WorldWideScience

Sample records for stamps program parameters

  1. ANALYSIS OF FOOD STAMP PROGRAM PARTICIPATION AND FOOD EXPENDITURES

    OpenAIRE

    Smallwood, David M.; Blaylock, James R.

    1985-01-01

    A two equation model is developed to examine jointly the determinants of household food stamp program participation and program effects on food expenditures. The model is unique in that it postulates that the participation decision is based on a cost-benefit ratio, selected socioeconomic characteristics, and the potential for increasing both food and nonfood expenditures. Data from the 1977-78 USDA Nationwide Food Consumption Survey Supplemental Low Income Sample is used to estimate the model...

  2. Investigation of the influence of process parameters on adhesive wear under hot stamping conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwingenschlögl, P.; Weldi, M.; Merklein, M.

    2017-09-01

    Current challenges like increasing safety standards and reducing fuel consumption motivate lightweight construction in modern car bodies. Besides using lightweight workpiece materials like aluminum, hot stamping has been established as a key technology for producing safety relevant components. Producing hot stamped parts out of ultra-high strength steels offers the possibility to improve the crash performance. At the same time the weight of car structure is reduced by using thinner sheet thicknesses. In order to avoid oxide scale formation and ensure corrosion protection, AlSi coatings are commonly deposited on the sheet surfaces used for direct hot stamping. This workpiece coating has a critical impact on the tribological conditions within the forming process and, as a consequence, influences the quality of hot stamped parts as well as tool wear. AlSi coatings have been identified as major reason for adhesive wear, which represents the main wear mechanism in hot stamping. Within this study, the influence of the process parameters on adhesive wear are investigated in dependency of workpiece and tool temperatures, drawing velocities and contact pressures. The tribological behavior is analyzed based on strip drawing experiments under direct hot stamping conditions. The experiments are performed with AlSi coated 22MnB5 in contact with the hot working tool steel 1.2367. For analyzing the amount of adhesion on the friction jaws, the surfaces are characterized by optical measurements. The experiments indicate that higher workpiece temperatures cause severe adhesive wear on the tool surface, while an increase of drawing velocity or contact pressure led to reduced adhesion. The measured friction coefficients decreased with rising amount of adhesion and remained at a constant level after a certain adhesive layer was built up on the tool surface.

  3. Stamped coal cakes in cokemaking technology Part 1 - A parameter study on stampability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, F.; Rosenkranz, J.; Kuyumcu, H.Z. [Technical University of Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    Coking of coal blends using high volatile coals with poor caking properties to produce a high quality coke for blast furnace application can be achieved by compacting the whole coal blend before pyrolysis in the so called stamp charge operation. Using stamp charging not only improves the flexibility of the coke making plant using cost efficient raw materials, but oven throughput is also increased. Therefore, in recent years, densification of coals has been introduced even to coals with good carbonisation properties when heat recovery ovens are used. At the Department for Mechanical Process Engineering and Solids Processing of the Technical University Berlin, the two subprocesses, densification and strengthening during stamping, were theoretically and experimentally investigated. The research work aims on the development of an integrated mathematical model, allowing the calculation of cake density and strength of the coal cake for a given coal blend depending on the stamping energy. The first part of this paper defines the overall process objectives and presents results from systematic investigations of the effects of several coal properties on the so called stampability as the integral model parameter for compacting. Surface moisture, coal granulometry and mechanical properties have significant influence on the densification. The incorporation of these parameters into the model allows the differentiated calculation of the cake density.

  4. Influence of operating parameters on coke end temperature in stamp charged batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, U.S.; Sarkar, P.; Deshpande, D.P. [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur (India)

    2004-07-01

    Coke end temperature (CET) indicates the final temperature of coke mass after pushing it out from the oven and before quenching and thus is an indicator of the preparedness of the coke. Analysis of plant data from stamp charged batteries at Tata Steel show that it depends on coal blend characteristics and battery conditions. Increased input coal ash, its crushing fineness and volatile matters increases but the moisture decreases it. The heating rate, battery and regenerator temperatures all increase the coke end temperature. The present paper documents that observations on parameters influencing coke end temperature under stamp charged conditions and attempts to hypothesise the possible explanation for the results obtained. 3 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Finite element analysis and optimization of process parameters during stamp forming of composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesan, S; Kalyanasundaram, S

    2010-01-01

    In the manufacture of parts for high performance structures using composite materials, the quality and robustness of the parts is of utmost importance. The quality of the produced parts depends largely on the process parameters and manufacturing methodologies. This study presents the use of a temperature dependant orthotropic material for a coupled structural-thermal analysis of the stamp forming process. The study investigated the effects of process parameters such as pre-heat temperature, blank holder force and process time on the formability of composite materials. Temperature was found to be the dominant factor governing the formability of the composite material while higher blank holder forces were deemed to be important for achieving high quality of the parts manufactured. Finally, an optimum set of parameters was used to compare the simulations with experimental results using an optical strain measurement system.

  6. Food Stamp and School Lunch Programs Alleviate Food Insecurity in Rural America. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kristin; Savage, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    The Food Stamp and the National School Lunch Programs play a vital role in helping poor, rural Americans obtain a more nutritious diet and alleviate food insecurity and hunger. This fact sheet looks at the extent to which rural America depends on these programs and describes characteristics of beneficiaries of these federal nutrition assistance…

  7. Does the Food Stamp Program cause obesity? A realist review and a call for place-based research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBono, Nathaniel L; Ross, Nancy A; Berrang-Ford, Lea

    2012-07-01

    The high prevalence of obesity among low income groups has led some to question the role of food assistance programs in contributing to the problem. The USDA's Food Stamp Program (now known as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program - SNAP) is the largest food assistance program in the United States with over 40 million participants. This paper employed systematic realist review methods to determine whether participation in the Food Stamp Program causes obesity and the causal pathways through which this relationship may exist. Findings indicate a more consistent positive relationship for women than for men, especially for women who are long term users of the program. All studies discussed the "food stamp cycle" and an "income effect" as explanations for the role of food stamps in increased obesity yet evidence for these factors is limited. Curiously, the research in this field does not address obesogenic environments and we suggest that the absence of an understanding of household behavior in local contexts is a significant impediment to the reform of the Food Stamp Program. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Scandiatransplant acceptable mismatch program (STAMP) a bridge to transplanting highly immunized patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed-Nielsen, Pernille; Weinreich, I; Bengtsson, M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Highly immunized patients are a challenge for organ transplantation programs. One way of increasing the likelihood of transplantation in this group of patients is to expand the possible donations by defining acceptable HLA mismatches. In the Scandiatransplant Acceptable Mismatch Program...... (STAMP), a de-centralized approach has been implemented in 2009. AIMS: The program has been improved during the years from utilizing HLA-A, -B, -DR matching only to include typing of all deceased donors for HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1 and -DQB1. The calculation of a transplantability score (TS) has been...... introduced in order to take both HLA and AB0 into consideration resulting in a more realistic picture of the transplantability chance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were selected for eligibility and results of immunisation status were prepared in each of the 9 tissue typing laboratories, while access...

  9. Effect Analysis of Geometric Parameters on Stainless Steel Stamping Multistage Pump by Experimental Test and Numerical Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the efficiency of stainless steel stamping multistage pump, quadratic regression orthogonal test, hydraulic design, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD are used to analyze the effect of pump geometric parameters. Sixteen impellers are designed based on the quadratic regression orthogonal test, which have three factors including impeller outlet slope, impeller blade outlet stagger angle, and impeller blade outlet width. Through quadratic regression equation, the function relationship between efficiency values and three factors is established. The optimal combination of geometric parameters is found through the analysis of the regression equation. To further study the influence of blade thickness on the performance of multistage pump, numerical simulations of multistage pump with different blade thicknesses are carried out. The influence law of blade thickness on pump performance is built from the external characteristics and internal flow field. In conclusion, with the increase of blade thickness, the best efficiency point of the pump shifts to the small flow rate direction, and the vortex regions inside the pump at rated flow gradually increase, which is the main reason that pump efficiency decreases along with the increase of the blade thickness at rated flow.

  10. 75 FR 4911 - Food Stamp Program: Eligibility and Certification Provisions of the Farm Security and Rural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    .... Several commenters suggested that the Department amend the current regulations to clarify that human trafficking victims and certain family members are eligible for food stamps to ensure that victims and their...). The guidance reflects the requirements under the ``Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000'' (Pub...

  11. The Confluence of Sociology, Statistics, and Public Policy in the Quality Control of the Food Stamps, AFDC, and Medicaid Family Assistance Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, S. James; Tanur, Judith M.

    1991-01-01

    Relevance of the intersection of sociology, statistics, and public policy to the study of quality control in three family assistance programs--food stamps, Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), and Medicaid--is reviewed using a study by the National Academy of Sciences of methods for improving quality control systems. (SLD)

  12. DP: Parameter Display Page Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.

    1994-01-01

    The Parameter Display Page program (DP) is a Motif/X11-based program to allow easily configured, dynamic device and process variable monitoring and manipulation in the EPICS environment. DP provides a tabular data format for interactive viewing and manipulation of device and process variable statistics, as well as formatted PostScript output to files and printers. DP understands and operates in two (unfortunately disjoint at this time) namespaces in the EPICS environment ''devices'' and ''process variables''. The higher level namespace of devices includes Composite and Atomic Devices registered via the Device Access server; the lower level (flat) namespace is that of normal Process Variables accessible via Channel Access

  13. The STAMP Software for State Space Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Mendelssohn

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the use of STAMP (Structural Time Series Analyser, Modeler and Predictor for modeling time series data using state-space methods with unobserved components. STAMP is a commercial, GUI-based program that runs on Windows, Linux and Macintosh computers as part of the larger OxMetrics System. STAMP can estimate a wide-variety of both univariate and multivariate state-space models, provides a wide array of diagnostics, and has a batch mode capability. The use of STAMP is illustrated for the Nile river data which is analyzed throughout this issue, as well as by modeling a variety of oceanographic and climate related data sets. The analyses of the oceanographic and climate data illustrate the breadth of models available in STAMP, and that state-space methods produce results that provide new insights into important scientific problems.

  14. Time Stamps for Fixed-Point Approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damian, Daniela

    2001-01-01

    Time stamps were introduced in Shivers's PhD thesis for approximating the result of a control-flow analysis. We show them to be suitable for computing program analyses where the space of results (e.g., control-flow graphs) is large. We formalize time-stamping as a top-down, fixed-point approximat......Time stamps were introduced in Shivers's PhD thesis for approximating the result of a control-flow analysis. We show them to be suitable for computing program analyses where the space of results (e.g., control-flow graphs) is large. We formalize time-stamping as a top-down, fixed...

  15. viStaMPS: The Application For Viewing And Manipulating StaMPS Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Joaquim; Sousa, Antonio; Magalhaes, Luis; Ruiz, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    viStaMPS (visual StaMPS) is a new visual application developed to enhance the visualization, manipulation and exportation of StaMPS results. The programmed application is developed in Matlab® through the Graphical User Interface (GUI) and no coding is required for running it, which avoids any programming language knowledge for standard uses. This tool integrates fully new features together with various scripts from StaMPS, allowing the generation of the desired plots/maps in a user-friendly interface. It is done by simply clicking some buttons or changing some parameters located in visual panels, instead of input commands in a prompt. Moreover, since it is written in Matlab, it gives the users the opportunity to access the data very easily and make their own modifications. Being a research tool, viStaMPS is continually under development and will count on the dynamism of its users to improve and/or add new features.

  16. Stamping through astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Dicati, Renato

    2013-01-01

    Stamps and other postal documents are an attractive vehicle for presenting astronomy and its development. Written with expertise and great enthusiasm, this unique book offers a historical and philatelic survey of astronomy and some related topics on space exploration. It contains more than 1300 color reproductions of stamps relating to the history of astronomy, ranging from the earliest observations of the sky to modern research conducted with satellites and space probes. Featured are the astronomers and astrophysicists who contributed to this marvelous story – not only Ptolemy, Copernicus, Kepler, Newton, Herschel, and Einstein but also hundreds of other minor protagonists who played an important role in the development of this, the most ancient yet the most modern of all the sciences. The book also examines in depth the diverse areas which have contributed to the history of astronomy, including the instrumentation, the theories, and the observations. Many stamps illustrate the beauty and the mystery of ce...

  17. Stamping Die Making. 439-318/320.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunke, P.; And Others

    Each unit in this curriculum guide on stamping die making contains an introduction, objectives, materials required, lessons, space for notes, figures, and diagrams. There are 29 units in this guide, dealing with the following topics: EZ-MILL programming; EZ-MILL BATT; print of punch and EZ-MILL part programming; download to Computer Numerical…

  18. Rapid thermal processing by stamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stradins, Pauls; Wang, Qi

    2013-03-05

    A rapid thermal processing device and methods are provided for thermal processing of samples such as semiconductor wafers. The device has components including a stamp (35) having a stamping surface and a heater or cooler (40) to bring it to a selected processing temperature, a sample holder (20) for holding a sample (10) in position for intimate contact with the stamping surface; and positioning components (25) for moving the stamping surface and the stamp (35) in and away from intimate, substantially non-pressured contact. Methods for using and making such devices are also provided. These devices and methods allow inexpensive, efficient, easily controllable thermal processing.

  19. Program for parameter studies of steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathisen, R.P.

    1982-11-01

    R2-GEN is a computer code for stationary thermal parameter studies of steam generators. The geometry and data are valid for Ringhals-2 generators. Subroutines and relevant calculations are included. The program is based on a heterogeneous flow model and some applications on tubes with varying contamination are presented. (G.B.)

  20. Some Properties of Multiple Parameters Linear Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maoqin Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a linear programming problem in which the right-hand side vector depends on multiple parameters. We study the characters of the optimal value function and the critical regions based on the concept of the optimal partition. We show that the domain of the optimal value function f can be decomposed into finitely many subsets with disjoint relative interiors, which is different from the result based on the concept of the optimal basis. And any directional derivative of f at any point can be computed by solving a linear programming problem when only an optimal solution is available at the point.

  1. Some Properties of Multiple Parameters Linear Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Hong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We consider a linear programming problem in which the right-hand side vector depends on multiple parameters. We study the characters of the optimal value function and the critical regions based on the concept of the optimal partition. We show that the domain of the optimal value function can be decomposed into finitely many subsets with disjoint relative interiors, which is different from the result based on the concept of the optimal basis. And any directional derivative of at any point can be computed by solving a linear programming problem when only an optimal solution is available at the point.

  2. Flexible Stamp for Nanoimprint Lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Theodor; Pedersen, Rasmus H.; Hansen, Ole

    2005-01-01

    by membranes. The bending stiffness difference between the imprint areas and the membranes ensures that the deformation of the stamp during the imprint process mainly takes place in the membranes, leaving the imprint structures unaffected. By this design the strong demand to the parallelism between stamp...... and substrate in the imprint situation is decoupled from the pressing tool and the wafer quality. The stamp consist of 1562 imprint areas (1 mm × 1 mm) containing the patterns to be replicated. The imprinted patterns are characterized with respect to the imprint depth and the polymer residual layer thickness...

  3. Fabrication of Nanoimprint stamps for photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouba, J; Kubenz, M; Mai, A; Ropers, G; Eberhardt, W; Loechel, B

    2006-01-01

    We report on fabrication of nanoimprint stamps for fabrication of two dimensional photonic crystals in visible range of spectra. Nanoimprint stamps made of silicon and/or nickel were successfully fabricated using electron beam lithography and advanced dry etching techniques. The quality of the stamps was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. The fabricated stamps were also evaluated by imprinting them into suitable polymer materials

  4. Simulation Study on Hot Stamping Forming of the Drive Axle Housing of Heavy Truck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yongqian; Ji, Jianyi; Luo, Lingjiang

    2018-01-01

    Aiming at the national energy-saving and emission reduction requirements, lightweight of the heavy truck is imminent. Several parameters related to hot stamping forming process of heavy truck drive axle housing are studied in this paper. The results show that the existing two-step stamping with air cooling molding process, can be improved into one-step hot stamping process. The initial temperature of the blank, stamping speed and other parameters related to the forming process were optimized. The results provides useful reference for improving the existing forming process of the drive axle housing, and it is also helpful for realizing the lightweight design of drive axle housing.

  5. Determination of the Interfacial Heat Transfer Coefficient in the Hot Stamping of AA7075

    OpenAIRE

    Ji Kang; Liu Xiaochuan; El Fakir Omer; Liu Jun; Zhang Qunli; Wang Liliang

    2016-01-01

    The interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) is a key parameter in hot stamping processes, in which a hot blank is formed and quenched by cold dies simultaneously. The IHTC should therefore be identified and used in FE simulations to improve the accuracy of simulation results of hot stamping processes. In this work, a hot stamping simulator was designed and assembled in a Gleeble 3800 thermo-mechanical testing system and a FE model was built in PAM-STAMP to determine the IHTC values betwe...

  6. Determination of the interfacial heat transfer coefficient in the hot stamping of AA7075

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Xiaochuan; Ji Kang; Fakir Omer El; Liu Jun; Zhang Qunli; Wang Liliang

    2015-01-01

    The interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) is a key parameter in hot stamping processes, in which a hot blank is formed and quenched by cold dies simultaneously. The IHTC should therefore be identified and used in FE models to improve the accuracy of simulation results of hot stamping processes. In this work, a hot stamping simulator was designed and assembled in a Gleeble 3800 thermo-mechanical testing system and a FE model was built in PAM-STAMP to determine the IHTC value between a h...

  7. Implementation of time stamping service

    OpenAIRE

    Tomažin , Vito

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with different ways of how to safely time-stamp digital content. The need for time-stamping arises when we would like to create evidence that certain content existed (or that a certain person was present somewhere) in a precisely specified period of time, so that later we can refer to this evidence. Creating temporal order in the digital world can prove to be difficult, since no data, including time, is recorded permanently. The system clock, which measures time with the ...

  8. Food Stamps. Learning Packet No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Bar Association, Washington, DC. Clearinghouse for Offender Literacy Programs.

    This package of instructional materials is designed to aid adults in prison to perform the functional skill of applying for food stamps. The materials consist of instructions for teachers, a sample application for food stamps, a student's work sheet and answer sheet, vocabulary flash cards, and resource materials on food stamps. (MKM)

  9. 7 CFR 916.115 - Lot stamping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lot stamping. 916.115 Section 916.115 Agriculture... and Regulations § 916.115 Lot stamping. Except when loaded directly into railway cars, exempted under... Inspection Service lot stamp number, assigned by such Service, showing that such fruit has been USDA...

  10. 7 CFR 917.150 - Lot stamping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lot stamping. 917.150 Section 917.150 Agriculture... CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations Regulation of Daily Shipments § 917.150 Lot stamping. Except when loaded..., prior to shipment, with a Federal-State Inspection Service lot stamp number, assigned by such Service...

  11. Stamp Verification for Automated Document Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micenková, Barbora; van Beusekom, Joost; Shafait, Faisal

    Stamps, along with signatures, can be considered as the most widely used extrinsic security feature in paper documents. In contrast to signatures, however, for stamps little work has been done to automatically verify their authenticity. In this paper, an approach for verification of color stamps ...

  12. Stamping the Earth from space

    CERN Document Server

    Dicati, Renato

    2017-01-01

    This unique book presents a historical and philatelic survey of Earth exploration from space. It covers all areas of research in which artificial satellites have contributed in designing a new image of our planet and its environment: the atmosphere and ionosphere, the magnetic field, radiation belts and the magnetosphere, weather, remote sensing, mapping of the surface, observation of the oceans and marine environments, geodesy, and the study of life and ecological systems. Stamping the Earth from Space presents the results obtained with the thousands of satellites launched by the two former superpowers, the Soviet Union and the United States, and also those of the many missions carried out by the ESA, individual European countries, Japan, China, India, and the many emerging space nations. Beautifully illustrated, it contains almost 1100 color reproductions of philatelic items. In addition to topical stamps and thematic postal documents, the book provides an extensive review of astrophilatelic items. The most...

  13. Determination of the Interfacial Heat Transfer Coefficient in the Hot Stamping of AA7075

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC is a key parameter in hot stamping processes, in which a hot blank is formed and quenched by cold dies simultaneously. The IHTC should therefore be identified and used in FE simulations to improve the accuracy of simulation results of hot stamping processes. In this work, a hot stamping simulator was designed and assembled in a Gleeble 3800 thermo-mechanical testing system and a FE model was built in PAM-STAMP to determine the IHTC values between a hot aluminium alloy 7075 blank and cold dies. The IHTC values were determined at different contact pressures under both dry and lubricated (Omega-35 conditions. In addition, a model to calculate the IHTC value at different contact pressures and area densities of lubricant was developed for the hot stamping process, which was proved to be working well with verification tests.

  14. Determination of the interfacial heat transfer coefficient in the hot stamping of AA7075

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiaochuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC is a key parameter in hot stamping processes, in which a hot blank is formed and quenched by cold dies simultaneously. The IHTC should therefore be identified and used in FE models to improve the accuracy of simulation results of hot stamping processes. In this work, a hot stamping simulator was designed and assembled in a Gleeble 3800 thermo-mechanical testing system and a FE model was built in PAM-STAMP to determine the IHTC value between a hot aluminium alloy 7075 blank and cold dies. The IHTC was determined at different contact pressures under both dry and lubricated (Omega-35 conditions. In addition, a model to calculate the IHTC value at different contact pressures and area densities of lubricant was developed for the hot stamping process.

  15. The Formability of Friction Stir Welds in Automotive Stamping Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, Glenn J.; Davies, Richard W.; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Wazny, Scott; Kaunitz, Leon; Waldron, Douglas J.

    2006-02-01

    Automobile body and truck cab structures are composed primarily of stampings formed from monolithic and constant gage blanks. Cost and weight penalties can arise when strength or other requirements in one small area of the part leads to the use of a material or gage that is overmatched to the needs of the rest of the stamping. Tailor Welded Blanks (TWBs) are hybrid sheet products composed of either different materials or different thickness sheets that are joined together, then subjected to a stamping operation to create a formed assembly. The strategy is employed generally to save weight and material costs in the formed assembly by placing higher strength or thicker sections only where needed. The forming or stamping process requires the joint to be severely deformed along with the parent sheets. Aluminum TWBs for automotive applications are particularly problematic because of the low formability of aluminum weld metal. Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a process recently applied to Aluminum TWBs that has the potential to produce a higher quality weld. The current study presents data on the mechanical properties, formability, and FSW weld process parameter development for friction stir welded aluminum, Tailor Welded Blanks. Friction stir welded TWBs can be shown to have higher formability, higher ductility, and lower defect content than many competing joining processes, and they can be fabricated at speeds appropriate for automotive manufacturing.

  16. The Formability of Friction Stir Welds in Automotive Stamping Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, Glenn J.; Davies, Richard W.; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; wazny, scott; Kaunitz, Leon; Waldron, D.

    2005-04-01

    Automobile body and truck cab structures are composed primarily of stampings formed from monolithic and constant gage blanks. Cost and weight penalties can arrise when strength or other requirements in one small area of the part leads to the use of a material or gage that is overmatched to the needs of the rest of the stamping. Tailor Welded Blanks (TWBs) are hybrid sheet products composed of either different materials or different thickness sheets that are joined together, then subjected to a stamping operation to create a formed assembly. The strategy is employed generally to save weight and material costs in the formed assembly by placing higher strength or thicker sections only where needed. The forming or stamping process requires the joint to be severely deformed along with the parent sheets. Aluminum TWBs for automotive applications are particularly problematic because of the low formability of aluminum weld metal. Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a process recently applied to Aluminum TWBs that has the potential to produce a higher quality weld. The current study presents data on the mechanical properties, formability, and FSW weld process parameter development for friction stir woined, aluminum, Tailor Welded Blanks. Friction stir welded TWBs can be shown to have higher formability, higher ductility, and lower defect content than many competing joining processes, and they can be fabricated at speeds appropriate for automotive manufacturing.

  17. Modelling the deformation process of flexible stamps for nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mads Rostgaard

    The present thesis is devoted to numerical modelling of the deformation process of flexible stamps for nanoimprint lithography (NIL). The purpose of those models is to be able to predict the deformation and stretch of the flexixble stamps in order to take that into account when designing the plan...... 2D silicon master used in the NIL process. Two different manufacturing processes are investigated; (i) Embossing of an electroplated nickel foil into a hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) polymer resist on a double-curved surface, (ii) NIL of a flexible polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) stamps...... into a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resist. Challenges comprise several non-linear phenomena. First of all geometrical non-linearities arising from the inherent large strains and deformations during the process are modelled. Then, the constitutive behaviors of the nickel foil and the PTFE polymer during...... deformation are addressed. This is achieved by a general elasto-plastic description for the nickel foil and a viscoelastic-viscoplastic model for the PTFE material, in which the material parameters are found. Last, the contact conditions between the deforming stamp and the injection moulding tool insert...

  18. 7 CFR Appendix A to Part 277 - Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Administration of the Food Stamp Program by State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Standard indirect rate equal to ten percent of direct labor cost in providing the service (excluding... direct or indirect costs. Examples of such transactions are: Purchase discounts; rebates or allowances... total cost of a program is comprised of the allowable direct cost incident to its performance, plus its...

  19. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Plant parameters envelope report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The Early Site Permit (ESP) Demonstration Program is the nuclear industry's initiative for piloting the early resolution of siting-related issues before the detailed design proceedings of the combined operating license review. The ESP Demonstration Program consists of three phases. The plant parameters envelopes task is part of Phase 1, which addresses the generic review of applicable federal regulations and develops criteria for safety and environmental assessment of potential sites. The plant parameters envelopes identify parameters that characterize the interface between an ALWR design and a potential site, and quantify the interface through values selected from the Utility Requirements Documents, vendor design information, or engineering assessments. When augmented with site-specific information, the plant parameters envelopes provide sufficient information to allow ESPs to be granted based on individual ALWR design information or enveloping design information for the evolutionary, passive, or generic ALWR plants. This document is expected to become a living document when used by future applicants

  20. A METHOD FOR SOLVING LINEAR PROGRAMMING PROBLEMS WITH FUZZY PARAMETERS BASED ON MULTIOBJECTIVE LINEAR PROGRAMMING TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    M. ZANGIABADI; H. R. MALEKI

    2007-01-01

    In the real-world optimization problems, coefficients of the objective function are not known precisely and can be interpreted as fuzzy numbers. In this paper we define the concepts of optimality for linear programming problems with fuzzy parameters based on those for multiobjective linear programming problems. Then by using the concept of comparison of fuzzy numbers, we transform a linear programming problem with fuzzy parameters to a multiobjective linear programming problem. To this end, w...

  1. Program for searching for semiempirical parameters by the MNDO method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliznyuk, A.A.; Voityuk, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors describe an program for optimizing atomic models constructed using the MNDO method which varies not only the parameters but also the scope for simple changes in the calculation scheme. The target function determines properties such as formation enthalpies, dipole moments, ionization potentials, and geometrical parameters. Software used to minimize the target function is based on the simplex method on the Nelder-Mead algorithm and on the Fletcher variable-metric method. The program is written in FORTRAN IV and implemented on the ES computer

  2. Efficient classification of complete parameter regions based on semidefinite programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parrilo Pablo A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current approaches to parameter estimation are often inappropriate or inconvenient for the modelling of complex biological systems. For systems described by nonlinear equations, the conventional approach is to first numerically integrate the model, and then, in a second a posteriori step, check for consistency with experimental constraints. Hence, only single parameter sets can be considered at a time. Consequently, it is impossible to conclude that the "best" solution was identified or that no good solution exists, because parameter spaces typically cannot be explored in a reasonable amount of time. Results We introduce a novel approach based on semidefinite programming to directly identify consistent steady state concentrations for systems consisting of mass action kinetics, i.e., polynomial equations and inequality constraints. The duality properties of semidefinite programming allow to rigorously certify infeasibility for whole regions of parameter space, thus enabling the simultaneous multi-dimensional analysis of entire parameter sets. Conclusion Our algorithm reduces the computational effort of parameter estimation by several orders of magnitude, as illustrated through conceptual sample problems. Of particular relevance for systems biology, the approach can discriminate between structurally different candidate models by proving inconsistency with the available data.

  3. A revisit to quadratic programming with fuzzy parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, S.-T.

    2009-01-01

    Quadratic programming has been widely applied to solving real-world problems. Recently, Liu describes a solution method for solving a class of fuzzy quadratic programming problems, where the cost coefficients of the linear terms in objective function, constraint coefficients, and right-hand sides are fuzzy numbers [Liu ST. Quadratic programming with fuzzy parameters: a membership function approach. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2009;40:237-45]. In this paper, we generalize Liu's method to a more general fuzzy quadratic programming problem, where the cost coefficients in objective function, constraint coefficients, and right-hand sides are all fuzzy numbers. A pair of two-level mathematical programs is formulated to calculate the upper bound and lower bound of the objective values of the fuzzy quadratic program. Based on the duality theorem and by applying the variable transformation technique, the pair of two-level mathematical programs is transformed into a family of conventional one-level quadratic programs. Solving the pair of quadratic programs produces the fuzzy objective values of the problem. With the ability of calculating the fuzzy objective value developed in this paper, it might help initiate wider applications.

  4. Stamping SERS for creatinine sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Du, Yong; Zhao, Fusheng; Zeng, Jianbo; Santos, Greggy M.; Mohan, Chandra; Shih, Wei-Chuan

    2015-03-01

    Urine can be obtained easily, readily and non-invasively. The analysis of urine can provide metabolic information of the body and the condition of renal function. Creatinine is one of the major components of human urine associated with muscle metabolism. Since the content of creatinine excreted into urine is relatively constant, it is used as an internal standard to normalize water variations. Moreover, the detection of creatinine concentration in urine is important for the renal clearance test, which can monitor the filtration function of kidney and health status. In more details, kidney failure can be imminent when the creatinine concentration in urine is high. A simple device and protocol for creatinine sensing in urine samples can be valuable for point-of-care applications. We reported quantitative analysis of creatinine in urine samples by using stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS) technique with nanoporous gold disk (NPGD) based SERS substrate. S-SERS technique enables label-free and multiplexed molecular sensing under dry condition, while NPGD provides a robust, controllable, and high-sensitivity SERS substrate. The performance of S-SERS with NGPDs is evaluated by the detection and quantification of pure creatinine and creatinine in artificial urine within physiologically relevant concentration ranges.

  5. Hot Stamping of Boron Steel Using Partition Heating for Tailored Properties: Experimental Trials and Numerical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Yanhong; Wang, Baoyu; Zhou, Jing; Huang, Xu; Li, Xuetao

    2017-11-01

    Hot-stamped components with tailored properties are becoming popular for their better performance in collision. In this article, an M-shaped part with varying properties was formed by hot stamping using partition heating. Different soaking temperatures induce different austenite fractions at the different regions of the blank, resulting in the partitioned microstructure and mechanical properties in a single part. In the high-temperature region, the average tensile strength and elongation are 1565 MPa and 8.65 pct, respectively, and the average tensile strength and elongation are 626 MPa and 24.37 pct, respectively, in the low-temperature region. A finite element model of hot stamping using partition heating was established based on the relationship of austenite fraction with heating temperature determined by the dilatometer test and the stress-strain curve of 22MnB5 with different austenite fractions acquired from the hot tensile test.The differences of temperature, thickness, and Vickers hardness in different zones of the M-shaped part during forming and quenching stages were analyzed. The effects of hot stamping parameters, such as stamping velocity and heating temperature, on the forming and mechanical properties of the tailored M-shaped part were investigated, providing theoretical guidance for the production of tailored hot-stamped components using partition heating.

  6. High Thermal Conductivity and High Wear Resistance Tool Steels for cost-effective Hot Stamping Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, I.; Hamasaiid, A.; Padré, A.

    2017-09-01

    In hot stamping/press hardening, in addition to its shaping function, the tool controls the cycle time, the quality of the stamped components through determining the cooling rate of the stamped blank, the production costs and the feasibility frontier for stamping a given component. During the stamping, heat is extracted from the stamped blank and transported through the tool to the cooling medium in the cooling lines. Hence, the tools’ thermal properties determine the cooling rate of the blank, the heat transport mechanism, stamping times and temperature distribution. The tool’s surface resistance to adhesive and abrasive wear is also an important cost factor, as it determines the tool durability and maintenance costs. Wear is influenced by many tool material parameters, such as the microstructure, composition, hardness level and distribution of strengthening phases, as well as the tool’s working temperature. A decade ago, Rovalma developed a hot work tool steel for hot stamping that features a thermal conductivity of more than double that of any conventional hot work tool steel. Since that time, many complimentary grades have been developed in order to provide tailored material solutions as a function of the production volume, degree of blank cooling and wear resistance requirements, tool geometries, tool manufacturing method, type and thickness of the blank material, etc. Recently, Rovalma has developed a new generation of high thermal conductivity, high wear resistance tool steel grades that enable the manufacture of cost effective tools for hot stamping to increase process productivity and reduce tool manufacturing costs and lead times. Both of these novel grades feature high wear resistance and high thermal conductivity to enhance tool durability and cut cycle times in the production process of hot stamped components. Furthermore, one of these new grades reduces tool manufacturing costs through low tool material cost and hardening through readily

  7. Estimating Arrhenius parameters using temperature programmed molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imandi, Venkataramana; Chatterjee, Abhijit, E-mail: abhijit@che.iitb.ac.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2016-07-21

    Kinetic rates at different temperatures and the associated Arrhenius parameters, whenever Arrhenius law is obeyed, are efficiently estimated by applying maximum likelihood analysis to waiting times collected using the temperature programmed molecular dynamics method. When transitions involving many activated pathways are available in the dataset, their rates may be calculated using the same collection of waiting times. Arrhenius behaviour is ascertained by comparing rates at the sampled temperatures with ones from the Arrhenius expression. Three prototype systems with corrugated energy landscapes, namely, solvated alanine dipeptide, diffusion at the metal-solvent interphase, and lithium diffusion in silicon, are studied to highlight various aspects of the method. The method becomes particularly appealing when the Arrhenius parameters can be used to find rates at low temperatures where transitions are rare. Systematic coarse-graining of states can further extend the time scales accessible to the method. Good estimates for the rate parameters are obtained with 500-1000 waiting times.

  8. Evolutions of Advanced Stamping CAE — Technology Adventures and Business Impact on Automotive Dies and Stamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuantao (C. T.)

    2005-08-01

    In the past decade, sheet metal forming and die development has been transformed to a science-based and technology-driven engineering and manufacturing enterprise from a tryout-based craft. Stamping CAE, especially the sheet metal forming simulation, as one of the core components in digital die making and digital stamping, has played a key role in this historical transition. The stamping simulation technology and its industrial applications have greatly impacted automotive sheet metal product design, die developments, die construction and tryout, and production stamping. The stamping CAE community has successfully resolved the traditional formability problems such as splits and wrinkles. The evolution of the stamping CAE technology and business demands opens even greater opportunities and challenges to stamping CAE community in the areas of (1) continuously improving simulation accuracy, drastically reducing simulation time-in-system, and improving operationalability (friendliness), (2) resolving those historically difficult-to-resolve problems such as dimensional quality problems (springback and twist) and surface quality problems (distortion and skid/impact lines), (3) resolving total manufacturability problems in line die operations including blanking, draw/redraw, trim/piercing, and flanging, and (4) overcoming new problems in forming new sheet materials with new forming techniques. In this article, the author first provides an overview of the stamping CAE technology adventures and achievements, and industrial applications in the past decade. Then the author presents a summary of increasing manufacturability needs from the formability to total quality and total manufacturability of sheet metal stampings. Finally, the paper outlines the new needs and trends for continuous improvements and innovations to meet increasing challenges in line die formability and quality requirements in automotive stamping.

  9. Evolutions of Advanced Stamping CAE -- Technology Adventures and Business Impact on Automotive Dies and Stamping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chuantao

    2005-01-01

    In the past decade, sheet metal forming and die development has been transformed to a science-based and technology-driven engineering and manufacturing enterprise from a tryout-based craft. Stamping CAE, especially the sheet metal forming simulation, as one of the core components in digital die making and digital stamping, has played a key role in this historical transition. The stamping simulation technology and its industrial applications have greatly impacted automotive sheet metal product design, die developments, die construction and tryout, and production stamping. The stamping CAE community has successfully resolved the traditional formability problems such as splits and wrinkles. The evolution of the stamping CAE technology and business demands opens even greater opportunities and challenges to stamping CAE community in the areas of (1) continuously improving simulation accuracy, drastically reducing simulation time-in-system, and improving operationalability (friendliness) (2) resolving those historically difficult-to-resolve problems such as dimensional quality problems (springback and twist) and surface quality problems (distortion and skid/impact lines) (3) resolving total manufacturability problems in line die operations including blanking, draw/redraw, trim/piercing, and flanging, and (4) overcoming new problems in forming new sheet materials with new forming techniques. In this article, the author first provides an overview of the stamping CAE technology adventures and achievements, and industrial applications in the past decade. Then the author presents a summary of increasing manufacturability needs from the formability to total quality and total manufacturability of sheet metal stampings. Finally, the paper outlines the new needs and trends for continuous improvements and innovations to meet increasing challenges in line die formability and quality requirements in automotive stamping

  10. CO2 Laser Cutting of Hot Stamping Boron Steel Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Russo Spena

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the quality of CO2 laser cutting of hot stamping boron steel sheets that are employed in the fabrication of automotive body-in-white. For this purpose, experimental laser cutting tests were conducted on 1.2 mm sheets at varying levels of laser power, cutting speed, and oxygen pressure. The resulting quality of cut edges was evaluated in terms of perpendicularity tolerance, surface irregularity, kerf width, heat affected zone, and dross extension. Experimental tests were based on a L9(34 orthogonal array design, with the effects of the process parameters on the quality responses being determined by means of a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA. Quadratic mathematical models were developed to determine the relationships between the cutting parameters and the quality responses. Finally, a routine based on an optimization criterion was employed to predict the optimal setting of cutting factors and its effect on the quality responses. A confirmation experiment was conducted to verify the appropriateness of the optimization routine. The results show that all of the examined process parameters have a key role in determining the cut quality of hot stamping boron steel sheets, with cutting speed and their interactions having the most influencing effects. Particularly, interactions can have an opposite behavior for different levels of the process parameters.

  11. An interactive and flexible approach to stamping design and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Subir; Kunju, Ravi; Kirby, David

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient method that integrates finite element analysis (FEA), mesh morphing and response surface based optimization in order to implement an automated and flexible software tool to optimize stamping tool and process design. For FEA, a robust and extremely fast inverse solver is chosen. For morphing, a state of the art mesh morpher that interactively generates shape variables for optimization studies is used. The optimization algorithm utilized in this study enables a global search for a multitude of parameters and is highly flexible with regards to the choice of objective functions. A quality function that minimizes formability defects resulting from stretching and compression is implemented

  12. Stamp Detection in Color Document Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micenkova, Barbora; van Beusekom, Joost

    2011-01-01

    , moreover, it can be imprinted with a variable quality and rotation. Previous methods were restricted to detection of stamps of particular shapes or colors. The method presented in the paper includes segmentation of the image by color clustering and subsequent classification of candidate solutions...... by geometrical and color-related features. The approach allows for differentiation of stamps from other color objects in the document such as logos or texts. For the purpose of evaluation, a data set of 400 document images has been collected, annotated and made public. With the proposed method, recall of 83...

