a clinically important stage of disease progression with significant worsening of postural stability in PD.

  11. Ninth Grade Students' Negotiation of Aesthetic, Efferent, and Critical Stances in Response to a Novel Set in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliaferro, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative, action research study was guided by two primary research questions. First, how do students negotiate aesthetic, efferent, and critical stances when reading a novel set in Afghanistan? Second, how do aesthetic and efferent stances contribute to or hinder the adoption of a critical stance? A large body of research exists that…

  12. Susan Magoffin’s Santa Fe Days in 1846: The Value of Testimony Les journées de Santa Fé en 1846 de Susan Magoffin : la valeur du témoignage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Berthier-Foglar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Susan Magoffin, la jeune épouse d’un commerçant de la piste de Santa Fe, accompagna son mari en 1846 pour un voyage où la caravane suivait de près l’Armée de l’Ouest et pendant lequel elle tint un journal. Cet article traite des 37 jours que dura la pause de la caravane à Santa Fe et aborde plus spécifiquement la façon dont l’auteur appréhendait l’altérité dans un environnement inhabituel et parfois dangereux. Pour apprécier la valeur du témoignage, je combine une analyse du discours avec une évaluation statistique du contenu. La description, parfois naïve, de Santa Fe sous l’occupation américaine illustre les raisons de la guerre contre le Mexique. En tant qu’agent de la destinée manifeste, Susan Magoffin admirait le général Kearny en lui attribuant des qualités surhumaines et en participant à ses efforts de propagande. Alors qu’elle était enracinée dans sa classe et sa culture, elle voyait la population mexicaine et les Amérindiens avec un esprit ouvert bien que ses motifs pour apprendre l’espagnol, ainsi que le métier de commerçante, avaient une fonction plus prosaïque.

  13. Explanations pertaining to the Hip Joint Flexor Moment During the Stance Phase of Human Walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik B; Cappelen, Katrine L; Skorini, Ragnhild

    2012-01-01

    A hip joint flexor moment in the last half of the stance phase during walking has repeatedly been reported. However, the purpose of this moment remains uncertain and it is unknown how it is generated. Nine male subjects were instructed to walk at 4.5 km/h with their upper body in three different...... positions: normal, inclined and reclined. Net joint moments were calculated about the hip, knee and ankle joint. The peak hip joint flexor moment during late stance was significantly lower during inclined walking than in the two other conditions. During normal walking the iliacus muscle showed no or very...... weak activity and first at the transition from stance to swing. When walking reclined, a clear but rather low activity level of the iliacus muscle was seen in the first half of the stance phase, which could contribute to the hip moment. In the inclined condition the iliacus showed much increased...

  14. Interpreting the need for initial support to perform tandem stance tests of balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hile, E.S.; Brach, J.S.; Perera, S.; Wert, D.M.; VanSwearingen, J.M.; Studenski, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Geriatric rehabilitation reimbursement increasingly requires documented deficits on standardized measures. Tandem stance performance can characterize balance, but protocols are not standardized. Objective The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of: (1) initial support to

  15. Epistemic stance marking in the use of English as a lingua franca

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Janus

    A comparative study of the pragmatic functions of epistemic stance marking in problem-solving sequences at student project group meetings, with special emphasis on meetings where English is used as a lingua franca......A comparative study of the pragmatic functions of epistemic stance marking in problem-solving sequences at student project group meetings, with special emphasis on meetings where English is used as a lingua franca...

  16. Homunculi, the mereological fallacy and crypto-dualism. Two dilemmas for the intentional stance

    OpenAIRE

    Balderas-Rosas, G.C. (Gloria del Carmen)

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscientist Maxwell Bennett and philosopher Peter Hacker defend the need to eradicate the mereological fallacy of cognitive neuroscience. This fallacy attributes to the parts of an animal psychological predicates that make sense only when applied to the whole animal. In contrast, philosopher Daniel Dennett argues that it is possible to explain behavior and cognitive abilities by applying the Intentional Stance (IS) to the brain, a stance that attributes increasingly simple psychological ca...

  17. Evaluating stance-annotated sentences from the Brexit Blog Corpus: A quantitative linguistic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simaki Vasiliki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a formally driven quantitative analysis of stance-annotated sentences in the Brexit Blog Corpus (BBC. Our goal is to identify features that determine the formal profiles of six stance categories (contrariety, hypotheticality, necessity, prediction, source of knowledge and uncertainty in a subset of the BBC. The study has two parts: firstly, it examines a large number of formal linguistic features, such as punctuation, words and grammatical categories that occur in the sentences in order to describe the specific characteristics of each category, and secondly, it compares characteristics in the entire data set in order to determine stance similarities in the data set. We show that among the six stance categories in the corpus, contrariety and necessity are the most discriminative ones, with the former using longer sentences, more conjunctions, more repetitions and shorter forms than the sentences expressing other stances. necessity has longer lexical forms but shorter sentences, which are syntactically more complex. We show that stance in our data set is expressed in sentences with around 21 words per sentence. The sentences consist mainly of alphabetical characters forming a varied vocabulary without special forms, such as digits or special characters.

  18. Dynamic Determinants of the Uncontrolled Manifold during Human Quiet Stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Morimoto, Hiroki; Kiyono, Ken; Morasso, Pietro G; Nomura, Taishin

    2016-01-01

    Human postural sway during stance arises from coordinated multi-joint movements. Thus, a sway trajectory represented by a time-varying postural vector in the multiple-joint-angle-space tends to be constrained to a low-dimensional subspace. It has been proposed that the subspace corresponds to a manifold defined by a kinematic constraint, such that the position of the center of mass (CoM) of the whole body is constant in time, referred to as the kinematic uncontrolled manifold ( kinematic-UCM ). A control strategy related to this hypothesis ( CoM-control-strategy ) claims that the central nervous system (CNS) aims to keep the posture close to the kinematic-UCM using a continuous feedback controller, leading to sway patterns that mostly occur within the kinematic-UCM, where no corrective control is exerted. An alternative strategy proposed by the authors ( intermittent control-strategy ) claims that the CNS stabilizes posture by intermittently suspending the active feedback controller, in such a way to allow the CNS to exploit a stable manifold of the saddle-type upright equilibrium in the state-space of the system, referred to as the dynamic-UCM , when the state point is on or near the manifold. Although the mathematical definitions of the kinematic- and dynamic-UCM are completely different, both UCMs play similar roles in the stabilization of multi-joint upright posture. The purpose of this study was to compare the dynamic performance of the two control strategies. In particular, we considered a double-inverted-pendulum-model of postural control, and analyzed the two UCMs defined above. We first showed that the geometric configurations of the two UCMs are almost identical. We then investigated whether the UCM-component of experimental sway could be considered as passive dynamics with no active control, and showed that such UCM-component mainly consists of high frequency oscillations above 1 Hz, corresponding to anti-phase coordination between the ankle and hip. We

  19. Dynamic determinants of the uncontrolled manifold during human quiet stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Suzuki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Human postural sway during stance arises from coordinated multi-joint movements. Thus, a sway trajectory represented by a time-varying postural vector in the multiple-joint-angle-space tends to be constrained to a low-dimensional subspace. It has been proposed that the subspace corresponds to a manifold defined by a kinematic constraint, such that the position of the center of mass (CoM of the whole body is constant in time, referred to as the kinematic uncontrolled manifold (kinematic-UCM. A control strategy related to this hypothesis (CoM-control-strategy claims that the central nervous system (CNS aims to keep the posture close to the kinematic-UCM using a continuous feedback controller, leading to sway patterns that mostly occur within the kinematic-UCM, where no corrective control is exerted. An alternative strategy proposed by the authors (intermittent control-strategy claims that the CNS stabilizes posture by intermittently suspending the active feedback controller, in such a way to allow the CNS to exploit a stable manifold of the saddle-type upright equilibrium in the state-space of the system, referred to as the dynamic-UCM, when the state point is on or near the manifold. Although the mathematical definitions of the kinematic- and dynamic-UCM are completely different, both UCMs play similar roles in the stabilization of multi-joint upright posture. The purpose of this study was to compare the dynamic performance of the two control strategies. In particular, we considered a double-inverted-pendulum-model of postural control, and analyzed the two UCMs defined above. We first showed that the geometric configurations of the two UCMs are almost identical. We then investigated whether the UCM-component of experimental sway could be considered as passive dynamics with no active control, and showed that such UCM-component mainly consists of high frequency oscillations above 1 Hz, corresponding to anti-phase coordination between the ankle and

  20. Climate Literacy for Kids: Finding Medium, Message, and Stance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, D. K.; Leon, N.; Jackson, R.; Greene, M. P.

    2011-12-01

    . Various recycling bins (glass, plastic, metal, and paper) are lined up on the left and right sides of the screen, with a trash bin at the bottom. As an item drops, the player must quickly decide what kind of material it is made of and whether it is recyclable, then guide it into the appropriate bin. As the rate of items entering play increases, any missed items fall into the trash and stay there for a length of time proportional to their decomposition time. If the trash bin gets full, the game is over. While enjoying the increasing challenge of the game, players learn to identify many items as recyclable that they may not have recognized as recyclable before. Another feature on Climate Kids is "Climate Tales," a slightly edgy animated cartoon series (two episodes so far) about the adventures of a blundering polar bear, a chirpy tamarin monkey, and a grumpy old fish as "accidental tourists" around the planet, observing and dealing with the environmental conditions they encounter. Fairly complex concepts (such as reasons and implications of the declining abundance of phytoplankton) are woven into the tales. Climate Kids is a fun site for kids, educational and realistic, and yet positive and hopeful-the only reasonable stance to present to this young audience.

  1. Enhancing Organizational Survivability in a Crisis: Perceived Organizational Crisis Responsibility, Stance, and Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JiYeon Jeong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of enhancing organizational sustainability during a crisis, an organization takes a position in decision-making, how to respond toward its public, and that is supposed to determine which stance or tactic to employ. This study aims to examine whether publics’ perceptions of organizational crisis responsibility affect their expectations that an organization should choose certain stances and strategies toward the public in a crisis. To address these concerns, an experiment was conducted. As the specific public of this research, health journalists were selected, since they affect public perceptions significantly and public opinion can ultimately put pressure on an organization. Results from an analysis of the experimental data with health journalists confirm that they expect a more accommodative stance/strategy when they perceive that the organization is highly responsible for a health-related crisis. Conversely, when the journalists perceive that an organization has a low level of responsibility for a crisis, they expect a more advocative stance/strategy. By taking into account the health journalists’ expectations along with the needs of the organization, public relations practitioners are better able to make optimal decisions regarding their client organizations’ adopted stance and strategy, and finally, enhance organizational sustainability in a crisis.

  2. Single Stance Stability and Proprioceptive Control in Older Adults Living at Home: Gender and Age Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Riva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In developed countries, falls in older people represent a rising problem. As effective prevention should start before the risk becomes evident, an early predictor is needed. Single stance instability would appear as a major risk factor. Aims of the study were to describe single stance stability, its sensory components, and their correlation with age and gender. A random sample of 597 older adults (319 men, 278 women living at home, aged 65–84, was studied. Stability tests were performed with an electronic postural station. The single stance test showed the impairment of single stance stability in older individuals (75–84 yrs. The significant decline of stability in the older subjects may be explained by the impairment of proprioceptive control together with the decrease in compensatory visual stabilization and emergency responses. Younger subjects (65–74 yrs exhibited better, but still inadequate, proprioceptive control with compensatory visual stabilization. Gender differences appeared in older subjects: women were significantly less stable than men. The measurement of the sensory components of single stance stability could aid in the early detection of a decay in antigravity movements many years before the risk of falling becomes evident. Adequate proprioceptive control could mitigate the effects of all other risks of falling.

  3. Single Stance Stability and Proprioceptive Control in Older Adults Living at Home: Gender and Age Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Dario; Mamo, Carlo; Fanì, Mara; Saccavino, Patrizia; Rocca, Flavio; Momenté, Manuel; Fratta, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    In developed countries, falls in older people represent a rising problem. As effective prevention should start before the risk becomes evident, an early predictor is needed. Single stance instability would appear as a major risk factor. Aims of the study were to describe single stance stability, its sensory components, and their correlation with age and gender. A random sample of 597 older adults (319 men, 278 women) living at home, aged 65–84, was studied. Stability tests were performed with an electronic postural station. The single stance test showed the impairment of single stance stability in older individuals (75–84 yrs). The significant decline of stability in the older subjects may be explained by the impairment of proprioceptive control together with the decrease in compensatory visual stabilization and emergency responses. Younger subjects (65–74 yrs) exhibited better, but still inadequate, proprioceptive control with compensatory visual stabilization. Gender differences appeared in older subjects: women were significantly less stable than men. The measurement of the sensory components of single stance stability could aid in the early detection of a decay in antigravity movements many years before the risk of falling becomes evident. Adequate proprioceptive control could mitigate the effects of all other risks of falling. PMID:23984068

  4. [Recognition of walking stance phase and swing phase based on moving window].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiaobo; Yang, Peng; Wang, Xinran; Geng, Yanli; Han, Yu

    2014-04-01

    Wearing transfemoral prosthesis is the only way to complete daily physical activity for amputees. Motion pattern recognition is important for the control of prosthesis, especially in the recognizing swing phase and stance phase. In this paper, it is reported that surface electromyography (sEMG) signal is used in swing and stance phase recognition. sEMG signal of related muscles was sampled by Infiniti of a Canadian company. The sEMG signal was then filtered by weighted filtering window and analyzed by height permitted window. The starting time of stance phase and swing phase is determined through analyzing special muscles. The sEMG signal of rectus femoris was used in stance phase recognition and sEMG signal of tibialis anterior is used in swing phase recognition. In a certain tolerating range, the double windows theory, including weighted filtering window and height permitted window, can reach a high accuracy rate. Through experiments, the real walking consciousness of the people was reflected by sEMG signal of related muscles. Using related muscles to recognize swing and stance phase is reachable. The theory used in this paper is useful for analyzing sEMG signal and actual prosthesis control.

  5. Immediate effects of the trunk stabilizing exercise on static balance parameters in double-leg and one-leg stances

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jwa-jun; Park, Se-yeon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate effect of stabilizing exercise using the PNF technique on standing balance in one-leg and double-leg stances. [Subjects and Methods] The present study recruited 34 healthy participants from a local university. The Participants performed four balance tests (double-leg stance with and without vision, one-leg stance with and without vision), before and after exercise. The exercise consisted of exercises performed using PNF techniq...

  6. Intersession reliability of self-selected and narrow stance balance testing in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemann, Bryan L; Piersol, Kelsey

    2017-10-01

    Despite the common practice of using force platforms to assess balance of older adults, few investigations have examined the reliability of postural screening tests in this population. We sought to determine the test-retest reliability of self-selected and narrow stance balance testing with eyes open and eyes closed in healthy older adults. Thirty older adults (>65 years) completed 45 s trials of eyes open and eyes closed stability tests using self-selected and narrow stances on two separate days (1.9 ± .7 days). Average medial-lateral center of pressure velocity was computed. The ICC results ranged from .74 to .86, and no significant systematic changes (P eyes open and closed balance testing using self-selected and narrow stances in older adults was established which should provide a foundation for the development of fall risk screening tests.

  7. Adolescent social media interaction and authorial stance in Indonesian teen fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Noverini Djenar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines representations of adolescent social media interaction in two Indonesian teen novels to show how adolescent communication styles are typified. It is argued that public discourse on the potential danger of social media interaction is resounded in the novels. The article demonstrates that the authors of both novels take a similar moral stance on the issue of social media but use different rhetorical strategies for indexing that stance. Both draw on the social values of registers to communicate the stance. In Online addicted, standard Indonesian is used in narration to convey an authoritative voice and a stern moral tone, while the gaul register indexes an alignment with favourable aspects of the protagonist’s character. In Jurnal Jo online, gaul is similarly given a positive value by virtue of its juxtaposition with the Alay register. In this novel, gaul is the preferred, standard register. In both novels, there is a strong orientation toward “standardness”.

  8. Organization position statements and the stance of "studied neutrality" on euthanasia in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, palliative care and related organizations have increasingly adopted a stance of "studied neutrality" on the question of whether euthanasia should be legalized as a bona fide medical regimen in palliative care contexts. This stance, however, has attracted criticism from both opponents and proponents of euthanasia. Pro-euthanasia activists see the stance as an official position of indecision that is fundamentally disrespectful of a patient's right to "choose death" when life has become unbearable. Some palliative care constituents, in turn, are opposed to the stance, contending that it reflects an attitude of "going soft" on euthanasia and as weakening the political resistance that has hitherto been successful in preventing euthanasia from becoming more widely legalized. In this article, attention is given to examining critically the notion and possible unintended consequences of adopting a stance of studied neutrality on euthanasia in palliative care. It is argued that although palliative care and related organizations have an obvious stake in the outcome of the euthanasia debate, it is neither unreasonable nor inconsistent for such organizations to be unwilling to take a definitive stance on the issue. It is further contended that, given the long-standing tenets of palliative care, palliative care organizations have both a right and a responsibility to defend the integrity of the principles and practice of palliative care and to resist demands for euthanasia to be positioned either as an integral part or logical extension of palliative care. Copyright © 2012 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. ‘Speaking Kleinian’: Susan Isaacs as Ursula Wise and the Inter-War Popularisation of Psychoanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Michal

    2017-01-01

    How did the complex concepts of psychoanalysis become popular in early twentieth-century Britain? This article examines the contribution of educator and psychoanalyst Susan Isaacs (1885–1948) to this process, as well as her role as a female expert in the intellectual and medical history of this period. Isaacs was one of the most influential British psychologists of the inter-war era, yet historical research on her work is still limited. The article focuses on her writing as ‘Ursula Wise’, answering the questions of parents and nursery nurses in the popular journal Nursery World, from 1929 to 1936. Researched in depth for the first time, Isaacs’ important magazine columns reveal that her writing was instrumental in disseminating the work of psychoanalyst Melanie Klein in Britain. Moreover, Isaacs’ powerful rebuttals to behaviourist, disciplinarian parenting methods helped shift the focus of caregivers to the child’s perspective, encouraging them to acknowledge children as independent subjects and future democratic citizens. Like other early psychoanalysts, Isaacs was not an elitist; she was in fact committed to disseminating her ideas as broadly as possible. Isaacs taught British parents and child caregivers to ‘speak Kleinian’, translating Klein’s intellectual ideas into ordinary language and thus enabling their swift integration into popular discourse. PMID:28901872

  10. Communicating Epistemic Stance: How Speech and Gesture Patterns Reflect Epistemicity and Evidentiality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseano, Paolo; González, Montserrat; Borràs-Comes, Joan; Prieto, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how epistemic stance is encoded and perceived in face-to-face communication when language is regarded as comprised by speech and gesture. Two studies were conducted with this goal in mind. The first study consisted of a production task in which participants performed opinion reports. Results showed that speakers communicate…

  11. Stance and Engagement in Pure Mathematics Research Articles: Linking Discourse Features to Disciplinary Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Lisa; Kuteeva, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Recent ESP research into academic writing has shown how writers convey their stance and interact with readers across different disciplines. However, little research has been carried out into the disciplinary writing practices of the pure mathematics academic community from an ESP genre analysis perspective. This study begins to address this gap by…

  12. Afferent-mediated modulation of the soleus muscle activity during the stance phase of human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazarena, Mazzaro; Grey, Michael James; do Nascimento, Omar Feix

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of proprioceptive feedback to the amplitude modulation of the soleus muscle activity during human walking. We have previously shown that slow-velocity, small-amplitude ankle dorsiflexion enhancements and reductions applied during the stance...

  13. Pedagogical Stances of High School ESL Teachers: "Huelgas" in High School ESL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Carmen Salazar, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a qualitative case study of the pedagogical stances of high school English as a Second Language (ESL) teachers, and the subsequent responses of resistance or conformity by their English Language Learners (ELLs). The participants include three high school ESL teachers and 60 high school ESL students of Mexican origin. Findings…

  14. Influence of virtual reality on postural stability during movements of quiet stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horlings, Corinne G C; Carpenter, Mark G; Küng, Ursula M; Honegger, Flurin; Wiederhold, Brenda; Allum, John H J

    2009-02-27

    Balance problems during virtual reality (VR) have been mentioned in the literature but seldom investigated despite the increased use of VR systems as a training or rehabilitation tool. We examined the influence of VR on body sway under different stance conditions. Seventeen young subjects performed four tasks (standing with feet close together or tandem stance on firm and foam surfaces for 60s) under three visual conditions: eyes open without VR, eyes closed, or while viewing a virtual reality scene which moved with body movements. Angular velocity transducers mounted on the shoulder provided measures of body sway in the roll and pitch plane. VR caused increased pitch and roll angles and angular velocities compared to EO. The effects of VR were, for the most part, indistinguishable from eyes closed conditions. Use of a foam surface increased sway compared to a firm surface under eyes closed and VR conditions. During the movements of quiet stance, VR causes an increase in postural sway in amplitude similar to that caused by closing the eyes. This increased sway was present irrespective of stance surface, but was greatest on foam.

  15. How Can a Taxonomy of Stances Help Clarify Classical Debates on Scientific Change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakob Barseghyan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate how a systematic taxonomy of stances can help elucidate two classic debates of the historical turn—the Lakatos–Feyerabend debate concerning theory rejection and the Feyerabend–Kuhn debate about pluralism during normal science. We contend that Kuhn, Feyerabend, and Lakatos were often talking at cross-purposes due to the lack of an agreed upon taxonomy of stances. Specifically, we provide three distinct stances that scientists take towards theories: acceptance of a theory as the best available description of its domain, use of a theory in practical applications, and pursuit (elaboration of a theory. We argue that in the Lakatos–Feyerabend debate, Lakatos was concerned with acceptance whereas Feyerabend was mainly concerned with pursuit. Additionally, we show how Feyerabend and Kuhn’s debate on the role of pluralism/monism in normal science involved a crucial conflation of all three stances. Finally, we outline a few general lessons concerning the process of scientific change.

  16. Tibialis anterior stretch reflex in early stance is suppressed by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuur, Abraham T; Christensen, Mark Schram; Sinkjær, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A rapid plantar flexion perturbation in the early stance phase of walking elicits a large stretch reflex in tibialis anterior (TA). In this study we use repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) to test if this response is mediated through a transcortical pathway. TA stretch...

  17. Turkish Language Teachers' Stance Taking Movements in the Discourse on Globalization and Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how Turkish teachers take and give stances in the discourse on globalization and language by using linguistic resources. According to the findings obtained through the discourse analysis of the corpus that consisted of 36 h of recording of the discussion among 4 teachers with 5 to 10 years of teaching experience, the…

  18. Towards a Critical Health Equity Research Stance: Why Epistemology and Methodology Matter More than Qualitative Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowleg, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Qualitative methods are not intrinsically progressive. Methods are simply tools to conduct research. Epistemology, the justification of knowledge, shapes methodology and methods, and thus is a vital starting point for a critical health equity research stance, regardless of whether the methods are qualitative, quantitative, or mixed. In line with…

  19. Changing and Changed Stance toward Norm Selection in Philippine Universities: Its Pedagogical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Alejandro S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey which involved College English teachers from three leading universities in the Philippines. The results point to one conclusion--College English teachers now have a changing and changed stance toward norm selection in Philippine Universities. The results give the impression that a good number of College…

  20. The recognition of acted interpersonal stance in police interrogations and the influence of actor proficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnes, Merijn; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Spitters, Sophie; Sanders, Merijn; Fu, Quihua

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on judgement studies regarding the perception of interpersonal stances taken by humans playing the role of a suspect in a police interrogation setting. Our project aims at building believable embodied conversational characters to play the role of suspects in a serious game for

  1. Symposium Introduction: Stepping into Their Power--The Development of a Teacher Leadership Stance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulyan, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This introduction to the symposium on Teacher Leadership describes how a group of teachers have developed a definition of teacher leadership as a stance. The article explores how prior definitions of teacher leadership tend to focus on individual skills or roles. Neoliberal educational policies that emphasize market-based policy, privatization,…

  2. Elementary Students' Roles and Epistemic Stances during Document-Based History Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokes, Jeffery D.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a study that repositioned elementary students in new roles as active, critical participants in historical inquiry--roles that required a more mature epistemic stance. It reports 5th-grade students' responses to instructional methods intended to help them understand the nature of historical knowledge, appreciate the work of…

  3. Changes in the fiscal stance and the composition of public spending

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stančík, Juraj; Välilä, T.

    -, č. 394 (2009), s. 1-22 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : fiscal policy * public expenditure * fiscal stance Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp394.pdf

  4. Changes in the fiscal stance and the composition of public spending

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stančík, Juraj; Välilä, T.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 1 (2012), s. 199-217 ISSN 0377-7332 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : fiscal policy * public expenditure * fiscal stance Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.614, year: 2012

  5. EFL Doctoral Students' Conceptions of Authorial Stance in Academic Knowledge Claims and the Tie to Epistemic Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Peichin; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Taking an effective authorial stance in research argumentation has been designated as both vitally important and challenging. The study investigated English as a foreign language (EFL) doctoral students' conceptions of authorial stance, the role of domains in affecting their conceptions, and the ties of the conceptions to the participants'…

  6. "Seeing the Everyday through New Lenses": Pedagogies and Practices of Literacy Teacher Educators with a Critical Stance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharamshi, Pooja

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the practices and pedagogies of six literacy teacher educators with a critical stance. In this qualitative research study, three semi-structured interviews were conducted with each participant over a three-year period. They were able to negotiate a critical stance into their teacher education courses in several ways: using an…

  7. SU-E-T-540: Volumetric Modulated Total Body Irradiation Using a Rotational Lazy Susan-Like Immobilization System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, X; Hrycushko, B; Lee, H; Lamphier, R; Jiang, S; Abdulrahman, R; Timmerman, R

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Traditional extended SSD total body irradiation (TBI) techniques can be problematic in terms of patient comfort and/or dose uniformity. This work aims to develop a comfortable TBI technique that achieves a uniform dose distribution to the total body while reducing the dose to organs at risk for complications. Methods: To maximize patient comfort, a lazy Susan-like couch top immobilization system which rotates about a pivot point was developed. During CT simulation, a patient is immobilized by a Vac-Lok bag within the body frame. The patient is scanned head-first and then feet-first following 180° rotation of the frame. The two scans are imported into the Pinnacle treatment planning system and concatenated to give a full-body CT dataset. Treatment planning matches multiple isocenter volumetric modulated arc (VMAT) fields of the upper body and multiple isocenter parallel-opposed fields of the lower body. VMAT fields of the torso are optimized to satisfy lung dose constraints while achieving a therapeutic dose to the torso. The multiple isocenter VMAT fields are delivered with an indexed couch, followed by body frame rotation about the pivot point to treat the lower body isocenters. The treatment workflow was simulated with a Rando phantom, and the plan was mapped to a solid water slab phantom for point- and film-dose measurements at multiple locations. Results: The treatment plan of 12Gy over 8 fractions achieved 80.2% coverage of the total body volume within ±10% of the prescription dose. The mean lung dose was 8.1 Gy. All ion chamber measurements were within ±1.7% compared to the calculated point doses. All relative film dosimetry showed at least a 98.0% gamma passing rate using a 3mm/3% passing criteria. Conclusion: The proposed patient comfort-oriented TBI technique provides for a uniform dose distribution within the total body while reducing the dose to the lungs

  8. Postural control strategies during single limb stance following acute lateral ankle sprain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Cailbhe; Bleakley, Chris; Hertel, Jay; Caulfield, Brian; Ryan, John; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2014-06-01

    Single-limb stance is maintained via the integration of visual, vestibular and somatosensory afferents. Musculoskeletal injury challenges the somatosensory system to reweight distorted sensory afferents. This investigation supplements kinetic analysis of eyes-open and eyes-closed single-limb stance tasks with a kinematic profile of lower limb postural orientation in an acute lateral ankle sprain group to assess the adaptive capacity of the sensorimotor system to injury. Sixty-six participants with first-time acute lateral ankle sprain completed a 20-second eyes-open single-limb stance task on their injured and non-injured limbs (task 1). Twenty-three of these participants successfully completed the same 20-second single-limb stance task with their eyes closed (task 2). A non-injured control group of 19 participants completed task 1, with 16 completing task 2. 3-dimensional kinematics of the hip, knee and ankle joints, as well as associated fractal dimension of the center-of-pressure path were determined for each limb during these tasks. Between trial analyses revealed significant differences in stance limb kinematics and fractal dimension of the center-of-pressure path for task 2 only. The control group bilaterally assumed a position of greater hip flexion compared to injured participants on their side-matched "involved"(7.41 [6.1°] vs 1.44 [4.8]°; η(2)=.34) and "uninvolved" (9.59 [8.5°] vs 2.16 [5.6°]; η(2)=.31) limbs, with a greater fractal dimension of the center-of-pressure path (involved limb=1.39 [0.16°] vs 1.25 [0.14°]; uninvolved limb=1.37 [0.21°] vs 1.23 [0.14°]). Bilateral impairment in postural control strategies present following a first time acute lateral ankle sprain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Phase synchronisation of the three leg joints in quiet human stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Michael; Putsche, Peter; Leistritz, Lutz; Grimmer, Sten

    2011-03-01

    Quiet human stance is a dynamic multi-segment phenomenon. In literature, coupled ankle and hip actions are in the focus and examinations are usually restricted to frequency contributions below 4 Hz. Very few studies point to the knee playing an active role, and just one study gives evidence of higher frequency contributions. In order to investigate the dynamic coupling of all three leg joints in more depth, we revisited an experimental data set on quiet human stance. Since phase synchronisation is a strong indicator of non-linear coupling behind, we used the phase synchronisation index (PSI) to quantify the degree of leg joint coupling as a function of frequency. One main result is that we did not find any synchronisation between ankle and hip across the whole frequency range examined up to 8 Hz. In contrast, there is significant synchronisation between ankle and knee at a couple of frequencies between 1.25 Hz and 8 Hz when looking at the kinematics. Their joint torques rather synchronise below 2 Hz. There is also synchronisation between knee and hip kinematics above 6 Hz, however, only significant at one frequency bin in our data set. From this, we would infer that the multiple mechanical degrees of freedom contributing to quiet human stance should be chosen according to, thus map, physiology. Thereby, the knee is indispensable and bi-articular muscles play a central role in organising quiet human stance. Examining the non-stationarity of phase synchronisations will probably advance the understanding of self-organisation of quiet human stance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The impact of the initial stance position on lower limb joint kinetics in the taekwondo roundhouse kick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jandačka

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To achieve good performance, taekwondo athletes should optimize the stance position of the foot on the ground. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to compare generated net joint power (hip, knee and ankle during stance phase, magnitude of peak foot velocity of the attacking lower extremity and execution stance time produced from three stance positions (forward "0°", diagonal "45°", orthogonal "90°" in the taekwondo roundhouse kick. METHODS: Ten taekwondo athletes participated in the study; their experience of practicing taekwondo ranged between 13.8 ± 5.8 years. The kinetics and kinematics of the athletes’ movement during the roundhouse kick were recorded. The execution stance time and the magnitude of peak foot velocity were determined. The net joint power of the kicking lower extremity during the stance phase was calculated using the inverse dynamics method. Then the peak net joint power was determined. RESULTS: The analysis of variance for repeated measures showed that there is a significant main effect of the stance position on the peak net hip joint power in the three planes. In addition, the stance position does not affect the magnitude of the peak foot velocity of the kicking lower extremity and execution stance time. CONCLUSIONS: The necessity to produce a higher net hip joint power in the stance phase of the roundhouse kick from the position when the feet are placed orthogonal to the target of the kick, compared with the execution of the kick from the forward or diagonal position, must be taken into account for purposes of rationalizing strength training of taekwondo athletes or for selecting the technique of the roundhouse kick.

  11. Towards a Critical Health Equity Research Stance: Why Epistemology and Methodology Matter More Than Qualitative Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowleg, Lisa

    2017-10-01

    Qualitative methods are not intrinsically progressive. Methods are simply tools to conduct research. Epistemology, the justification of knowledge, shapes methodology and methods, and thus is a vital starting point for a critical health equity research stance, regardless of whether the methods are qualitative, quantitative, or mixed. In line with this premise, I address four themes in this commentary. First, I criticize the ubiquitous and uncritical use of the term health disparities in U.S. public health. Next, I advocate for the increased use of qualitative methodologies-namely, photovoice and critical ethnography-that, pursuant to critical approaches, prioritize dismantling social-structural inequities as a prerequisite to health equity. Thereafter, I discuss epistemological stance and its influence on all aspects of the research process. Finally, I highlight my critical discourse analysis HIV prevention research based on individual interviews and focus groups with Black men, as an example of a critical health equity research approach.

  12. Liberating literacies: L1-students resources for stance-taking in the literature classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabel, Kristine; Brok, Lene Storgaard

    2015-01-01

    a pattern in students’ linguistic choices in the literature classroom and their metadiscourses. Moreover, privileged ways of participating in group work about text production involve strategies that enhance students’ development of an independent voice and of resources for stance-taking. Such strategies can...... by approaches to the importance of explorative meaning-making processes in the classroom (Flower, 1994; Aadahl et al., 2010) and by social semiotic notions of reflection literacy (Hasan, 1996, 2011) as well as critical literacy (Gee, 2012; Gibbons, 2006;), which emphasize students’ meta knowledge and agency...... 5 classes) and consist of students’ written texts, student interviews, video recorded classroom observations and field notes. Preliminary results show a variety in students’ resources for stance-taking, specifically in regard to what extent other voices are integrated in texts, and they show...

  13. Unipedal stance testing as an indicator of fall risk among older outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurvitz, E A; Richardson, J K; Werner, R A; Ruhl, A M; Dixon, M R

    2000-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that a decreased unipedal stance time (UST) is associated with a history of falling among older persons. Fifty-three subjects underwent a standardized history and physical examination and three trials of timed unipedal stance. The electroneuromyography laboratories of tertiary care Veterans Administration and university hospitals. Ambulatory outpatients 50 years and older referred for electrodiagnostic studies. UST and fall histories during the previous year. Twenty subjects (38%) reported falling. Compared with the subjects who had not fallen, those who fell had a significantly shorter UST (9.6 [SD 11.6] vs 31.3 [SD 16.3] seconds, using the longest of the three trials, p risk of having fallen on univariate analysis and in a regression model (odds ratio 108; 95% confidence interval 3.8, >100; p falls. UST of falling, while a UST of > or = 30sec is associated with a low risk of falling.

  14. Mobility function of a prosthetic knee joint with an automatic stance phase lock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrysek, Jan; Klejman, Susan; Torres-Moreno, Ricardo; Heim, Winfried; Steinnagel, Bryan; Glasford, Shane

    2011-06-01

    There is a need for a prosthetic knee joint design that is technologically and functionally appropriate for use in developing countries. To develop and clinically evaluate a new type of stance phase controlled prosthetic knee joint that provides stance phase stability without inhibiting swing phase flexion. A crossover repeated measures study design comparing the new knee joint to the participant's conventional low- or high-end prosthetic knee joint. The new knee joint was fitted to fourteen individuals aged 15 to 67 years with unilateral lower limb amputations. Walk tests were performed to measure walking speed. Energy expenditure was estimated using the physiological cost index (PCI). Walking speeds with the new knee joint were on average 0.14 m/s faster than conventional low-end knees (p < 0.0001), but 0.07 m/s slower than conventional high-end prosthetic knees (p = 0.008). The PCI was similar across all three knee joint technologies (p = 0.276). Mobility function with the new knee joint, in terms of walking speed, was more closely matched to high-end than low-end prosthetic knee joints. Therefore, given its relatively simple design, the new stance phase control mechanism may offer a functional and cost effective solution for active transfemoral amputees. This paper describes a new type of prosthetic knee joint mechanism that is intended to be cost-effective while providing high-level stance phase function to active individuals with a transfemoral amputation. Initial clinical testing suggests that the new knee joint may have some functional advantages over existing technologies in this category.

  15. The Sacrifice and the Ludic Stances Reflected Through the Theatre Practice of the 20th Century

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koubová, Alice

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 6 (2017), s. 451-462 ISSN 0046-385X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-23046S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : performative turn * performance * sacrifice * ludic stance * play * postmodern condition * Brecht * Benjamin * Grotowski Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Philosophy , History and Philosophy of science and technology http://www.klemens.sav.sk/fiusav/doc/filozofia/2017/6/451-462.pdf

  16. Mosaic structures in living beings in the light of several modern stances

    OpenAIRE

    Chapouthier , Georges

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Biocosmology implies that the laws of the microcosm (i.e. the laws governing living beings and their minds) mimic the laws of the macrocosm. These laws are based on a mosaic structure and triune organisation, with some roots that may be in the classical dialectical movement. A number of modern stances can be seen in relation to the Biocosmological perspective. The relationship to the mosaic structure may be direct, as with the experimental work of Michod, or indirect, ...

  17. Stance and strategy: post-structural perspective and post-colonial engagement to develop nursing knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochan, Anne M

    2011-07-01

    How should nursing knowledge advance? This exploration contextualizes its evolution past and present. In addressing how it evolved in the past, a probable historical evolution of its development draws on the perspectives of Frank & Gills's World System Theory, Kuhn's treatise on Scientific Revolutions, and Foucault's notions of Discontinuities in scientific knowledge development. By describing plausible scenarios of how nursing knowledge evolved, I create a case for why nursing knowledge developers should adopt a post-structural stance in prioritizing their research agenda(s). Further, by adopting a post-structural stance, I create a case on how nurses can advance their disciplinary knowledge using an engaging post-colonial strategy. Given an interrupted history caused by influence(s) constraining nursing's knowledge development by power structures external, and internal, to nursing, knowledge development can evolve in the future by drawing on post-structural interpretation, and post-colonial strategy. The post-structural writings of Deleuze & Guattari's understanding of 'Nomadology' as a subtle means to resist being constrained by existing knowledge development structures, might be a useful stance to understanding the urgency of why nursing knowledge should advance addressing the structural influences on its development. Furthermore, Bhabha's post-colonial elucidation of 'Hybridity' as an equally discreet means to change the culture of those constraining structures is an appropriate strategy to enact how nursing knowledge developers can engage with existing power structures, and simultaneously influence that engagement. Taken together, 'post-structural stance' and 'post-colonial strategy' can refocus nursing scholarship to learn from its past, in order to develop relevant disciplinary knowledge in its future. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Distal muscle activity alterations during the stance phase of gait in restless leg syndrome (RLS) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafkin, Chloe; Green, Andrew; Olivier, Benita; McKinon, Warrick; Kerr, Samantha

    2018-05-01

    To assess if there is a circadian variation in electromyographical (EMG) muscle activity during gait in restless legs syndrome (RLS) patients and healthy control participants. Gait assessment was done in 14 RLS patients and 13 healthy control participants in the evening (PM) and the morning (AM). Muscle activity was recorded bilaterally from the tibialis anterior (TA), lateral gastrocnemius (GL), rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles. A circadian variation during the stance phase in only TA (PM > AM, p  Controls, p < 0.05) during early stance and decreased GL activity (RLS < Controls, p < 0.01) during terminal stance in comparison to control participants in the evening. No other significant differences were noted between RLS patients and control participants. Activation of GL during the swing phase was noted in 79% of RLS patients and in 23% of control participants in the morning compared to 71% and 38% in the evening, respectively. EMG muscle activity shows no circadian variation in RLS patients. Evening differences in gait muscle activation patterns between RLS patients and control participants are evident. These results extend our knowledge about alterations in spinal processing during gait in RLS. A possible explanation for these findings is central pattern generator sensitization caused by increased sensitivity in cutaneous afferents in RLS patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A reliable unipedal stance test for the assessment of balance using a force platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-González, J G; Sanchis-Moysi, J; González-Henriquez, J J; Arteaga-Ortiz, R; Calbet, J A L; Dorado, C

    2014-02-01

    The aim was to develop a unipedal stance test for the assessment of balance using a force platform. A single-leg balance test was conducted in 23 students (mean ± SD) age: 23 ± 3 years) in a standard position limiting the movement of the arms and non-supporting leg. Six attempts, with both the jumping (JL) and the contralateral leg (CL), were performed under 3 conditions: 1) eyes opened; 2) eyes closed; 3) eyes opened and executing a precision task. The same protocol was repeated two-week apart. The mean and the best result of the six attempts performed each day were taken as representative of balance. The speed of the centre of pressure (CP-Speed) showed excellent reliability for the "best result" analysis in all tests (ICCs 0.87-0.97), except in the test with the eyes closed performed on the CL (ICCtest. The single-leg stance balance test proposed is a reliable method to assess balance, especially when performed in a static position, with the eyes opened and using the best result of six attempts as reference, independently of the stance leg.

  20. Balance in Astronauts Performing Jumps, Walking and Quiet Stance Following Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, Millard F.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Wood, S. J.; Harm, D. L.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Both balance and locomotor ataxia is severe in astronauts returning from spaceflight with serious implications for unassisted landings. As a part of an ongoing effort to demonstrate the functional significance of the postflight ataxia problem our laboratory has evaluated jumping, walking heel-to-toe and quite stance balance immediately following spaceflight. Methods: Six astronauts from 12-16 day flights and three from 6-month flights were asked to perform three self-initiated two-footed jumps from a 30-cm-high platform, walking for 10 steps (three trials) placing the feet heel to toe in tandem, arms folded across the chest and the eyes closed, and lastly, recover from a simulated fall by standing from a prone position on the floor and with eyes open maintain a quiet stance for 3 min with arms relaxed along the side of the body and feet comfortably positioned on a force plate. Crewmembers were tested twice before flight, on landing day (short-duration), and days 1, 6, and 30 following all flight durations. Results/Conclusions: Many of astronauts tested fell on their first postflight jump but recovered by the third jump showing a rapid learning progression. Changes in take-off strategy were clearly evident in duration of time in the air between the platform and the ground (significant reduction in time to land), and also in increased asymmetry in foot latencies on take-off postflight. During the tandem heel-to-toe walking task there was a significant decrease in percentage of correct steps on landing day (short-duration crew) and on first day following landing (long-duration) with only partial recovery the following day. Astronauts for both short and long duration flight times appeared to be unaware of foot position relative to their bodies or the floor. During quite stance most of crewmembers tested exhibited increased stochastic activity (larger short-term COP diffusion coefficients postflight in all planes and increases in mean sway speed).

  1. Limb-bone scaling indicates diverse stance and gait in quadrupedal ornithischian dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susannah C R Maidment

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The most primitive ornithischian dinosaurs were small bipeds, but quadrupedality evolved three times independently in the clade. The transition to quadrupedality from bipedal ancestors is rare in the history of terrestrial vertebrate evolution, and extant analogues do not exist. Constraints imposed on quadrupedal ornithischians by their ancestral bipedal bauplan remain unexplored, and consequently, debate continues about their stance and gait. For example, it has been proposed that some ornithischians could run, while others consider that none were cursorial. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Drawing on biomechanical concepts of limb bone scaling and locomotor theory developed for extant taxa, we use the largest dataset of ornithischian postcranial measurements so far compiled to examine stance and gait in quadrupedal ornithischians. Differences in femoral midshaft eccentricity in hadrosaurs and ceratopsids may indicate that hadrosaurs placed their feet on the midline during locomotion, while ceratopsids placed their feet more laterally, under the hips. More robust humeri in the largest ceratopsids relative to smaller taxa may be due to positive allometry in skull size with body mass in ceratopsids, while slender humeri in the largest stegosaurs may be the result of differences in dermal armor distribution within the clade. Hadrosaurs are found to display the most cursorial morphologies of the quadrupedal ornithischian cades, indicating higher locomotor performance than in ceratopsids and thyreophorans. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Limb bone scaling indicates that a previously unrealised diversity of stances and gaits were employed by quadrupedal ornithischians despite apparent convergence in limb morphology. Grouping quadrupedal ornithischians together as a single functional group hides this disparity. Differences in limb proportions and scaling are likely due to the possession of display structures such as horns, frills and dermal armor

  2. How Joint Torques Affect Hamstring Injury Risk in Sprinting Swing–Stance Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUN, YULIANG; WEI, SHUTAO; ZHONG, YUNJIAN; FU, WEIJIE; LI, LI; LIU, YU

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose The potential mechanisms of hamstring strain injuries in athletes are not well understood. The study, therefore, was aimed at understanding hamstring mechanics by studying loading conditions during maximum-effort overground sprinting. Methods Three-dimensional kinematics and ground reaction force data were collected from eight elite male sprinters sprinting at their maximum effort. Maximal isometric torques of the hip and knee were also collected. Data from the sprinting gait cycle were analyzed via an intersegmental dynamics approach, and the different joint torque components were calculated. Results During the initial stance phase, the ground reaction force passed anteriorly to the knee and hip, producing an extension torque at the knee and a flexion torque at the hip joint. Thus, the active muscle torque functioned to produce flexion torque at the knee and extension torque at the hip. The maximal muscle torque at the knee joint was 1.4 times the maximal isometric knee flexion torque. During the late swing phase, the muscle torque counterbalanced the motion-dependent torque and acted to flex the knee joint and extend the hip joint. The loading conditions on the hamstring muscles were similar to those of the initial stance phase. Conclusions During both the initial stance and late swing phases, the large passive torques at both the knee and hip joints acted to lengthen the hamstring muscles. The active muscle torques generated mainly by the hamstrings functioned to counteract those passive effects. As a result, during sprinting or high-speed locomotion, the hamstring muscles may be more susceptible to high risk of strain injury during these two phases. PMID:24911288

  3. [Variables determining the amount of care for very preterm neonates: the concept of medical stance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burguet, A; Menget, A; Chary-Tardy, A-C; Savajols, E; Abed, N; Thiriez, G

    2014-02-01

    To compare the amount of medical interventions on very preterm neonates (24-31 weeks of gestation) in two French university tertiary care centers, one of which is involved in a Neonatal Developmental Care program. A secondary objective is to assess whether this difference in medical interventions can be linked to a difference in mortality and morbidity rates. We prospectively included all very preterm neonates free from lethal malformation born live in these two centers between 2006 and 2010. These inclusion criteria were met by 1286 patients, for whom we compared the rate of five selected medical interventions: birth by caesarean section, chest intubation in the delivery room, surfactant therapy, pharmacological treatment of patent ductus arteriosus, and red blood cell transfusion. The rates of the five medical interventions were systematically lower in the center that is involved in Neonatal Developmental Care. There was no significant difference in survival at discharge with no severe cerebral ultrasound scan abnormalities between the two centers. There were, however, significantly higher rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and nosocomial sepsis and longer hospital stays when the patients were not involved in a Neonatal Developmental Care program. This benchmarking study shows that in France, in the first decade of the 21st century, there are as many ways to handle very preterm neonates as there are centers in which they are born. This brings to light the concept of medical stance, which is the general care approach prior to the treatment itself. This medical stance creates the overall framework for the staff's decision-making regarding neonate care. The different parameters structuring medical stance are discussed. Moreover, this study raises the problematic issue of the aftermath of benchmarking studies when the conclusion is an increase of morbidity in cases where procedure leads to more interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights

  4. How joint torques affect hamstring injury risk in sprinting swing-stance transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuliang; Wei, Shutao; Zhong, Yunjian; Fu, Weijie; Li, Li; Liu, Yu

    2015-02-01

    The potential mechanisms of hamstring strain injuries in athletes are not well understood. The study, therefore, was aimed at understanding hamstring mechanics by studying loading conditions during maximum-effort overground sprinting. Three-dimensional kinematics and ground reaction force data were collected from eight elite male sprinters sprinting at their maximum effort. Maximal isometric torques of the hip and knee were also collected. Data from the sprinting gait cycle were analyzed via an intersegmental dynamics approach, and the different joint torque components were calculated. During the initial stance phase, the ground reaction force passed anteriorly to the knee and hip, producing an extension torque at the knee and a flexion torque at the hip joint. Thus, the active muscle torque functioned to produce flexion torque at the knee and extension torque at the hip. The maximal muscle torque at the knee joint was 1.4 times the maximal isometric knee flexion torque. During the late swing phase, the muscle torque counterbalanced the motion-dependent torque and acted to flex the knee joint and extend the hip joint. The loading conditions on the hamstring muscles were similar to those of the initial stance phase. During both the initial stance and late swing phases, the large passive torques at both the knee and hip joints acted to lengthen the hamstring muscles. The active muscle torques generated mainly by the hamstrings functioned to counteract those passive effects. As a result, during sprinting or high-speed locomotion, the hamstring muscles may be more susceptible to high risk of strain injury during these two phases.

  5. TENS to the Lateral Aspect of the Knees During Stance Attenuates Postural Sway in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yocheved Laufer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Somatosensory input is known to be essential for postural control. The present study examined the effects on postural sway of sensory input delivered via transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS applied to the knees during stance. Electrodes from a dual-channel portable TENS unit were adhered to the skin overlying the lateral and medial aspect of both knees of 20 young healthy volunteers (mean age 24.0 years, standard deviation 4.0. Postural sway parameters were obtained during static bipedal stance with an AMTI force platform. Four stimulation conditions were tested with eyes open and with eyes closed: no TENS; TENS applied bilaterally; and TENS applied to either the right or the left knee. Participants underwent two eight-trial blocks, with each trial lasting 30 seconds. The order of conditions was randomized for each participant. Stimulation consisted of a biphasic symmetrical stimulus delivered at the sensory detection level, with a pulse duration of 200μsec and a pulse frequency of 100Hz. The application of TENS induced significant reductions in mean sway velocity and in the medio-lateral dispersion of the center of pressure, with no corresponding effect on the anterior-posterior dispersion. These findings suggest that electrical stimulation delivered at the sensory detection level to the lateral aspects of the knees may be effective in improving balance control, and that this effect may be directionally specific.

  6. Use of physical therapy in a dog with bilateral severe plantigrade stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ree, Jennifer; Hayashi, Kei; Woelz, Jacqueline; Kim, Sun Young

    2015-01-01

    A 3.5 yr old spayed female Staffordshire terrier weighing 25.5 kg was presented with a 7 wk history of bilateral plantigrade stance in the pelvic limbs directly following an ovariohysterectomy procedure. Upon presentation, the dog had bilateral atrophy of the distal pelvic limb muscles, enlarged popliteal lymph nodes, and ulcerative wounds on the dorsa of her rear paws. Orthopedic examination revealed intact calcaneal tendons bilaterally and neurologic examination localized the lesion to the distal sciatic nerve. A diagnosis of compressive and stretch neuropathy was made affecting the distal sciatic nerve branches. Physical therapy modalities included neuromuscular electrical stimulation, ultrasound, and low-level laser therapy. Other therapeutic modalities included the use of orthotics and progressive wound care. The dog had increased muscle mass, return of segmental reflexes, return of nociception, and the ability to walk on pelvic limbs with higher carriage of the hock 15 mo following presentation. The use of custom orthotics greatly increased the quality of life and other physical therapy modalities may have improved the prognosis in this dog with severe bilateral plantigrade stance due to neuropathy.

  7. Irony as a figure of speech and moral stance (with regard to Wittlin and Kierkegaard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Szewczyk-Haake

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In his work as a writer, Józef Wittlin searched for literature able to grant the   reader moral support, while at the same time being artistically successful. In his novel Salt of the Earth, the way to com-bine these two, to a certain extent contradictionary aims, is found in the use of irony. An analysis of the classical types of irony appearing in the novel (naive irony, irony of the sender, verbal irony leads to the conclusion that each of those was remarkably modified by the author. As a result, the “ironical anthropology” created by Wittlin in his novel lacks any elements of simple moralizing or giving ready-made moral solutions, but brings a striking image of a human commu-nity, unified not by a common status, but by a common fate. In the novel, irony turns out to be not only a textual figure, but first and foremost a moral stance, approximate to that of Socrates as described by Kierkegaard. Thanks to this stance, Wittlin enthuses his readers with the longing for the ideal, shaping their moral sensibility, at the same time granting them the sovereignty to which the reader of a literary work should be entitled.

  8. Folk-Psychological Interpretation of Human vs. Humanoid Robot Behavior: Exploring the Intentional Stance toward Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thellman, Sam; Silvervarg, Annika; Ziemke, Tom

    2017-01-01

    People rely on shared folk-psychological theories when judging behavior. These theories guide people's social interactions and therefore need to be taken into consideration in the design of robots and other autonomous systems expected to interact socially with people. It is, however, not yet clear to what degree the mechanisms that underlie people's judgments of robot behavior overlap or differ from the case of human or animal behavior. To explore this issue, participants ( N = 90) were exposed to images and verbal descriptions of eight different behaviors exhibited either by a person or a humanoid robot. Participants were asked to rate the intentionality, controllability and desirability of the behaviors, and to judge the plausibility of seven different types of explanations derived from a recently proposed psychological model of lay causal explanation of human behavior. Results indicate: substantially similar judgments of human and robot behavior, both in terms of (1a) ascriptions of intentionality/controllability/desirability and in terms of (1b) plausibility judgments of behavior explanations; (2a) high level of agreement in judgments of robot behavior - (2b) slightly lower but still largely similar to agreement over human behaviors; (3) systematic differences in judgments concerning the plausibility of goals and dispositions as explanations of human vs. humanoid behavior. Taken together, these results suggest that people's intentional stance toward the robot was in this case very similar to their stance toward the human.

  9. Tandem Stance Avoidance Using Adaptive and Asymmetric Admittance Control for Fall Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Shotaro; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa; Fukuda, Toshio; Kondo, Izumi; Tanimoto, Masanori; Di, Pei; Huang, Jian; Huang, Qiang

    2016-05-01

    Fall prevention is one of the most important functions of walking assistance devices for user's safety. It is preferable that these devices prevent the user from being in the state where the risk of falling is high rather than helping them recovering from falling motion. During turning, when the user is in the tandem stance, a state where both legs form a line along walking direction, a support base that is surrounded by two legs becomes small, and a stability margin becomes small. This paper therefore aims to prevent the tandem stance by using nonwearable robot "intelligent cane" for the elderly or physically challenged person. Generally, the behavior of the lower limb follows the upper body turning. This paper therefore introduces a cane robot control method which constrains the behavior of user's upper body. By adjusting an admittance parameter of the robot according to the positions of a support leg, the robot resists to turn while a support leg is on the same side of the turning direction. A swing leg on the turning direction side therefore freely moves to the turning direction, while a swing leg on the opposite direction side of turning hardly move to the turning direction.

  10. Muscle activity of leg muscles during unipedal stance on therapy devices with different stability properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolburg, Thomas; Rapp, Walter; Rieger, Jochen; Horstmann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    To test the hypotheses that less stable therapy devices require greater muscle activity and that lower leg muscles will have greater increases in muscle activity with less stable therapy devices than upper leg muscles. Cross-sectional laboratory study. Laboratory setting. Twenty-five healthy subjects. Electromyographic activity of four lower (gastrocnemius medialis, soleus, tibialis anterior, peroneus longus) and four upper leg muscles (vastus medialis and lateralis, biceps femoris, semitendinosus) during unipedal quiet barefoot stance on the dominant leg on a flat rigid surface and on five therapy devices with varying stability properties. Muscle activity during unipedal stance differed significantly between therapy devices (P < 0.001). The order from lowest to highest relative muscle activity matched the order from most to least stable therapy device. There was no significant interaction between muscle location (lower versus upper leg) and therapy device (P = 0.985). Magnitudes of additional relative muscle activity for the respective therapy devices differed substantially among lower extremity muscles. The therapy devices offer a progressive increase in training intensity, and thus may be useful for incremental training programs in physiotherapeutic practice and sports training programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. "It's a wild thing, waiting to get me": stance analysis of African Americans with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Boyd H; Pope, Charlene; Mason, Peyton R; Magwood, Gayenell; Jenkins, Carolyn M

    2011-01-01

    This mixed methods study uses a unique approach from social science and linguistics methodologies, a combination of positioning theory and stance analysis, to examine how 20 African Americans with type 2 diabetes make sense of the practices that led to recurrent emergency department visits to identify needs for more effective intervention. In a purposive sample of postemergency department visit interviews with a same-race interviewer, people responded to open-ended questions reflecting on the decision to seek emergency department care. As applied to diabetes education, positioning theory explains that people use their language to position themselves toward their disease, their medications, and the changes in their lives. Transcriptions were coded using discourse analysis to categorize themes. As a form of triangulation, stance analysis measured language patterns using factor analysis to see when and how speakers revealed affect, attitude, and agentive choices for action. Final analysis revealed that one third of the sample exhibited high scores for positive agency or capacity for decision-making and self-management, while the rest expressed less control and more negative emotions and fears that may preclude self-management. This approach suggests a means to tailor diabetes education considering alternative approaches focused on communication for those facing barriers.

  12. Inter-joint coordination strategies during unilateral stance following first-time, acute lateral ankle sprain: A brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Cailbhe; Bleakley, Chris; Hertel, Jay; Caulfield, Brian; Ryan, John; Sweeney, Kevin; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2015-07-01

    This investigation combined measures of inter-joint coordination and stabilometry to evaluate eyes-open (condition 1) and eyes-closed (condition 2) static unilateral stance performance in a group of participants with an acute, first-time lateral ankle sprain injury in comparison to a control group. Sixty-six participants with an acute first-time lateral ankle sprain and 19 non-injured controls completed three 20-second unilateral stance task trials in conditions 1 and 2. An adjusted coefficient of multiple determination statistic was used to compare stance limb 3-D kinematic data for similarity in the aim of establishing patterns of inter-joint coordination for these groups. Between-group analyses revealed significant differences in stance limb inter-joint coordination strategies for conditions 1 and 2. Injured participants displayed increases in ankle-hip linked coordination compared to controls in condition 1 (sagittal/frontal plane: 0.12 [0.09] vs 0.06 [0.04]; η(2)=.16) and condition 2 (sagittal/frontal plane: 0.18 [0.13] vs 0.08 [0.06]; η(2)=0.37). Participants with acute first-time lateral ankle sprain exhibit a hip-dominant coordination strategy for static unilateral stance compared to non-injured controls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A physiological exploration on operational stance and occupational musculoskeletal problem manifestations amongst construction labourers of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Arijit; Sahu, Subhashis

    2018-03-29

    A huge number of labourers engaged in construction industry in India both in organized and unorganized sectors. The construction labourers most often work for an extended period of time and they are compelled to uphold altered static and dynamic operational stance in awkward positions during the complete period of work which raises the demand on the musculoskeletal system and may lead to work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs). This study is intended to explore the operational stance and occupation related musculoskeletal manifestations amongst the construction labourers. One sixty four male labourers from different construction sites of West Bengal was randomly taken for this study. A modified Nordic questionnaire on MSD and the 12 item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) were administered on the construction labourers. Rapid Entire Body Assessment [REBA] and Ovako Work Analysis System [OWAS] methods were applied to analyze the operational stance. Finally, discomfort levels of the specific operational stance were calculated by the use of risk level and BPD scale. From the study it was revealed that most of the construction labourers habitually in awkward operational stance and were affected by altering musculoskeletal manifestations like pain in low back, neck, and wrist. It has been also found that there is a significant (pconstruction labourers in unorganized sectors.

  14. Frontal Plane Modelling of Human Dynamics during Standing in Narrow-Stance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonobe, M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Hino, J.

    2016-09-01

    Standing ride type vehicles like electric skateboards have been developed in recent years. Although these vehicles have advantages as being compact and low cost due to their simple structure, it is necessary to improve the riding quality. Therefore, the system aiding riders to keep their balance on a skateboard by feedback control or feedforward control has been required. To achieve it, a human balance model should be built as simple as possible. In this study, we focus on the human balance modelling during standing when the support surface moves largely. We restricted the model on frontal plane and narrow stance because the restrictions allow us to assume single-degree-of-freedom model. The balance control system is generally assumed as a delayed feedback control system. The model was identified through impulse response test and frequency response test. As a result, we found the phase between acceleration of the skateboard and posture angle become opposite phase in low frequency range.

  15. [Outcomes vs. Attributable Outcomes: Rational Choice Theory Must Take a Stance Towards Action Theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübbe, Weyma

    2017-07-01

    The reply concentrates on advancing again my third thesis, which has not directly been taken up by Breyer and Kliemt. The thesis says that both criticisms against the Rule of Rescue - the irrationality objection, which Breyer and Kliemt try to defend, and the objection that the Rule is discriminatory, which they do not defend - are the results of insufficient action-theoretical reflection. I argue that Breyer's and Kliemt's objection to the Rule, unstable as it is in their comment, is not even clearly identifiable if they do not take a stance towards the central question: Do they want to - and, if so, can they consistently - incorporate people's interest in taking account of the attributability of an outcome to a decision maker into their utility concept? © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Ankle muscle activity modulation during single-leg stance differs between children, young adults and seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Eduard; Faude, Oliver; Roth, Ralf; Zahner, Lukas; Donath, Lars

    2018-02-01

    Incomplete maturation and aging-induced declines of the neuromuscular system affect postural control both in children and older adults and lead to high fall rates. Age-specific comparisons of the modulation of ankle muscle activation and behavioral center of pressure (COP) indices during upright stance have been rarely conducted. The objective of the present study was to quantify aging effects on a neuromuscular level. Thus, surface electromyography (SEMG) modulation and co-activity of ankle muscles during single-leg standing was compared in healthy children, young adults and seniors. Postural steadiness (velocity and mean sway frequency of COP), relative muscle activation (SEMG modulation) and co-activation of two ankle muscles (tibialis anterior, TA; soleus, SO) were examined during single-leg stance in 19 children [age, 9.7 (SD 0.5) years], 30 adults [23.3 (1.5) years] and 29 seniors [62.7 (6.1) years]. Velocity of COP in medio-lateral and anterior-posterior directions, mean sway frequency in anterior-posterior direction, relative muscle activation (TA and SO) and co-activation revealed large age effects (P  0.14). Post-hoc comparisons indicated higher COP velocities, anterior-posterior frequencies, relative SO activation and co-activation in children and seniors when compared with adults. Relative TA activation was higher in children and adults compared with seniors (P seniors seems to be counteracted with higher TA/SO co-activity and SO modulation. However, TA modulation is higher in children and adults, whereas seniors' TA modulation capacity is diminished. An aging-induced decline of TA motor units might account for deteriorations of TA modulation in seniors.

  17. Adaptive behaviour of the spinal cord in the transition from quiet stance to walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrao Mariano

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modulation of nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR excitability was evaluated during gait initiation in 10 healthy subjects to investigate how load- and movement-related joint inputs activate lower spinal centres in the transition from quiet stance to walking. A motion analysis system integrated with a surface EMG device was used to acquire kinematic, kinetic and EMG variables. Starting from a quiet stance, subjects were asked to walk forward, at their natural speed. The sural nerve was stimulated and EMG responses were recorded from major hip, knee and ankle muscles. Gait initiation was divided into four subphases based on centre of pressure and centre of mass behaviours, while joint displacements were used to categorise joint motion as flexion or extension. The reflex parameters were measured and compared between subphases and in relation to the joint kinematics. Results The NWR was found to be subphase-dependent. NWR excitability was increased in the hip and knee flexor muscles of the starting leg, just prior to the occurrence of any movement, and in the knee flexor muscles of the same leg as soon as it was unloaded. The NWR was hip joint kinematics-dependent in a crossed manner. The excitability of the reflex was enhanced in the extensor muscles of the standing leg during the hip flexion of the starting leg, and in the hip flexors of the standing leg during the hip extension of the starting leg. No notable reflex modulation was observed in the ankle muscles. Conclusions Our findings show that the NWR is modulated during the gait initiation phase. Leg unloading and hip joint motion are the main sources of the observed modulation and work in concert to prepare and assist the starting leg in the first step while supporting the contralateral leg, thereby possibly predisposing the lower limbs to the cyclical pattern of walking.

  18. Postural steadiness during quiet stance does not associate with ability to recover balance in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Dawn C; Robinovitch, Stephen N

    2005-10-01

    Fall risk depends on ability to maintain balance during daily activities, and on ability to recover balance following a perturbation such as a slip or trip. We examined whether similar neuromuscular variables govern these two domains of postural stability. We conducted experiments with 25 older women (mean age=78 yrs, SD=7 yrs). We acquired measures of postural steadiness during quiet stance (mean amplitude, velocity, and frequency of centre-of-pressure movement when standing with eyes open or closed, on a rigid or compliant surface). We also measured ability to recover balance using the ankle strategy after release from a forward leaning position (based on the maximum release angle where recovery was possible, and corresponding values of reaction time, rate of ankle torque generation, and peak ankle torque). We found that balance recovery variables were not strongly or consistently correlated with postural steadiness variables. The maximum release angle associated with only three of the sixteen postural steadiness variables (mean frequency in rigid, eyes open condition (r=0.36, P=.041), and mean amplitude (r=0.41, P=.038) and velocity (r=0.49, P=.015) in compliant, eyes closed condition). Reaction time and peak torque did not correlate with any steadiness variables, and rate of torque generation correlated moderately with the mean amplitude and velocity of the centre-of-pressure in the compliant, eyes closed condition (r=0.48-0.60). Our results indicate that postural steadiness during quiet stance is not predictive of ability to recover balance with the ankle strategy. Accordingly, balance assessment and fall prevention programs should individually target these two components of postural stability.

  19. Assessing Muscle-Strength Asymmetry via a Unilateral-Stance Isometric Midthigh Pull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos'Santos, Thomas; Thomas, Christopher; Jones, Paul A; Comfort, Paul

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the within-session reliability of bilateral- and unilateral-stance isometric midthigh-pull (IMTP) force-time characteristics including peak force (PF), relative PF, and impulse at time bands (0-100, 0-200, 0-250, and 0-300 milliseconds) and to compare isometric force-time characteristics between right and left and dominant (D) and nondominant (ND) limbs. Professional male rugby league and multisport male college athletes (N = 54; age, 23.4 ± 4.2 y; height, 1.80 ± 0.05 m; mass, 88.9 ± 12.9 kg) performed 3 bilateral IMTP trials and 6 unilateral-stance IMTP trials (3 per leg) on a force plate sampling at 600 Hz. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and coefficients of variation (CVs) demonstrated high within-session reliability for bilateral and unilateral IMTP PF (ICC = .94, CV = 4.7-5.5%). Lower reliability measures and greater variability were observed for bilateral and unilateral IMTP impulse at time bands (ICC = .81-.88, CV = 7.7-11.8%). Paired-sample t tests and Cohen d effect sizes revealed no significant differences for all isometric force-time characteristics between right and left limbs in male college athletes (P >.05, d ≤ 0.32) and professional rugby league players (P > .05, d ≤ 0.11); however, significant differences were found between D and ND limbs in male college athletes (P isometric force-time characteristics between D and ND limbs in male athletes.

  20. Long-Term Adaptations to Unexpected Surface Perturbations: Postural Control During Stance and Gait in Train Conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Christian; Hoppe, Matthias Wilhelm; Freiwald, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The authors aimed to evaluate the differences in postural control during stance and gait between train conductors and controls. Twenty-one train conductors and 21 office workers performed 6 unilateral and bilateral balance tests on stable and unstable surfaces as well as a gait analysis. In the balance tests, the mean velocity of the center of pressure and unstable surface was measured. In the bilateral balance tests the selected stance width was measured. During gait the length, width, frequency, and velocity of the steps were calculated from the ground reaction forces. Train conductors showed a significantly greater step width during gait (15.4 ± 4.7 vs. 13.0 ± 3.4 cm; p = .035) and stance width during the bilateral stance on the unstable surface (21.0 ± 5.1 vs. 17.8 ± 3.7 cm; p = .026) than the office workers, while no differences were revealed in balance variables. The revealed differences between train conductors and office workers may represent task-specific feedforward control strategies, which increase the base of support and may be helpful to resist unexpected perturbations in trains.

  1. Reading Sacred Texts in the Classroom: The Alignment between Students and Their Teacher's Interpretive Stances When Reading the Hebrew Bible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassenfeld, Ziva R.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the voices of students interpreting Hebrew Bible texts in one fourth-grade classroom. Through think-alouds on the Biblical text with each student, exit interviews, teacher interviews, and classroom observations, this study found that those students whose interpretive stances were more aligned with the teacher's were given…

  2. The Transformative Power of Taking an Inquiry Stance on Practice: Practitioner Research as Narrative and Counter-Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravitch, Sharon M.

    2014-01-01

    Within the ever-developing, intersecting, and overlapping contexts of globalization, top-down policy, mandates, and standardization of public and higher education, many conceptualize and position practitioner research as a powerful stance and a tool of social, communal, and educational transformation, a set of methodological processes that…

  3. Outdoor Urban Propagation Experiment of a Handset MIMO Antenna with a Human Phantom located in a Browsing Stance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamamoto, Atsushi; Hayashi, Toshiteru; Ogawa, Koichi

    2007-01-01

    Outdoor radio propagation experiments are presented at 2.4 GHz, using a handset MIMO antenna with two monopoles and two planar inverted-F antennas (PIFAs), adjacent to a human phantom in browsing stance. The propagation test was performed in an urban area of a city, which resulted in non lineof...

  4. Control of propulsion and body lift during the first two stances of sprint running: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debaere, Sofie; Delecluse, Christophe; Aerenhouts, Dirk; Hagman, Friso; Jonkers, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to relate the contribution of lower limb joint moments and individual muscle forces to the body centre of mass (COM) vertical and horizontal acceleration during the initial two steps of sprint running. Start performance of seven well-trained sprinters was recorded using an optoelectronic motion analysis system and two force plates. Participant-specific torque-driven and muscle-driven simulations were conducted in OpenSim to quantify, respectively, the contributions of the individual joints and muscles to body propulsion and lift. The ankle is the major contributor to both actions during the first two stances, with an even larger contribution in the second compared to the first stance. Biarticular gastrocnemius is the main muscle contributor to propulsion in the second stance. The contribution of the hip and knee depends highly on the position of the athlete: During the first stance, where the athlete runs in a forward bending position, the knee contributes primarily to body lift and the hip contributes to propulsion and body lift. In conclusion, a small increase in ankle power generation seems to affect the body COM acceleration, whereas increases in hip and knee power generation tend to affect acceleration less.

  5. Isolated and combined effects of asymmetric stance and pushing movement on the anticipatory and compensatory postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Ju; Aruin, Alexander S

    2014-04-01

    To investigate effects of symmetric and asymmetric stance and pushing movement on anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments (APAs and CPAs). Ten healthy volunteers stood symmetrically (feet parallel) or asymmetrically (one foot forward and the other backward) and pushed a handle with both hands or right or left hand. Bilateral EMG activity of the trunk and leg muscles and center of pressure (COP) displacements in the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) directions were recorded and analyzed during the APAs and CPAs. Isolated asymmetry of stance was associated with larger muscle activity of the backward leg while isolated asymmetry of pushing movement induced larger trunk muscle activity on the contralateral side. A combined asymmetry of stance and pushing movement resulted in the increase or decrease of the thigh muscle activity and ML COP displacement depending on whether both asymmetries were induced on the same side of the body or on opposite sides. Both isolated and combined asymmetries affect APAs and CPAs in pushing. Using combined asymmetry of stance and arm movement might be beneficial in performing pushing activity. The outcome of the study provides a basis for studying postural control in individuals with unilateral impairment while performing daily tasks involving pushing. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Kinematics and Kinetics of Squat and Deadlift Exercises with Varying Stance Widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, John K.; Fincke, Renita S.; Logan, Rachel L.

    2011-01-01

    The primary motion of squat and deadlift exercise involves flexion and extension of the hips, knees, and ankles, but each exercise can be performed with variations in stance width. These variations may result in differing kinematics and ground reaction forces (GRF), which may in turn affect joint loading. PURPOSE: The purpose of this investigation was to compare ankle, knee, and hip kinematics and kinetics of normal squat (NS), wide-stance squat (WS), normal deadlift (ND), and sumo deadlift (SD). We hypothesized that hip joint kinematics and work at each joint would differ between exercise variations. METHODS: Six subjects (3 m/3 f; 70.0 plus or minus 13.7 kg; 168 plus or minus 9.9 cm) performed each lift in normal gravity on the ground-based version of the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) used on the International Space Station. The ARED provided resistance with a combination vacuum tube/flywheel mechanism designed to replicate the gravitational and inertial forces of free weights. Subjects completed each lift with their 10-repetition maximum load. Kinematic data were collected at 250 Hz by a 12-camera motion-capture system (Smart-D, BTS Bioengineering, Milan, Italy), and GRF data were collected at 1000 Hz with independent force platforms for each leg (Model 9261, Kistler Instruments AG, Winterhur, Switzerland). All data were captured simultaneously on a single workstation. The right leg of a single lift for each motion was analyzed. Modeling software (OpenSim 2.2.0, Simbios, Palo Alto, CA) determined joint kinematics and net positive and negative work at each lower extremity joint. Total work was found as the sum of work across all joints and was normalized by system mass. Effect sizes and their 95% confidence intervals were computed between conditions. RESULTS: Peak GRF were similar for each lift. There were no differences between conditions in hip flexion range of motion (ROM). For hip adduction ROM, there were no differences between the NS, WS, and SD

  7. Expressing epistemic stance in University lectures and TED talks: a contrastive corpu-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuditta Caliendo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – This study explores the web-mediated genre of TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design talks, speech events whereby experts in their field disseminate knowledge from different domains (e.g. science, technology, design, global issues addressing an audience of both co-present participants and web-users all over the world. The aim of this study is to investigate the way academics convey epistemic stance (Conrad, Biber 2000 and build up their image as experts on the TED stage. To this purpose, a contrastive analysis was carried out comparing two corpora of spoken discourse, i.e. a corpus of TED talks and a corpus of MICASE university lectures from different disciplines. Although in both genres the speaker is an academic, both the communicative purpose and audience expectations differ substantially in the two contexts under scrutiny. This comparison highlights some distinguishing traits of TED talks and provides a better insight into this genre. Adopting a corpus-based approach, attention is first paid to the most recurrent epistemic lexical verbs (ELVs and to the use of first and second person pronouns in the two corpora. The qualitative analysis then focuses on similarities and differences in the discourse functions of the four most frequent ELVs (see, show, know, think and of their clusters when they combine with first and second person pronouns in the two corpora. Previous studies in the field of English for Academic Purposes (Rounds 1987; Fortanet 2004; Walsh 2004; Artiga León 2006; Bamford 2009 are referred to as a starting point to investigate a novel, unexplored pragmatic space (i.e. that of TED wherein academics accomplish purposes other than merely disseminating knowledge and training students, such as promoting their research and building up their image as experts. Keywords: Languages for Special Purposes, popularization, web-mediated genres, evidentiality, epistemic stance  Abstract – I generi mediati dalla rete svolgono un

  8. Fidelity, Adaptation, and Meta-commentary: The Case of Susan Orlean’s The Orchid Thief and Spike Jonze’s Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria de Zwaan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Susan Orlean’s The Orchid Thief has raised and defied questions about genre since its appearance in 1998. Though “research” and “facts” are at the foreground of the book, critics have described it by such terms as literary non-fiction, faction, personal journalism, and non-fiction novel because of its strong “literary,” that is narrative, characterological, thematic, and even philosophical, qualities. Struggling to make a faithful adaptation of this “simple” and “beautiful” book “about flowers” for film, Charlie Kaufman, the neurotic and anxious protagonist/screenwriter of Adaptation (2002, a fictionalized avatar of the real-life Charlie Kaufman, works through the wide range of possible generic and narrative adaptive possibilities that the book invites. The series of apparent false starts eventually get resolved, in a desperate attempt at creating closure, by way of the “Hollywood ending” that the screenwriter ostensibly despises and insists he will avoid. This paper engages the complex relationships between these two objects – The Orchid Thief and Adaptation – first, by providing some interpretive analysis of Orlean’s book and its potential adaptive possibilities, and second, by examining what happens to those possibilities in Adaptation. On my argument, the film refracts the book’s concerns into a meditation on the processes of reading, storytelling, and interpretation in the realm of explicit adaptation by way of metafiction, metalepsis, and other techniques associated with experimental narrative.

  9. Electro-tactile stimulation of the posterior neck induces body anteropulsion during upright stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nunzio, A M; Yavuz, U S; Martinez-Valdes, E; Farina, D; Falla, D

    2018-05-01

    Sensory information conveyed along afferent fibers from muscle and joint proprioceptors play an important role in the control of posture and gait in humans. In particular, proprioceptive information from the neck is fundamental in supplying the central nervous system with information about the orientation and movement of the head relative to the rest of the body. The previous studies have confirmed that proprioceptive afferences originating from the neck region, evoked via muscle vibration, lead to strong body-orienting effects during static conditions (e.g., leaning of the body forwards or backwards, depending on location of vibration). However, it is not yet certain in humans, whether the somatosensory receptors located in the deep skin (cutaneous mechanoreceptors) have a substantive contribution to postural control, as vibratory stimulation encompasses the receptive field of all the somatosensory receptors from the skin to the muscles. The aim of this study was to investigate the postural effect of cutaneous mechanoreceptor afferences using electro-tactile stimulation applied to the neck. Ten healthy volunteers (8M, 2F) were evaluated. The average position of their centre of foot pressure (CoP) was acquired before, during, and after a subtle electro-tactile stimulation over their posterior neck (mean ± SD = 5.1 ± 2.3 mA at 100 Hz-140% of the perception threshold) during upright stance with their eyes closed. The electro-tactile stimulation led to a body-orienting effect with the subjects consistently leaning forward. An average shift of the CoP of 12.1 ± 11.9 mm (mean ± SD) was reported, which significantly (p < 0.05) differed from its average position under a control condition (no stimulation). These results indicate that cutaneous mechanoreceptive inflow from the neck is integrated to control stance. The findings are relevant for the exploitation of electro-tactile stimulation for rehabilitation interventions where induced

  10. Inter-joint coordination strategies during unilateral stance 6-months following first-time lateral ankle sprain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Cailbhe; Bleakley, Chris; Hertel, Jay; Caulfield, Brian; Ryan, John; Sweeney, Kevin; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2015-02-01

    Longitudinal analyses of participants with a history of lateral ankle sprain are lacking. This investigation combined measures of inter-joint coordination and stabilometry to evaluate eyes-open (condition 1) and eyes-closed (condition 2) static unilateral stance performance in a group of participants, 6-months after they sustained an acute, first-time lateral ankle sprain in comparison to a control group. Sixty-nine participants with a 6-month history of first-time lateral ankle sprain and 20 non-injured controls completed three 20-second unilateral stance task trials in conditions 1 and 2. An adjusted coefficient of multiple determination statistic was used to compare stance limb 3-dimensional kinematic data for similarity in the aim of establishing patterns of lower-limb inter-joint coordination. The fractal dimension of the stance limb centre of pressure path was also calculated. Between-group analyses revealed significant differences in stance limb inter-joint coordination strategies for conditions 1 and 2, and in the fractal dimension of the centre-of-pressure path for condition 2 only. Injured participants displayed increases in ankle-hip linked coordination compared to controls in condition 1 (sagittal/frontal plane: 0.15 [0.14] vs 0.06 [0.04]; η(2)=.19; sagittal/transverse plane: 0.14 [0.11] vs 0.09 [0.05]; η(2)=0.14) and condition 2 (sagittal/frontal plane: 0.15 [0.12] vs 0.08 [0.06]; η(2)=0.23), with an associated decrease in the fractal dimension of the centre-of-pressure path (injured limb: 1.23 [0.13] vs 1.36 [0.13]; η(2)=0.20). Participants with a 6-month history of first-time lateral ankle sprain exhibit a hip-dominant coordination strategy for static unilateral stance compared to non-injured controls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The good, the bad and the ugly: The shifting ethical stance of Malaysian consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teck-Chai Lau

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the recent business ethical problems in Malaysia such as tax fraud, deceptive advertising, production of unsafe products and copyright piracy, the current research aim to examine ethical issues in the marketplace from the perspective of consumers. There are three objectives of this research. The first objective is to investigate the effect of moral ideologies and Machiavellianism on consumer ethical beliefs. The second objective is to determine which of these ideologies exert the greatest influence on consumer ethical beliefs and the third objective is to discover whether Malaysian consumers have evolved in their ethical stance over the last ten years. The dependent variable in this research is the recently modified consumer ethics scale developed by Vitell and Muncy (2005. An online survey was adopted as data collection method as it was inexpensive, fast and could ensure high response rates. However it has several limitations such as the possible non-representativeness of Internet respondents to the Malaysian population and higher non-response error. The results indicated that idealism exerted the greatest influence on all the four dimensions of consumer ethics. It was also revealed that Malaysian consumers had evolved over the past ten years in their moral ideology: from relativism to idealism.

  12. Pedunculopontine nucleus area oscillations during stance, stepping and freezing in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Fraix

    Full Text Available The pedunculopontine area (PPNa including the pedunculopontine and cuneiform nuclei, belongs to the mesencephalic locomotor region. Little is known about the oscillatory mechanisms underlying the function of this region in postural and gait control. We examined the modulations of the oscillatory activity of the PPNa and cortex during stepping, a surrogate of gait, and stance in seven Parkinson's disease patients who received bilateral PPNa implantation for disabling freezing of gait (FOG. In the days following the surgery, we recorded behavioural data together with the local field potentials of the PPNa during sitting, standing and stepping-in-place, under two dopaminergic medication conditions (OFF and ON levodopa. Our results showed that OFF levodopa, all subjects had FOG during step-in-place trials, while ON levodopa, stepping was effective (mean duration of FOG decreasing from 61.7±36.1% to 7.3±10.1% of trial duration. ON levodopa, there was an increase in PPNa alpha (5-12 Hz oscillatory activity and a decrease in beta (13-35 Hz and gamma (65-90 Hz bands activity. PPNa activity was not modulated during quiet standing and sitting. Our results confirm the role of the PPNa in the regulation of gait and suggest that, in Parkinson disease, gait difficulties could be related to an imbalance between low and higher frequencies.

  13. Effects of body lean and visual information on the equilibrium maintenance during stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Marcos; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M

    2002-09-01

    Maintenance of equilibrium was tested in conditions when humans assume different leaning postures during upright standing. Subjects ( n=11) stood in 13 different body postures specified by visual center of pressure (COP) targets within their base of support (BOS). Different types of visual information were tested: continuous presentation of visual target, no vision after target presentation, and with simultaneous visual feedback of the COP. The following variables were used to describe the equilibrium maintenance: the mean of the COP position, the area of the ellipse covering the COP sway, and the resultant median frequency of the power spectral density of the COP displacement. The variability of the COP displacement, quantified by the COP area variable, increased when subjects occupied leaning postures, irrespective of the kind of visual information provided. This variability also increased when vision was removed in relation to when vision was present. Without vision, drifts in the COP data were observed which were larger for COP targets farther away from the neutral position. When COP feedback was given in addition to the visual target, the postural control system did not control stance better than in the condition with only visual information. These results indicate that the visual information is used by the postural control system at both short and long time scales.

  14. [Relationship between unipedal stance test score and center of pressure velocity in elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo Antonio, Guzmán; Rony, Silvestre; Francisco Aniceto, Rodríguez; David Andrés, Arriagada; Pablo Andrés, Ortega

    2011-01-01

    Frequent falls are one of the most important health problems in the elderly population. The unipedal stance test (UPST), asses postural stability and is used in fall risk measures. Despite this, there is little information about its relationship with posturographic parameters (PP) that characterizes postural stability. Center of pressure velocity (CoPV) is one of the best PP that describes postural stability. The aim of this study was to analyze the relation between UST score and CoPV in elderly population. A sample of 38 healthy elderly subjects where divided in two groups according to their UPST score, low performance (LP, n=11) and high performance (HP, n=27). The correlation between UPST score and COP mean velocity (CoPmV), recorded from a posturographic test, was analyzed between both groups. An inverse correlation between UPST score and CoPmV was found in both groups. However, this was higher in the LP group (r=-0.69, P=.02) compared to the HP (r=-0.39, P=.04). Based on the results of this investigation, it may be concluded that the achievement on UPST has an inverse relationship with CoPmV, especially in subjects with low performance in the UPST. Copyright © 2010 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Normative values for the unipedal stance test with eyes open and closed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Barbara A; Marin, Raul; Cyhan, Tamara; Roberts, Holly; Gill, Norman W

    2007-01-01

    Limited normative data are available for the unipedal stance test (UPST), making it difficult for clinicians to use it confidently to detect subtle balance impairments. The purpose of this study was to generate normative values for repeated trials of the UPST with eyes opened and eyes closed across age groups and gender. This prospective, mixed-model design was set in a tertiary care medical center. Healthy subjects (n= 549), 18 years or older, performed the UPST with eyes open and closed. Mean and best of 3 UPST times for males and females of 6 age groups (18-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, and 80+) were documented and inter-rater reliability was tested. There was a significant age dependent decrease in UPST time during both conditions. Inter-rater reliability for the best of 3 trials was determined to be excellent with an intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.994 (95% confidence interval 0.989-0.996) for eyes open and 0.998 (95% confidence interval 0.996-0.999) for eyes closed. This study adds to the understanding of typical performance on the UPST. Performance is age-specific and not related to gender. Clinicians now have more extensive normative values to which individuals can be compared.

  16. Frontal plane hip and ankle sensorimotor function, not age, predicts unipedal stance time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allet, Lara; Kim, Hogene; Ashton-Miller, James; De Mott, Trina; Richardson, James K.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Changes occur in muscles and nerves with aging. This study aimed to explore the relationship between unipedal stance time (UST) and frontal plane hip and ankle sensorimotor function in subjects with diabetic neuropathy. Methods UST, quantitative measures of frontal plane ankle proprioceptive thresholds, and ankle and hip motor function were tested in forty-one persons with a spectrum of lower limb sensorimotor function, ranging from healthy to moderately severe diabetic neuropathy. Results Frontal plane hip and ankle sensorimotor function demonstrated significant relationships with UST. Multivariate analysis identified only composite hip strength, composite ankle proprioceptive threshold, and age to be significant predictors of UST (R2=0.73); they explained 46%, 24% and 3% of the variance, respectively. Discussion/Conclusions Frontal plane hip strength was the single best predictor of UST and appeared to compensate for less precise ankle proprioceptive thresholds. This finding is clinically relevant given the possibility of strengthening the hip, even in patients with significant PN. . PMID:22431092

  17. "We make choices we think are going to save us": Debate and stance identification for online breast cancer CAM discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaodian; Qiu, Lin; Chen, Frank; Zhang, Weinan; Yu, Yong; Elhadad, Noémie

    2017-04-01

    Patients discuss complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in online health communities. Sometimes, patients' conflicting opinions toward CAM-related issues trigger debates in the community. The objectives of this paper are to identify such debates, identify controversial CAM therapies in a popular online breast cancer community, as well as patients' stances towards them. To scale our analysis, we trained a set of classifiers. We first constructed a supervised classifier based on a long short-term memory neural network (LSTM) stacked over a convolutional neural network (CNN) to detect automatically CAM-related debates from a popular breast cancer forum. Members' stances in these debates were also identified by a CNN-based classifier. Finally, posts automatically flagged as debates by the classifier were analyzed to explore which specific CAM therapies trigger debates more often than others. Our methods are able to detect CAM debates with F score of 77%, and identify stances with F score of 70%. The debate classifier identified about 1/6 of all CAM-related posts as debate. About 60% of CAM-related debate posts represent the supportive stance toward CAM usage. Qualitative analysis shows that some specific therapies, such as Gerson therapy and usage of laetrile, trigger debates frequently among members of the breast cancer community. This study demonstrates that neural networks can effectively locate debates on usage and effectiveness of controversial CAM therapies, and can help make sense of patients' opinions on such issues under dispute. As to CAM for breast cancer, perceptions of their effectiveness vary among patients. Many of the specific therapies trigger debates frequently and are worth more exploration in future work.