  13. MESIN PENCETAKAN DENGAN PENGGERAK DARI PARAMETER PROGRAM BERBASIS WINDOWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Sunaryono

    2003-07-01

    pencetakan lewat word dapat dipilih sebagai dokumen word baru, bentuk template atau mail merge, sedangkan excel dapat memilih pencetakan lewat dokumen excel baru atau dokumen template.Tujuan pembuatan laporan ke berbagai macam pilihan sumber dapat meningkatkan kemampuan aplikasi untuk berinteraksi dengan aplikasi lain sehingga flesibilitas dari aplikasi dapat meningkat. Setting pengaturan printer diatur sedemikian rupa sehingga mirip dengan lingkungan printer. Pengambilan data secara mudah merujuk pada data yang saat itu aktif. Untuk keperluan lain dimungkinkan membuat penampung data sendiri, kemudian di kirim ke printer.State sebelum dan sesudah pencetakan dapat di sisipkan sintak, sesuai dengan proses yang ada, seperti misalkan update status keberhasilan pencetakan, sehingga tidak dobel melakukan pencetakan. State sebelum pencetakan dapat mengecek apakah status printer telah tercetak atau belum.Pengaturan kertas, halaman tunggal atau kertas bersambung (continous-form dapat dihandel dengan melakukan logika pada kertas secara fisik. Pemetaan logika dengan memakai logika pemrograman seperti perulangan, percabangan dan pembuatan variabel. Semua kelengkapan skrip program sebagai parameter dari program utama menjadikan aplikasi mudah dilakukan perubahan dengan otorisasi tertentu. Manajemen penyimpanan skrip parameter program untuk tiap kasus yang berbeda pada satu tempat penyimpanan dapat memudahkan pembuatan laporan. Penyimpanan bersifat sebagai sumber daya bagi pakai (resource sharing menunjang pembuatan skrip dikerjakan oleh banyak orang pada saat yang sama, dan secara langsung dapat juga dipakai sebagai mesin pencetakan secara bersama-sama. Kata kunci : mesin Pencetakan, parameter program, penggerak.

  14. Can laboratory and pilot recycling trials predict adhesive removal in commercial recycling systems? : results from the USPS environmentally benign stamp project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl Houtman; Daniel Seiter; Nancy Ross Sutherland; Donald Donermeyer

    2002-01-01

    The ultimate goal of the US Postal Service (USPS) Environmentally Benign Stamp Program is to develop stamp laminates, i.e., face paper, adhesive and siliconized liner, that do not cause difficulties in recycling mills. The criterion for success, and the USPS definition of benignity, is the avoidance of process and product quality hardships when such PSA laminates are...

  15. METAMORPHOSES OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STAMP IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARAUS MADALINA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Romania's alignment to European standards is a difficult process with many legislative changes, with direct impact on taxpayers. The necessity of collecting substantial revenues to the State budget, which provide vital economic growth of the Romanian State, loses the substance when we are talking about taxes levied in relation to taxpayer. The environmental stamp, otherwise a controversial tax, represent for the State another way to earn revenue in advance, “as a loan", because in the end it's forced to repay the amounts concerned taxpayers, under the effect of a final and irrevocable court decision. The effects of the legislative changes bring every time complaints both from taxpayers, because they can demand repayment of the environmental stamp only during the period of prescription, as well as on the part of public servants who are grappling with a large volume of work, with the possibility of overcoming the term to handle requests. An equitable solution in solving these distortions would be the inclusion of the environmental stamp within the tax on means of transport, tax that is paid annually by vehicle owners. At the moment the level of the environmental stamp is calculated depending on the CO2 emissions, exhaust emissions and the age of the vehicle. Tax on means of transport is calculated based on engine capacity, an amount determined by CO2 emissions multiplying with each group of 200 cc or fraction on it. Therefore the unification of the two taxes would create a balance for all categories of vehicles.

  16. Fast thermal nanoimprint lithography by a stamp with integrated heater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tormen, Massimo; Malureanu, Radu; Pedersen, Rasmus Haugstrup

    2008-01-01

    We propose fast nanoimprinting lithography (NIL) process based on the use of stamps with integrated heater. The latter consists of heavily ion implantation n-type doped silicon layer buried below the microstructured surface of the stamp. The stamp is heated by Joule effect, by 50 μs 25 Hz...

  17. Ex-Post : The Investment Performance of Collectible Stamps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimson, E.; Spaenjers, C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the returns on British collectible postage stamps over the very long run, based on stamp catalogue prices. Between 1900 and 2008, we find an annualized return on stamps of 6.7% in nominal terms, which is equivalent to an average real return of 2.7% per annum. Prices have

  18. Numerical simulation of temperature field, microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of HSS during hot stamping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Dongyong; Liu, Wenquan; Ying, Liang; Hu, Ping; Shen, Guozhe

    2013-01-01

    The hot stamping of boron steels is widely used to produce ultra high strength automobile components without any spring back. The ultra high strength of final products is attributed to the fully martensitic microstructure that is obtained through the simultaneous forming and quenching of the hot blanks after austenization. In the present study, a mathematical model incorporating both heat transfer and the transformation of austenite is presented. A FORTRAN program based on finite element technique has been developed which permits the temperature distribution and microstructure evolution of high strength steel during hot stamping process. Two empirical diffusion-dependent transformation models under isothermal conditions were employed respectively, and the prediction capability on mechanical properties of the models were compared with the hot stamping experiment of an automobile B-pillar part

  19. Hot stamping advanced manufacturing technology of lightweight car body

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Ping; He, Bin

    2017-01-01

    This book summarizes the advanced manufacturing technology of original innovations in hot stamping of lightweight car body. A detailed description of the technical system and basic knowledge of sheet metal forming is given, which helps readers quickly understand the relevant knowledge in the field. Emphasis has been placed on the independently developed hot stamping process and equipment, which help describe the theoretical and experimental research on key problems involving stress field, thermal field and phase transformation field in hot stamping process. Also, a description of the formability at elevated temperature and the numerical simulation algorithms for high strength steel hot stamping is given in combination with the experiments. Finally, the book presents some application cases of hot stamping technology such as the lightweight car body design using hot stamping components and gradient hardness components, and the cooling design of the stamping tool. This book is intended for researchers, engineers...

  20. Hot stamping of AA7075 aluminum sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiguren, J.; Saenz de Argandona, E.; Galdos, L.

    2016-11-01

    In this work the formability of a high strength aluminium alloy (AA7075-T6) for the stamping of an automotive component has been studied. Due to the low formability of the selected alloy, two different heat assisted forming strategies have been analysed. On the one hand, the W-temper process, where the thermal process is carried out prior to the forming operation. On the other hand, the hot stamping process, where the thermal process is carried out at the same time as the forming. The results showed that both technology were able to form the component avoiding any failure of the material. On the contrary, both processes reduced the final mechanical properties of the material compared to the as received material condition. However, the obtained mechanical properties doubled the strength of commonly used 5xxx and 6xxx aluminium alloys.

  1. DOUBLE SHEAR DESIGN TO REDUCED STAMPING FORCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Kurniawan Arief

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ideally processing of part using stamping machine using only 70-80 % of available force to keep machine in good shape for a long periods. But in some certain case the force may equal to or exceed the available maximum force so the company must sent the process to another outsource company. A case found in a metal stamping company where a final product consist of 3 parts to assembly with one part exceeded the force of available machine. This part can only process in a 1000 tons machine while this company only have 2 of this machine with full workload. Sending this parts outsource will induce delivery problems because other parts are processed, assembled and paint inhouse, this also need additional transportation cost and extra supervision to ensure the quality and delivery schedule. The only exit action of this problem is by reducing the force tonnage. This paper using punch inclining method to reduce the force. The incline punch will distributed the force along the inclined surface that reduce stamping force as well. Inclined surface of punch also cause another major problems that the product becoming curved after process. This problems solved with additional flattening process that add more process cost but better than to outsource the process. Chisel type of inclining punch tip was choosen to avoid worst deformation of product. This paper will give the scientific recomendation to the company.

  2. How Do Stamp Duties Affect the Housing Market?

    OpenAIRE

    Davidoff, Ian; Leigh, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Land transfer taxes are a substantial portion of the cost of moving house in many developed countries. Since stamp duties are endogenous with respect to the house price, we create an instrumental variable that is the stamp duty on a property, given that postcode's starting house price and the national house price trend. In a specification with postcode and year fixed effects, this instrument effectively captures policy changes and nonlinearities in the stamp duty schedule. We find that the im...

  3. Molecular dynamics study on the effects of stamp shape, adhesive energy, and temperature on the nanoimprint lithography process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Kwang-Seop; Kim, Kyung-Woong

    2010-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of nanoimprint lithography (NIL) were performed to investigate the effects of three critical process parameters in NIL: stamp shape, adhesive energy between the stamp and polymer film, and imprint temperature. The proposed simulation model of the NIL process consists of an amorphous SiO 2 stamp with a line pattern, an amorphous poly(methylmethacrylate) film, and a Si substrate under the periodic boundary condition in the horizontal direction to simulate a real NIL process imprinting periodical line patterns. The behavior of polymer deformation and the effects of adhesion on pattern transfer were investigated by observing the deformation process, calculating the imprint and separation forces, and analyzing the density and stress distribution inside the polymer film. In addition, their dependency on the process parameters is also discussed with reference to the changes in pattern shape, adhesive energy between the stamp and polymer atoms, and imprint temperature of the polymer film. During the imprint process, the rectangular pattern shows inferior cavity filling and higher stress concentration compared to trapezoidal and triangular patterns because it requires much larger flow and deformation of the polymer film. Low imprint temperature also produces high stress concentration and large imprint force due to the lower fluidity of polymer film. In the separation process, the rectangular pattern generates the largest separation force and causes the most serious defects of the transferred pattern and even the polymer film, while the triangular pattern shows the most satisfactory pattern transfer. In addition, the adhesive energy between the stamp and the polymer film also strongly influences the adhesion between the stamp and the polymer film. Low adhesive energy reduces the separation force of the stamp and transferred pattern defects, and therefore enhances the quality of pattern transfer.

  4. Estimation of the Randomized Complete Block Design Parameters with Fuzzy Goal Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Kula, Kamile; Apaydin, Ayşen

    2011-01-01

    Since goal programming was introduced by Charnes, Cooper and Ferguson (1955), goal programming has been widely studied and applied in various areas. Parameter estimation is quite important in many areas. Recently, many researches have been studied in fuzzy estimation. In this study, fuzzy goal programming was proposed by Hannan (1981) adapted to estimation of randomized complete block design parameters. Suggested fuzzy goal programming is used for estimation of randomized complete block desig...

  5. Characterization of the interfacial heat transfer coefficient for hot stamping processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Xi; Liu, Xiaochuan; Fang, Haomiao; Ji, Kang; El Fakir, Omer; Wang, LiLiang

    2016-08-01

    In hot stamping processes, the interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) between the forming tools and hot blank is an essential parameter which determines the quenching rate of the process and hence the resulting material microstructure. The present work focuses on the characterization of the IHTC between an aluminium alloy 7075-T6 blank and two different die materials, cast iron (G3500) and H13 die steel, at various contact pressures. It was found that the IHTC between AA7075 and cast iron had values 78.6% higher than that obtained between AA7075 and H13 die steel. Die materials and contact pressures had pronounced effects on the IHTC, suggesting that the IHTC can be used to guide the selection of stamping tool materials and the precise control of processing parameters.

  6. Stamp duties in Indian states - a case for reform

    OpenAIRE

    Alm, James; Annez, Patricia; Modi, Arbind

    2004-01-01

    The authors review the options for reform of stamp duties on immovable property transfers collected by Indian state governments. After briefly reviewing some of the many administrative difficulties experienced with the tax, they turn to an examination of its economic impacts. A review of stamp duties internationally indicates that Indian rates are exceptionally high, at rates often above 1...

  7. Design and Development of a Soap Stamping and Tableting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A soap stamping and tableting machine comprising a printing die/pattern inscriptioner, cutting blade, conveyor belt, and two electric motors was developed and tested. Performance test analysis conducted showed that the machine operated with an optimal stamping/tableting capacity of 10205 soap tablets per hour with an ...

  8. Characterization of the interfacial heat transfer coefficient for hot stamping processes

    OpenAIRE

    Luan, X; Liu, X; Fang, H; Ji, K; El Fakir, O; Wang, L

    2016-01-01

    In hot stamping processes, the interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) between the forming tools and hot blank is an essential parameter which determines the quenching rate of the process and hence the resulting material microstructure. The present work focuses on the characterization of the IHTC between an aluminium alloy 7075-T6 blank and two different die materials, cast iron (G3500) and H13 die steel, at various contact pressures. It was found that the IHTC between AA7075 and cast ir...

  9. An analysis of selected parameters for the BIOPATH-program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, U.; Wilkens, A.B.

    1983-06-01

    The radioecological model BIOPATH (82) has been used to calculate the radiological contributions to man from leakage of groundwaterborne nuclides from a repository. BIOPATH is a computer code based upon compartment theory. A revision of the most necessary input data for the BIOPATH code has been performed. Both nuclide independent and nuclide dependent parameters have been treated. Especially for the uptake in food chains statistical properties are given to enable sensitivity analyses of the results. The present diet and food consumption habits are reviewed where average intake values are given both for Sweden and for different parts of the world. (authors)

  10. User's manual for MMLE3, a general FORTRAN program for maximum likelihood parameter estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine, R. E.; Iliff, K. W.

    1980-01-01

    A user's manual for the FORTRAN IV computer program MMLE3 is described. It is a maximum likelihood parameter estimation program capable of handling general bilinear dynamic equations of arbitrary order with measurement noise and/or state noise (process noise). The theory and use of the program is described. The basic MMLE3 program is quite general and, therefore, applicable to a wide variety of problems. The basic program can interact with a set of user written problem specific routines to simplify the use of the program on specific systems. A set of user routines for the aircraft stability and control derivative estimation problem is provided with the program.

  11. BAESNUM, a conversational computer program for the Bayesian estimation of a parameter by a numerical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, A.G.; Jaarsma, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes a conversational computer program which, via Bayes' theorem, numerically combines the prior distribution of a parameter with a likelihood function. Any type of prior and likelihood function can be considered. The present version of the program includes six types of prior and employs the binomial likelihood. As input the program requires the law and parameters of the prior distribution and the sample data. As output it gives the posterior distribution as a histogram. The use of the program for estimating the constant failure rate of an item is briefly described

  12. Facile stamp patterning method for superhydrophilic/superhydrophobic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyu, Sungnam, E-mail: blueden@postech.ac.kr; Hwang, Woonbong, E-mail: whwang@postech.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 680-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-16

    Patterning techniques are essential to many research fields such as chemistry, biology, medicine, and micro-electromechanical systems. In this letter, we report a simple, fast, and low-cost superhydrophobic patterning method using a superhydrophilic template. The technique is based on the contact stamping of the surface during hydrophobic dip coating. Surface characteristics were measured using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis. The results showed that the hydrophilic template, which was contacted with the stamp, was not affected by the hydrophobic solution. The resolution study was conducted using a stripe shaped stamp. The patterned line was linearly proportional to the width of the stamp line with a constant narrowing effect. A surface with regions of four different types of wetting was fabricated to demonstrate the patterning performance.

  13. A cracked beam or plate transversely loaded by a stamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nied, H. F.; Erdogan, F.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the problem of an infinite elastic beam or a plate containing a crack is considered. The medium is loaded transversely through a stamp which may be rigid or elastic. The problem is a coupled crack-contact problem which cannot be solved by treating the crack and contact problems separately and by using a superposition technique. First the Green's functions for the general case are obtained. Then the integral equations for a cracked infinite strip loaded by a frictionless stamp are obtained. With the question of fracture in mind, the primary interest in the paper has been in calculating the stress intensity factors. The results are given for a rigid flat stamp with sharp edges and for an elastic curved stamp. The effect of friction at the supports on the stress intensity factors is also studied and a numerical example is given.

  14. design and development of a soap stamping and tableting machine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-02

    pattern inscriptioner, cutting blade, conveyor belt, and two electric motors was developed and tested. Performance test analysis conducted showed that the machine operated with an optimal stamping/tableting capacity of 10205.

  15. Cosmological Parameter Constraints from the Dark Energy Survey Supernova Program Three Year Spectroscopic Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brout, Dillon

    2018-01-01

    We present cosmological parameter constraints from 251 spectroscopically confirmed Type Ia Supernovae (0.02 Supernova Program (DESSN). The photometric calibration, scene modeling photometric pipeline, additional low-z supernovae samples (zcosmological results and systematics analysis are discussed.

  16. Analysis of the Phenomenon of Speculative Trading in One of its Basic Manifestations:. Postage Stamp Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehner, B.; Sornette, D.

    We document and analyze the empirical facts concerning one of the clearest evidence of speculation in financial trading as observed in the postage collection stamp market. We unravel some of the mechanisms of speculative behavior which emphasize the role of fancy and collective behavior. In our conclusion, we propose a classification of speculative markets based on two parameters, namely the amplitude of the price peak and a second parameter that measures its "sharpness". This study is offered to anchor modeling efforts to realistic market constraints and observations.

  17. Why Stamp Duties are an Increasing Financial Burden on Australian Home Buyers

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Gavin A.

    1994-01-01

    The purchaser of housing incurs stamp duty liabilities in all Australian States. These stamp duties are levied on the conveyance of residential property and mortgage sums secured. In general, stamp duties were a growing financial burden on home buyers during the period 1985-1991. This paper examines the role of house price inflation in causing increases in average rates of stamp duty, the responsiveness of average rates of stamp duty to future changes in the nominal tax base and the effective...

  18. Parameter values for the Heysham site for use in the CODAR2 program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, P.R.

    1985-03-01

    Details are given of parameter values relevant to the Heysham site for the calculation of individual and collective radiation exposure arising from routine discharges of liquid effluent to the sea. These parameters are to be used in the CODAR2 computer program, and the approach taken in their specification is the same as that employed previously for the Sizewell site. (author)

  19. 78 FR 11967 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP): Updated Trafficking Definition and Supplemental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... indirect impact that would reduce the purchase of sugary drinks is positive. Prohibiting purchase of..., remove the words ``the Food Stamp Program'', ``the food stamp program'', The Food Stamp Program'', or ``FSP'' wherever they appear and add, in their place, the word ``SNAP''; 0 b. Remove the words ``a food...

  20. Application of a Model for Quenching and Partitioning in Hot Stamping of High-Strength Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bin; Liu, Zhuang; Wang, Yanan; Rolfe, Bernard; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Yisheng

    2018-04-01

    Application of quenching and partitioning process in hot stamping has proven to be an effective method to improve the plasticity of advanced high-strength steels (AHSSs). In this study, the hot stamping and partitioning process of advanced high-strength steel 30CrMnSi2Nb is investigated with a hot stamping mold. Given the specific partitioning time and temperature, the influence of quenching temperature on the volume fraction of microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of the above steel are studied in detail. In addition, a model for quenching and partitioning process is applied to predict the carbon diffusion and interface migration during partitioning, which determines the retained austenite volume fraction and final properties of the part. The predicted trends of the retained austenite volume fraction agree with the experimental results. In both cases, the volume fraction of retained austenite increases first and then decreases with the increasing quenching temperature. The optimal quenching temperature is approximately 290 °C for 30CrMnSi2Nb with the partition conditions of 425 °C and 20 seconds. It is suggested that the model can be used to help determine the process parameters to obtain retained austenite as much as possible.

  1. On the die face design for stamping an automotive engine hood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Zhi; Wang, Shi-Wei; Lin, Ching-I.; Chen, Fuh-Kuo

    2017-09-01

    Since the engine hood is mainly manufactured in the drawing operation, the die addendum design is the key to the success of manufacturing a defect free product. In this study, the existing die addendum designs corresponding to those engine hoods were reviewed and the design parameters were constructed. The preliminary study was then performed to examine the influences of the stamping die angle, binder surface shape, and die open line shape on the defects occurred in the part. Based on the simulation results, the optimum design for the die addendum face was then investigated and a systematic design guideline was proposed. In order to validate the proposed design guideline, actual engine hoods were stamped according to the finite element analysis and the production part shapes, thickness distributions, and the stretch at the central region were compared with those obtained from the finite element simulations. The consistent agreement between the product parts and the simulation results confirms the validity of the design guideline proposed in the present study for stamping an engine hood.

  2. Impact of a community-based diabetes self-management program on key metabolic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson C

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Characterize the impact of a pharmacist-led diabetes self-management program on three key metabolic parameters: glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP among employee health program participants. Methods: A self-insured company in the Kansas City metropolitan area began offering a pharmacist-led diabetes self-management program to eligible company employees and their dependents in 2008. A retrospective pre-post analysis was conducted to determine if the program affected key metabolic parameters in participants by determining mean change after one year of participation. Results: Among 183 program participants, 65 participants met inclusion criteria. All three key metabolic parameters were significantly reduced from baseline to one year of program participation: HbA1c decreased from 8.1% to 7.3% (p=0.007; LDL-C decreased from 108.3 mg/dL to 96.4 mg/dL (p=0.009; and MAP decreased from 96.1 to 92.3 mm Hg (p=0.005. Conclusions: The pharmacist-led diabetes self-management program demonstrated significant reductions in HbA1c, LDL-C, and MAP from baseline to one year of program participation. Improvements were statistically significant and clinically relevant for each parameter. Previous studies indicate these reductions may cause reduced overall healthcare costs.

  3. Programmer's manual for MMLE3, a general FORTRAN program for maximum likelihood parameter estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The MMLE3 is a maximum likelihood parameter estimation program capable of handling general bilinear dynamic equations of arbitrary order with measurement noise and/or state noise (process noise). The basic MMLE3 program is quite general and, therefore, applicable to a wide variety of problems. The basic program can interact with a set of user written problem specific routines to simplify the use of the program on specific systems. A set of user routines for the aircraft stability and control derivative estimation problem is provided with the program. The implementation of the program on specific computer systems is discussed. The structure of the program is diagrammed, and the function and operation of individual routines is described. Complete listings and reference maps of the routines are included on microfiche as a supplement. Four test cases are discussed; listings of the input cards and program output for the test cases are included on microfiche as a supplement.

  4. Fittino, a program for determining MSSM parameters from collider observables using an iterative method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtle, P.; Desch, K.; Wienemann, P.

    2006-01-01

    Provided that Supersymmetry (SUSY) is realized, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the future International Linear Collider (ILC) may provide a wealth of precise data from SUSY processes. An important task will be to extract the Lagrangian parameters. On this basis the goal is to uncover the underlying symmetry breaking mechanism from the measured observables. In order to determine the SUSY parameters, the program Fittino has been developed. It uses an iterative fitting technique and a Simulated Annealing algorithm to determine the SUSY parameters directly from the observables without any a priori knowledge of the parameters, using all available loop-corrections to masses and couplings. Simulated Annealing is implemented as a stable and efficient method for finding the optimal parameter values. The theoretical predictions can be provided from any program with SUSY Les Houches Accord interface. As fit result, a set of parameters including the full error matrix and two-dimensional uncertainty contours are obtained. Pull distributions can automatically be created and allow an independent cross-check of the fit results and possible systematic shifts in the parameter determination. A determination of the importance of the individual observables for the measurement of each parameter can be performed after the fit. A flexible user interface is implemented, allowing a wide range of different types of observables and a wide range of parameters to be used. Program summaryProgram title: Fittino Catalogue identifier: ADWN Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWN Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License Programming language:C++ Computer: any computer Operating system: Linux and other Unix flavors RAM: ca. 22 MB No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 111 962 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 006 727 Distribution format: tar.gz Number of processors used: 1 External routines: The ROOT data analysis

  5. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Plant parameters envelope report. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    The Early Site Permit (ESP) Demonstration Program is the nuclear industry`s initiative for piloting the early resolution of siting-related issues before the detailed design proceedings of the combined operating license review. The ESP Demonstration Program consists of three phases. The plant parameters envelopes task is part of Phase 1, which addresses the generic review of applicable federal regulations and develops criteria for safety and environmental assessment of potential sites. The plant parameters envelopes identify parameters that characterize the interface between an ALWR design and a potential site, and quantify the interface through values selected from the Utility Requirements Documents, vendor design information, or engineering assessments. When augmented with site-specific information, the plant parameters envelopes provide sufficient information to allow ESPs to be granted based on individual ALWR design information or enveloping design information for the evolutionary, passive, or generic ALWR plants. This document is expected to become a living document when used by future applicants.

  6. Implementation of the EM Algorithm in the Estimation of Item Parameters: The BILOG Computer Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mislevy, Robert J.; Bock, R. Darrell

    This paper reviews the basic elements of the EM approach to estimating item parameters and illustrates its use with one simulated and one real data set. In order to illustrate the use of the BILOG computer program, runs for 1-, 2-, and 3-parameter models are presented for the two sets of data. First is a set of responses from 1,000 persons to five…

  7. "Stamp-off" to micropattern sparse, multicomponent features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Ravi A; Rodriguez, Natalia M; Chen, Christopher S

    2014-01-01

    Spatially patterned subtractive de-inking, a process we term "stamp-off," provides a simple method to generate sparse, multicomponent protein micropatterns. It has been applied to control cell adhesion, study adhesion biology, as well as to micropattern fragile surfaces. This technique can also readily be applied to study nanoscale interactions between cell membrane receptors and surface-immobilized ligands. It is based on conventional microcontact printing and as such requires the same reagents, including photolithographically defined masters, a spin-coater, poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS), and conventional cell culture reagents such as glass coverslips and adhesive proteins. Stamp-off is conceptually simplified into three steps: (1) generation of an appropriate cell culture substrate, PDMS-coated glass, (2) micropatterning with stamp-off, and (3) cell deposition. After elaborating each of these three methods, we discuss limitations of the technique and its applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimum utilization of low ash carbonaceous constituents in stamp charging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dash, P.S.; Krishnan, S.H.; Sharma, R. [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur (India)

    2004-07-01

    To produce high strength coke at reasonable cost, Tata Steel went for stamp charging along with 40-45% imported coal. It is imperative to design the base stamp charge coal blend so as to possess enough fluidity to assimilate these infusible inerts and still produce coke with high coke strength after reaction (CSR). This paper describes the scope of utilising low ash carbonaceous inerts like fluid coke (a petroleum coke made in a fluidized bed) and anthracite optimally in the stamp charging blend by replacing the present imported semi-soft coal with high fluidity imported coals. The laboratory scale experimentation and its results regarding improvement in coke properties and yield are also described. 5 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Time Stamp Synchronization of PEFP Distributed Control Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Young Gi; An, Eun Mi; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Cho, Yong Sub

    2010-01-01

    Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) proton linac consists of several types of control systems, such as soft Input Output Controllers (IOC) and embedded IOC based on Experimental Physics Industrial Control System (EPICS) for each subsection of PEFP facility. One of the important factors is that IOC's time clock is synchronized. The synchronized time and time stamp can be achieved with Network Time Protocol (NTP) and EPICS time stamp record without timing hardware. The requirement of the time accuracy of IOCs is less than 1 second. The main objective of this study is to configure a master clock and produce Process Variable (PV) time stamps using local CPU time synchronized from the master clock. The distributed control systems are attached on PEFP control network

  10. Do Food Stamps without Education Improve the Nutrient Intake and Food-Related Behaviors of Recipients? Food Assistance Needs of the South's Vulnerable Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Katherine L.; Cox, Ruby H.; Burney, Janie L.

    This study examined the effect of food assistance on the dietary patterns of households in South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia. Data was collected from 6,969 participants in the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) and 3,552 participants in the Food Stamp Nutrition Education Program (FSNEP). EFNEP and FSNEP teach low-income…

  11. A Fortran IV Program for Estimating Parameters through Multiple Matrix Sampling with Standard Errors of Estimate Approximated by the Jackknife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, David M.

    Described and listed herein with concomitant sample input and output is the Fortran IV program which estimates parameters and standard errors of estimate per parameters for parameters estimated through multiple matrix sampling. The specific program is an improved and expanded version of an earlier version. (Author/BJG)

  12. 46 CFR 53.10-10 - Certification by stamping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... boilers shall be as indicated in HG-530 of section IV of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certification by stamping. 53.10-10 Section 53.10-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING HEATING BOILERS Tests...

  13. 41 CFR 101-25.103-3 - Trading stamps or bonus goods received from contractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Trading stamps or bonus... PROCUREMENT 25-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.103-3 Trading stamps or bonus goods received from contractors. When contracts contain a price reduction clause, any method (such as trading stamps or bonus...

  14. 26 CFR 301.7209-1 - Unauthorized use or sale of stamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unauthorized use or sale of stamps. 301.7209-1... § 301.7209-1 Unauthorized use or sale of stamps. (a) Any person who buys, sells, offers for sale, uses... regulations made pursuant thereto, any stamp, coupon, ticket, book, or other device prescribed by the...

  15. Parameters of Time-out: Research Update and Comparison to Parenting Programs, Books, and Online Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corralejo, Samantha M; Jensen, Scott A; Greathouse, Ashley D; Ward, Leah E

    2018-01-01

    In reviews published more than 30 years ago, eight parameters important to the use of time-out were identified and available research was summarized. The purpose of the current paper is to provide an updated summary of existing research for each parameter of time-out. Within each parameter, we conducted a thorough review of the published literature and identified all peer-reviewed articles addressing each parameter. We identified and summarized a total of 46 articles across the eight parameters, including 32 not cited in previous reviews. Sufficient findings were available to draw conclusions regarding time-out warning, schedule of time-out, contingent versus noncontingent release, and duration. Tentative conclusions based on only a few studies could be drawn in regard to instructional versus physical administration and verbalized reason for time-out. No conclusions could be drawn regarding time-out signal and specific time-out location. While we know much more today regarding effective implementation of time-out, there is a clear need for further exploration within these identified parameters. In addition to summarizing the literature, we reviewed recommendations made by behavioral parent training programs, parenting books, and parenting Web sites, and compared how well their recommendations matched current research based on the conclusions drawn from our review. We found that parenting sources made strong and specific recommendations on several of the parameters that were either not consistent with available research or simply lacked a sufficient research base. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Women: Putting Our Stamp on America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... SCOPE The Topical Research Intern Program provides the opportunity for servicemembers and DOD civilian employees to work on diversity/equal opportunity projects while on a 30-day tour of duty at the Institute...

  17. Studies of OC-STAMP in Osteoclast Fusion: A New Knockout Mouse Model, Rescue of Cell Fusion, and Transmembrane Topology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Witwicka

    Full Text Available The fusion of monocyte/macrophage lineage cells into fully active, multinucleated, bone resorbing osteoclasts is a complex cell biological phenomenon that utilizes specialized proteins. OC-STAMP, a multi-pass transmembrane protein, has been shown to be required for pre-osteoclast fusion and for optimal bone resorption activity. A previously reported knockout mouse model had only mononuclear osteoclasts with markedly reduced resorption activity in vitro, but with paradoxically normal skeletal micro-CT parameters. To further explore this and related questions, we used mouse ES cells carrying a gene trap allele to generate a second OC-STAMP null mouse strain. Bone histology showed overall normal bone form with large numbers of TRAP-positive, mononuclear osteoclasts. Micro-CT parameters were not significantly different between knockout and wild type mice at 2 or 6 weeks old. At 6 weeks, metaphyseal TRAP-positive areas were lower and mean size of the areas were smaller in knockout femora, but bone turnover markers in serum were normal. Bone marrow mononuclear cells became TRAP-positive when cultured with CSF-1 and RANKL, but they did not fuse. Expression levels of other osteoclast markers, such as cathepsin K, carbonic anhydrase II, and NFATc1, were not significantly different compared to wild type. Actin rings were present, but small, and pit assays showed a 3.5-fold decrease in area resorbed. Restoring OC-STAMP in knockout cells by lentiviral transduction rescued fusion and resorption. N- and C-termini of OC-STAMP were intracellular, and a predicted glycosylation site was shown to be utilized and to lie on an extracellular loop. The site is conserved in all terrestrial vertebrates and appears to be required for protein stability, but not for fusion. Based on this and other results, we present a topological model of OC-STAMP as a 6-transmembrane domain protein. We also contrast the osteoclast-specific roles of OC- and DC-STAMP with more generalized

  18. Development of graphic display program of reactor operating parameters for emergency exercise at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, Yasunori; Yoshida, Yoshitaka; Gotou, Kazuko

    2001-01-01

    A scenario of nuclear emergency exercise based on the result of accident progress analysis is expected to ensure effective training. Thereupon a new graphic display program for reactor operating parameters has been developed to present real-time of plant process values (parameters), released radioactivities from the plant, and dose rate data around the site calculated by using the accident analysis code MAAP4 and other codes. This system has a trend graph screen displaying reactor operating parameters, an environmental dose rate summary screen indicating dose rate distribution around the site on the map, and a plant parameters summary screen showing important plant parameters on a simplified plant system diagram. One screen can be switched to another any time. It also has a jump-function easily accessing any stage during the exercise scenario in accordance with progress of the exercise. As a result of the application of this system to a real nuclear emergency exercise, it has been verified that this system is quite useful for confirming the parameters when the nuclear emergency exercise starts and the licensee reports the plant conditions to related bodied. (author)

  19. Microstructure and Tensile-Shear Properties of Resistance Spot Welded 22MnMoB Hot-Stamping Annealed Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Cui, Xuetuan; Luo, Zhen; Ao, Sansan

    2017-01-01

    The present paper deals with the joining of 22MnMoB hot-stamping annealed steel carried out by the spot welding process. Microstructural characterization, microhardness testing and tensile-shear testing were conducted. The effects of the welding parameters, including the electrode tip diameter, welding current, welding time and electrode force upon the tensile-shear properties of the welded joints, were investigated. The results showed that a weld size of 9.6 mm was required to ensure pullout failure for the 1.8 -mm-thick hot-stamping annealed steel sheet. The welding current had the largest influence upon the tensile-shear properties of the 22MnMoB steel welded joint. The bulk resistance should play an important role in the nugget formation. In pullout failure mode, failure was initiated at the heat-affected zone, where softening occurs owing to the tempering of martensite.

  20. Efficient methods of nanoimprint stamp cleaning based on imprint self-cleaning effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Fantao; Chu Jinkui; Luo Gang; Zhou Ye; Carlberg, Patrick; Heidari, Babak; Maximov, Ivan; Montelius, Lars; Xu, H Q; Nilsson, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a nonconventional lithographic technique that promises low-cost, high-throughput patterning of structures with sub-10 nm resolution. Contamination of nanoimprint stamps is one of the key obstacles to industrialize the NIL technology. Here, we report two efficient approaches for removal of typical contamination of particles and residual resist from stamps: thermal and ultraviolet (UV) imprinting cleaning-both based on the self-cleaning effect of imprinting process. The contaminated stamps were imprinted onto polymer substrates and after demolding, they were treated with an organic solvent. The images of the stamp before and after the cleaning processes show that the two cleaning approaches can effectively remove contamination from stamps without destroying the stamp structures. The contact angles of the stamp before and after the cleaning processes indicate that the cleaning methods do not significantly degrade the anti-sticking layer. The cleaning processes reported in this work could also be used for substrate cleaning.

  1. Lake and lake-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomqvist, P.; Brunberg, A.K.; Brydsten, L

    2000-09-01

    In this paper, a number of parameters of importance to a preliminary determination of the ecological function of lakes are presented. The choice of parameters have been made with respect to a model for the determination of the nature conservation values of lakes which is currently being developed by the authors of this report, but is also well suited for a general description of the lake type and the functioning of the inherent ecosystem. The parameters have been divided into five groups: 1) The location of the object relative important gradients in the surrounding nature; 2) The lake catchment area and its major constituents; 3) The lake morphometry; 4) The lake ecosystem; 5) Human-induced damages to the lake ecosystem. The first two groups, principally based on the climate, hydrology, geology and vegetation of the catchment area represent parameters that can be used to establish the rarity and representativity of the lake, and will in the context of site investigation program be used as a basis for generalisation of the results. The third group, the lake morphometry parameters, are standard parameters for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of different key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the lake, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the stratification pattern, light climate, influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, trophic status, distribution of key habitats, and presence of fish and rare fauna and flora in the lake. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and material in the system. The fifth group, finally, describes the degree on anthropogenic influence on the ecosystem and will in the context of site investigation programmes be used to judge eventual malfunctioning within the entire, or parts of, the lake ecosystem

  2. River and river-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomqvist, P.; Brunberg, A.K.; Brydsten, L.

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, a number of parameters of importance to a determination of the function of running waters as transport channels for material from the continents to the sea are presented. We have assumed that retention mechanisms of material in the river and in the riparian zone will be covered by special investigations but tried to create a platform for such investigations by quantification of the extension of different main habitats. The choice of parameters has been made so that also the nature conservation value of the river can be preliminary established, and includes a general description of the river type and the inherent ecosystem. The material links directly to that presented in a previous report concerning site investigation programmes for lakes. The parameters have been divided into five groups: 1) The location of the object relative important gradients in the surrounding nature; 2) The river catchment area and its major constituents; 3) The river morphometry; 4) The river ecosystem; 5) Human-induced damages to the river ecosystem. The first two groups, principally based on the climate, hydrology, geology and vegetation of the catchment area, represent parameters that can be used to establish the rarity and representativity of the system, and will in the context of site investigation program be used as a basis for generalisation of the results. The third group, the river morphometry parameters, are standard parameters for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the river, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, nutrient status, distribution of different habitats, and presence of fish in the system. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and

  3. River and river-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomqvist, P.; Brunberg, A.K. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Limnology; Brydsten, L. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, a number of parameters of importance to a determination of the function of running waters as transport channels for material from the continents to the sea are presented. We have assumed that retention mechanisms of material in the river and in the riparian zone will be covered by special investigations but tried to create a platform for such investigations by quantification of the extension of different main habitats. The choice of parameters has been made so that also the nature conservation value of the river can be preliminary established, and includes a general description of the river type and the inherent ecosystem. The material links directly to that presented in a previous report concerning site investigation programmes for lakes. The parameters have been divided into five groups: 1) The location of the object relative important gradients in the surrounding nature; 2) The river catchment area and its major constituents; 3) The river morphometry; 4) The river ecosystem; 5) Human-induced damages to the river ecosystem. The first two groups, principally based on the climate, hydrology, geology and vegetation of the catchment area, represent parameters that can be used to establish the rarity and representativity of the system, and will in the context of site investigation program be used as a basis for generalisation of the results. The third group, the river morphometry parameters, are standard parameters for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the river, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, nutrient status, distribution of different habitats, and presence of fish in the system. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and

  4. Lake and lake-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomqvist, P.; Brunberg, A.K. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Limnology; Brydsten, L [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science

    2000-09-01

    In this paper, a number of parameters of importance to a preliminary determination of the ecological function of lakes are presented. The choice of parameters have been made with respect to a model for the determination of the nature conservation values of lakes which is currently being developed by the authors of this report, but is also well suited for a general description of the lake type and the functioning of the inherent ecosystem. The parameters have been divided into five groups: (1) The location of the object relative important gradients in the surrounding nature; (2) The lake catchment area and its major constituents; (3) The lake morphometry; (4) The lake ecosystem; (5) Human-induced damages to the lake ecosystem. The first two groups, principally based on the climate, hydrology, geology and vegetation of the catchment area represent parameters that can be used to establish the rarity and representativity of the lake, and will in the context of site investigation program be used as a basis for generalisation of the results. The third group, the lake morphometry parameters, are standard parameters for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of different key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the lake, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the stratification pattern, light climate, influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, trophic status, distribution of key habitats, and presence of fish and rare fauna and flora in the lake. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and material in the system. The fifth group, finally, describes the degree on anthropogenic influence on the ecosystem and will in the context of site investigation programmes be used to judge eventual malfunctioning within the entire, or parts of, the lake

  5. Mesoscale storm and dry period parameters from hourly precipitation data: program documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorp, J.M.