  18. "If you thought this story sour, sweeten it with your own telling" - a feminist poetics of rewriting in Susan Price's Ghost dance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Lehtonen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The attempts to challenge conventional gendered discourses in children's fantasy have often resulted in feminist rewritings of earlier stories. Ghost dance (1994 by the English author Susan Price is a novel that reflects a specific feminist poetics of rewriting: metafictional passages highlight the constructedness of the narrative and at the end readers are invited to tell their own versions of the story. Moreover, the rewriting freely combines and recontextualises elements from different source texts and reformulates them to create a narrative that challenges conventional discourses of gender. While this poetics has an appeal from a feminist perspective, the play with cross-cultural intertexts and gender becomes more complex when the novel is examined in a postcolonialist framework in relation to ethnicity and the issue of cultural appropriation. Ghost dance is situated in a setting that has a real-world equivalent (Russia, involves characters that are identified with names of real-world ethnic groups (Lapps (Sámi, Russian, and mixes elements from Russian wonder tales, Nordic mythology and an Ojibwe legend. The novel does not aim at historical accuracy in its representations nor is it a direct retelling of any of the pre-texts but combines motifs, themes, names, characters and settings freely from each source. In this textual melting pot, the protagonist Shingebiss is, on one level, a revision of the witch Baba Yaga, but also described as a Lappish shaman with an Ojibwe name. To rewrite gendered discourses, certain elements from the pretexts are chosen and others left out – the question is, then, what effects does this recontextualisation have on the representation of ethnicity? Or, are the feminist rewriting strategies actually a form of cultural appropriation?

  19. Evidence for differential control of tibial position in perturbed unilateral stance after acute ACL rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, T L; Ramsey, D K; Snyder-Mackler, L

    2005-01-01

    Functional outcomes in anterior cruciate ligament-deficient "potential copers" and "non-copers" may be related to their knee stabilization strategies. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to differentiate dynamic knee stabilization strategies of potential copers and non-copers through analysis of sagittal plane knee angle and tibia position during disturbed and undisturbed unilateral standing. Ten uninjured potential coper and non-coper subjects stood in unilateral stance on a platform that translated anteriorly, posteriorly and laterally. Knee angle and tibia position with reference to the femur were calculated before and after platform movement. During perturbation trials, potential copers maintained kinematics that were similar to uninjured subjects across conditions. Conversely, non-copers stood with greater knee flexion than uninjured subjects and a tibia position that was more posterior than the other groups. Both non-copers and potential copers demonstrated small changes in tibia position following platform movement, but direction of movement was not similar. The similarities between the knee kinematics of potential copers and uninjured subjects suggest that potential copers compensated well from their injury by utilizing analogous dynamic knee stabilization strategies. In comparison to the other groups, by keeping the knee in greater flexion and the tibia in a more posterior position, non-copers appear to constrain the tibia in response to a challenging task, which is consistent with a "stiffening strategy". Based on the poor functional outcomes of non-copers, a stiffening strategy does not lead to dynamic knee stability, and the strategy may increase compressive forces which could contribute to or exacerbate articular cartilage degeneration.

  20. Computerized identification and classification of stance phases as made by front og hind feet of walking cows based on 3-dimensional ground reaction forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth, F; Thorup, Vivi Mørkøre; do Nascimento, Omar Feix

    2013-01-01

    Lameness is a frequent disorder in dairy cows and in large dairy herds manual lameness detection is a time-consuming task. This study describes a method for automatic identification of stance phases in walking cows, and their classification as made by a front or a hind foot based on ground reaction...... phases, of these 1146 (62%) were automatically identified as full stance phases and classified as made by a front or hind foot. As intended, the procedures did not favour identification of stance phases of healthy cows over lame cows. In addition, a human observer evaluated the stance phases by visual...... inspection, revealing a very low discrepancy (3.5%) between manual and automated approaches. Further, a sensitivity test indicated large robustness in the automatic procedures. In conclusion, the experimental setup combined with the computerized procedures described in the present study resulted in a high...

  1. Idufirma Silicon Valleyta / Susan Adams

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Adams, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Tarkvarafirma Apprenda toodab teenindusplatvormi tarkvara, mis võimaldab klientidel luua ja hoida käigus uusi mobiilseid ja pilvetehnoloogiapõhiseid rakendusi. Oma töötajatele pakub odavaid elamispindu ja madalaid makse

  2. Stabilometric response during single-leg stance after lower limb muscle fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. V. Bruniera

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study sought to analyze the effect of muscle fatigue induced by active isotonic resistance training at a moderate intensity by measuring the knee extension motion during the stabilometric response in a single-leg stance among healthy university students who perform resistance training on a regular basis. METHOD: Eleven healthy university students were subjected to a one-repetition maximum (1RM test. In addition, stabilometric assessment was performed before and after the intervention and consisted of a muscle fatiguing protocol, in which knee extension was selected as the fatiguing task. The Shapiro-Wilk test was used to investigate the normality of the data, and the Wilcoxon test was used to compare the stabilometric parameters before and after induction of muscle fatigue, at a significance level of p≤0.05. Descriptive statistics were used in the analysis of the volunteers' age, height, body mass, and body mass index (BMI. RESULTS: The sample population was 23.1±2.7 years of age, averaged 1.79.2±0.07 m in height and 75.6±8.0 Kg in weight, and had a BMI of 23.27±3.71 Kg.m-2. The volunteers performed exercises 3.36±1.12 days/week and achieved a load of 124.54±22.07 Kg on 1RM and 74.72±13.24 Kg on 60% 1RM. The center of pressure (CoP oscillation on the mediolateral plane before and after fatigue induction was 2.89±0.89 mm and 4.09±0.59 mm, respectively, while the corresponding values on the anteroposterior plane were 2.5±2.2 mm and 4.09±2.26 mm, respectively. The CoP oscillation amplitude on the anteroposterior and mediolateral planes exhibited a significant difference before and after fatigue induction (p=0.04 and p=0.05, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that muscle fatigue affects postural control, particularly with the mediolateral and anteroposterior CoP excursion.

  3. Lower extremity fatigue increases complexity of postural control during a single-legged stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Jerry J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-linear approaches to assessment of postural control can provide insight that compliment linear approaches. Control entropy (CE is a recently developed statistical tool from non-linear dynamical systems used to assess the complexity of non-stationary signals. We have previously used CE of high resolution accelerometry in running to show decreased complexity with exhaustive exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine if complexity of postural control decreases following fatiguing exercise using CE. Methods Ten subjects (5 M/5 F; 25 ± 3 yr; 169.4 ± 11.7 cm; 79.0 ± 16.9 kg consented to participation approved by Western Oregon University IRB and completed two trials separated by 2-7 days. Trials consisted of two single-legged balance tests separated by two Wingate anaerobic tests (WAnT; PreFat/PostFat, or rest period (PreRest/PostRest. Balance tests consisted of a series of five single-legged stances, separated by 30 s rest, performed while standing on the dominant leg for 15-s with the participant crossing the arms over the chest and flexing the non-dominant knee to 90 degrees. High resolution accelerometers (HRA were fixed superficial to L3/L4 at the approximate center of mass (COM. Triaxial signals from the HRA were streamed in real time at 625 Hz. COM accelerations were recorded in g's for vertical (VT, medial/lateral (ML, and anterior/posterior (AP axes. A newly developed statistic (R-test was applied to group response shapes generated by Karhunen Loeve (KL transform modes resulting from Control Entropy (CE analysis. Results R-tests showed a significant mean vector difference (p p p p Conclusions These data indicate that fatiguing exercise eliminates the differential complexity response between axes, but increases complexity in all axes compared to the non-fatigued condition. This has implications with regard to the effects of fatigue on strategies of the control system to maintain postural control.

  4. Plantar pressures are higher in cases with diabetic foot ulcers compared to controls despite a longer stance phase duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Malindu E; Crowther, Robert G; Lazzarini, Peter A; Sangla, Kunwarjit S; Wearing, Scott; Buttner, Petra; Golledge, Jonathan

    2016-09-15

    Current international guidelines advocate achieving at least a 30 % reduction in maximum plantar pressure to reduce the risk of foot ulcers in people with diabetes. However, whether plantar pressures differ in cases with foot ulcers to controls without ulcers is not clear. The aim of this study was to assess if plantar pressures were higher in patients with active plantar diabetic foot ulcers (cases) compared to patients with diabetes without a foot ulcer history (diabetes controls) and people without diabetes or a foot ulcer history (healthy controls). Twenty-one cases with diabetic foot ulcers, 69 diabetes controls and 56 healthy controls were recruited for this case-control study. Plantar pressures at ten sites on both feet and stance phase duration were measured using a pre-established protocol. Primary outcomes were mean peak plantar pressure, pressure-time integral and stance phase duration. Non-parametric analyses were used with Holm's correction to correct for multiple testing. Binary logistic regression models were used to adjust outcomes for age, sex and body mass index. Median differences with 95 % confidence intervals and Cohen's d values (standardised mean difference) were reported for all significant outcomes. The majority of ulcers were located on the plantar surface of the hallux and toes. When adjusted for age, sex and body mass index, the mean peak plantar pressure and pressure-time integral of toes and the mid-foot were significantly higher in cases compared to diabetes and healthy controls (p diabetic foot ulcers despite having a longer stance phase duration which would be expected to lower plantar pressure. Whether plantar pressure changes can predict ulcer healing should be the focus of future research. These results highlight the importance of offloading feet during active ulceration in addition to before ulceration.

  5. Balance in single-limb stance after surgically treated ankle fractures: a 14-month follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ageberg Eva

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maintenance of postural control is fundamental for different types of physical activity. This can be measured by having subjects stand on one leg on a force plate. Many studies assessing standing balance have previously been carried out in patients with ankle ligament injuries but not in patients with ankle fractures. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether patients operated on because of an ankle fracture had impaired postural control compared to an uninjured age- and gender-matched control group. Methods Fifty-four individuals (patients operated on because of an ankle fracture were examined 14 months postoperatively. Muscle strength, ankle mobility, and single-limb stance on a force-platform were measured. Average speed of centre of pressure movements and number of movements exceeding 10 mm from the mean value of centre of pressure were registered in the frontal and sagittal planes on a force-platform. Fifty-four age- and gender-matched uninjured individuals (controls were examined in the single-limb stance test only. The paired Student t-test was used for comparisons between patients' injured and uninjured legs and between side-matched legs within the controls. The independent Student t-test was used for comparisons between patients and controls. The Chi-square test, and when applicable, Fisher's exact test were used for comparisons between groups. Multiple logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with belonging to the group unable to complete the single-limb stance test on the force-platform. Results Fourteen of the 54 patients (26% did not manage to complete the single-limb stance test on the force-platform, whereas all controls managed this (p Conclusion One in four patients operated on because of an ankle fracture had impaired postural control compared to an age- and gender-matched control group. Age over 45 years and decreased strength in the ankle plantar flexors and dorsiflexors

  6. Investigation of Anticipatory Postural Adjustments during One-Leg Stance Using Inertial Sensors: Evidence from Subjects with Parkinsonism

    OpenAIRE

    Gianluca Bonora; Martina Mancini; Ilaria Carpinella; Lorenzo Chiari; Maurizio Ferrarin; John G. Nutt; Fay B. Horak; Fay B. Horak

    2017-01-01

    The One-Leg Stance (OLS) test is a widely adopted tool for the clinical assessment of balance in the elderly and in subjects with neurological disorders. It was previously showed that the ability to control anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) prior to lifting one leg is significantly impaired by idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (iPD). However, it is not known how APAs are affected by other types of parkinsonism, such as frontal gait disorders (FGD). In this study, an instrumented OLS test ...

  7. Comparison of the effect of selected muscle groups fatigue on postural control during bipedal stance in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Zahra Rojhani; Jahromi, Fatemeh Nikhalat

    2013-09-01

    The maintenance of balance is an essential requirement for the performance of daily tasks and sporting activities and muscular fatigue is a factor to impair postural control, so this study was done to compare the effect of selected muscle groups fatigue on postural control during bipedal stance in healthy subjects. Fifteen healthy female students (24.3 ± 2.6 years) completed three testing session with a break period of at least 2 days. During each session, postural control was assessed during two 30-s trials of bipedal stance with eyes close before and after the fatigue protocol. Fatigue protocols were performed by 60% of their unfatigued Maximum Voluntary Contraction of unilateral ankle plantar flexors, bilateral lumbar extensors and bilateral neck extensors. One of the three fatigue protocols was performed on each session. The result showed that fatigue had a significant effect on COP velocity and it increase COP velocity but there was not found any difference in postural sway between muscle groups. Localized muscle fatigue caused deficits in postural control regardless of the location of fatigue. Authors suggest the possibility of the contributions of central mechanisms to postural deficits due to fatigue and it seems that difference was not between muscle groups due to central fatigue.

  8. Shoe drop reduction influences the lower limb biomechanics of children tennis players during an open stance forehand: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbaut, Alexis; Simoneau-Buessinger, Emilie; Barbier, Franck; Gillet, Christophe; Roux, Maxime; Guéguen, Nils; Chavet, Pascale

    2017-11-01

    Compared to traditional tennis shoes, using 0-drop shoes was shown to induce an immediate switch from rear- to forefoot strike pattern to perform an open stance tennis forehand for 30% of children tennis players. The purpose of the study was to examine the long-term effects of a gradual reduction in the shoe drop on the biomechanics of children tennis players performing open stance forehands. Thirty children tennis players participated in 2 laboratory biomechanical test sessions (intermediate: +4 months and final: +8 months) after an inclusion visit where they were randomly assigned to control (CON) or experimental (EXP) group. CON received 12-mm-drop shoes twice, whereas EXP received 8 mm then 4-mm-drop shoes. Strike index indicated that all CON were rearfoot strikers in intermediate and final test sessions. All EXP were rearfoot strikers in intermediate test session, but half the group switched towards a forefoot strike pattern in final test session. This switch resulted in a decreased loading rate of the ground reaction force (-73%, p = .005) but increased peak ankle plantarflexors moment (+47%, p = .050) and peak ankle power absorption (+107%, p = .005) for these participants compared with CON. Biomechanical changes associated with the long-term use of partial minimalist shoes suggest a reduction in heel compressive forces but an increase in Achilles tendon tensile forces.

  9. Initiation of movement from quiet stance: comparison of gait and stepping in elderly subjects of different levels of functional ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Denis; Santos, Valeria; Kim, Hyeong Dong; Light, Kathye; Levy, Charles

    2005-04-01

    This study describes how elderly subjects initiate gait, and step from a position of quiet stance. Based on scores from selected standardized tests subjects were placed in either a high (HFL) or low functional level (LFL) group and were asked to initiate gait, step onto a 10 cm high, 1.22 m wide curb and step over a 10 cm high, 9 cm wide obstacle at a self paced speed. Stepping conditions affected the velocity of movement. It was clear that all subjects decreased initiation velocity for both curb and obstacle compared to gait initiation. Swing and stance limb acceleration ground reaction forces and EMG amplitude were modulated according to initiation velocity. Toe clearance was greater for obstacle than curb and gait initiation. Swing toe-off was significantly earlier and there was a trend for obstacle clearance to be greater for the HFL group. Those in the LFL group appear to be at a greater risk for falling due to the possible effect of slower rate of toe-off that could influence toe clearance over the obstacle.

  10. Computational stability of human knee joint at early stance in Gait: Effects of muscle coactivity and anterior cruciate ligament deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, M; Shirazi-Adl, A; Marouane, H

    2017-10-03

    As one of the most complex and vulnerable structures of body, the human knee joint should maintain dynamic equilibrium and stability in occupational and recreational activities. The evaluation of its stability and factors affecting it is vital in performance evaluation/enhancement, injury prevention and treatment managements. Knee stability often manifests itself by pain, hypermobility and giving-way sensations and is usually assessed by the passive joint laxity tests. Mechanical stability of both the human knee joint and the lower extremity at early stance periods of gait (0% and 5%) were quantified here for the first time using a hybrid musculoskeletal model of the lower extremity. The roles of muscle coactivity, simulated by setting minimum muscle activation at 0-10% levels and ACL deficiency, simulated by reducing ACL resistance by up to 85%, on the stability margin as well as joint biomechanics (contact/muscle/ligament forces) were investigated. Dynamic stability was analyzed using both linear buckling and perturbation approaches at the final deformed configurations in gait. The knee joint was much more stable at 0% stance than at 5% due to smaller ground reaction and contact forces. Muscle coactivity, when at lower intensities (knee joint at the heel strike. It also markedly diminishes forces in lateral hamstrings (by up to 39%) and contact forces on the lateral plateau (by up to 17%). Current work emphasizes the need for quantification of the lower extremity stability margin in gait. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship between activation of ankle muscles and quasi-joint stiffness in early and middle stances during gait in patients with hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Yusuke; Muraki, Takayuki; Tanaka, Naofumi; Izumi, Shin-Ichi

    2015-09-01

    It is unclear whether muscle contraction is necessary to increase quasi-joint stiffness (QJS) of the ankle joint during gait in patients with hemiparesis. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between QJS and muscle activation at the ankle joint in the stance phase during gait in patients with hemiparesis. Spatiotemporal and kinetic gait parameters and activation of the medial head of the gastrocnemius (MG), soleus (SOL), and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were measured using a 3-dimensional motion analysis system and surface electromyography, in 21 patients with hemiparesis due to stroke and 10 healthy individuals. In the early stance, the QJS on the paretic side (PS) of patients was greater than that on the non-PS (phemiparesis, plantarflexor activation may not contribute to QJS in the early stance. On the other hand, QJS in the middle stance may be attributed to activation of the MG and SOL. Our findings suggest that activation of the MG and SOL in the middle stance on the PS may require to be enhanced to increase QJS during gait in patients with hemiparesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Radiosteriometric analysis of movement in the sacroiliac joint during a single-leg stance in patients with long-lasting pelvic girdle pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibsgård, Thomas J; Røise, Olav; Sturesson, Bengt; Röhrl, Stephan M; Stuge, Britt

    2014-04-01

    Chamberlain's projections (anterior-posterior X-ray of the pubic symphysis) have been used to diagnose sacroiliac joint mobility during the single-leg stance test. This study examined the movement in the sacroiliac joint during the single-leg stance test with precise radiostereometric analysis. Under general anesthesia, tantalum markers were inserted into the dorsal sacrum and the ilium of 11 patients with long-lasting and severe pelvic girdle pain. After two to three weeks, a radiostereometric analysis was conducted while the subjects performed a single-leg stance. Small movements were detected in the sacroiliac joint during the single-leg stance. In both the standing- and hanging-leg sacroiliac join, a total of 0.5 degree rotation was observed; however, no translations were detected. There were no differences in total movement between the standing- and hanging-leg sacroiliac joint. The movement in the sacroiliac joint during the single-leg stance is small and almost undetectable by the precise radiostereometric analysis. A complex movement pattern was seen during the test, with a combination of movements in the two joints. The interpretation of the results of this study is that, the Chamberlain examination likely is inadequate in the examination of sacroiliac joint movement in patients with pelvic girdle pain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of physicians' life stances on attitudes to end-of-life decisions and actual end-of-life decision-making in six countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, J; van Delden, J; Mortier, F

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To examine how physicians' life stances affect their attitudes to end-of-life decisions and their actual end-of-life decision-making. METHODS: Practising physicians from various specialties involved in the care of dying patients in Belgium, Denmark, The Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland......) and Protestants (up to 20.4% in The Netherlands) reported ever having made such a decision. DISCUSSION: The results suggest that religious teachings influence to some extent end-of-life decision-making, but are certainly not blankly accepted by physicians, especially when dealing with real patients...... large life-stance groups in each country. RESULTS: Only small differences in life stance were found in all countries in general attitudes and intended and actual behaviour with regard to various end-of-life decisions. However, with regard to the administration of drugs explicitly intended to hasten...

  14. Ethical Considerations for Psychologists Taking a Public Stance on Controversial Issues: The Balance Between Personal and Professional Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeny, Angela M

    2014-07-01

    Previous literature has documented the general issues psychologists often face while balancing their personal and professional lives. The struggle stems from attempting to satisfy the need to maintain a life outside of work while having the professional obligation to follow the American Psychological Association's (APA's) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (Ethics Code) to prevent their personal lives from interfering with their professional roles and relationships. The present paper analyzes the subject of psychologists taking a public position on controversial public issues. Although the APA Ethics Code does not restrict how psychologists conduct themselves during their personal time, taking a public stance on a controversial issue could potentially strain professional relationships and inadvertently reflect negatively on the profession. The present paper examines ethical issues that a) should be taken into account before psychologists take a public position on a controversial issue, and b) are in conflict with APA's Ethics Code or current research.

  15. The development of intention-based sociomoral judgment and distribution behavior from a third-party stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Tomasello, Michael

    2018-03-01

    The current study investigated children's intention-based sociomoral judgments and distribution behavior from a third-party stance. An actor puppet showed either positive or negative intention toward a target puppet, which had previously performed a prosocial or antisocial action toward others (i.e., children witnessed various types of indirect reciprocity). Children (3- and 5-year-olds) were asked to make sociomoral judgments and to distribute resources to the actor puppet. Results showed that 5-year-olds were more likely than 3-year-olds to be influenced by intention when they made their judgment and distributed resources. The target's previous actions affected only 5-year-olds' intent-based social preference. These results suggest that children's judgments about intent-based indirect reciprocity develop from ages 3 to 5 years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of external loads on postural sway during quiet stance in adults aged 20-80 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M W; Duncan, M J; Oxford, S W; Kay, A D; Price, M J

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of holding external loads on postural sway during upright stance across age decades. Sixty-five healthy adults (females, n = 35), aged 18-80 years were assessed in four conditions; (1) standing without holding a load, holding a load corresponding to 5% body mass in the (2) left hand, (3) right hand and (4) both hands. The centre of pressure (COP) path length and anteroposterior and mediolateral COP displacement were used to indirectly assess postural sway. External loading elicited reductions in COP measures of postural sway in older age groups only (P  0.05). Holding external loads during standing is relevant to many activities of daily living (i.e. holding groceries). The reduction in postural sway may suggest this type of loading has a stabilising effect during quiet standing among older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ethical Considerations for Psychologists Taking a Public Stance on Controversial Issues: The Balance Between Personal and Professional Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeny, Angela M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous literature has documented the general issues psychologists often face while balancing their personal and professional lives. The struggle stems from attempting to satisfy the need to maintain a life outside of work while having the professional obligation to follow the American Psychological Association’s (APA’s) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (Ethics Code) to prevent their personal lives from interfering with their professional roles and relationships. The present paper analyzes the subject of psychologists taking a public position on controversial public issues. Although the APA Ethics Code does not restrict how psychologists conduct themselves during their personal time, taking a public stance on a controversial issue could potentially strain professional relationships and inadvertently reflect negatively on the profession. The present paper examines ethical issues that a) should be taken into account before psychologists take a public position on a controversial issue, and b) are in conflict with APA’s Ethics Code or current research. PMID:25342876

  18. Testing the assumption of normality in body sway area calculations during unipedal stance tests with an inertial sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyoung Jae Kim; Lucarevic, Jennifer; Bennett, Christopher; Gaunaurd, Ignacio; Gailey, Robert; Agrawal, Vibhor

    2016-08-01

    The quantification of postural sway during the unipedal stance test is one of the essentials of posturography. A shift of center of pressure (CoP) is an indirect measure of postural sway and also a measure of a person's ability to maintain balance. A widely used method in laboratory settings to calculate the sway of body center of mass (CoM) is through an ellipse that encloses 95% of CoP trajectory. The 95% ellipse can be computed under the assumption that the spatial distribution of the CoP points recorded from force platforms is normal. However, to date, this assumption of normality has not been demonstrated for sway measurements recorded from a sacral inertial measurement unit (IMU). This work provides evidence for non-normality of sway trajectories calculated at a sacral IMU with injured subjects as well as healthy subjects.

  19. Effect of two Backpack Designs on Cop Displacement and Plantar Force Distribution in Children during Upright Stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mastalerz Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Many studies have compared different backpack designs and their influence on the carrier; however, no data referring to school students aged 7-8 years are currently available. Therefore, the aim of the research was to assess the influence of backpack design on centre of pressure (COP displacement and plantar force distribution in children during an upright stance. Material and methods. Nineteen school students (9 males and 10 females volunteered for the study. Two Polish backpacks intended for school use were evaluated: backpack A, which had two main compartments, and backpack B, which had one main compartment. The backpack load was composed of books, binders, and regular school equipment. During the measurements, the subjects were asked to look ahead with the head straight and arms at the sides in a comfortable position and to stand barefoot on the F-Scan® sensors (Tekscan, F-Scan® attached to the force platform (Kistler, carrying a load corresponding to 10% of their body mass. Results. The study found insignificant differences between the two backpack designs. Moreover, COP parameters increased significantly during an upright stance while carrying backpack B in comparison to the empty backpack condition. Additionally, we observed significantly higher values of plantar force distribution in the heel region for the condition without load and insignificantly higher ones for carrying backpack A. Conclusions. The results of the current study suggest that the differences between the two backpack designs are too marginal to be detected through COP displacement. Disturbances in plantar force distribution suggest a lack of posture control and a lower stability of the standing position with a backpack, but these disturbances were significant only when the backpack with one main compartment was used.

  20. Repeatability of stance phase kinematics from a multi-segment foot model in people aged 50 years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, John B; Mackintosh, Shylie; Jones, Sara; Thewlis, Dominic

    2013-06-01

    Confidence in 3D multi-segment foot models has been limited by a lack of repeatability data, particularly in older populations that may display unique functional foot characteristics. This study aimed to determine the intra and inter-observer repeatability of stance phase kinematic data from a multi-segment foot model described by Leardini et al. [2] in people aged 50 years or older. Twenty healthy adults participated (mean age 65.4 years SD 8.4). A repeated measures study design was used with data collected from four testing sessions on two days from two observers. Intra (within-day and between-day) and inter-observer coefficient of multiple correlations revealed moderate to excellent similarity of stance phase joint range of motion (0.621-0.975). Relative to the joint range of motion (ROM), mean differences (MD) between sessions were highest for the within-day comparison for all planar ROM at the metatarsus-midfoot articulation (sagittal plane ROM 5.2° vs. 3.9°, MD 3.1°; coronal plane ROM 3.9 vs. 3.1°, MD 2.3°; transverse plane ROM 6.8° vs. 5.16°, MD 3.5°). Consequently, data from the metatarsus-midfoot articulation in the Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli (IOR) foot model in adults aged over 50 years needs to be considered with respect to the findings of this study. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Neural Correlates of Task Cost for Stance Control with an Additional Motor Task: Phase-Locked Electroencephalogram Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ing-Shiou; Huang, Cheng-Ya

    2016-01-01

    With appropriate reallocation of central resources, the ability to maintain an erect posture is not necessarily degraded by a concurrent motor task. This study investigated the neural control of a particular postural-suprapostural procedure involving brain mechanisms to solve crosstalk between posture and motor subtasks. Participants completed a single posture task and a dual-task while concurrently conducting force-matching and maintaining a tilted stabilometer stance at a target angle. Stabilometer movements and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. The added force-matching task increased the irregularity of postural response rather than the size of postural response prior to force-matching. In addition, the added force-matching task during stabilometer stance led to marked topographic ERP modulation, with greater P2 positivity in the frontal and sensorimotor-parietal areas of the N1-P2 transitional phase and in the sensorimotor-parietal area of the late P2 phase. The time-frequency distribution of the ERP primary principal component revealed that the dual-task condition manifested more pronounced delta (1–4 Hz) and beta (13–35 Hz) synchronizations but suppressed theta activity (4–8 Hz) before force-matching. The dual-task condition also manifested coherent fronto-parietal delta activity in the P2 period. In addition to a decrease in postural regularity, this study reveals spatio-temporal and temporal-spectral reorganizations of ERPs in the fronto-sensorimotor-parietal network due to the added suprapostural motor task. For a particular set of postural-suprapostural task, the behavior and neural data suggest a facilitatory role of autonomous postural response and central resource expansion with increasing interregional interactions for task-shift and planning the motor-suprapostural task. PMID:27010634

  2. Trunk's natural inclination influences stance limb kinetics, but not body kinematics, during gait initiation in able men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Leteneur

    Full Text Available The imposing mass of the trunk in relation to the whole body has an important impact on human motion. The objective of this study is to determine the influence of trunk's natural inclination--forward (FW or backward (BW with respect to the vertical--on body kinematics and stance limb kinetics during gait initiation.Twenty-five healthy males were divided based on their natural trunk inclination (FW or BW during gait initiation. Instantaneous speed was calculated at the center of mass at the first heel strike. The antero-posterior impulse was calculated by integrating the antero-posterior ground reaction force in time. Ankle, knee, hip and thoraco-lumbar (L5 moments were calculated using inverse dynamics and only peaks of the joint moments were analyzed. Among all the investigated parameters, only joint moments present significant differences between the two groups. The knee extensor moment is 1.4 times higher (P<0.001 for the BW group, before the heel contact. At the hip, although the BW group displays a flexor moment 2.4 times higher (P<0.001 before the swing limb's heel-off, the FW group displays an extensor moment 3.1 times higher (P<0.01 during the swing phase. The three L5 extensor peaks after the toe-off are respectively 1.7 (P<0.001, 1.4 (P<0.001 and 1.7 (P<0.01 times higher for the FW group. The main results support the idea that the patterns described during steady-state gait are already observable during gait initiation. This study also provides reference data to further investigate stance limb kinetics in specific or pathologic populations during gait initiation. It will be of particular interest for elderly people, knowing that this population displays atypical trunk postures and present a high risk of falling during this forward stepping.

  3. Peak medial (but not lateral) hamstring activity is significantly lower during stance phase of running. An EMG investigation using a reduced gravity treadmill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Clint; Einarson, Einar; Thomson, Athol; Whiteley, Rodney

    2017-09-01

    The hamstrings are seen to work during late swing phase (presumably to decelerate the extending shank) then during stance phase (presumably stabilizing the knee and contributing to horizontal force production during propulsion) of running. A better understanding of this hamstring activation during running may contribute to injury prevention and performance enhancement (targeting the specific role via specific contraction mode). Twenty active adult males underwent surface EMG recordings of their medial and lateral hamstrings while running on a reduced gravity treadmill. Participants underwent 36 different conditions for combinations of 50%-100% altering bodyweight (10% increments) & 6-16km/h (2km/h increments, i.e.: 36 conditions) for a minimum of 6 strides of each leg (maximum 32). EMG was normalized to the peak value seen for each individual during any stride in any trial to describe relative activation levels during gait. Increasing running speed effected greater increases in EMG for all muscles than did altering bodyweight. Peak EMG for the lateral hamstrings during running trials was similar for both swing and stance phase whereas the medial hamstrings showed an approximate 20% reduction during stance compared to swing phase. It is suggested that the lateral hamstrings work equally hard during swing and stance phase however the medial hamstrings are loaded slightly less every stance phase. Likely this helps explain the higher incidence of lateral hamstring injury. Hamstring injury prevention and rehabilitation programs incorporating running should consider running speed as more potent stimulus for increasing hamstring muscle activation than impact loading. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A Study on the Defensive Stance and Position of Handball Goalkeepers: Facing a Forward Jump Shot Made from 9 Meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jong Hyun; Lee, Young Suk

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the defensive stance and calculate an optimal defense position for goalkeepers while blocking forward jump shots made from a distance of 9 m. Nine men's handball matches were recorded and 78 video clips were selected for analysis. These are the top class goalkeepers, which included players from the national team and reserve team of Korea. The goalkeeper's actual defensive position was significantly different from instructional suggestions; the width of both feet of the goalkeeper was approximately 2.5 times the width of the shoulders, and the hands were at waist height. The goalkeeper's actual defense position was about 1.10 (± 0.3) m from the goal line and also significantly different than instructional material (0.75 m). The optimal defense position, which was calculated from the goalkeeper's actual movement, was 1.44 m from the goal line, because the ratio of goalkeeper's defensive area in relation to the total area to be defended is highest at this point. In summary, we recommended that handball goalkeepers move forward, about a half step (0.34 m), when defending a forward jump shot made from 9 m, and instructional material should be modified according to the findings from this study.

  5. Using the Technology of the Confessional as an Analytical Resource: Four Analytical Stances Towards Research Interviews in Discourse Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan K. O'Rourke

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Among the various approaches that have developed from FOUCAULT's work is an Anglophone discourse analysis that has attempted to combine FOUCAULTian insights with the techniques of Conversation Analysis. An important current methodological issue in this discourse analytical approach is its theoretical preference for "naturally occurring" rather than research interview data. A FOUCAULTian perspective on the interview as a research instrument, questions the idea of "naturally-occurring discourse". The "technology of the confessional" operates, not only within research interviews, but permeates other interactions as well. Drawing on FOUCAULT does not dismiss the problems of the interview as research instrument rather it shows they cannot be escaped by simply switching to more "natural" interactions. Combining these insights with recent developments within discourse analysis can provide analytical resources for, rather than barriers to, the discourse analysis of research interviews. To aid such an approach, we develop a four-way categorisation of analytical stances towards the research interview in discourse analysis. A demonstration of how a research interview might be subjected to a discourse analysis using elements of this approach is then provided. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs070238

  6. Understanding developing country stances on post-2012 climate change negotiations. Comparative analysis of Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rong, Fang [Laboratory on International Law and Regulation, School of International Relations and Pacific Studies, University of California, San Diego, 92093 (United States); Center for Industrial Development and Environmental Governance, School of Public Policy and Management, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-08-15

    An essential issue in future climate negotiations is how to bring developing countries on board. This paper proposes and applies the two-level interest-based model to analyze the factors that affect the likely stances of the Plus Five countries (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa) on international climate negotiations. This study finds mitigation capability to be a crucial factor which consists of at least such sub-factors as per capita income, energy endowment, and economic structure, while ecological vulnerability does not seem to play an important role which includes reductions in agricultural outputs, sea-level rise, climate-related natural disasters, and others. The paper proposes six options in an ascending order of stringency that the Plus Five are likely to adopt. The paper suggests that the Basic Four (the Plus Five excluding Mexico), particularly China and India, are less likely to adopt a voluntary commitment to an emissions cap on the national economy in the near future than Mexico, which has the highest mitigation capability among all five. The Basic Four are likely to adopt more stringent climate polices with increasing mitigation capabilities, suggesting the importance of effective international financial and technology transfer mechanisms and further tighten emission reduction targets from developed countries. (author)

  7. Forefoot-rearfoot coupling patterns and tibial internal rotation during stance phase of barefoot versus shod running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Mansour; Begon, Mickaël; Farahpour, Nader; Allard, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Based on twisted plate and mitered hinge models of the foot and ankle, forefoot-rearfoot coupling motion patterns can contribute to the amount of tibial rotation. The present study determined the differences of forefoot-rearfoot coupling patterns as well as excessive excursion of tibial internal rotation in shod versus barefoot conditions during running. Sixteen male subjects ran 10 times at 170 steps per minute under the barefoot and shod conditions. Forefoot-rearfoot coupling motions were assessed by measuring mean relative phase angle during five intervals of stance phase for the main effect of five time intervals and two conditions (ANOVA, PForefoot adduction/abduction and rearfoot eversion/inversion coupling motion patterns were significantly different between the conditions and among the intervals (Pstrike of running with shoe wears. No significant differences were noted in the tibial internal rotation excursion between shod and barefoot conditions. Significant variations in the forefoot adduction/abduction and rearfoot eversion/inversion coupling patterns could have little effect on the amount of tibial internal rotation excursion. Yet it remains to be determined whether changes in the frontal plane forefoot-rearfoot coupling patterns influence the tibia kinematics for different shoe wears or foot orthotic interventions. The findings question the rational for the prophylactic use of forefoot posting in foot orthoses.

  8. Trunk's natural inclination influences stance limb kinetics, but not body kinematics, during gait initiation in able men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leteneur, Sébastien; Simoneau, Emilie; Gillet, Christophe; Dessery, Yoann; Barbier, Franck

    2013-01-01

    The imposing mass of the trunk in relation to the whole body has an important impact on human motion. The objective of this study is to determine the influence of trunk's natural inclination--forward (FW) or backward (BW) with respect to the vertical--on body kinematics and stance limb kinetics during gait initiation.Twenty-five healthy males were divided based on their natural trunk inclination (FW or BW) during gait initiation. Instantaneous speed was calculated at the center of mass at the first heel strike. The antero-posterior impulse was calculated by integrating the antero-posterior ground reaction force in time. Ankle, knee, hip and thoraco-lumbar (L5) moments were calculated using inverse dynamics and only peaks of the joint moments were analyzed. Among all the investigated parameters, only joint moments present significant differences between the two groups. The knee extensor moment is 1.4 times higher (Ppostures and present a high risk of falling during this forward stepping.

  9. Understanding developing country stances on post-2012 climate change negotiations: Comparative analysis of Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong Fang

    2010-01-01

    An essential issue in future climate negotiations is how to bring developing countries on board. This paper proposes and applies the two-level interest-based model to analyze the factors that affect the likely stances of the 'Plus Five' countries (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa) on international climate negotiations. This study finds mitigation capability to be a crucial factor which consists of at least such sub-factors as per capita income, energy endowment, and economic structure, while ecological vulnerability does not seem to play an important role which includes reductions in agricultural outputs, sea-level rise, climate-related natural disasters, and others. The paper proposes six options in an ascending order of stringency that the Plus Five are likely to adopt. The paper suggests that the 'Basic Four' (the Plus Five excluding Mexico), particularly China and India, are less likely to adopt a voluntary commitment to an emissions cap on the national economy in the near future than Mexico, which has the highest mitigation capability among all five. The Basic Four are likely to adopt more stringent climate polices with increasing mitigation capabilities, suggesting the importance of effective international financial and technology transfer mechanisms and further tighten emission reduction targets from developed countries.

  10. "Not Brain-washed, but Heart-washed": A Qualitative Analysis of Benevolent Sexism in the Anti-Choice Stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerksen, Kari N; Lawson, Karen L

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, anti-choice dialog has shifted from a focus on the fetus to a focus on the woman. This new movement constructs itself as positive and pro-woman, while perpetuating harmful stereotypes about women and the effects of abortion. Research has shown a relationship between benevolent sexism (beliefs that women are morally pure creatures in need of protection and nurturing) and restrictive attitudes towards abortion, although no research has qualitatively explored this relationship. The present study seeks to explore this by interpreting the content of one-on-one interviews with Canadian individuals holding an anti-choice stance through the theoretical framework of benevolent sexism. Thematic analysis of the interviews revealed three main themes: (1) protective paternalism, (2) complementary gender differentiation, and (3) the categorization of women. These themes connect strongly with benevolent sexism, providing evidence that abortion is still a stigmatized procedure. This stigma has shifted from viewing women who have abortions in an overtly negative way to viewing them as pitiable and poor decision makers.

  11. The effects of transverse rotation angle on compression and effective lever arm of prosthetic feet during simulated stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Matthew J; Howard, David; Jones, Rebecca; Twiste, Martin

    2012-06-01

    Unlike sagittal plane prosthesis alignment, few studies have observed the effects of transverse plane alignment on gait and prosthesis behaviour. Changes in transverse plane rotation angle will rotate the points of loading on the prosthesis during stance and may alter its mechanical behaviour. This study observed the effects of increasing the external transverse plane rotation angle, or toe-out, on foot compression and effective lever arm of three commonly prescribed prosthetic feet. The roll-over shape of a SACH, Flex and single-axis foot was measured at four external rotation angle conditions (0°, 5°, 7° and 12° relative to neutral). Differences in foot compression between conditions were measured as average distance between roll-over shapes. Increasing the transverse plane rotation angle did not affect foot compression. However, it did affect the effective lever arm, which was maximized with the 5° condition, although differences between conditions were small. Increasing the transverse plane rotation angle of prosthetic feet by up to 12° beyond neutral has minimal effects on their mechanical behaviour in the plane of walking progression during weight-bearing.

  12. A systematic review of the relationship between physical activities in sports or daily life and postural sway in upright stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiers, Henri; van Dieën, Jaap; Dekkers, Henk; Wittink, Harriët; Vanhees, Luc

    2013-11-01

    In many sports, maintaining balance is necessary to compete at a high level. Also, in many health problems, balance is impaired. Postural sway (PS) is often used as an indicator of upright balance control, and physical activity (PA) might enhance balance control. However, the relationship between PS and PA has never been systematically reviewed. Our objective was to summarize the evidence regarding the relationship between PS in upright bipedal and unipedal standing and PA. We conducted a literature search in MEDLINE, EmBase, CINAHL, the Cochrane Database, and PEDro, up to March 2012, with no limit on the starting date. Characteristics and methodological aspects of each article were extracted by two reviewers. We used centre of pressure (CoP) velocity, and variables related to the CoP area, to compare studies. A total of 39 articles were reviewed from an initial yield of 2,058. Of these 39 studies, 37 used a comparative design, one was a cohort study, and one was a randomized controlled trial. The main conclusion was that in general, sport practitioners sway less than controls, and high-level athletes sway less than low-level athletes. Additionally, we identified specific effects dependent on the use of vision, sport-specific postures, and frequency and duration of the (sports) activity. PS in unperturbed bipedal stance appears to have limited sensitivity to detect subtle differences between groups of healthy people.

  13. Understanding developing country stances on post-2012 climate change negotiations: Comparative analysis of Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rong Fang, E-mail: rongfang98@hotmail.co [Laboratory on International Law and Regulation, School of International Relations and Pacific Studies, University of California, San Diego, 92093 (United States); Center for Industrial Development and Environmental Governance, School of Public Policy and Management, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-08-15

    An essential issue in future climate negotiations is how to bring developing countries on board. This paper proposes and applies the two-level interest-based model to analyze the factors that affect the likely stances of the 'Plus Five' countries (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa) on international climate negotiations. This study finds mitigation capability to be a crucial factor which consists of at least such sub-factors as per capita income, energy endowment, and economic structure, while ecological vulnerability does not seem to play an important role which includes reductions in agricultural outputs, sea-level rise, climate-related natural disasters, and others. The paper proposes six options in an ascending order of stringency that the Plus Five are likely to adopt. The paper suggests that the 'Basic Four' (the Plus Five excluding Mexico), particularly China and India, are less likely to adopt a voluntary commitment to an emissions cap on the national economy in the near future than Mexico, which has the highest mitigation capability among all five. The Basic Four are likely to adopt more stringent climate polices with increasing mitigation capabilities, suggesting the importance of effective international financial and technology transfer mechanisms and further tighten emission reduction targets from developed countries.

  14. Comparison of the Percentage Stance and Swing Phases and Ground Reaction Force between Young and Older Adults during Walking at different speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Brooshak

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: In general, the percentage of stance and swing phases of a gait cycle is similar between young and older adults. Lower VGRFs of weight acceptance and push off phases in the elders reflects the weakness of the knee extensor, hip extensors and ankle plantar flexors. It seems that older adults reduce the rate of force production during fast gait to achieve the necessary capacity for power generation and thereby, overcome the weakness of the lower extremity muscles.

  15. “We make choices we think are going to save us”: Debate and stance identification for online breast cancer CAM discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaodian; Qiu, Lin; Chen, Frank; Zhang, Weinan; Yu, Yong; Elhadad, Noémie

    2017-01-01

    Patients discuss complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in online health communities. Sometimes, patients’ conflicting opinions toward CAM-related issues trigger debates in the community. The objectives of this paper are to identify such debates, identify controversial CAM therapies in a popular online breast cancer community, as well as patients’ stances towards them. To scale our analysis, we trained a set of classifiers. We first constructed a supervised classifier based on a long short-term memory neural network (LSTM) stacked over a convolutional neural network (CNN) to detect automatically CAM-related debates from a popular breast cancer forum. Members’ stances in these debates were also identified by a CNN-based classifier. Finally, posts automatically flagged as debates by the classifier were analyzed to explore which specific CAM therapies trigger debates more often than others. Our methods are able to detect CAM debates with F score of 77%, and identify stances with F score of 70%. The debate classifier identified about 1/6 of all CAM-related posts as debate. About 60% of CAM-related debate posts represent the supportive stance toward CAM usage. Qualitative analysis shows that some specific therapies, such as Gerson therapy and usage of laetrile, trigger debates frequently among members of the breast cancer community. This study demonstrates that neural networks can effectively locate debates on usage and effectiveness of controversial CAM therapies, and can help make sense of patients’ opinions on such issues under dispute. As to CAM for breast cancer, perceptions of their effectiveness vary among patients. Many of the specific therapies trigger debates frequently and are worth more exploration in future work. PMID:28967000

  16. Plantar-flexion of the ankle joint complex in terminal stance is initiated by subtalar plantar-flexion: A bi-planar fluoroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Seungbum; Lee, Kyoung Min; Cha, Young Joo

    2015-10-01

    Gross motion of the ankle joint complex (AJC) is a summation of the ankle and subtalar joints. Although AJC kinematics have been widely used to evaluate the function of the AJC, the coordinated movements of the ankle and subtalar joints are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to accurately quantify the individual kinematics of the ankle and subtalar joints in the intact foot during ground walking by using a bi-planar fluoroscopic system. Bi-planar fluoroscopic images of the foot and ankle during walking and standing were acquired from 10 healthy subjects. The three-dimensional movements of the tibia, talus, and calcaneus were calculated with a three-dimensional/two-dimensional registration method. The skeletal kinematics were quantified from 9% to 86% of the full stance phase because of the limited camera speed of the X-ray system. At the beginning of terminal stance, plantar-flexion of the AJC was initiated in the subtalar joint on average at 75% ranging from 62% to 76% of the stance phase, and plantar-flexion of the ankle joint did not start until 86% of the stance phase. The earlier change to plantar-flexion in the AJC than the ankle joint due to the early plantar-flexion in the subtalar joint was observed in 8 of the 10 subjects. This phenomenon could be explained by the absence of direct muscle insertion on the talus. Preceding subtalar plantar-flexion could contribute to efficient and stable ankle plantar-flexion by locking the midtarsal joint, but this explanation needs further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Olecranon orientation as an indicator of elbow joint angle in the stance phase, and estimation of forelimb posture in extinct quadruped animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Shin-Ichi

    2009-09-01

    Reconstruction of limb posture is a challenging task in assessing functional morphology and biomechanics of extinct tetrapods, mainly because of the wide range of motions possible at each limb joint and because of our poor knowledge of the relationship between posture and musculoskeletal structure, even in the extant taxa. This is especially true for extinct mammals such as the desmostylian taxa Desmostylus and Paleoparadoxia. This study presents a procedure that how the elbow joint angles of extinct quadruped mammals can be inferred from osteological characteristics. A survey of 67 dried skeletons and 113 step cycles of 32 extant genera, representing 25 families and 13 orders, showed that the olecranon of the ulna and the shaft of the humerus were oriented approximately perpendicular to each other during the stance phase. At this angle, the major extensor muscles maximize their torque at the elbow joint. Based on this survey, I suggest that olecranon orientation can be used for inferring the elbow joint angles of quadruped mammals with prominent olecranons, regardless of taxon, body size, and locomotor guild. By estimating the elbow joint angle, it is inferred that Desmostylus would have had more upright forelimbs than Paleoparadoxia, because their elbow joint angles during the stance phase were approximately 165 degrees and 130 degrees , respectively. Difference in elbow joint angles between these two genera suggests possible differences in stance and gait of these two mammals. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. A Secure Base from which to Cooperate: Security, Child and Parent Willing Stance, and Adaptive and Maladaptive Outcomes in two Longitudinal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffin, Kathryn C; Boldt, Lea J; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2017-10-17

    Early secure attachment plays a key role in socialization by inaugurating a long-term mutual positive, collaborative interpersonal orientation within the parent-child dyad. We report findings from Family Study (community mothers, fathers, and children, from age 2 to 12, N = 102, 51 girls) and Play Study (exclusively low-income mothers and children, from age 3.5 to 7, N = 186, 90 girls). We examined links among observed secure attachment at toddler age, child and parent receptive, willing stance to each other, observed in parent-child contexts at early school age, and developmental outcomes. The developmental outcomes included parent-rated child antisocial behavior problems and observed positive mutuality with regard to conflict issues at age 12 in Family Study, and mother-rated child antisocial behavior problems and observed child regard for rules and moral self at age 7 in Play Study. In mother-child relationships, the child's willing stance mediated indirect effects of child security on positive mutuality in Family Study and on all outcomes in Play Study. In father-child relationships, both the child's and the parent's willing stance mediated indirect effects of child security on both outcomes. Early security initiates an adaptive developmental cascade by enlisting the child and the parent as active, willingly receptive and cooperative agents in the socialization process. Implications for children's parenting interventions are noted.

  19. Stress distribution of the foot during mid-stance to push-off in barefoot gait: a 3-D finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W P; Tang, F T; Ju, C W

    2001-08-01

    To quantify stress distribution of the foot during mid-stance to push-off in barefoot gait using 3-D finite element analysis. To simulate the foot structure and facilitate later consideration of footwear. Finite element model was generated and loading condition simulating barefoot gait during mid-stance to push-off was used to quantify the stress distributions. A computational model can provide overall stress distributions of the foot subject to various loading conditions. A preliminary 3-D finite element foot model was generated based on the computed tomography data of a male subject and the bone and soft tissue structures were modeled. Analysis was performed for loading condition simulating barefoot gait during mid-stance to push-off. The peak plantar pressure ranged from 374 to 1003 kPa and the peak von Mises stress in the bone ranged from 2.12 to 6.91 MPa at different instants. The plantar pressure patterns were similar to measurement result from previous literature. The present study provides a preliminary computational model that is capable of estimating the overall plantar pressure and bone stress distributions. It can also provide quantitative analysis for normal and pathological foot motion. This model can identify areas of increased pressure and correlate the pressure with foot pathology. Potential applications can be found in the study of foot deformities, footwear, surgical interventions. It may assist pre-treatment planning, design of pedorthotic appliances, and predict the treatment effect of foot orthosis.

  20. [The stance of abortion in the Brazilian printed media ahead of the 2010 presidential elections: the exclusion of public health from the debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Maria Lucineide Andrade

    2012-07-01

    this article presents the results of research to monitor the Brazilian printed media in order to identify the stance of the abortion issue during the period from July 6 to October 29, 2010, which was the period of the official presidential campaign in Brazil. based on the monitoring of 28 printed media vehicles (newspapers and magazines) with nationwide circulation, the research selected 464 texts, of which 434 were considered valid for the study. The media studied included stories, reports, notes, opinion columns, interviews and letters from readers. although abortion was widely mentioned in Brazilian news coverage of the presidential campaign in 2010, with an average of four texts published per day, the stance adopted for the issue was not from the standpoint of public health. Among the 434 texts analyzed, only one report explicitly addressed epidemiological data linking abortion to women's health. In the other texts, the positioning of abortion was guided by the electoral stance that associated it with the dispute for the votes of the religious communities and conservative voters.

  1. Relationships between the center of pressure and the movements of the ankle and knee joints during the stance phase in patients with severe medial knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukaya, Takashi; Mutsuzaki, Hirotaka; Okubo, Tomoyuki; Mori, Koichi; Wadano, Yasuyoshi

    2016-08-01

    The knee joint movement during the stance phase is affected by altered ankle movement and the center of pressure (COP). However the relationships between changes in the center of pressure (COP) and the altered kinematics and kinetics of the ankle and knee joints in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between changes in the COP and the altered kinematic and kinetic variables in ankle and knee joints during the stance phase in patients with medial knee OA. Fourteen patients with knee OA (21 knees) and healthy subjects were assessed by gait analysis using an eight-camera motion analysis system to record forward and lateral shifts in the COP and the angle and net internal moments of the knee and ankle joint. Spearman rank-correlation coefficients were used to determine the relationship between these results. In knees with medial OA, lateral shifts in the COP were correlated with knee flexion angle. Lateral shifts in the COP were correlated with the second peak of the knee extensor moment and correlated with the knee abductor moment. In patients with medial knee OA, lateral shifts in the COP were negatively correlated with the kinematic and kinetic variables in the sagittal plane of the knee joints. Controlling such lateral shifts in the COP may thus be an effective intervention for mechanical loads on the knee during the stance phase in patients with knee OA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evidence in Support of the Independent Channel Model Describing the Sensorimotor Control of Human Stance Using a Humanoid Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasma, Jantsje H; Assländer, Lorenz; van Kordelaar, Joost; de Kam, Digna; Mergner, Thomas; Schouten, Alfred C

    2018-01-01

    The Independent Channel (IC) model is a commonly used linear balance control model in the frequency domain to analyze human balance control using system identification and parameter estimation. The IC model is a rudimentary and noise-free description of balance behavior in the frequency domain, where a stable model representation is not guaranteed. In this study, we conducted firstly time-domain simulations with added noise, and secondly robot experiments by implementing the IC model in a real-world robot (PostuRob II) to test the validity and stability of the model in the time domain and for real world situations. Balance behavior of seven healthy participants was measured during upright stance by applying pseudorandom continuous support surface rotations. System identification and parameter estimation were used to describe the balance behavior with the IC model in the frequency domain. The IC model with the estimated parameters from human experiments was implemented in Simulink for computer simulations including noise in the time domain and robot experiments using the humanoid robot PostuRob II. Again, system identification and parameter estimation were used to describe the simulated balance behavior. Time series, Frequency Response Functions, and estimated parameters from human experiments, computer simulations, and robot experiments were compared with each other. The computer simulations showed similar balance behavior and estimated control parameters compared to the human experiments, in the time and frequency domain. Also, the IC model was able to control the humanoid robot by keeping it upright, but showed small differences compared to the human experiments in the time and frequency domain, especially at high frequencies. We conclude that the IC model, a descriptive model in the frequency domain, can imitate human balance behavior also in the time domain, both in computer simulations with added noise and real world situations with a humanoid robot. This

  3. The Effect of Continuous and Discretized Presentations of Concurrent Augmented Visual Biofeedback on Postural Control in Quiet Stance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen D'Anna

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a continuous and a discretized Visual Biofeedback (VBF on balance performance in upright stance. The coordinates of the Centre of Pressure (CoP, extracted from a force plate, were processed in real-time to implement the two VBFs, administered to two groups of 12 healthy participants. In the first group, a representation of the CoP was continuously shown, while in the second group, the discretized VBF was provided at an irregular frequency (that depended on the subject's performance by displaying one out of a set of five different emoticons, each corresponding to a specific area covered by the current position of the CoP. In the first case, participants were asked to maintain a white spot within a given square area, whereas in the second case they were asked to keep the smiling emoticon on. Trials with no VBF were administered as control. The effect of the two VBFs on balance was studied through classical postural parameters and a subset of stabilogram diffusion coefficients. To quantify the amount of time spent in stable conditions, the percentage of time during which the CoP was inside the stability area was calculated. Both VBFs improved balance maintainance as compared to the absence of any VBF. As compared to the continuous VBF, in the discretized VBF a significant decrease of sway path, diffusion and Hurst coefficients was found. These results seem to indicate that a discretized VBF favours a more natural postural behaviour by promoting a natural intermittent postural control strategy.

  4. Investigation of Anticipatory Postural Adjustments during One-Leg Stance Using Inertial Sensors: Evidence from Subjects with Parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonora, Gianluca; Mancini, Martina; Carpinella, Ilaria; Chiari, Lorenzo; Ferrarin, Maurizio; Nutt, John G; Horak, Fay B

    2017-01-01

    The One-Leg Stance (OLS) test is a widely adopted tool for the clinical assessment of balance in the elderly and in subjects with neurological disorders. It was previously showed that the ability to control anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) prior to lifting one leg is significantly impaired by idiopathic Parkinson's disease (iPD). However, it is not known how APAs are affected by other types of parkinsonism, such as frontal gait disorders (FGD). In this study, an instrumented OLS test based on wearable inertial sensors is proposed to investigate both the initial anticipatory phase and the subsequent unipedal balance. The sensitivity and the validity of the test have been evaluated. Twenty-five subjects with iPD presenting freezing of gait (FOG), 33 with iPD without FOG, 13 with FGD, and 32 healthy elderly controls were recruited. All subjects wore three inertial sensors positioned on the posterior trunk (L4-L5), and on the left and right frontal face of the tibias. Participants were asked to lift a foot and stand on a single leg as long as possible with eyes open, as proposed by the mini-BESTest. Temporal parameters and trunk acceleration were extracted from sensors and compared among groups. The results showed that, regarding the anticipatory phase, the peak of mediolateral trunk acceleration was significantly reduced compared to healthy controls ( p   0.74), demonstrating the method's validity. Our findings support the validity of the proposed method for assessing the OLS test and its sensitivity in distinguishing among the tested groups. The instrumented test discriminated between healthy controls and people with parkinsonism and among the three groups with parkinsonism. The objective characterization of the initial anticipatory phase represents an interesting improvement compared to most clinical OLS tests.

  5. Evidence in Support of the Independent Channel Model Describing the Sensorimotor Control of Human Stance Using a Humanoid Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantsje H. Pasma

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Independent Channel (IC model is a commonly used linear balance control model in the frequency domain to analyze human balance control using system identification and parameter estimation. The IC model is a rudimentary and noise-free description of balance behavior in the frequency domain, where a stable model representation is not guaranteed. In this study, we conducted firstly time-domain simulations with added noise, and secondly robot experiments by implementing the IC model in a real-world robot (PostuRob II to test the validity and stability of the model in the time domain and for real world situations. Balance behavior of seven healthy participants was measured during upright stance by applying pseudorandom continuous support surface rotations. System identification and parameter estimation were used to describe the balance behavior with the IC model in the frequency domain. The IC model with the estimated parameters from human experiments was implemented in Simulink for computer simulations including noise in the time domain and robot experiments using the humanoid robot PostuRob II. Again, system identification and parameter estimation were used to describe the simulated balance behavior. Time series, Frequency Response Functions, and estimated parameters from human experiments, computer simulations, and robot experiments were compared with each other. The computer simulations showed similar balance behavior and estimated control parameters compared to the human experiments, in the time and frequency domain. Also, the IC model was able to control the humanoid robot by keeping it upright, but showed small differences compared to the human experiments in the time and frequency domain, especially at high frequencies. We conclude that the IC model, a descriptive model in the frequency domain, can imitate human balance behavior also in the time domain, both in computer simulations with added noise and real world situations with a

  6. Investigation of Anticipatory Postural Adjustments during One-Leg Stance Using Inertial Sensors: Evidence from Subjects with Parkinsonism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Bonora

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The One-Leg Stance (OLS test is a widely adopted tool for the clinical assessment of balance in the elderly and in subjects with neurological disorders. It was previously showed that the ability to control anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs prior to lifting one leg is significantly impaired by idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (iPD. However, it is not known how APAs are affected by other types of parkinsonism, such as frontal gait disorders (FGD. In this study, an instrumented OLS test based on wearable inertial sensors is proposed to investigate both the initial anticipatory phase and the subsequent unipedal balance. The sensitivity and the validity of the test have been evaluated. Twenty-five subjects with iPD presenting freezing of gait (FOG, 33 with iPD without FOG, 13 with FGD, and 32 healthy elderly controls were recruited. All subjects wore three inertial sensors positioned on the posterior trunk (L4–L5, and on the left and right frontal face of the tibias. Participants were asked to lift a foot and stand on a single leg as long as possible with eyes open, as proposed by the mini-BESTest. Temporal parameters and trunk acceleration were extracted from sensors and compared among groups. The results showed that, regarding the anticipatory phase, the peak of mediolateral trunk acceleration was significantly reduced compared to healthy controls (p < 0.05 in subjects with iPD with and without FOG, but not in FGD group (p = 0.151. Regarding the balance phase duration, a significant shortening was found in the three parkinsonian groups compared to controls (p < 0.001. Moreover, balance was significantly longer (p < 0.001 in iPD subjects without FOG compared to subjects with FGD and iPD subjects presenting FOG. Strong correlations between balance duration extracted by sensors and clinical mini-BESTest scores were found (ρ > 0.74, demonstrating the method’s validity. Our findings support the validity of the proposed

  7. Postural instability detection: aging and the complexity of spatial-temporal distributional patterns for virtually contacting the stability boundary in human stance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa C Kilby

    Full Text Available Falls among the older population can severely restrict their functional mobility and even cause death. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the mechanisms and conditions that cause falls, for which it is important to develop a predictive model of falls. One critical quantity for postural instability detection and prediction is the instantaneous stability of quiet upright stance based on motion data. However, well-established measures in the field of motor control that quantify overall postural stability using center-of-pressure (COP or center-of-mass (COM fluctuations are inadequate predictors of instantaneous stability. For this reason, 2D COP/COM virtual-time-to-contact (VTC is investigated to detect the postural stability deficits of healthy older people compared to young adults. VTC predicts the temporal safety margin to the functional stability boundary ( =  limits of the region of feasible COP or COM displacement and, therefore, provides an index of the risk of losing postural stability. The spatial directions with increased instability were also determined using quantities of VTC that have not previously been considered. Further, Lempel-Ziv-Complexity (LZC, a measure suitable for on-line monitoring of stability/instability, was applied to explore the temporal structure or complexity of VTC and the predictability of future postural instability based on previous behavior. These features were examined as a function of age, vision and different load weighting on the legs. The primary findings showed that for old adults the stability boundary was contracted and VTC reduced. Furthermore, the complexity decreased with aging and the direction with highest postural instability also changed in aging compared to the young adults. The findings reveal the sensitivity of the time dependent properties of 2D VTC to the detection of postural instability in aging, availability of visual information and postural stance and potential applicability as a

  8. Using an electrohydraulic ankle foot orthosis to study modifications in feedforward control during locomotor adaptation to force fields applied in stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Martin; Fortin, Karine; Bouyer, Laurent J

    2009-06-03

    Adapting to external forces during walking has been proposed as a tool to improve locomotion after central nervous system injury. However, sensorimotor integration during walking varies according to the timing in the gait cycle, suggesting that adaptation may also depend on gait phases. In this study, an ElectroHydraulic AFO (EHO) was used to apply forces specifically during mid-stance and push-off to evaluate if feedforward movement control can be adapted in these 2 gait phases. Eleven healthy subjects walked on a treadmill before (3 min), during (5 min) and after (5 min) exposure to 2 force fields applied by the EHO (mid-stance/push-off; approximately 10 Nm, towards dorsiflexion). To evaluate modifications in feedforward control, strides with no force field ('catch strides') were unexpectedly inserted during the force field walking period. When initially exposed to a mid-stance force field (FF 20%), subjects showed a significant increase in ankle dorsiflexion velocity. Catches applied early into the FF 20% were similar to baseline (P > 0.99). Subjects gradually adapted by returning ankle velocity to baseline over approximately 50 strides. Catches applied thereafter showed decreased ankle velocity where the force field was normally applied, indicating the presence of feedforward adaptation. When initially exposed to a push-off force field (FF 50%), plantarflexion velocity was reduced in the zone of force field application. No adaptation occurred over the 5 min exposure. Catch strides kinematics remained similar to control at all times, suggesting no feedforward adaptation. As a control, force fields assisting plantarflexion (-3.5 to -9.5 Nm) were applied and increased ankle plantarflexion during push-off, confirming that the lack of kinematic changes during FF 50% catch strides were not simply due to a large ankle impedance. Together these results show that ankle exoskeletons such as the EHO can be used to study phase-specific adaptive control of the ankle during

  9. Using an electrohydraulic ankle foot orthosis to study modifications in feedforward control during locomotor adaptation to force fields applied in stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouyer Laurent J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adapting to external forces during walking has been proposed as a tool to improve locomotion after central nervous system injury. However, sensorimotor integration during walking varies according to the timing in the gait cycle, suggesting that adaptation may also depend on gait phases. In this study, an ElectroHydraulic AFO (EHO was used to apply forces specifically during mid-stance and push-off to evaluate if feedforward movement control can be adapted in these 2 gait phases. Methods Eleven healthy subjects walked on a treadmill before (3 min, during (5 min and after (5 min exposure to 2 force fields applied by the EHO (mid-stance/push-off; ~10 Nm, towards dorsiflexion. To evaluate modifications in feedforward control, strides with no force field ('catch strides' were unexpectedly inserted during the force field walking period. Results When initially exposed to a mid-stance force field (FF20%, subjects showed a significant increase in ankle dorsiflexion velocity. Catches applied early into the FF20% were similar to baseline (P > 0.99. Subjects gradually adapted by returning ankle velocity to baseline over ~50 strides. Catches applied thereafter showed decreased ankle velocity where the force field was normally applied, indicating the presence of feedforward adaptation. When initially exposed to a push-off force field (FF50%, plantarflexion velocity was reduced in the zone of force field application. No adaptation occurred over the 5 min exposure. Catch strides kinematics remained similar to control at all times, suggesting no feedforward adaptation. As a control, force fields assisting plantarflexion (-3.5 to -9.5 Nm were applied and increased ankle plantarflexion during push-off, confirming that the lack of kinematic changes during FF50% catch strides were not simply due to a large ankle impedance. Conclusion Together these results show that ankle exoskeletons such as the EHO can be used to study phase-specific adaptive

  10. Using an electrohydraulic ankle foot orthosis to study modifications in feedforward control during locomotor adaptation to force fields applied in stance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Martin; Fortin, Karine; Bouyer, Laurent J

    2009-01-01

    Background Adapting to external forces during walking has been proposed as a tool to improve locomotion after central nervous system injury. However, sensorimotor integration during walking varies according to the timing in the gait cycle, suggesting that adaptation may also depend on gait phases. In this study, an ElectroHydraulic AFO (EHO) was used to apply forces specifically during mid-stance and push-off to evaluate if feedforward movement control can be adapted in these 2 gait phases. Methods Eleven healthy subjects walked on a treadmill before (3 min), during (5 min) and after (5 min) exposure to 2 force fields applied by the EHO (mid-stance/push-off; ~10 Nm, towards dorsiflexion). To evaluate modifications in feedforward control, strides with no force field ('catch strides') were unexpectedly inserted during the force field walking period. Results When initially exposed to a mid-stance force field (FF20%), subjects showed a significant increase in ankle dorsiflexion velocity. Catches applied early into the FF20% were similar to baseline (P > 0.99). Subjects gradually adapted by returning ankle velocity to baseline over ~50 strides. Catches applied thereafter showed decreased ankle velocity where the force field was normally applied, indicating the presence of feedforward adaptation. When initially exposed to a push-off force field (FF50%), plantarflexion velocity was reduced in the zone of force field application. No adaptation occurred over the 5 min exposure. Catch strides kinematics remained similar to control at all times, suggesting no feedforward adaptation. As a control, force fields assisting plantarflexion (-3.5 to -9.5 Nm) were applied and increased ankle plantarflexion during push-off, confirming that the lack of kinematic changes during FF50% catch strides were not simply due to a large ankle impedance. Conclusion Together these results show that ankle exoskeletons such as the EHO can be used to study phase-specific adaptive control of the ankle

  11. Determining the activation of gluteus medius and the validity of the single leg stance test in chronic, nonspecific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Tracy; Ploughman, Michelle; Austin, Mark W; Behm, David G; Byrne, Jeannette M

    2014-10-01

    To determine the activation of the gluteus medius in persons with chronic, nonspecific low back pain compared with that in control subjects, and to determine the association of the clinical rating of the single leg stance (SLS) with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and gluteus medius weakness. Cohort-control comparison. Academic research laboratory. Convenience sample of people (n=21) with CLBP (>12wk) recruited by local physiotherapists, and age- and sex-matched controls (n=22). Subjects who received specific pain diagnoses were excluded. Not applicable. Back pain using the visual analog scale (mm); back-related disability using the Oswestry Back Disability Index (%); strength of gluteus medius measured using a hand dynamometer (N/kg); SLS test; gluteus medius onset and activation using electromyography during unipedal stance on a forceplate. Individuals in the CLBP group exhibited significant weakness in the gluteus medius compared with controls (right, P=.04; left, P=.002). They also had more pain (CLBP: mean, 20.50mm; 95% confidence interval [CI], 13.11-27.9mm; control subjects: mean, 1.77mm; 95% CI, -.21 to 3.75mm) and back-related disability (CLBP: mean, 18.52%; 95% CI, 14.46%-22.59%; control subjects: mean, .68%; 95% CI, -.41% to 1.77%), and reported being less physically active. Weakness was accompanied by increased gluteus medius activation during unipedal stance (R=.50, P=.001) but by no difference in muscle onset times. Although greater gluteus medius weakness was associated with greater pain and disability, there was no difference in muscle strength between those scoring positive and negative on the SLS test (right: F=.002, P=.96; left: F=.1.75, P=.19). Individuals with CLBP had weaker gluteus medius muscles than control subjects without back pain. Even though there was no significant difference in onset time of the gluteus medius when moving to unipedal stance between the groups, the CLBP group had greater gluteus medius activation. A key finding was that

  12. Effect of body mass index and fat mass on balance force platform measurements during a one-legged stance in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Camila; Silva, Rubens A da; de Oliveira, Marcio R; Souza, Rejane D N; Borges, Renata J; Vieira, Edgar R

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of body mass index (BMI) and fat mass on balance force platform measurements in older adults. The sample consisted of 257 participants who were stratified into four groups by BMI: low weight, normal weight, pre-obesity and obesity. For fat mass variables, older individuals were classified into low and high-fat mass. All groups investigated performed three trials of one-legged stance balance on a force platform. Center of pressure (COP) domain parameters were computed from the mean across trials. Analysis of variance results revealed no significant interactions for groups and sexes for all COP parameters. Comparable balance results were found for BMI and fat groups for all COP parameters. A statistical effect (P < 0.05) was only reported for sex differences for COP parameters, regardless of BMI and fat mass variables. Overall, women presented better balance than men. In conclusion, BMI and fat mass do not seem to influence the balance of older adults during a one-leg stance task.

  13. The Comparison of two models of marker – placement for identifying the rear foot angle in normal people with and without shoes during the stance phase of walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the two models of marker placement for identifying of rear foot angle in normal people with and without shoes during the different stage of stance phase of walking. Methods: Fifteen male students in Birjand University were selected based on Navicular Drop Index. After marker placement based on Clarke and Nigg models, the rear foot angle were recorded with two-dimensional analysis (Panasonic Camera from behind position while subjects walked with 1.7 m/s on a treadmill with and without shoes. For statistical analysis, independent samples t-test was used (p≤0.05. Results: The Results showed a significant difference in rear foot angle during the stance phase between the two models of Clarke and Nigg during walking with and without shoes (p≤0.001. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, due to their specific features care must be considered when using any of these two models to investigate the angular kinematics of the foot.

  14. Improvement of stance control and muscle performance induced by focal muscle vibration in young-elderly women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, Guido M; Brunetti, Orazio; Botti, Fabio M; Panichi, Roberto; Roscini, Mauro; Camerota, Filippo; Cesari, Matteo; Pettorossi, Vito E

    2009-12-01

    Filippi GM, Brunetti O, Botti FM, Panichi R, Roscini M, Camerota F, Cesari M, Pettorossi VE. Improvement of stance control and muscle performance induced by focal muscle vibration in young-elderly women: a randomized controlled trial. To determine the effect of a particular protocol of mechanical vibration, applied focally and repeatedly (repeated muscle vibration [rMV]) on the quadriceps muscles, on stance and lower-extremity muscle power of young-elderly women. Double-blind randomized controlled trial; 3-month follow-up after intervention. Human Physiology Laboratories, University of Perugia, Italy. Sedentary women volunteers (N=60), randomized in 3 groups (mean age +/- SD, 65.3+/-4.2y; range, 60-72). rMV (100Hz, 300-500microm, in three 10-minute sessions a day for 3 consecutive days) was applied to voluntary contracted quadriceps (vibrated and contracted group) and relaxed quadriceps (vibrated and relaxed group). A third group received placebo stimulation (nonvibrated group). Area of sway of the center of pressure, vertical jump height, and leg power. Twenty-four hours after the end of the complete series of applications, the area of sway of the center of pressure decreased significantly by approximately 20%, vertical jump increased by approximately 55%, and leg power increased by approximately 35%. These effects were maintained for at least 90 days after treatment. rMV is a short-lasting and noninvasive protocol that can significantly and persistently improve muscle performance in sedentary young-elderly women.

  15. “I Feel a Deep Sense of Responsibility for the People we have Hurt…” – Explicit Stance Attribution in Crisis Communication Contested

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachfał Edyta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The theme of crisis, and consequently of crisis response, has been extensively studied within the disciplines of crisis communication (see Rachfał (2013a for an overview of crisis communication as an independent academic discipline and its place among other allied sub-disciplines of public relations and public relations with the aim of protecting organisations or reducing the damage caused by a crisis episode (Fediuk, Pace and Botero, 2010. Nowadays, with the growing recognition of crisis response as persuasive communication there is a need for an interdisciplinary approach which would help researchers understand the effects that crisis messages have on the perceptions and behaviours of stakeholders. Therefore, this paper seeks to bridge the aforementioned disciplines and examines crisis from the perspective of linguistics. Thus, it analyses grammatical stance-marking devices (Biber, et al., 1999, which might provide insights into how speakers manipulate linguistic resources for persuasive purposes. The paper focuses on explicit stance attribution and explores how the first-person plural pronoun we is used in crisis response to alter the stakeholders’ perceptions concerning people and events. The analysis draws on statements issued in 2011 by people in top public positions in the wake of the phone-hacking scandal at the News of the World.

  16. Effect of Five-Finger Shoes on Vertical Ground Reaction Force Loading Rates and Perceived Comfort during the Stance Phase of the Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyede Zeynab Hoseini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:  Increased vertical ground reaction force loading rates and lack of comfort footwear in the early stance phase can increase the risk of overuse injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Five-finger shoes on vertical ground reaction force loading rate and perceived comfort during the stance phase of running. Methods: 15 male students (aged 24 ± 5/24 years, weight 75/8 ± 4/61 kg, height 178/6 ± 6/64 cm were selected. Subjects were asked to run over a force plate, in control shoe, five finger shoe and barefoot conditions. Loading rate using the slope of the vertical reaction force and perceived comfort were determined using a visual analogue scale. One factor repeated measures ANOVA was used to test the loading rate hypothesis and Paired t-tests was used to test the meaningfulness of perceived comfort (P<0/05. Results: The effect of shoes on loading rate was found to be not significant (P=0.1. However, comfort of control shoes increased by 10. 92% as compared to that of five-finger shoes (P=0.001.  Conclusion: The loading rate of five-finger shoes is the same as that of barefoot during running; however, as subjects did not perceive them as comfortable as regular shoes are five-finger shoes cannot be advised as a desirable choice in exercises.

  17. In Conversation with Susan Holtz | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-11-26

    Nov 26, 2010 ... I would say that almost all the practical, on-the-ground progress that is ... on how the integration of different people's perspectives actually happens. ... more and less successful efforts within any one of these approaches.

  18. Susan G. Komen for the Cure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... de sus senos:Consejos útiles para mujeres El Cancer de Mama y el Medio Ambiente: Preguntas y Respuestas Guía de herramientas de educación sobre el cancer de seno para comunidades hispanas/Latinas About Us ...

  19. Roberts, Dennis C. & Komives, Susan R.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhancing Student Learning and Development in Cross-Border Higher ... importance of the integration of students' experience in both the classroom ... practices can be motivated, the diversity in terms of offerings – on institutional and cultural.

  20. Entretien avec Susan Holtz | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    26 nov. 2010 ... À cause des difficultés que pose la convergence des politiques, il semble y avoir un besoin criant d'institutions et de processus nouveaux, voire d'une nouvelle manière d'être culturelle et sociale. À quoi pouvons-nous nous attendre de façon réaliste en ce qui concerne un consensus entre les intervenants, ...

  1. Philip Morris's website and television commercials use new language to mislead the public into believing it has changed its stance on smoking and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Lissy C

    2007-12-01

    This paper analyses Philip Morris's evolving website and the legal strategies employed in its creation and dissemination. Internal tobacco documents were searched and examined and their substance verified and triangulated using media accounts, legal and public health research papers, and visits to Philip Morris's website. Various drafts of website language, as well as informal discussion of the website's creation, were located in internal Philip Morris documents. I compared website statements pertaining to Philip Morris's stance on cigarette smoking and disease with statements made in tobacco trials. Philip Morris created and disseminated its website's message that it agreed that smoking causes disease and is addictive in an effort to sway public opinion, while maintaining in a litigation setting its former position that it cannot be proved that smoking causes disease or is addictive. Philip Morris has not changed its position on smoking and health or addiction in the one arena where it has the most to lose-in the courtroom, under oath.

  2. Different ankle muscle coordination patterns and co-activation during quiet stance between young adults and seniors do not change after a bout of high intensity training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, Lars; Kurz, Eduard; Roth, Ralf; Zahner, Lukas; Faude, Oliver

    2015-03-04

    Available evidence suggests that young adults and seniors use different strategies to adjust for increasing body sway during quiet standing. Altered antagonist muscle co-activation and different ankle muscle coordination patterns may account for this finding. Consequently, we aimed at addressing whether aging leads to changes in neuromuscular coordination patterns as well as co-activation during quiet stance. We additionally investigated whether a bout of high intensity interval training additionally alters these patterns. Twenty healthy seniors (age: 70 ± 4 y) and twenty young adults (age: 27 ± 3 y) were enrolled in the present study. In between the testing procedures, four consecutive high-intensity intervals of 4 min duration at a target exercise intensity of 90 to 95% HRmax were completed on a treadmill. The total center of pressure (COP) path length displacement served as standing balance performance outcome. In order to assess ankle muscle coordination patterns, amplitude ratios (AR) were calculated for each muscle (e.g. tibialis anterior (TA) [%] = (TA × 100)/(gastrocnemius medialis (GM) + soleus (SOL) + peroneus longus (PL) + TA). The co-activation was calculated for the SOL and TA muscles computing the co-activation index (CAI = 2 × TA/TA + SOL). Seniors showed an inverted ankle muscle coordination pattern during single limb stance with eyes open (SLEO), compared to young adults (rest: GM, S: 15 ± 8% vs Y: 24 ± 9%; p = 0.03; SOL, S: 27 ± 14% vs Y: 37 ± 18%; p = 0.009; TA, S: 31 ± 13% vs Y: 13 ± 7%; p = 0.003). These patterns did not change after a high-intensity training session. A moderate correlation between amplitude ratios of the TA-contribution and postural sway was observed for seniors during SLEO (r = 0.61). Ankle co-activation was twofold elevated in seniors compared to young adults during SLEO (p Seniors with decreased postural control showed higher TA

  3. Lumbopelvic muscle activation patterns in three stances under graded loading conditions: Proposing a tensegrity model for load transfer through the sacroiliac joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardehshenas, Hamed; Maroufi, Nader; Sanjari, Mohammad Ali; Parnianpour, Mohamad; Levin, Stephen M

    2014-10-01

    According to the conventional arch model of the pelvis, stability of the sacroiliac joints may require a predominance of form and force closure mechanisms: the greater the vertical shear force at the sacroiliac joints, the greater the reliance on self-bracing by horizontally or obliquely oriented muscles (such as the internal oblique). But what happens to the arch model when a person stands on one leg? In such cases, the pelvis no longer has imposts, leaving both the arch, and the arch model theory, without support. Do lumbopelvic muscle activation patterns in one-legged stances under load suggest compatibility with a different model? This study compares lumbopelvic muscle activation patterns in two-legged and one-legged stances in response to four levels of graded trunk loading in order to further our understanding the stabilization of the sacroiliac joints. Thirty male subjects experienced four levels of trunk loading (0%, 5%, 10% and 15% of body weight) by holding a bucket at one side, at three conditions: 1) two-legged standing with the bucket in the dominant hand, 2) ipsilateral loading: one-legged standing with the bucket in the dominant hand while using the same-side leg, and 3) contralateral loading: one-legged standing using the same leg used in condition 2, but with the bucket in the non-dominant hand. During these tasks, EMG signals from eight lumbopelvic muscles were collected. ANOVA with repeated design was performed on normalized EMG's to test the main effect of load and condition, and interaction effects of load by condition. Latissimus dorsi and erector spinae muscles showed an antagonistic pattern of activity toward the direction of load which may suggest these muscles as lateral trunk stabilizers. Internal oblique muscles showed a co-activation pattern with increasing task demand, which may function to increase lumbopelvic stability (P sacroiliac joint dysfunctions must be taken into consideration. Our hypothetical model may initiate thinking and

  4. Comparison of a laboratory grade force platform with a Nintendo Wii Balance Board on measurement of postural control in single-leg stance balance tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huurnink, Arnold; Fransz, Duncan P; Kingma, Idsart; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2013-04-26

    Training and testing of balance have potential applications in sports and medicine. Laboratory grade force plates (FP) are considered the gold standard for the measurement of balance performance. Measurements in these systems are based on the parameterization of center of pressure (CoP) trajectories. Previous research validated the inexpensive, widely available and portable Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB). The novelty of the present study is that FP and WBB are compared on CoP data that was collected simultaneously, by placing the WBB on the FP. Fourteen healthy participants performed ten sequences of single-leg stance tasks with eyes open (EO), eyes closed (EC) and after a sideways hop (HOP). Within trial comparison of the two systems showed small root-mean-square differences for the CoP trajectories in the x and y direction during the three tasks (mean±SD; EO: 0.33±0.10 and 0.31±0.16 mm; EC: 0.58±0.17 and 0.63±0.19 mm; HOP: 0.74±0.34 and 0.74±0.27 mm, respectively). Additionally, during all 420 trials, comparison of FP and WBB revealed very high Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) of the CoP trajectories (x: 0.999±0.002; y: 0.998±0.003). A general overestimation was found on the WBB compared to the FP for 'CoP path velocity' (EO: 5.3±1.9%; EC: 4.0±1.4%; HOP: 4.6±1.6%) and 'mean absolute CoP sway' (EO: 3.5±0.7%; EC: 3.7±0.5%; HOP: 3.6±1.0%). This overestimation was highly consistent over the 140 trials per task (r>0.996). The present findings demonstrate that WBB is sufficiently accurate in quantifying CoP trajectory, and overall amplitude and velocity during single-leg stance balance tasks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Long-term clinical evaluation of the automatic stance-phase lock-controlled prosthetic knee joint in young adults with unilateral above-knee amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrysek, Jan; Wright, F Virginia; Rotter, Karin; Garcia, Daniela; Valdebenito, Rebeca; Mitchell, Carlos Alvarez; Rozbaczylo, Claudio; Cubillos, Rafael

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to clinically evaluate the automatic stance-phase lock (ASPL) knee mechanism against participants' existing weight-activated braking (WAB) prosthetic knee joint. This prospective crossover study involved 10 young adults with an above-knee amputation. Primary measurements consisted of tests of walking speeds and capacity. Heart rate was measured during the six-minute walk test and the Physiological Cost Index (PCI) which was calculated from heart rate estimated energy expenditure. Activity was measured with a pedometer. User function and quality of life were assessed using the Lower Limb Function Questionnaire (LLFQ) and Prosthetic Evaluation Questionnaire (PEQ). Long-term follow-up over 12 months were completed. Walking speeds were the same for WAB and APSL knees. Energy expenditure (PCI) was lower for the ASPL knees (p = 0.007). Step counts were the same for both knees, and questionnaires indicated ASPL knee preference attributed primarily to knee stability and improved walking, while limitations included terminal impact noise. Nine of 10 participants chose to keep using the ASPL knee as part of the long-term follow-up. Potential benefits of the ASPL knee were identified in this study by functional measures, questionnaires and user feedback, but not changes in activity or the PEQ.

  6. Reliability of the measures of weight-bearing distribution obtained during quiet stance by digital scales in subjects with and without hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo-Barbosa, Paulo Henrique Ferreira; de Menezes, Lidiane Teles; Costa, Abraão Souza; Couto Paz, Clarissa Cardoso Dos Santos; Fachin-Martins, Emerson

    2015-05-01

    Described as an alternative way of assessing weight-bearing asymmetries, the measures obtained from digital scales have been used as an index to classify weight-bearing distribution. This study aimed to describe the intra-test and the test/retest reliability of measures in subjects with and without hemiparesis during quiet stance. The percentage of body weight borne by one limb was calculated for a sample of subjects with hemiparesis and for a control group that was matched by gender and age. A two-way analysis of variance was used to verify the intra-test reliability. This analysis was calculated using the differences between the averages of the measures obtained during single, double or triple trials. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was utilized and data plotted using the Bland-Altman method. The intra-test analysis showed significant differences, only observed in the hemiparesis group, between the measures obtained by single and triple trials. Excellent and moderate ICC values (0.69-0.84) between test and retest were observed in the hemiparesis group, while for control groups ICC values (0.41-0.74) were classified as moderate, progressing from almost poor for measures obtained by a single trial to almost excellent for those obtained by triple trials. In conclusion, good reliability ranging from moderate to excellent classifications was found for participants with and without hemiparesis. Moreover, an improvement of the repeatability was observed with fewer trials for participants with hemiparesis, and with more trials for participants without hemiparesis.