    1984-09-01

    Wet deposition of airborne chemical pollutants occurs primarily from precipitation. Precipitation rate, amount, duration, and location are important meteorological factors to be considered when attempting to understand the relationship of precipitation to pollutant deposition. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has conducted studies and experiments in numerous locations to collect data that can be incorporated into theories and models that attempt to describe the complex relationship between precipitation occurrence and chemical wet desposition. Model development often requires the use of average rather than random condition as input. To provide mean values of storm parameters, the task, Climatological Analysis of Mesoscale Storms, was created as a facet of the Environmental Protection Agency's related-service project, Precipitation Scavenging Module Development. Within this task computer programs have been developed at PNL which incorporate hourly precipitation data from National Weather Service stations to calculate mean values and frequency distributions of precipitation periods and of the interspersed dry periods. These programs have been written with a degree of flexibiity that will allow user modification for applications to different, but similar, analyses. This report describes in detail the rationale and operation of the two computer programs which produce the tables of average and frequency distributions of storm and dry period parameters from the precipitation data. A listing of the programs and examples of the generated output are included in the appendices. 3 references, 3 figures, 6 tables.

  6. Interactive Approach for Multi-Level Multi-Objective Fractional Programming Problems with Fuzzy Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Osman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an interactive approach for solving multi-level multi-objective fractional programming (ML-MOFP problems with fuzzy parameters is presented. The proposed interactive approach makes an extended work of Shi and Xia (1997. In the first phase, the numerical crisp model of the ML-MOFP problem has been developed at a confidence level without changing the fuzzy gist of the problem. Then, the linear model for the ML-MOFP problem is formulated. In the second phase, the interactive approach simplifies the linear multi-level multi-objective model by converting it into separate multi-objective programming problems. Also, each separate multi-objective programming problem of the linear model is solved by the ∊-constraint method and the concept of satisfactoriness. Finally, illustrative examples and comparisons with the previous approaches are utilized to evince the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  7. Optimization of programming parameters in children with the advanced bionics cochlear implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudhuin, Jacquelyn; Cadieux, Jamie; Firszt, Jill B; Reeder, Ruth M; Maxson, Jerrica L

    2012-05-01

    Cochlear implants provide access to soft intensity sounds and therefore improved audibility for children with severe-to-profound hearing loss. Speech processor programming parameters, such as threshold (or T-level), input dynamic range (IDR), and microphone sensitivity, contribute to the recipient's program and influence audibility. When soundfield thresholds obtained through the speech processor are elevated, programming parameters can be modified to improve soft sound detection. Adult recipients show improved detection for low-level sounds when T-levels are set at raised levels and show better speech understanding in quiet when wider IDRs are used. Little is known about the effects of parameter settings on detection and speech recognition in children using today's cochlear implant technology. The overall study aim was to assess optimal T-level, IDR, and sensitivity settings in pediatric recipients of the Advanced Bionics cochlear implant. Two experiments were conducted. Experiment 1 examined the effects of two T-level settings on soundfield thresholds and detection of the Ling 6 sounds. One program set T-levels at 10% of most comfortable levels (M-levels) and another at 10 current units (CUs) below the level judged as "soft." Experiment 2 examined the effects of IDR and sensitivity settings on speech recognition in quiet and noise. Participants were 11 children 7-17 yr of age (mean 11.3) implanted with the Advanced Bionics High Resolution 90K or CII cochlear implant system who had speech recognition scores of 20% or greater on a monosyllabic word test. Two T-level programs were compared for detection of the Ling sounds and frequency modulated (FM) tones. Differing IDR/sensitivity programs (50/0, 50/10, 70/0, 70/10) were compared using Ling and FM tone detection thresholds, CNC (consonant-vowel nucleus-consonant) words at 50 dB SPL, and Hearing in Noise Test for Children (HINT-C) sentences at 65 dB SPL in the presence of four-talker babble (+8 signal

  8. Soil Temperature and Moisture Profile (STAMP) System Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, David R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The soil temperature and moisture profile system (STAMP) provides vertical profiles of soil temperature, soil water content (soil-type specific and loam type), plant water availability, soil conductivity, and real dielectric permittivity as a function of depth below the ground surface at half-hourly intervals, and precipitation at one-minute intervals. The profiles are measured directly by in situ probes at all extended facilities of the SGP climate research site. The profiles are derived from measurements of soil energy conductivity. Atmospheric scientists use the data in climate models to determine boundary conditions and to estimate the surface energy flux. The data are also useful to hydrologists, soil scientists, and agricultural scientists for determining the state of the soil. The STAMP system replaced the SWATS system in early 2016.

  9. Reactive wet stamping for patterning of polyelectrolyte multilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chungyeon; Valverde, Lauralee; Ozin, Geoffrey A; Zacharia, Nicole S

    2010-08-17

    Patterning of soft films, especially their bulk and not only their surface properties, presents a challenge. Several lithographic techniques do exist, but many of them are complex or limited in their ability to change properties. A few methods of patterning polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEM) have been reported, including microcontact printing and selectively growing layers on patterned self-assembled monolayers, but these all come with certain limitations. We present here the use of a modified microcontact printing method, reactive wet stamping (r-WETs), using a hydrogel stamp soaked in aqueous solutions to create patterns in PEMs. With this technique we are able to locally cause swelling and porosity changes in the PEM films and use our method to qualitatively study the evolution of the porous film morphology. This technique has the potential to locally control chemical functionality, film thickness, and mechanical properties, leading to a new ability to control film architectures both at the film surface and within the bulk of the film.

  10. CO2 Laser Cutting of Hot Stamping Boron Steel Sheets

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquale Russo Spena

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the quality of CO2 laser cutting of hot stamping boron steel sheets that are employed in the fabrication of automotive body-in-white. For this purpose, experimental laser cutting tests were conducted on 1.2 mm sheets at varying levels of laser power, cutting speed, and oxygen pressure. The resulting quality of cut edges was evaluated in terms of perpendicularity tolerance, surface irregularity, kerf width, heat affected zone, and dross extension. Experimental tests wer...

  11. Monitoring enzymatic degradation of pericellular matrices through SERS stamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bo; Hong, Yan; Chen, Tianhong; Reinhard, Björn M.

    2012-06-01

    We introduce a surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) stamping approach for acquiring cell-surface specific vibrational spectra of individual living cells under physiological conditions. The SERS stamping approach utilizes a nanostructured metal surface on top of a lithographically defined piston that can be translated in 3-dimensions with nanometer resolution to contact living cells in solution with a pristine metal surface. We applied this approach to characterize the chemical composition of the cellular surface of living MCF7 breast cancer cells and to monitor its change upon addition of the enzyme hyaluronidase, which degrades major constituents of the pericellular matrix. Although the cell surface spectra show significant cell-to-cell fluctuations, a statistical barcode analysis of the spectra ensembles reveals systematic changes in the cell surface SERS spectra upon addition of hyaluronidase, which are consistent with a thinning of the pericellular matrix.We introduce a surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) stamping approach for acquiring cell-surface specific vibrational spectra of individual living cells under physiological conditions. The SERS stamping approach utilizes a nanostructured metal surface on top of a lithographically defined piston that can be translated in 3-dimensions with nanometer resolution to contact living cells in solution with a pristine metal surface. We applied this approach to characterize the chemical composition of the cellular surface of living MCF7 breast cancer cells and to monitor its change upon addition of the enzyme hyaluronidase, which degrades major constituents of the pericellular matrix. Although the cell surface spectra show significant cell-to-cell fluctuations, a statistical barcode analysis of the spectra ensembles reveals systematic changes in the cell surface SERS spectra upon addition of hyaluronidase, which are consistent with a thinning of the pericellular matrix. Electronic supplementary information

  12. Hybrid wheat: quantitative genetic parameters and consequences for the design of breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longin, Carl Friedrich Horst; Gowda, Manje; Mühleisen, Jonathan; Ebmeyer, Erhard; Kazman, Ebrahim; Schachschneider, Ralf; Schacht, Johannes; Kirchhoff, Martin; Zhao, Yusheng; Reif, Jochen Christoph

    2013-11-01

    Commercial heterosis for grain yield is present in hybrid wheat but long-term competiveness of hybrid versus line breeding depends on the development of heterotic groups to improve hybrid prediction. Detailed knowledge of the amount of heterosis and quantitative genetic parameters are of paramount importance to assess the potential of hybrid breeding. Our objectives were to (1) examine the extent of midparent, better-parent and commercial heterosis in a vast population of 1,604 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) hybrids and their parental elite inbred lines and (2) discuss the consequences of relevant quantitative parameters for the design of hybrid wheat breeding programs. Fifteen male lines were crossed in a factorial mating design with 120 female lines, resulting in 1,604 of the 1,800 potential single-cross hybrid combinations. The hybrids, their parents, and ten commercial wheat varieties were evaluated in multi-location field experiments for grain yield, plant height, heading time and susceptibility to frost, lodging, septoria tritici blotch, yellow rust, leaf rust, and powdery mildew at up to five locations. We observed that hybrids were superior to the mean of their parents for grain yield (10.7 %) and susceptibility to frost (-7.2 %), leaf rust (-8.4 %) and septoria tritici blotch (-9.3 %). Moreover, 69 hybrids significantly (P hybrid wheat breeding. The estimated quantitative genetic parameters suggest that the establishment of reciprocal recurrent selection programs is pivotal for a successful long-term hybrid wheat breeding.

  13. MINFIT: A Spreadsheet-Based Tool for Parameter Estimation in an Equilibrium Speciation Software Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiongfei; Giammar, Daniel E; Wang, Zimeng

    2016-10-07

    Deterpmination of equilibrium constants describing chemical reactions in the aqueous phase and at solid-water interface relies on inverse modeling and parameter estimation. Although there are existing tools available, the steep learning curve prevents the wider community of environmental engineers and chemists to adopt those tools. Stemming from classical chemical equilibrium codes, MINEQL+ has been one of the most widely used chemical equilibrium software programs. We developed a spreadsheet-based tool, which we are calling MINFIT, that interacts with MINEQL+ to perform parameter estimations that optimize model fits to experimental data sets. MINFIT enables automatic and convenient screening of a large number of parameter sets toward the optimal solutions by calling MINEQL+ to perform iterative forward calculations following either exhaustive equidistant grid search or randomized search algorithms. The combined use of the two algorithms can securely guide the searches for the global optima. We developed interactive interfaces so that the optimization processes are transparent. Benchmark examples including both aqueous and surface complexation problems illustrate the parameter estimation and associated sensitivity analysis. MINFIT is accessible at http://minfit.strikingly.com .

  14. Use of tobacco tax stamps to prevent and reduce illicit tobacco trade--United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie; DeLong, Hillary; Gourdet, Camille; Chaloupka, Frank; Edwards, Sarah Matthes; Xu, Xin; Promoff, Gabbi

    2015-05-29

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States. Increasing the unit price on tobacco products is the most effective tobacco prevention and control measure. Illicit tobacco trade (illicit trade) undermines high tobacco prices by providing tobacco users with cheaper-priced alternatives. In the United States, illicit trade primarily occurs when cigarettes are bought from states, jurisdictions, and federal reservation land with lower or no excise taxes, and sold in jurisdictions with higher taxes. Applying tax stamps to tobacco products, which provides documentation that taxes have been paid, is an important tool to combat illicit trade. Comprehensive tax stamping policy, which includes using digital, encrypted ("high-tech") stamps, applying stamps to all tobacco products, and working with tribes on stamping agreements, can further prevent and reduce illicit trade. This report describes state laws governing tax stamps on cigarettes, little cigars (cigarette-sized cigars), roll-your-own tobacco (RYOT), and tribal tobacco sales across the United States as of January 1, 2014, and assesses the extent of comprehensive tobacco tax stamping in the United States. Forty-four states (including the District of Columbia [DC]) applied traditional paper ("low-tech") tax stamps to cigarettes, whereas four authorized more effective high-tech stamps. Six states explicitly required stamps on other tobacco products (i.e., tobacco products other than cigarettes), and in approximately one third of states with tribal lands, tribes required tax stamping to address illicit purchases by nonmembers. No U.S. state had a comprehensive approach to tobacco tax stamping. Enhancing tobacco tax stamping across the country might further prevent and reduce illicit trade in the United States.

  15. Gesture-Based Extraction of Robot Skill Parameters for Intuitive Robot Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Rath; Krüger, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Despite a lot of research in the field, only very little experience exists with Teaching by Demonstration (TbD) in actual industrial use cases. In the factory of the future, it is necessary to rapidly reprogram flexible mobile manipulators to perform new tasks, when the need arises, for which a w......, and the parameter specification is possible even for inexperienced users. Experiments with 24 people in 3 different environments verify that it is indeed intuitive, even for a robotics novice, to program a mobile manipulator using this method....

  16. Optimal Input Design for Aircraft Parameter Estimation using Dynamic Programming Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Eugene A.; Klein, Vladislav

    1990-01-01

    A new technique was developed for designing optimal flight test inputs for aircraft parameter estimation experiments. The principles of dynamic programming were used for the design in the time domain. This approach made it possible to include realistic practical constraints on the input and output variables. A description of the new approach is presented, followed by an example for a multiple input linear model describing the lateral dynamics of a fighter aircraft. The optimal input designs produced by the new technique demonstrated improved quality and expanded capability relative to the conventional multiple input design method.

  17. Comparison of the hot-stamped boron-alloyed steel and the warm-stamped medium-Mn steel on microstructure and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaodong; Chang, Ying; Wang, Cunyu; Hu, Ping; Dong, Han

    2017-01-01

    The application of high strength steels (HSS) for automotive structural parts is an effective way to realize lightweight and enhance safety. Therefore, improvements in mechanical properties of HSS are needed. In the present study, the warm stamping process of the third generation automotive medium-Mn steel was discussed, the characteristics of martensitic transformation were investigated, as well as the microstructure and mechanical properties were analyzed, compared to the popular hot-stamped 22MnB5 steel in the automotive industry. The results are indicated as follows. Firstly, the quenching rate of the medium-Mn steel can be selected in a wide range based on its CCT curves, which is beneficial to the control of forming process. Secondly, the influence of stamping temperature and pressure on the M s temperature of the medium-Mn steel is not obvious and can be neglected, which is favorable to the even distribution of martensitic microstructure and mechanical properties. Thirdly, the phenomenon of decarbonization is hardly found on the surface of the warm-stamped medium-Mn steel, and the ultra-fine-grained microstructure is found inside the medium-Mn steel after warm stamping. Besides, the warm-stamped medium-Mn steel holds the better comprehensive properties, such as a lower yield ratio, higher total elongation and higher tear toughness than the hot-stamped 22MnB5 steel. Furthermore, an actual warm-stamped B-pillar of medium-Mn steel is stamped and ultra-fine-grained martensitic microstructure is obtained. The mechanical properties are evenly distributed. As a result, this paper proves that the warm-stamped medium-Mn steel part can meet the requirements of lightweight and crash safety, and is promising for the industrial production of automotive structural parts.

  18. Using the fibre structure of paper to determine authenticity of the documents: analysis of transmitted light images of stamps and banknotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takalo, Jouni; Timonen, Jussi; Sampo, Jouni; Rantala, Maaria; Siltanen, Samuli; Lassas, Matti

    2014-11-01

    A novel method is presented for distinguishing postal stamp forgeries and counterfeit banknotes from genuine samples. The method is based on analyzing differences in paper fibre networks. The main tool is a curvelet-based algorithm for measuring overall fibre orientation distribution and quantifying anisotropy. Using a couple of more appropriate parameters makes it possible to distinguish forgeries from genuine originals as concentrated point clouds in two- or three-dimensional parameter space. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Parameter estimation supplement to the Mission Analysis Evaluation and Space Trajectory Operations program (MAESTRO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorkman, W. S.; Uphoff, C. W.

    1973-01-01

    This Parameter Estimation Supplement describes the PEST computer program and gives instructions for its use in determination of lunar gravitation field coefficients. PEST was developed for use in the RAE-B lunar orbiting mission as a means of lunar field recovery. The observations processed by PEST are short-arc osculating orbital elements. These observations are the end product of an orbit determination process obtained with another program. PEST's end product it a set of harmonic coefficients to be used in long-term prediction of the lunar orbit. PEST employs some novel techniques in its estimation process, notably a square batch estimator and linear variational equations in the orbital elements (both osculating and mean) for measurement sensitivities. The program's capabilities are described, and operating instructions and input/output examples are given. PEST utilizes MAESTRO routines for its trajectory propagation. PEST's program structure and subroutines which are not common to MAESTRO are described. Some of the theoretical background information for the estimation process, and a derivation of linear variational equations for the Method 7 elements are included.

  20. Studies on the finite element simulation in sheet metal stamping processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying

    The sheet metal stamping process plays an important role in modern industry. With the ever-increasing demand for shape complexity, product quality and new materials, the traditional trial and error method for setting up a sheet metal stamping process is no longer efficient. As a result, the Finite Element Modeling (FEM) method has now been widely used. From a physical point of view, the formability and the quality of a product are influenced by several factors. The design of the product in the initial stage and the motion of the press during the production stage are two of these crucial factors. This thesis focuses on the numerical simulation for these two factors using FEM. Currently, there are a number of commercial FEM software systems available in the market. These software systems are based on an incremental FEM process that models the sheet metal stamping process in small incremental steps. Even though the incremental FEM is accurate, it is not suitable for the initial conceptual design for its needing of detailed design parameters and enormous calculation times. As a result, another type of FEM, called the inverse FEM method or one-step FEM method, has been proposed. While it is less accurate than that of the incremental method, this method requires much less computation and hence, has a great potential. However, it also faces a number of unsolved problems, which limits its application. This motivates the presented research. After the review of the basic theory of the inverse method, a new modified arc-length search method is proposed to find better initial solution. The methods to deal with the vertical walls are also discussed and presented. Then, a generalized multi-step inverse FEM method is proposed. It solves two key obstacles: the first one is to determine the initial solution of the intermediate three-dimensional configurations and the other is to control the movement of nodes so they could only slide on constraint surfaces during the search by

  1. Mathematical Modeling of Hydroelastic Oscillations of the Stamp and the Plate, Resting on Pasternak Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogilevich, L. I.; Popov, V. S.; Popova, A. A.; Christoforova, A. V.

    2018-01-01

    The forced oscillations of the elastic fixed stamp and the plate, resting on Pasternak foundation are studied. The oscillations are caused by pressure pulsation in liquid layer between the stamp and the plate. Pasternak model is chosen as an elastic foundation. The laws of the stamp movement, the plate deflection and pressure in the liquid are discovered on the basis of hydroelasticity problem analytical solution. The functions of amplitude deflection distribution and liquid pressure along the plate are constructed, as well as the stamp amplitude-frequency characteristic. The obtained mathematical model allows to investigate the dynamics of hydroelastic interaction of the stamp with the plate, resting on elastic foundation, to define resonance frequencies of the plate and the stamp and corresponding deflections amplitudes, as well as liquid presser amplitudes.

  2. Time series analysis of tool wear in sheet metal stamping using acoustic emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignesh Shanbhag, V.; Pereira, P. Michael; Rolfe, F. Bernard; Arunachalam, N.

    2017-09-01

    Galling is an adhesive wear mode that often affects the lifespan of stamping tools. Since stamping tools represent significant economic cost, even a slight improvement in maintenance cost is of high importance for the stamping industry. In other manufacturing industries, online tool condition monitoring has been used to prevent tool wear-related failure. However, monitoring the acoustic emission signal from a stamping process is a non-trivial task since the acoustic emission signal is non-stationary and non-transient. There have been numerous studies examining acoustic emissions in sheet metal stamping. However, very few have focused in detail on how the signals change as wear on the tool surface progresses prior to failure. In this study, time domain analysis was applied to the acoustic emission signals to extract features related to tool wear. To understand the wear progression, accelerated stamping tests were performed using a semi-industrial stamping setup which can perform clamping, piercing, stamping in a single cycle. The time domain features related to stamping were computed for the acoustic emissions signal of each part. The sidewalls of the stamped parts were scanned using an optical profilometer to obtain profiles of the worn part, and they were qualitatively correlated to that of the acoustic emissions signal. Based on the wear behaviour, the wear data can be divided into three stages: - In the first stage, no wear is observed, in the second stage, adhesive wear is likely to occur, and in the third stage severe abrasive plus adhesive wear is likely to occur. Scanning electron microscopy showed the formation of lumps on the stamping tool, which represents galling behavior. Correlation between the time domain features of the acoustic emissions signal and the wear progression identified in this study lays the basis for tool diagnostics in stamping industry.

  3. Multi-cycle rolled aluminum alloy 3103 sandwiches: mechanical properties and stamp ability

    OpenAIRE

    Nosova Ekaterina; Erisov Yaroslav; Grechnikov Fedor

    2017-01-01

    Constructional part producing by sheet stamping of multilayer composites requires the stamping ability data. The aim of a work is to estimate mechanical properties, stamping ratio and anisotropy indexes of 2, 4, 8 and 12 layer sandwiches produced from aluminium alloy AA3103. The pieces were received by the cold rolling. Interoperation annealing was at 500°C for 1 hour. Charts of tensile strength, yield stress, elongation depending on layer thickness were composed. It was found that cold strai...

  4. 49 CFR 238.119 - Rim-stamped straight-plate wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rim-stamped straight-plate wheels. 238.119 Section... Requirements § 238.119 Rim-stamped straight-plate wheels. (a)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this... than a private car, that is equipped with a rim-stamped straight-plate wheel if a brake shoe acts on...

  5. How accurately are the rock neutron parameters known? SLOWN32.BAS program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czubek, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    SLOWN32.BAS program, written in Quick Basic 4.0, allows us to calculate the neutron slowing down parameters together with their standard deviations for a given rock, provided that the standard deviations of the input data are known. The input data are: rock matrix elemental composition (in an elemental or oxide form), rock matrix density, rock porosity, water saturation index of porosity, brine density, brine salinity, and density of saturating hydrocarbons (all data together with standard deviations). The resulting neutron parameters are: slowing down length, slowing down diffusion coefficient, slowing down time (all three parameters both in the length or time units and in mass-length and density-time units), slowing down probability and the lethargy spectrum of slowing neutrons (together with their standard deviations). The size ''n'' of the ''sample'' taken for calculation of the standard deviations is optional. All neutron parameters can be calculated for the following ''source'' neutrons: Ra-Be, Po-Be, Pu-Be, Am-Be, Cf-252, 14 MeV, 10.5 MeV, 6.5 MeV, 4.0 MeV, 2.5 MeV, 1.4 MeV, 0.8 MeV, 0.4 MeV, 0.2 MeV and 0.1 MeV. The final neutron energy is 0.215 eV. An example of calcualtion for the Indiana Limestone and Mucharz Sandstone is shown. 4 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs. (author)

  6. Minerals on postage stamps: A mix of art, history, economics and geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Most people would agree that minerals represent some of the most beautiful natural objects known to mankind, especially in the form of precious and semi-precious gemstones. It is hardly surprising, therefore, that they are often illustrated on stamps. Examples are the fine crystalline forms represented as coloured etchings in the French 1986 issue, and the stylized simplicity of the mineral stamps that were part of the Swiss Pro Patria series, issued annually between 1958 and 1961. I aim in this presentation to introduce the beautiful world of mineral illustrations on stamps. The talk cannot be comprehensive because of the very large number of minerals and stamps concerned, but it will introduce the range of minerals depicted on stamps, then look in some greater detail at several sets from France, Southern Africa and East Germany. Minerals become the subject of sets of stamps for many reasons. In many cases, it is part of an attempt by the particular national post office to depict the whole of the natural history of their country in stamp form - a statement of nationality and politics. The 1986 French issue was an example which followed sets of stamps that had already portrayed insects, flowers, trees and birds native to France. We also find that certain countries have produced several sets of stamps to mark the importance to their economy of mining particular minerals. Many African states depend upon minerals for much of their wealth and economic power, explaining why, for instance, Sierra Leone issued over 35 stamps on the subject of diamonds between 1965 and 1978, and why over 77% of mineral stamps come from countries with major mining interests. Countries with traditional links with the history of the study of geology and mining also produce mineral stamps. These are usually European countries with a long record of the study of the Earth, such as Germany and Switzerland. Curiously enough, though, despite its fine tradition of geological observation and research

  7. Excitation functions of parameters in Erlang distribution, Schwinger mechanism, and Tsallis statistics in RHIC BES program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Li-Na; Liu, Fu-Hu; Lacey, Roy A.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental results of the transverse-momentum distributions of φ mesons and Ω hyperons produced in gold-gold (Au-Au) collisions with different centrality intervals, measured by the STAR Collaboration at different energies (7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, and 39 GeV) in the beam energy scan (BES) program at the relativistic heavy-ion collider (RHIC), are approximately described by the single Erlang distribution and the two-component Schwinger mechanism. Moreover, the STAR experimental transverse-momentum distributions of negatively charged particles, produced in Au-Au collisions at RHIC BES energies, are approximately described by the two-component Erlang distribution and the single Tsallis statistics. The excitation functions of free parameters are obtained from the fit to the experimental data. A weak softest point in the string tension in Ω hyperon spectra is observed at 7.7 GeV. (orig.)

  8. Analysis of the importance for the doses of varying parameters in the BIOPATH-program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, U.

    1981-01-01

    The doses to individuals and populations from water-borne nuclides leaked from a repository have been calculated earlier using the computer program BIOPATH. The turnover of nuclides in the biosphere is thereby simulated by the application of compartment theory. For the dominant nuclides in the disposal an analysis of the importance of varying parameters has been done, to decide how strongly uncertainties in data will affect resulting doses. The essential part has been the transfer coefficients but also the uptake in the food-chains has been studied. The purpose of the study has also been to make proposals for forthcoming efforts to improve the basis for such calculations. The study shows the great importance of the surface water-soil-groundwater-drinking water system for the dose. Thereby the most important question is the solubility of the nuclides in the different water reservoirs. (Auth.)

  9. Chance-constrained programming models for capital budgeting with NPV as fuzzy parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoxia

    2007-01-01

    In an uncertain economic environment, experts' knowledge about outlays and cash inflows of available projects consists of much vagueness instead of randomness. Investment outlays and annual net cash flows of a project are usually predicted by using experts' knowledge. Fuzzy variables can overcome the difficulties in predicting these parameters. In this paper, capital budgeting problem with fuzzy investment outlays and fuzzy annual net cash flows is studied based on credibility measure. Net present value (NPV) method is employed, and two fuzzy chance-constrained programming models for capital budgeting problem are provided. A fuzzy simulation-based genetic algorithm is provided for solving the proposed model problems. Two numerical examples are also presented to illustrate the modelling idea and the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  10. Parameter identification using optimization techniques in the continuous simulation programs FORSIM and MACKSIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carver, M.B.; Austin, C.F.; Ross, N.E.

    1980-02-01

    This report discusses the mechanics of automated parameter identification in simulation packages, and reviews available integration and optimization algorithms and their interaction within the recently developed optimization options in the FORSIM and MACKSIM simulation packages. In the MACKSIM mass-action chemical kinetics simulation package, the form and structure of the ordinary differential equations involved is known, so the implementation of an optimizing option is relatively straightforward. FORSIM, however, is designed to integrate ordinary and partial differential equations of abritrary definition. As the form of the equations is not known in advance, the design of the optimizing option is more intricate, but the philosophy could be applied to most simulation packages. In either case, however, the invocation of the optimizing interface is simple and user-oriented. Full details for the use of the optimizing mode for each program are given; specific applications are used as examples. (O.T.)

  11. Excitation functions of parameters in Erlang distribution, Schwinger mechanism, and Tsallis statistics in RHIC BES program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Li-Na; Liu, Fu-Hu [Shanxi University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Shanxi (China); Lacey, Roy A. [Stony Brook University, Departments of Chemistry and Physics, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Experimental results of the transverse-momentum distributions of φ mesons and Ω hyperons produced in gold-gold (Au-Au) collisions with different centrality intervals, measured by the STAR Collaboration at different energies (7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, and 39 GeV) in the beam energy scan (BES) program at the relativistic heavy-ion collider (RHIC), are approximately described by the single Erlang distribution and the two-component Schwinger mechanism. Moreover, the STAR experimental transverse-momentum distributions of negatively charged particles, produced in Au-Au collisions at RHIC BES energies, are approximately described by the two-component Erlang distribution and the single Tsallis statistics. The excitation functions of free parameters are obtained from the fit to the experimental data. A weak softest point in the string tension in Ω hyperon spectra is observed at 7.7 GeV. (orig.)

  12. Core-satellite supraparticles to ballistically stamp nanostructures on surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppmann, Maximilian; Miller, Franziska; Thürauf, Sandra; Groppe, Philipp; Prieschl, Johannes; Stauch, Claudia; Mandel, Karl

    2018-03-27

    Nanostructured surfaces are of great importance in a very wide range of fields. They can be obtained by imprint or deposition techniques. However, these are usually sophisticated to perform. Generally, it is not easy to equip an object/product with a nanostructure post manufacturing. Yet, it would be very beneficial to achieve a modification of an arbitrary surface with a nanostructure of choice at a later stage by an approach that is simple to perform without the need of sophisticated equipment or excessive treatment by physico-chemical methods. Herein, such a process is reported which combines two "old-fashioned" techniques, namely sandblasting and rubber-stamping, and translates them to the "nano-world". By creating core-satellite supraparticles via spray-drying, a ballistic core-satellite stamp particle system is obtained which can be used to easily transfer a wide range of nanoparticles to a great variety of surfaces to equip these with a nanostructure and subsequently advanced properties. These include water-repellant, anti-fouling or anti-dust surfaces. Moreover, it is also demonstrated that the approach can be used to manufacture well-defined nano-imprinted surfaces. Such surfaces showed an improved spreading behavior for aliphatic alcohols, thus rendering such surfaces for instance very susceptible for disinfectants. All in all, the simple technique described herein has a great potential for creating nanostructured surfaces on nearly any surface.

  13. Stamping, Clapping and Chanting: An Ancient Learning Pathway?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion M. Long

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In this review I explore the effect of temporal integration as a means of improving learning in schoolchildren. I focus first on theorists that have linked physical activity with a positive effect on children’s learning and second to psychological studies that have established the existence of innate temporal patterns. These findings are related to a model of temporal integration that I have developed from Croce’s writings on aesthetics (1900. From philosophy to neurology, I discuss recent neurological findings relating to timing and conclude that an organ of temporal integration, regulation and coordination operates in the brain with respect to physical, intuitive and higher cognitive function. I link recent findings in neurophysiology to notably similar findings in recent biomusicological studies. The finding that humans have an involuntary physical response to loud, low-frequency sounds are attributed to an innate legacy of proto-music and proto-dance behaviour among hominids. I develop the model of temporal integration further by examining the literature on stamping and clapping patterns of ancient traditional dances in relation to Husserl’s writings on theoretical succession. From philosophy to pedagogy, I summarise the review by proposing stamping, clapping and chanting as a means of achieving improved temporal integration.

  14. Size Effect Studies on Tensile Tests for Hot Stamping Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaodu; Li, Yuanyuan; Han, Xianhong; Zhang, Junbo

    2018-02-01

    Tensile tests have been widely used to determine basic mechanical properties of materials. However, the properties measured may be related to geometrical factors of the tested samples especially for high-strength steels; this makes the properties' definitions and comparisons difficult. In this study, a series of tensile tests of ultra-high-strength hot-stamped steel were performed; the geometric shapes and sizes as well as the cutting direction were modified. The results demonstrate that the hot-stamped parts were isotropic and the cutting direction had no effect; the measured strengths were practically unrelated to the specimen geometries, including both size and shape. The elongations were slightly related to sample sizes within the studied range but highly depended on the sample shape, represented by the coefficient K. Such phenomena were analyzed and discussed based on microstructural observations and fracture morphologies. Moreover, two widely used elongation conversion equations, the Oliver formula and Barba's law, were introduced to verify their applicability, and a new interpolating function was developed and compared.

  15. Two Important Stamp Motifs in Roman Britain and Thereafter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana C. Briscoe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Stamped pottery has had a long and varied history in Britain. There have been periods when it flourished and periods when it almost totally disappeared. This article considers two variations of the rosette motif (A 5 and their fortunes from the late Iron Age to the Early Saxon period. Having been of little importance in the Iron Age and early Roman periods, they became some of the most widely used and distributed motifs in the fourth century. By the fifth century, they were still important, but formed a much smaller proportion of the total motifs than in the fourth century. In the vast majority of cases, there is no correlation between the find spots of fourth and fifth century examples. However, I have identified nine locations where one or other of the two motifs have been found on a late Roman site, which lies within a mile of another site with the same motif, but from the post-Roman period. In these rare conjunctions, I believe that ongoing usage of the motif can be demonstrated from Roman to post-Roman times. It is also clear that pot stamp evidence can be vital in identifying these highly unusual locations and pointing other researchers to sites worthy of special attention.

  16. Elsa Baxter, head of the Swiss Post Office's Stamps and Philately Unit, presents to Robert Aymar, CERN's Director-General, the Swiss commemorative stamp dedicated to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2004-01-01

    'I am delighted to offer you a special stamp which commemorates your Laboratory's fifty-year history and pays tribute to its achievements, its pioneering spirit and its perseverance' said Mrs Baxter to Robert Aymar, CERN's Director-General.

  17. Women Putting Our Stamp on America: Biographies and Activities for National Women's History Month, March 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Women's History Project, Windsor, CA.

    This booklet, intended for use by educators and by workplace and community organizers, introduces women who have been featured on U.S. postage stamps as well as a few of the women who clearly merit such honor in the future. Postage stamps featuring women have been relatively few and far between and have only skimmed the surface of U.S. women in…

  18. Food Stamps and Food Insecurity: What Can Be Learned in the Presence of Nonclassical Measurement Error?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Craig; Kreider, Brent

    2008-01-01

    Policymakers have been puzzled to observe that food stamp households appear more likely to be food insecure than observationally similar eligible nonparticipating households. We reexamine this issue allowing for nonclassical reporting errors in food stamp participation and food insecurity. Extending the literature on partially identified…

  19. 27 CFR 70.332 - Unauthorized use or sale of stamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unauthorized use or sale....332 Unauthorized use or sale of stamps. Any person who buys, sells, offers for sale, uses, transfers... Code or in regulations made pursuant thereto, any stamp, coupon, ticket, book, or other device...

  20. Influence of preconsolidation on consolidation quality after stamp forming of C/PEEK composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slange, T. K.; Warnet, L.; Grouve, W. J. B.; Akkerman, R.

    2016-10-01

    Stamp forming is a rapid manufacturing technology used to shape flat blanks of thermoplastic composite material into three-dimensional components. Currently, expensive autoclave and press consolidation are used to preconsolidate blanks. This study investigates the influence of preconsolidation on final consolidation quality after stamp forming and explores the potential of alternative blank manufacturing methods that could reduce part costs. Blanks were manufactured using various blank manufacturing methods and subsequently were stamp formed. The consolidation quality both before and after stamp forming was compared, where the focus was on void content as the main measure for consolidation quality. The void content was characterized through thickness and density measurements, as well as by microscopy analysis. Results indicate that preconsolidation quality does have an influence on the final consolidation quality. This is due to the severe deconsolidation and limited reconsolidation during stamp forming. Nevertheless, the potential of automated fiber placement and ultrasonic spot welding as alternative blank manufacturing methods was demonstrated.

  1. Effects of a one-week vacation with various activity programs on cardiovascular parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumayr, Günther; Lechleitner, Peter

    2018-03-01

    A vacation is considered essential to achieve recovery from the stress of work. Knowledge about the potential health effects of holidays is scarce. The East Tyrolean Health Tourism Study is an open comparative study to investigate the cardiovascular effects of a one- week vacation with different activities on healthy vacationers. Fifty-two healthy vacationers spending one week in East Tyrol participated in two types of vacation activities (golf vs. Nordic walking or e-biking [nw&eb]). In the former group 30 subjects played golf for 33.5 hours per week, and in the nw&eb group 22 engaged in Nordic walking or e-biking for 14.2 hours per week. Cardiovascular parameters such as performance capacity, blood pressure, heart rate profiles and cardiac diastolic function were measured by a cardiopulmonary exercise test, holter ECG and echocardiography performed one day before and after the stay. There was a significant decrease in body weight of 1.0 kg in the nw&eb-group but not in the golf group. In both groups we noted a reduction of blood pressure and heart rate, which was marked and significant only in the golf group. We observed no significant changes in performance capacity, but did note an improvement of cardiac diastolic function in both groups; the improvement was more pronounced in the nw&eb group. A one-week vacation with an activity program for several hours per week is well tolerated by healthy vacationers and improves cardiovascular parameters. The cardiovascular benefits were homogeneous but differed in their magnitude, depending on the activity group. The benefits were probably due to the enhanced physical activity rather than purely a holiday effect.

  2. Effects of a mat pilates program on cardiometabolic parameters in elderly women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinda, Fourie; Magda, Gildenhuys; Ina, Shaw; Brandon, Shaw; Abel, Toriola; Ter Goon, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to determine the effects of mat Pilates on resting heart rate, resting blood pressure and fasting blood glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides in elderly women. Methodology: Fifty sedentary, apparently healthy females aged 60 and older were randomly assigned into a control (CG, n = 25) or an intervention (IG, n = 25) group. The IG took part in an eight-week progressive mat Pilates exercise program, three times weekly while the CG did not take part in any structured exercises throughout the eight-week period. All subjects underwent pre- and post-tests in which cardiometabolic parameters were assessed. Results: In the eight-week mat Pilates program, the IG only demonstrated a significant (p ≤ 0.05) decrease in systolic BP (p = 0.040) from 135.84 ± 14.66mmHg to 128.80 ± 16.36mmHg and a significant increase in blood glucose (p = 0.000) from 5.07 ± 0.46mmol.L-1 to 5.83 ± 0.57mmol.L-1, whereas resting HR (p = 0.148) (from 68.80 ± 12.58beats.min-1 to 73.20 ± 11.46beats.min-1), resting diastolic BP (p = 0.342) (from 75.64 ± 10.10mmHg to 77.44 ± 9.32mmHg), blood TC (p = 0.073) (from 5.37 ± 0.99mmol.L-1 to 5.67 ± 1.04mmol.L-1) and blood TG (p = 0.384) (from 1.77 ± 0.88mmol.L-1 to 1.92 ± 0.87mmol.L-1) did not produce any significant changes. Conclusion: Due to the contradictory nature of the cardiometabolic variables (except systolic BP) with the findings of previous studies, it is difficult to establish a case for using Pilates as a substitute for more conventional forms of exercising when exclusively attempting to favourably alter cardiometabolic parameters at least among the elderly women in our sample. PMID:24353564

  3. Automatic machine for the stamp charging of cakes of coal for coking. Machine automatique pour le pilonnage des pains de charbon a cokefier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baro, R.; Crauser, L.; Mely, A.

    1988-06-29

    This machine, which consists of several basic stamp chargers that are interlinked and each of which has several stamps, has a total length that is one run less than the length of the stamp charging box, all the stamps being a constant distance apart which is at most equal to the said run so that the alternating movement of the machine along the rung ensures that the coal is stamp charged along the whole length of the stamp charging box, the stamps being, in addition, braked and stopped when necessary by an idler roller device that acts automatically in the stamp's ascending direction.