  7. Balance failure in single limb stance due to ankle sprain injury: an analysis of center of pressure using the fractal dimension method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Cailbhe; Bleakley, Chris; Hertel, Jay; Caulfield, Brian; Ryan, John; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2014-01-01

    Instrumented postural control analysis plays an important role in evaluating the effects of injury on dynamic stability during balance tasks, and is often conveyed with measures based on the displacement of the center-of-pressure (COP) assessed with a force platform. However, the desired outcome of the task is frequently characterized by a loss of dynamic stability, secondary to injury. Typically, these failed trials are discarded during research investigations, with the potential loss of informative data pertaining to task success. The novelty of the present study is that COP characteristics of failed trials in injured participants are compared to successful trial data in another injured group, and a control group of participants, using the fractal dimension (FD) method. Three groups of participants attempted a task of eyes closed single limb stance (SLS): twenty-nine participants with acute ankle sprain successfully completed the task on their non-injured limb (successful injury group); twenty eight participants with acute ankle sprain failed their attempt on their injured limb (failed injury group); sixteen participants with no current injury successfully completed the task on their non-dominant limb (successful non-injured group). Between trial analyses of these groups revealed significant differences in COP trajectory FD (successful injury group: 1.58±0.06; failed injury group: 1.54±0.07; successful non-injured group: 1.64±0.06) with a large effect size (0.27). These findings demonstrate that successful eyes-closed SLS is characterized by a larger FD of the COP path when compared to failed trials, and that injury causes a decrease in COP path FD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of external pelvic compression on electromyographic activity of the hamstring muscles during unipedal stance in sportsmen with and without hamstring injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Ashokan; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Woodley, Stephanie; Sole, Gisela

    2015-06-01

    There is some evidence that hamstring function can be influenced by interventions focusing on the pelvis via an anatomic and neurophysiologic link between these two segments. Previous research demonstrated increased electromyographic activity from injured hamstrings during transition from bipedal to unipedal stance (BUS). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a pelvic compression belt (PCB) on electromyographic activity of selected muscles during BUS in sportsmen with and without hamstring injury. Electromyographic amplitudes (normalised to maximum voluntary isometric contraction [MVIC]) of the hamstrings, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius and lumbar multifidus were obtained during BUS from 20 hamstring-injured participants (both sides) and 30 healthy participants (one side, randomly selected). There was an increase in biceps femoris (by 1.23 ± 2.87 %MVIC; p = 0.027) and gluteus maximus (by 0.63 ± 1.13 %MVIC; p = 0.023) electromyographic activity for the hamstring-injured side but no significant differences other than a decrease in multifidus activity (by 1.36 ± 2.92 %MVIC; p = 0.023) were evident for healthy participants while wearing the PCB. However, the effect sizes for these findings were small. Wearing the PCB did not significantly change electromyographic activity of other muscles in either participant group (p > 0.050). Moreover, the magnitude of change induced by the PCB was not significantly different between groups (p > 0.050) for the investigated muscles. Thus, application of a PCB to decrease electromyographic activity of injured hamstrings during BUS is likely to have little effect. Similar research is warranted in participants with acute hamstring injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effect of Shoe Insole Stiffness on Leg Stiffness during Stance Phase of Running in Two Different Speeds ‎among Active Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Tazike-Lemeski

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effect of shoe insoles with different characteristics and in different running speeds on lower-limb stiffness is still ‎controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two types of insoles (soft and semi-rigid in two ‎different running speeds on leg stiffness during stance phase of running among active men.‎ Materials and Methods: ‎15 male students without any background of lower extremity injury were selected. Subjects were asked to run with ‎two controlled velocities of 3.0 ± 0.2 and 5.0 ± 0.1 m/s in control and insole conditions (soft and semi-rigid on a ‎force plate, placed on the middle of 15-meter runway. The cinematics and cinetics of motion were measured and ‎calculated using 5 video cameras and one force plate. The leg stiffness was achieved via dividing the vertical ‎ground reaction force by leg compression. Two-factor repeated measures ANOVA was used to test the hypothesis at ‎the significance level of P £ 0.050.‎ Results: There was a significant difference between the two types of insoles on leg stiffness. In fact, semi-rigid insole significantly increased leg stiffness (P < 0.001. However, this discrepancy was not related to the running speed (P = 0.999. In addition, there was no significant difference between the two different speeds on leg stiffness (P = 0.632. Conclusion: It seems that the increase in shoe insole stiffness may increase the leg stiffness. Furthermore, the effect of insole ‎stiffness is not related to the running speed, and leg stiffness will remains constant in low to medium running speeds.‎

  10. Influence of Electrotactile Tongue Feedback on Controlling Upright Stance during Rotational and/or Translational Sway-referencing with Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Scott J.; Tyler, Mitchell E.; Bach-y-Rita, Paul; MacDougall, Hamish G.; Moore, Steven T.; Stallings, Valerie L.; Paloski, William H.; Black, F. Owen

    2007-01-01

    Integration of multi-sensory inputs to detect tilts relative to gravity is critical for sensorimotor control of upright orientation. Displaying body orientation using electrotactile feedback to the tongue has been developed by Bach-y-Rita and colleagues as a sensory aid to maintain upright stance with impaired vestibular feedback. MacDougall et al. (2006) recently demonstrated that unpredictably varying Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) significantly increased anterior-posterior (AP) sway during rotational sway referencing with eyes closed. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of electrotactile feedback on postural control performance with pseudorandom binaural bipolar GVS. Postural equilibrium was measured with a computerized hydraulic platform in 10 healthy adults (6M, 4F, 24-65 y). Tactile feedback (TF) of pitch and roll body orientation was derived from a two-axis linear accelerometer mounted on a torso belt and displayed on a 144-point electrotactile array held against the anterior dorsal tongue (BrainPort, Wicab, Inc., Middleton, WI). Subjects were trained to use TF by voluntarily swaying to draw figures on their tongue, both with and without GVS. Subjects were required to keep the intraoral display in their mouths on all trials, including those that did not provide TF. Subjects performed 24 randomized trials (20 s duration with eyes closed) including four support surface conditions (fixed, rotational sway-referenced, translating the support surface proportional to AP sway, and combined rotational-translational sway-referencing), each repeated twice with and without GVS, and with combined GVS and TF. Postural performance was assessed using deviations from upright (peak-to-peak and RMS sway) and convergence toward stability limits (time and distance to base of support boundaries). Postural stability was impaired with GVS in all platform conditions, with larger decrements in performance during trials with rotation sway

  11. Rehabilitation after hallux valgus surgery: importance of physical therapy to restore weight bearing of the first ray during the stance phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Reinhard; Hofstaetter, Stefan G; Adams, Samuel B; Pichler, Florian; Kristen, Karl-Heinz; Trnka, Hans-Joerg

    2009-09-01

    Operative treatment of people with hallux valgus can yield favorable clinical and radiographic results. However, plantar pressure analysis has demonstrated that physiologic gait patterns are not restored after hallux valgus surgery. The purpose of this study was to illustrate the changes of plantar pressure distribution during the stance phase of gait in patients who underwent hallux valgus surgery and received a multimodal rehabilitation program. This was a prospective descriptive study. Thirty patients who underwent Austin (n=20) and scarf (n=10) osteotomy for correction of mild to moderate hallux valgus deformity were included in this study. Four weeks postoperatively they received a multimodal rehabilitation program once per week for 4 to 6 weeks. Plantar pressure analysis was performed preoperatively and 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 6 months postoperatively. In addition, range of motion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint was measured, and the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) forefoot questionnaire was administered preoperatively and at 6 months after surgery. The mean AOFAS score significantly increased from 60.7 points (SD=11.9) preoperatively to 94.5 points (SD=4.5) 6 months after surgery. First metatarsophalangeal joint range of motion increased at 6 months postoperatively, with a significant increase in isolated dorsiflexion. In the first metatarsal head region, maximum force increased from 117.8 N to 126.4 N and the force-time integral increased from 37.9 N.s to 55.6 N.s between the preoperative and 6-month assessments. In the great toe region, maximum force increased from 66.1 N to 87.2 N and the force-time integral increased from 18.7 N.s to 24.2 N.s between the preoperative and 6-month assessments. A limitation of the study was the absence of a control group due to the descriptive nature of the study. The results suggest that postoperative physical therapy and gait training may lead to improved function and weight bearing of the first

  12. Determinantes Sociales de la Salud: postura oficial y perspectivas críticas / Social Determinants of Health: official stance and critical views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Acero A

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available La relación entre las desigualdades socioeconómicas y el proceso salud enfermedad ha sido demostrada desde hace ya algún tiempo. Su estudio y posibilidades de intervención, han sido motivo de análisis de actores académicos e institucionales que asumen posturas según la ideología o corriente de pensamiento en la que se inscriben. Con el ánimo de analizar las causas de las inequidades en salud y hacer algunas recomendaciones, la Organización Mundial de la Salud estableció en el año 2005 la Comisión sobre Determinantes Sociales de la Salud. Perspectivas latinoamericanas como la Medicina Social y la Salud Colectiva reconocen la preocupación de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, sin embargo critican la posición asumida por la Comisión y organizan la discusión alrededor de los ejes conceptual, ético y de acción política, proponiendo, a diferencia de la Comisión, buscar las causas de la inequidad y sus vías de solución en lo que significa la determinación social. Cuestionamientos al enfoque de los determinantes sociales de la Comisión llegaron también desde autores como Vicente Navarro, para quien no son las desigualdades las que matan, sino los responsables de esas desigualdades, llamando la atención sobre las relaciones de poder que se ocultan y sobre los responsables y beneficiarios de la inequidad. Finalmente con el objetivo de analizar la determinación social y la ubicación jerárquica de los determinantes sociales, se presenta el problema del hambre, inscrito en un circuito de reproducción y determinación que permite ubicar la particularidad y la generalidad en permanente interrelación The relationship between socioeconomic inequalities and the health-disease process has long been demonstrated. Its study and possibilities for intervention have been submitted to analysis by academic and institutional actors which take more or less critical stances depending on their paradigms. In order to analyze the causes of

  13. The effect of short-duration sub-maximal cycling on balance in single-limb stance in patients with anterior cruciate ligament injury: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts David

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has previously been shown that an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury may lead to impaired postural control, and that the ability to maintain postural control is decreased by fatigue in healthy subjects. To our knowledge, no studies have reported the effect of fatigue on postural control in subjects with ACL injury. This study was aimed at examining the effect of fatigue on balance in single-limb stance in subjects with ACL injury, and to compare the effects, and the ability to maintain balance, with that of a control group of uninjured subjects. Methods Thirty-six patients with unilateral, non-operated, non-acute ACL injury, and 24 uninjured subjects were examined with stabilometry before (pre-exercise and immediately after (post-exercise short-duration, sub-maximal cycling. In addition, the post-exercise measurements were compared, to evaluate the instantaneous ability to maintain balance and any possible recovery. The amplitude and average speed of center of pressure movements were registered in the frontal and sagittal planes. The paired t-test was used for the intra-group comparisons, and the independent t-test for the inter-group comparisons, with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Results No differences were found in the effects of exercise between the patients and the controls. Analysis of the post-exercise measurements revealed greater effects or a tendency towards greater effects on the injured leg than in the control group. The average speed was lower among the patients than in the control group. Conclusions The results of the present study showed no differences in the effects of exercise between the patients and the controls. However, the patients seemed to react differently regarding ability to maintain balance in single-limb stance directly after exercise than the control group. The lower average speed among the patients may be an expression of different neuromuscular adaptive strategies than

  14. Contravene, write ... About the pain of others of Susan Sontag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Belén Couso

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the pain of others challenges our knowledge, challenges what is held as true. We appreciate this attitude condensed in the verb “to defy”. We analyze how Sontag develops her hypothesis and, from that point onward, which is the idea of criticism that emerges from the writing of Regarding the pain of others. Our analysis focuses on three of its topics: the reviewing of the ideas about the war that Virginia Woolf establishes on Three Guineas, the discussion of her own text On photography, and the criticism about Sebastião Salgado’s photography.

  15. A polarised SUSANS facility to study magnetic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The experiment was carried out at the V12b double crystal diffractometer set ... upper pole piece and just below the lower pole piece, within a magnet-grade soft iron 'C'. ... about 3 µm with the up- and 9 µm with the down-spin neutrons.

  16. From Estonian Exile to Executive Office / Susan Frith

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Frith, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Vabariigi Presidendi Toomas Hendrik Ilvese elukäigust, haridusteest, poliitilistest vaadetest. T. H. Ilves lõpetas Pennsylvania ülikooli psühholoogia alal magistrikraadiga 1978. a. Artiklis on kasutatud telefoniintervjuud presidendiga. T. H. Ilvese kohta avaldavad arvamust ülikoolikaaslane Brian Wandell ja Eesti Rahvuskomitee Ühendriikides endine president Juhan Simonson. Ülevaade artiklist ilmunud ka: Vaba Eesti Sõna, 24. jaan. 2008, lk. 7, 10: Vaga, Airi. Eesti president Toomas H. Ilves Pennsylvania ülikooli ajakirjas

  17. Rene Valner ja Mikk Suursild - lihtsa elu tegelased / Susan Lahesalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lahesalu, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Arhitekt Rene Valner ja Mikk Suursild - tandem nimega UNITe - ehitavad ökonoomseid ja ökoloogilisi looduslikest materjalidest maju. Nende koostöös on valminud ka Peipsi ääres Nina külas 3 põhumaja. Ott Kadariku, Margit Mutso ja Kuido Kartau kommentaarid

  18. Entretien avec Susan Holtz | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    26 nov. 2010 ... ... Centre de recherches pour le développement international comme l'un des ... Toutefois, le discours public sur l'intégration d'objectifs environnementaux et .... très conservatrice des experts du droit commercial international, ...

  19. Interview with Pennsylvania PUC chairman Susan M. Shanaman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utroska, D.

    1981-01-01

    Chairman Shanaman notes that Pennsylvania law justifies the Public Utility Commission (PUC) refusal to charge ratepayers for the cost of Three Mile Island units 1 and 2, neither of which are providing service, because ratepayers are already paying the costs of replacement power. The PUC chairman points to other service territories around the country where rates are kept below national averages because the average income level is low. The Metropolitan Edison Company is seeking Federal relief as well as legislative permission to put TMI-1 back into the rate base in fairness to ratepayers, but the PUC does not see bankruptcy for the utility as an appropriate way to force Federal assistance. The Administration needs to understand the local impact of Federal policies, especially those which are incompatible with state situations. Appropriate involvement includes nuclear waste research and underwriting some of the cleanup costs of onsite accidents that are too large for a single utility to handle. Chairman Shanaman feels that ratepayers should contribute to the insurance premium for future accidents, but not retroactively to support TMI-2. Nuclear power plant construction in the US will not progress until the issues of TMI-2 are resolved

  20. Análise cinemática comparativa da fase de apoio da corrida em adultos e idosos Comparative kinematic analysis during the stance phase of running in adults and elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Kisho Fukuchi

    2008-01-01

    stance phase kinematics of running in adults and elderly runners. Seventeen adults (31±5 years old and 17 elderly runners (69±2 years old ran on a treadmill at 11 km/h while they were filmed by four digital cameras at 120 Hz. Rearfoot and knee joint movements were measured during the stance phase of running. The elderly runners showed lower knee flexion and lower tibial internal rotation excursion. Elderly runners apparently presented greater asynchrony between rearfoot and knee joint movement than adults. These findings suggest that during running stance elderly runners adopt different movement patterns when compared to adults. Prescription of physical activities for the elderly and prevention strategies in elderly runners should consider these findings.

  1. TCMB’nin Para Politikası Duruşunun Alternatif Açıklaması: Parasal Durum Endeksi (MCI (Alternative Explanations for the Monetary Stance of CBRT: Monetary Condition Index (MCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bora SÜSLÜ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of economic agent’s expectations enables the policy authorities to evaluate responsiveness of economic and political decisions. Hence, all central banks in the World including the Central Bank of Republic of Turkey (CBRT want to know public expectations and re-use this knowledge to influence expectations of people especially in implementing interest rate as an instrument. However, considering the stability of economy, central banks try to take into account real variables which are more flexible and effective as policy tools. Moreover, real variables are directly related to welfare of the society.The main aim of this study is to investigate whether the monetary stance of CBRT that bases on policy rules takes into account aggregate demand that impacts growth and price level during past decade. The study employs ARDL approach using time series data obtained from CBRT. The results indicate that CBRT was heavily relied on Monetary Condition Index (MCI over the past decade contrary to its official discourse.

  2. Atividade eletromiográfica durante exercícios de propriocepção de tornozelo em apoio unipodal Electromyographic activity during ankle proprioception exercises on one-foot stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Callegari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Propriocepção refere-se à percepção dos mecanorreceptores para discriminar a posição do corpo e movimentos articulares, bem como tensões sobre os tendões na fase estática ou dinâmica da marcha. Objetivou-se avaliar por eletromiografia a ativação muscular do gastrocnêmio e tibial anterior em diferentes exercícios de propriocepção do tornozelo em apoio unipodal, comparando graus de dificuldade. Foram selecionados 54 voluntários, sedentários, destros, do sexo masculino (20-35 anos. Exercícios foram feitos no balancinho, prancha de equilíbrio, cama elástica e solo, à razão de três repetições de 15 segundos cada, com intervalo de 15 segundos entre as repetições. Ao final dos testes os voluntários indicaram a maior dificuldade. A atividade elétrica de ambos os músculos foi significativamente maior durante o teste no balancinho. No solo, ambos os músculos apresentaram menor atividade, mas apenas no gastrocnêmio essa diferença foi significativa. No exercício na prancha de equilíbrio e na cama elástica não se encontrou diferença quanto à ativação dos músculos. Na análise intermúsculo foi observada maior atividade do tibial anterior, exceto no balancinho. Assim, para o treino do apoio unipodal na aquisição do ganho proprioceptivo, o equipamento adotado deve ser escolhido com cuidado: no balancinho é maior o recrutamento dos músculos tibial anterior e gastrocnêmio, assim como é maior o grau de dificuldade para manutenção do equilíbrio.Proprioception refers to the ability of mechanoreceptors to discriminate body position and joint movements, as well as tensions during static or dynamic phases. The aim of this study was to assess, by means of surface electromyography, activation patterns of the gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles in proprioception exercises, also comparing difficulty levels. Fifty-four sedentary, right-handed, 20-to-35 year-old male volunteers performed single-leg stance

  3. An Evaluation of the Correlation between the Free Moments Applied on the Lower Extremity and the Knee Extensor Mechanism Force in Pronated Foot Subjects during the Stance Phase of Gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Yazdani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the rotatory nature of the excessive subtalar pronation and the possible impairment of the tibial rotation-knee flexion mechanism, changes of the free moment (FM and changes of the extensor mechanism force are expected in hyper-pronated foot subjects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the FM applied on the lower extremity and the knee extensor mechanism force in subjects with flexible pronated feet. Methods: Fifteen asymptomatic female subjects (21.32±1.66 y, 56.30±6.08 kg, 159±6.3 cm participated in the study. Excessive subtalar pronation was determined by measuring the resting calcaneal stance position (RCSP in the frontal plane during weight bearing. A neutrally aligned foot was defined as having an RCSP between 2° of inversion and 2° of eversion. On the other hand, a flat foot had an RCSP of more than or equal to 4° of eversion. Both kinetic and kinematic data were collected using a six-camera motion analysis system and a single force plate. Three successful barefoot walking trials were recorded at selfselected speeds. The extensor mechanism force and the adductory component of the free moment (ADD FM were calculated. The correlation between the ADD FM and the knee extensor mechanism force was examined using the Pearson correlation test. Results: The Pearson correlation analysis showed a high positive correlation between the ADD FM and the extensor mechanism force (r=0.917, P<0.001. Conclusion: Excessive subtalar pronation, along with a possible impairment of the tibial rotation-knee flexion mechanism, may affect the extensor mechanism force at the knee joint. From a clinical perspective, the possible biomechanical linkage between the knee and the foot complex in the physical examination and treatment of patients should be considered.

  4. Phytol in a pharma-medico-stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Torequl; de Alencar, Marcus Vinícius Oliveira Barros; da Conceição Machado, Katia; da Conceição Machado, Keylla; de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante, Ana Amélia; de Sousa, Damiao Pergentino; de Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes

    2015-10-05

    This study aims to review phytol (PYT), through published articles, periodicals, magazines and patents, which were retrieved from the PM, SD, WS, SP; DII, WIPO, CIPO, USPTO and INPI databases. Among the 149 articles and 62 patents, 27.52% articles and 87.09% patients were found on the searched topic, PYT and its sources and synthesis and metabolism; then followed by 15.44% and 14.77% articles on PYT in cytotoxicity/cancer/mutagenicity/teratogenicity and PYT in neurological diseases, respectively. In the pharma-medico viewpoint, PYT and its derivatives have been evident to have antimicrobial, cytotoxic, antitumorous, antimutagenic, anti-teratogenic, antibiotic-chemotherapeutic, antidiabetic, lipid lowering, antispasmodic, anticonvulsant, antinociceptive, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic, antidepressant, immunoadjuvancy, hair growth facilitator, hair fall defense and antidandruff activities. Otherwise, the important biometebolite of PYT is phytanic acid (PA). Evidence shows PA to have cytotoxic, anticancer, antidiabetic, lipid lowering and aniteratogenic activities. In addition, it may be considered as an important biomarker for some diseases such as Refsum's Disease (RD), Sjögren Larsson syndrome (SLS), rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (RZCP), chronic polyneuropathy (CP), Zellweger's disease hyperpipecolic academia (ZDHA) and related diseases. Thus, phytol may be considered as a new drug candidate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Narrative Transparency: Adopting a Rhetorical Stance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnould, Eric; Press, Melea

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we look at how alternative marketing organisations communicate transparency in a climate of generalised risk and scepticism. We contrast the traditional numeric approach to transparency, which involves auditing and third-party certifications; with an alternative approach that we call...... narrative transparency. Central to narrative transparency is an emphasis on stake-holder dialogue and an invitation to stake-holders to play the role of auditor. This article illustrates how alternative marketing organisations engage in rhetorical tactics central to a narrative approach, to communicate...... transparency to their stakeholders. These rhetorical tactics include persona, allegory, consumer sovereignty and enlightenment. Community supported agriculture programmes from across the United States are the context for this study. Findings enrich discussions about best practices for transparency...

  6. ITER review team takes bullish stance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawler, A.

    1997-01-01

    A large team of U.S. fusion researchers last week began poring over the latest blueprints for a massive international machine designed to demonstrate fusion power and provide plasma physicists with an exciting new facility. The review of the $10 billion International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) was prompted by controversy over the reactor's design and the shrinking U.S. fusion budget

  7. Toward a Situated Stance in Organizational Institutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boxenbaum, Eva

    2014-01-01

    are individuals to engage with non-institutionalized mind-sets? (b) How institutionally determined are individual interests? and (c) How deliberate are individuals about provoking institutional effects? The discussion includes concrete proposals for empirical study as well as limitations and potential pitfalls...

  8. ChemWaste appeals Hanford permit stance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical Waste Management, Inc. is appealing the Washington State Department of Ecology's decision to suspend its review of the company's proposal to build a hazardous waste incinerator and two mixed waste incinerators at the Hanford Nuclear Site near Richland, Washington. The company wants to build the incinerators on a 200 acre parcel in the DOE reservation that is leased to the State. The State contends the two mixed waste incinerators meet siting criteria, but the hazardous waste unit does not. A compromise may be reached between DOE and Washington state involving the transfer of title to the leased land from DOE to the State

  9. Asymmetric sensory reweighting in human upright stance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Logan

    Full Text Available To investigate sensory reweighting as a fundamental property of sensor fusion during standing, we probed postural control with simultaneous rotations of the visual scene and surface of support. Nineteen subjects were presented with pseudo-random pitch rotations of visual scene and platform at the ankle to test for amplitude dependencies in the following conditions: low amplitude vision: high amplitude platform, low amplitude vision: low amplitude platform, and high amplitude vision: low amplitude platform. Gain and phase of frequency response functions (FRFs to each stimulus were computed for two body sway angles and a single weighted EMG signal recorded from seven muscles. When platform stimulus amplitude was increased while visual stimulus amplitude remained constant, gain to vision increased, providing strong evidence for inter-modal reweighting between vision and somatosensation during standing. Intra-modal reweighting of vision was also observed as gains to vision decreased as visual stimulus amplitude increased. Such intra-modal and inter-modal amplitude dependent changes in gain were also observed in muscular activity. Gains of leg segment angle and muscular activity relative to the platform, on the other hand, showed only intra-modal reweighting. That is, changing platform motion amplitude altered the responses to both visual and support surface motion whereas changing visual scene motion amplitude did not significantly affect responses to support surface motion, indicating that the sensory integration scheme between somatosensation (at the support surface and vision is asymmetric.

  10. Interpersonal stance in police interviews: content analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Bruijnes, Merijn; Peters, R.M.; Krikke, T.

    2013-01-01

    A serious game for learning the social skills required for effective police interviewing is a challenging idea. Building artificial conversational characters that play the role of a suspect in a police interrogation game requires computational models of police interviews as well as of the internal

  11. Stances of (invisibility of the female Negro body: focusing on portinari’s pictorial aesthetics = Regimes de (invisibilidade do corpo negro feminino: a estética pictural portinariana em tela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismara Eliane Vidal de Souza Tasso

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Current analysis investigates the manner identity constitution and black female’s visual representation in Portinari’s iconography is shown within the theoretical presuppositions of the French Discourse Analysis in alignment with the theoretical bases of Peirce’s Semiotics, the History of the Body and Cultural Studies. The social and the political factors are understood through an interpretative stance, within the paradoxical state of intangible significant materiality. The descriptive, interpretative, archeological andgenealogical movement showed that the half-naked body is presented as erotic, perceived as exotic and treated as profane. The movement also showed that sensuality is signified and resignified by the marginal since it works with discursive memory which conceives the exotic as an order opposed to existence, namely the profane order, and the place in which the subjects of difference encounter one another.O objetivo deste artigo é demonstrar o modo de constituição identitária e de representação visual da mulher negra na iconografiaportinariana, sob os pressupostos teóricos da Análise do Discurso de linha francesa, em diálogo com os fundamentos teóricos da Semiótica peirceana, da História do Corpo e dos Estudos Culturais. Dessa forma, buscamos apreender, no estado paradoxal da materialidade significante intangível, o social e o político, por meio de um gesto de leitura. O movimento descritivo-interpretativo arqueogenealógico empreendido demonstrou que o corpo semidesnudo é apresentado como erótico, visto como exótico e tratado como profano e a sensualidade significada e ressignificada pelo marginal, em razão de operar com a memória discursiva de que o exótico constitui uma ordem contrária de existência, a do profano, lugar em que se encontram os sujeitos da diferença.

  12. 77 FR 73663 - Susan F. Knott; Denial of Hearing; Final Debarment Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... determination urged (see 21 CFR 12.24(b)). The Chief Scientist has considered Knott's arguments and concludes... be substituted for an approved drug without the knowledge of the patient. As a result, Knott is... thus there was no demonstration or admission of criminal intent or knowledge underlying her conviction...

  13. Nõukogude "kaasaegne stiil" : sotsialistlik modernism = The Soviet "contemporary style" : a socialist modernism / Susan E. Reid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reid, Susan E., 1959-

    2009-01-01

    Modernismile lähenemisest nõukogude kunstis. Nõukogude kunstikriitikast ja -praktikast. Kaasaegne stiil sünteesis arhitektuuriga. Nõukogude Palee teostamata projektist Moskvas. 1962. aastal valminud Moskva Pioneeride Paleest kui stalinistliku praktika hülgamise näitest

  14. In Appreciation of Claude Warren and Susan Rose's "William Pengelly's Techniques of Archaeological Excavation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Browman

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available The short (40 pages pamphlet by Warren and Rose (1994 provides the answer to a complex question regarding credit for an important archaeological methodology, stratigraphic excavation. Let me set the stage for this appreciation. Continuing research on the beginnings of stratigraphic excavations in North America (Browman and Givens 1996, I sought the origins of the idea of actually excavating by strata, rather than post-facto interpretation, seen in North American as early as 1895 in the work of Henry Chapman Mercer, but not really introduced into the repertoire of American techniques until the work of Gamio, Kidder and Nelson between 1911 and 1914. The roots of the latter three seemed to lie with individuals such as Reisner, Boas, Uhle, who in turn seemed to rely on Hugo Obennaier, Gabriel de Mortillet, Marcellin Boule, and perhaps Pitt-Rivers, while Mercer's work could be traced to Boule and Albert Gaudry. Doggedly following back the roots, I found that Chapman (1989 could make a reasonable case that Pitt-Rivers had actually learned of the idea of strati­graphic excavation from Evans, Prestwich, and Lubbock, from the British scientists working with the Upper and Middle Paleolithic excavations during 1858-1868.

  15. Diasporic Reconciliations of Politics, Love and Trauma: Susan Abulhawa's Quest for Identity in "Mornings in Jenin"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Shomar, Ayman M.

    2015-01-01

    Negotiating human conditions is an emblematic critical impetus of diaspora informed by multiple cultural possibilities practiced through the creation of multiple spaces that cross the realm of the "self" to that of the "other." It offers a locale to cross from the oppressed "self" to an understanding of an oppressor…

  16. The Empirical Stance vs. The Critical Attitude | Rowbottom | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    But this characterisation emerges from his recognition that to be an empiricist cannot be to believe, or decide to commit to belief in, a foundational proposition, without removing any basis for a non-dogmatic empiricist critique of other philosophical approaches, such as materialism. However, noticeable by its absence in Van ...

  17. A Kantian stance on teleology in biology | Cohen | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No Abstract. South African Journal of Philosophy Vol.26 (2) 2007: pp. 109-121. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sajpem.v26i2.31466 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  18. Postural responses to multidirectional stance perturbations in cerebellar ataxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Maaike; Allum, John H J; Visser, Jasper E; Grüneberg, Christian; van de Warrenburg, Bart P; Kremer, H P H; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    Previous studies of patients with focal cerebellar damage underscored the importance of the cerebellum for balance control. These studies were restricted to postural control in the pitch plane, and focused mainly on leg muscle responses. Here, we examined the effect of degenerative cerebellar

  19. Illuminating a dialectical transformative activist stance in education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Stephen M.

    2008-07-01

    In this essay I comment on Stetsenko's (2008) essay that draws together the work of Vygotsky, Piaget and Dewey, as she attempts to counter the `new' reductionist synthesis in public educational policy. While this theoretical work is helpful, it could be enhanced further by illuminating everyday practices of learners. I pose some questions that might provoke ongoing discussions by researchers as they transform collaboratively cultural-historical activity theory.

  20. A Social Cognitive Neuroscience Stance on Human-Robot Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaminade Thierry

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Robotic devices, thanks to the controlled variations in their appearance and behaviors, provide useful tools to test hypotheses pertaining to social interactions. These agents were used to investigate one theoretical framework, resonance, which is defined, at the behavioral and neural levels, as an overlap between first- and third- person representations of mental states such as motor intentions or emotions. Behaviorally, we found a reduced, but significant, resonance towards a humanoid robot displaying biological motion, compared to a human. Using neuroimaging, we've reported that while perceptual processes in the human occipital and temporal lobe are more strongly engaged when perceiving a humanoid robot than a human action, activity in areas involved in motor resonance depends on attentional modulation for artificial agent more strongly than for human agents. Altogether, these studies using artificial agents offer valuable insights into the interaction of bottom-up and top-down processes in the perception of artificial agents.

  1. Reading, writing, rebelling. Propositions for a renewed critical stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Doubinsky

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available What is reading? What is writing? What connects the two? These questions have been the fertile ground for many literary and philosophical theories, from New Criticism to Deconstruction. This essay does not pretend answering to these two questions, but rather to question the question themselves and try to shed a different light of this essential problematic. Choosing not to consider literature as a stable concept, but rather as an ontologically impermanent one, I try to reflect upon the terms that condition our approach of works and of the creation of these works. In a large perspective, the notions of “reading” and “writing” are examined through the prism of their incarnations as “works”, and the consequences of this identity have on our critical discourse. In order to read critically, one must thus recognize this immanent instability of our notions and definitions, and begin from there instead of ending there. In other words, the instability of the reading is the only way to mirror the instability of the works, and to acknowledge their ever-changing form. Far from being innocent, critical reading therefore appears as a radical, but necessary action, a rebellion against the obvious and accepted definitions to which works are too often attached.

  2. Postural responses to multidirectional stance perturbations in cerebellar ataxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Maaike; Allum, John H J; Visser, Jasper E; Grüneberg, Christian; van de Warrenburg, Bart P; Kremer, H P H; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies of patients with focal cerebellar damage underscored the importance of the cerebellum for balance control. These studies were restricted to postural control in the pitch plane, and focused mainly on leg muscle responses. Here, we examined the effect of degenerative cerebellar

  3. Exploring Inquiry as a Teaching Stance in the Writing Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Katie Wood

    2006-01-01

    This article begins with a "snapshot" of a fifth grade writing workshop and its study of op-ed writing to show an inquiry in action. The framework for this inquiry involves immersing students in reading multiple examples of the kind of text the teacher would like them to write, studying closely how the texts are crafted, and writing their own…

  4. Leadership Development From A Systems Psychodynamic Consultancy Stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. De Jager

    2003-11-01

    Hierdie navorsing poog om die impak van ‘n leierskapsontwikkelingsprogram wat aangebied is vanuit die sistemiese psigodinamiese perspektief, te evalueer. Die doel was om psigoanalitiese ingeligte leiers te ontwikkel om verandering en transformasie in die gedurige veranderende en transformerende Nuwe Ekonomie netwerk organisasie, te lei. Ten einde dit te bolwerk is. ‘n Groep -verhoudinge-opleidingsprogram is aangebied vir 30 leiers. Kwalitatiewe evaluasie deur van begrondingsteorie gebruik te maak gedurende, die post-intervensie fokus groepe het ‘n groepbewustheid aangedui van psigodinamiese leierskapgedrag soos die regressie na dikwelse patologiese leierskapspersoonlikheidskenmerke, regressie in onbewustelike groep- en organisatoriese prosesse soos die basiese aanname-groep, die koverte-koalisie- en sosiaal-gestruktureerde-verdedigingsisteme teen verandering en transformasie. Insig is ook in die nuwe leierskap rol en die opneem van persoonlike outoriteit in die netwerk organisasie wat moet funksioneer as ‘n sistemiese geheel, bekom. Aanbevelings word gemaak om die leierskapsrol in verandering in terme van vaardighede in die Nuwe Ekonomienetwerkorganisasie, te bevorder.

  5. Urban Teacher Education in Partnership: An Inquiry Stance Sustains Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stairs, Andrea J.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between Brighton High School (BHS) and Boston College (BC) spans several decades. Professors from multiple departments at the university--not only teacher educators but professors of psychology, measurement, and arts and sciences--have walked, as regular parts of the school community, the halls of the gothic-style high school…

  6. Expression of Epistemic Stance in EFL Chinese University Students' Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenzhen

    2012-01-01

    This paper reported findings on a contrastive analysis of epistemic expressions in argumentative essays between NS and NNS Chinese L2 writers. Based on an examination of a NS corpus and a NNS learner corpus across four proficiency levels, the study shows there is great similarity in the total number of epistemic devices used per thousand words…

  7. Human Genetic Engineering: A Survey of Student Value Stances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sara McCormack; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Assesses the values of high school and college students relative to human genetic engineering and recommends that biology educators explore instructional strategies merging human genetic information with value clarification techniques. (LS)

  8. Exploring stance and listener alignment in public discourse | Thuube ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses public speakers' discursive use of modality markers to persuade their audiences in political discourse. Although modality has been a subject of much investigation in different research areas recently, there has been no empirical examination of their role or functions in political discourse in Lesotho.

  9. Quantifying balance control during stance : a multivariate system identification approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhart, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Balance control involves the contribution of neural, muscular and sensory systems, which work together via complex feedback pathways in a closed loop. With age or disease, the underlying systems in balance control can deteriorate; e.g. muscle strength decreases, the sensory systems become less

  10. The institutional stance in agent-based simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sileno, G.; Boer, A.; van Engers, T.; Filipe, J.; Fred, A.L.N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-agent framework intended to animate scenarios of compliance and non-compliance in a normative system. With the purpose of describing social human behaviour, we choose to reduce social complexity by creating models of the involved agents starting from stories, and

  11. Conveying a Stance of Religious Pluralism in Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Jennifer; Foyil, Kris; Graff, Jennifer M.

    2010-01-01

    Religious discrimination is a global concern, as social dissonance and devastating violence result from religious intolerance. In order to develop socially competent, global citizens and create a peaceful society, religious diversity must be explored in public school classrooms; yet it remains a controversial and seldom addressed topic. Children's…

  12. Choosing an Epistemic Stance | Gabriel | African Journal of Finance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is no practical justification of belonging to more than one domain, neither should we fight once we belong to different domains. At the end, the title of a research project, which I am expecting to do, will be given, followed by an indicative bibliography. (Af. J. of Finance and Management: 2003 11(2): 59-64) ...

  13. Morality and Foreign Policy. A Symposium on President Carter's Stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefever, Ernest W., Ed.

    This monograph contains a critical examination of President Carter's view on ethics and foreign policy as expressed in his commencement speech at Notre Dame University on May 22, 1977. The book is organized into three parts. Part 1 contains Mr. Carter's speech entitled, "Power for Humane Purposes." Part 2 contains nine responses to the…

  14. Assertions and Conditionals: A Historical and Pragmatic Stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiffi Daniele

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The assertion candidate expresses a potential logical-linguistic object that can be asserted. It differs from both the act and the product of assertion; it needs not to be actually asserted and differs from the assertion made. We investigate the medieval origins of this notion, which are almost neglected in contemporary logic. Our historical analysis suggests an interpretation of the assertion candidate within the system of logic for pragmatics.

  15. Changes in FDB and soleus muscle activity after a train of stimuli during upright stance Alterações pós-trem de estímulo, na atividade dos músculos FDB e sóleus durante a postura ortostática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liria A. Okai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence of self-sustained muscle activation following a brief electrical stimulation has been reported in the literature for certain muscles. OBJECTIVES: This report shows that the foot muscle (Flexor Digitorum Brevis - FDB shows a self-sustained increase in muscle activity during upright stance in some subjects following a train of stimuli to the tibial nerve. METHODS: Healthy subjects were requested to stand upright and surface EMG electrodes were placed on the FDB, Soleus and Tibialis Anterior muscles. After background muscle activity (BGA acquisition, a 50 Hz train of stimuli was applied to the tibial nerve at the popliteal fossa. The root mean square values (RMS of the BGA and the post-stimulus muscle activation were computed. RESULTS: There was a 13.8% average increase in the FDB muscle EMG amplitude with respect to BGA after the stimulation was turned off. The corresponding post-stimulus Soleus EMG activity decreased by an average of 9.2%. We hypothesize that the sustained contraction observed in the FDB following stimulus may be evidence of persistent inward currents (PIC generated in FDB spinal motoneurons. The post-stimulus decrease in soleus activity may have occurred due to the action of inhibitory interneurons caused by the PICs, which were triggered by the stimulus train. CONCLUSIONS: These sustained post-stimulation changes in postural muscle activity, found in different levels in different subjects, may be part of a set of possible responses that contribute to overall postural control.CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Existem evidências de ativação autossustentada em certos músculos pós-estimulação elétrica. OBJETIVOS: Mostrar que, em alguns sujeitos, o músculo do pé (Flexor Digitorum Brevis - FDB também pode apresentar aumento de atividade autossustentada na posição ortostática pós-trem de estímulo no nervo tibial. MÉTODOS: Sujeitos foram solicitados a permanecer na posição ortostática e sinais eletromiogr

  16. Uncovering Our History, Teaching Primary Sources (Tarihimizi Keşfetme, Birincil Kaynaklarla Öğretim - Susan H. Veccia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Alphan Şentuna

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Okul yıllarından bahseden insanların büyük bir çoğunluğu için tarih dersi, not almak için isimlerin ve tarihlerin ezberlendiği, sınavdan sonra ise unutulduğu bir ders olarak hatıralarda yer alır. Günümüzde tarih öğretiminde önemli gelişmeler olmasına rağmen hala derslerde öğretmenlerin isim, tarih ve ders kitabı merkezli bir öğretim izledikleri görülmektedir. Öğrencilerin eleştirel ve tarihsel düşünme becerisi elde etmeleri için ilk önce bilgiye sahip olmaları gerektiği inancı, öğretmenlerin derslerde yenilikçi yöntemlere yeterli zaman ayırmalarını engellemektedir. Bu durum öğrencilerin tarih dersinden soğumalarına ve dersi zaman kaybı olarak görmelerine neden olmaktadır.

  17. Separated by Sex: A Critical Look at Single-Sex Education for Girls (edited by Susan Morse)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceraulo, Reviewed By Sandra C.

    1999-05-01

    As Cornelius Riordan states in his round-table paper, "The challenge of effective and equitable schooling in the next century is to overcome the resistance and recalcitrance of youth cultures in and out of school" (p 58). While this is admittedly not a new problem, it is more complex in its modern form and innovative ways to solve it are needed. In an old tradition, one such attempt has been single-sex schools, which have had particular success with the disadvantaged and white females in American society, with the notable involvement of Catholic religious communities. The report does not make clear whether their successes can be reproduced in some modification of the public school format. However, the AAUW report on single-sex schools sheds light on some of the characteristics that make true learning communities out of ordinary schools and on what it takes to reach disadvantaged girls. For these reasons, the AAUW report is good reading for educators at all levels.

  18. Susan Groag Bell, The Lost Tapestries of the City of Ladies. Christine de Pizan’s Renaissance Legacy

    OpenAIRE

    Le Ninan, Claire

    2008-01-01

    Dans ses œuvres didactiques, Christine de Pizan cherche, par divers procédés rhétoriques, à garantir la bonne réception de sa leçon ainsi que la pérennité de son œuvre, de ses idées et de son nom. Pourtant, la réelle influence des textes de Christine sur les princes et princesses de son époque est difficile à mesurer, si ce n’est par les catalogues de bibliothèque qui renseignent sur la présence des manuscrits dans la collection des personnages importants du royaume. De même, il est difficile...

  19. 75 FR 22012 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List Susan's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... sedimentation associated with intensive livestock grazing can have a profound effect on aquatic... caddisfly's habitat downstream through vegetation removal, erosion, and subsequent downstream sedimentation... tank, then into seven float-controlled livestock tanks to draw the livestock away from riparian areas...

  20. The COlIStruction of the Self: A Developmental Perspective. Susan Harter. New York, NY: Guilford Press, 1999.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Leanne Bosacki

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the fields of educational and developmental psychology, interest has grown concerning the question of how cognitive and socioemotional processes work together to construct pathways for the self. In particular, researchers and educators have become increasingly interested in the role that the school plays in children's self-development. According to Jerome Bruner, "the single most universal thing about human experience is the phenomenon of the 'Self" (1996, p. 35 and advocates that education is crucial to its formation. However, despite the strong theoretical claims linking a child's sense of self to school experience, there has been a lack of systematic research on the self within the school context.

  1. Extensive expertise in endocrinology: UK stance on adult GH replacement: the economist vs the endocrinologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalet, S M

    2013-10-01

    In the UK, through the use of a forced economic model, endocrinologists are in the curious position of offering GH replacement to some patients with severe GH deficiency (GHD) but withholding it from other patients with even more severe GHD. This approach is counter-intuitive to endocrine practice in treating endocrine deficiency states. For all other endocrine deficiencies, one would opt for treating those with the most severe biochemical evidence of deficiency first. If this endocrine approach was applied to adult GH replacement in an era of rationing, one would start with the GHD patients with a pathologically low IGF1 level. Given that the prevalence of subnormal IGF1 levels in a GHD population is age-dependent, this would result in GH replacement being offered to more young adult onset (AO) GHD and childhood onset GHD adults, and less often to middle-aged and elderly AO GHD adults. This in itself has the added advantage that the skeletal benefits appear more real in the former cohort of patients.

  2. The Public Finance Stance and the Economic Growth: the Case of European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan Talpos; Bogdan Dima; Mihai Ioan Mutascu; Cosmin Enache

    2007-01-01

    This paper is studying the impact of public budget deficit on the economic growth. We have tested the connection between budget deficit and economic growth, using econometrical analysis (the Pool Data Model). Within this framework, we have quantified the intensity of connections between public budget deficit and economic growth in the case of European Union 25.

  3. Gamification of Learning and Teaching in Schools – A Critical Stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Fabian Buck

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing transformation of learning and teaching is one facet of the progressing digitalization of all aspects of life. Gamification’s aim is to change learning for the better by making use of the motivating effects of (digital games and elements typical of games, like experience points, levelling, quests, rankings etc. Especially in the light of the success of Pokémon Go, multiple actors call for gamification of learning and teaching in schools as means for motivating students.From the perspective I introduce in this paper, gamification shows itself as reversion from serious pedagogical and didactical endeavours. This threatens to lead to the replacement of teaching by gamification and the (self degradation of teachers to support personnel. In this paper, I argue that gamified learning and teaching suspends the fundamental, subversive, and critical moments only schools can offer. Furthermore, it can lead to subjugation and isolation of students due to its inherent closed and enclosing structure. I further show how the line of argumentation of gamification advocates iterates that of progressive education.

  4. Of risks and regulations: how leading U.S. nanoscientists form policy stances about nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corley, Elizabeth A., E-mail: elizabeth.corley@asu.ed [Arizona State University, School of Public Affairs (United States); Scheufele, Dietram A. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Life Sciences Communication (United States); Hu Qian [Arizona State University, School of Public Affairs (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Even though there is a high degree of scientific uncertainty about the risks of nanotechnology, many scholars have argued that policy-making cannot be placed on hold until risk assessments are complete (Faunce, Med J Aust 186(4):189-191, 2007; Kuzma, J Nanopart Res 9(1):165-182, 2007; O'Brien and Cummins, Hum Ecol Risk Assess 14(3):568-592, 2008; Powell et al., Environ Manag 42(3):426-443, 2008). In the absence of risk assessment data, decision makers often rely on scientists' input about risks and regulation to make policy decisions. The research we present here goes beyond the earlier descriptive studies about nanotechnology regulation to explore the heuristics that the leading U.S. nanoscientists use when they make policy decisions about regulating nanotechnology. In particular, we explore the relationship between nanoscientists' risk and benefit perceptions and their support for nanotech regulation. We conclude that nanoscientists are more supportive of regulating nanotechnology when they perceive higher levels of risks; yet, their perceived benefits about nanotechnology do not significantly impact their support for nanotech regulation. We also find some gender and disciplinary differences among the nanoscientists. Males are less supportive of nanotech regulation than their female peers and materials scientists are more supportive of nanotechnology regulation than scientists in other fields. Lastly, our findings illustrate that the leading U.S. nanoscientists see the areas of surveillance/privacy, human enhancement, medicine, and environment as the nanotech application areas that are most in need of new regulations.

  5. Keep Your Eyes on the Prize: Critical Stance in the Middle School Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewison, Mitzi; Heffernan, Lee

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on ways that sixth graders reacted to the question of book awards and awards in general, positioning themselves as reflective inquirers as they engaged in the regular sixth-grade beginning-of-the-year curriculum--reading books that have been nominated for the state book award. The authors focus on four dispositions of critical…

  6. Cross-correlation between EMG and center of gravity during quiet stance: theory and simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, André Fabio

    2005-11-01

    Several signal processing tools have been employed in the experimental study of the postural control system in humans. Among them, the cross-correlation function has been used to analyze the time relationship between signals such as the electromyogram and the horizontal projection of the center of gravity. The common finding is that the electromyogram precedes the biomechanical signal, a result that has been interpreted in different ways, for example, the existence of feedforward control or the preponderance of a velocity feedback. It is shown here, analytically and by simulation, that the cross-correlation function is dependent in a complicated way on system parameters and on noise spectra. Results similar to those found experimentally, e.g., electromyogram preceding the biomechanical signal may be obtained in a postural control model without any feedforward control and without any velocity feedback. Therefore, correct interpretations of experimentally obtained cross-correlation functions may require additional information about the system. The results extend to other biomedical applications where two signals from a closed loop system are cross-correlated.

  7. Lexical Bundle Analysis in Mathematics Classroom Discourse: The Significance of Stance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth; Wagner, David; Cortes, Viviana

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we introduce the lexical bundle, defined by corpus linguists as a group of three or more words that frequently recur together, in a single group, in a particular register (Biber, Johansson, Leech, Conrad, & Finegan, 2006; Cortes, "English for Specific Purposes" 23:397-423, 2004). Attention to lexical bundles helps to explore…

  8. Taking a Diasporic Stance: Puerto Rican Mothers Educating Children in a Racially Integrated Neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolon-Dow, Rosalie

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the perspectives of second-generation Puerto Rican mothers as they discuss their experiences educating their children in a working class, lower-middle class, racially diverse neighborhood. The article examines the racialization processes that the women and their families face, despite experiencing geographic and socioeconomic…

  9. Future oil supply: The changing stance of the International Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    The IEA was established in 1974 with a mandate to promote energy security amongst its members, namely the states of the OECD, and to advise those members on sound energy policy. Its recent forecasts of the medium and long term prospects for oil supply, however, have wavered, alternating from optimistic to pessimistic and back again. For policy-makers, such inconsistency is difficult to deal with. Firstly we examine whether the changing outlooks seen in IEA forecasts made between 2007 and 2010 truly reflect a demonstrable, underlying change in the known facts, and we can find no such factual changes reported by the IEA. Secondly we examine whether the serious criticisms of the forecast made by other analysts have yet been addressed, and we conclude that they have not. Thirdly we consider the possible effects of the current economic downturn upon the IEA's assumptions and upon future oil supply. We conclude that all the forecasts made by the IEA appear to be too optimistic throughout this period. - Research highlights: → IEA forecasts of oil supply have changed from optimistic to pessimistic and back. → The reasons for the changes are listed, examined and found wanting. → The most appropriate IEA forecast is nevertheless the most pessimistic one. → Some criticisms of the forecast methodology and assumptions are described.

  10. Overcoming Uncertainty: Agency, Stance and the Rise of Collective Action in Times of Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidemann, Kai

    2017-01-01

    How do people exert their agency in the face of large-scale societal crises? Merging strands of sociolinguistic scholarship with social movement theory, this article offers a way of looking at how grassroots actors work to overcome dramatic episodes of macro-structural instability and uncertainty

  11. The Effect of First-Step Techniques from the Staggered Stance in American Football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Nikolas Sten; Andersen, Thomas Bull

    2017-01-01

    .77±0.10 s) being faster than FFS (1.81±0.12 s) and BFS (2.01±0.13 s), and FFS being faster than BFS, although no differences were found in reaction time. In terms of mean force and power, NORM (331.1±39.2N, 542.2±72.3W) and FFS (320.8±43.2N, 550.9±81.4W) were significantly larger than BFS (256.9±36.2N, 443...... in each technique (normal (NORM), backwards false step (BFS) and forwards false step (FFS)) in random order. Sprint starts were performed on force plates to investigate ground reaction forces, reaction time and total sprint time. Analysis showed significant differences in sprint times, with NORM (1...

  12. Teaching Business Ethics to Critical Students—Adopting the Stance of Political CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Kristian Høyer

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides ways of responding to critical students when teaching business ethics and corporate social responsibility (CSR). A common premise of teaching pedagogy is to approach students from their “zone of proximal development” (Vygotsky 1978). To get an understanding of students’ critical...... prior conceptions, the ideal type of the “liberal communist” (Žižek 2008) is invoked as suggestive of how students might think about business ethics and CSR. Two pedagogical approaches are suggested to address students’ a priori scepticism of business ethics and CSR. First, a framework of political...

  13. Socializing Children to Honorifics in Japanese: Identity and Stance in Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdelski, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines socialization of honorifics in Japanese. Drawing upon audiovisual recordings of interaction in households and a preschool, the paper details ways caregivers use honorifics with children and ways children use honorifics with caregivers and peers. The analysis shows ways caregivers use referent and addressee honorifics within…

  14. Gamification of Learning and Teaching in Schools--A Critical Stance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Marc Fabian

    2017-01-01

    The ongoing transformation of learning and teaching is one facet of the progressing digitalization of all aspects of life. Gamification's aim is to change learning for the better by making use of the motivating effects of (digital) games and elements typical of games, like experience points, levelling, quests, rankings etc. Especially in the light…

  15. To what degree are environmentally beneficial choices reflective of a general conservation stance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Ølander, Folke

    2006-01-01

    Whether or not different environmentally beneficial choices have common motivational causes are discussed in the framework of partial correlation analysis with structural equation modeling. Correlations between recycling, buying organic food products, and using public transport or bicycle are ana...

  16. To what degree are environmentally beneficial choices reflective of a general conservation stance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Ølander, Carl Folke

    Whether or not different environmentally beneficial choices have common motivational causes are discussed in the framework of partial correlation analysis with structural equation modelling. Correlations between recycling, buying organic food products, and using public transport or bicycle are an...

  17. Academically Elite Students in Singapore: A Collective Moral Stance toward Aspirations and Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Luke

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws on a Linguistic Ethnography (Blommaert & Rampton 2011) of a group of academically elite students in Singapore. The group comprises locals born in Singapore, as well as immigrants from China and Vietnam. My informants all attended a top-ranked secondary school in Singapore. I present data from interviews and a focus group…

  18. Agreement on abortion unravels. Vatican criticized for tough stance at U.N. conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-08

    The International Conference on Population and Development, underway in Cairo, has been dominated by acrimonious debate on the issue of abortion. By the third day of the conference, agreement had been reached by 90% of the proposed Program of Action. Delegates appeared to have developed a compromise passage that urged governments to recognize illegal abortion as a major public health problem. However, hours after the compromise, delegations from Argentina, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Malta, Slovakia, Uruguay, and Guam--all of which have Roman Catholic majorities--withdrew their support, claiming that some phrases were pro-abortion. Many conference participants are concerned that the Vatican and its Muslim allies are forcing the issue of women's lives and health to become subordinated to a male-dominated political struggle.

  19. Of risks and regulations: how leading U.S. nanoscientists form policy stances about nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheufele, Dietram A.; Hu, Qian

    2009-01-01

    Even though there is a high degree of scientific uncertainty about the risks of nanotechnology, many scholars have argued that policy-making cannot be placed on hold until risk assessments are complete (Faunce, Med J Aust 186(4):189–191, 2007; Kuzma, J Nanopart Res 9(1):165–182, 2007; O’Brien and Cummins, Hum Ecol Risk Assess 14(3):568–592, 2008; Powell et al., Environ Manag 42(3):426–443, 2008). In the absence of risk assessment data, decision makers often rely on scientists’ input about risks and regulation to make policy decisions. The research we present here goes beyond the earlier descriptive studies about nanotechnology regulation to explore the heuristics that the leading U.S. nanoscientists use when they make policy decisions about regulating nanotechnology. In particular, we explore the relationship between nanoscientists’ risk and benefit perceptions and their support for nanotech regulation. We conclude that nanoscientists are more supportive of regulating nanotechnology when they perceive higher levels of risks; yet, their perceived benefits about nanotechnology do not significantly impact their support for nanotech regulation. We also find some gender and disciplinary differences among the nanoscientists. Males are less supportive of nanotech regulation than their female peers and materials scientists are more supportive of nanotechnology regulation than scientists in other fields. Lastly, our findings illustrate that the leading U.S. nanoscientists see the areas of surveillance/privacy, human enhancement, medicine, and environment as the nanotech application areas that are most in need of new regulations. PMID:21170136

  20. Motion of the foot and ankle during the stance phase in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varejao, ASP; Cabrita, AM; Meek, MF; Bulas-Cruz, J; Gabriel, RC; Filipe, VM; Melo-Pinto, P; Winter, DA

    2002-01-01

    Computerized analysis of rat gait is becoming an invaluable technique used by some peripheral nerve investigators for the evaluation of function. In this article we describe the use of a biomechanical model of the foot and ankle that allows a quantitative assessment and description of the ankle

  1. Foot and ankle compression improves joint position sense but not bipedal stance in older people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijmans, J.M.; Zijlstra, W.; Geertzen, J.H.; Hof, A.L.; Postema, K.

    This study investigates the effects of foot and ankle compression on joint position sense (JPS) and balance in older people and young adults. 12 independently living healthy older persons (77-93 years) were recruited from a senior accommodation facility. 15 young adults (19-24 years) also

  2. Acceptance of Serious Games in Psychotherapy: An Inquiry into the Stance of Therapists and Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Christiane; Grabmayer, Gloria; Green, Nikos

    2016-11-01

    Serious games are computer or video games that contain elements that are specifically designed for the purpose of education or training. Serious games are increasingly being used within healthcare, but their introduction into and application in psychotherapeutic settings as an e-mental health treatment modality raises questions for both patients and therapists. Current research demonstrates the potential role and effectiveness of serious games within a psychotherapeutic context. However, a limited understanding of patients' and therapists' existing knowledge and experience of serious games, as well as of their readiness to utilize and apply them for the treatment of psychological conditions, requires further investigation. Acceptance, experience, and requirements for the utilization of serious games in therapeutic contexts were assessed through online surveys with German-speaking patients (n = 260) and psychotherapists (n = 234). Respondents' answers were analyzed by a combination of descriptive and inferential statistics by using SPSS. Current knowledge regarding serious games was very limited, with only 10.4% of patients and 11.5% of therapists reporting existing knowledge. However, a general openness toward the concept was observed: 88% of patients and 90% of therapists could envisage a therapeutic use. Patients (rs = 0.169, p = 0.006) who self-rated their level of computer and video game expertise as high were more likely to consider use within psychotherapy, compared with patients who self-rated their expertise as low. Therapists who currently play computer and video games perceive fewer disadvantages of serious game application in a psychotherapeutic context (p = 0.097). Consideration of serious game use was differentiated by the therapeutic approach (p = 0.003), specific mental disorders (highest rated relevant cases: anxiety disorders, affective disorders, disorders regarding impulse control, and adjustment disorders), and patient age (i.e., use with young adults was deemed the most appropriate by 91.8% of therapists). The application of serious games is conceivable for patients and therapists, especially as a complementary element to traditional face-to-face psychotherapy. Acceptance is strongly related to therapeutic context. Only a small number of therapists and patients agree on the possibility of using a serious game instead of face-to-face therapy.

  3. Teacher College Students' Views of Controversial Environmental Issues: Ambivalence and Readiness to Adopt a Stance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Yehudith; Dreyfus, Amos

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important goals of discussing controversial issues in the classroom is to educate students to possess an inclination towards reason, open mindedness and fairness. However, research tends to show that teachers are not adequately trained to lead fruitful discussions about controversial issues and do not possess the necessary skills…

  4. Effect of plantar cutaneous inputs on center of pressure during quiet stance in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Wang

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: The findings indicate that mechanical facilitation of sensation on the plantar soles enhanced postural stability in older adults. The results show that plantar cutaneous inputs provide information that leads to reduced postural sway in healthy older adults. This could have implications in clinical and rehabilitative areas.

  5. A sociological stance on fatigue and tiredness: Social inequalities, norms and representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loriol, Marc

    2017-04-01

    Fatigue is complex, representing simultaneously a physiological, psychological and social phenomenon. The sociological approach attempts to understand the experience of fatigue and its characterization at diverse periods and in various social contexts. After giving a sociological history of different forms of fatigue through the ages (acedia, melancholy, neurasthenia, chronic fatigue syndrome, etc.), this article proposes a social epidemiology of fatigue in the current period. Objectification of working and living conditions allows us to illustrate social inequalities in fatigue and exhaustion, but seems to contradict dominant social representations of fatigue today. It invites a critical discussion of contemporary theories of fatigue (such those of Alain Ehrenberg or Byung-Chul Han), which consider that fatigue is a condition of modern man, overwhelmed by his freedom. More modestly, analysis of the fatigue presented here rests on the capacity to be able to find a good balance between too much investment in work or life (which is exhausting) and not enough investment (which leads to boredom and lack of self-fulfillment). This balance depends on fragile and specific social norms in different professional or social circles and cannot be defined a priori. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Teachers' Stances on Cell Phones in the ESL Classroom: Toward a "Theoretical" Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    In the ongoing and constantly expanding discussion surrounding cell phones in the classroom, a theoretical complement to the practical side of the issue is generally lacking. This is perhaps understandable. Many teachers are still trying to deal with the simple presence of cell phones in the class, and managing a classroom in which the presence…

  7. Of risks and regulations: how leading U.S. nanoscientists form policy stances about nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corley, Elizabeth A.; Scheufele, Dietram A.; Hu Qian

    2009-01-01

    Even though there is a high degree of scientific uncertainty about the risks of nanotechnology, many scholars have argued that policy-making cannot be placed on hold until risk assessments are complete (Faunce, Med J Aust 186(4):189-191, 2007; Kuzma, J Nanopart Res 9(1):165-182, 2007; O'Brien and Cummins, Hum Ecol Risk Assess 14(3):568-592, 2008; Powell et al., Environ Manag 42(3):426-443, 2008). In the absence of risk assessment data, decision makers often rely on scientists' input about risks and regulation to make policy decisions. The research we present here goes beyond the earlier descriptive studies about nanotechnology regulation to explore the heuristics that the leading U.S. nanoscientists use when they make policy decisions about regulating nanotechnology. In particular, we explore the relationship between nanoscientists' risk and benefit perceptions and their support for nanotech regulation. We conclude that nanoscientists are more supportive of regulating nanotechnology when they perceive higher levels of risks; yet, their perceived benefits about nanotechnology do not significantly impact their support for nanotech regulation. We also find some gender and disciplinary differences among the nanoscientists. Males are less supportive of nanotech regulation than their female peers and materials scientists are more supportive of nanotechnology regulation than scientists in other fields. Lastly, our findings illustrate that the leading U.S. nanoscientists see the areas of surveillance/privacy, human enhancement, medicine, and environment as the nanotech application areas that are most in need of new regulations.

  8. Religious Pluralism, yet a Homogenous Stance on Interest Rate: The Case of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Abou-Zaid

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the conventional consensus that interest rates are efficient mechanism of allocating loanable funds and the most influential monetary policy instrument in modern economies, the three major monotheistic religions, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, prohibit the use of interest and consider charging interest as an act of exploitation and extortion. Several passages and verses in the Torah, the Bible, and the Quran make their position on interest clear and definitive, from the Bible’s dictum, “Do not charge your brother interest” to the Quran’s exhortation “give up what remains of your demand for usury.” This paper reviews those passages and verses, provides different scholars’ perspectives on these verses, and relates them to the current financial system. The paper also presents several recent events that support the religious position by showing the negative impact of interest on countries, societies, and individuals. These events have, in fact, inspired many economists and financial institutions to seek alternatives to the current system.

  9. Palliative Nursing and Sacred Medicine: A Holistic Stance on Entheogens, Healing, and Spiritual Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, William E; Hope, Stephanie; Matzo, Marianne

    2018-04-01

    The fields of palliative and holistic nursing both maintain a commitment to the care of the whole person, including a focus on spiritual care. Advanced serious illness may pose a plethora of challenges to patients seeking to create meaning and purpose in their lives. The purpose of this article is to introduce scholarly dialogue on the integration of entheogens, medicines that engender an experience of the sacred, into the spiritual and holistic care of patients experiencing advanced serious illness. A brief history of the global use of entheogens as well as a case study are provided. Clinical trials show impressive preliminary findings regarding the healing potential of these medicinal agents. While other professions, such as psychology, pharmacy, and medicine, are disseminating data related to patient outcomes secondary to entheogen administration, the nursing literature has not been involved in raising awareness of such advancements. Research is illustrating their effectiveness in achieving integrative experiences for patients confronting advanced serious illness and their ability to promote presence, introspection, decreased fear, and increased joy and acceptance. Evidence-based knowledge surrounding this potentially sensitive topic is necessary to invite understanding, promote scientific knowledge development, and create healing environments for patients, nurses, and researchers alike.

  10. "By the Rivers of Babylon": Deterritorialization and the Jewish Rhetorical Stance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard-Donals, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The position of the excluded other, it seems to the author, is the position that has characterized Jews since antiquity: exiled from the nation and dispersed to other nations, Jewish participation in civic life has been defined, even in modernity, by its marginalization and precariousness. The Jew, in other words, provides a salient example of the…

  11. Witnessing Each Other: An Intersubjective Stance for Exhibitions Relating to Substance Use and Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennes, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Most exhibitions are conceived to convey information the experts making the exhibition believe other people need or want. But the notion that the intended exhibition public will cooperate with the exhibition organizers. intent disregards the reasons people come to exhibitions and the way they use them. While the author contends that an exhibition cannot use facts to convince someone to abstain from substances they crave, exhibitions can nonetheless make a difference in lives complicated by substance use by providing representation for voices that are rarely heard and building empathy between witness and witnessed. The purpose of such an endeavor is not to change attitudes or behaviors toward a pre-determined outcome, but to facilitate a witnessing of others. The uniquely intersubjective medium of exhibition can thus succeed in this field by opening the potential of mutual, humanizing recognition among people with varied life experience of substance use and abuse.

  12. Stance in TED talks: Strategic use of subjective adjectives in online popularisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Scotto di Carlo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses “stance” in TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design talks, which are popularising speeches aiming at knowledge dissemination. Based on a corpus of the TED talks presented between 2006 and 2012, this study focuses on how the speakers express judgments and take up positions through subjective adjectives. Drawing upon Kerbat-Orecchioni (1980 and Felices Lago’s (1997 adjective classifications, the quantitative and qualitative study attempts to analyse the use of axiological evaluative adjectives, which are fully subjective, as they imply a qualitative evaluation adding a judgement to the modified noun. It has been noticed that TEDsters use vivid, descriptive subjective adjectives to establish a connection with the audience, which perceives a sense of similarity with the speaker. Like traditional scientific presentations, TED talks use adjectives conveying the relevance of their findings, while they distinguish themselves for the role given to aesthetic and emotional adjectives, practicality and veracity, also including the moral, political, and economic aspects involved in science. The work suggests that maybe TEDsters’ approach to science might possibly contribute to breach the expert/non expert barrier, considering science not as something distant, but as a human experience for both laypersons and professionals.

  13. Postural control during one-leg stance in active and sedentary older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo George Victorio Victor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity and aging are functional disability factors for older individuals, causing loss of balance and increasing the risk of falls. The purpose of this study was to compare the balance of physically independent older individuals, both participants and non-participants in a regular exercise program. Fifty six physically independent older participants were divided into G1ACTIVE = 28 individuals who participate in a regular exercise program and G2SEDENTARY = 28 individuals who did not participate in any physical exercise program. All participants underwent an eyes-open during one-leg balance test on a force platform. The postural oscillation parameters included center of pressure (COP; sway mean velocity and frequency of COP oscillations. G2 SEDENTARY showed higher postural instability than G1ACTIVE. Significant differences were observed for the main balance parameters. The results of this study support the concept that participation in regular physical activity is beneficial for postural balance of older individuals.

  14. Athlete support personnel and anti-doping: Knowledge, attitudes, and ethical stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazanov, J; Backhouse, S; Connor, J; Hemphill, D; Quirk, F

    2014-10-01

    Athlete support personnel (ASP) failing to meet responsibilities under the World Anti-Doping Code risk sanction. It is unclear whether the poor knowledge of responsibilities seen in sports physicians and coaches applies to other ASP (e.g., administrators, chiropractors, family, nutritionists, physiotherapists, psychologists, and trainers). A purposive sample of Australian ASP (n = 292) responded to a survey on knowledge of anti-doping rules (35 true/false questions), ethical beliefs and practice, and attitudes toward performance enhancement. Some ASP declined to participate, claiming doping was irrelevant to their practice. Physicians were most knowledgeable (30.8/35), with family and trainers the least (26.0/35). ASP reported that improvements were needed to support anti-doping education (e.g., basis for anti-doping) and practice (e.g., rules). ASP also had a slightly negative attitude toward performance enhancement. Linear regression showed that being a sports physician, providing support at the elite level, and 15 years of experience influenced knowledge. The results confirm gaps in knowledge, suggesting that stronger engagement with ASP anti-doping education and practice is needed. Applying the principles of andragogy could help foster active engagement through emphasis on active inquiry, rather than passive reception of content. Future work on the context within which ASP experience anti-doping is needed, exploring acquisition and translation of knowledge into practice. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The associations between early life circum-stances and later life health and employment in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores, M.; Kalwij, Adriaan

    2014-01-01

    We use data from the Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe to estimate for thirteen European countries the associations of early life circumstances—measured by childhood health and socioeconomic status (SES)—with educational attainment, and later life health and employment (at ages

  16. Taking an Active Stance: How Urban Elementary Students Connect Sociocultural Experiences in Learning Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Bhaskar; Maruyama, Geoffrey; Albrecht, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    In this interpretive case study, we draw from sociocultural theory of learning and culturally relevant pedagogy to understand how urban students from nondominant groups leverage their sociocultural experiences. These experiences allow them to gain an empowering voice in influencing science content and activities and to work towards…

  17. Genetic counseling and the disabled: feminism examines the stance of those who stand at the gate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Annette; Satz, Martha

    2002-01-01

    This essay examines the possible systematic bias against the disabled in the structure and practice of genetic counseling. Finding that the profession's "nondirective" imperative remains problematic, the authors recommend that methodology developed by feminist standpoint epistemology be used to incorporate the perspective of disabled individuals in genetic counselors' education and practice, thereby reforming society's view of the disabled and preventing possible negative effects of genetic counseling on the self-concept and material circumstance of disabled individuals.

  18. Evaluative Decision-Making for High-Quality Professional Development: Cultivating an Evaluative Stance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumsion, Jennifer; Lunn Brownlee, Joanne; Ryan, Sharon; Walsh, Kerryann; Farrell, Ann; Irvine, Susan; Mulhearn, Gerry; Berthelsen, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Unprecedented policy attention to early childhood education internationally has highlighted the crucial need for a skilled early years workforce. Consequently, professional development of early years educators has become a global policy imperative. At the same time, many maintain that professional development research has reached an impasse. In…

  19. Leaving Mango Street: Speech, Action and the Construction of Narrative in Britton's Spectator Stance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford-Garrett, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to unite "The House on Mango Street" by Sandra Cisneros with the participant and spectator theories of James Britton and D. W. Harding in the hopes that such a union will provide new insights into each. In particular, this article explores how the speech acts of Esperanza, the novel's protagonist, are indicative of a shifting…

  20. Exploring Three White American Teachers' Dispositional Stances towards Learning about Racial, Cultural, and Linguistic Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Cynthia H.; Pennington, Julie L.

    2014-01-01

    This study, situated in the United States, is set in a context where large and growing numbers of children from non-dominant backgrounds populate American public schools while the vast majority of teachers teaching in US schools are White, monolingual women who may not have the requisite expertise to teach children from non-dominant backgrounds.…

  1. Taking an active stance: How urban elementary students connect sociocultural experiences in learning science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Bhaskar; Maruyama, Geoffrey; Albrecht, Nancy

    2017-12-01

    In this interpretive case study, we draw from sociocultural theory of learning and culturally relevant pedagogy to understand how urban students from nondominant groups leverage their sociocultural experiences. These experiences allow them to gain an empowering voice in influencing science content and activities and to work towards self-determining the sciences that are personally meaningful. Furthermore, tying sociocultural experiences with science learning helps generate sociopolitical awareness among students. We collected interview and observation data in an urban elementary classroom over one academic year to understand the value of urban students' sociocultural experiences in learning science and choosing science activities.

  2. Postural performance and strategy in the unipedal stance of soccer players at different levels of competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillard, Thierry; Noé, Frédéric; Rivière, Terence; Marion, Vincent; Montoya, Richard; Dupui, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Sport training enhances the ability to use somatosensory and otolithic information, which improves postural capabilities. Postural changes are different according to the sport practiced, but few authors have analyzed subjects' postural performances to discriminate the expertise level among highly skilled athletes within a specific discipline. To compare the postural performance and the postural strategy between soccer players at different levels of competition (national and regional). Repeated measures with 1 between-groups factor (level of competition: national or regional) and 1 within-groups factor (vision: eyes open or eyes closed). Dependent variables were center-of-pressure surface area and velocity; total spectral energy; and percentage of low-, medium-, and high-frequency band. Sports performance laboratory. Fifteen national male soccer players (age = 24 +/- 3 years, height = 179 +/- 5 cm, mass = 72 +/- 3 kg) and 15 regional male soccer players (age = 23 +/- 3 years, height = 174 +/- 4 cm, mass = 68 +/- 5 kg) participated in the study. The subjects performed posturographic tests with eyes open and closed. While subjects performed static and dynamic posturographic tests, we measured the center of foot pressure on a force platform. Spatiotemporal center-of-pressure measurements were used to evaluate the postural performance, and a frequency analysis of the center-of-pressure excursions (fast Fourier transform) was conducted to estimate the postural strategy. Within a laboratory task, national soccer players produced better postural performances than regional players and had a different postural strategy. The national players were more stable than the regional players and used proprioception and vision information differently. In the test conditions specific to playing soccer, level of playing experience influenced postural control performance measures and strategies.

  3. Effects of knee and ankle muscle fatigue on postural control in the unipedal stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizid, Riadh; Margnes, Eric; François, Yrieix; Jully, Jean Louis; Gonzalez, Gerard; Dupui, Philippe; Paillard, Thierry

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acute muscle fatigue of the ankle and knee musculature on postural control by immediate measures after performing fatiguing tasks (POST condition). One group of subjects (n = 8) performed a fatiguing task by voluntary contractions of the triceps surae (group TRI) and the other (n = 9) performed a fatiguing task by voluntary contractions of the quadriceps femoris (group QUA). Each muscle group was exercised until the loss of maximal voluntary contraction torque reached 50% (isokinetic dynamometer). Posture was assessed by measuring the centre of foot pressure (COP) with a force platform during a test of unipedal quiet standing posture with eyes closed. Initially (in PRE condition), the mean COP velocity was not significantly different between group TRI and group QUA. In POST condition, the mean COP velocity increased more in group QUA than in group TRI. The postural control was more impaired by knee muscle fatigue than by ankle muscle fatigue.

  4. Effects of asymmetrical stance and movement on body rotation in pushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Ju; Aruin, Alexander S

    2015-01-21

    Pushing objects in the presence of body asymmetries could increase the risk of back injury. Furthermore, when the object is heavy, it could exacerbate the effects induced by asymmetrical posture. We investigated how the use of asymmetrical posture and/or upper extremity movement affect vertical torque (Tz) and center of pressure (COP) displacement during pushing. Ten healthy volunteers were instructed to push objects of three different weights using two hands (symmetrical hand use) or one hand (asymmetrical hand use) while standing in symmetrical or asymmetrical foot-positions. The peak values of Tz and COP displacement in the medial-lateral direction (COPML) were analyzed. In cases of isolated asymmetry, changes in the Tz were mainly linked with effects of hand-use whereas effects of foot-position dominated changes in the COPML displacement. In cases of a combined asymmetry, the magnitudes of both Tz and COPML were additive when asymmetrical hand-use and foot-position induced the rotation of the lower and upper body in the same direction or subtractive when asymmetries resulted in the rotation of the body segments in the opposite directions. Moreover, larger Tz and COP displacements were seen when pushing the heavy weight. The results point out the importance of using Tz and COPML to describe the isolated or combined effects of asymmetrical upper extremity movement and asymmetrical posture on body rotation during pushing. Furthermore, it suggests that a proper combination of unilateral arm movement and foot placements could help to reduce body rotation even when pushing heavy objects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. To what degree are environmentally beneficial choices reflective of a general conservation stance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Ølander, Folke

    2006-01-01

    Whether or not different environmentally beneficial choices have common motivational causes are discussed in the framework of partial correlation analysis with structural equation modeling. Correlations between recycling, buying organic food products, and using public transport or bicycle...

  6. "The Horror" of Structural Racism: Helping Students Take a Critical Stance Using Classic Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCardle, Todd

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this piece is to provide educators with the knowledge and practical application needed to build critical literacy within their students using a traditional text that might not be considered multicultural. This essay challenges the idea that "outdated" literary works have no place in today's multicultural classroom, as it…

  7. Kanono refrakcija Antonios Susanos Byatt romane Apsėdimas | Refraction of the Canon in Antonia Susan Byatt’s Novel Possession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Rudaitytė

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the revision and transformation of the genre of romance, particularly in its 19th century poetical form, actualized in A. S. Byatt’s novel Possession through an enormous intertextual web of references. The major intertext in the novel is Victorian literature and culture on which Byatt concentrates, covering the whole romance canon through intertextual references to Romantic poetry and to the tradition of medieval romances in their Victorian rewritings.The play with the conventions of the genre of romance and its transformations, the pastiches of the Victorian poetry are the main narrative strategies for Byatt to achieve the refraction of the canon – a re-evaluation of the Victorian poetic tradition from the contemporary feminist and poststructuralist perspective.

  8. Susan J. Slaughter, Lora D. Delwiche, The Little SAS Book for Enterprise Guide 4.1 et James B. Davis, Statistics using SAS Enterprise Guide

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Le logiciel SAS® (Statistical Analysis System) est un logiciel d’analyse statistique et économétrique de référence en économie industrielle ; il permet de gérer de grandes bases de données informatiques indépendamment de leur format ou de leur plate-forme de résidence, de réaliser quasiment tous les traitements économétriques sur ces données, et de mettre en forme les résultats. Un obstacle à son utilisation a souvent résidé pour beaucoup dans la relative complexité des outils de programmatio...

  9. Interview with a quality leader: Kent Bottles, MD, president of ICSI, on transforming care for the future. Interview by Susan V. White.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottles, Kent

    2010-01-01

    Kent Bottles, MD, President of the Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI). Dr. Bottles is a board-certified pathologist who specialized in surgical and cyto-pathology. He earned a medical degree from Case Western Reserve University in Ohio. He has extensive experience in integrated healthcare delivery systems, research, academia, commercial laboratories, genomics, proteomics, and management of biotech start-up companies. Dr. Bottles was vice president and chief medical officer of the Iowa Health System. Before that, he served as president and CEO of Grand Rapids Medical Education and Research Center for Health Professions, a multi-institutional consortium of healthcare organizations, and as president of Genomics Repository and chief knowledge officer, Genomics Collaborative Inc. Dr. Bottles has extensive academic experience, serving as Professor and Acting Head, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at the University of Iowa. He was also the founding medical director of managed care plans for University of Iowa employees. Dr. Bottles has addressed topics ranging from quality and patient safety and disruptive technology to patient-physician relationships and the future of medicine. He has received numerous honors, including the Rodney T. West Literary Achievement Award for the most important article on medical management presented by the American College of Physician Executives. He has broad clinical experience with the University of Iowa and the San Francisco General Hospital, and has been a national leader in changing the practice of pathology and laboratory medicine to meet the challenges of managed care.

  10. Breast cancer patients' perspectives on and use of complementary and alternative medicine: a study by the Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astin, John A; Reilly, Colleen; Perkins, Cheryl; Child, Wendy L

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine patterns and predictors of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among breast cancer patients. A review of the existing survey literature on CAM use for breast cancer was conducted with a series of eight focus groups (N = 67) to further examine the perspectives of breast cancer patients on CAM. The rates of CAM use varied from 17 to 75%, with a mean of 45%. Vitamins and minerals and herbs were the most frequently cited categories. Users tended to be younger, more educated, and more likely to have used CAM prior to their diagnosis. Focus group data indicate that breast cancer patients use a wide array of CAM for a variety of reasons, including symptom management, improving quality of life, and enhancing immune function. Although women rely on a variety of resources for information, they frequently experience frustration owing to the absence or conflicting nature of such information. Communication with conventional providers about CAM is frequently experienced as either unsupportive or not helpful by many patients. The results point to the value of developing better evidence-based informational resources related to CAM and cancer and the need for physicians to become better educated about CAM and how to communicate more effectively with their breast cancer patients about it.

  11. Kinematická analýza posturálních změn v bipedálním stoji při aplikaci podnětu ze zevního prostředí a modifikaci vizuální scény u pacientů po plastice předního zkříženého vazu Kinematic analysis of postural changes in bipedal stance at application of stimulus from external environment and modifi cation of visual scene in patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Janura

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Tato studie se zabývá změnami postury při modifikované zrakové scéně a při aplikaci podnětu ze zevního prostředí u zdravých jedinců a u pacientů po plastice předního zkříženého vazu (LCA za nezměněné a modifi kované vizuální scény. Do vyšetřovaného souboru bylo zahrnuto 11 pacientů po plastice LCA a 14 zdravých jedinců. Modifi kace vizuální scény bylo dosaženo prostřednictvím speciálního optického systému Olympus – Eye trek FMD-700. Zevní podnět byl realizován pomocí nárazu letícího míče. K hodnocení posturálních změn jsme využili kinematickou analýzu. U pacientů po rekonstrukci LCA i u zdravých jedinců jsme nejvíce diferencí v jednotlivých způsobech provedení nalezli pro kinematické parametry na dolních končetinách a trupu. U obou skupin probandů jsme zaznamenali podobné tendence k posturálním změnám. Při porovnávání kinematických parametrů mezi skupinou pacientů a zdravých jedinců jsme nalezli rozdíly v poloze horních končetin. Pro dolní končetiny a trup (s výjimkou minimální velikosti úhlu bérec – stehno při modifi kované scéně s reálným podnětem nejsou rozdíly mezi oběma skupinami statisticky významné. Tears and rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL, which has an important function in knee joint stability, are very common and more so in sports. ACL injury can be managed in two ways. One alternative pertains to conservative therapy whereas the second variant is surgical intervention (reconstruction. The number of ACL reconstructions has risen recently. The purpose of this study was to analyze the postural changes in bipedal stance at application of a stimulus from external environment and the resultant modifi cation in the visual scene in patients with ACL reconstruction. The examined group consisted of 25 subjects – 11 patients with ACL reconstruction and 14 healthy adults. The external stimulus was realized by striking

  12. Flight Attendant Fatigue, Part 1: National Duty, Rest, and Fatigue Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Wegmann, 1995; ewing, 1999; haugli, Skogstad, and hellesoy, 1994; hunt and Space, 1994; nagda and koontz , 2003; rayman, 1997; Smolensky, lee, Mott, and...nagda, n .l ., & koontz , M .d . (2003) . review of studies on flight attendant health and comfort in airliner cabins . Aviation, Space

  13. Education in Transportation Systems Planning: Highway Research Record No. 462.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Transportation Research Board.

    The papers contained in the issue of Highway Research Record focus on current and emerging patterns of education and training related to transportation systems planning. The five papers are: Transportation Centers and Other Mechanisms to Encourage Interdisciplinary Research and Training Efforts in Transportation (Frederick J. Wegmann and Edward A.…

  14. The benefits of a critical stance: a reflection on past papers on the theories of reasoned action and planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manstead, Antony S R

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, I reflect on past papers published in the British Journal of Social Psychology (BJSP) that have played a role in the development of the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). I focus on seven papers that fall into five categories: (1) those that critique the TRA/TPB for taking insufficient account of social factors; (2) those that critique the models on the grounds that many social behaviours are 'habitual'; (3) those that critically examine the construct of perceived behavioural control; (4) those that argue for the importance of affective factors, which appear to be overlooked in the TRA/TPB; and (5) those that argue for the importance of studying the role of moderating factors and interaction effects in the TRA/TPB. I conclude that BJSP's traditional focus on criticism and theory development is one that benefits the journal and the field. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Assessing Hungary’s Stance on Migration and Asylum in Light of the European and Hungarian Migration Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhász Krisztina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union and its member states are facing one of their biggest challenges in recent years due to the surge in migration. This crisis saw more than a million migrants and refugees cross into Europe in 2015. Solutions and policies have been advanced at both the European and national levels, keeping in mind that migration policy is an area of shared competence under Article 4 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU. On 13 May 2015, the EU adopted the European Agenda on Migration, which set out immediate and medium-term actions designed to tackle the crisis more effectively. Earlier, in October 2013, the Hungarian government adopted its own migration strategy. The first part of this study provides some insight into the aims and measures contained in the European and Hungarian migration strategies. In the second part, I focus on the steps taken by the Hungarian government regarding asylum policy and crisis management. I conclude that the actions and communications of the Hungarian government are contrary to both these strategic documents.

  16. Specific Interference between a Cognitive Task and Sensory Organization for Stance Balance Control in Healthy Young Adults: Visuospatial Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Raymond K. Y.; Mills, Bradley; Dailey, Leanna; Lane, Elizabeth; Smith, Sarah; Lee, Kyoung-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that a computational overload results when two activities, one motor and the other cognitive that draw on the same neural processing pathways, are performed concurrently. Healthy young adult subjects carried out two seemingly distinct tasks of maintaining standing balance control under conditions of low (eyes closed),…

  17. The Integration of Refugees into the German Education System: A Stance for Cultural Pluralism and Multicultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the integration of refugees into the Germany's educational system, focusing on K-12 schooling and Syrian refugees. It criticizes the current approach to integration because the system fails to address the specific needs of refugees and neglects the potential contribution they have to offer in terms of their cultural…

  18. [Parental stance towards alcohol consumption in 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from six urban areas in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    March Cerdá, Joan Carles; Prieto Rodríguez, María Angeles; Danet, Alina; Ruiz Azarola, Ainhoa; García Toyos, Noelia; Ruiz Román, Paloma

    2010-01-01

    To determine the opinions of urban parents on alcohol drinking in teenagers and their positioning regarding the legal restrictive measures. We performed a qualitative study of six focal groups including 42 mothers and fathers of adolescents from six different Spanish regions and from diverse social strata. The quantitative part of the study consisted of a 1-10 scale questionnaire, measuring parents' acceptance and opinion about legal measures restricting underage drinking. Means and standard deviation were calculated. Parents did not consider adolescent alcohol drinking to be a problem so long as it was moderate and leisure time-related. The social and cultural context was permissive with the alcohol consumption. Alcohol intake depended on both external (social pressure) and internal (family) factors. Fathers' preferred to exercise authority, while mothers preferred communication and education skills. Parents approved of teachers' interventions, especially when based on the student's overall education and not restricted to knowledge transmission. Public institutions and authorities were held responsible for adolescents' lack of information, the scarcity of leisure-time alternatives and for not ensuring compliance with current regulations. Parents approved restrictions regarding the sale and advertising of alcohol. Parents recognize adolescent alcohol drinking as a problem and tend to deal with it. Parents use distinct intervention strategies and generally approve legal measures. Copyright 2008 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. "The Road to Freedom": How One Salvadoran Youth Takes an Agentive Stance to Narrate the Self across Time and Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Theresa Ann; Garcia, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we use narrative theory to analyze and discuss how one Salvadoran youth, Thomas, constructed three different yet overlapping narratives, including a digital story, on his family's movement across borders. We describe how each telling of his narratives is situated in time and space, where Thomas reveals his understandings of…

  20. Study, Stance, and Stamina in the Research on Teachers' Lives: A Rejoinder to Robert V. Bullough, Jr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelchtermans, Geert

    2008-01-01

    Robert V. Bullough, Jr.'s article demonstrated in an impressive way how autobiographical accounts, as well as single person narratives, are intertwined with much larger issues in society, international politics, and economical interests, as well as consequences for people in general and educators in particular. The way he proves capable of…

  1. Young, healthy subjects can reduce the activity of calf muscles when provided with EMG biofeedback in upright stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taian M. Vieira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests the minimisation of muscular effort rather than of the size of bodily sway may be the primary, nervous system goal when regulating the human, standing posture. Different programs have been proposed for balance training; none however has been focused on the activation of postural muscles during standing. In this study we investigated the possibility of minimising the activation of the calf muscles during standing through biofeedback. By providing subjects with an audio signal that varied in amplitude and frequency with the amplitude of surface electromyograms (EMG recorded from different regions of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, we expected them to be able to minimise the level of muscle activation during standing without increasing the excursion of the centre of pressure (CoP. CoP data and surface EMG from gastrocnemii, soleus and tibialis anterior muscles were obtained from ten healthy participants while standing at ease and while standing with EMG biofeedback. Four sensitivities were used to test subjects’ responsiveness to the EMG biofeedback. Compared with standing at ease, the two most sensitive feedback conditions induced a decrease in plantar flexor activity (~15%; P<0.05 and an increase in tibialis anterior EMG (~10%; P<0.05. Furthermore, CoP mean position significantly shifted backward (~30 mm. In contrast, the use of less sensitive EMG biofeedback resulted in a significant decrease in EMG activity of ankle plantar flexors with a marginal increase in TA activity compared with standing at ease. These changes were not accompanied by greater CoP displacements or significant changes in mean CoP position. Key results revealed subjects were able to keep standing stability while reducing the activity of gastrocnemius and soleus without loading their tibialis anterior muscle when standing with EMG biofeedback. These results may therefore posit the basis for the development of training protocols aimed at assisting subjects in more efficiently controlling leg muscle activity during standing.

  2. International law and arms control: Soviet Union and Russia’s stance on nuclear test ban treaties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Hessmann Dalaqua

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The long-lasting struggle against nuclear tests can be examined through different perspectives. In this paper, the focus will be on the part played by the USSR and Russia in the international efforts aimed at establishing legal instruments to outlaw nuclear explosions in space, underground, under water and in the atmosphere.  A luta contra os testes nucleares pode ser examinada sob diferentes perspectivas. Aqui, o foco recairá sobre o papel desempenhado pela União Soviética e Rússia na criação de instrumentos legais para proibir explosões nucleares no espaço, no subsolo, debaixo da água e na atmosfera.

  3. Interrelations between motivational stance, cortical excitability, and the frontal electroencephalogram asymmetry of emotion: A Transcranial magnetic stimulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Weijer, A.D. de; Meuwese, J.D.I.; Morgan, B.E.; Honk, E.J. van

    2008-01-01

    everal electrophysiological studies have provided evidence for the frontal asymmetry of emotion. In this model the motivation to approach is lateralized to the left, whereas the motivation to avoidance is lateralized to the right hemisphere. The aim of the present experiment was to seek evidence for

  4. Increased postural sway during quiet stance as a risk factor for prospective falls in community-dwelling elderly individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Jonas; Nordström, Anna; Gustafson, Yngve; Westling, Göran; Nordström, Peter

    2017-11-01

    fall-related injuries constitute major health risks in older individuals, and these risks are projected to increase in parallel with increasing human longevity. Impaired postural stability is a potential risk factor related to falls, although the evidence is inconclusive, partly due to the lack of prospective studies. This study aimed to investigate how objective measures of postural sway predict incident falls. this prospectively observational study included 1,877 community-dwelling individuals aged 70 years who participated in the Healthy Ageing Initiative between June 2012 and December 2015. postural sway was measured during eyes-open (EO) and eyes-closed (EC) trials using the Wii Balance Board. Functional mobility, muscle strength, objective physical activity and cognitive performance were also measured. Participants reported incident falls 6 and 12 months after the examination. during follow-up, 255 (14%) prospective fallers were identified. Division of centre of pressure (COP) sway lengths into quintiles revealed a nonlinear distribution of falls for EO trial data, but not EC trial data. After adjustment for multiple confounders, fall risk was increased by 75% for participants with COP sway lengths ≥400 mm during the EO trial (odds ratio [OR] 1.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-2.79), and approximately doubled for sway lengths ≥920 mm during the EC trial (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.12-3.22). objective measures of postural sway independently predict incident falls in older community-dwelling men and women. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether postural sway length is of interest for the prediction of incident falls in clinical settings. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Ethical Considerations for Psychologists Taking a Public Stance on Controversial Issues: The Balance Between Personal and Professional Life

    OpenAIRE

    Haeny, Angela M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous literature has documented the general issues psychologists often face while balancing their personal and professional lives. The struggle stems from attempting to satisfy the need to maintain a life outside of work while having the professional obligation to follow the American Psychological Association’s (APA’s) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (Ethics Code) to prevent their personal lives from interfering with their professional roles and relationships. The p...