  4. Titanium nitride stamps replicating nanoporous anodic alumina films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navas, D; Sanchez, O; Asenjo, A; Jaafar, M; Baldonedo, J L; Vazquez, M; Hernandez-Velez, M

    2007-01-01

    Fabrication of nanostructured TiN films by magnetron sputtering using nanoporous anodic alumina films (NAAF) as substrates is reported. These hard nanostructured films could be used for pre-patterning aluminium foils and to obtain nanoporous films replicating the starting NAAF over a wide range of pore diameters and spacings. Pre-patterned Al foils are obtained by compression with pressures lower than those previously reported, then a new NAAF can be fabricated by means of only one anodization process. As an example, one of the TiN stamps was used for pre-patterning an Al foil at a pressure of 200 kg cm -2 and then it was anodized in oxalic acid solution obtaining the corresponding replica of the starting NAAF

  5. A novel time stamping technique for distributed data acquisition systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, E. T.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we discuss the design and implementation of a synchronizing technique for data acquisition systems, which can effectively use the normal, standard local area network cables to provide a time stamp, with a range up to 32 days, resolution of 10 ns, and synchronization within ± 5 ns. This system may be used to synchronize data being collected by independent heterogeneous data acquisition modules, that acquire events independently. Such distributed systems are generally designed with a tree-like structure or independent self-triggered acquisition boxes. These leaf edges are connected through branches to the root node, via non-bus based inter-connecting links. The present system has been tested with a set of self-triggered digital signal processing based data acquisition engines, having a 100 MHz analog to digital converter front end.

  6. Effectiveness of Different Preventive Programs in Cariogram Parameters of Young Adults at High Caries Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Karabekiroğlu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of different preventive programs in young adults at high caries risk using Cariogram software. Methods. Sixty-six young adults with high caries risk were evaluated. Dental caries risk for all subjects was determined according to WHO criteria. Subjects were divided into three different preventive groups (control: OH, fluoride varnish: FV, and chlorhexidine varnish: CV. They were followed for 12 weeks (baseline: T0, 1 week: T1, 4 weeks: T2, and 12 weeks: T3. Plaque index, diet frequency, and salivary chairside tests (to record the flow rate, buffer capacity, and mutans streptococci and lactobacillus counts were performed at each visit. Based on these data, ten caries-related variables were collected and inserted into the Cariogram software to calculate the predicted chance of avoiding caries for each subject. Results. Significant changes were obtained about the Cariogram parameters (diet, bacteria, susceptibility, circumstances, and Cariogram risk group. No significant differences were found between the three methods regarding mean Cariogram scores after 3 months (p>0.05. Conclusions. The regular and effective short-term (three months use of 1450 ppm fluoridated toothpaste, one visit application of fluoride, and chlorhexidine varnishes were effective for reducing caries risk in young adults, which can be clearly demonstrated using Cariogram software.

  7. Immunometabolic parameters in overweight dogs during weight loss with or without an exercise program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitger, A D; Stallknecht, B M; Miles, J E; Hansen, S L; Vegge, A; Bjørnvad, C R

    2017-04-01

    The influence of physical activity on metabolic health in overweight dogs is unknown. This study was conducted to evaluate biomarkers of immunometabolic health in relation to changes in physical activity and adiposity. Client-owned overweight dogs participated in a 12-wk intervention based on caloric restriction combined with a training program (fitness and diet [FD] group, n = 8), or caloric restriction alone (diet-only [DO] group, n = 8). Physical activity was monitored by accelerometry. All dogs were fed the same diet and achieved similar weight loss. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after 6- and 12-wk intervention. Insulin resistance was evaluated from plasma insulin and C-peptide as well as homeostasis model assessment. Inflammation and dyslipidemia were evaluated from circulating leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), monocyte chemoattractant factor-1 (MCP-1), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and cholesterol. Accelerometer counts in both groups were high compared with previous reports of physical activity in overweight dogs. No difference in blood parameters was evident between groups, evaluated by linear mixed-effects model (P > 0.05). Within the groups, the following changes were significant by t-test (P benefits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. ParFit: A Python-Based Object-Oriented Program for Fitting Molecular Mechanics Parameters to ab Initio Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahariev, Federico; De Silva, Nuwan; Gordon, Mark S; Windus, Theresa L; Dick-Perez, Marilu

    2017-03-27

    A newly created object-oriented program for automating the process of fitting molecular-mechanics parameters to ab initio data, termed ParFit, is presented. ParFit uses a hybrid of deterministic and stochastic genetic algorithms. ParFit can simultaneously handle several molecular-mechanics parameters in multiple molecules and can also apply symmetric and antisymmetric constraints on the optimized parameters. The simultaneous handling of several molecules enhances the transferability of the fitted parameters. ParFit is written in Python, uses a rich set of standard and nonstandard Python libraries, and can be run in parallel on multicore computer systems. As an example, a series of phosphine oxides, important for metal extraction chemistry, are parametrized using ParFit. ParFit is in an open source program available for free on GitHub ( https://github.com/fzahari/ParFit ).

  9. An Interval-Parameter Fuzzy Linear Programming with Stochastic Vertices Model for Water Resources Management under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Han

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An interval-parameter fuzzy linear programming with stochastic vertices (IFLPSV method is developed for water resources management under uncertainty by coupling interval-parameter fuzzy linear programming (IFLP with stochastic programming (SP. As an extension of existing interval parameter fuzzy linear programming, the developed IFLPSV approach has advantages in dealing with dual uncertainty optimization problems, which uncertainty presents as interval parameter with stochastic vertices in both of the objective functions and constraints. The developed IFLPSV method improves upon the IFLP method by allowing dual uncertainty parameters to be incorporated into the optimization processes. A hybrid intelligent algorithm based on genetic algorithm and artificial neural network is used to solve the developed model. The developed method is then applied to water resources allocation in Beijing city of China in 2020, where water resources shortage is a challenging issue. The results indicate that reasonable solutions have been obtained, which are helpful and useful for decision makers. Although the amount of water supply from Guanting and Miyun reservoirs is declining with rainfall reduction, water supply from the South-to-North Water Transfer project will have important impact on water supply structure of Beijing city, particularly in dry year and extraordinary dry year.

  10. Analysis of roll-stamped light guide plate fabricated with laser-ablated stamper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hyunjun; Hong, Seokkwan; Kim, Jongsun; Hwang, Jeongho; Joo, Byungyun; Yoon, Kyunghwan; Kang, Jeongjin

    2017-12-01

    LGP (light guide plate) is one of the major components of LCD (liquid crystal display), and it makes surface illumination for LCD backlit. LGP is a transparent plastic plate usually produced by injection molding process. On the back of LGP there are micron size patterns for extraction of light. Recently a roll-stamping process has achieved the high mass productivity of thinner LGPs. In order to fabricate optical patterns on LGPs, a fabricating tool called as a stamper is used. Micro patterns on metallic stampers are made by several micro machining processes such as chemical etching, LIGA-reflow, and laser ablation. In this study, a roll-stamping process by using a laser ablated metallic stamper was dealt with in consideration of the compatibility with the roll-stamping process. LGP fabricating tests were performed using a roll-stamping process with four different roll pressures. Pattern shapes on the stamper fabricated by laser ablation and transcription ratios of the roll-stamping process were analyzed, and LGP luminance was evaluated. Based on the evaluation, optical simulation model for LGP was made and simulation accuracy was evaluated. Simulation results showed good agreements with optical performance of LGPs in the brightness and uniformity. It was also shown that the roll-stamped LGP has the possibility of better optical performance than the conventional injection molded LGP. It was also shown that the roll-stamped LGP with the laser ablated stamper is potential to have better optical performance than the conventional injection molded LGP.

  11. A unique patterned diamond stamp for a periodically hierarchical nanoarray structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Shen, Yanting; Xu, Weiqing; Xu, Shuping; Li, Hongdong

    2016-10-01

    A diamond stamp with a hierarchical pattern was designed for the direct preparation of a periodic nanoarray structure, which was prepared by the reactive ion etching technique with a hierarchical ultrathin alumina membrane (HUTAM) as a mask. The optimal etching conditions for fabricating the diamond stamp were discussed in order to realize a vertical nanopore structure, avoiding structural damage from lateral etching. By using this diamond stamp, a polymer film with the desired hierarchical nanorod array structure can be obtained easily via the simple stamping process, which greatly simplifies the processing procedure. More importantly, the stamp is reusable because of its super-hardness, which ensures the reproducibility of the nanorod array pattern. Another merit is that the smooth surface of the etched diamond can avoid the use of a release agent. Our results prove that this hard stamp can be used for quick preparation of an elaborate periodic nanoarray structure. This study is significant in that it solves the problems of high cost and easy damage of stamps in nanoimprint lithography, and it might inspire more sophisticated applications of such an ordered structure in nanoplasmonics, biochemical sensing and nanophotonic devices.

  12. Effects of a Japan Diet Intake Program on Metabolic Parameters in Middle-Aged Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Chizuko; Nakano, Rena; Shima, Mitsuha; Mae, Asumi; Shijo, Yuri; Nakamura, Eri; Okabe, Yuuna; Park, Sunmi; Kameyama, Noriko; Hirai, Satomi; Nakanishi, Mamoru; Uchida, Kagehiro; Nishiyama, Hiroshi

    2017-04-03

    We conducted a pilot study to clarify the effects of the Japan Diet nutritional education program on metabolic risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in middle-aged men who were brought up in the westernized dietary environment of modern Japan. Thirty-three men, 30-49 years of age, attended a nutrition education class to learn food items and recommended volumes comprising the Japan Diet (more fish, soybeans and soy products, vegetables, seaweed, mushrooms and unrefined cereals, and less animal fat, meat and poultry with fat, sweets, desserts and snacks, and alcoholic drinks), and were encouraged to consume the Japan Diet for 6 weeks. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured and 3-day weighted dietary records were kept before and at completion of the intervention. Ninety-one percent of participants showed improvements in more than one cardiovascular risk factor after 6 weeks. Body weight, serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, malondialdehyde modified (MDA)-LDL and triglyceride concentrations decreased significantly, while high density lipoprotein cholesterol was unchanged. Fish, soy, and sum of seaweed, mushrooms and konjak intakes doubled, and green and yellow vegetable intakes also increased as compared to baseline. Meanwhile, intakes of refined cereals, meat and poultry, sweets, desserts and snacks, and margarine and shortening decreased. Total energy, lipid, and saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid intakes decreased, while n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, dietary fiber, beta-carotene, vitamins D and K, potassium, and magnesium increased, with no change in sodium intake. The Japan Diet is suggested to improve atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk factors in middle-aged Japanese men.The clinical trial registration number: UMIN000020639.

  13. Resistless Fabrication of Nanoimprint Lithography (NIL Stamps Using Nano-Stencil Lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juergen Brugger

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to keep up with the advances in nano-fabrication, alternative, cost-efficient lithography techniques need to be implemented. Two of the most promising are nanoimprint lithography (NIL and stencil lithography. We explore here the possibility of fabricating the stamp using stencil lithography, which has the potential for a cost reduction in some fabrication facilities. We show that the stamps reproduce the membrane aperture patterns within ±10 nm and we validate such stamps by using them to fabricate metallic nanowires down to 100 nm in size.

  14. Conical tungsten stamps for the replication of pore arrays in anodic aluminium oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeClere, D. J.; Thompson, G. E.; Derby, B.

    2009-06-01

    A tungsten master stamp has been generated by applying a novel procedure that includes two-step anodizing, followed by sequential anodizing and pore widening to develop nominally funnelled pores. These conical-shaped pores were filled with tungsten by sputter coating to manufacture a master stamp. Under a pressure of 65 MPa, the master stamp successfully embossed the surface of annealed and electropolished aluminium. The embossed surface was then used to control the position of pores created by anodizing under the conditions used to produce the original pore array.

  15. The application of parameters for comprehensive smile esthetics by digital smile design programs: A review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doya Omar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetic dentistry is increasingly becoming an issue of concern to patients who hope to improve their smile. A systematic and comprehensive dentofacial analysis must be performed before commencing esthetic treatment. Several computer software programs have been developed for digital smile design (DSD to assist clinicians in this process. This article compares DSD programs commonly used in cosmetic dentistry and their ability to assess esthetic parameters. A literature review was performed of current dentofacial aesthetic parameters and clinical applications of computer technology to assess facial, dentogingival and dental esthetics. Eight DSD programs (Photoshop CS6, Keynote, Planmeca Romexis Smile Design, Cerec SW 4.2, Aesthetic Digital Smile Design, Smile Designer Pro, DSD App and VisagiSMile were compared. Photoshop, Keynote and Aesthetic Digital Smile Design included the largest number of esthetic analysis parameters. Other studied DSD programs presented deficiencies in their ability to analyze facial esthetic parameters but included comprehensive dentogingival and dental esthetic functions. The DSD App, Planmeca Romexis Smile Design, and Cerec SW 4.2 were able to perform 3D analysis; furthermore, Cerec SW 4.2 and PRSD could be used jointly with CAD/CAM. The DSD App and Smile Designer Pro are available as mobile phone applications. It can be concluded that despite the fact that they were not specifically designed for dental diagnosis, Photoshop CS6 and Keynote provide a more comprehensive smile analysis than most specialized DSD programs. However, other program functions should also be considered when deciding which DSD program is applicable to individual clinical setups.

  16. Limited indications of tax stamp discordance and counterfeiting on cigarette packs purchased in tobacco retailers, 97 counties, USA, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph G L; Golden, Shelley D; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2017-12-01

    Increasing the per-unit cost of tobacco products is one of the strongest interventions for tobacco control. In jurisdictions with higher taxes in the U.S., however, cigarette pack litter studies show a substantial proportion of littered packs lack the appropriate tax stamp. More limited but still present counterfeiting also exists. We sought to examine the role of tobacco retailers as a source for untaxed and counterfeit products. Data collectors purchased Newport Green (menthol) or Marlboro Red cigarette packs in a national probability-based sample of tobacco retailers (in 97 counties) from June-October 2012. They made no effort to buy counterfeit or untaxed cigarettes. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the presence, tax authority, and type (low-tech thermal vs. encrypted) of cigarette pack tax stamps; concordance of tax stamps with where the pack was purchased; and, for Marlboro cigarettes, publicly available visible indicators of counterfeiting. We purchased 2147 packs of which 2033 had tax stamps. Packs missing stamps were in states that do not require them. We found very limited discordance between store location and tax stamp(s) (tax stamps (13%). This occurred entirely with low-tech tax stamps and was not identified with encrypted tax stamps. We found no clear evidence of counterfeit products. Almost all tax stamps matched the location of purchase. Litter studies may be picking up legal tax avoidance instead of illegal tax evasion or, alternatively, purchase of illicit products requires special request by the purchaser.

  17. LLNL Containment Program nuclear test effects and geologic data base: glossary and parameter definitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, N.W.

    1983-01-01

    This report lists, defines, and updates Parameters in DBASE, an LLNL test effects data bank in which data are stored from experiments performed at NTS and other test sites. Parameters are listed by subject and by number. Part 2 of this report presents the same information for parameters for which some of the data may be classified; it was issued in 1979 and is not being reissued at this time as it is essentially unchanged

  18. R programming for parameters estimation of geographically weighted ordinal logistic regression (GWOLR) model based on Newton Raphson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhdi, Shaifudin; Saputro, Dewi Retno Sari

    2017-03-01

    GWOLR model used for represent relationship between dependent variable has categories and scale of category is ordinal with independent variable influenced the geographical location of the observation site. Parameters estimation of GWOLR model use maximum likelihood provide system of nonlinear equations and hard to be found the result in analytic resolution. By finishing it, it means determine the maximum completion, this thing associated with optimizing problem. The completion nonlinear system of equations optimize use numerical approximation, which one is Newton Raphson method. The purpose of this research is to make iteration algorithm Newton Raphson and program using R software to estimate GWOLR model. Based on the research obtained that program in R can be used to estimate the parameters of GWOLR model by forming a syntax program with command "while".

  19. Comprehensive study on parameter sensitivity for flow and nutrient modeling in the Hydrological Simulation Program Fortran model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chuan; Li, Zhaofu; Wu, Min; Jiang, Kaixia; Chen, Xiaomin; Li, Hengpeng

    2017-09-01

    Numerous parameters are used to construct the HSPF (Hydrological Simulation Program Fortran) model, which results in significant difficulty in calibrating the model. Parameter sensitivity analysis is an efficient method to identify important model parameters. Through this method, a model's calibration process can be simplified on the basis of understanding the model's structure. This study investigated the sensitivity of the flow and nutrient parameters of HSPF using the DSA (differential sensitivity analysis) method in the Xitiaoxi watershed, China. The results showed that flow was mostly affected by parameters related to groundwater and evapotranspiration, including DEEPFR (fraction of groundwater inflow to deep recharge), LZETP (lower-zone evapotranspiration parameter), and AGWRC (base groundwater recession), and most of the sensitive parameters had negative and nonlinear effects on flow. Additionally, nutrient components were commonly affected by parameters from land processes, including MON-SQOLIM (monthly values limiting storage of water quality in overland flow), MON-ACCUM (monthly values of accumulation), MON-IFLW-CONC (monthly concentration of water quality in interflow), and MON-GRND-CONC (monthly concentration of water quality in active groundwater). Besides, parameters from river systems, KATM20 (unit oxidation rate of total ammonia at 20 °C) had a negative and almost linear effect on ammonia concentration and MALGR (maximal unit algal growth rate for phytoplankton) had a negative and nonlinear effect on ammonia and orthophosphate concentrations. After calibrating these sensitive parameters, our model performed well for simulating flow and nutrient outputs, with R 2 and E NS (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency) both greater than 0.75 for flow and greater than 0.5 for nutrient components. This study is expected to serve as a valuable complement to the documentation of the HSPF model to help users identify key parameters and provide a reference for performing

  20. ParShield: A computer program for calculating attenuation parameters of the gamma rays and the fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmahroug, Y.; Tellili, B.; Souga, C.; Manai, K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Description of the theoretical method used by the ParShield program. • Description of the ParShield program. • Test and validation the ParShield program. - Abstract: This study aims to present a new computer program called ParShield which determines the neutron and gamma-ray shielding parameters. This program can calculate the total mass attenuation coefficients (μ t ), the effective atomic numbers (Z eff ) and the effective electron densities (N eff ) for gamma rays and it can also calculate the effective removal cross-sections (Σ R ) for fast neutrons for mixtures and compounds. The results obtained for the gamma rays by using ParShield were compared with the results calculated by the WinXcom program and the measured results. The obtained values of (Σ R ) were tested by comparing them with the measured results,the manually calculated results and with the results obtained by using MERCSFN program and an excellent agreement was found between them. The ParShield program can be used as a fast and effective tool to choose and compare the shielding materials, especially for the determination of (Z eff ) and (N eff ), there is no other programs in the literature which can calculate

  1. Mars Express/MARSIS - Analysis and solution of an anomaly event: MARSIS Data Bad Time Stamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuppi, S.; Cartacci, M.; Cicchetti, A.; Noschese, R.; Orosei, R.

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes the detection, the analysis and the possible solutions of an anomaly event occurred sometimes in MARSIS science data consisting in the corruption of the Spacecraft Event Time (SCET): MARSIS Data Bad Time Stamp.

  2. Process control for sheet-metal stamping process modeling, controller design and shop-floor implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Yongseob; Ulsoy, A Galip

    2014-01-01

    Process Control for Sheet-Metal Stamping presents a comprehensive and structured approach to the design and implementation of controllers for the sheet metal stamping process. The use of process control for sheet-metal stamping greatly reduces defects in deep-drawn parts and can also yield large material savings from reduced scrap. Sheet-metal forming is a complex process and most often characterized by partial differential equations that are numerically solved using finite-element techniques. In this book, twenty years of academic research are reviewed and the resulting technology transitioned to the industrial environment. The sheet-metal stamping process is modeled in a manner suitable for multiple-input multiple-output control system design, with commercially available sensors and actuators. These models are then used to design adaptive controllers and real-time controller implementation is discussed. Finally, experimental results from actual shopfloor deployment are presented along with ideas for further...

  3. 31 CFR 500.410 - Currency, coins, and postage and other stamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... postage and other stamps issued by North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam are merchandise of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian, or South Vietnamese origin subject to § 500.204(a)(1). ...

  4. A burial with a stamp seal depicting a Bes-like figure from Abusir

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dulíková, V.; Odler, M.; Březinová, Helena; Havelková, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2015, č. 15 (2015), s. 69-75 ISSN 1214-3189 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Abusir * Old Kingdom * First Intermediate Period * stamp seal * amulet * Bes * reed coffin * entheses Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  5. Insulation from basaltic stamp sand. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, F. D.

    1981-04-01

    A Midwest Appropriate Technology Grant was awarded to determine the technical and economic feasibility of producing mineral-fiber insulation directly from extensive deposits of basaltic sand produced during former mining and milling operations in the Keweenaw Peninsula region of Michigan's Upper Peninsula. The amounts of local basaltic sands available and representative chemical compositions were determined. The variation of viscosity with temperature and chemical composition was estimated. Samples were melted and either pulled or blown into fiber. In all cases fiber could be made with a reasonable tensile strength to ensure usefulness. It was concluded that it was technically feasible to produce fibers from basaltic stamp sands of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. A technical feasibility study using published data, a cost and design analysis of a basalt fiber production plant, a market survey of fiber needs, and an economic analysis for investing in a basalt fiber venture was undertaken. These studies concluded that the local production of basaltic insulation was both feasible and economically reasonable. It was suggested that the plant be located in a region of greater population density with lower utility costs. A representative one-third of these studies is included as appendices A, B, C, and D.

  6. Investigation of the reduction of mouldboard ploughshare wear through hot stamping and hardfacing processes

    OpenAIRE

    YAZICI, Aysel

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the hot stamping process and different hardfacing techniques, such as shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) and gas metal arc welding (GMAW), on the abrasive wear of ploughshares were investigated under field operational conditions. The abrasive wear losses were determined by measuring the weight and dimension changes before and after tillage. The wear losses of hot-stamped and hardfaced ploughshares were less significant than those of the conventionally heat-treated ploughshare sp...

  7. Springback analysis of AA5754 after hot stamping: Experiments and FE modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, A; Zhong, K; El Fakir, O; Sun, C; Wang, L; Lin, J; Dean, TA

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the springback of the aluminium alloy AA5754 under hot stamping conditions was characterised under stretch and pure bending conditions. It was found that elevated temperature stamping was beneficial for springback reduction, particularly when using hot dies. Using cold dies, the flange springback angle decreased by 9.7 % when the blank temperature was increased from 20 to 450 ?C, compared to the 44.1 % springback reduction when hot dies were used. Various other forming conditio...

  8. A Fully Automated and Robust Method to Incorporate Stamping Data in Crash, NVH and Durability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniswamy, Hariharasudhan; Kanthadai, Narayan; Roy, Subir; Beauchesne, Erwan

    2011-08-01

    Crash, NVH (Noise, Vibration, Harshness), and durability analysis are commonly deployed in structural CAE analysis for mechanical design of components especially in the automotive industry. Components manufactured by stamping constitute a major portion of the automotive structure. In CAE analysis they are modeled at a nominal state with uniform thickness and no residual stresses and strains. However, in reality the stamped components have non-uniformly distributed thickness and residual stresses and strains resulting from stamping. It is essential to consider the stamping information in CAE analysis to accurately model the behavior of the sheet metal structures under different loading conditions. Especially with the current emphasis on weight reduction by replacing conventional steels with aluminum and advanced high strength steels it is imperative to avoid over design. Considering this growing need in industry, a highly automated and robust method has been integrated within Altair Hyperworks® to initialize sheet metal components in CAE models with stamping data. This paper demonstrates this new feature and the influence of stamping data for a full car frontal crash analysis.

  9. Carbon nanotube substrates and catalyzed hot stamp for polishing and patterning the substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhuang [Evanston, IL; Hauge, Robert H [Houston, TX; Schmidt, Howard K [Houston, TX; Kim, Myung Jong [Houston, TX; Kittrell, W Carter [Houston, TX

    2009-09-08

    The present invention is generally directed to catalyzed hot stamp methods for polishing and/or patterning carbon nanotube-containing substrates. In some embodiments, the substrate, as a carbon nanotube fiber end, is brought into contact with a hot stamp (typically at 200-800.degree. C.), and is kept in contact with the hot stamp until the morphology/patterns on the hot stamp have been transferred to the substrate. In some embodiments, the hot stamp is made of material comprising one or more transition metals (Fe, Ni, Co, Pt, Ag, Au, etc.), which can catalyze the etching reaction of carbon with H.sub.2, CO.sub.2, H.sub.2O, and/or O.sub.2. Such methods can (1) polish the carbon nanotube-containing substrate with a microscopically smooth finish, and/or (2) transfer pre-defined patterns from the hot stamp to the substrate. Such polished or patterned carbon nanotube substrates can find application as carbon nanotube electrodes, field emitters, and field emitter arrays for displays and electron sources.

  10. Comparative Impacts of Scala Vestibuli Versus Scala Tympani Cochlear Implantation on Auditory Performances and Programming Parameters in Partially Ossified Cochleae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudel, Mathieu; Côté, Mathieu; Philippon, Daniel; Simonyan, David; Villemure-Poliquin, Noémie; Bussières, Richard

    2018-04-26

    To compare scala vestibuli versus scala tympani cochlear implantation in terms of postoperative auditory performances and programming parameters in patients with severe scala tympani ossification. Retrospective case-control study. Tertiary referral center. One hundred three pediatric and adult patients who underwent cochlear implant surgery between 2000 and 2016. Three groups were formed: a scala vestibuli group, a scala tympani with ossification group, and a scala tympani without ossification group. Patients were matched based on their age, sex, duration of deafness, and side of implantation (ratio of 1:2:2). Postoperative evaluation of auditory performances and programming parameters following intensive functional rehabilitation program completion. Multimedia adaptive test (MAT), hearing in noise test (HINT SNR +10 dB, HINT SNR +5 dB, and HINT SNR +0 dB), impedances, neural response telemetry thresholds (NRT), neural response imaging thresholds (NRI), comfortable levels (C-levels), and threshold levels (T-levels) were compared between groups. Twenty-one patients underwent scala vestibuli cochlear implantation: 19 adults and two children. Auditory performances were similar between groups, although sentence recognition in a noisy environment was slightly higher in the scala vestibuli group. Impedance values were also higher in the scala vestibuli group, but all other programming parameters were similar between groups. We present the largest series of patients with scala vestibuli cochlear implantation. This approach provides at least comparable auditory performances without having any deleterious effects on programming parameters. This viable and useful insertion route might be the primary surgical alternative when facing partial cochlear ossification.

  11. Mechanical behavior and modelisation of Ti-6Al-4V titanium sheet under hot stamping conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirvin, Q.; Velay, V.; Bonnaire, R.; Penazzi, L.

    2017-10-01

    The Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy is widely used for the manufacture of aeronautical and automotive parts (solid parts). In aeronautics, this alloy is employed for its excellent mechanical behavior associated with low density, outstanding corrosion resistance and good mechanical properties up to 600°C. It is especially used for the manufacture of fuselage frames, on the pylon for carrying out the primary structure (machining forged blocks) and the secondary structure in sheet form. In this last case, the sheet metal forming can be done through various methods: at room temperature by drawing operation, at very high temperature (≃900°C) by superplastic forming (SPF) and at intermediate temperature (≥750°C) by hot forming (HF). In order to reduce production costs and environmental troubles, the cycle times reduction associated with a decrease of temperature levels are relevant. This study focuses on the behavior modelling of Ti-6Al-4V alloy at temperatures above room temperature to obtained greater formability and below SPF condition to reduce tools workshop and energy costs. The displacement field measurement obtained by Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is based on innovative surface preparation pattern adapted to high temperature exposures. Different material parameters are identified to define a model able to predict the mechanical behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy under hot stamping conditions. The hardening plastic model identified is introduced in FEM to simulate an omega shape forming operation.

  12. BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF SOCIAL INTEGRATION AND SOLIDARITY AS PARAMETERS FOR POSTGRADUATE PROGRAM EVALUATION OF MEDICINE III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Jorge Eduardo Fouto

    2015-01-01

    To provide information in the maturation process of the general conception of social inclusion and solidarity. The following official CAPES sources were consulted: resolutions of the Technical-Scientific Council; models of evaluation forms; current legislation and ordinances; relationship with the Great Area courses; Dinter and Minter evaluation projects; and the assessment application. Social inclusion and solidarity are recent and innovative parameters to be developed by postgraduate programs and evaluated by area committees organized by Capes. There is need for better understanding by the postgraduate faculty of Medicine III the characteristics of relevant actions on social inclusion. The basic theme of life support help in understanding how ​​Medicine III can expand its operations in basic education without compromising the innovative and transformer character of postgraduate. Postgraduate must innovate its insertion in teaching processes, managed care or any other field. What is sought is the power of social transformation, inherent to its spirit and exercise. Proporcionar informações que sejam de auxílio no amadurecimento da concepção geral sobre inserção social e solidariedade. Foram consultadas as seguintes fontes oficiais da CAPES: resoluções do Conselho Técnico-Científico; modelos das fichas de avaliação; legislação e portarias vigentes; relação dos cursos da Grande Área; avaliação de projetos Dinter e Minter; e o aplicativo de avaliação. Inserção social e solidariedade são parâmetros recentes e inovadores como ações a serem desenvolvidas por programas de pós-graduação e avaliadas pelos comitês de áreas organizados pela Capes. Há necessidade de melhor compreensão por parte dos professores de pós-graduação da Medicina III das características de ações relevantes de inserção social. O tema de suporte básico de vida ajuda na compreensão de como a área da Medicina III pode ampliar sua atuação em educação b

  13. Dynamics of cardiovascular parameters in combined aortic malformations under the influence of a physical therapy program during the rehabilitation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhii Kalmykov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study hemodynamic parameters and the reaction of the cardiovascular system to the dosed physical load of patients combined aortic defect with heart failure of the I degree under the influence of the complex physical therapy program developed by us during the rehabilitation process. Material & Methods: the study involved 26 middle-aged men with a diagnosis: combined aortic valve disease, HF I st. Result: dynamics of functional parameters of the cardiovascular system of patients under the influence of the physical therapy program is analyzed. Conclusion: the combination of morning hygienic gymnastics, therapeutic gymnastics, independent activities and dosed walking with a therapeutic massage contributes to the normalization of vascular tone, motor-vascular reflexes and blood pressure, increasing the tolerance of the cardiovascular system to physical activity.

  14. Program LATTICE for Calculation of Parameters of Targets with Heterogeneous (Lattice) Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Bznuni, S A; Soloviev, A G; Sosnin, A N

    2002-01-01

    Program LATTICE, with which help it is possible to describe lattice structure for the program complex CASCAD, is created in the C++ language. It is shown that for model-based electronuclear system on a basis of molten salt reactor with graphite moderator at transition from homogeneous structure to heterogeneous at preservation of a chemical compound there is a growth of k_{eff} by approximately 6 %.

  15. 75 FR 24450 - Early Retiree Reinsurance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... comments in the CMS drop slots located in the main lobby of the building. A stamp- in clock is available... regulatory terminology and concepts should be the same or similar between the RDS Program and the Early...

  16. Genetic programming-based mathematical modeling of influence of weather parameters in BOD5removal by Lemna minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Sivapragasam; Sankararajan, Vanitha; Neelakandhan, Nampoothiri; Ram Kumar, Mahalakshmi

    2017-11-04

    This study, through extensive experiments and mathematical modeling, reveals that other than retention time and wastewater temperature (T w ), atmospheric parameters also play important role in the effective functioning of aquatic macrophyte-based treatment system. Duckweed species Lemna minor is considered in this study. It is observed that the combined effect of atmospheric temperature (T atm ), wind speed (U w ), and relative humidity (RH) can be reflected through one parameter, namely the "apparent temperature" (T a ). A total of eight different models are considered based on the combination of input parameters and the best mathematical model is arrived at which is validated through a new experimental set-up outside the modeling period. The validation results are highly encouraging. Genetic programming (GP)-based models are found to reveal deeper understandings of the wetland process.

  17. Tribological performances of new steel grades for hot stamping tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medea, F.; Venturato, G.; Ghiotti, A.; Bruschi, S.

    2017-09-01

    In the last years, the use of High Strength Steels (HSS) as structural parts in car body-in-white manufacturing has rapidly increased thanks to their favourable strength-to-weight ratio and stiffness, which allow a reduction of the fuel consumption to accommodate the new restricted regulations for CO2 emissions control. The survey of the technical and scientific literature shows a large interest in the development of different coatings for the blanks from the traditional Al-Si up to new Zn-based coatings and on the analysis of hard PVD, CVD coatings and plasma nitriding applied on the tools. By contrast, fewer investigations have been focused on the development and test of new tools steels grades capable to improve the wear resistance and the thermal properties that are required for the in-die quenching during forming. On this base, the paper deals with the analysis and comparison the tribological performances in terms of wear, friction and heat transfer of new tool steel grades for high-temperature applications, characterized by a higher thermal conductivity than the commonly used tools. Testing equipment, procedures as well as measurements analyses to evaluate the friction coefficient, the wear and heat transfer phenomena are presented. Emphasis is given on the physical simulation techniques that were specifically developed to reproduce the thermal and mechanical cycles on the metal sheets and dies as in the industrial practice. The reference industrial process is the direct hot stamping of the 22MnB5 HSS coated with the common Al-Si coating for automotive applications.

  18. WEC program for calculation of system of accelerating voltage pulses formation on lines with distributed parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordeev, V.S.; Mikhailov, E.S.

    1999-01-01

    There were conducted calculations of one of operation modes of STRAUS-2 accelerator.Calculation diode current pulses were compared to current pulses measured experimentally. From the comparison it is clear that the difference of time-amplitude parameters of calculation pulse from those of experimental current pulse do not exceed 10%, what is within the accuracy of measurements

  19. A MATLAB program for estimation of unsaturated hydraulic soil parameters using an infiltrometer technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Mikkel; Hansen, Søren; Petersen, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    We combined an inverse routine for assessing the hydraulic soil parameters of the Campbell/Mualem model with the power series solution developed by Philip for describing one-dimensional vertical infiltration into a homogenous soil. We based the estimation routine on a proposed measurement procedu...

  20. Diversity of Physicians’ Handwriting and Name Stamp in Chemotherapy Prescriptions: Potential Target for Fraud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asiyeh Amouei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BBackgrounds: Verification and authentication of the paper-based handwritten prescriptions is of great importance for antineoplastic medications that are good targets for forgery and fraud. Pharmacists usually investigate handwriting, signature and name stamp of prescribers to verify prescriptions in Iran. Anecdotal reports of variations in handwriting and name stamp of physicians who wrote antineoplastic prescriptions raised concerns in this regard. The aim of the study was to investigate the reported diversity and evaluate the quality of writing physician identity and required items in antineoplastic prescriptions.Methods: All insured hand-written prescriptions contained at least one antineoplastic medication and were dispensed by four main authorized community pharmacies dispensing antineoplastic medications in Tehran during one month were included. Prescriptions that were written by specialties other than oncology-related fields were excluded. Prescriptions of each physician were evaluated considering handwriting and name stamp by experienced pharmacy staff and the frequency of detected handwriting and name stamp types was recorded.Results: Of the 11022 included prescriptions, 10944 were eligible and written by 241 physicians. Median (third quartile number of physicians’ prescriptions was 17 (51. Maximum number of observed handwriting and name stamp types were eight and six respectively. High prescribers tended to have several handwriting and name stamp types.Conclusion: The observed diversity and variation in handwriting and name stamp of the physicians in antineoplastic prescriptions may facilitate the entrance of forged prescription and makes fraud detection difficult. Administrative and regulatory interventions in addition to notification of health care professionals about the observed potential might be necessary.

  1. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based microstructural prediction model for 22MnB5 boron steel during tailored hot stamping

    OpenAIRE

    Chokshi, Prasun; Dashwood, R. J.; Hughes, Darren J.

    2017-01-01

    Because of demand for lower emissions and better crashworthiness, the use of hot stamped 22MnB5 boron steel has greatly increased in manufacturing of automobile components. However, for many applications it is required that only certain regions in hot stamped parts are fully hardened whereas other regions need be more ductile. The innovative process of tailored hot stamping does this by controlling the localized microstructures through tailored cooling rates by dividing the tooling into heate...

  2. Immunometabolic parameters in overweight dogs during weight loss with or without an exercise program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitger, A. D.; Stallknecht, B. M.; Miles, J .E.

    2017-01-01

    on caloric restriction combined with a training program (fitness and diet [FD] group, n = 8), or caloric restriction alone (diet-only [DO] group, n = 8). Physical activity was monitored by accelerometry. All dogs were fed the same diet and achieved similar weight loss. Fasting blood samples were collected...

  3. Experience in the review of utility control room design review and safety parameter display system programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Detailed Control Room Design Review (DCRDR) and the Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS) had their origins in the studies and investigations conducted as the result of the TMI-2 accident. The President's Commission (Kemeny Commission) critized NRC for not examining the man-machine interface, over-emphasizing equipment, ignoring human beings, and tolerating outdated technology in control rooms. The Commission's Special Inquiry Group (Rogovin Report) recommended greater application of human factors engineering including better instrumentation displays and improved control room design. The NRC Lessons Learned Task Force concluded that licensees should review and improve control rooms using NRC Human engineering guidelines, and install safety parameter display systems (then called the safety staff vector). The TMI Action Plan Item I.D.1 and I.D.2 were based on these recommendations

  4. Stamped coal cakes in cokemaking technology Part 2 - The investigation of cake strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, F.; Rosenkranz, J.; Kuyumcu, H.Z. [Technical University of Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    Coking of coal blends using high volatile coals with poor caking properties to produce a high quality coke for blast furnace application can be achieved by compacting the whole coal blend before the pyrolysis in the so called stamp charge operation. Using stamp charging not only improves the flexibility of the cokemaking plant using cost efficient raw materials, but also increases oven throughput. Therefore, in recent years, densification of coals has been introduced even to coals with good carbonisation properties when heat recovery ovens are used. At the Department for Mechanical Process Engineering and Solids Processing of the Technical University Berlin, the two subprocesses, densification and strengthening during stamping, were theoretically and experimentally investigated. The research work aims on the development of an integrated mathematical model, allowing the calculation of cake density and strength of the coal cake for a given coal blend and as a function of the stamping energy. In the first part of the paper, investigations on the stampability of coal blends were reported. In this paper, the development of a new strength test device for the systematic investigation of mechanical strength of coal compacts produced by stamping is described. Results from compressive strength tests indicate an elastic-plastic behaviour with failure by plastic fracture. Shear test results show similarity to the yield limit description in soil mechanics.

  5. Influence of Plastic Deformation on Martensitic Transformation During Hot Stamping of Complex Structure Auto Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuhan; Song, Yanli; Hua, Lin; Lu, Jue

    2017-04-01

    The ultra-high strength steel auto parts manufactured by hot stamping are widely applied for weight reduction and safety improvement. During the hot stamping process, hot forming and quenching are performed in one step wherein plastic deformation and phase transformation simultaneously take place and affect each other. Thereinto, the influence of deformation on martensitic transformation is of great importance. In the present paper, the influence of plastic deformation on martensitic transformation during hot stamping of complex structure auto parts was investigated. For this purpose, a B-pillar reinforced panel in B1500HS steel was manufactured by hot stamping, and the process was simulated by finite element software based on a thermo-mechanical-metallurgical coupled model. Considering various deformation degrees, the microstructures and mechanical properties at four typical locations of the hot stamped B-pillar reinforced panel were detected. The results show that the martensitic content and the microhardness increase with the increase in the deformation amount. There are two reasons causing this phenomenon: (1) the increase in mechanical driving force and (2) the increased probability of the martensitic nucleation at crystal defects. The x-ray diffraction analysis indicates the carbon enrichment in retained austenite which results from the carbon diffusion during the low-carbon martensite formation. Furthermore, the carbon content decreases with the increase in the deformation amount, because the deformation of austenite suppresses the carbon diffusion.