  6. Political Incongruity between Students' Ideological Identity and Stance on Specific Public Policies in a Predominantly White Southeastern State Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Jeremy T.; Carstens, Brittany A.; Wright, Jennifer M.; Williams, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    The study determined whether or not a predominantly Caucasian sample (N = 187) attending a southeastern state's major public university embraced political policies consistent with their self-identified political ideology. The findings showed that the highest percentage of students identified with a conservative ideology and that a much lower…

  7. Ethnicity, Gender, Deprivation and Low Educational Attainment in England: Political Arithmetic, Ideological Stances and the Deficient Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Attainment data on England's school pupils are more extensive in coverage, detail, quantity, accessibility and of higher quality than monitoring statistics routinely available in other European countries. These data facilitate investigation of low attainment in England's schools and its relationship to ethnicity, gender and poverty. This article…

  8. A systematic review of the relationship between physical activities in sports or daily life and postural sway in upright stance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, H.; van Dieen, J.H.; Dekkers, H.; Wittink, H.; Vanhees, L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In many sports, maintaining balance is necessary to compete at a high level. Also, in many health problems, balance is impaired. Postural sway (PS) is often used as an indicator of upright balance control, and physical activity (PA) might enhance balance control. However, the

  9. The postural stability of children with foetal alcohol spectrum disorders during one-leg stance: A feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolandi Brink

    2018-03-01

    Conclusions: The recruitment of children with and without FASD in a rural, small town and the administration of measurement instruments in a real-life, school-based setting was feasible. However, the verbal instructions for the task require revision. The male control group took longer to achieve postural control because the task was performed differently between the two groups. However, the case girls were slower to achieve postural control than control girls though performing the task similarly.

  10. Young Children's Understanding of Briefly versus Extremely Delayed Images of the Self: Emergence of the Autobiographical Stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povinelli, Daniel J.; Simon, Bridgett B.

    1998-01-01

    Videotaped preschoolers playing while experimenter covertly placed and later removed a large sticker on their head. Procedure was repeated one week later. Found that most four- and five-year-olds who observed video taken three minutes earlier reached for the sticker, but few who saw video taken a week earlier did so. Fewer than half of the…

  11. Numerical simulation of the plantar pressure distribution in the diabetic foot during the push-off stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Actis, Ricardo L; Ventura, Liliana B; Smith, Kirk E; Commean, Paul K; Lott, Donovan J; Pilgram, Thomas K; Mueller, Michael J

    2006-08-01

    The primary objective of conservative care for the diabetic foot is to protect the foot from excessive pressures. Pressure reduction and redistribution may be achieved by designing and fabricating orthotic devices based on foot structure, tissue mechanics, and external loads on the diabetic foot. The purpose of this paper is to describe the process used for the development of patient-specific mathematical models of the second and third rays of the foot, their solution by the finite element method, and their sensitivity to model parameters and assumptions. We hypothesized that the least complex model to capture the pressure distribution in the region of the metatarsal heads would include the bony structure segmented as toe, metatarsal and support, with cartilage between the bones, plantar fascia and soft tissue. To check the hypothesis, several models were constructed with different levels of details. The process of numerical simulation is comprised of three constituent parts: model definition, numerical solution and prediction. In this paper the main considerations relating model selection and computation of approximate solutions by the finite element method are considered. The fit of forefoot plantar pressures estimated using the FEA models and those explicitly tested were good as evidenced by high Pearson correlations (r=0.70-0.98) and small bias and dispersion. We concluded that incorporating bone support, metatarsal and toes with linear material properties, tendon and fascia with linear material properties, soft tissue with nonlinear material properties, is sufficient for the determination of the pressure distribution in the metatarsal head region in the push-off position, both barefoot and with shoe and total contact insert. Patient-specific examples are presented.

  12. Learning to Take an Inquiry Stance in Teacher Research: An Exploration of Unstructured Thought-Partner Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton-Sticklor, Nastasia; Bodamer, Scott F.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores a research partnership between a university-based researcher and a middle school science teacher. Our partnership began with project-based inquiry and continued with unstructured thought-partner spaces: meetings with no agenda where we wrestled with problems of practice. Framed as incubation periods, these meetings allowed us…

  13. Use of stance time variability for predicting mobility disability in community-dwelling older persons: a prospective study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brach, J.S.; Wert, D.; Swearingen, J.M. van; Newman, A.B.; Studenski, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mobility disability is a serious and frequent adverse health outcome associated with aging. Early identification of individuals at risk for mobility disability is important if interventions to prevent disability are to be instituted. The objectives of this prospective study

  14. The effects of common footwear on stance-phase mechanical properties of the prosthetic foot-shoe system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Matthew J; Scham, Joel; Orendurff, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Prosthetic feet are prescribed based on their mechanical function and user functional level. Subtle changes to the stiffness and hysteresis of heel, midfoot, and forefoot regions can influence the dynamics and economy of gait in prosthesis users. However, the user's choice of shoes may alter the prosthetic foot-shoe system mechanical characteristics, compromising carefully prescribed and rigorously engineered performance of feet. Observe the effects of footwear on the mechanical properties of the prosthetic foot-shoe system including commonly prescribed prosthetic feet. Repeated-measures, Mechanical characterization. The stiffness and energy return was measured using a hydraulic-driven materials test machine across combinations of five prosthetic feet and four common shoes as well as a barefoot condition. Heel energy return decreased by an average 4%-9% across feet in all shoes compared to barefoot, with a cushioned trainer displaying the greatest effect. Foot designs that may improve perceived stability by providing low heel stiffness and rapid foot-flat were compromised by the addition of shoes. Shoes altered prosthesis mechanical characteristics in the sagittal and frontal planes, suggesting that shoe type should be controlled or reported in research comparing prostheses. Understanding of how different shoes could alter certain gait-related characteristics of prostheses may aid decisions on footwear made by clinicians and prosthesis users. Clinical relevance Shoes can alter function of the prosthetic foot-shoe system in unexpected and sometimes undesirable ways, often causing similar behavior across setups despite differences in foot design, and prescribing clinicians should carefully consider these effects on prosthesis performance.

  15. Discriminating the stimulus elements during human odor-taste learning: a successful analytic stance does not eliminate learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Richard J; Mahmut, Mehmet K

    2011-10-01

    Odor "sweetness" may arise from experiencing odors and tastes together, resulting in a flavor memory that is later reaccessed by the odor. Forming a flavor memory may be impaired if the taste and odor elements are apparent during exposure, suggesting that configural processing may underpin learning. Using a new procedure, participants made actual flavor discriminations for one odor-taste pair (e.g., Taste A vs. Odor X-Taste A) and mock discriminations for another (e.g., Odor Y-Taste B vs. Odor Y-Taste B). Participants, who were successful at detecting the actual flavor discriminations, demonstrated equal amounts of learning for both odor-taste pairings. These results suggest that although a capacity to discriminate flavor into its elements may be necessary to support learning, whether participants experience a configural or elemental flavor representation may not.

  16. A wearable vibrotactile biofeedback system improves balance control of healthy young adults following perturbations from quiet stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Christina Zong-Hao; Lee, Winson Chiu-Chun

    2017-10-01

    Maintaining postural equilibrium requires fast reactions and constant adjustments of the center of mass (CoM) position to prevent falls, especially when there is a sudden perturbation of the support surface. During this study, a newly developed wearable feedback system provided immediate vibrotactile clues to users based on plantar force measurement, in an attempt to reduce reaction time and CoM displacement in response to a perturbation of the floor. Ten healthy young adults participated in this study. They stood on a support surface, which suddenly moved in one of four horizontal directions (forward, backward, left and right), with the biofeedback system turned on or off. The testing sequence of the four perturbation directions and the two system conditions (turned on or off) was randomized. The resulting reaction time and CoM displacement were analysed. Results showed that the vibrotactile feedback system significantly improved balance control during translational perturbations. The positive results of this preliminary study highlight the potential of a plantar force measurement based biofeedback system in improving balance under perturbations of the support surface. Future system optimizations could facilitate its application in fall prevention in real life conditions, such as standing in buses or trains that suddenly decelerate or accelerate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigating the Impact of Dual Task Condition and Visual Manipulation on Healthy Young Old During Non-Dominant Leg Stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Zeynalzadeh Ghoochani

    2017-06-01

    Discussion: Standing on non-dominant leg is a challenging task that requires a well-balanced system to survive the primary decreased somatosensory input. Therefore, the examinee had to have the requisite capabilities to cope with the changes caused when extra manipulation was included. During the course of the study, the most challenging situation was encountered when the subjects were standing on their non-dominant leg with eyes shut, which should be exactingly checked not to create a risky point as an Achilles’ heel of balance system. It was observed that the non-dominant leg was more susceptible to be affected when an aging adult did not have access to the visual input or during performing dual tasks with eyes shut. It is thus recommended that such conditions should be included in balance assessment tests or interventions.

  18. Serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF binding protein-3 in relation to terminal duct lobular unit involution of the normal breast in Caucasian and African American women: The Susan G. Komen Tissue Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hannah; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Falk, Roni T; Horne, Hisani N; Xiang, Jackie; Pollak, Michael; Brinton, Louise A; Storniolo, Anna Maria V; Sherman, Mark E; Gierach, Gretchen L; Figueroa, Jonine D

    2018-02-22

    Lesser degrees of terminal duct lobular unit (TDLU) involution, as reflected by higher numbers of TDLUs and acini/TDLU, are associated with elevated breast cancer risk. In rodent models, the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system regulates involution of the mammary gland. We examined associations of circulating IGF measures with TDLU involution in normal breast tissues among women without precancerous lesions. Among 715 Caucasian and 283 African American (AA) women who donated normal breast tissue samples to the Komen Tissue Bank between 2009 and 2012 (75% premenopausal), serum concentrations of IGF-I and binding protein (IGFBP)-3 were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hematoxilyn and eosin-stained tissue sections were assessed for numbers of TDLUs ("TDLU count"). Zero-inflated Poisson regression models with a robust variance estimator were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) for association of IGF measures (tertiles) with TDLU count by race and menopausal status, adjusting for potential confounders. AA (vs. Caucasian) women had higher age-adjusted mean levels of serum IGF-I (137 vs. 131 ng/mL, p = 0.07) and lower levels of IGFBP-3 (4165 vs. 4684 ng/mL, p IGF-I:IGFBP-3 ratios were associated with higher TDLU count in Caucasian (RR T3vs.T1 =1.33, 95% CI = 1.02-1.75, p-trend = 0.04), but not in AA (RR T3vs.T1 =0.65, 95% CI = 0.42-1.00, p-trend = 0.05), women. Our data suggest a role of the IGF system, particularly IGFBP-3, in TDLU involution of the normal breast, a breast cancer risk factor, among Caucasian and AA women. © 2018 UICC.

  19. The Practice of Nursing Research: Appraisal, Synthesis, and Generation of Evidence - Seventh edition Grove Susan K The Practice of Nursing Research: Appraisal, Synthesis, and Generation of Evidence - Seventh edition 752pp Elsevier 9781455707362 1455707368 [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    This classic research text has been updated for nursing students and those in nursing practice. Though a substantial book, it is easy to dip in and out of, covering a wide range of topics from the research process and analysing data to sampling and seeking funding.

  20. Undisturbed stance control in healthy adults is achieved differently along anteroposterior and mediolateral axes: evidence from visual feedback of various signals from center of pressure trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougier, Patrice R

    2009-05-01

    Provided through the screen of a monitor, the participant's resultant center of pressure (CPRes) movements from a force platform device, modified the postural performance of a healthy individual. However, these effects could largely vary with the axis that researchers consider (mediolateral [ML] or anteroposterior [AP]), because they know these controls are involved in 2 distinct ankle and hip mechanisms. To demonstrate this organization, the author tested a group of healthy adults in several conditions that gave the whole or some part of the information in the CPRes displacements. Compared with the CPRes feedback, left and right plantar CP or body weight distribution feedback deteriorated the control of the vertically projected center of gravity (CGv) along the ML and AP axes, whose amplitudes increased, respectively. These data highlight the primary role of loading or unloading and pressure variations in the achievement of postural control along each ML or AP axis, respectively. It is interesting that merging these 2 pieces of information (CPRes displacements) helped participants optimize their postural performance.

  1. Reactive Balance Control in Response to Perturbation in Unilateral Stance: Interaction Effects of Direction, Displacement and Velocity on Compensatory Neuromuscular and Kinematic Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Freyler

    Full Text Available Unexpected sudden perturbations challenge postural equilibrium and require reactive compensation. This study aimed to assess interaction effects of the direction, displacement and velocity of perturbations on electromyographic (EMG activity, centre of pressure (COP displacement and joint kinematics to detect neuromuscular characteristics (phasic and segmental and kinematic strategies of compensatory reactions in an unilateral balance paradigm. In 20 subjects, COP displacement and velocity, ankle, knee and hip joint excursions and EMG during short (SLR, medium (MLR and long latency response (LLR of four shank and five thigh muscles were analysed during random surface translations varying in direction (anterior-posterior (sagittal plane, medial-lateral (frontal plane, displacement (2 vs. 3 cm and velocity (0.11 vs. 0.18 m/s of perturbation when balancing on one leg on a movable platform. Phases: SLR and MLR were scaled to increased velocity (P<0.05; LLR was scaled to increased displacement (P<0.05. Segments: phasic interrelationships were accompanied by segmental distinctions: distal muscles were used for fast compensation in SLR (P<0.05 and proximal muscles to stabilise in LLR (P<0.05. Kinematics: ankle joints compensated for both increasing displacement and velocity in all directions (P<0.05, whereas knee joint deflections were particularly sensitive to increasing displacement in the sagittal (P<0.05 and hip joint deflections to increasing velocity in the frontal plane (P<0.05. COP measures increased with increasing perturbation velocity and displacement (P<0.05. Interaction effects indicate that compensatory responses are based on complex processes, including different postural strategies characterised by phasic and segmental specifications, precisely adjusted to the type of balance disturbance. To regain balance after surface translation, muscles of the distal segment govern the quick regain of equilibrium; the muscles of the proximal limb serve as delayed stabilisers after a balance disturbance. Further, a kinematic distinction regarding the compensation for balance disturbance indicated different plane- and segment-specific sensitivities with respect to the determinants displacement and velocity.

  2. Reactive Balance Control in Response to Perturbation in Unilateral Stance: Interaction Effects of Direction, Displacement and Velocity on Compensatory Neuromuscular and Kinematic Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyler, Kathrin; Gollhofer, Albert; Colin, Ralf; Brüderlin, Uli; Ritzmann, Ramona

    2015-01-01

    Unexpected sudden perturbations challenge postural equilibrium and require reactive compensation. This study aimed to assess interaction effects of the direction, displacement and velocity of perturbations on electromyographic (EMG) activity, centre of pressure (COP) displacement and joint kinematics to detect neuromuscular characteristics (phasic and segmental) and kinematic strategies of compensatory reactions in an unilateral balance paradigm. In 20 subjects, COP displacement and velocity, ankle, knee and hip joint excursions and EMG during short (SLR), medium (MLR) and long latency response (LLR) of four shank and five thigh muscles were analysed during random surface translations varying in direction (anterior-posterior (sagittal plane), medial-lateral (frontal plane)), displacement (2 vs. 3cm) and velocity (0.11 vs. 0.18m/s) of perturbation when balancing on one leg on a movable platform. Phases: SLR and MLR were scaled to increased velocity (Pjoints compensated for both increasing displacement and velocity in all directions (Pjoint deflections were particularly sensitive to increasing displacement in the sagittal (Pjoint deflections to increasing velocity in the frontal plane (P<0.05). COP measures increased with increasing perturbation velocity and displacement (P<0.05). Interaction effects indicate that compensatory responses are based on complex processes, including different postural strategies characterised by phasic and segmental specifications, precisely adjusted to the type of balance disturbance. To regain balance after surface translation, muscles of the distal segment govern the quick regain of equilibrium; the muscles of the proximal limb serve as delayed stabilisers after a balance disturbance. Further, a kinematic distinction regarding the compensation for balance disturbance indicated different plane- and segment-specific sensitivities with respect to the determinants displacement and velocity. PMID:26678061

  3. Chinese University EFL Teachers’ Knowledge of and Stance on Plagiarism = Conocimientos y actitudes ante el plagio del profesorado de lengua inglesa en universidades chinas

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Guangwei; Sun, Xiaoya

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism has engendered increasing concern in academia in the past few decades. While previous studies have investigated student plagiarism from various perspectives, how plagiarism is understood and responded to by university teachers, especially those in English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) writing contexts, has been under-researched. As academic insiders and educators of future academics, university teachers play a key role in educating students against plagiarism and upholding academic i...

  4. CUERPO Y CORPORALIDAD DESDE EL VIVENCIAR FEMENINO CORPO E CORPORALIDADE A PARTIR DA VIVÊNCIA FEMININA BODY AND CORPORALITY FROM A FEMININE STANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angélica Montenegro Medina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo revisa las acepciones comunes de los términos "cuerpo" y "corporalidad", las distingue y las sitúa en la vivencia de la imagen corporal femenina actual. Desde este análisis, propone algunas explicaciones en torno del culto al cuerpo, la vigorexia y los trastornos alimentarios. Concluye proponiendo un viraje desde la somatolisis actual a un proceso de integración cuerpo-corporalidadEste artigo revisa os conceitos comuns dos termos "corpo" e "corporalidade", as distingue e as situa na vivência da imagem corporal feminina atual. Desde esta análise, propõe algumas explicações em torno ao culto do corpo, a anorexia e os tanstornos alimentares. Conclui porpondo um olhar a partir da "somatolises" atual a um processo de integração corpo-corporalThis paper review the common definitions of body and corporality. These are distinguished and settled in the current feminine corporal image. From this analysis it proposes some explanations in relation to the body worship, the "vigorexia" and the alimentary disorders. This paper concludes proposing a change from the current "somatolysis" to an integrative process of the body and corporality

  5. Comparison of a laboratory grade force platform with a Nintendo Wii balance board in measurement of postural control in single-legged stance balance tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurnink, A.; Fransz, D.P.; Kingma, I.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Training and testing of balance have potential applications in sports and medicine. Laboratory grade force plates (FP) are considered the gold standard for the measurement of balance performance. Measurements in these systems are based on the parameterization of center of pressure (CoP)

  6. The United States’ Engagement with International Law: An Analysis of the Social Complexities that Crystallized its Stance on Racial and Gender Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malia Lee Womack

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The United States ratified the International Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD but has yet to sanction the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW. This article investigates what social costs drove the state to pass only one of the two anti-discrimination treaties. It finds that the state perceives the race convention to be less socially costly than the gender statute’s objective mandates in regards to content about social and cultural patterns, family planning resources, and in tensions about the proposed reservations, understandings, and declarations.

  7. A comparison of ballet dancers with different level of experience in performing single-leg stance on retiré position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Lin, Cheng-Feng; Hsue, Bih-Jen; Su, Fong-Chin

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the postural stability of single-leg standing on the retiré position in ballet dancers having three different levels of skill. Nine superior experienced female ballet dancers, 9 experienced, and 12 novice dancers performed single-leg standing in the retiré position. The parameters of center of pressure (COP) in the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions and the maximum distance between COP and the center of mass (COM) were measured. The inclination angles of body segments (head, torso, and supporting leg) in the frontal plane were also calculated. The findings showed that the novice dancers had a trend of greater torso inclination angles than the experienced dancers but that the superior experienced dancers had greater maximum COM-COP distance in the anterior-posterior direction. Furthermore, both experienced and novice dancers had better balance when standing on the nondominant leg, whereas the superior experienced dancers had similar postural stability between legs. Based on the findings, ballet training should put equal focus on both legs and frontal plane control (medial-lateral direction) should be integrated to ballet training program.

  8. The Comparison of Forces Applied to the Knee Extensor Mechanism during Stance Phase of Gait in Flat Footed Females Three Different in-Shoe Orthotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Razeghi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It has been postulated that subtalar position and movement would influence the function of the foot and the lower limb’s biomechanical alignment as a whole. The aim of this study was to compare the changes of force applied to the knee extensor mechanism of the female subjects while applying three different in-shoe orthotic appliances. Materials & Methods: Feiss Line test was used to assign a group of 10 healthy female subjects aged at 19-25 years as flat foot group. Retro reflective calibration and tracking markers were placed on the subjects over anatomically relevant locations. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected by employing a three dimensional motion capture system (Qualisys®Ltd, Sweden and a force platform (Kistler®, Switzerland respectively, while subjects walked at their preferred speed with 3 different in-shoe orthotics: simple insole, insole with medial arch support, insole with medial arch support and medial heel wedge, and insole with medial arch support and lateral forefoot wedge. Results: A statistically significant lower amount of the force applied to the extensor mechanism was found while applying medial arch support combined with lateral wedge (P=0.005. Conclusion: It could be concluded that changes of the different foot insoles would alter the force applied to the knee extensor mechanism. Results of this study emphasize the immediate effect of applying a medial arch support combined lateral wedge on reduction of the force applied to the extensor mechanism through which decrease a tendency towards musculoskeletal injuries.

  9. 75 FR 10793 - FY2010 Supplemental Funding for Brownfields Revolving Loan Fund (RLF) Grantees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... (213) 244- 1850. EPA Region 10, Susan Morales, AK, ID, OR, WA 1200 Sixth Avenue, Suite Morales.Susan...: March 2, 2010. David R. Lloyd, Director, Office of Brownfields and Land Revitalization, Office of Solid...

  10. 76 FR 6087 - Draft Weapons Safety Assessment on the Use of Enhanced Weapons; Notice of Availability and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ...: 301-415-6557; e-mail: [email protected] ; or Susan Bagley, Office of Nuclear Security and Incident...: Susan.Bagley@nrc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On August 8, 2005, President Bush signed into law the...

  11. Chandra Studies of Planets and Comets in the X-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, Carey; Bhardwaj, A.; Wolk, S. J.; Christian, D. J.; Dennerl, K.; Bodewits, D.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2009-09-01

    The discovery of high energy x-ray emission in 1996 from C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake) created a new class of solar system x-ray emitting objects [1]. Subsequent detections of the morphology, spectra, and time dependence of the x-rays from more than 20 comets have shown that the very soft (E Lisse et al., Science 274, 205 (1996)[2] R. Wegmann and K. Dennerl, A&A 430, L33 (2005)[3] D. Bodewits et al., A&A 469, 1183 (2007)[4] A. Bhardwaj et al., PSS 55, 1135 - 1189 (2007)

  12. Staffing an Academic Reference Desk with Librarians is not Cost-effective. A Review of: Ryan, Susan M. “Reference Transactions Analysis: The Cost-effectiveness of Staffing a Traditional Academic Reference Desk.” Journal of Academic Librarianship 34.5 (2008: 389-99.

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    Cari Merkley

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine whether it is cost effective to staff an academic reference desk with librarians through an examination of the types of reference questions being asked and the qualifications required to answer them.Design – Content analysis of reference transaction logs and activity-based costing for reference services based on quantitative data derived from the logs.Setting – Stetson University, a private institution in the United States with an FTE of approximately 2500.Subjects – 6959 phone, email, and in-person reference transactions logged at the reference desk by four full-time and two part-time librarians.Methods – This study repurposes data originally collected to determine the frequency with which librarians turned to online versus print sources when responding to questions at the reference desk. Librarians working at the Stetson University library reference desk recorded all reference queries received in person, by phone, or by email for a total of eight months between 2002 and 2006. Data collection took place in two month intervals in fall 2002, spring 2003, spring 2006, and fall 2006. Each question and the sources used to address it were logged by the librarian. Directional questions that were not related to the library’s collections and technical questions dealing with printer or copier mechanical problems were counted, but the specifics of these questions were not recorded. It was felt that these queries would not yield data relevant to the original research question on sources used as they “did not directly relate to an information need” (391. A total of 6959 questions were logged by librarians during the four collection periods. Questions were recorded for only 4431 transactions; the remaining 2528 queries related to printer/copier problems or non-library specific directions and were described as “direction and machine: non- informational” (394. The 4431 recorded questions were then divided into four categories derived by the researcher: look-up (a search for a known item, directional (library-specific orientation to the space and collections, technology (assistance with using library technology and electronic resources, and reference. The category of reference was further subdivided into eight additional categories: catalogue search, citation help, database help, “guide to correct databases,” “personal knowledge or referral,” “quick internet search,” research, and Serials Solutions (392. “Guide to correct databases” referred to advice on the appropriate database to answer a question and serials solutions included questions that could be answered using the Serials Solutions product, such as the availability of a particular journal or article in the collection (392. Questions were assigned to the single most appropriate category by the researcher. Question categories were then mapped to “suggested staffing levels” (396. This determination was made by the researcher, and no details were given as to how the decision was made for each category. The three levels of staffing discussed were librarian, “trained student or staff,” and “well-trained staff/occasional librarian referral” (396. The cost of staffing the reference desk during the eight months captured in this study was calculated by multiplying the hours worked by each librarian by his/her individual average rate of pay across the four data collection periods. Indirect staff costs such as benefits were not included in this calculation. The average cost per reference transaction was determined by dividing the total salary costs by the total number of reference queries during the periods of study. Costs for those categories of questions best addressed by a librarian could then be determined. The actual number of librarians who participated in the study is unclear. The methodology refers to four full-time and two part-time librarians (391. However, later in the article there is reference to five full-time and three part-time librarians rather than the numbers initially stated (396. This may reflect staffing changes during the study period, with the first set of numbers referring to positions rather than individuals, but this cannot be verified with the evidence presented in the article.Main Results – It was determined that most questions asked at the reference desk during the study period could have been addressed by trained student and staff member rather than librarians. Only 11% (784 of questions logged were deemed sufficiently complex by the researcher to require the attention of a librarian. The remaining 6175 transactions (89% of all those logged could most likely be handled by a different staffing complement. According to Ryan, approximately 74% of the reference transactions, including directional, technology, “quick internet,” and known item searching questions could have been answered by “trained student and staff” (396. Questions on catalogue searching, databases, citations, Serial Solutions, and personal knowledge/referrals, representing approximately 15% of all questions, could have been handled by experienced and knowledgeable staff with limited librarian intervention. The complexity of the question was in part judged by the number of sources required to answer it, with most (75% answerable with just one source. The total cost of staffing the reference desk with librarians for the eight months studied was approximately US$49,328.00. A total of 6959 questions were logged during this period, resulting in an average cost of US$7.09 per reference transaction. This cost is approximate, as the exact time spent on each question was not recorded. The cost of answering “non-informational” directional and technical questions was the most significant (396. This category represented 36.3% of all questions received at the reference desk, with a total staffing cost of $17, 919.41 ($7.09 x 2528. “Information-orientated” directional and technology questions followed at 15.4% (US$7,620 and 12.4% (US$6,110.18 respectively (396. According to Ryan, questions in all three categories could be addressed by students and staff. The cost of addressing research questions, the only category requiring librarians, was US$5557.29. Research transactions were greatly outnumbered by directional and technology related questions. An average of 3.6 research questions were asked at the reference desk during the 12 hours it was open each day, compared to 20.8 directional/technical questions.Conclusion – The nature of questions logged at the Stetson University library reference desk suggests that it is inefficient to staff the desk with librarians, given the salary costs of such a staffing model and the fact that librarian’s skills may not be required to answer most of the questions posed. Since the number of questions that need a librarian is so low, Ryan suggests that alternative staffing and service models be considered, so the energies of librarians could be more effectively employed elsewhere in the organization in areas such as information literacy instruction and the development of enhanced web services. It is noted that any reorganization of reference services should be done in concert with user surveys, consultation with staff, and extensive training to prepare staff for new roles. Suggested areas for further research identified by the researcher include the quality of reference transactions in an increasingly online environment.

  13. Online Programs and Geographic Proximity are Key Determinants of Information Professionals’ Interest in Pursuing Post-Master’s Education at the Doctoral Level. A Review of: Powell, Ronald R. and Susan E. Boling. “Post-Master’s Educational Needs of Information Professionals.” Journal of Access Services 3.4 (2005: 29-43.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ingrid Preddie

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To investigate post-master’s educational needs and interests of information professionals.Design – Survey research using print and electronic questionnaires.Setting – The geographic area surrounding Wayne State University in Michigan, United States of America.Subjects – Members of the library associations of Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, and Southwestern Ontario, Canada.Methods – Systematic random samples were derived from the membership lists of the library associations in Ohio, Indiana, and Southwestern Ontario. Paper questionnaires were mailed to those selected. Michigan Library Association’s official policy barred the release of its membership list to researchers. Consequently, announcements of the survey were placed in three successive issues of the Association’s electronic newsletter. Interested members were directed to a website to complete an electronic version of the questionnaire. This option was also extended to members of the other three library associations. The overall research question was investigated through specific questions that sought to ascertain the overall level of interest in professional library and information studies (LIS education, levels of interest in specific types of programs, factors that favoured or deterred enrolment in doctoral programs, as well as the fields of study that were preferred for combination with LIS in doctoral programs. With the exception of demographic type questions (e.g., place of residence and educational qualifications and two questions that required open ended responses, the questionnaire design encompassed questions with Likert scale type responses. Analysis of the responses included descriptive statistics, the use of Pearson chi square to determine statistically significant relationships, and, to a lesser extent, content analysis.Main Results – A total of 270 questionnaires(33% were returned from three populations: Ohio, Indiana, and Ontario. A self-selected sample of 101 members (6% of the Michigan Library Association responded. In general, almost 80% of the respondents admitted some importance to adding to their LIS qualification. However, only 41% felt that this was important or extremely important. From a choice of six educational offerings, namely, continuing education activities, non-degree master’s coursework, a second master’s degree, post-master’s certification, doctoral programs, and other, continuing education activities was the most valued, by 65.5% of the respondents. Participants were asked about their reasons, and the importance of these, for considering or deciding to enrol in an LIS doctoral program. The yearning to acquire knowledge was reported by 69.7% as the major reason, followed by 45.8% of the respondents who cited the wish to increase their income potential. In terms of major factors, prestige received the lowest rating, 21.1%. The time involved (73.8%, cost(66.3%, and distance from the program (63.2% were cited as the major deterrents to enrolling in doctoral programs. When asked about the likelihood of pursuing a doctoral LIS program in combination with business administration, computer science, or without any combination, “not likely” was the most popular choice. Those who were very likely or likely to pursue a joint program totalled approximately 30% of the respondents, while 37% indicated an interest in undertaking a doctorate in LIS only. The most frequent reasons proffered by those who selected “not likely” or “definitely not” for any of the three doctoral offerings included lack of interest, mitigating factors (e.g. time, cost, age, and program location, unfavourable cost/benefit analysis, preference for another area of knowledge,and the view that Ph.D.s were only useful for university faculty. Given the option to name subject areas that they desired to see combined with LIS in a doctoral program, 23 of 101 respondents proposed education, while 19 opted for public administration. A question inviting any other comments on the issue of post-master’s education yielded a predominant desire for “non traditional instruction,” particularly online courses as well as classes held in convenient locations. In terms of relationships between geographic location and factors that influenced interest in enrolling in a doctoral program, the desire “to become a more effective manager,” and “other” were statistically significant. The analysis also revealed a strong positive relationship between willingness to pursue an LIS-only doctoral program and the availability of such a program in geographic proximity. Similarly, there was a strong relationship between willingness to pursue an LIS program in close vicinity and the importance that was given to further LIS education.Conclusion – Online instruction and geographic proximity are key determinants of information professionals’ interest in pursuing post-master’s education at the doctoral level. Continuing education activities, non-degree coursework, and certificate programs are preferred over doctoral LIS programs, despite the finding that the major reason for enrolling in doctoral LIS programs is to fulfill the desire for knowledge acquisition. Schools offering Library and Information Science studies need to explore options for providing distance-education doctoral LIS programs as a means of reversing the current shortage of LIS faculty.

  14. Human Resource Management, 11th Edition International Student Version. By David A. DeCenzo, Stephen P. Robbins and Susan L. Verhulst, Wiley, 2013; 448 Pages. Price £54.99 / €66.00, ISBN 978-1-1183-7971-4

    OpenAIRE

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2013-01-01

    The 11th Edition of Human Resource Management helps students understand and remember concepts through a straightforward and conversational writing style and a wealth of examples to clarify ideas and build interest. The authors provide a strong foundation of essential elements of Human Resource Management (HRM) as well as a clear understanding of how Human Resource Management links with business strategy. Through practical applications, the authors illustrate the importance of employees on eve...

  15. Human Resource Management, 11th Edition International Student Version. By David A. DeCenzo, Stephen P. Robbins and Susan L. Verhulst, Wiley, 2013; 448 Pages. Price £54.99 / €66.00, ISBN 978-1-1183-7971-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The 11th Edition of Human Resource Management helps students understand and remember concepts through a straightforward and conversational writing style and a wealth of examples to clarify ideas and build interest. The authors provide a strong foundation of essential elements of Human Resource Management (HRM as well as a clear understanding of how Human Resource Management links with business strategy. Through practical applications, the authors illustrate the importance of employees on every level of the organization, helping students understand HRM elements such as recruitment, training, motivation, retention, safety, the legal environment, and how they support successful business strategies.

  16. Response to the Colloquium "The Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development's International Early Learning Study: Opening for Debate and Contestation", by Peter Moss, Gunilla Dahlberg, Susan Grieshaber, Susanna Mantovani, Helen May, Alan Pence, Sylvie Rayna, Beth Blue Swadener and Michel Vandenbroeck, "Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood" 17(3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Glynne; Hill, Diti; De Vocht, Lia

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors opine that the introduction of an international assessment of children's early learning, such as proposed by the OECD with its planned International Early Learning Study, will shift the emphasis away from pedagogies which focus on that which is meaningful and relevant in children's lives and their learning, to an…

  17. Os primeiros curadores da humanidade: abordagens psicológicas e psiquiátricas sobre os xamãs e o xamanismo Humanity’s first healers: psychological and psychiatric stances on shamans and shamanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Krippner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: o autor descreve os xamãs como curadores que deliberadamente modificam seu padrão fenomenológico de atenção, percepção, cognição e consciência para obter informações não disponíveis ordinariamente aos membros do grupo social que lhes concedeu status privilegiado. OBJETIVOS: descrever como estas alterações fenomenológicas foram alcançadas e utilizadas. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados estudos da literatura xamânica em arquivo e pesquisas de campo em comunidades onde xamãs estão atuando ativamente. RESULTADOS: a fonte das informações obtidas pelos xamãs é atribuída a forças e entidades desencarnadas, como espíritos, ancestrais, guias animais e campos energéticos. Essas fontes foram contatadas através de toques ritualizados de tambores, danças, sonhos lúcidos, uso de plantas psicotrópicas, atenção focalizada e outros recursos. Este estudo foi importante, pois mostrou que os xamãs utilizam as informações obtidas para atender às necessidades sociais, psicológicas e médicas de suas comunidades. CONCLUSÕES: o disseminado aparecimento dos xamãs, especialmente em tribos caçadoras e coletoras, indica que suas presenças possuem funções adaptativas em um grupo social. Além disso, estes dados podem trazer importantes contribuições para a neurociência cognitiva, psicologia social, psicoterapia e psicologia ecológica.BACKGROUND: the author describes shamans as practitioners who deliberately shift their phenomenological pattern of attention, perception, cognition, and awareness in order to obtain information not ordinarily available to members of the social group that granted them privileged status. OBJECTIVES: to describe how these phenomenological shifts were accomplished and used. METHODS: archival studies of shamanic literature as well as field research in communities where shamans are actively functioning. RESULTS: the source of shaman-derived information is attributed to such discarnate entities and forces as spirits, ancestors, animal guides, and energetic fields. These agencies were contacted through ritualized drumming, dancing, lucid dreaming, the use of psychotropic plants, focused attention, and other technologies. This study was important because it determined that shamans utilize the obtained information to attend to their community’s social, psychological, and medical needs. CONCLUSIONS: the ubiquitous appearance of shamans, especially in hunting and gathering tribes, indicates that their presence in a social group served adaptive functions. Further, these data can make important contributions to cognitive neuroscience, social psychology, psychotherapy, and ecological psychology.

  18. The refugee dilemma and migrant crisis: ‘Charity begins at Home’ or ‘Being Home to the Homeless’? The paradoxical stance in pastoral caregiving and the infiltration and perichoresis of compassion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Louw

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The current refugee and migrant crisis is revealing on a deeper ‘spiritual level’ a crisis of meaning and habitus (attitudinal crisis. Because of prejudice, xenophobia reveals a crisis of compassion and diaconic outreach. How should local communities and communities of faith display hospitality (xenophilia to the other (stranger, foreigner, outsider in cases where one’s own life is threatened by those you are supposed to care for? Is it true that charity begins at home, or is charity, as determined by the Christian notions of ḥesed and oiktirmos, an inclusive concept that should or could start with the homeless, the outcast and the outsider as well? This question points to the danger of selective compassion. It is argued that pastoral caregiving, within the refugee and migrant dilemma, should apply a hermeneutics of complexity and paradox. In this regard the theological paradox of the passion (pathē of Christ should be implied in order to make room (perichoresis for displaced and homeless people. The theological argument is based on the following presupposition: the passio dei defines ‘practice’ in pastoral theology as compassionate hospitality, as a mode of being-with, that eventually should infiltrate and penetrate the systemic paranoia of prejudice, as well as the networking dynamics of human relationships, irrespective of race, class and gender distinctions.

  19. The Need for a Revised Joint Personnel Accounting Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-22

    recoveries to field operations for the 11 David R. Graham, Ashley N. Bybee , Susan L. Clark-Sestak, and...Naval War College, 2009), XI-43. 16 David R. Graham, Ashley N. Bybee , Susan L. Clark-Sestak, and Michal S. Finnin, Assessment of DOD Central...Division, 8 June 2005. Graham, David R., Ashley N. Bybee , Susan L. Clark-Sestak, and Michal S. Finnin. Assessment of DOD Central

  20. 78 FR 29200 - Advisory Committee for the Study of Eastern Europe and the Independent States of the Former...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... advanced graduate training, language training, and postdoctoral research. The committee includes...: April 19, 2013. Susan H. Nelson, Executive Director, Advisory Committee for Study of Eastern Europe and...

  1. 76 FR 65500 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    .../seattlelakeunion/location.php . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Susan Hall, 907-586-7462. SUPPLEMENTARY... workshops will be physically accessible to people with disabilities. Requests for sign language...

  2. 77 FR 24491 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... Smyrna, Tennessee; James A. Campbell, Nashville, Tennessee; William Kent Coleman, Murfreesboro, Tennessee... River Hills, Wisconsin; David J. Lubar, Fox Point, Wisconsin; Susan Lubar Solvang, and Joan P. Lubar...

  3. Comparing rat and rabbit embryo-fetal developmental toxicity data for 379 pharmaceuticals: on systemic dose and developmental effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter T. Theunissen; Bruce Beyer; Sonia Beken

    2016-01-01

    And co-authors William J. Breslin, Gregg D. Cappon, Connie L. Chen, Gary Chmielewski, Luc de Schaepdrijver, Brian Enright, Jennifer E. Foreman, Wafa Harrouk, Kok-Wah Hew, Alan M. Hoberman, Julia Y. Hui, Thomas B. Knudsen, Susan B. Laffan, Susan L. Makris, Matthew Martin, Mary Ellen McNerney,

  4. Big Data for Education: Data Mining, Data Analytics, and Web Dashboards. Governance Studies at Brookings

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Darrell M.

    2012-01-01

    Twelve-year-old Susan took a course designed to improve her reading skills. She read short stories and the teacher would give her and her fellow students a written test every other week measuring vocabulary and reading comprehension. A few days later, Susan's instructor graded the paper and returned her exam. The test showed that she did well on…

  5. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana. SEBA SUSAN. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 41 Issue 12 December 2016 pp 1393-1406. Image coding based on maximum entropy partitioning for identifying improbable intensities related to facial expressions · SEBA SUSAN NANDINI AGGARWAL SHEFALI CHAND AYUSH GUPTA.

  6. 78 FR 16472 - Deposit of Biological Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... comment'' in the subject line of the message. Mail: Susan K. Fawcett, Records Officer, Office of the Chief... by FedEx ``Domestic Overnight'' is estimated to be $75. If the shipment requires pick-up by FedEx... responses. Dated: March 12, 2013. Susan K. Fawcett, Records Officer, USPTO, Office of the Chief Information...

  7. 77 FR 31719 - Grading and Inspection, General Specifications for Approved Plants and Standards for Grades of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    .... DATES: Effective: June 29, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Susan Sausville, Chief, Standardization Branch, Dairy Programs, AMS, USDA, telephone (202) 720- 9382 or email Susan[email protected] before being picked up; however, if the person making the test is unable to get to the farm before the...

  8. Army Cyber Mission Force - Ambitions and Realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    London: A & C Black, 2006), 219. 3 Ibid., 227. 4 Susan Pines, Veda Dickerson, and Lori Cates, eds., O*NET Dictionary of Occupational Titles, 2nd ed...Pines, Susan, Veda Dickerson, and Lori Cates. "Experience." In O*NET Dictionary of Occupational Titles

  9. A Comparison of HAART Outcomes between the US Military HIV Natural History Study (NHS) and HIV Atlanta Veterans Affairs Cohort Study (HAVACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Acknowledgments The IDCRP HIV Working Group includes: Susan Banks, RN, CAPT Mary Bavaro, MD, Ionut Bebu, PhD, Helen Chun, MD, Nancy Crum- Cianflone, MD, MPH...Cathy Decker, MD, Conner Eggleston, LTC Tomas Ferguson, MD, COL Susan Fraser, MD, MAJ Joshua Hartzell, MD, MAJ Joshua Hawley, MD, LTC Gunther Hsue, MD

  10. 76 FR 77206 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... Memorandum to Susan H. Kuhbach, Office Director, AD/CVD Operations, Office 1, from David Layton..., 2011. \\3\\ See Memorandum to Susan H. Kuhbach, Office Director, AD/CVD Operations, Office 1, from Austin... provision of sulfuric acid for less than adequate remuneration (``LTAR'') for both RZBC and Yixing, and...

  11. 04 Brittan pp 55-77

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tienie

    Brink claims that censorship turns the writer into a “physio- logist” who must ..... her personal awakening in terms that may remind us of Susan du Toit. Like Susan, she is ... language. Once the image of Ben and Melanie is captured on film, it.

  12. The Development of the C3 Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Susan Griffin, executive director of NCSS, was chair of the Task Force of Professional Organizations that initiated and guided the development of "The College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards", which will soon be released. In this interview with "Social Education", Susan explains how the…

  13. A 9-Year-Old Girl Discovers That Her Mother Was Murdered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, David J; Shekunov, Julia; Jellinek, Michael; Stein, Martin T

    Susan was a 9-year-old girl living with her mother; she had never met her father. Her mother returned one evening from her job as a cocktail waitress and Susan met her at the apartment door to let her know they had run out of cat food. Her mother said she would go and buy some the next morning because it was late and she was tired, but Susan insisted she go out that evening because the cat had not eaten all day. Her mother was fatally shot in the parking lot of the convenience store shortly thereafter; since there was no robbery involved, the police suspected it was someone that she knew. Susan's extended family had her move out of the apartment that evening and relocate to live with her aunt and uncle out-of-state. The transition happened quickly. Susan was unable to return to her apartment to pick up any additional belongings and never returned to say goodbye to her friends. The family decided she was too young to attend the funeral.Susan had trouble fitting in with her aunt and uncle's family; they had 2 children who were 8 and 6 years old, and Susan felt she was being treated like a baby. She resented having a bedtime (her mother allowed her to stay up as late as she wished), and she complained that the work at school was boring and her classmates were childish. When the family went to a festival in town, she left abruptly without telling them, which frightened Susan's aunt and uncle. They wanted to be supportive but felt that she needed more structure than her mother had provided her. Susan's aunt and uncle sought bereavement support for Susan from her pediatrician and parenting advice for themselves.

  14. Assessment of DoD’s Central Identification Lab and the Feasibility of Increasing Identification Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Lab and the Feasibility of Increasing Identification Rates David R. Graham Ashley N. Bybee Susan L. Clark-Sestak Michael S. Finnin Approved for public...Feasibility of Increasing Identification Rates David R. Graham Ashley N. Bybee Susan L. Clark-Sestak Michael S. Finnin iii PREFACE This study was...6 . A U TH O R ( S ) 5 d . P R O JE C T N O. David R. Graham, Ashley N. Bybee , Susan L. Clark-Sestak, Michael S. Finnin 5 e . TAS K N O

  15. Eating Disorders Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Therapy Neutral stance Nutritional Therapy Operant conditioning or behavior modification Parent Counseling/Parent Coaching with a Clinician Parent ... Therapy Neutral stance Nutritional Therapy Operant conditioning or behavior modification Parent Counseling/Parent Coaching with a Clinician Parentectomy ...

  16. Autoriaus pozicija JAV prezidento rinkimuose 2016: Donald J. Trump ir Hillary Clinton

    OpenAIRE

    Kivilienė, Kotryna

    2017-01-01

    Stance Taking in US Presidential Election 2016: Donald J. Trump vs Hillary Clinton The key issue of this paper is the way of convincing and/or manipulating through language. As the purpose of political speeches is to convince potential voters, they make the scope of this paper. The aim is to compare the stance expressions such as stance adverbials, stance complement clauses and modal verbs in the speeches of Donald J. Trump and Hillary Clinton, the main candidates of the previous presidential...

  17. 75 FR 36356 - Announcement of Changes to the Membership of the Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ..., ITA (new). 4. Edward C. Yang, Senior Director, China Non-Market Economy Compliance Unit, ITA. 5. Joel... Management, OS. Dated: June 18, 2010. Susan Boggs, Director, Office of Staffing, Recruitment and...

  18. 78 FR 19716 - International Consortium of Cardiovascular Registries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... employees) is through Building 1 where routine security check procedures will be performed. For parking and... Internet access should contact Susan Monahan to register ( [email protected] or 301-796-5661...

  19. Sexual Health Concerns in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Page Sexual Health Concerns in Patients With Cardiovascular Disease Lindsey Rosman , John M. Cahill , Susan L. McCammon , ... and difficulty achieving and maintaining an erection. 2 Cardiovascular disease and its treatment may also affect a man’s ...

  20. Resistance ja Rootsi turvaühiskond / Peeter Linnap

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Linnap, Peeter, 1960-

    2001-01-01

    "Vastupanukunsti" näitus "The Path of Resistance : MoMa meets Moderna" Stockholmi Moodsa Kunsti Muuseumis, kuraatorid Susan Kismaric ja Joshua Siegel. Resistance'i kunsti raames käsitletakse ka nn. poliitilist kunsti

  1. Air Force Follow-On Review. Protecting The Force: Lessons From Fort Hood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Demorah Hayes Mrs. Sherry Terrell Ms. Jeanne Shamburger Mr. Andrew Thayer Graphic Designers Mr. Daniel Armstrong Ms. Susan Fair Printing Specialists Ms. Ann Bailey Mrs. Nedra Looney Mrs. Vivian O’Neal

  2. 78 FR 16675 - First Technology Transitions; Policy Task Force Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ..., please submit name and company affiliation ahead of time by sending an email to susan[email protected] allow time to go through our security process. Lunch: Attendees may pre-order lunch, to be picked up by...

  3. Is Children's Programming Improving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Rosemary Lee

    1979-01-01

    Susan Futterman, a former teacher and early childhood specialist for Action for Children's Television, comments on changing formats for children's programs, as well as on the role of educators in using television as a learning vehicle. (Editor/KC)

  4. 75 FR 15457 - Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ...: http://anstaskforce.gov/meetings.php . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Susan Mangin, Executive... on the ANS Task Force Web site at: http://anstaskforce.gov/meetings.php . Dated: March 19, 2010...

  5. 77 FR 61019 - Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ...: http://anstaskforce.gov/meetings.php . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Susan Mangin, Executive... information are on the ANS Task Force Web site at: http://anstaskforce.gov/meetings.php . Accessibility...

  6. 76 FR 15334 - Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... Task Force Web site at: http://anstaskforce.gov/meetings.php . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Susan...: http://anstaskforce.gov/meetings.php . Dated: March 14, 2011. Jeffrey Underwood, Acting Assistant...

  7. 76 FR 21741 - Emergency Access Advisory Committee; Announcement of Establishment, and of Members and Co...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... Gallaudet University--Norman Williams Hearing, Speech & Deafness Center--Donna Platt Intrado, Inc.--John... Communications--Kevin Green, alternate Susan Sherwood Vonage Holding Corp.--Brendan Kasper Washington Parish, LA...

  8. Governing how we care: contesting community and defining difference in U.S. public health programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shaw, Susan J., Dr

    2012-01-01

    .... In Governing How We Care, medical anthropologist Susan Shaw examines the relationship between government and citizens using case studies of needle exchange and Welfare-to-Work programs to illustrate...

  9. 78 FR 57675 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge Approvals and Disapprovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... efficient off-road vehicle. DETERMINATION: Disapproved. Each project was determined to not meet the... credits. DECISION DATE: March 20, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Susan Moore, Orlando Airports...

  10. Kui sulg ei jookse... / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus

    2003-01-01

    Kuidas stsenarist Charlie Kaufman kirjutas stsenaariumi oma loomevaevadest Susan Orleani raamatu filmiks kirjutamisel : mängufilm "Kuidas kirjutada kassafilmi" ("Adaptation") : režissöör Spike Jonze : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2002

  11. 76 FR 2905 - FY2011 Supplemental Funding for Brownfields Revolving Loan Fund (RLF) Grantees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ...- 3364, Fax (415) 972- 3364. EPA Region 10, Susan Morales, AK, ID, OR, WA... 1200 Sixth Avenue, Morales.... Dated: January 10, 2011. David R. Lloyd, Director, Office of Brownfields and Land Revitalization, Office...

  12. Kui kapital veab alt, siis turvaliselt / Aleksander Tsapov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tsapov, Aleksander

    2006-01-01

    Kuraatorinäitus "Kapital (see veab meid alt)" Tallinna Kunstihoones. Kuraator Simon Sheikh. Fia-Stina Sandlundi, Katya Sanderi, Oliver Ressleri, Ashley Hunti ja Susan Kelly&Stephen Mortoni töödest näitusel

  13. 75 FR 59209 - Certain Coated Paper Suitable for High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    .... Lorentzen, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Import Administration, from Susan Kuhbach, Director, Office 1.... Provision of Standing Timber for Less Than Adequate Remuneration 2. Government Prohibition of Log Exports 3...

  14. 75 FR 46938 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... Logistics LLC (NVO), 120 S. Woodland Blvd., 216, DeLand, FL 32720, Officers: Dietmar Lutte, Manager Member, (Qualifying Individual), Susan Lutte, Member, Application Type: New NVO License. Bridgeline Logistics..., (Qualifying Individual), Application Type: New OFF License. [[Page 46939

  15. 77 FR 75143 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... the Year, Excellence in Promoting Cultural and Ethnic Diversity (in honor of Secretary Ronald Brown), Excellence in Business Leadership, and the Susan Snow Cotter Award for Excellence in Ocean and Coastal...

  16. 1. IV avati Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis šoti videokunstinäitus "Nähtamatud väljad"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Kuraatorid Sarah Felton ja Su Grierson, osalevad kunstnikud Victoria Clare Bernie, Samantha Clark, Maria Doyle, S. Felton, S. Grierson, Belinda Guidi, Anne Bjerge Hansen, Metacorpus, Jane McInally, Rosalind Nashashibi, Susannah Silver ja Susan Sloan

  17. Raamatututvustus / Rein Põder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Põder, Rein, 1943-

    1995-01-01

    Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. Üksildase uitaja mõtisklused; Hill, Susan. Proua de Winter; Kõrvemaast põhjarannani : Kuusalu kihelkonna kirjanduslik-kodulooline antoloogia / Koost. Helmut Elstrok; Tead.toim. Oskar Kuningas

  18. Foundations of health psychology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Friedman, Howard S; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2007-01-01

    ... and Effective Treatment 9 Adjustment to Chronic Disease: Progress and Promise in Research Annette L. Stanton and Tracey A. Revenson 203 10 Aging and Health 234 Karen S. Rook, Susan T. Charles, and...

  19. 77 FR 51845 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    .... Miska (MN), Susan L. Mosel (WI), Mark T. L. Owings (KS), Jacob D. Oxford (ID), Derek W. Palmer (MA), Robert D. Regavich (NJ), Jack W. Schlichting (MN), Lonnie H. Shere (WA), Craig A. Trimmer (OH), Lisa E...

  20. 76 FR 57036 - Notice of Open Meeting of the Advisory Committee of the Export-Import Bank of the United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ..., and you may contact Susan Houser to be placed on an attendee list. If any person wishes auxiliary aids (such as a sign language interpreter) or other special accommodations, please contact, prior to...

  1. 75 FR 29759 - Notice of Open Meeting of the Advisory Committee of the Export-Import Bank of the United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... building, and you may contact Susan Houser to be placed on an attendee list. If any person wishes auxiliary aids (such as a sign language interpreter) or other special accommodations, please contact, prior to...

  2. Eesti president Toomas H. Ilves Pennsylvania ülikooli ajakirjas / Airi Vaga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaga, Airi, 1940-

    2008-01-01

    University of Pennsylvania ajakirjas "The Pennsylvania Gazette" ilmunud artiklist "From Estonian Exile to Executive Office", autor Susan Frith - järjekordsest võimalusest tutvustada Eestit ja eestlasi USA ülikoolide kaudu

  3. Ämbliku jäljed kivimüüril / Sigrid Saarep

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saarep, Sigrid, 1963-

    2009-01-01

    Suurbritannia paviljonis 53. Veneetsia kunstibiennaalil esinevad kunstnikud Steve McQueen, John Cale (Wales), Martin Boyce (Šotimaa) ja Susan MacWilliam (Põhja-Iirimaa). Videokunstnik Steve McQueeni filmist "Giardini" (2009)

  4. 77 FR 64794 - Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Ronda L. Holbrook, U.S. Department of Commerce, Human Resources Operations Center... Management, Minority Business Development Agency, career. Dated: October 11, 2012. Susan Boggs, Director, Office of Staffing, Recruitment and Classification, Department of Commerce Human Resources Operations...

  5. African Journal of AIDS Research - Vol 13, No 4 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clemens Ley, Lloyd Leach, María Rato Barrio, Susan Bassett ... Charles Omondi Olang'o, Erick Nyambedha, Jens Aagaard-Hansen ... Bierhuizen, Arlinda Zango, Nienke Veldhuijzen, Fidelina Cumbe, Paul J Feldblum, Janneke van de Wijgert.

  6. Investigation of manganese homeostasis in dogs with anaemia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation of manganese homeostasis in dogs with anaemia and chronic enteropathy. Marisa da Fonseca Ferreira, Arielle Elizabeth Ann Aylor, Richard John Mellanby, Susan Mary Campbell, Adam George Gow ...

  7. 78 FR 45538 - The Patient Preference Initiative: Incorporating Patient Preference Information Into the Medical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... beginning at 7 a.m. If you need special accommodations due to a disability, please contact Susan Monahan... within the Total Product Life Cycle regulatory paradigm? In what ways should it not be used? What...

  8. 76 FR 72013 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ...''); Colette J. Irwin-Knott, CIPFA, President, National Association of Independent Public Finance Advisors...''); and Susan Gaffney, Director, Federal Liaison Center, Government Finance Officers Association, dated... principles of trade, to foster cooperation and coordination with persons engaged in regulating, clearing...

  9. AFRICOM: Does Location Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Decision Model,” 242-244. 26 Susan Hesse Owen & Mark S. Daskin , “Strategic Facility Location: A Review,” European Journal of Operational Research...Susan Hesse & Mark S. Daskin . “Strategic Facility Location: A Review,” European Journal of Operational Research 111 (1998), 423-447. Paye-Layeleh...ES) N/ A 10. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and

  10. The NATO SOF Air Wing: A Basing Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    11 Susan Hesse Owen & Mark S. Daskin , “Strategic Facility Location: A Review,” European Journal of Operational Research 111, (1998), 423. 6 the...Journal of Travel Research 45, (2006):167–174. Owen, Susan Hesse and Daskin , Mark S. “Strategic Facility Location: A Review.” European Journal of...WING: A BASING DECISION by James M. Cox December 2012 Thesis Advisor: William Fox Second Reader: Brian Greenshields THIS PAGE

  11. Guilt-Free War: Post-Traumatic Stress and an Ethical Framework for Battlefield Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Susan Wolf, “ Moral Obligations and Social Command,” in Metaphysics and the Good: Themes from the Philosophy of Robert Merrihew Adams, edited by...1–18. Wolf, Susan. “ Moral Obligations and Social Command.” In Metaphysics and the Good: Themes from the Philosophy of Robert Merrihew Ad- ams, edited...Analysis of Recent Studies 5 Discussion of Various Approaches to Addressing Moral Injuries 7 Recommendations 17 Conclusion 19 Abbreviations 25

  12. Measuring the Foundation of Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Pirak Kevin Eack Susan Pyle Chuck Eaneff Joseph Saitta Susan Fernandez Shelly Schechter Helen Fitzpatrick Rick Schwein Jay...multiple disciplines. The scope of this literature review is to cast a broad net and then narrow to specific literature related to Homeland Security...Suez Canal. His successes as a planner, diplomat and promoter made him the most celebrated man in Europe. Because of these successes, De Lesseps

  13. Critical Rare Earths, National Security, and U.S.-China Interactions: A Portfolio Approach to Dysprosium Policy Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    from Donald and Susan Rice , both funds which enabled me to focus on the dissertation. I thank Dean Susan Marquis for her dedication to the growth of...quota of 89,2000 tonnes (Table 2.2). The sprawling black market not only prevents Beijing’s efforts to bring the production under its levers to...yttrium are often used for pigmentation for consumer products such as paint and sunglasses. REE-based lasers are used for cosmetic , epidermal, and

  14. Wanna play?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderhoff, Merete

    2015-01-01

    Part of the online publication series CODE | WORDS. Technology and Theory in the Museum, edited by Ed Rodley (Peabody Essex Museum), Robert Stein (Dallas Museum of Art) and Susan Cairns (Baltimore Museum of Art)......Part of the online publication series CODE | WORDS. Technology and Theory in the Museum, edited by Ed Rodley (Peabody Essex Museum), Robert Stein (Dallas Museum of Art) and Susan Cairns (Baltimore Museum of Art)...

  15. Possible Regulatory Improvements of the American Housing Finance System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Jens

    2018-01-01

    Book review of: Susan M. Wachter and Joseph Tracy (eds.): Principles of Housing Finance Reform. PENN—University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 282 pp, $65.00s, ISBN: 978-0-8122-4862-3......Book review of: Susan M. Wachter and Joseph Tracy (eds.): Principles of Housing Finance Reform. PENN—University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 282 pp, $65.00s, ISBN: 978-0-8122-4862-3...

  16. Characterizing Musculoskeletal Injury among Aeromedical Evacuation Personnel: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-28

    Jennifer Serres, PhD; Col Susan Dukes, PhD; Molly Wade, MS; Brittany Fouts, MS; Mandy Cowgill, MS; Daniel Pohlman, BS September 2016...CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Jennifer Serres, Susan Dukes, Molly Wade, Brittany Fouts, Mandy... environment . 2.0 INTRODUCTION Musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs) result from the cumulative trauma associated with repetitive and physically

  17. Performance-Based Risk-Sharing Arrangements: U.S. Payer Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, Joseph A; Ung, Brian; van Boemmel-Wegmann, Sascha; Navarro, Robert P; Parece, Andrew

    2017-10-01

    modeling ranked highest among methods of manufacturer facilitation of PBRSAs. This study was limited by sample size and survey questions were limited to explanation of PBRSAs at the disease state level. On the basis of PBRSA experiences, respondents noted that drug use in chronic medical conditions and objective drug outcome performance measurements were favorable drug characteristics and serve as the primary source of satisfaction for these types of contracts. Third parties and manufacturers can facilitate the uptake and success of PBRSAs by developing standardized contracting templates in addition to other methods that increase their stake in the arrangement. Looking forward, mounting perceptions of success in this realm of contracting for pharmaceuticals may contribute in the quest for value-based payments in the U.S. health care system. The construction of the survey and payment for survey respondents were supported by Charles River Associates. Parece is an employee of Charles River Associates. Goble and Ung are completing fellowship training sponsored by Novartis and Celgene, respectively, but do not have any conflicts of interest and did not receive any funding related to this study. Navarro reports consulting fees from Analysis Group, TEVA, and Amgen, unrelated to this study. Van Boemmel-Wegmann declares no conflict of interest. Study concept and design were contributed by Navarro, Goble, Ung, and Parece. Navarro took the lead in data collection, along with Goble and Ung, and data interpretation was performed by van Boemmel-Wegmann, Goble, and Ung. The manuscript was written by Goble, Ung, Navarro, and van Boemmel-Wegmann and revised by all of the authors.

  18. A model-based approach to stabilizing crutch supported paraplegic standing by artifical hip joint stiffness

    OpenAIRE

    van der Spek, J.H.; Veltink, Petrus H.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.; Boom, H.B.K.

    2003-01-01

    The prerequisites for stable crutch supported standing were analyzed in this paper. For this purpose, a biomechanical model of crutch supported paraplegic stance was developed assuming the patient was standing with extended knees. When using crutches during stance, the crutches will put a position constraint on the shoulder, thus reducing the number of degrees of freedom. Additional hip-joint stiffness was applied to stabilize the hip joint and, therefore, to stabilize stance. The required hi...

  19. Chandra Snapshot Spectral Imaging of Comets C/2001 Q4 (NEAT) and C/2002 T7 (LINEAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, Carey

    2003-09-01

    The highly favorable perigee passage of the very bright comets C/2001 Q4 (NEAT) and C/2002 T7 (LINEAR) in late May 2004 provides an opportunity to study cometary x-ray emission in conjunction with the new CHIPS spectroscopic mission. In 10 ksec of on-target time for each comet, ACIS-S will obtain snapshot images of the comets in the heart of the CHIPS 0.05 0.150 keV spectroscopic monitoring period in late-May 2004. The combined observations have the potential of directly detecting for the first time the ultra-soft emission due to Mg, S, Si, and Fe predicted by McCammon et al. (2002) from soft x-ray background measurements and by Kharchenko et al. (2000, 2003) from models of solar wind minor ion charge exchange emission. New work by Wegmann, Dennerl, and Lisse (2004) allows a determination of the neutral gas production rate from the spatial scale of the emission, and an independent determination of the solar wind minor ion flux density using the x-ray surface brightness.

  20. Focusing on life beyond numers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prip, Anne; Christiansen, Anette Wendelboe; Zoffmann, Vibeke

    for interventions which are especially tailored to young adult women with poorly controlled Type 1 Diabetes (T1D), applicable by clinicians in practice and effective in promoting health and preventing complications. Susan, a 24-year-old woman, was one of 200 patients between 18 and 35 years old with type 1 diabetes...... provide insight into how the autonomy supportive intervention is experienced, from the person perspective. Methods A case study was conducted one year after Susan had finished the trial. Susan was interviewed by two external interviewers who were not involved in the intervention. The interview...... was thematically analysed according to a procedure suggested by Braun and Clarke. An overview of Susan’s diabetes management from onset until after the GSD intervention was made based on the interview and electronic patient record data on HbA1c, treatment and complication status. Finally, changes on psychometric...

  1. Antenatal care--antenatal screening for fetal abnormality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baston, Helen

    2003-02-01

    JOANNA IS NOW 24 WEEKS pregnant. She is feeling very well and finding that now her energy has returned, she is really enjoying being preganant. She still proudly shows her precious scan picture to interested friends and takes the occasional glance herself during quiet moments. Joanna, has a cousin, Susan, who has Down's syndrome. Susan is a happy and loving child who has brought a lot of joy, as well as heartache, to the extended family. Although Joanna has no delusions about the hard work and continuing care that her cousin requires, she would not herself contemplate terminating a pregnancy if her baby had the condition.

  2. Fantastiske forbindelser relationer i undervisning og læringssamvær

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antologiens artikler er lavet af en række anerkendte forskere og ide-folk fra Danmark, Norge, Holland, England og USA. Herunder Peter Lang, Daniel Stern, Maria Aarts, Thomas Armstrong, Maria Aarts, Jan Tønnesvang, Stein Bråten, Jesper Juul og Susan Hart......Antologiens artikler er lavet af en række anerkendte forskere og ide-folk fra Danmark, Norge, Holland, England og USA. Herunder Peter Lang, Daniel Stern, Maria Aarts, Thomas Armstrong, Maria Aarts, Jan Tønnesvang, Stein Bråten, Jesper Juul og Susan Hart...

  3. A "Hyper- and Pessimistic Activism" in a Curriculum Master's Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brass, Jory

    2012-01-01

    In this article the author explores Foucault's counter-intuitive views on intellectuals and political activism--a stance he once described as "a hyper- and pessimistic activism" (Foucault, 1983). After contrasting the activist stance of critical pedagogy with Foucault's writing on political activism, the author outlines early attempts to…

  4. Robotics and Discovery Learning: Pedagogical Beliefs, Teacher Practice, and Technology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Florence R.; Moriarty, Mary A.

    2009-01-01

    Much educational software is designed from a specific pedagogical stance. How teachers conceive of the pedagogical stance underlying the design will affect how they utilize the technology; these conceptions may vary from teacher to teacher and from teacher to designer. There may be a conflict between the designer's pedagogical beliefs inscribed in…

  5. Preserving Social Justice Identities: Learning from One Pre-Service Literacy Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticknor, Anne Swenson

    2014-01-01

    Identities that include social justice stances are important for pre-service teachers to adopt in teacher education so they may meet the needs of "all" future students. However, maintaining a social justice identity can be difficult when pre-service teachers are confronted with an evaluator without a social justice stance. This article…

  6. The Internationalisation of Higher Education in Two Different Contexts: Catalan and Estonian Sociolinguistic Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Carbonell, Josep; Gallego-Balsà, Lídia

    2016-01-01

    The topic of the internationalisation of academia has recently attracted attention from sociolinguists and language-policy scholars. In this paper, we compare two different universities from two contrasting contexts in Europe in order to find out more about their projected stance [Jaffe, A. (2009). Stance in a Corsican School: Institutional and…

  7. A model-based approach to stabilizing crutch supported paraplegic standing by artifical hip joint stiffness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spek, J.H.; Veltink, Petrus H.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.; Boom, H.B.K.

    2003-01-01

    The prerequisites for stable crutch supported standing were analyzed in this paper. For this purpose, a biomechanical model of crutch supported paraplegic stance was developed assuming the patient was standing with extended knees. When using crutches during stance, the crutches will put a position

  8. Countering Coloniality in Educational Research: From Ownership to Answerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    In this theoretical article, I argue for a relational stance on learning as a way of reckoning with educational research as part of the settler colonial structure of the United States. Because of my geopolitical location to the United States as a settler colony, I begin by contrasting the stances of anticolonial and decolonial. I then analyze the…

  9. Malaria Genome Sequencing Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    UTTERBACK, TERESA RIGGS, FLORENCE VAN AKEN, SUSAN RIZZO, MICHAEL VISWANATHAN, LAKSHMI ROMERO , CALUDIA DEVI ROONEY, TIMOTHY VON ARX, ANNA RUCH, KAREN...Clark*, R. Clark*, C. Corton *, well with the predictions from the optical map. Chromosome 13 is A. Cronin*, R. Davies*, P. Davis*, P. Dear§, F. Dearden

  10. Defense.gov Special Report: Feds Feed Families 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Fuller. Photo by Steve Lawson, Corporate Communications To date, DFAS Indianapolis Site Director Campaign Materials DOD FFF Flyer Logo Contacts Army: Steve Bickel Navy: Rama Latin Air Force: Carl Buchanan Biographies Organization Mission History Frequently Asked Questions Available jobs with DOD Top Issues

  11. Part four: The research dissertation: planning, producing and writing a thesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, J; Hall, S

    2015-11-01

    Dissertations have become common inclusions to postgraduate degrees in healthcare. To the novice researcher, undertaking an extensive project of this kind can appear daunting. In this final article in the series 'Spotlight on Research', Julie Quick and Susan Hall advise perioperative practitioners on how to plan, produce and write a research dissertation. Guidance is also given on disseminating the results from research studies.

  12. Tanzania Journal of Health Research - Vol 20, No 2 (2018)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-demographic determinants of dengue infection during an outbreak in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Neema Camara, Billy Ngasala, Germana Leyna, Ahmed Abade, Susan F. Rumisha, Ndekya M. Oriyo, Leonard ...

  13. Children's Need to Know: Curiosity in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Susan

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, Susan Engel argues that curiosity is both intrinsic to children's development and unfolds through social interactions. Thus, it should be cultivated in schools, even though it is often almost completely absent from classrooms. Calling on well-established research and more recent studies, Engel argues that interactions between…

  14. Reference Correction to: Making Air Pollution Visible: A Tool for Promoting Environmental Health Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkina Cleary, Ekaterina; Patton, Allison P; Wu, Hsin-Ching; Xie, Alan; Stubblefield, Joseph; Mass, William; Grinstein, Georges; Koch-Weser, Susan; Brugge, Doug; Wong, Carolyn

    2017-12-20

    [This corrects the article DOI: 10.2196/publichealth.7492.]. ©Ekaterina Galkina Cleary, Allison P Patton, Hsin-Ching Wu, Alan Xie, Joseph Stubblefield, William Mass, Georges Grinstein, Susan Koch-Weser, Doug Brugge, Carolyn Wong. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 20.12.2017.

  15. ANALYSIS OR THE POTENTIAL SPERM BIOMARKER, SP22, IN HUMAN SEMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANALYSIS OF THE POTENTIAL SPERM BIOMARKER SP22 IN HUMAN SEMEN Rebecca A. Morris Ph.D.1, Gary R. Klinefelter Ph.D.1, Naomi L. Roberts 1, Juan D. Suarez 1, Lillian F. Strader 1, Susan C. Jeffay 1 and Sally D. Perreault Ph.D.1 1 U.S. EPA / ORD / National Health a...

  16. Fostering Helping Relationships: An Interview with W. Brad Johnson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. Brad; Robison, Susan

    2017-01-01

    There are many kinds of helping relationships--coaching, mentoring, psychotherapy, and others. In this interview with W. Brad Johnson, Susan Robison explores how some of his insights about mentoring can be applicable to other types of helping relationships, like coaching. Mentoring is viewed as a broader relationship, but does include many of the…

  17. Isast, Pojast ja Pühast Arhitektuurist / Toivo Tammik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammik, Toivo

    2006-01-01

    Dokumentaalfilmist Saaremaalt pärit ameerika arhitektist Louis Kahnist "My Architect : A Son's Journey" (režissöör Nathaniel Kahn, produtsent Susan Behr, USA, 2003, 116 min.) ja viibimisest Philadelphias seoses Louis Kahni päevade ettevalmistamisega

  18. Introverts Can Succeed with Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, George

    2014-01-01

    I was interested in reviewing Susan Cain's (2013) "Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can't Stop Talking" for two reasons. First, as an introvert I wanted to learn more about myself. Second, I wanted to explore Cain and others' criticism that group activities in the workplace and in education are unfair to introverts. This…

  19. Steven Moffat and Sue Vertue visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Caraban Gonzalez, Noemi

    2016-01-01

    Steven William Moffat, OBE is a Scottish television writer and producer, known for his work as showrunner, writer and producer of the British television series Doctor Who and Sherlock. Susan "Sue" Nicola Vertue is an English television producer, mainly of comedy shows, including Mr. Bean and Coupling.

  20. 78 FR 67333 - Performance Review Board Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Performance Review Board Membership AGENCY: Economics and Statistics... eligible to serve on the Performance Review Board (PRB) in accordance with the Economics and Statistics.... Arnold William G. Bostic, Jr. Stephen B. Burke Joanne Buenzli Crane Susan R. Helper Ron S. Jarmin Enrique...

  1. 75 FR 74007 - Federal Aquatic Nuisance Species Research Risk Analysis Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... site, http://anstaskforce.gov/documents.php . To obtain a hard copy of the Protocol, see Document... aquatic species that are the target of this risk analysis. Language used in the NANPCA differentiates...: http://anstaskforce.gov/documents.php Write: Susan Pasko, National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  2. Book Review | Dunn-Coetzee | Journal of Student Affairs in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Roberts, Dennis C. & Komives, Susan R. (Eds.) (2016). Enhancing Student Learning and Development in Cross- Border Higher Education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online.

  3. Phonological Networks and New Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Service, Elisabet

    2006-01-01

    The first report of a connection between vocabulary learning and phonological short-term memory was published in 1988 (Baddeley, Papagno, & Vallar, 1988). At that time, both Susan Gathercole and I were involved in longitudinal studies, investigating the relation between nonword repetition and language learning. We both found a connection. Now,…

  4. Consequences of Inadequate Physical Activity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-03-27

    Listen as CDC Epidemiologist Susan Carlson, PhD, talks about her research, which estimates the percentage of US deaths attributed to inadequate levels of physical activity.  Created: 3/27/2018 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/27/2018.

  5. TB in Wild Asian Elephants

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-05-10

    Dr. Susan Mikota, co-founder of Elephant Care International, discusses TB in wild Asian elephants.  Created: 5/10/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/10/2017.

  6. Action needed to help Cape Town adapt to climate change | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-09

    Jun 9, 2016 ... The impacts of climate change on the city of Cape Town, South Africa, are outlined in a new book, Climate Change at the City Scale. IDRC-supported researchers Anton Cartwright, Susan Parnell, Gregg Oelofse, and Sarah Ward argue that local governments and scientists need to work together to take ...

  7. African Zoology - Vol 32, No 2 (1997)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metabolic rate and body temperature of an African sun bird, Nectarinia chalybea: daily rhythm and the effect of ambient temperature · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Belle Leon, Susan W Nicolson ...

  8. Making the Most of Multiple Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-choice questions draw criticism because many people perceive they test only recall or atomistic, surface-level objectives and do not require students to think. Although this can be the case, it does not have to be that way. Susan M. Brookhart suggests that multiple-choice questions are a useful part of any teacher's questioning repertoire…

  9. 75 FR 57974 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    .... Crocetti Jr., Louis D. Cullen, Susan M. Cummiskey, Chris Daitch, William Davis, Delia P. Dayton, Mark de.... Armstrong, Charles R. Ayala, Janice Aytes, Michael L. Bacon, Roxana Baldwin, William D. Baroukh, Nader Barr... Brundage, William Bucella, Donna A. Bucher, Steven P. Buckingham, Patricia A. Burke, Richard Butcher...

  10. Crowdsourced Geospatial Data: A Report on the Emerging Phenomena of Crowdsourced and User-Generated Geospatial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    www.osmfoundation.org/wiki/Data_Working_Group.   126   Devillers, Rodolphe, Alfred Stein, Yvan Bédard, Nicholas Chrisman, Peter Fisher, and Wenzhong Shi...Francis, Peter J. Blancher, Susan R. Drennan, Mar- shall A. Howe, Denis Lepage, Chandler . S. Robbins, Kenneth V. Rosen- berg, John R. Sauer, and

  11. 75 FR 1566 - Public Hearings for Reconsideration of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ..., Moody Ballroom (located on the ground floor), 8181 Airport Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77061. Telephone... Standards for Ozone'' proposed rule should be addressed to Ms. Susan Lyon Stone, U.S. EPA, Office of Air... Park, NC 27711, telephone: (919) 541-1146, e-mail: stone[email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The...

  12. Ten Game-Changing Communications Steps for College and University Presidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Susan

    2016-01-01

    In this article Susan Jacobson offers advice on connecting and leading as a college or university president, whether new to the job or with years of experience. The key, Jacobson says, is communicating. She explains that while it might sound obvious, the importance of reaching out, connecting, and building and maintaining relationships cannot be…

  13. Enacted Realities in Teachers' Experiences: Bringing Materialism into Pragmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundström Sjödin, Elin; Wahlström, Ninni

    2017-01-01

    In this article we explore factors that constitute "the social" for the teacher Susan, which at the same time highlights ethical aspects of the exercise of her profession. We meet her in a situation where she is setting grades, and our interest focuses on the relations that become of concern for her in her professional task to give the…

  14. MaliSheep10R2 rev19JanAM

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    funds research projects that aim to solve immediate and concrete food security challenges in the developing world. For more information on this project, contact innocent Butare. Dakar. Senegal (ibutare@idrc.org.sn) or Susan Robertson. Ottawa. Canada. (srobertson@idrc.ca). For more information on the Fund, visit ...

  15. Fermilab Friends for Science Education | Contact Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermilab Friends for Science Education FFSE Home About Us Join Us Support Us Contact Us Contact Us Science Education P.O Box 500, MS 777 Batavia, IL 60510-5011 (630) 840-3094 * fax: (630) 840-2500 E-mail : Membership Send all other communications to: Susan Dahl, President Fermilab Friends for Science Education Box

  16. 75 FR 31812 - Receipt of Applications for Endangered Species Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... Atlantic Ocean. Applicant: Carol Johnston, Auburn, Alabama, TE178666 The applicant requests authorization... the Indiana bat in Kentucky. Applicant: Susan Loeb, U.S. Forest Service, Clemson, South Carolina... bat in the following locations: Cherokee National Forest and Great Smoky Mountains National Park...

  17. Solenoid pick-up problem in the CREN-K Triga Mark 2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malu wa Kalenga; Kobakozete Itono; Diazengwa Mpaka; Mampaka Mana Mouiny; Itio Momba

    1981-01-01

    During a lazy susan forty irradiation tube inspection with the specimen lifting device, the solenoid-operated specimen pick-up tool happened to be locked in the number fourteen position loading tube. The present paper describes the successful experiment which was carried out to solve a potential damaging situation for the safe and useful operation of the reactor. The first step in the investigation process was to ascertain what has indeed occurred in the reactor core to avoid any ill advised step which will worsen the situation. The alternatives were the following: a) The specimen tube was not lined with the loading tube; b) The lazy susan was not working properly due example to the fact that a roll pin in a drive shaft coupling inside the drive shaft tube has been broken; c) The pick-up tool has produced through the cleanout hole in the bottom of the specimen tube and engage the hole; d) The pick-up tool might have slided most of the way between the lazy susan and its housing. By moving up and down the pick-up tool and rotating back and forth the lazy susan it was possible to come to the conclusion that alternative c) was the most likely. It was not possible to release the pick-up tool because its engaging arms could not be activated as was often the case when lifting aluminium container

  18. 75 FR 65648 - Notice of Proposed Withdrawal Extension and Opportunity for Public Meeting for the Peony, Pole...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ..., Pole Pick, and Frank Burge Seed Orchards; Washington AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior... functionality of the seed orchards, along with the investment of Federal funds at the Peony, Pole Pick, and.../Washington State Office, (503) 808-6189, or Susan Daugherty, USFS Pacific Northwest Region, (503) 808-2416...

  19. Solenoid pick-up problem in the CREN-K Triga Mark 2 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malu wa Kalenga; Kobakozete Itono; Diazengwa Mpaka; Mampaka Mana Mouiny; Itio Momba (Commissariat des Sciences Nucleaires, Kinshasa (Zaire). Centre Regional d' Etudes Nucleaires)

    1981-01-01

    During a lazy susan forty irradiation tube inspection with the specimen lifting device, the solenoid-operated specimen pick-up tool happened to be locked in the number fourteen position loading tube. The present paper describes the successful experiment which was carried out to solve a potential damaging situation for the safe and useful operation of the reactor. The first step in the investigation process was to ascertain what has indeed occurred in the reactor core to avoid any ill advised step which will worsen the situation. The alternatives were the following: a) The specimen tube was not lined with the loading tube; b) The lazy susan was not working properly due example to the fact that a roll pin in a drive shaft coupling inside the drive shaft tube has been broken; c) The pick-up tool has produced through the cleanout hole in the bottom of the specimen tube and engage the hole; d) The pick-up tool might have slided most of the way between the lazy susan and its housing. By moving up and down the pick-up tool and rotating back and forth the lazy susan it was possible to come to the conclusion that alternative c) was the most likely. It was not possible to release the pick-up tool because its engaging arms could not be activated as was often the case when lifting aluminium container.

  20. Interview with Peter Samis and Mimi Michaelson, Authors of "Creating the Visitor-Centered Museum"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spero, Susan

    2017-01-01

    "Creating the Visitor-Centered Museum" offers insight into why and how 10 case study museums have transformed to serve the needs of their public. Susan Spero interviews authors Peter Samis and Mimi Michaelson about the purpose of the book, their case study choices, the key characteristics of visitor-centered institutions and their…

  1. 75 FR 69160 - Quarterly Publication of Individuals, Who Have Chosen To Expatriate, as Required by Section 6039G

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... Kendall Teresa Kennedy Christin Susan Kim Chung H. Kim Hannah Boyoung Kim Johnny Han Kin Tse Wing Kiresepi... Ronald Lao Man Bee Lao Ruperto C. Laty Fabrice S. Lau Kwok Chu Lau Lawrence Juen-Yee Lau Megan Shirley... Po Polly Tsangrides Philippos Alexandros Tse Anthony Wai Chung Tse Christopher Tung Alan Leih-Sing...

  2. Number of Physics Faculty in Two-Year Colleges: Results from the 2012 Survey of Physics in Two-Year Colleges. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan; Chu, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    In an earlier report, ("Physics Enrollments in Two-Year Colleges," ED547610), Susan White and Raymond Chu examined physics enrollments--both the number of students and the types of classes taught--at the 1,063 two-year college campuses in the US where they believe physics is offered. This "Focus On" considers the faculty…

  3. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Penning, Susan Louise. Vol 22, No 2 (2010) - Articles Research Paper Bullying boys: the traumatic effects of bullying in male adolescent learners. Abstract. ISSN: 1728-0591. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms ...

  4. A Narrative Model of Recovery | Kelland | South African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper I defend the suggestion that narratively understanding her experience of rape can help a survivor in her recovery from the harm that she has suffered. Susan Brison defends a similar suggestion, but, I argue, does not get all of the possible mileage out of narrative understanding because she does not explore ...

  5. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana. SHEFALI CHAND. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 41 Issue 12 December 2016 pp 1393-1406. Image coding based on maximum entropy partitioning for identifying improbable intensities related to facial expressions · SEBA SUSAN NANDINI AGGARWAL SHEFALI CHAND AYUSH GUPTA.

  6. 77 FR 27509 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board; Order Approving Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... September 30, 2010 (``BDA Letter I''); Colette J. Irwin-Knott, CIPFA, President, National Association of... December 1, 2011 (``BDA Letter II''); Susan Gaffney, Director, Federal Liaison Center, Government Finance... America, dated January 30, 2012 (``BDA Letter III''); Colette J. Irwin-Knott, CIPFA, President, National...

  7. For Your Bookshelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rebecca

    2002-01-01

    Reviews notable education books of 2001: "Not in Front of the Children" (Marjorie Heins); "The other Boston Busing Story" (Susan E. Eaton); "Another Planet" (Elinor Burkett); "Parents Under Siege" (James Garbarino and Claire Bedard); "Radical Equations" (Robert P. Moses and Charles E. Cobb, Jr.); "School" (Sheila Curran Bernard and Sarah Mondale);…

  8. The Technology of Unequal Rights for Women: Patent Drawings of a Voting Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In 1878, Senator Aaron A. Sargent of California introduced to the Senate an amendment to the Constitution "Conferring upon Women the Right of Suffrage." Drafted by Susan B. Anthony, this same amendment would be introduced on a near-yearly basis until its final passage by Congress on May 19, 1919. Varying degrees of voting rights presented an…

  9. Community-Based Prevalence Profile of Arboviral, Rickettsial, and Hantaan-Like Viral Antibody in the Nile River Delta of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    presentation. Susan Hibbsfor assisting in the preparation of the data for presen- cates that the antibody response is strengthened tation. Dr. Atef Soliman...virus: a newly 630-633. recognized arthropod transmitted virus. AIntJ 3. Scott RM. Feinsod FNM, Allam IH. Ksiazek TG. Trop Med H * g 4: 844-862. Peters

  10. Uued ja vanad ruumimängud / Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Varblane, Reet, 1952-

    1998-01-01

    Inglise-eesti ühisnäitus 'Private views : taas/avastatud ruum Eesti ja Briti kaasaegses kunstis' Rotermanni soolalaos. Kuraatorid Mare Tralla, Pam Skelton. Feminismist kui tähenduslikust ruumist. Eve Kiileri, Mari Koorti, Liina Siibi, Susan Brindi, Ene-Liis Semperi, Anu Juuraku, Naomi Dinesi, rühmituse F.F.F.F., kuraatorite esinemisest.

  11. The Cyber Dimensions of the Syrian Civil War: Implications for Future Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-15

    worldview of US cyber operations, which has recently been portrayed in an unflattering light after leaks by Edward Snowden .65 Many cyber...Christine Fox, Susan Lee, Mark Lewellyn, Thomas Mahnken, Peter Nanos, and Edward Smyth. About the Author Captain Edwin J. Grohe, a native of Milford

  12. Primary Prevention Approaches to the Development of Mental Health Services for Ethnic Minorities: A Challenge to Social Work Education and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Samuel O., Ed.; And Others

    This monograph contains articles on mental health needs, experiences, and preventive social work programs in ethnic minority communities. An overview by Gwenelle Styles O'Neal reviews factors that influence the mental health of ethnic minorities and explores family and community support networks for alleviating stress. Susan Bellinger examines…

  13. National CrossTalk. Volume 16, Number 1, Fall 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombley, William, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The primary purpose of "National CrossTalk" is to stimulate informed discussion and debate of higher education issues. This issue contains the following articles: (1) The Credit Crisis Goes to College: Upheaval in the Student-Loan Business Leaves Students and Parents Scrambling (Susan C. Thomson); (2) The Engaged University: Northern…

  14. National CrossTalk. Volume 13, Number 4, Fall 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombley, William, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The primary purpose of "National CrossTalk" is to stimulate informed discussion and debate of higher education issues. This publication contains the following articles: (1) "Truth in Tuition" (Susan C. Thomson); (2) In Katrina's Wake (Kathy Witkowsky); (3) News from the Center: New Center Associates; (4) Colorado On the Edge…

  15. Eliminate the "Bounce"!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Susan

    2016-01-01

    The "bounce" (coined by students at Susan Leigh's last campus) refers to the amount of time students spent chasing signatures and removing often-unnecessary registration "holds" in order to attend their classes. Leigh explains that all this chaos from complex, separately housed transactional business processes has led to the…

  16. A guide to innovation in informal settings | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-11-06

    Nov 6, 2012 ... Innovation in Informal Settings: A Research Agenda by Susan Cozzens and Judith Sutz presents a framework that can be used by researchers, ... will find this theoretical guide useful as it explores the five criteria of innovation: ...

  17. Communicators take nine Virginia Press Women awards

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Three Virginia Tech communicators have won Virginia Press Women awards. The winners - Susan Trulove, research division communications manager; Clara Cox, university publications director; and Heather Riley Chadwick, College of Architecture and Urban Studies communication manager - were announced at the Virginia Press Women Annual Spring Conference in Staunton, Va.

  18. Exploring the world of human development and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red-Horse, Kristy; Drake, Penelope M; Fisher, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Susan Fisher has spent her career studying human development, proteomics, and the intersection between the two. When she began studying human placentation, there had been extensive descriptive studies of this fascinating organ that intertwines with the mother's vasculature during pregnancy. Susan can be credited with numerous major findings on the mechanisms that regulate placental cytotrophoblast invasion. These include the discovery that cytotrophoblasts undergo vascular mimicry to insert themselves into uterine arteries, the finding that oxygen tension greatly effects placentation, and identifying how these responses go awry in pregnancy complications such as preeclamsia. Other important work has focused on the effect of post-translational modifications such as glycosylation on bacterial adhesion and reproduction. Susan has also forayed into the world of proteomics to identify cancer biomarkers. Because her work is truly groundbreaking, many of these findings inspire research in other laboratories around the world resulting in numerous follow up papers. Likewise, her mentoring and support inspires young scientists to go on and make their own important discoveries. In this interview, Susan shares what drove her science, how she continued to do important research while balancing other aspects of life, and provides insights for the next generation.

  19. Remedial principles and meaningful engagement in education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article evaluates the meaningful engagement doctrine in the education rights jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court in the light of a set of normative principles developed by Susan Sturm for evaluating participatory public law remedies. It commences by identifying four principles for evaluating participatory remedies ...

  20. Manipulating the Characteristics of Words and Nonwords to Better Understand Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitevitch, Michael S.

    2006-01-01

    The work of Susan Gathercole and others on nonword repetition has increased general interest in the relationship between memory and language, and has provided a fertile theoretical framework for researchers to explore how the language system makes use of the phonological loop, a component in Baddeley's (1986) working memory model. Gathercole…