  6. Single session of integrated "Silver Yoga" program improves cardiovascular parameters in senior citizens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: There is a healthy reduction in HR, BP and derived cardiovascular indices following a single yoga session in geriatric subjects. These changes may be attributed to enhanced harmony of cardiac autonomic function as a result of coordinated breath-body work and mind-body relaxation due to an integrated and #8220;Silver Yoga and #8221; program. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(2.000: 134-137

  7. An intensive combined training program modulates physical, physiological, biomotoric, and technical parameters in women basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinç, Fatih

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was the investigation of the effects of an intensive combined training program based on the pretest scores of a university women's basketball team on their physical, physiological, biomotoric, and technical features. Twenty-four university volunteers were equally divided into two groups: an experiment group (intensive combined training group) and a control (technical training) group. The 10-week intensive combined training program was performed on the experiment group according to their pretest outcomes. Before and at the end of each period of training, which was scheduled four times a week, the physical, physiological, biomotoric, and technical performance of each subject were determined. With respect to the pre- and posttest measurements, the basketball group showed significant differences (p training program performed on university women basketball players had a significant effect on improving their physical, physiological, biomotoric, and technical features. It proved to be highly recommendable for female basketball players who are preparing for short-term tournaments; the basketball group in this study won a championship.

  8. Estimation of genetic parameters for growth traits in a breeding program for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, G; Gu, W; Bai, Q L; Wang, B Q

    2013-04-26

    Genetic parameters and breeding values for growth traits were estimated in the first and, currently, the only family selective breeding program for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in China. Genetic and phenotypic data were collected for growth traits from 75 full-sibling families with a 2-generation pedigree. Genetic parameters and breeding values for growth traits of rainbow trout were estimated using the derivative-free restricted maximum likelihood method. The goodness-of-fit of the models was tested using Akaike and Bayesian information criteria. Genetic parameters and breeding values were estimated using the best-fit model for each trait. The values for heritability estimating body weight and length ranged from 0.20 to 0.45 and from 0.27 to 0.60, respectively, and the heritability of condition factor was 0.34. Our results showed a moderate degree of heritability for growth traits in this breeding program and suggested that the genetic and phenotypic tendency of body length, body weight, and condition factor were similar. Therefore, the selection of phenotypic values based on pedigree information was also suitable in this research population.

  9. Energy planning of a hospital using Mathematical Programming and Monte Carlo simulation for dealing with uncertainty in the economic parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavrotas, George; Florios, Kostas; Vlachou, Dimitra [Laboratory of Industrial and Energy Economics, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zographou Campus, 15780 Athens (Greece)

    2010-04-15

    For more than 40 years, Mathematical Programming is the traditional tool for energy planning at the national or regional level aiming at cost minimization subject to specific technological, political and demand satisfaction constraints. The liberalization of the energy market along with the ongoing technical progress increased the level of competition and forced energy consumers, even at the unit level, to make their choices among a large number of alternative or complementary energy technologies, fuels and/or suppliers. In the present work we develop a modelling framework for energy planning in units of the tertiary sector giving special emphasis to model reduction and to the uncertainty of the economic parameters. In the given case study, the energy rehabilitation of a hospital in Athens is examined and the installation of a cogeneration, absorption and compression unit is examined for the supply of the electricity, heating and cooling load. The basic innovation of the given energy model lies in the uncertainty modelling through the combined use of Mathematical Programming (namely, Mixed Integer Linear Programming, MILP) and Monte Carlo simulation that permits the risk management for the most volatile parameters of the objective function such as the fuel costs and the interest rate. The results come in the form of probability distributions that provide fruitful information to the decision maker. The effect of model reduction through appropriate data compression of the load data is also addressed. (author)

  10. Need of reevaluation of the parameters of semen straws to be used in artificial insemination programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Angel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In buffalo industry artificial insemination is being used in breeding programs of our country . It has limitations such us seasonality, difficult estrus detection and low pregnancy rates when compared with cattle. IATF programs using a single insemination show results from 10 to 50% pregnancy rate, little information is available about minimum requirements of spermatozoa for IA. The aim of this paper is to compare the pregnancy rates after using narual mating or frozen semen in a sincronization of ovulation program. This work were conducted in Pueblo Nuevo Cordoba Colombia in August during the breeding season of 2005-6. 99 multiparous crossbred females were used with 50 to 150 postpartum days. Body score condition of 3,5 to 4. All animals were palpated to exclude anatomical alterations. Ovsynch protocol for IATF reported by Baruselli (2000, they were allocated in two groups: Buffalo group, after the last GnRH analog injection 17 females were allocated with 5 bulls, and IATF Group 82 females were inseminated 16 hours later. The semen of 7 different buffalo bulls were used and evaluated and qualified as normal. Inseminations were performed by 3 different technicians. A blood sample was obtained 20 days after IA to determine pregnancy by determinations of P4 levels using chemiluminiscence, ≥1ng/ml were used as cut off value to determine pregnancy. Data were compared using Chi square test. 70% (12/17 females of the bull group and 29% (24/82 of IATF group were diagnosed us pregnant using P4, this difference were statistically significant (P≤0.001. Buffalo bulls mount all females. No statistical differences were found in pregnancy rates of the bulls used for IATF, from 12% to 37 %, one exceptional bull obtain 71%. As expected bulls have higher pregnancy rates than artificial insemination, the results obtained here allow researchers to evaluated semen quality, specially density to improve results IATF in buffaloes.

  11. In-core program for on line measurements of neutron, photon and nuclear heating parameters inside Jules Horowitz MTR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyoussi, A.; Reynard-Carette, C.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate on-line measurements of key parameters inside experimental channels of Material Testing Reactor are necessary to dimension the irradiation devices and consequently to conduct smart experiments on fuels and materials under suitable conditions. In particular the quantification of nuclear heating, a relevant parameter to reach adapted thermal conditions, has to be improved. These works focus on an important collaborative program between CEA and Aix-Marseille University called INCORE (Instrumentation for Nuclear radiations and Calorimetry On-line in Reactor) dedicated to the development of a new measurement methodology to quantify both nuclear heating and accurate radiation flux levels (neutrons and photons). The methodology, which is based on experiments carried out under irradiation conditions with a multi-sensor device (ionization chamber, fission chamber, gamma thermometer, calorimeter, SPND, SPGD) as well as works performed out-of nuclear/radiative environment on a reference sensor used to measure nuclear heating (calorimeter), is presented (authors)

  12. A framework for development of an intelligent system for design and manufacturing of stamping dies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, H M A; Kumar, S

    2014-01-01

    An integration of computer aided design (CAD), computer aided process planning (CAPP) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM) is required for development of an intelligent system to design and manufacture stamping dies in sheet metal industries. In this paper, a framework for development of an intelligent system for design and manufacturing of stamping dies is proposed. In the proposed framework, the intelligent system is structured in form of various expert system modules for different activities of design and manufacturing of dies. All system modules are integrated with each other. The proposed system takes its input in form of a CAD file of sheet metal part, and then system modules automate all tasks related to design and manufacturing of stamping dies. Modules are coded using Visual Basic (VB) and developed on the platform of AutoCAD software

  13. Multi-cycle rolled aluminum alloy 3103 sandwiches: mechanical properties and stamp ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosova Ekaterina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Constructional part producing by sheet stamping of multilayer composites requires the stamping ability data. The aim of a work is to estimate mechanical properties, stamping ratio and anisotropy indexes of 2, 4, 8 and 12 layer sandwiches produced from aluminium alloy AA3103. The pieces were received by the cold rolling. Interoperation annealing was at 500°C for 1 hour. Charts of tensile strength, yield stress, elongation depending on layer thickness were composed. It was found that cold strain hardening does not disappear after annealing if the foil’s thickness become 0.4 mm and less. Microstructure analysis has shown a good contact between layers for all samples and thicker outer layers.

  14. Modeling the constitutive and frictional behavior of PTFE flexible stamps for nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, the deformation on micro-scale of PTFE flexible stamps for nanoimprint lithography is modeled. This is achieved via a combination of proper models for the constitutive behavior as well as the frictional conditions between the deforming PTFE stamp and the steel tool. The model...... was verified through an experiment, where a PTFE sheet was deformed by a steel sphere mounted in a tensile test machine. Good agreement between simulations and experimental results is found, both regarding force–displacement and corresponding principal strain measurements. As expected, applying the correct...... frictional behavior between PTFE and steel on micro-scale is shown to be of major importance in order to accurately simulate the strain field in the deformed PTFE stamp. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved...

  15. Micromechanical exfoliation of two-dimensional materials by a polymeric stamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, M C Ferraz da; Ribeiro, H B; Kessler, F; Souza, E A T de; Fechine, G J M

    2016-01-01

    In this work, an alternative technique to the traditional micromechanical exfoliation of two-dimensional materials is proposed, consisting of isolated flakes of graphite and molybdenum disulphide onto polymeric surfaces films. The set made up of polymer and flakes is fabricated by using a hot-press machine called polymeric stamp. The polymeric stamp was used to allocate flakes and also to allow the exfoliation process to take place just in one face of isolated flake. Optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy results showed that multilayers, bilayers and single layers of graphene and MoS 2 were obtained by using a polymeric stamp as tool for micromechanical exfoliation. These crystals were more easily found because the exfoliation process concentrates them in well-defined locations. The results prove the effectiveness of the method by embedding two-dimensional materials into polymers to fabricate fewer layers crystals in a fast, economic and clean way. (paper)

  16. Micromechanical exfoliation of two-dimensional materials by a polymeric stamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz da Costa, M. C.; Ribeiro, H. B.; Kessler, F.; de Souza, E. A. T.; Fechine, G. J. M.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, an alternative technique to the traditional micromechanical exfoliation of two-dimensional materials is proposed, consisting of isolated flakes of graphite and molybdenum disulphide onto polymeric surfaces films. The set made up of polymer and flakes is fabricated by using a hot-press machine called polymeric stamp. The polymeric stamp was used to allocate flakes and also to allow the exfoliation process to take place just in one face of isolated flake. Optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy results showed that multilayers, bilayers and single layers of graphene and MoS2 were obtained by using a polymeric stamp as tool for micromechanical exfoliation. These crystals were more easily found because the exfoliation process concentrates them in well-defined locations. The results prove the effectiveness of the method by embedding two-dimensional materials into polymers to fabricate fewer layers crystals in a fast, economic and clean way.

  17. A framework for development of an intelligent system for design and manufacturing of stamping dies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, H. M. A.; Kumar, S.

    2014-07-01

    An integration of computer aided design (CAD), computer aided process planning (CAPP) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM) is required for development of an intelligent system to design and manufacture stamping dies in sheet metal industries. In this paper, a framework for development of an intelligent system for design and manufacturing of stamping dies is proposed. In the proposed framework, the intelligent system is structured in form of various expert system modules for different activities of design and manufacturing of dies. All system modules are integrated with each other. The proposed system takes its input in form of a CAD file of sheet metal part, and then system modules automate all tasks related to design and manufacturing of stamping dies. Modules are coded using Visual Basic (VB) and developed on the platform of AutoCAD software.

  18. FGP Approach for Solving Multi-level Multi-objective Quadratic Fractional Programming Problem with Fuzzy parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m. s. osman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider fuzzy goal programming (FGP approach for solving multi-level multi-objective quadratic fractional programming (ML-MOQFP problem with fuzzy parameters in the constraints. Firstly, the concept of the ?-cut approach is applied to transform the set of fuzzy constraints into a common deterministic one. Then, the quadratic fractional objective functions in each level are transformed into quadratic objective functions based on a proposed transformation. Secondly, the FGP approach is utilized to obtain a compromise solution for the ML-MOQFP problem by minimizing the sum of the negative deviational variables. Finally, an illustrative numerical example is given to demonstrate the applicability and performance of the proposed approach.

  19. The effects of an exercise training program on body composition and aerobic capacity parameters in Tunisian obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofien Regaieg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of children obesity is rising alarmingly in both developed and developing countries. Developing effective exercise programs is a strategy for decreasing this prevalence and limiting obesity-associated long-term comorbidities. Objectives: To determine whether a 16-week training program; in addition to the school physical education and without dietary intervention; could have beneficial effects on body composition and aerobic capacity of obese children. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight obese children (16 boys, 12 girls; aged 12-14 years were enrolled and were divided into either the exercise group (EG, n = 14 or the control group (CG, n = 14. EG participated in a 16-week aerobic exercises (four 60-min sessions per week at 70-85% of HRmax (maximum heart rate, in addition to the school physical education. Fat-Free Mass (FFM and Fat Mass (FM were assessed with bioelectrical impedance equipment. To assess aerobic capacity, maximal metabolic equivalent of task (METmax and maximal workload (Wmax were estimated with an electronically braked cycle ergometer (type Ergoline 500® . Results: At baseline, there were no differences between the two groups. After the training program, only the EG showed significant reduction in BMI (body mass index and waist circumference compared with the baseline values (P < 0.001. Exercise training significantly decreased FM only in the EG. A significant increase in FFM was seen in both groups; more marked in the EG. There was a significant increase in METmax (P < 0.05 and Wmax (P = 0.02 in the EG, and no significant changes in these parameters were seen in the CG. HRmax significantly decreased only in the EG (P < 0.05. Conclusion: This training program has beneficial effects on body composition and aerobic capacity parameters in obese children. Our intervention has the advantage of providing a sustainable and reproducible school and community approach for the management of children obesity.

  20. Pain Perception and Stabilometric Parameters in People With Chronic Low Back Pain After a Pilates Exercise Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patti, Antonino; Bianco, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio; Messina, Giuseppe; Montalto, Maria Alessandra; Bellafiore, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Iovane, Angelo; Palma, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Various exercise interventions, such as Pilates exercises and traditional physical therapy methods, are employed to decrease low back pain (LBP). Nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP) is distinct from LBP, however, as the distribution of pain is restricted to the region between the costal margin and the inferior gluteal. The aim of our randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of a program of Pilates exercises on pain perception and stabilometric parameters in patients with NSLBP. Thirty-eight participants were randomly allocated, using a 1:1 scheme, to either the experimental group (EG) or control group (CG). The EG completed a 14-week program of Pilates exercises, performed thrice per week under the supervision of an exercise specialist, while the CG was managed with a social program only. Measures of posturography and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) for pain perception were obtained at baseline (T0) and after the 14 weeks of intervention (T1). Posturography measures improved for patients in the EG, with both eyes open and eyes closed (P Pilates exercise program yielded improvements in pain and posturography outcomes. Our study also confirms the applicability of posturography in evaluating postural instability in patients with NSLBP. Due to our relatively small study group, future studies would be necessary to confirm our findings. PMID:26765419

  1. The use of three-parameter rating table lookup programs, RDRAT and PARM3, in hydraulic flow models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    Subroutines RDRAT and PARM3 enable computer programs such as the BRANCH open-channel unsteady-flow model to route flows through or over combinations of critical-flow sections, culverts, bridges, road- overflow sections, fixed spillways, and(or) dams. The subroutines also obstruct upstream flow to simulate operation of flapper-type tide gates. A multiplier can be applied by date and time to simulate varying numbers of tide gates being open or alternative construction scenarios for multiple culverts. The subroutines use three-parameter (headwater, tailwater, and discharge) rating table lookup methods. These tables may be manually prepared using other programs that do step-backwater computations or compute flow through bridges and culverts or over dams. The subroutine, therefore, precludes the necessity of incorporating considerable hydraulic computational code into the client program, and provides complete flexibility for users of the model for routing flow through almost any affixed structure or combination of structures. The subroutines are written in Fortran 77 language, and have minimal exchange of information with the BRANCH model or other possible client programs. The report documents the interpolation methodology, data input requirements, and software.

  2. STAMPS: software tool for automated MRI post-processing on a supercomputer

    OpenAIRE

    Bigler, Don C.; Aksu, Yaman; Yang, Qing X.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a Software Tool for Automated MRI Post-processing (STAMP) of multiple types of brain MRIs on a workstation and for parallel processing on a supercomputer (STAMPS). This software tool enables the automation of nonlinear registration for a large image set and for multiple MR image types. The tool uses standard brain MRI post-processing tools (such as SPM, FSL, and HAMMER) for multiple MR image types in a pipeline fashion. It also contains novel MRI post-processing features....

  3. A compact system for large-area thermal nanoimprint lithography using smart stamps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Haugstrup; Hansen, Ole; Kristensen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    We present a simple apparatus for thermal nanoimprint lithography. In this work, the stamp is designed to significantly reduce the requirements for pressure application on the external imprint system. By MEMS-based processing, an air cavity inside the stamp is created, and the required pressure f...... is presented. Test imprints of micrometer- and nanometer-scale structures are performed and characterized with respect to uniformity across a large area (35 mm radius). State-of-the-art uniformity for mu m-scale features is demonstrated....

  4. Development and introduction of stamping technique for large-size laterals of NPP pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romashko, N.I.; Moshnin, E.N.; Timokhin, V.S.; Bryukhanov, Yu.V.; Lebedev, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of development and introduction of stamping technique for large-size laterals of NPP high-pressure pipelines are presented. The main experimental data characterizing technological possibilities of the process are given. The technological process and design of the stamp assure production of laterals from ovalized bars per one heating of the bar and per one running of the press cronnhead. Introduction of new technology decreased labour input of lateral production, reliability and serviceability of pipelines increased in this case. Introduction of this technology gives a considerable benefit

  5. Transfer printing of 3D hierarchical gold structures using a sequentially imprinted polymer stamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fengxiang; Low, Hong Yee

    2008-01-01

    Complex three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structures on polymeric materials are fabricated through a process referred to as sequential imprinting. In this work, the sequentially imprinted polystyrene film is used as a soft stamp to replicate hierarchical structures onto gold (Au) films, and the Au structures are then transferred to a substrate by transfer printing at an elevated temperature and pressure. Continuous and isolated 3D structures can be selectively fabricated with the assistance of thermo-mechanical deformation of the polymer stamp. Hierarchical Au structures are achieved without the need for a corresponding three-dimensionally patterned mold

  6. An interval-parameter mixed integer multi-objective programming for environment-oriented evacuation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C. Z.; Huang, G. H.; Yan, X. P.; Cai, Y. P.; Li, Y. P.

    2010-05-01

    Large crowds are increasingly common at political, social, economic, cultural and sports events in urban areas. This has led to attention on the management of evacuations under such situations. In this study, we optimise an approximation method for vehicle allocation and route planning in case of an evacuation. This method, based on an interval-parameter multi-objective optimisation model, has potential for use in a flexible decision support system for evacuation management. The modeling solutions are obtained by sequentially solving two sub-models corresponding to lower- and upper-bounds for the desired objective function value. The interval solutions are feasible and stable in the given decision space, and this may reduce the negative effects of uncertainty, thereby improving decision makers' estimates under different conditions. The resulting model can be used for a systematic analysis of the complex relationships among evacuation time, cost and environmental considerations. The results of a case study used to validate the proposed model show that the model does generate useful solutions for planning evacuation management and practices. Furthermore, these results are useful for evacuation planners, not only in making vehicle allocation decisions but also for providing insight into the tradeoffs among evacuation time, environmental considerations and economic objectives.

  7. Internet-Based Training to Improve Preschool Playground Safety: Evaluation of the Stamp-in-Safety Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C.; Pennefather, Jordan; Marquez, Brion; Marquez, Jessie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Playground injuries result in over 200,000 US pediatric emergency department visits annually. One strategy to reduce injuries is improved adult supervision. The Stamp-in-Safety programme, which involves supervisors stamping rewards for children playing safely, has been demonstrated in preliminary classroom-based work to reduce child…

  8. Experimental Investigations of the In-Die Quenching Efficiency and Die Surface Temperature of Hot Stamping Aluminium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailun Zheng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The in-die quenching is a key stage in the hot stamping volume production chain which determines the post-formed strength of lightweight alloy components, tool life, and hot stamping productivity. In this paper, the performance of in-die quenching, reflected by the quenching efficiency (the time of work-piece held within stamping dies and die surface temperature during the simulated hot stamping process of AA6082, was experimentally and analytically investigated. A range of in-die quenching experiments were performed for different initial work-piece and die temperatures, quenching pressures, work-piece thickness, and die clearances, under hot stamping conditions. In addition, a one-dimensional (1D closed-form heat transfer model was used to calculate the die surface temperature evolution that is difficult to obtain during practical manufacture situations. The results have shown that the in-die quenching efficiency can be significantly increased by decreasing the initial work-piece and die temperatures. Die clearances are required to be designed precisely to obtain sufficiently high quenching rates and satisfying post-formed strength for hot-stamped panel components. This study systematically considered an extensive variety of influencing factors on the in-die quenching performance, which can provide practical guides for stamping tool designers and manufacture systems for hot-stamping volume production.

  9. JUPITER: Joint Universal Parameter IdenTification and Evaluation of Reliability - An Application Programming Interface (API) for Model Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, Edward R.; Poeter, Eileen P.; Doherty, John E.; Hill, Mary C.

    2006-01-01

    he Joint Universal Parameter IdenTification and Evaluation of Reliability Application Programming Interface (JUPITER API) improves the computer programming resources available to those developing applications (computer programs) for model analysis.The JUPITER API consists of eleven Fortran-90 modules that provide for encapsulation of data and operations on that data. Each module contains one or more entities: data, data types, subroutines, functions, and generic interfaces. The modules do not constitute computer programs themselves; instead, they are used to construct computer programs. Such computer programs are called applications of the API. The API provides common modeling operations for use by a variety of computer applications.The models being analyzed are referred to here as process models, and may, for example, represent the physics, chemistry, and(or) biology of a field or laboratory system. Process models commonly are constructed using published models such as MODFLOW (Harbaugh et al., 2000; Harbaugh, 2005), MT3DMS (Zheng and Wang, 1996), HSPF (Bicknell et al., 1997), PRMS (Leavesley and Stannard, 1995), and many others. The process model may be accessed by a JUPITER API application as an external program, or it may be implemented as a subroutine within a JUPITER API application . In either case, execution of the model takes place in a framework designed by the application programmer. This framework can be designed to take advantage of any parallel processing capabilities possessed by the process model, as well as the parallel-processing capabilities of the JUPITER API.Model analyses for which the JUPITER API could be useful include, for example: Compare model results to observed values to determine how well the model reproduces system processes and characteristics.Use sensitivity analysis to determine the information provided by observations to parameters and predictions of interest.Determine the additional data needed to improve selected model

  10. Stamping an S on DMEK Donor Tissue to Prevent Upside-Down Grafts: Laboratory Validation and Detailed Preparation Technique Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Peter B; Dye, Philip K; Holiman, Jeffrey D; Mayko, Zachary M; Sáles, Christopher S; Straiko, Michael D; Stoeger, Christopher G; Terry, Mark A

    2015-09-01

    To report endothelial cell loss (ECL) caused by a novel S-stamp preparation technique for Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK). Six cadaveric human corneas were prepared for DMEK transplantation using a single standardized technique, including the application of a dry ink gentian violet S-stamp to the stromal side of Descemet membrane. Endothelial cell death was evaluated and quantified using computerized analysis of vital dye staining. ECL caused by the S-stamp was 0.6% (range 0.1%-1.0%), which comprised less than one-tenth of the total ECL caused by our preparation of the DMEK graft from the start to finish, including recovery, prestripping, S-stamping, and trephination (13.7% total ECL, range 9.9%-17.6%). Our novel S-stamp donor tissue preparation technique is intuitive to learn and holds the promise of preventing iatrogenic primary graft failure due to upside-down grafts without causing unacceptable increases in ECL.

  11. Aluminium Pneumoconiosis I. In Vitro Comparison of Stamped Aluminium Powders Containing Different Lubricating Agents and a Granular Aluminium Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrin, B.

    1963-01-01

    The discrepancy in previous reports of the action of aluminium on the lung may be explained by differences between stamped and granular aluminium powders. A stamped powder of the variety causing pulmonary fibrosis showed a brisk reaction with water, but a granular powder was unreactive. This difference is primarily due to the granular particles being covered by inert aluminium oxide, the formation of which is partially prevented in the stamping process by stearine and mineral oil. The reactivity of the flake-like stamped particles is also dependent on their large surface area per unit volume. The appearance of aluminium pneumoconiosis in Britain is explained by the introduction of mineral oil into the stamping industry for, in contrast to stearine, mineral oil permits the powder to react with water. The lung damage is believed to be caused by a soluble form of aluminium. PMID:14072616

  12. Time-stamping system for nuclear physics experiments at RIKEN RIBF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, H.; Ichihara, T.; Ohnishi, T.; Takeuchi, S.; Yoshida, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Ota, S.; Shimoura, S.; Yoshinaga, K.

    2015-03-01

    A time-stamping system for nuclear physics experiments has been introduced at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. Individual trigger signals can be applied for separate data acquisition (DAQ) systems. After the measurements are complete, separately taken data are merged based on the time-stamp information. In a typical experiment, coincidence trigger signals are formed from multiple detectors to take desired events only. The time-stamping system allows the use of minimum bias triggers. Since coincidence conditions are given by software, a variety of physics events can be flexibly identified. The live time for a DAQ system is important when attempting to determine reaction cross-sections. However, the combined live time for separate DAQ systems is not clearly known because it depends not only on the DAQ dead time but also on the coincidence conditions. Using the proposed time-stamping system, all trigger timings can be acquired, so that the combined live time can be easily determined. The combined live time is also estimated using Monte Carlo simulations, and the results are compared with the directly measured values in order to assess the accuracy of the simulation.

  13. Human factors science and safety engineering : can the STAMP model serve in establishing a common language?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanikas, Nektarios; Schwarz, M; Harfmann, J

    2017-01-01

    A symbiotic relationship between human factors and safety scientists is needed to ensure the provision of holistic solutions for problems emerging in modern socio-technical systems. System Theoretic Accident Model and Processes (STAMP) tackles both interactions and individual failures of human and

  14. Impact of Electronic Signatures and Time Stamping for the Protection of Electronic Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Limba

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article e495 valuates the impact of e-signatures and time stamping on electronic contracts and electronic documents for performing e-business opportunities and goals, and analyses e-signature application for business cases. Various electronic services, virtual shopping, electronic cash transactions are becoming increasingly popular as they allow users to quickly perform different actions, operations and functions. It is important not only for convenience, but also to ensure consumer data security and reliability. Security reasons are not enough for security transmitted data, since this method does not allow clarification of information about sender identity.Use of electronic signatures, electronic identities, checgs and ensures a very high level of data security in interchange data processes. E-signature allows e-business companies to transfer the company’s operation business processes and their application to the organization and management in the electronic environment, also automate internal and external compans processes, includinggon-going business processes.The object of paper is .-signature and time stamping application in the theoretical and practical way.The goal of this paper while evaluating and estimating the .-signature and time stamping application, i’s regulation and legal implementation worldwidesand in Lithuania—is to provideluseful recommendations for more efficient impact developing -commerce and -business in situations when -signature and time stamping is used for ensuring electronic contracs security.

  15. Impact of Electronic Signatures and Time Stamping for the Protection of Electronic Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Limba

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article e495 valuates the impact of e-signatures and time stamping on electronic contracts and electronic documents for performing e-business opportunities and goals, and analyses e-signature application for business cases. Various electronic services, virtual shopping, electronic cash transactions are becoming increasingly popular as they allow users to quickly perform different actions, operations and functions. It is important not only for convenience, but also to ensure consumer data security and reliability. Security reasons are not enough for security transmitted data, since this method does not allow clarification of information about sender identity. Use of electronic signatures, electronic identities, checgs and ensures a very high level of data security in interchange data processes. E-signature allows e-business companies to transfer the company’s operation business processes and their application to the organization and management in the electronic environment, also automate internal and external compans processes, includinggon-going business processes. The object of paper is .-signature and time stamping application in the theoretical and practical way. The goal of this paper while evaluating and estimating the .-signature and time stamping application, i’s regulation and legal implementation worldwidesand in Lithuania—is to provideluseful recommendations for more efficient impact developing -commerce and -business in situations when -signature and time stamping is used for ensuring electronic contracs security.

  16. Time-stamping system for nuclear physics experiments at RIKEN RIBF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, H.; Ichihara, T.; Ohnishi, T.; Takeuchi, S.; Yoshida, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Ota, S.; Shimoura, S.; Yoshinaga, K.

    2015-01-01

    A time-stamping system for nuclear physics experiments has been introduced at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. Individual trigger signals can be applied for separate data acquisition (DAQ) systems. After the measurements are complete, separately taken data are merged based on the time-stamp information. In a typical experiment, coincidence trigger signals are formed from multiple detectors to take desired events only. The time-stamping system allows the use of minimum bias triggers. Since coincidence conditions are given by software, a variety of physics events can be flexibly identified. The live time for a DAQ system is important when attempting to determine reaction cross-sections. However, the combined live time for separate DAQ systems is not clearly known because it depends not only on the DAQ dead time but also on the coincidence conditions. Using the proposed time-stamping system, all trigger timings can be acquired, so that the combined live time can be easily determined. The combined live time is also estimated using Monte Carlo simulations, and the results are compared with the directly measured values in order to assess the accuracy of the simulation

  17. 41 CFR 101-25.103-4 - Disposition of promotional materials, trading stamps, or bonus goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., arrange for transfer of promotional materials, trading stamps, or bonus goods, without reimbursement in...) The contract does not contain a price reduction clause, or (2) The contractor refuses to grant a price... promotional items as a price reduction, and (4) The procuring or receiving agency has no practical use for the...

  18. Impacting Mediators of Change for Physical Activity among Elderly Food Stamp Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Cheryl J.; Williams, Joel E.; Kemper, Karen A.; McGuire, Francis A.; Aybar-Damali, Begum

    2012-01-01

    A multidisciplinary team developed and pilot-tested a curriculum, delivered by trained lay educators, to increase self-efficacy for physical activity among elderly food stamp recipients. Curriculum development was guided by a comprehensive literature review. Process evaluation was used to revise the curriculum and to assess lay educator training…

  19. Fabrication of microlens array on silicon surface using electrochemical wet stamping technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Lei-Jie; Zhou, Hang; Zhu, Li-Min

    2016-02-01

    This paper focuses on the fabrication of microlens array (MLA) on silicon surface by taking advantage of a novel micromachining approach, the electrochemical we stamping (E-WETS). The E-WETS allows the direct imprinting of MLA on an agarose stamp into the substrate through a selective anodic dissolution process. The pre-patterned agarose stamp can direct and supply the solution preferentially on the contact area between the agarose stamp and the substrate, to which the electrochemical reaction is confined. The anodic potential vs. saturated calomel electrode is optimized and 1.5 V is chosen as the optimum value for the electrochemical polishing of p-Si. A refractive MLA on a PMMA mold is successfully transferred onto the p-Si surface. The machining deviations of the fabricated MLA from those on the mold are 0.44% in diameter and 2.1% in height respectively, and the machining rate in HF is around 1.1 μm/h. The surface roughness of the fabricated MLA is less than 12 nm owing to the electrochemical polishing process. The results demonstrate that E-WETS is a promising approach to fabricate MLA on p-Si surface with high accuracy and efficiency.

  20. Honoring Avicenna, the great Persian physician on the world's postage stamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Ahmadreza

    2010-09-01

    Many nations are indebted to Avicenna (Ibn-Sina) for their scientific progressions and civilization. Many countries in the Middle East, Africa, and Europe have honored Avicenna, the great Persian scientist, by depicting his vignette on their postage stamps. The symbolic value of Avicenna has been chosen to commemorate scientific occasions, achievements and anniversaries, which represents the ultimate performance of conscious honoring.

  1. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers... Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers. (1) The Director is responsible for the designation of yellow fever vaccination centers...

  2. Studying the Solar System Can Be More than Just "Stamp Collecting"

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    While teaching his first-ever introductory college astronomy course, I heard a graduate student make the comment that compared to other areas of astronomy, studying the solar system is just "stamp collecting." Coverage of the solar system in an introductory college astronomy course certainly "could" consist mostly of showing…

  3. Silicon oxide nanoimprint stamp fabrication by edge lithography reinforced with silicon nitride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Yiping; Berenschot, Johan W.; de Boer, Meint J.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Tas, Niels Roelof; Huskens, Jurriaan; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2007-01-01

    The fabrication of silicon oxide nanoimprint stamp employing edge lithography in combination with silicon nitride deposition is presented. The fabrication process is based on conventional photolithography an weg etching methods. Nanoridges with width dimension of sub-20 nm were fabricated by edge

  4. Micropatterning of a stretchable conductive polymer using inkjet printing and agarose stamping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Steen; Hassager, Ole; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2007-01-01

    ,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). The agarose stamping produced 50 μm wide conducting lines with high spatial fidelity. The deactivation agent was found to cause some degradation of the remaining conducting lines, as revealed by a stronger increase in resistance upon straining compared to the pristine polymer material...

  5. MECHANICAL VIBRATION INHIBITS OSTEOCLAST FORMATION BY REDUCING DC-STAMP RECEPTOR EXPRESSION IN OSTEOCLAST PRECURSOR CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, R.N.; Voglewede, P.A.; Liu, D.

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that physical inactivity leads to loss of muscle mass, but it also causes bone loss. Mechanistically, osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption have recently been shown to be regulated by vibration. However, the underlying mechanism behind the inhibition of osteoclast formation is yet unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether mechanical vibration of osteoclast precursor cells affects osteoclast formation by the involvement of fusion-related molecules such as dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), and P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). RAW264.7 (a murine osteoclastic-like cell line) cells were treated with 20 ng/ml receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). For 3 consecutive days, the cells were subjected to 1 hour of mechanical vibration with 20 µm displacement at a frequency of 4 Hz and compared to the control cells that were treated under the same condition but without the vibration. After 5 days of culture, osteoclast formation was determined. Gene expression of DC-STAMP and P2X7R by RAW264.7 cells were determined after 1 hour mechanical vibration, while protein production of the DC-STAMP was determined after 6 hours of post incubation after vibration. As a result, mechanical vibration of RAW264.7 cells inhibited the formation of osteoclasts. Vibration down-regulated DC-STAMP gene expression by 1.6-fold in the presence of RANKL and by 1.4-fold in the absence of RANKL. Additionally, DC-STAMP protein production was also down-regulated by 1.4-fold in the presence of RANKL and by 1.2-fold in the absence of RANKL in RAW264.7 cells in response to mechanical vibration. However, vibration did not affect P2X7R gene expression. Mouse anti-DC-STAMP antibody inhibited osteoclast formation in the absence of vibration. Our results suggest that mechanical vibration of osteoclast precursor cells reduce DC-STAMP expression in osteoclast precursor cells leading to the inhibition of osteoclast formation. PMID:23994170

  6. Mechanical vibration inhibits osteoclast formation by reducing DC-STAMP receptor expression in osteoclast precursor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Rishikesh N; Voglewede, Philip A; Liu, Dawei

    2013-12-01

    It is well known that physical inactivity leads to loss of muscle mass, but it also causes bone loss. Mechanistically, osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption have recently been shown to be regulated by vibration. However, the underlying mechanism behind the inhibition of osteoclast formation is yet unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether mechanical vibration of osteoclast precursor cells affects osteoclast formation by the involvement of fusion-related molecules such as dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) and P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). RAW264.7 (a murine osteoclastic-like cell line) cells were treated with 20ng/ml receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). For 3 consecutive days, the cells were subjected to 1h of mechanical vibration with 20μm displacement at a frequency of 4Hz and compared to the control cells that were treated under the same condition but without the vibration. After 5days of culture, osteoclast formation was determined. Gene expression of DC-STAMP and P2X7R by RAW264.7 cells was determined after 1h of mechanical vibration, while protein production of the DC-STAMP was determined after 6h of postincubation after vibration. As a result, mechanical vibration of RAW264.7 cells inhibited the formation of osteoclasts. Vibration down-regulated DC-STAMP gene expression by 1.6-fold in the presence of RANKL and by 1.4-fold in the absence of RANKL. Additionally, DC-STAMP protein production was also down-regulated by 1.4-fold in the presence of RANKL and by 1.2-fold in the absence of RANKL in RAW264.7 cells in response to mechanical vibration. However, vibration did not affect P2X7R gene expression. Mouse anti-DC-STAMP antibody inhibited osteoclast formation in the absence of vibration. Our results suggest that mechanical vibration of osteoclast precursor cells reduces DC-STAMP expression in osteoclast precursor cells leading to the inhibition of osteoclast formation. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. NXFit: A program for simultaneously fitting X-ray and neutron diffraction pair-distribution functions to provide optimized structural parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Pickup, D.M.; Moss, R.; Newport, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    NXFit is a program for obtaining optimized structural parameters from amorphous materials by simultaneously fitting X-ray and neutron pair-distribution functions. Partial correlation functions are generated in Q space, summed and Fourier transformed for comparison with the experimental data in r space. NXFit uses the Nelder-Mead method to vary a set of 'best guess' parameters to achieve a fit to experimentally derived data. The output parameters from NXFit are coordination number, atomic sepa...

  8. Food Assistance Programs and Child Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Food assistance programs--including the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, or food stamps), the National School Lunch Program, and the School Breakfast Program--have been remarkably successful at their core mission: reducing food insecurity among low-income children. Moreover, writes Craig Gundersen, SNAP in particular has also been…

  9. The Impacts of Cardiac Rehabilitation Program on Echocardiographic Parameters in Coronary Artery Disease Patients with Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Sadeghi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The accurate impact of exercise on coronary artery disease (CAD patients with left ventricular dysfunction is still debatable. We studied the effects of cardiac rehabilitation (CR on echocardiography parameters in CAD patients with ventricular dysfunction. Methods. Patients with CAD who had ventricular dysfunction were included into an exercise-based rehabilitation program and received rehabilitation for eight weeks. All subjects underwent echocardiography before and at the end of the rehabilitation program. The echocardiography parameters, including left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, LV end-diastolic (LVEDD and end-systolic diameters (LVESD, and peak exercise capacity measured in metabolic equivalents (METs, were assessed. Results. Seventy patients (mean age = 57.5 ± 10.2 years, 77.1% males were included into the study. At the end of rehabilitation period, the LVEF increased from 45.14 ± 5.77% to 50.44 ± 8.70% (P<0.001, and the peak exercise capacity increased from 8.00 ± 2.56 to 10.08 ± 3.00 METs (P<0.001. There was no significant change in LVEDD (54.63 ± 12.96 to 53.86 ± 8.95 mm, P=0.529 or in LVESD (38.91 ± 10.83 to 38.09 ± 9.04 mm, P=0.378 after rehabilitation. Conclusion. Exercise training in postmyocardial infarction patients with ventricular dysfunction could have beneficial effects on cardiac function without adversely affecting LV remodeling or causing serious cardiac complications.

  10. FANAC - a shape analysis program for resonance parameter extraction from neutron capture data for light and medium-weight nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehner, F.H.

    1977-11-01

    A least-squares shape analysis program is described which is used at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center for the extraction of resonance parameters from high-resolution capture data. The FORTRAN program was written for light to medium-weight or near-magic target nuclei whose cross sections are characterized on one hand by broad s-wave levels with negligible Doppler broadening but pronounced multi-level interference, on the other hand by narrow p-, d- ... wave resonances with negligible multi-level interference but pronounced Doppler broadening. Accordingly the Reich-Moore multi-level formalism without Doppler broadening is used for s-wave levels, and a single-level description with Doppler braodening for p-, d- ... wave levels. Calculated capture yields are resolution broadened. Multiple-collision events are simulated by Monte Carlo techniques. Up to five different time-of-flight capture data sets can be fitted simultaneously for samples containing up to ten isotopes. Input and output examples are given and a FORTRAN list is appended. (orig.)

  11. Development of computer program ENMASK for prediction of residual environmental masking-noise spectra, from any three independent environmental parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Y.-S.; Liebich, R. E.; Chun, K. C.

    2000-03-31

    Residual environmental sound can mask intrusive4 (unwanted) sound. It is a factor that can affect noise impacts and must be considered both in noise-impact studies and in noise-mitigation designs. Models for quantitative prediction of sensation level (audibility) and psychological effects of intrusive noise require an input with 1/3 octave-band spectral resolution of environmental masking noise. However, the majority of published residual environmental masking-noise data are given with either octave-band frequency resolution or only single A-weighted decibel values. A model has been developed that enables estimation of 1/3 octave-band residual environmental masking-noise spectra and relates certain environmental parameters to A-weighted sound level. This model provides a correlation among three environmental conditions: measured residual A-weighted sound-pressure level, proximity to a major roadway, and population density. Cited field-study data were used to compute the most probable 1/3 octave-band sound-pressure spectrum corresponding to any selected one of these three inputs. In turn, such spectra can be used as an input to models for prediction of noise impacts. This paper discusses specific algorithms included in the newly developed computer program ENMASK. In addition, the relative audibility of the environmental masking-noise spectra at different A-weighted sound levels is discussed, which is determined by using the methodology of program ENAUDIBL.

  12. Interval-parameter semi-infinite fuzzy-stochastic mixed-integer programming approach for environmental management under multiple uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, P; Huang, G H

    2010-03-01

    In this study, an interval-parameter semi-infinite fuzzy-chance-constrained mixed-integer linear programming (ISIFCIP) approach is developed for supporting long-term planning of waste-management systems under multiple uncertainties in the City of Regina, Canada. The method improves upon the existing interval-parameter semi-infinite programming (ISIP) and fuzzy-chance-constrained programming (FCCP) by incorporating uncertainties expressed as dual uncertainties of functional intervals and multiple uncertainties of distributions with fuzzy-interval admissible probability of violating constraint within a general optimization framework. The binary-variable solutions represent the decisions of waste-management-facility expansion, and the continuous ones are related to decisions of waste-flow allocation. The interval solutions can help decision-makers to obtain multiple decision alternatives, as well as provide bases for further analyses of tradeoffs between waste-management cost and system-failure risk. In the application to the City of Regina, Canada, two scenarios are considered. In Scenario 1, the City's waste-management practices would be based on the existing policy over the next 25 years. The total diversion rate for the residential waste would be approximately 14%. Scenario 2 is associated with a policy for waste minimization and diversion, where 35% diversion of residential waste should be achieved within 15 years, and 50% diversion over 25 years. In this scenario, not only landfill would be expanded, but also CF and MRF would be expanded. Through the scenario analyses, useful decision support for the City's solid-waste managers and decision-makers has been generated. Three special characteristics of the proposed method make it unique compared with other optimization techniques that deal with uncertainties. Firstly, it is useful for tackling multiple uncertainties expressed as intervals, functional intervals, probability distributions, fuzzy sets, and their

  13. Evaluation of Contact Heat Transfer Coefficient and Phase Transformation during Hot Stamping of a Hat-Type Part

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heung-Kyu; Lee, Seong Hyeon; Choi, Hyunjoo

    2015-01-01

    Using an inverse analysis technique, the heat transfer coefficient on the die-workpiece contact surface of a hot stamping process was evaluated as a power law function of contact pressure. This evaluation was to determine whether the heat transfer coefficient on the contact surface could be used for finite element analysis of the entire hot stamping process. By comparing results of the finite element analysis and experimental measurements of the phase transformation, an evaluation was performed to determine whether the obtained heat transfer coefficient function could provide reasonable finite element prediction for workpiece properties affected by the hot stamping process. PMID:28788046

  14. Polymer microlens replication by Nanoimprint Lithography using proton beam fabricated Ni stamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, R.K.; Kan, J.A. van; Bettiol, A.A.; Watt, F.

    2007-01-01

    It is essential to have a simplified and a rapid method for fabricating micro/nano structures in different kinds of polymeric materials. Though it is possible to fabricate arrays of microlens directly by P beam writing (PBW), it is restricted to a few types of resist materials. Therefore we have fabricated a Ni electroplated metallic stamp comprising of arrays of inverse/negative features of microlenses. The metallic stamp of about 500 μm thick is made on a silicon wafer coated with 10 μm thick polymethylglutarimide (PMGI) resist and the desired structures are written by PBW followed by thermal reflow and Ni electroplating. An array of microlenses is imprinted on a polycarbonate (PC) substrate by the Nanoimprint Lithography (NIL) technique and the replicated microlenses featuring various numerical apertures, diameters and pitches are characterized

  15. Silicon micro-masonry using elastomeric stamps for three-dimensional microfabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keum, Hohyun; Eisenhaure, Jeffrey D; Kim, Seok; Carlson, Andrew; Ning, Hailong; Mihi, Agustin; Braun, Paul V; Rogers, John A

    2012-01-01

    We present a micromanufacturing method for constructing microsystems, which we term ‘micro-masonry’ based on individual manipulation, influenced by strategies for deterministic materials assembly using advanced forms of transfer printing. Analogous to masonry in construction sites, micro-masonry consists of the preparation, manipulation, and binding of microscale units to assemble microcomponents and microsystems. In this paper, for the purpose of demonstration, we used microtipped elastomeric stamps as manipulators and built three dimensional silicon microstructures. Silicon units of varied shapes were fabricated in a suspended format on donors, retrieved, delivered, and placed on a target location on a receiver using microtipped stamps. Annealing of the assembled silicon units permanently bound them and completed the micro-masonry procedure. (paper)

  16. Combined Randomized-Local Hough Transform versus UpWrite Transform in stamp detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Tondini

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The conventional Hough Transform used for detection of objects with known shape and size has proved its robustness. One typical task for this transform can be the detection of stamp(s on an envelope. Unfortunately, the Hough Transform has an important drawback: the heavy computational effort and, as consequence, a big execution time. This paper introduces a variant of Hough Transform that speeds up the process. One important aid is given by a filtering step based on a fast analysis of a rough deformation model. This method is a combination of Randomized and Local Hough Transform. Experiments were made comparing the modified Hough Transform approach with the UpWrite Transform and they proved that the first approach preserves the quality of the Hough Transform results at a higher speed.

  17. Modeling and Simulating Material Behavior during Hot Blank - Cold Die (HB-CD) Stamping of Aluminium Alloy Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Abu-Farha, Fadi

    2016-08-01

    Hot blank - cold die (HB-CD) stamping, non-isothermal hot stamping, of aluminium alloy sheets offers great opportunities for high production rates at low cost, while overcoming limited material formability issues. Yet developing an accurate model that can describe the complex material behavior over the wide ranging conditions of HB-CD stamping (temperatures ranging between 25 and 350 °C) is challenging. Moreover, validation of the developed models under transient conditions is problematic. This work presents he results of a comprehensive characterization, material modeling, FE simulation and experimental validation effort to capture the behavior of an aluminium alloy sheet during HB-CD stamping. In particular, we highlight the integration between temperature measurements (thermography) and strain measurements (digital image correlation) for the accurate validation of model predictions of non-isothermal material deformation.

  18. 75 FR 11913 - Chrysler, LLC; Warren Stamping Plant, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Caravan Knight...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... firm. The workers produce stamping parts for automobiles. New information shows that workers leased... under the control of the subject firm to be considered leased workers. Based on these findings, the...

  19. Boron nitride stamp for ultra-violet nanoimprinting lithography fabricated by focused ion beam lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altun, Ali Ozhan; Jeong, Jun-Ho; Rha, Jong-Joo; Kim, Ki-Don; Lee, Eung-Sug

    2007-01-01

    Cubic boron nitride (c-BN) is one of the hardest known materials (second after diamond). It has a high level of chemical resistance and high UV transmittance. In this study, a stamp for ultra-violet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) was fabricated using a bi-layered BN film deposited on a quartz substrate. Deposition of the BN was done using RF magnetron sputtering. A hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) layer was deposited for 30 min before c-BN was deposited for 30 min. The thickness of the film was measured as 160 nm. The phase of the c-BN layer was investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and it was found that the c-BN layer has a 40% cubic phase. The deposited film was patterned using focused ion beam (FIB) lithography for use as a UV-NIL stamp. Line patterns were fabricated with the line width and line distance set at 150 and 150 nm, respectively. The patterning process was performed by applying different currents to observe the effect of the current value on the pattern profile. The fabricated patterns were investigated using AFM, and it was found that the pattern fabricated by applying a current value of 50 picoamperes (pA) has a better profile with a 65 nm line depth. The UV transmittance of the 160 nm thick film was measured to be 70-86%. The hardness and modulus of the BN was measured to be 12 and 150 GPa, respectively. The water contact angle of the stamp surface was measured at 75 0 . The stamp was applied to UV-NIL without coating with an anti-adhesion layer. Successful imprinting was proved via scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the imprinted resin

  20. Boron nitride stamp for ultra-violet nanoimprinting lithography fabricated by focused ion beam lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altun, Ali Ozhan [Nano-Mechanical Systems Research Center, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 171 Jang-dong, Yuseung-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jun-Ho [Nano-Mechanical Systems Research Center, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 171 Jang-dong, Yuseung-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Rha, Jong-Joo [Surface Technology Research Center, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 66 Sangnam-Dong, Changwon-Shi, Kyungnam-Do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki-Don [Nano-Mechanical Systems Research Center, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 171 Jang-dong, Yuseung-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eung-Sug [Nano-Mechanical Systems Research Center, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 171 Jang-dong, Yuseung-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-11-21

    Cubic boron nitride (c-BN) is one of the hardest known materials (second after diamond). It has a high level of chemical resistance and high UV transmittance. In this study, a stamp for ultra-violet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) was fabricated using a bi-layered BN film deposited on a quartz substrate. Deposition of the BN was done using RF magnetron sputtering. A hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) layer was deposited for 30 min before c-BN was deposited for 30 min. The thickness of the film was measured as 160 nm. The phase of the c-BN layer was investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and it was found that the c-BN layer has a 40% cubic phase. The deposited film was patterned using focused ion beam (FIB) lithography for use as a UV-NIL stamp. Line patterns were fabricated with the line width and line distance set at 150 and 150 nm, respectively. The patterning process was performed by applying different currents to observe the effect of the current value on the pattern profile. The fabricated patterns were investigated using AFM, and it was found that the pattern fabricated by applying a current value of 50 picoamperes (pA) has a better profile with a 65 nm line depth. The UV transmittance of the 160 nm thick film was measured to be 70-86%. The hardness and modulus of the BN was measured to be 12 and 150 GPa, respectively. The water contact angle of the stamp surface was measured at 75{sup 0}. The stamp was applied to UV-NIL without coating with an anti-adhesion layer. Successful imprinting was proved via scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the imprinted resin.

  1. A rapid co-culture stamping device for studying intercellular communication

    OpenAIRE

    Amin Hassanzadeh-Barforoushi; Jonathan Shemesh; Nona Farbehi; Mohsen Asadnia; Guan Heng Yeoh; Richard P. Harvey; Robert E. Nordon; Majid Ebrahimi Warkiani

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of tissue development and repair depends on communication between neighbouring cells. Recent advances in cell micro-contact printing and microfluidics have facilitated the in-vitro study of homotypic and heterotypic cell-cell interaction. Nonetheless, these techniques are still complicated to perform and as a result, are seldom used by biologists. We report here development of a temporarily sealed microfluidic stamping device which utilizes a novel valve design for patterning two a...

  2. A new marking technique for peripheral lung nodules avoiding pleural puncture: the intrathoracic stamping method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Masaya; Okubo, Tetsuyuki; Poudel, Saseem; Suzuki, Yoshinori; Kawarada, Yo; Kitashiro, Shuji; Okushiba, Shunichi; Katoh, Hiroyuki

    2013-03-01

    While performing thoracoscopic wedge resection of the lung, the location of the lesion is generally identified by visual inspection or palpation. When difficulty in identification of the lesion by thoracoscopy is anticipated, preoperative marking is performed. However, complications and technical difficulties plague current marking techniques. To overcome this problem, we designed a new, safe and easy marking technique that avoids pleural puncture, called the intrathoracic stamping method.

  3. Improved Formability by Control of Strain Distribution in Sheet Stamping Using Electromagnetic Impulses

    OpenAIRE

    Daehn, G. S.; Shang, J.; Vohnout, V. J.

    2004-01-01

    Stamping failures consist of, broadly speaking, either tearing (excessive local strain energy) or wrinkling (insufficient or inappropriate local strain energy). Good parts are produced when the strain energy or plastic work is effectively distributed during the forming process such that tears and wrinkles are eliminated. The process window framed by tearing and wrinkling limits can be rather small for some materials, notably aluminum alloys. At present, there are no established methods of dir...

  4. A new marking technique for peripheral lung nodules avoiding pleural puncture: the intrathoracic stamping method

    OpenAIRE

    Kawada, Masaya; Okubo, Tetsuyuki; Poudel, Saseem; Suzuki, Yoshinori; Kawarada, Yo; Kitashiro, Shuji; Okushiba, Shunichi; Katoh, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    While performing thoracoscopic wedge resection of the lung, the location of the lesion is generally identified by visual inspection or palpation. When difficulty in identification of the lesion by thoracoscopy is anticipated, preoperative marking is performed. However, complications and technical difficulties plague current marking techniques. To overcome this problem, we designed a new, safe and easy marking technique that avoids pleural puncture, called the intrathoracic stamping method.

  5. Anisotropic behaviour law for sheets used in stamping: A comparative study of steel and aluminium

    OpenAIRE

    Sinou, Jean-Jacques; Macquaire, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    International audience; For a car manufacturer, reducing the weight of vehicles is an obvious aim. Replacing steel by aluminium moves towards that goal. Unfortunately, aluminium's stamping numerical simulation results are not yet as reliable as those of steel. Punch-strength and spring-back phenomena are not correctly described. This study on aluminium validates the behaviour law Hill 48 quadratic yield criterion with both isotropic and kinematic hardening. It is based on the yield surface an...

  6. Low temperature high density plasma nitriding of stainless steel molds for stamping of oxide glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizawa Tatsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Various kinds of stainless steels have been widely utilized as a die for mold- and direct-stamping processes of optical oxide glasses. Since they suffered from high temperature transients and thermal cycles in practice, they must be surface-treated by dry and wet coatings, or, by plasma nitriding. Martensitic stainless steel mold was first wet plated by the nickel phosphate (NiP, which was unstable at the high temperature stamping condition; and, was easy to crystalize or to fracture by itself. This issue of nuisance significantly lowered the productivity in fabrication of optical oxide-glass elements. In the present paper, the stainless steel mold was surface-treated by the low-temperature plasma nitriding. The nitrided layer by this surface modification had higher nitrogen solute content than 4 mass%; the maximum solid-solubility of nitrogen is usually 0.1 mass% in the equilibrium phase diagram. Owing to this solid-solution with high nitrogen concentration, the nitrided layer had high hardness over 1400 HV within its thickness of 50 μm without any formation of nitrides after plasma nitriding at 693 K for 14.4 ks. This plasma-nitrided mold was utilized for mold-stamping of two colored oxide glass plates at 833 K; these plates were successfully deformed and joined into a single glass plate by this stamping without adhesion or galling of oxide glasses onto the nitrided mold surface.

  7. Using stamping punch force variation for the identification of changes in lubrication and wear mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, B. M.; Pereira, M. P.; Rolfe, B. F.; Doolan, M. C.

    2017-09-01

    The growth in use of Advanced High Strength Steels in the automotive industry for light-weighting and safety has increased the rates of tool wear in sheet metal stamping. This is an issue that adds significant costs to production in terms of manual inspection and part refinishing. To reduce these costs, a tool condition monitoring system is required and a firm understanding of process signal variation must form the foundation for any such monitoring system. Punch force is a stamping process signal that is widely collected by industrial presses and has been linked closely to part quality and tool condition, making it an ideal candidate as a tool condition monitoring signal. In this preliminary investigation, the variation of punch force due to different lubrication conditions and progressive wear are examined. Linking specific punch force signature changes to developing lubrication and wear events is valuable for die wear and stamping condition monitoring. A series of semi-industrial channel forming trials were conducted under different lubrication regimes and progressive die wear. Punch force signatures were captured for each part and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to determine the key Principal Components of the signature data sets. These Principal Components were linked to the evolution of friction conditions over the course of the stroke for the different lubrication regimes and mechanism of galling wear. As a result, variation in punch force signatures were correlated to the current mechanism of wear dominant on the formed part; either abrasion or adhesion, and to changes in lubrication mechanism. The outcomes of this study provide important insights into punch force signature variation, that will provide a foundation for future work into the development of die wear and lubrication monitoring systems for sheet metal stamping.

  8. Boron nitride stamp for ultra-violet nanoimprinting lithography fabricated by focused ion beam lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozhan Altun, Ali; Jeong, Jun-Ho; Rha, Jong-Joo; Kim, Ki-Don; Lee, Eung-Sug

    2007-11-01

    Cubic boron nitride (c-BN) is one of the hardest known materials (second after diamond). It has a high level of chemical resistance and high UV transmittance. In this study, a stamp for ultra-violet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) was fabricated using a bi-layered BN film deposited on a quartz substrate. Deposition of the BN was done using RF magnetron sputtering. A hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) layer was deposited for 30 min before c-BN was deposited for 30 min. The thickness of the film was measured as 160 nm. The phase of the c-BN layer was investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and it was found that the c-BN layer has a 40% cubic phase. The deposited film was patterned using focused ion beam (FIB) lithography for use as a UV-NIL stamp. Line patterns were fabricated with the line width and line distance set at 150 and 150 nm, respectively. The patterning process was performed by applying different currents to observe the effect of the current value on the pattern profile. The fabricated patterns were investigated using AFM, and it was found that the pattern fabricated by applying a current value of 50 picoamperes (pA) has a better profile with a 65 nm line depth. The UV transmittance of the 160 nm thick film was measured to be 70 86%. The hardness and modulus of the BN was measured to be 12 and 150 GPa, respectively. The water contact angle of the stamp surface was measured at 75°. The stamp was applied to UV-NIL without coating with an anti-adhesion layer. Successful imprinting was proved via scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the imprinted resin.

  9. Validation of the stamping method for CaSO{sub 4}:RE + Teflon® pellets production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Maira G.; Rodrigues, Leticia L.C., E-mail: mgnunes@ipen.br, E-mail: lcrodri@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The IPEN method for the CaSO{sub 4}:RE + Teflon® production, developed and patented at the Dosimetric Materials Laboratory - LMD/IPEN in the earlier 1980's, is highly time-demanding, so that the use of the stamping method, already widely industrially applied, would enhance the CaSO{sub 4}:RE + Teflon® pellets production. Thus, validating the stamping method, by comparing the dosimetric properties of a batch of pellets produced by each method, became a must. The stamped batch presents the same mean non-irradiated signals either after sintering or annealing while IPEN batch mean non-irradiated signals vary in 23%. The mean TL signal after irradiation was about 50 nC, but the standard deviation varies from 20% to 33% for IPEN batch and keeps in 10% for the stamped batch. 24 h after the irradiation, the TL signal decreased to about 35 nC, with no differences in IPEN batch standard deviation and a decrease to 5% in stamped batch standard deviation, for the five performed essays. Calibration curves present a linear behavior over the entire studied dose range and the same coefficients for both methods, however, the uncertainties in the coefficients determined to the calibration curve obtained with stamped pellets are significantly smaller, leading to a more precise dose determination. This results show that the stamping method produces more homogeneous batches, with pellets that maintain the dosimetric characteristics of the detectors produced by IPEN method, in such a way that the stamping method can substitute with advantages the IPEN method in the CaSO{sub 4}:RE + Teflon® dosimetric pellets production. (author)

  10. Fabrication of 3D high aspect ratio PDMS microfluidic networks with a hybrid stamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Yu-Chun; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Fan, Yu-Jui; Chiou, Pei-Yu

    2015-04-21

    We report a novel methodology for fabricating large-area, multilayer, thin-film, high aspect ratio, 3D microfluidic structures with through-layer vias and open channels that can be bonded between hard substrates. It is realized by utilizing a hybrid stamp with a thin plastic sheet embedded underneath a PDMS surface. This hybrid stamp solves an important edge protrusion issue during PDMS molding while maintaining necessary stamp elasticity to ensure the removal of PDMS residues at through-layer regions. Removing edge protrusion is a significant progress toward fabricating 3D structures since high aspect ratio PDMS structures with flat interfaces can be realized to facilitate multilayer stacking and bonding to hard substrates. Our method also allows for the fabrication of 3D deformable channels, which can lead to profound applications in electrokinetics, optofluidics, inertial microfluidics, and other fields where the shape of the channel cross section plays a key role in device physics. To demonstrate, as an example, we have fabricated a microfluidic channel by sandwiching two 20 μm wide, 80 μm tall PDMS membranes between two featureless ITO glass substrates. By applying electrical bias to the two ITO substrates and pressure to deform the thin membrane sidewalls, strong electric field enhancement can be generated in the center of a channel to enable 3D sheathless dielectrophoretic focusing of biological objects including mammalian cells and bacteria at a flow speed up to 14 cm s(-1).

  11. Prevention of crack in stretch flanging process using hot stamping technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafiq, Y. Mohd; Hamedon, Z.; Azila Aziz, Wan; Razlan Yusoff, Ahmad

    2017-10-01

    Demand for enhancing of passenger safety as well as weight reduction of automobiles has increased the use of high strength steel sheets. As a sheet metal is a lightweight having high strength is suitable for producing automotive parts such as white body panel. The stretch flanging of the high strength steel sheet is a problem due to high springback and easy to crack. This study uses three methods to stretch flange the sheets; using lubricants, shear-edge polishing and hot stamping. The effectiveness of these methods will be measured by comparing the flange length of each methods can achieved. For stretch flange with lubricant and polished sheared edge, the flange length failed to achieve the target 15 mm while hot stamping improved the formability of the sheet and preventing the occurrence of the springback and crack. Hot stamping not only improved formability of the sheet but also transformed the microstructure into martensite thus improve the hardness and the strength of the sheet after been quenched with the dies.

  12. Investigations on the Hot Stamping of AW-7921-T4 Alloy Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available AW-7xxx alloys have been nowadays considered for greater light weighting potential in automotive industry due to its higher strength compared to AW-5xxx and AW-6xxx alloys. However, due to their lower formability the forming processes are still in development. This paper investigates one such forming process called hot stamping. The investigation started by carrying out hot tensile testing of an AW-7xxx alloy, that is, AW-7921 at temperatures between 350°C and 475°C, to measure the strength and formability. Formability was found to improve with increasing temperature and was sensitive to the strain rate. Dynamic recovery is considered as usual reason for the formability improvement. However, examining the precipitation states of the as-received condition and after hot stamping using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, the dissolution of precipitates was also believed to contribute to this increase in formability. Following solution heat treatment there was no precipitation during cooling across the cooling rates investigated (5–10°C/s. Samples taken from parts hot stamped at 10 and 20 mm s−1 had similar yield strengths. A 3-step paint baking heat treatment yielded a higher postpaint baking strength than a single step treatment.

  13. Conformal contact and pattern stability of stamps used for soft lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bietsch, Alexander; Michel, Bruno

    2000-10-01

    Patterning in soft lithography techniques such as microcontact printing or light-coupling mask lithography is mediated by surface topographical patterns of elastomeric stamps: intimate contact with the substrate is achieved locally at the protruding areas, whereas a gap remains between the substrate and recessed zones. This principle challenges the properties of the stamp, especially when printing high-resolution or extreme aspect-ratio patterns with high accuracy. On the one hand, the stamp must be soft enough to enable conformal contact with the substrate, which means that it must adapt elastically without leaving voids created by the natural roughness of the substrate. On the other hand, a precise definition of micropatterns requires a rigid material. In this article, we analyze the conditions of elasticity, roughness, and energy of adhesion to establish conformal contact between an elastomer and the target surface. Furthermore, we address questions of replication accuracy and evaluate local elastic deformation induced by normal forces using model calculations for simple pattern geometries. Pressure applied during contact leads to a sagging or collapse of the unsupported areas. We discuss implications on both material and pattern design that allow spontaneous propagation of conformal contact while inhibiting the spreading of collapse.

  14. Evaluation of resistless Ga+ beam lithography for UV NIL stamp fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumler, M.; Fader, R.; Haas, A.; Rommel, M.; Bauer, A. J.; Frey, L.

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents an alternative rapid prototyping approach for the fabrication of stamps for UV nanoimprint lithography. In this process, areas implanted with gallium serve as an etch mask for the dry etching of quartz. The implantation is performed using a focused ion beam system. To avoid charging of the quartz substrate the use of thin layers of chromium or carbon on the quartz substrate has been evaluated. The resulting quartz structures exhibit very smooth surfaces after dry etching, if the implantation dose is high enough to form a stable etch mask. Furthermore, anisotropic etching could be realized by optimization of a quartz etching process involving C4F8 and O2 after the use of resistless Ga+ beam lithography. Finally, imprints into a UV curing resist are performed successfully with the manufactured stamps, proving that the presence of Ga rich areas on the stamp is not detrimental to the curing of the resist or the functionality of the anti-sticking layer.

  15. Hematological parameters and the variations resulting from stress of Alouatta caraya during a wildlife rescue program in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sarmiento, Angélica María; Zwarg, Ticiana; Fernandes-Santos, Renata Carolina; Guimarães-Luiz, Thaís; Genoy-Puerto, Alexander; Matushima, Eliana Reiko

    2015-03-01

    Deforestation and habitat fragmentation are major threats to the conservation status of New World primates, such as the howler monkey (Alouatta caraya) in Brazil, where vegetation destruction is often associated with projects such as Small Hydro Power Plant (SHP) construction. The resulting stress from the implementation of this type of enterprise may be a factor that influences individual susceptibility against pathogens and can determine the success or failure of mitigation measures proposed by responsible and/or requested companies by environmental agencies. To perform health monitoring and to understand physiological changes that ensued from the stress of capturing and keeping primates in captivity, we determined the blood profile of A. caraya rescued at the time of capture (N = 15) and in captivity (N = 11). Complete blood counts (CBCs) performed at the time of capture showed hematological changes compatible with acute stress, such as evident neutrophilic leukocytosis (WBCs; females = 20.48 ± 7.26; males = 18.78 ± 10.39 × 10(9) /L). In captivity, monocytosis was observed in both sexes (females = 1.34 ± 0.26; males = 0.39 ± 0.32 × 10(9) /L; U-test, P = 0.01), suggesting chronic stress. In females, there was also statistically significant eosinopenia (0.28 ± 0.10 × 10(9) /L; U-test, P = 0.01) and hematocrit increases (39.00 ± 1.41%; U-test, P = 0.01). Thus, data shows the impact of both capture related acute stress as well as captivity chronic stress, suggesting that primate management in the implementation of these projects causes significant changes in physiological parameters and, consequently, animal health. Whereas chronic stress is an inducer of immunosuppression and susceptibility to pathogen factors, monitoring hematological parameters in captive animals can act as an indicator of health status, contributing to the success of management and conservation wildlife programs. Am

  16. Methods, Devices and Computer Program Products Providing for Establishing a Model for Emulating a Physical Quantity Which Depends on at Least One Input Parameter, and Use Thereof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention proposes methods, devices and computer program products. To this extent, there is defined a set X including N distinct parameter values x_i for at least one input parameter x, N being an integer greater than or equal to 1, first measured the physical quantity Pm1 for each...... based on the Vandermonde matrix and the first measured physical quantity according to the equation W=(VMT*VM)-1*VMT*Pm1. The model is iteratively refined so as to obtained a desired emulation precision.; The model can later be used to emulate the physical quantity based on input parameters or logs taken...

  17. Developing Functional Parameters for a Science-Based Vehicle Cleaning Program to Reduce Transport of Non-Indigenous Invasive Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    indigenous . Some species were grouped due to identification similarity and some could not be identified beyond genus due to lack of flowering under...FINAL REPORT Developing Functional Parameters for a Science-Based Vehicle Cleaning Program to Reduce Transport of Non- Indigenous Invasive...vehicles .............................. 15  4.3.2 Non- indigenous plant survey to create occupancy maps

  18. Rubber stamp templates for improving clinical documentation: A paper-based, m-Health approach for quality improvement in low-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleczka, Bernadette; Musiega, Anita; Rabut, Grace; Wekesa, Phoebe; Mwaniki, Paul; Marx, Michael; Kumar, Pratap

    2018-06-01

    The United Nations' Sustainable Development Goal #3.8 targets 'access to quality essential healthcare services'. Clinical practice guidelines are an important tool for ensuring quality of clinical care, but many challenges prevent their use in low-resource settings. Monitoring the use of guidelines relies on cumbersome clinical audits of paper records, and electronic systems face financial and other limitations. Here we describe a unique approach to generating digital data from paper using guideline-based templates, rubber stamps and mobile phones. The Guidelines Adherence in Slums Project targeted ten private sector primary healthcare clinics serving informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. Each clinic was provided with rubber stamp templates to support documentation and management of commonly encountered outpatient conditions. Participatory design methods were used to customize templates to the workflows and infrastructure of each clinic. Rubber stamps were used to print templates into paper charts, providing clinicians with checklists for use during consultations. Templates used bubble format data entry, which could be digitized from images taken on mobile phones. Besides rubber stamp templates, the intervention included booklets of guideline compilations, one Android phone for digitizing images of templates, and one data feedback/continuing medical education session per clinic each month. In this paper we focus on the effect of the intervention on documentation of three non-communicable diseases in one clinic. Seventy charts of patients enrolled in the chronic disease program (hypertension/diabetes, n=867; chronic respiratory diseases, n=223) at one of the ten intervention clinics were sampled. Documentation of each individual patient encounter in the pre-intervention (January-March 2016) and post-intervention period (May-July) was scored for information in four dimensions - general data, patient assessment, testing, and management. Control criteria included

  19. SINCERITIES: Inferring gene regulatory networks from time-stamped single cell transcriptional expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papili Gao, Nan; Ud-Dean, S M Minhaz; Gandrillon, Olivier; Gunawan, Rudiyanto

    2017-09-14

    Single cell transcriptional profiling opens up a new avenue in studying the functional role of cell-to-cell variability in physiological processes. The analysis of single cell expression profiles creates new challenges due to the distributive nature of the data and the stochastic dynamics of gene transcription process. The reconstruction of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) using single cell transcriptional profiles is particularly challenging, especially when directed gene-gene relationships are desired. We developed SINCERITIES (SINgle CEll Regularized Inference using TIme-stamped Expression profileS) for the inference of GRNs from single cell transcriptional profiles. We focused on time-stamped cross-sectional expression data, commonly generated from transcriptional profiling of single cells collected at multiple time points after cell stimulation. SINCERITIES recovers directed regulatory relationships among genes by employing regularized linear regression (ridge regression), using temporal changes in the distributions of gene expressions. Meanwhile, the modes of the gene regulations (activation and repression) come from partial correlation analyses between pairs of genes. We demonstrated the efficacy of SINCERITIES in inferring GRNs using in silico time-stamped single cell expression data and single cell transcriptional profiles of THP-1 monocytic human leukemia cells. The case studies showed that SINCERITIES could provide accurate GRN predictions, significantly better than other GRN inference algorithms such as TSNI, GENIE3 and JUMP3. Moreover, SINCERITIES has a low computational complexity and is amenable to problems of extremely large dimensionality. Finally, an application of SINCERITIES to single cell expression data of T2EC chicken erythrocytes pointed to BATF as a candidate novel regulator of erythroid development. The MATLAB and R version of SINCERITIES is freely available from the following websites: http://www.cabsel.ethz.ch/tools/sincerities.html and

  20. Studying the Solar System Can Be More Than Just "Stamp Collecting"

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2017-04-01

    While teaching his first-ever introductory college astronomy course, I heard a graduate student make the comment that compared to other areas of astronomy, studying the solar system is just "stamp collecting." Coverage of the solar system in an introductory college astronomy course certainly could consist mostly of showing images and reporting facts, but by using observations that can be made from images and also data and other known facts about the objects, instruction on solar system topics can be more conceptual, involving just as much inquiry and discovery as any area of astronomy or physics.

  1. Time stamp generation with inverse FIR filters for Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namias, Mauro

    2009-01-01

    Photon coincidence detection is the process by which Positron Emission Tomography (PET) works. This requires the determination of the time of impact of each coincident photon at the detector system, also known as time stamp. In this work, the timestamp was generated by means of digital time-domain deconvolution with FIR filters for a INa(Tl) based system. The detector deadtime was reduced from 350 ns to 175 ns while preserving the system's energy resolution and a direct relation between the amount of light collected and the temporal resolution was found.(author)

  2. Use of atomic force microscopy in the forensic application of chronological order of toners and stamping inks in questioned documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae-Yi; Lee, Joong; Park, Byung-Wook

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the application of the atomic force microscopy (AFM) as a nano-indentation method and introduces a new method of identifying the chronological order of the application of the toner and stamping ink on the surface of documents by removing either of them. Various toners were used as samples for the AFM nano-indentation method. The chronological order of the application of the toner and stamping ink with either the toner placed over the stamping ink or the stamping ink placed over the toner, could be identified, regardless of the kinds of toners made by various companies. This paper provides the new approach for physically removing the toner and checking the material below it to identify questioned documents, which allows the method to be used to appraise documents forensically. Blind testing has shown that the method to analyze the chronological order of toner-printed documents and the seal stamping on them could accurately identify the order in all samples, while minimizing damage to the samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fabrication of a roller type PDMS stamp using SU-8 concave molds and its application for roll contact printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jongho; Kim, Beomjoon

    2016-01-01

    Continuous fabrication of micropatterns at low-cost is attracting attention in various applications within industrial fields. To meet such demands, we have demonstrated a roll contact printing technique, using roller type polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps with roll-to-flat and roll-to-roll stages. Roller type PDMS stamps for roll contact printing were fabricated using a custom-made metal support and SU-8 microstructures fabricated on concave substrates as a mold. The molding/casting method which we developed here provided faster and easier fabrication than conventional methods for roller type stamps. Next, roll contact printing was performed using fabricated roller type PDMS stamps with roll-to-flat and roll-to-roll stages. Patterns with minimum widths of 3 μm and 2.1 μm were continuously fabricated for each stage, respectively. In addition, the relationship between applied pressures and dimensional changes of roll contact printed patterns was investigated. Finally, we confirmed that roll contact printing and the new fabrication method for roller stamps presented in this study demonstrated the feasibility for industrial applications. (paper)

  4. PYFLOW_2.0: a computer program for calculating flow properties and impact parameters of past dilute pyroclastic density currents based on field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dioguardi, Fabio; Mele, Daniela

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents PYFLOW_2.0, a hazard tool for the calculation of the impact parameters of dilute pyroclastic density currents (DPDCs). DPDCs represent the dilute turbulent type of gravity flows that occur during explosive volcanic eruptions; their hazard is the result of their mobility and the capability to laterally impact buildings and infrastructures and to transport variable amounts of volcanic ash along the path. Starting from data coming from the analysis of deposits formed by DPDCs, PYFLOW_2.0 calculates the flow properties (e.g., velocity, bulk density, thickness) and impact parameters (dynamic pressure, deposition time) at the location of the sampled outcrop. Given the inherent uncertainties related to sampling, laboratory analyses, and modeling assumptions, the program provides ranges of variations and probability density functions of the impact parameters rather than single specific values; from these functions, the user can interrogate the program to obtain the value of the computed impact parameter at any specified exceedance probability. In this paper, the sedimentological models implemented in PYFLOW_2.0 are presented, program functionalities are briefly introduced, and two application examples are discussed so as to show the capabilities of the software in quantifying the impact of the analyzed DPDCs in terms of dynamic pressure, volcanic ash concentration, and residence time in the atmosphere. The software and user's manual are made available as a downloadable electronic supplement.

  5. Why do low-income women not use food stamps? Findings from the California Women's Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Lucia

    2008-12-01

    To determine factors associated with Food Stamp Program (FSP) participation in a potentially eligible California population. The California Women's Health Survey is an on-going annual telephone survey that collects data about health-related attitudes and behaviours from a randomly selected sample of women. Statistical procedures included chi2 and logistic regression. California, USA, from 2002 to 2004. A total of 527 FSP female participants and 1405 potentially eligible non-participant females, aged 18 years and older. The following characteristics remained independently and positively related to FSP participation: single mother with children; unemployed; on welfare; on WIC (the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children); and US-born. Women under 25 years and those over 54 years were less likely to participate than women aged 25-54 years. Hispanic/Latino ethnicity was also negatively related to participation. Over 42 % of potentially eligible non-participants cited 'don't need them' as the reason for not applying for FSP, but 34.9 % either do not think they are eligible or do not know how to apply. Potentially eligible non-participants who cite 'don't need them' as a reason for not applying are less likely to be food insecure, to have inadequate income and to use alternative emergency aid, compared to women citing all other reasons. The highest level of need is among those who cite worry about citizenship or stigma as reasons for not applying. Strategies to increase participation in FSP should incorporate messages that change the public's perception of the programme, in addition to simplifying the application process, raising awareness of eligibility criteria and improving customer service.

  6. Algorithm and program for precise determination of unit-cell parameters of single crystal taking into account the sample eccentricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudka, A. P.; Smirnova, E. S.; Verin, I. A.; Bolotina, N. B.

    2017-07-01

    A technique has been developed to refine the unit-cell parameters of single crystals with minimization of the influence of instrumental errors on the result. The corresponding computational procedure HuberUB is added to the software package of Huber-5042 diffractometer with a point detector and closedcycle helium cryostat Displex DE-202. The parameters of unit cell, its orientation, the goniometer zero angles, the sample eccentricity, the distances in the goniometer, and the radiation wavelength were refined by the nonlinear least-squares method, which allows imposition of constraints on the unit-cell parameters, depending on the crystal symmetry. The technique is approved on a LuB12 single crystal. The unit-cell parameters are determined in a temperature range of 20-295 K, with an absolute error not larger than 0.0004 Å (the relative error is of 5 × 10-5). The estimates of the unit-cell parameters obtained by the proposed method are evidenced to be unbiased. Some specific features of the behavior of parameters in the ranges of 120-140 and 20-50 K are revealed, which correlate with the anomalies of the physical properties of the crystal.

  7. The collection of Tuvan stamps (1926–1943 in the National Museum of the Republic of Tuva and the prospects of philately in Tuva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaadyr-ool A. Bicheldey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stamps of the People’s Republic of Tuva (PRT, 1921-1944 as indicia and as items of collectors’ interest, are universally renowned, and as such have been the subject of a good deal of research. These works contain more than a mere story of Tuvan stamps – they provide a lot of useful information on Tuva, its history, including the history of postal service in the region. This article describes the collection of indicia (more than 500 pieces dated 1926-1943 and preserved at Aldan Maadyr National Museum of Tuva. On the basis of this analysis we have formulated the current problems and prospects of philately in the region. The stamp collection in the National Museum fills 4 albums of various sizes and a number of envelopes with 1-72 stamps in each. The compilers of 2 albums attempted to systematize stamps by issue date, but this work is far from complete. There is no definitive collection of Tuvan stamps to act as a model for others, regardless of the quality of the stamps preserved. The rest of the stamps in the museum collection is in unsorted state. Overall, the degree of preservation can be tentatively described as average. Given the great interest of scholars and collectors, Tuvan stamps are relatively little studies. The overall bulk of material on the uses of stamps in Tuva lacks an overarching study. We have summed up the main research problems that call for in-depth research, including studying Tuvan stamps as pieces of art, the financial and economic viability of issuing stamps in PRT, the official documentations licensing the issue, full catalogization of all existing issues, the study of individual stamps, etc. Especially urgent is the issue of propagating knowledge of history of Tuvan postal service as a precondition for collecting and preserving PRT stamps. Archives of many Tuvan families may contain unique stamps, rare envelopes or postcards – but few of their owners recognize the full value of what they have. This puts unique

  8. New method for springback compensation for the stamping of sheet metal components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkert, A.; Hartmann, B.; Straub, M.

    2017-09-01

    The need for car body structures of higher strength and at the same time lower weight results in serious challenges for the stamping process. Especially the use of high strength steel and aluminium sheets is causing growing problems with regard to elastic springback. To produce accurate parts the stamping dies must be adjusted more or less by the amount of the springback in the opposite direction. For this purpose well-known software solutions use the Displacement Adjustment Method or algorithms which are closely based on that method. A crucial issue of this method is that the generated die surfaces deviate from those of the target geometry with regard to surface area. A new Physical Compensation Method has been developed and validated which takes geometrical nonlinearity into account and creates compensated die geometries with equal-in-area die surfaces. In contrast to the standard mathematical/geometrical approach, the adjusted geometry is generated by a physical approach, which makes use of the virtual part stiffness. Hereby the target geometry is being deformed mechanically in a virtual process based on the springback simulation results by applying virtual forces in an additional elastic simulation. By doing so better part dimensions can be obtained in less tool optimization loops.

  9. A Material Perspective on Consequence of Deformation Heating During Stamping of DP Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şimşir, C.; Çetin, B.; Efe, M.; Davut, K.; Bayramin, B.

    2017-09-01

    Recent studies showed that, during stamping of high strength steels at industrially relevant production rates, local temperature in the blank may rise up to 200°C - 300°C due to deformation heating. Moreover, die temperature may also rise up to 100°C - 150°C for progressive stamping dies. Based on the common assumption that the blank softens as the temperature increases, thermal softening creates a margin in Forming Limit Diagram (FLD) and therefore the FLD determined at room temperature can safely be used for those cases. In this article, the validity of this assumption on DP590 steel is questioned by high temperature tensile tests (RT - 300°C) at various strain rates (10-3 s-1 - 1 s-1). The results indicated a decrease both in uniform and total elongation in 200°C - 300°C range together with several other symptoms of Dynamic Strain Aging (DSA) at all strain rates. Concurrent with the DSA, the simulated FLD confirms the lower formability at high temperature and strain rates. Thus, it is concluded FLD determined at RT may not be valid for the investigated steels.

  10. Predication of coke strength from textural analysis of stamp charged coke supported by coal petrography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, R.; Dash, P.S.; Chakraborty, D.; Banerjee, P.K.; Kumar, D. [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur (India)

    2005-07-01

    Materials science tells us that defects or flaws in a solid material control the mechanical behaviour of that material. Similarly, in a coke, its strength is associated with the microstructure and texture. Optical microscopy is the most appropriate method for measuring these features. Attempts were made to correlate different types of textures with the strength of stamp charged coke at Tata Steel. The studies revealed that anisotropic carbon is less reactive to carbon dioxide compared to isotropic carbon. There may be two reasons for this: a lower surface area of the carbon available for reaction; the intrinsic reactivity may be lower for molecules which constitute anisotropic carbon. The strength after reaction depends on its anisotropic texture - the smaller size mosaic texture contributes to higher post strength. There are very few reports about use of micro textural analysis to predict cold strength of coke. Test results show that there exists an influence of isotropic carbon on M{sub 10} index. With an increase in isotropic texture, the M{sub 10} index deteriorates. The performance of coke in blast furnaces may be improved by improving room temperature and high temperature strength of coke by selecting coal with higher vitrinite distribution in the present blend through the stamp charging route. 18 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Virtual method for the determination of an optimum thermal design of hot stamping tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiß, W.; Koplenig, M.; Alb, M.; Graf, J.

    2016-11-01

    This work presents a new virtual method for the optimised thermal design of hot stamping tools. It provides optimal positions of the tool's tempering ducts with respect to the average working temperature and its homogeneous distribution on the surface of a tool. It consists of a specific procedure for hot stamping tool design and a software framework in order to interconnect three domains: (I) a parametrised CAD tool model, (II) a linear thermal solver using a fast boundary element method and (III) an optimisation algorithm. This enables the automated set-up, simulation and optimisation of a duct topology. The boundary conditions for the simulations are derived from a reduced model of the thermal loading of the tool. The virtual method proposed is demonstrated on simplified tool segment geometries. The results are transferred to complex tool designs used in industry. For a selected use case, the number of ducts could be reduced by 50% through the application of the proposed method. These results are validated virtually based on an existing design. Hence, the new virtual method contributes to a CAE-driven tool design and a more efficient tool manufacturing.

  12. A long-day light program accelerates seasonal coat changes but is without effect on semen and metabolic parameters in Shetland pony stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrammel, Nadine; Deichsel, Katharina; Aurich, Jörg; Aurich, Christine

    2016-03-15

    Horses are seasonal breeders, and robust breeds may exhibit a winter hypometabolism when kept under semiferal conditions. In this study, we analyzed the effects of artificial long days on rectal temperature, heart rate, heart rate variability, hematology, coat changes, semen parameters, and plasma testosterone concentrations in Shetland stallions stabled overnight and assigned to a control group (CON, n = 9) kept under natural photoperiod, and a treatment group exposed to a long-day light program from 15 December to 20 March (AL, n = 9). During the 8-month study, rectal temperature, heart rate, and heart rate variability at no time differed between groups. Plasma total protein (P coat and total sperm count but only changes in hair coat but not semen parameters were advanced by a long-day light program. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of a MAST Exercise Program on Anthropometric Parameters, Physical Fitness, and Serum Lipid Levels in Obese Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trabka Bartosz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine an influence of a mixed aerobic and strength training program (MAST on anthropometry, serum lipid levels, physical performance, and functional fitness in obese postmenopausal women. The MAST sessions were held three times per week, and the exercise program lasted for 10 weeks. The exercise group demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in maximal oxygen uptake, a waist/hip ratio, and strength of the upper and lower body. An increase in LDL-C levels was observed in the control group. A 10-week MAST program encompassing Nordic-walking as an aerobic component, and strength exercises, induces positive changes in functional fitness, HDL-C, LDL-C and a waist/hip ratio in obese postmenopausal women. The observed changes implicate an increase in a health-related quality of life among the women administered to the physical exercise program

  14. Optimization of the blankholder force distribution with application to the stamping of a car front door panel (Numisheet'99)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayed, L. Ben; Delameziere, A.; Batoz, J.L.; Knopf-Lenoir, C.

    2005-01-01

    New materials such as dual phase steel or aluminium and complex geometries of industrial parts increase the difficulties to obtain a defect free part by stamping. One way of solution is a better regulation of the blankholder pressures. Our work is based on an original idea of Siegert, Haeussermann and Haller. The goal is to control the movement of the blank under the blankholder. Thanks to a deformable flexible blankholder, it is possible to create some independent zones. In each zone, a blankholder force can be applied on the sheet, so that a strong force can hold the blank in a zone, and a smaller one can let it move in another zone. The methodology is presented as well as some results dealing with the optimization of the blankholder force considering the drawing of a front door panel (Numisheet'99 benchmark test). The numerical simulations are performed using ABAQUS Explicit. The parameters of the finite element model (mesh density, speed of punch) are set to achieve a good prediction with a minimum simulation time. The objective function is defined to minimize the work of the punch. Three inequality constraints functions were defined to avoid necking and wrinkling. To avoid necking, the major stress of the blank is limited to a value, which is determined by using the modified maximum force criterion (MMFC). To avoid wrinkling, under the blankholder, the angle between the blankholder surface and an element of the blank is limited to a value set by the user, as proposed by Gelin and Labergere. However, in the useful part of the workpiece, the major stress is limited to a value, which was proposed by Brunet, Batoz and Bouabdallah. For the localization of the optimum, we use a response surface method computed with a diffuse approximation and coupled with an adaptative strategy to update the research space

  15. Optimization of the blankholder force distribution with application to the stamping of a car front door panel (Numisheet'99)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayed, L. Ben; Delamézière, A.; Batoz, J. L.; Knopf-Lenoir, C.

    2005-08-01

    New materials such as dual phase steel or aluminium and complex geometries of industrial parts increase the difficulties to obtain a defect free part by stamping. One way of solution is a better regulation of the blankholder pressures. Our work is based on an original idea of Siegert, Häussermann and Haller. The goal is to control the movement of the blank under the blankholder. Thanks to a deformable flexible blankholder, it is possible to create some independent zones. In each zone, a blankholder force can be applied on the sheet, so that a strong force can hold the blank in a zone, and a smaller one can let it move in another zone. The methodology is presented as well as some results dealing with the optimization of the blankholder force considering the drawing of a front door panel (Numisheet'99 benchmark test). The numerical simulations are performed using ABAQUS Explicit. The parameters of the finite element model (mesh density, speed of punch) are set to achieve a good prediction with a minimum simulation time. The objective function is defined to minimize the work of the punch. Three inequality constraints functions were defined to avoid necking and wrinkling. To avoid necking, the major stress of the blank is limited to a value, which is determined by using the modified maximum force criterion (MMFC). To avoid wrinkling, under the blankholder, the angle between the blankholder surface and an element of the blank is limited to a value set by the user, as proposed by Gelin and Labergere. However, in the useful part of the workpiece, the major stress is limited to a value, which was proposed by Brunet, Batoz and Bouabdallah. For the localization of the optimum, we use a response surface method computed with a diffuse approximation and coupled with an adaptative strategy to update the research space.

  16. 7 CFR 272.5 - Program informational activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... creed, national origin or political belief. (c) Program informational activities for low-income..., application procedures, and benefits of the Food Stamp Program. Program informational materials used in such... the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of the target population, types of media used...

  17. Software and Parameters for Detailed TPC Studies in the CLIC CDR

    CERN Document Server

    Killenberg, M.

    2011-01-01

    For the TPC occupancy and time stamping studies in the CLIC CDR the MarlinTPC software package has been used in combination with Mokka for the full detector simulation. This document describes the working principle of the Marlin processors used for digitisation and reconstruction, and lists the parameters for reference.

  18. A program for the derivation of crystal unit cell parameters from X-ray powder diffraction measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, I.F.; Rogerson, A.H.

    1984-01-01

    The program, FIRESTAR, determines the dimensions of a crystallographic unit cell from a set of X-ray powder diffraction measurements corresponding to a set of Bragg reflections, provided that the crystal system applicable is known and the Bragg reflections have been indexed. The program includes a range of possible extrapolation functions, and the data may be weighted. Provision is made for detecting and rejecting a single 'bad' measurement, and then rejecting measurements which lie outside an error limit set in the input data. (orig.)

  19. Fabrication of a metallic roll stamp with low internal stress and high hardness for large area display applications by a pulse reverse current electroforming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joongeok; Han, Jungjin; Kim, Taekyung; Kang, Shinill

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing demand for large scale micro/nano components in the fields of display, energy and electrical devices, etc, the establishment of a roll imprinting process has become a priority. The fabrication of a roll stamp with high dimensional accuracy and uniformity is one of the key issues in the roll imprinting process, because the roll stamp determines the properties of the replicated micro/nano structures. In this study, a method to fabricate a metallic roll stamp with low internal stress, high flatness, and high hardness was proposed by a pulse reverse current (PRC) electroforming process. The effects of PRC electroforming processes on the internal stress, hardness, and grain size of the electroformed stamp were examined, and the optimum process conditions were suggested. As a practical example of the proposed method, various micro-patterns for electronic circuits were fabricated via the roll imprinting process using a PRC electroformed stamp. (paper)

  20. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program, plant parameters envelopes: Comparison with ranges of values for four hypothetical sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this volume is to report the results of the comparison of the ALWR plan parameters envelope with values of site characteristics developed for our hypothetical sites that generally represent conditions encountered within the United States. This effort is not intended to identify or address the suitability of any existing site, site area, or region in the United States. Also included in this volume is Appendix F, SERCH Summaries Regarding Siting

  1. Measurements of parameters for determining the radon load in the framework of the Dutch national research program SAWORA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groen, G.C.H.; Groot, T.J.H. de; Nyqvist, R.G.; Keverling Buisman, A.S.; Stoute, J.R.D.

    1986-06-01

    This report describes a series of measurements related to the indoor exposure to daughters of radon and thoron. Important parameters are the Potential Alpha Energy Concentration (PAEC) and the Activity Median Aerodynamic Diameter (AMAD). The results for indoor atmosphere are presented leading to an order of magnitude estimate of the effective dose-equivalent rate of 500 μSv/y. The thoron daughter concentrations are relatively high with respect to those of radon daughters. (Auth.)

  2. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program, plant parameters envelopes: Comparison with ranges of values for four hypothetical sites. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this volume is to report the results of the comparison of the ALWR plan parameters envelope with values of site characteristics developed for our hypothetical sites that generally represent conditions encountered within the United States. This effort is not intended to identify or address the suitability of any existing site, site area, or region in the United States. Also included in this volume is Appendix F, SERCH Summaries Regarding Siting.

  3. Geoelectrical Measurement of Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Parameters Final Report to the Subsurface Biogeochemical Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day-Lewis, Frederick; Singha, Kamini; Haggerty, Roy; Johnson, Timothy; Binley, Andrew; Lane, John

    2014-03-10

    . In this project, we sought to capitalize on the geophysical signatures of mass transfer. Previous numerical modeling and pilot-scale field experiments suggested that mass transfer produces a geoelectrical signature—a hysteretic relation between sampled (mobile-domain) fluid conductivity and bulk (mobile + immobile) conductivity—over a range of scales relevant to aquifer remediation. In this work, we investigated the geoelectrical signature of mass transfer during tracer transport in a series of controlled experiments to determine the operation of controlling parameters, and also investigated the use of complex-resistivity (CR) as a means of quantifying mass transfer parameters in situ without tracer experiments. In an add-on component to our grant, we additionally considered nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to help parse mobile from immobile porosities. Our study objectives were to: 1. Develop and demonstrate geophysical approaches to measure mass-transfer parameters spatially and over a range of scales, including the combination of electrical resistivity monitoring, tracer tests, complex resistivity, nuclear magnetic resonance, and materials characterization; and 2. Provide mass-transfer estimates for improved understanding of contaminant fate and transport at DOE sites, such as uranium transport at the Hanford 300 Area. To achieve our objectives, we implemented a 3-part research plan involving (1) development of computer codes and techniques to estimate mass-transfer parameters from time-lapse electrical data; (2) bench-scale experiments on synthetic materials and materials from cores from the Hanford 300 Area; and (3) field demonstration experiments at the DOE’s Hanford 300 Area.

  4. BISIP I: A program for Bayesian inference of spectral induced polarization parameters, and application to mineral exploration at the Canadian Malartic gold deposit, Québec, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafrenière-Bérubé, Charles; Chouteau, Michel; Shamsipour, Pejman; Olivo, Gema R.

    2016-04-01

    Spectral induced polarization (SIP) parameters can be extracted from field or laboratory complex resistivity measurements, and even airborne or ground frequency domain electromagnetic data. With the growing interest in application of complex resistivity measurements to environmental and mineral exploration problems, there is a need for accurate and easy-to-use inversion tools to estimate SIP parameters. These parameters, which often include chargeability and relaxation time may then be studied and related to other rock attributes such as porosity or metallic grain content, in the case of mineral exploration. We present an open source program, available both as a standalone application or Python module, to estimate SIP parameters using Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling. The Python language is a high level, open source language that is now widely used in scientific computing. Our program allows the user to choose between the more common Cole-Cole (Pelton), Dias, or Debye decomposition models. Simple circuits composed of resistances and constant phase elements may also be used to represent SIP data. Initial guesses are required when using more classic inversion techniques such as the least-squares formulation, and wrong estimates are often the cause of bad curve fitting. In stochastic optimization using MCMC, the effect of the starting values disappears as the simulation proceeds. Our program is then optimized to do batch inversion over large data sets with as little user-interaction as possible. Additionally, the Bayesian formulation allows the user to do quality control by fully propagating the measurement errors in the inversion process, providing an estimation of the SIP parameters uncertainty. This information is valuable when trying to relate chargeability or relaxation time to other physical properties. We test the inversion program on complex resistivity measurements of 12 core samples from the world-class gold deposit of Canadian Malartic. Results show

  5. Modeling and simulation of stamp deflections in nanoimprint lithography: Exploiting backside grooves to enhance residual layer thickness uniformity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Hayden; Smistrup, Kristian; Boning, Duane

    2011-01-01

    We describe a model for the compliance of a nanoimprint stamp etched with a grid of backside grooves. We integrate the model with a fast simulation technique that we have previously demonstrated, to show how etched grooves help reduce the systematic residual layer thickness (RLT) variations...

  6. 75 FR 52981 - Chrysler, LLC; Twinsburg Stamping Plant, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Caravan Knight...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Chrysler, LLC; Twinsburg Stamping Plant, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Caravan Knight Facilities Management LLC, Wackenhut Security, CR Associates, and Syncreon, Twinsburg, OH; Amended Certification Regarding...

  7. 75 FR 11913 - Chrysler, LLC, Sterling Stamping Plant, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Caravan Knight...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Chrysler, LLC, Sterling Stamping Plant, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Caravan Knight Facilities Management LLC, Sterling Heights, MI; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment...

  8. The new Swiss commemorative stamp dedicated to CERN available at the Organization's Meyrin post office on Tuesday, 9 March!

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    For some people, the stamp's rays are spreading outwards towards the infinitely large, while for others they focus inwards towards the infinitely small. It's a bit like the proverbial half-full or half-empty glass or a picture that conveys two different images, depending on how you look at it.

  9. Chest X-rays and associated clinical parameters in pulmonary Tubercolosis cases from the National Tubercolosis Program, Mumbai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatin N. Dholakia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB patients from the local Tuberculosis control programme, Mumbai, India. It examined features of chest X-rays and their correlation with clinical parameters for possible application in suspected multidrug resistant TB (MDRTB and to predict outcome in new and treatment failure PTB cases. X-ray features (infiltrate, cavitation, miliary shadows, pleural effusion, mediastinal lymphadenopathy and extent of lesions were analyzed to identify associations with biological/clinical parameters through univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Failures demonstrated associations between extensive lesions and high glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb levels (P=0.028 and male gender (P=0.03. An association was also detected between cavitation and MDR (P=0.048. In new cases, bilateral cavities were associated with MDR (P=0.018 and male gender (P=0.01, low body mass index with infiltrates (P=0.008, and smoking with cavitation (P=0.0238. Strains belonging to the Manu1 spoligotype were associated with mild lesions (P=0.002. Poor outcome showed borderline significance with extensive lesions at onset (P=0.053. Furthermore, amongst new cases, smoking, the Central Asian Strain (CAS spoligotype and high GHb were associated with cavitation, whereas only CAS spoligotypes and high GHb were associated with extensive lesions. The study highlighted associations between certain clinical parameters and X-ray evidence which support the potential of X-rays to predict TB, MDRTB and poor outcome. The use of Xrays as an additional tool to shorten diagnostic delay and shortlist MDR suspects amongst nonresponders to TB treatment should be explored in a setting with limited resources coping with a high MDR case load such as Mumbai.

  10. cloudPEST - A python module for cloud-computing deployment of PEST, a program for parameter estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienen, Michael N.; Kunicki, Thomas C.; Kester, Daniel E.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents cloudPEST-a Python module with functions to facilitate deployment of the model-independent parameter estimation code PEST on a cloud-computing environment. cloudPEST makes use of low-level, freely available command-line tools that interface with the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2(TradeMark)) that are unlikely to change dramatically. This report describes the preliminary setup for both Python and EC2 tools and subsequently describes the functions themselves. The code and guidelines have been tested primarily on the Windows(Registered) operating system but are extensible to Linux(Registered).

  11. Forming of an axially tailored automotive channel section through hot stamping of tailor-welded blanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peister, C.; George, R.; Omer, K.; Worswick, M. J.; Malcolm, S.; Dykeman, J.; Yau, C.; Soldaat, R.; Bernert, W.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, top-hat cross-section axial crush rail specimens with tailored properties along their length were investigated. These top-hat channels were hot stamped in a fully cooled die set from tailor-welded blanks (TWBs). The blanks were laser-welded and comprised Usibor® 1500-AS joined to Ductibor® 500-AS in 1.2 mm and 1.6 mm thicknesses. Micro-hardness measurements were taken along the length of the formed specimens to map the hardness profile along their length. The effect of gauge thickness on hardness was evaluated. The hardness profile of these TWB parts was compared to that of parts formed using tailored in-die heating (IDH).

  12. Weld Repair of a Stamped Pressure Vessel in a Radiologically Controlled Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannell, Gary L. [Fluor Enterprises, Inc.; Huth, Ralph J. [CH2MHill Plateau Remediation Company; Hallum, Randall T. [Fluor Government Group

    2013-08-26

    In September 2012 an ASME B&PVC Section VIII stamped pressure vessel located at the DOE Hanford Site Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) developed a through-wall leak. The vessel, a steam/brine heat exchanger, operated in a radiologically controlled zone (by the CH2MHill PRC or CHPRC), had been in service for approximately 17 years. The heat exchanger is part of a single train evaporator process and its failure caused the entire system to be shut down, significantly impacting facility operations. This paper describes the activities associated with failure characterization, technical decision making/planning for repair by welding, logistical challenges associated with performing work in a radiologically controlled zone, performing the repair, and administrative considerations related to ASME code requirements.

  13. Construction of Time-Stamped Mobility Map for Path Tracking via Smith-Waterman Measurement Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Path tracking in wireless and mobile environments is a fundamental technology for ubiquitous location-based services (LBSs. In particular, it is very challenging to develop highly accurate and cost-efficient tracking systems applied to the anonymous areas where the floor plans are not available for security and privacy reasons. This paper proposes a novel path tracking approach for large Wi-Fi areas based on the time-stamped unlabeled mobility map which is constructed from Smith-Waterman received signal strength (RSS measurement matching. Instead of conventional location fingerprinting, we construct mobility map with the technique of dimension reduction from the raw measurement space into a low-dimensional embedded manifold. The feasibility of our proposed approach is verified by the real-world experiments in the HKUST campus Wi-Fi networks, sMobileNet. The experimental results prove that our approach is adaptive and capable of achieving an adequate precision level in path tracking.

  14. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY SCORE: COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN PUBLIC And PRIVATE COMPANIES, BASED In ibase SOCIAL stamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Reis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article intends to arguing the existing differences and similarities between Social Responsibility actions and praticals developed by the private and public companies. This comparative study of exploring character was carried with the companies owners of Social Stamp IBASE, wich published its Social Balances in the model considered for the institute in the year of 2004. For such, beyond the documentary research involving the published balances, a conceptual revision over the main subjects was necessary and also it constitutes part of the study. The joined results supply measurable and representative information about the main characteristics of social action of the companies, propitiating a comparative analysis and the emission of critical considerations, that do not finish themselves, but establishes a possibility of different readings concerning the models of social responsible management undertaken by companies from public and private segments.

  15. Spectral analysis of postage stamps and banknotes from the region of Rijeka in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelovica Badovinac, I.; Orlić, N.; Lofrumento, C.; Dobrinić, J.; Orlić, M.

    2010-07-01

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray emission spectroscopy induced using radioactive source have been applied to analyze two types of samples important for the history of Rijeka, Croatian port on the Adriatic Sea. In this paper we will present study of thirty-three original Hungarian postage stamps issued for Rijeka and overprinted with the word FIUME in 1918, after the World War I and the one-Lira banknotes (one original brown banknote and four trial prints: brown, blue, green and dark green) from Economy bank for Rijeka, Istria and Slovenian Littoral (1945-1947), the so-called Jugolire. This investigation was carried out to determine the differences between the original machine, original hand-made and fake overprints FIUME and to compare the pigments used on original banknote from circulation with the pigments on the trial prints.

  16. Spectral analysis of postage stamps and banknotes from the region of Rijeka in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelovica Badovinac, I., E-mail: ijelov@phy.uniri.h [Department of Physics, University of Rijeka, Omladinska 14, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Orlic, N. [Department of Physics, University of Rijeka, Omladinska 14, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Lofrumento, C. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dobrinic, J. [Faculty of Engineering, University of Rijeka, Vukovarska 58, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Orlic, M. [Department of Civil Engineering, Polytechnic of Zagreb, Av. V. Holjevca 15, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2010-07-21

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray emission spectroscopy induced using radioactive source have been applied to analyze two types of samples important for the history of Rijeka, Croatian port on the Adriatic Sea. In this paper we will present study of thirty-three original Hungarian postage stamps issued for Rijeka and overprinted with the word FIUME in 1918, after the World War I and the one-Lira banknotes (one original brown banknote and four trial prints: brown, blue, green and dark green) from Economy bank for Rijeka, Istria and Slovenian Littoral (1945-1947), the so-called Jugolire. This investigation was carried out to determine the differences between the original machine, original hand-made and fake overprints FIUME and to compare the pigments used on original banknote from circulation with the pigments on the trial prints.

  17. Spectral analysis of postage stamps and banknotes from the region of Rijeka in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelovica Badovinac, I.; Orlic, N.; Lofrumento, C.; Dobrinic, J.; Orlic, M.

    2010-01-01

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray emission spectroscopy induced using radioactive source have been applied to analyze two types of samples important for the history of Rijeka, Croatian port on the Adriatic Sea. In this paper we will present study of thirty-three original Hungarian postage stamps issued for Rijeka and overprinted with the word FIUME in 1918, after the World War I and the one-Lira banknotes (one original brown banknote and four trial prints: brown, blue, green and dark green) from Economy bank for Rijeka, Istria and Slovenian Littoral (1945-1947), the so-called Jugolire. This investigation was carried out to determine the differences between the original machine, original hand-made and fake overprints FIUME and to compare the pigments used on original banknote from circulation with the pigments on the trial prints.

  18. Determination of stamp deformation during imprinting on semi-spherical surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafka, Jan; Matschuk, Maria; Pranov, Henrik

    of sol-gel was applied onto spherical injection mold inserts and subsequently imprinted using a flexible stamp. A hard curing step transformed the sol-gel into a quartz-like and durable material. As an example, we present theory and results regarding the imprint of pillar nanostructures on semi......-spherical mold surfaces. Imprints were realized on three different radii of circumferenceof the spherical mold: R = 0.5 mm, R = 1.0 mm, and R = 2 mm. After hard-curing of theimprinted sol-gel, the inserts were used for cold-mold as well as vario-therm injection molding.The polymer replicas and the inserts were...

  19. Time-stamp correction of magnetic observatory data acquired during unavailability of time-synchronization services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coïsson, Pierdavide; Telali, Kader; Heumez, Benoit; Lesur, Vincent; Lalanne, Xavier; Jiang Xin, Chang

    2017-09-01

    During magnetic observatory data acquisition, the data time stamp is kept synchronized with a precise source of time. This is usually done using a GPS-controlled pulse per second (PPS) signal. For some observatories located in remote areas or where internet restrictions are enforced, only the magnetometer data are transmitted, limiting the capabilities of monitoring the acquisition operations. The magnetic observatory in Lanzhou (LZH), China, experienced an unnoticed interruption of the GPS PPS starting 7 March 2013. The data logger clock drifted slowly in time: in 6 months a lag of 27 s was accumulated. After a reboot on 2 April 2014 the drift became faster, -2 s per day, before the GPS PPS could be restored on 8 July 2014. To estimate the time lags that LZH time series had accumulated, we compared it with data from other observatories located in East Asia. A synchronization algorithm was developed. Natural sources providing synchronous events could be used as markers to obtain the time lag between the observatories. The analysis of slices of 1 h of 1 s data at arbitrary UTC allowed estimating time lags with an uncertainty of ˜ 11 s, revealing the correct trends of LZH time drift. A precise estimation of the time lag was obtained by comparing data from co-located instruments controlled by an independent PPS. In this case, it was possible to take advantage of spikes and local noise that constituted precise time markers. It was therefore possible to determine a correction to apply to LZH time stamps to correct the data files and produce reliable 1 min averaged definitive magnetic data.

  20. Framework for simulation-driven design of stamping dies considering elastic die and press deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilthammar, Johan; Wall, Johan; Sigvant, Mats

    2017-10-01

    Sheet metal forming (SMF) simulations are used extensively throughout the development phase of industrial stamping dies. In these SMF simulations, the die and press are normally considered as rigid. Previous research has however shown that elastic deformation in these parts has a significant negative impact on process performance. This paper demonstrates methods for counteracting these negative effects, with a high potential for improved production support and a reduced lead time through a shorter try-out process. A structural finite element model (FE-model) of a simplified die is studied. To account for elastic deformation, the blankholder surfaces are first virtually reworked by adjusting the nodal positions on the die surfaces attaining a pressure distribution in accordance to the design phase SMF simulations with rigid surfaces. The elastic FE-model with reworked surfaces then represents a stamping die in running production. The die is now assumed to be exposed to changed process conditions giving an undesired blankholder pressure distribution. The changed process conditions could for example be due to a change of press line. An optimization routine is applied to compensate the negative effects of the new process conditions. The optimization routine uses the contact forces acting on the shims of the spacer blocks and cushion pins as optimization variables. A flexible simulation environment using MATLAB and ABAQUS is used. ABAQUS is executed from MATLAB and the results are automatically read back into MATLAB. The suggested optimization procedure reaches a pressure distribution very similar to the initial distribution assumed to be the optimum, and thereby verifying the method. Further research is needed for a method to transform the calculated forces in the optimization routine back to shims thicknesses. Furthermore, the optimization time is relatively long and needs to be reduced in the future for the method to reach its full potential.

  1. Recognition of Time Stamps on Full-Disk Hα Images Using Machine Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y.; Huang, N.; Jing, J.; Liu, C.; Wang, H.; Fu, G.

    2016-12-01

    Observation and understanding of the physics of the 11-year solar activity cycle and 22-year magnetic cycle are among the most important research topics in solar physics. The solar cycle is responsible for magnetic field and particle fluctuation in the near-earth environment that have been found increasingly important in affecting the living of human beings in the modern era. A systematic study of large-scale solar activities, as made possible by our rich data archive, will further help us to understand the global-scale magnetic fields that are closely related to solar cycles. The long-time-span data archive includes both full-disk and high-resolution Hα images. Prior to the widely use of CCD cameras in 1990s, 35-mm films were the major media to store images. The research group at NJIT recently finished the digitization of film data obtained by the National Solar Observatory (NSO) and Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) covering the period of 1953 to 2000. The total volume of data exceeds 60 TB. To make this huge database scientific valuable, some processing and calibration are required. One of the most important steps is to read the time stamps on all of the 14 million images, which is almost impossible to be done manually. We implemented three different methods to recognize the time stamps automatically, including Optical Character Recognition (OCR), Classification Tree and TensorFlow. The latter two are known as machine learning algorithms which are very popular now a day in pattern recognition area. We will present some sample images and the results of clock recognition from all three methods.

  2. Discrimination between authentic and false tax stamps from liquor bottles using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and chemometrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzaga, Fabiano Barbieri; Rocha, Werickson Fortunato de Carvalho; Correa, Deleon Nascimento

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the preliminary application of a compact and low-cost laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument for falsification detection of tax stamps used in alcoholic beverages. The new instrument was based on a diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YLF microchip laser and a mini-spectrometer containing a Czerny–Turner polichromator coupled to a non-intensified, non-gated, and non-cooled 2048 pixel linear sensor array (200 to 850 nm spectral range). Twenty-three tax stamp samples were analyzed by firing laser pulses within two different regions of each sample: a hologram and a blank paper region. For each acquired spectrum, the emitted radiation was integrated for 3000 ms under the continuous application of laser pulses at 100 Hz (integration of 300 plasmas). Principal component analysis (PCA) or hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of all emission spectra from the hologram or blank paper region revealed two well-defined groups of authentic and false samples. Moreover, for the hologram data, three subgroups of false samples were found. Additionally, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was successfully applied for the detection of the false tax stamps using all emission spectra from hologram or blank paper region. The discrimination between the samples was mostly ascribed to different levels of calcium concentration in the samples. - Highlights: • Compact and low-cost laser-induced breakdown spectrometer • Analysis of tax stamps used in alcoholic beverages • Detection of false tax stamps using the LIBS spectra and chemometrics • Falsification detection ascribed to different levels of calcium concentration

  3. Discrimination between authentic and false tax stamps from liquor bottles using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzaga, Fabiano Barbieri, E-mail: fbgonzaga@inmetro.gov.br [Chemical Metrology Division, National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (INMETRO), Av. Nossa Senhora das Graças, 50, Xerém, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Rocha, Werickson Fortunato de Carvalho [Chemical Metrology Division, National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (INMETRO), Av. Nossa Senhora das Graças, 50, Xerém, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Correa, Deleon Nascimento [Technical–Scientific Police Superintendency, Criminalistic Institute Dr. Octávio Eduardo de Brito Alvarenga—IC-SPTC-SP, 05507-060 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This work describes the preliminary application of a compact and low-cost laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument for falsification detection of tax stamps used in alcoholic beverages. The new instrument was based on a diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YLF microchip laser and a mini-spectrometer containing a Czerny–Turner polichromator coupled to a non-intensified, non-gated, and non-cooled 2048 pixel linear sensor array (200 to 850 nm spectral range). Twenty-three tax stamp samples were analyzed by firing laser pulses within two different regions of each sample: a hologram and a blank paper region. For each acquired spectrum, the emitted radiation was integrated for 3000 ms under the continuous application of laser pulses at 100 Hz (integration of 300 plasmas). Principal component analysis (PCA) or hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of all emission spectra from the hologram or blank paper region revealed two well-defined groups of authentic and false samples. Moreover, for the hologram data, three subgroups of false samples were found. Additionally, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was successfully applied for the detection of the false tax stamps using all emission spectra from hologram or blank paper region. The discrimination between the samples was mostly ascribed to different levels of calcium concentration in the samples. - Highlights: • Compact and low-cost laser-induced breakdown spectrometer • Analysis of tax stamps used in alcoholic beverages • Detection of false tax stamps using the LIBS spectra and chemometrics • Falsification detection ascribed to different levels of calcium concentration.

  4. A grey-forecasting interval-parameter mixed-integer programming approach for integrated electric-environmental management–A case study of Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xingwei; Cai, Yanpeng; Chen, Jiajun; Dai, Chao

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a GFIPMIP (grey-forecasting interval-parameter mixed-integer programming) approach was developed for supporting IEEM (integrated electric-environmental management) in Beijing. It was an attempt to incorporate an energy-forecasting model within a general modeling framework at the municipal level. The developed GFIPMIP model can not only forecast electric demands, but also reflect dynamic, interactive, and uncertain characteristics of the IEEM system in Beijing. Moreover, it can address issues regarding power supply, and emission reduction of atmospheric pollutants and GHG (greenhouse gas). Optimal solutions were obtained related to power generation patterns and facility capacity expansion schemes under a series of system constraints. Two scenarios were analyzed based on multiple environmental policies. The results were useful for helping decision makers identify desired management strategies to guarantee the city's power supply and mitigate emissions of GHG and atmospheric pollutants. The results also suggested that the developed GFIPMIP model be applicable to similar engineering problems. - Highlights: • A grey-forecasting interval-parameter mixed integer programming (GFIPMIP) approach was developed. • It could reflect dynamic, interactive, and uncertain characteristics of an IEEM system. • The developed GFIPMIP approach was used for supporting IEEM system planning in Beijing. • Two scenarios were established based on different environmental policies and management targets. • Optimal schemes for power generation, energy supply, and environmental protection were identified

  5. Investigation of the void coefficient and other integral parameters in the PROTEUS-LWHCR phase II program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, R.; Chawla, R.; Gmur, K.; Hager, H.; Berger, H.D.; Bohme, R.

    1988-01-01

    Comparisons of calculated and measured neutron balance components are reported for the 7.5% fissile plutonium reference test lattice of the PROTEUS-light water high conversion reactor (LWHCR) phase II program, both wet (with H/sub 2/O) and dry (100% void). Special experimental techniques have been developed and applied, particularly for κ/sub ∞/, and the range of directly measured reaction rate ratios has been extended. For the two cell codes tested, WIMS-D/1981 library and KARBUS/KEDAK-4, specific shortcomings have been identified; the new measurements have been found to be significantly more representative and accurate than the earlier phase I experiments. The κ/sub ∞/ void coefficient for the phase II reference lattice between 0 and 100% void has been found to be qualitatively different from those assessed for the earlier phase I test lattices. Consideration of the individual void coefficient components show this to be largely a consequence of the more LWHCR-representative fuel rod diameter and plutonium isotopic composition of the fuel currently being used. Results of control rod studies conducted for the phase II reference lattice - both wet and dry - serve to illustrate the efforts being made toward investigations of special power reactor features

  6. The influence of a physical activity program on the body and the cardio vascular parameters of premenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Ramírez Balas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available During the life cycle of a woman's body figure is changed gradually, but on reaching middle age, as a result of follicular loss of ovarian function among others, are emphasized the physiological changes and increase health risk and welfare. Androgyny in association with obesity increases the risk for diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, gallstones, osteoarthritis, arthritis, cancers and other disorders of female middle age. Physical activity has gained importance increasing in therapy in the climacteric. It has demonstrated the positive effects of exercise on cardiovascular disease and weight maintenance. This study investigates the influence of a physical activity program for five months on cardiovascular risk factors like high blood pressure and body composition in premenopausal women. The study included 20 premenopausal women, separated into two groups: younger than 35 years (n = 10, and over 35 years (n = 10. The experimental subjects underwent an assessment of blood pressure and body composition before and after an aerobic training. Results indicate greater extent in reducing diastolic blood pressure and body fat in over 35 years premenopausal women. Therefore, performing aerobics, step and toning improves factors cardiovascular risk as high blood pressure and body composition in over 35 premenopausal women.

  7. Evaluation of a multiprofessional, nonsurgical obesity treatment program: which parameters indicated life style changes and weight loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pjanic; Müller, Roland; Laimer, Markus; Hagenbuch, Niels; Laederach, Kurt; Stanga, Zeno

    2017-01-01

    According to the current evidence, behavior modifications are an effective part of a non-surgical multiprofessional obesity treatment program (MOTP). The purpose of the present study was to report changes in weight as well in psychological variables during a one year MOTP. We aimed to identify the associations of emotional state and patients' emotion regulation skills with weight change. Prospective interventional study. Data of participants attending the one year obesity treatment in either a group or individual structured MOTP were analyzed. Weight, BMI (Body Mass Index) and measures on psychosomatic variables, emotion regulation skills, affective state, shame and guilt were collected at baseline, after three months and after one year. Mixed-effects models were used for the statistical analysis of BMI. We included 238 patients at baseline (t1), 234 after three months (t2) and 179 after one year (t3). A drop in BMI measurements of at least 5% was observed in 20.6% of participants at t2 and 41.4% of participants at t3. After three months, participants showed significant improvements in the following psychosomatic variables: somatisation ( p  psychological aspects like depression, emotion regulation skills, body awareness, and acceptance should be a vital part of an interdisciplinary MOPT. Ethical approval for the present study was obtained from the Bern Kantonal Ethics Committee (KEK-Bern-Study Nr 258/14), Bern, Switzerland.

  8. Association of Anthropometric and Lifestyle Parameters with Fitness Levels in Greek Schoolchildren: Results from the EYZHN Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannis Arnaoutis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe aim of the study was to evaluate physical fitness (PF and identify its anthropometric and lifestyle determinants in a sample of Greek schoolchildren.MethodsThe study sample consisted of 335,810 schoolchildren (♂: 51.3%, 6–18 years old. Students’ anthropometric parameters and PF levels—assessed via the Eurofit test battery—were measured by trained physical education teachers and evaluated according to the available norms, while their lifestyle habits were assessed through a questionnaire.ResultsIn all applied PF tests, students’ performance was negatively associated with the presence of obesity and central obesity, defined through international criteria for body mass index and waist to height ratio, respectively. According to multiple logistic regression analysis, the presence of overweight/obesity [odds ratio (OR: 4.43, 95% confidence interval (CI: 3.98–4.93], low adherence to the MD (KIDMED ≤ 3 (OR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.09–1.48, and increased time spent in sedentary activities (>2 h per day (OR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.03–1.29 were positively associated with poor PF, after adjusting for age and sex. In contrast, for every 1 day increase in the weekly frequency of engagement in athletic activity, the probability of poor PF decreased by 26% (OR: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.72–0.77. In a similar model, the presence of central obesity emerged as an even stronger possible predictor of poor PF (OR: 5.20, 95% CI: 4.66–5.78, compared to the presence of general obesity.ConclusionHigher general or abdominal adiposity, as well as the adoption of a low-quality diet and a sedentary lifestyle, is strongly associated with low PF levels during childhood.

  9. Genetic Parameters and the Impact of Off-Types forTheobroma cacaoL. in a Breeding Program in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuVal, Ashley; Gezan, Salvador A; Mustiga, Guiliana; Stack, Conrad; Marelli, Jean-Philippe; Chaparro, José; Livingstone, Donald; Royaert, Stefan; Motamayor, Juan C

    2017-01-01

    Breeding programs of cacao ( Theobroma cacao L.) trees share the many challenges of breeding long-living perennial crops, and genetic progress is further constrained by both the limited understanding of the inheritance of complex traits and the prevalence of technical issues, such as mislabeled individuals (off-types). To better understand the genetic architecture of cacao, in this study, 13 years of phenotypic data collected from four progeny trials in Bahia, Brazil were analyzed jointly in a multisite analysis. Three separate analyses (multisite, single site with and without off-types) were performed to estimate genetic parameters from statistical models fitted on nine important agronomic traits (yield, seed index, pod index, % healthy pods, % pods infected with witches broom, % of pods other loss, vegetative brooms, diameter, and tree height). Genetic parameters were estimated along with variance components and heritabilities from the multisite analysis, and a trial was fingerprinted with low-density SNP markers to determine the impact of off-types on estimations. Heritabilities ranged from 0.37 to 0.64 for yield and its components and from 0.03 to 0.16 for disease resistance traits. A weighted index was used to make selections for clonal evaluation, and breeding values estimated for the parental selection and estimation of genetic gain. The impact of off-types to breeding progress in cacao was assessed for the first time. Even when present at <5% of the total population, off-types altered selections by 48%, and impacted heritability estimations for all nine of the traits analyzed, including a 41% difference in estimated heritability for yield. These results show that in a mixed model analysis, even a low level of pedigree error can significantly alter estimations of genetic parameters and selections in a breeding program.

  10. Characterization of patterns of Localized Doping Using Stamping technique for Selective n-Emitter Solar Cell Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangkornkaew, A.; Fangsuwannarak, T.

    2017-10-01

    In the present, a novel cost-effective process scheme for single step selective emitter diffusion was implemented. It is based on the fabrication of acid-resist pattern using a stamping technique with collaboration of a spin on dopant (SOD) and chemical etched-back emitter methods. The SOD diffusion process provided heavily doping n-emitter. Acid-resist pattern without exploitation of a complex method as a photolithography, was stamped as a metal contact pattern for prevention of a localized heavy-dope region from etching back. Phosphorus doping profiles were controlled by etching back time to provide the formation of n-type selective emitter. Sheet resistance is tunable from 10 to 180 Ohm/Sq on localized n-layer. After removal of the patterned acid-resist, the selective n-emitter solar cell structure was obtained under one-step diffusion to achieve a better blue-light response and low contact resistance.

  11. MATLAB-based program for optimization of quantum cascade laser active region parameters and calculation of output characteristics in magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiljanić, J.; Žeželj, M.; Milanović, V.; Radovanović, J.; Stanković, I.

    2014-03-01

    A strong magnetic field applied along the growth direction of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) active region gives rise to a spectrum of discrete energy states, the Landau levels. By combining quantum engineering of a QCL with a static magnetic field, we can selectively inhibit/enhance non-radiative electron relaxation process between the relevant Landau levels of a triple quantum well and realize a tunable surface emitting device. An efficient numerical algorithm implementation is presented of optimization of GaAs/AlGaAs QCL region parameters and calculation of output properties in the magnetic field. Both theoretical analysis and MATLAB implementation are given for LO-phonon and interface roughness scattering mechanisms on the operation of QCL. At elevated temperatures, electrons in the relevant laser states absorb/emit more LO-phonons which results in reduction of the optical gain. The decrease in the optical gain is moderated by the occurrence of interface roughness scattering, which remains unchanged with increasing temperature. Using the calculated scattering rates as input data, rate equations can be solved and population inversion and the optical gain obtained. Incorporation of the interface roughness scattering mechanism into the model did not create new resonant peaks of the optical gain. However, it resulted in shifting the existing peaks positions and overall reduction of the optical gain. Catalogue identifier: AERL_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AERL_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 37763 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2757956 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: MATLAB. Computer: Any capable of running MATLAB version R2010a or higher. Operating system: Any platform

  12. Developing roll-to-roll manufacturing system for flexible and stretchable electronics by direct stamping of silver nano-ink

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jiseok

    2014-01-01

    Direct stamping of silver nanoparticle based ink has been developed for cost-effective and process-effective manufacturing of flexible or stretchable electronic devices. Facile removal of residual layer from deposited silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) layer results in high fidelity of final silver electrode without further post-processes. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopic analysis have revealed residue-free transfer of microscale inter-digitated ca...

  13. Development of low-friction and wear-resistant surfaces for low-cost Al hot stamping tools

    OpenAIRE

    Dong Y.; Formosa D.; Fernandez J.; Li X.; Fuentes G.; Zoltan K.; Dong H.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, advanced surfaces and coatings have been developed using plasma thermochemical treatment, PVD coating, electroless Ni-BN plating and duplex surface engineering to produce low-friction and wear-resistant surfaces for cast iron stamping tools. Their microstructural and nano-mechanical properties were systematically analysed and the tribological behaviour of these new surfaces and coatings were evaluated. The experimental results have shown that under dry sliding condition, the tr...

  14. Development of a new biaxial testing system for generating forming limit diagrams for sheet metals under hot stamping conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Z; Li, N; Lin, J; Dean, TA

    2016-01-01

    Conventional experimental approaches used to generate forming limit diagrams (FLDs) for sheet metals at different linear strain paths are not applicable to hot stamping and cold die quenching processes because cooling occurs prior to deformation and consistent values of heating rate, cooling rate, deformation temperature and strain rate are not easy to obtain. A novel biaxial testing system for use in a Gleeble testing machine has been adopted to generate forming limits of sheet metals, inclu...

  15. Image Subtraction Reduction of Open Clusters M35 & NGC 2158 in the K2 Campaign 0 Super Stamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Furtado, M.; Hartman, J. D.; Bakos, G. Á.; Huang, C. X.; Penev, K.; Bhatti, W.

    2017-04-01

    We observed the open clusters M35 and NGC 2158 during the initial K2 campaign (C0). Reducing these data to high-precision photometric timeseries is challenging due to the wide point-spread function (PSF) and the blending of stellar light in such dense regions. We developed an image-subtraction-based K2 reduction pipeline that is applicable to both crowded and sparse stellar fields. We applied our pipeline to the data-rich C0 K2 super stamp, containing the two open clusters, as well as to the neighboring postage stamps. In this paper, we present our image subtraction reduction pipeline and demonstrate that this technique achieves ultra-high photometric precision for sources in the C0 super stamp. We extract the raw light curves of 3960 stars taken from the UCAC4 and EPIC catalogs and de-trend them for systematic effects. We compare our photometric results with the prior reductions published in the literature. For de-trended TFA-corrected sources in the 12-12.25 {{{K}}}{{p}} magnitude range, we achieve a best 6.5-hour window running rms of 35 ppm, falling to 100 ppm for fainter stars in the 14-14.25 {{{K}}}{{p}} magnitude range. For stars with {K}p> 14, our de-trended and 6.5-hour binned light curves achieve the highest photometric precision. Moreover, all our TFA-corrected sources have higher precision on all timescales investigated. This work represents the first published image subtraction analysis of a K2 super stamp. This method will be particularly useful for analyzing the Galactic bulge observations carried out during K2 campaign 9. The raw light curves and the final results of our de-trending processes are publicly available at http://k2.hatsurveys.org/archive/.

  16. The Choices programme: a simple, front-of-pack stamp making healthy choices easy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dötsch-Klerk, Mariska; Jansen, Léon

    2008-01-01

    Some food products fit better within a healthy diet than others, but how can consumers tell? The Choices programme is a simple and internationally-applicable programme to help consumers make a healthy choice on food and beverages and to stimulate industry towards healthy product innovation in all food groups. The essence of the programme is a front-of-pack stamp on products that pass an evaluation against scientific criteria. To that end generic criteria have been established for levels of saturated fat, trans fat, sugars and sodium, which are based on international dietary guidelines (FAO/WHO). For some food categories there are specific criteria for these nutrients as well as for dietary fibre and calories. In this way the criteria are challenging without being impossible to meet. The programme has been initiated by food industry and is open to all companies in food industry, retail and catering. The approach is also supported by nutritional scientists, governments and NGOs. An independent scientific committee is responsible for designing and periodically reviewing the qualifying criteria. The current qualifying criteria were developed by scientific committees in the Netherlands and Belgium. These criteria will now be reviewed by an International Scientific Committee, consisting of internationally-recognised food and nutrition experts. To accommodate the developments in nutrition science and food technology, this review will take place every two years.

  17. Capillary-Force-Assisted Clean-Stamp Transfer of Two-Dimensional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xuezhi; Liu, Qiushi; Xu, Da; Zhu, Yangzhi; Kim, Sanggon; Cui, Yongtao; Zhong, Lanlan; Liu, Ming

    2017-11-08

    A simple and clean method of transferring two-dimensional (2D) materials plays a critical role in the fabrication of 2D electronics, particularly the heterostructure devices based on the artificial vertical stacking of various 2D crystals. Currently, clean transfer techniques rely on sacrificial layers or bulky crystal flakes (e.g., hexagonal boron nitride) to pick up the 2D materials. Here, we develop a capillary-force-assisted clean-stamp technique that uses a thin layer of evaporative liquid (e.g., water) as an instant glue to increase the adhesion energy between 2D crystals and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) for the pick-up step. After the liquid evaporates, the adhesion energy decreases, and the 2D crystal can be released. The thin liquid layer is condensed to the PDMS surface from its vapor phase, which ensures the low contamination level on the 2D materials and largely remains their chemical and electrical properties. Using this method, we prepared graphene-based transistors with low charge-neutral concentration (3 × 10 10 cm -2 ) and high carrier mobility (up to 48 820 cm 2 V -1 s -1 at room temperature) and heterostructure optoelectronics with high operation speed. Finally, a capillary-force model is developed to explain the experiment.

  18. A Fully Integrated Humidity Sensor System-on-Chip Fabricated by Micro-Stamping Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ting Lin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A fully integrated humidity sensor chip was designed, implemented, and tested. Utilizing the micro-stamping technology, the pseudo-3D sensor system-on-chip (SSoC architecture can be implemented by stacking sensing materials directly on the top of a CMOS-fabricated chip. The fabricated sensor system-on-chip (2.28 mm × 2.48 mm integrated a humidity sensor, an interface circuit, a digital controller, and an On-Off Keying (OOK wireless transceiver. With low power consumption, i.e., 750 μW without RF operation, the sensitivity of developed sensor chip was experimentally verified in the relative humidity (RH range from 32% to 60%. The response time of the chip was also experimentally verified to be within 5 seconds from RH 36% to RH 64%. As a consequence, the implemented humidity SSoC paves the way toward the an ultra-small sensor system for various applications.

  19. Hot stamping of AA6082 tailor welded blanks: experiment and FE simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An advanced forming technology, solution Heat treatment, Forming and in-die Quenching (HFQ®, has been employed to form AA6082 tailor welded blanks (TWBs. In comparison with conventional stamping of TWBs, the mechanical properties and formability of AA6082 laser TWBs could be improved under the HFQ® forming condition. The TWB was divided into three physical zones, i.e. base metal, heat affected zone (HAZ and weld zone, based on the hardness distribution. It was found that the degraded hardness of the weldment can be restored after HFQ® forming. TWBs of AA6082 with different thickness ratios of 2 (2–1 mm, 1.3 (2–1.5 mm and 1 (1.5–1.5 mm were used to study the TWB thickness ratio effects on the forming behaviour. Hemispherical punch dome tests on the TWBs with varying thickness ratios demonstrated different formabilities, and indicated increased displacement of the weld line with increasing thickness ratio. Finite element (FE modelling was adopted to analyse the weld line movement and strain distributions during HFQ® forming.

  20. Forming and quenching behaviours in hot stamping of thin quenchable sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakagawa Yuki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A thin aluminium-coated quenchable steel sheet was hot-stamped to investigate the effect of the thickness. The sheets having 0.6, 1.0 and 1.6 mm in thickness were heated at 900 ∘C by a furnace and formed after 7 s from the furnace. The cooling rates of 0.6 mm and 1.0 mm in thickness from 900 ∘C to 400 ∘C under air cooling were 20.9 ∘C/s and 13.6 ∘C/s, respectively. The hardness of the air-cooled sheets having 1.0 mm in thickness was 300 HV1, whereas that of the sheet having 0.6 mm in thickness was 380 HV1 because of the high cooling rate. The Vickers hardness of the U-bent sheets of 0.6 and 1.0 mm after 7 s from the furnace without the holding time at the bottom dead centre were 500 and 430 HV1, respectively.

  1. Improving the Quality of Hot Stamping Parts with Innovative Press Technology and Inline Process Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, R.; Palm, C.

    2017-09-01

    The increasing number of hot stamped parts in the automotive industry is challenging different process areas. This paper presents a method how to improve the production rates over the whole life cycle of a hot forming part. In the core element of a hot forming line, the hydraulic press, mainly two processing steps are performed. Forming and quenching of the sheet metal part. In addition to the forming operation, it is inevitable to optimize the quenching condition in the bottom dead centre in order to reach a fully martensitic structure and tight geometrical tolerances of the part. Deviations in the blank thickness, tool wear, polishing of classical tools impair the quenching condition and therefore the part quality over the time. A new press and tool design has been developed to counter this effect by providing homogenous contact pressure over the whole die. Especially with a multi cavity tool, the new method is advantageous. Test series have shown that the new tool and press concept can produce parts with a blank thickness of 1.0 mm within 8.0 s cycle time. The so called PCH flex principle makes it possible to produce such high output rates under reliable conditions.

  2. Effect of cooling rate during hot stamping on low cyclic fatigue of boron steel sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Chang Hee; Jang, Won Seok; Oh, Sang Kyun; Lee, Rac Gyu; Jung, Yun-Chul; Kim, Young Suk

    2012-08-01

    Boron steel is widely used throughout the automobile industry due to its high tensile strength and hardenability. When boron steel is used for body parts, only high strength is required for crashworthiness. However, when boron steel is used for chassis parts, a high fatigue life is needed. The microstructure of boron steel is mainly affected by the cooling rate during hot stamping. Therefore, this study investigated the low cyclic fatigue life according to the cooling rate. The fatigue life increased at a low strain amplitude when the cooling rate was fast. However, at a high strain amplitude, the fatigue life decreased, due to the low ductility and fracture toughness of the martensite formed by rapid cooling. Martensite formed by a fast cooling rate shows excellent fatigue life at a low total strain amplitude; however, a multiphase microstructure formed by a slow cooling rate is recommended if the parts experience high and low total strain amplitudes alternately. In addition, the cooling rate has little effect on the distribution of solute boron and boron precipitations, so it is expected that boron rarely affects low cyclic fatigue.

  3. Investigation of the Phase Formation of AlSi-Coatings for Hot Stamping of Boron Alloyed Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veit, R.; Hofmann, H.; Kolleck, R.; Sikora, S.

    2011-01-01

    Hot stamping of boron alloyed steel is gaining more and more importance for the production of high strength automotive body parts. Within hot stamping of quenchenable steels the blank is heated up to austenitization temperature, transferred to the tool, formed rapidly and quenched in the cooled tool. To avoid scale formation during the heating process of the blank, the sheet metal can be coated with an aluminium-silicum alloy. The meltimg temperature of this coating is below the austenitization temperature of the base material. This means, that a diffusion process between base material and coating has to take place during heating, leading to a higher melting temperature of the coating. In conventional heating devices, like roller hearth furnaces, the diffusion process is reached by relatively low heating rates. New technologies, like induction heating, reach very high heating rates and offer great potentials for the application in hot stamping. Till now it is not proofed, that this technology can be used with aluminum-silicon coated materials. This paper will present the results of comparative heating tests with a conventional furnace and an induction heating device. For different time/temperature-conditions the phase formation within the coating will be described.

  4. Discrimination between authentic and false tax stamps from liquor bottles using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga, Fabiano Barbieri; Rocha, Werickson Fortunato de Carvalho; Correa, Deleon Nascimento

    2015-07-01

    This work describes the preliminary application of a compact and low-cost laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument for falsification detection of tax stamps used in alcoholic beverages. The new instrument was based on a diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YLF microchip laser and a mini-spectrometer containing a Czerny-Turner polichromator coupled to a non-intensified, non-gated, and non-cooled 2048 pixel linear sensor array (200 to 850 nm spectral range). Twenty-three tax stamp samples were analyzed by firing laser pulses within two different regions of each sample: a hologram and a blank paper region. For each acquired spectrum, the emitted radiation was integrated for 3000 ms under the continuous application of laser pulses at 100 Hz (integration of 300 plasmas). Principal component analysis (PCA) or hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of all emission spectra from the hologram or blank paper region revealed two well-defined groups of authentic and false samples. Moreover, for the hologram data, three subgroups of false samples were found. Additionally, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was successfully applied for the detection of the false tax stamps using all emission spectra from hologram or blank paper region. The discrimination between the samples was mostly ascribed to different levels of calcium concentration in the samples.

  5. Prototyping of masks, masters, and stamps/molds for soft lithography using an office printer and photographic reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng; Wu; Brittain; Whitesides

    2000-07-15

    This paper describes a practical method for the fabrication of photomasks, masters, and stamps/molds used in soft lithography that minimizes the need for specialized equipment. In this method, CAD files are first printed onto paper using an office printer with resolution of 600 dots/in. Photographic reduction of these printed patterns transfers the images onto 35-mm film or microfiche. These photographic films can be used, after development, as photomasks in 1:1 contact photolithography. With the resulting photoresist masters, it is straightforward to fabricate poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamps/molds for soft lithography. This process can generate microstructures as small as 15 microm; the overall time to go from CAD file to PDMS stamp is 4-24 h. Although access to equipment-spin coater and ultraviolet exposure tool-normally found in the clean room is still required, the cost of the photomask itself is small, and the time required to go from concept to device is short. A comparison between this method and all other methods that generate film-type photomasks has been performed using test patterns of lines, squares, and circles. Three microstructures have also been fabricated to demonstrate the utility of this method in practical applications.

  6. Food Assistance Programs and Outcomes in the Context of Welfare Reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huffman, S.K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective. Food assistance programs play an important role in meeting the basic needs of low-income households. We consider how the Food Stamp Program (FSP), labor force participation, and food insecurity status affect outcomes of low-income households under different program designs and economic

  7. Probing Protein Multidimensional Conformational Fluctuations by Single-Molecule Multiparameter Photon Stamping Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Conformational motions of proteins are highly dynamic and intrinsically complex. To capture the temporal and spatial complexity of conformational motions and further to understand their roles in protein functions, an attempt is made to probe multidimensional conformational dynamics of proteins besides the typical one-dimensional FRET coordinate or the projected conformational motions on the one-dimensional FRET coordinate. T4 lysozyme hinge-bending motions between two domains along α-helix have been probed by single-molecule FRET. Nevertheless, the domain motions of T4 lysozyme are rather complex involving multiple coupled nuclear coordinates and most likely contain motions besides hinge-bending. It is highly likely that the multiple dimensional protein conformational motions beyond the typical enzymatic hinged-bending motions have profound impact on overall enzymatic functions. In this report, we have developed a single-molecule multiparameter photon stamping spectroscopy integrating fluorescence anisotropy, FRET, and fluorescence lifetime. This spectroscopic approach enables simultaneous observations of both FRET-related site-to-site conformational dynamics and molecular rotational (or orientational) motions of individual Cy3-Cy5 labeled T4 lysozyme molecules. We have further observed wide-distributed rotational flexibility along orientation coordinates by recording fluorescence anisotropy and simultaneously identified multiple intermediate conformational states along FRET coordinate by monitoring time-dependent donor lifetime, presenting a whole picture of multidimensional conformational dynamics in the process of T4 lysozyme open-close hinge-bending enzymatic turnover motions under enzymatic reaction conditions. By analyzing the autocorrelation functions of both lifetime and anisotropy trajectories, we have also observed the dynamic and static inhomogeneity of T4 lysozyme multidimensional conformational fluctuation dynamics, providing a fundamental

  8. Effect of Al-Si Coating on Weld Microstructure and Properties of 22MnB5 Steel Joints for Hot Stamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenhu; Li, Fang; Wu, Dongsheng; Chen, Xiaoguan; Hua, Xueming; Pan, Hua

    2018-03-01

    22MnB5 hot stamping steels are gradually being used in tailor-welded blank applications. In this experiment, 1-mm-thick Al-Si coated and de-coated 22MnB5 steels were laser-welded and then hot-stamped. The chemical compositions, solidification process, microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated to reveal the effect of Al-Si coating and heat treatment. In the welded condition, the coated joints had an Al content of approximately 2.5 wt.% in the fusion zone and the de-coated joints had 0.5 wt.% Al. The aluminum promoted the δ-ferrite formation as the skeletal structure during solidification. In the high-aluminum weld, the microstructure consisted of martensite and long and band-like δ-ferrite. Meanwhile, the low-aluminum weld was full of lath martensite. After the hot stamping process, the δ-ferrite fraction increased from 10 to 24% in the coated joints and the lath martensite became finer in the de-coated joints. The tensile strengths of the coated joints or de-coated joints were similar to that before hot stamping, but the strength of the coated joints was reduced heavily after hot stamping compared to the de-coated joints and base material. The effect of δ-ferrite on the tensile properties became stronger when the fusion zone was soft and deformed first in the hot-stamped specimens. The coated weld showed a brittle fracture surface with many cleavage planes, and the de-coated weld showed a ductile fracture surface with many dimples in hot-stamped conditions.

  9. Normal value of functional parameters in gated myocardial perfusion SPECT in patients with low risk of coronary artery disease: emory cardiac tool box program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, D. Y.; Kim, M. H.; Kim, Y. D.; Kim, D. K. [Donga University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    Absolute value of the functional data of gated myocardial perfusion SPECT is necessary to determine that individual patient is normal or not. Tc-99m MIBI gated myocardial perfusion SPECT was performed using emory cardiac tool box program. All patients (M:F=15:36, age 64{+-}10 yrs) showed normal myocardial perfusion. The patients with following characteristics were excluded; previous angina or MI, ECG change with Q wave or ST-T change, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, typical chest pain and hypertension. In all patients, myocardial mass is 117{+-}23 g in stress gated SPECT, 106{+-}22 g in stress ungated SPECT and 102{+-}21 g in rest ungated SPECT. EDV is 90{+-}28 ml, ESV 26{+-}20 ml, SV 66{+-}21 ml, EF 73{+-}10 % and TID 1.06{+-}0.14. Myocardial mass in rest ungated SPECT is significantly different between men and women (p=0.025). Myocardial mass is significantly different between stress gated SPECT and stress ungated SPECT (p=0.000), and between stress ungated SPECT and rest ungated SPECT (p=0.003). We provide normal value of functional parameters to determine the abnormality of individual patients in patients with low risk of coronary artery disease.

  10. Parameter Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Heitzig, Martina; Cameron, Ian

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter the importance of parameter estimation in model development is illustrated through various applications related to reaction systems. In particular, rate constants in a reaction system are obtained through parameter estimation methods. These approaches often require the application...... of algebraic equations as the basis for parameter estimation.These approaches are illustrated using estimations of kinetic constants from reaction system models....

  11. Serial and parallel Si, Ge, and SiGe direct-write with scanning probes and conducting stamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasko, Stephanie E.; Kapetanovic, Adnan; Talla, Vamsi; Brasino, Michael D.; Zhu, Zihua; Scholl, Andreas; Torrey, Jessica D.; Rolandi, Marco

    2011-05-16

    Precise materials integration in nanostructures is fundamental for future electronic and photonic devices. We demonstrate Si, Ge, and SiGe nanostructure direct-write with deterministic size, geometry, and placement control. The biased probe of an atomic force microscope (AFM) reacts diphenylsilane or diphenylgermane to direct-write carbon-free Si, Ge, and SiGe nano and heterostructures. Parallel directwrite is available on large areas by substituting the AFM probe with conducting microstructured stamps. This facile strategy can be easily expanded to a broad variety of semiconductor materials through precursor selection.

  12. Design and implementation of a nanosecond time-stamping readout system-on-chip for photo-detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anvar, Shebli; Château, Frédéric; Le Provost, Hervé; Louis, Frédéric [CEA/Irfu/SEDI Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Manolopoulos, Konstantinos [Physics Department, University of Athens (Greece); Moudden, Yassir, E-mail: yassir.moudden@cea.fr [CEA/Irfu/SEDI Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Vallage, Bertrand [CEA/Irfu/SPP Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Zonca, Eric [CEA/Irfu/SEDI Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2014-01-21

    A readout system suitable for a large number of synchronized photo-detection units has been designed. Each unit embeds a specifically designed fully integrated communicating system based on Xilinx FPGA SoC technology. It runs the VxWorks real-time OS and a custom data acquisition software designed within the Ice middleware framework, resulting in a highly flexible, controllable and scalable distributed application. Clock distribution and delay calibration over customized fixed latency gigabit Ethernet links enable synchronous time-stamping of events with nanosecond precision. The implementation of this readout system on several data-collecting units as well as its performances are described.

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF COMBINATION NON-MEDICAL TREATMENT INCLUDING FUNCTIONAL PROGRAMMED ELECTRICAL STIMULATION ON THE CLINICAL AND INSTRUMENTAL PARAMETERS IN PATIENTS WITH CEREBRAL PALSY WITH SPASTIC DIPLEGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Eliseev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral palsy is the leading cause of physical disability in pediatric  age. The search for new methods and improvement of old rehabil- itation techniques is ongoing, due to low efficacy of the latter. Aim: To assess the efficacy of a func- tional programmed electrical muscle stimulation as a part  of combination treatment of patients with cerebral palsy in the form of spastic diplegia. Materials and methods: We analyzed the results of treatment of 71 children with cerebral palsy and spastic diplegia, who had  been  randomized  into two groups  depending on the type of treatment. In  the  first group,  the  patients  (n = 38 received a course of functional programmed electric stim- ulation  in combination with  other  non-medical treatment  methods.  The  second   group   (n = 33 underwent a usual  course  of electrical  stimula- tion in combination with non-medical  treatment, similar to that  in the first group. The third group (control   included   41   children   without    cere- bral palsy. Clinical and  instrumental parameters were  assessed  in all study  participants. Results: After the course of combination treatment in the group  1, the  tonus  of m. gastrocnemius was de- creased significantly by 41%, that of the posterior group  of femur muscles by 43%, adductor group of femur muscles by 36%. In the group  2, the re- spective parameters decreased by 24, 21 and 21%. Muscle power  endurance was  increased  signifi- cantly in patients of both groups: that of long back extensors by 12.5 and 6.2 sec, of m. rectus abdomi- nis by 10.6 sec and 5.2 sec, of gluteal muscles by 9.3 and 4.6 sec, of m. quadriceps  by 19.8 and 7.2 sec, of m. anterior  tibialis by 12.1 and 4.6 sec, respec- tively. After the  treatment, the  active movement volume in the large joints of lower extremities  in the group 1 patients  improved as follows: by 15.6° in hip joints, by 11.1° in knee joints and by

  14. Legal Guide for Senior Citizens: Laws and Programs Affecting Kansas Senior Citizens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollinger, Judith A., Ed.

    This booklet is intended to inform (not advise) older Kansans about eligibility requirements and benefits provided by state and federal programs. Financial assistance programs discussed are Social Security, railroad retirements, veterans' benefits, unrestricted general assistance, Employee Retirement Income Security Act, food stamps, Low Income…

  15. On Static and Dynamic Control-Flow Information in Program Analysis and Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damian, Daniel

    's first-order, one-pass CPS transformation, we present a simpler CPS transformation of flow information with a simpler correctness proof. We continue by exploring Shivers's time-stamps-based technique for approximating program analyses over programs with dynamic control flow. We formalize a time...

  16. 75 FR 18377 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, Regulation Restructuring: Issuance Regulation Update...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... that significantly change the architecture of issuing benefits electronically. Nomenclature Changes The.... List of Subjects in 7 CFR part 274 Food stamps, Grant programs-social programs, Reporting and... to subcontract assigned issuance responsibilities. (1) Any assignment of issuance functions shall...

  17. 77 FR 4688 - National School Lunch Program: Direct Certification Continuous Improvement Plans Required by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... local educational agencies (LEAs) that participate in the NSLP and/or School Breakfast Program to... performance benchmarks for directly certifying for free school meals those children who are members of... requirements, School breakfast and lunch programs. 7 CFR Part 272 Alaska, Civil rights, Claims, Food stamps...

  18. Programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, this model is elaborated to produce the required program outputs; third, the resulting program is transformed to run efficiently in the execution environment. The first two stages deal in network structures of sequential processes; only the third is concerned with procedure hierarchies. (orig.)

  19. Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, M A

    1982-01-01

    The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, this model is elaborated to produce the required program outputs; third, the resulting program is transformed to run efficiently in the execution environment. The first two stages deal in network structures of sequential processes; only the third is concerned with procedure hierarchies.

  20. Wafer-scale patterning of reduced graphene oxide electrodes by transfer-and-reverse stamping for high performance OFETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joong Suk; Kim, Nam Hee; Kang, Moon Sung; Yu, Hojeong; Lee, Dong Ryoul; Oh, Joon Hak; Chang, Suk Tai; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2013-08-26

    A wafer-scale patterning method for solution-processed graphene electrodes, named the transfer-and-reverse stamping method, is universally applicable for fabricating source/drain electrodes of n- and p-type organic field-effect transistors with excellent performance. The patterning method begins with transferring a highly uniform reduced graphene oxide thin film, which is pre-prepared on a glass substrate, onto hydrophobic silanized (rigid/flexible) substrates. Patterns of the as-prepared reduced graphene oxide films are then formed by modulating the surface energy of the films and selectively delaminating the films using an oxygen-plasma-treated elastomeric stamp with patterns. Reduced graphene oxide patterns with various sizes and shapes can be readily formed onto an entire wafer. Also, they can serve as the source/drain electrodes for benchmark n- and p-type organic field-effect transistors with enhanced performance, compared to those using conventional metal electrodes. These results demonstrate the general utility of this technique. Furthermore, this simple, inexpensive, and scalable electrode-patterning-technique leads to assembling organic complementary circuits onto a flexible substrate successfully. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Experimental study on the warm forming and quenching behavior for hot stamping of high-strength aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degner, J.; Horn, A.; Merklein, M.

    2017-09-01

    Within the last decades, stringent regulations on fuel consumption, CO2 emissions and product recyclability forced the automotive sector to implement new strategies within the field of car body manufacturing. Due to their low density and good corrosion resistance, aluminum became one of the most relevant lightweight materials. Recently, especially high- strength aluminum alloys for structural components gained importance. Since the low formability of these alloys limits their application, there is a need for novel process strategies in order to enhance the forming behavior. One promising approach is the hot stamping of aluminum alloys. The combination of quenching and forming in one step after solution heat treatment leads to a significant improvement of the formability. Furthermore, higher manufacturing accuracy can be achieved due to reduced spring back. Within this contribution, the influence of forming temperature on the subsequent material behavior and the heat transfer during quenching will be analyzed. Therefore, the mechanical and thermal material characteristics such as flow behavior and heat transfer coefficient during hot stamping are investigated.

  2. A nanoscale conical polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) sub-wavelength structure with a high aspect ratio realized by a stamping method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Seon; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Jang, Jae-Hyung

    2013-04-08

    A high aspect ratio conical sub-wavelength structure (SWS) was designed by using rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) method and was realized on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) film using a stamping technique. The silicon template containing a hexagonal array of conical holes with a period of 350 nm and an aspect ratio of 2.8 was fabricated by electron-beam (e-beam) lithography followed by a two-step etching process. The SWS with a high aspect ratio was easily transferred from the fabricated silicon template to PMMA film using the stamping method. The replicated PMMA SWS has an array of cones with nanoscale tips and an aspect ratio higher than 2.8. The average reflectance and transmittance of the PMMA film with the conical SWS in the wavelength ranging from 500 and 1500 nm was improved from 7.1 and 91.1% to 4.3 and 94.2%, respectively, as compared to flat PMMA film.

  3. Fracture Profile and Crack Propagation of Ultra-High Strength Hot-Stamped Boron Steel During Mechanical Trimming Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xianhong; Yang, Kun; Chen, Sisi; Chen, Jun

    2015-10-01

    Mechanical trimming process for ultra-high strength boron steel after hot stamping was carried out in this study. Shear and tensile tests were designed to analyze the influences of stress state on the fracture mode; trimmed fracture surface and profile were observed and compared to other commonly used steels such as DP980 and Q235 etc.; the crack propagation during trimming process was studied through step-by-step tests. The observation and analysis reveal that the fracture mode of hot-stamped boron steel is highly related to the stress state, it belongs to cleavage fracture on low stress triaxiality but dimple fracture on high stress triaxiality. Such phenomenon is reflected in the trimming process, during which the stress state changes from shear-dominated state to tensile-dominated state. In addition, the burnish zone of trimmed boron steel is much smaller than other high strength steels, and the profile of cutting surface shows an `S'-like shape which is destructive to the trimming tool. Moreover, during the trimming process, most martensite laths near the cutting edge are stretched and rotated markedly to the direction of the shear band, and the main crack expands along those grain boundaries, which may penetrate through a few martensite laths and form small crack branches.

  4. Using Micro-Molding and Stamping to Fabricate Conductive Polydimethylsiloxane-Based Flexible High-Sensitivity Strain Gauges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chi-Jui; Chiang, Hsuan-Ping; Cheng, Yun-Chien

    2018-02-18

    In this study, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and conductive carbon nanoparticles were combined to fabricate a conductive elastomer PDMS (CPDMS). A high sensitive and flexible CPDMS strain sensor is fabricated by using stamping-process based micro patterning. Compared with conventional sensors, flexible strain sensors are more suitable for medical applications but are usually fabricated by photolithography, which suffers from a large number of steps and difficult mass production. Hence, we fabricated flexible strain sensors using a stamping-process with fewer processes than photolithography. The piezoresistive coefficient and sensitivity of the flexible strain sensor were improved by sensor pattern design and thickness change. Micro-patterning is used to fabricate various CPDMS microstructure patterns. The effect of gauge pattern was evaluated with ANSYS simulations. The piezoresistance of the strain gauges was measured and the gauge factor determined. Experimental results show that the piezoresistive coefficient of CPDMS is approximately linear. Gauge factor measurement results show that the gauge factor of a 140.0 μm thick strain gauge with five grids is the highest.

  5. Experimental and Numerical Studies on the Formability of Materials in Hot Stamping and Cold Die Quenching Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, N.; Mohamed, M. S.; Cai, J.; Lin, J.; Balint, D.; Dean, T. A.

    2011-05-01

    Formability of steel and aluminium alloys in hot stamping and cold die quenching processes is studied in this research. Viscoplastic-damage constitutive equations are developed and determined from experimental data for the prediction of viscoplastic flow and ductility of the materials. The determined unified constitutive equations are then implemented into the commercial Finite Element code Abaqus/Explicit via a user defined subroutine, VUMAT. An FE process simulation model and numerical procedures are established for the modeling of hot stamping processes for a spherical part with a central hole. Different failure modes (failure takes place either near the central hole or in the mid span of the part) are obtained. To validate the simulation results, a test programme is developed, a test die set has been designed and manufactured, and tests have been carried out for the materials with different forming rates. It has been found that very close agreements between experimental and numerical process simulation results are obtained for the ranges of temperatures and forming rates carried out.

  6. Experimental and Numerical Studies on the Formability of Materials in Hot Stamping and Cold Die Quenching Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, N.; Mohamed, M. S.; Cai, J.; Lin, J.; Balint, D.; Dean, T. A.

    2011-01-01

    Formability of steel and aluminium alloys in hot stamping and cold die quenching processes is studied in this research. Viscoplastic-damage constitutive equations are developed and determined from experimental data for the prediction of viscoplastic flow and ductility of the materials. The determined unified constitutive equations are then implemented into the commercial Finite Element code Abaqus/Explicit via a user defined subroutine, VUMAT. An FE process simulation model and numerical procedures are established for the modeling of hot stamping processes for a spherical part with a central hole. Different failure modes (failure takes place either near the central hole or in the mid span of the part) are obtained. To validate the simulation results, a test programme is developed, a test die set has been designed and manufactured, and tests have been carried out for the materials with different forming rates. It has been found that very close agreements between experimental and numerical process simulation results are obtained for the ranges of temperatures and forming rates carried out.

  7. Investigation into the Fiber Orientation Effect on the Formability of GLARE Materials in the Stamp Forming Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shichen; Lang, Lihui; Sherkatghanad, Ehsan; Wang, Yao; Xu, Wencai

    2018-04-01

    Glass-reinforced aluminum laminate (GLARE) is a new class of fiber metal laminates (FMLs) which has the advantages such as high tensile strength, outstanding fatigue, impact resistance, and excellent corrosion properties. GLARE has been extensively applied in advanced aerospace and automobile industries. However, the deformation behavior of the glass fiber during forming must be studied to the benefits of the good-quality part we form. In this research, we focus on the effect of fiber layer orientation on the GLARE laminate formability in stamp forming process. Experimental and numerical analysis of stamping a hemisphere part in different fiber orientation is investigated. The results indicate that unidirectional and multi-directional fiber in the middle layer make a significant effect on the thinning and also surface forming quality of the three layer sheet. Furthermore, the stress-strain distribution of the aluminum alloy and the unique anisotropic property of the fiber layer exhibit that fiber layer orientation can also affect the forming depths as well as the fracture modes of the laminate. According to the obtained results, it is revealed that multi-directional fiber layers are a good alternative compared to the unidirectional fibers especially when a better formability is the purpose.

  8. All-silica nanofluidic devices for DNA-analysis fabricated by imprint of sol-gel silica with silicon stamp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Morten Bo Lindholm; Letailleur, Alban A; Søndergård, Elin

    2011-01-01

    We present a simple and cheap method for fabrication of silica nanofluidic devices for single-molecule studies. By imprinting sol-gel materials with a multi-level stamp comprising micro- and nanofeatures, channels of different depth are produced in a single process step. Calcination of the imprin......We present a simple and cheap method for fabrication of silica nanofluidic devices for single-molecule studies. By imprinting sol-gel materials with a multi-level stamp comprising micro- and nanofeatures, channels of different depth are produced in a single process step. Calcination...... of the imprinted hybrid sol-gel material produces purely inorganic silica, which has very low autofluorescence and can be fusion bonded to a glass lid. Compared to top-down processing of fused silica or silicon substrates, imprint of sol-gel silica enables fabrication of high-quality nanofluidic devices without...... expensive high-vacuum lithography and etching techniques. The applicability of the fabricated device for single-molecule studies is demonstrated by measuring the extension of DNA molecules of different lengths confined in the nanochannels....

  9. Assembly of live micro-organisms on microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for AFM bio-experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dague, E; Jauvert, E; Laplatine, L; Thibault, C [CNRS, LAAS, 7 Avenue du Colonel Roche, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Viallet, B; Ressier, L, E-mail: edague@laas.fr, E-mail: laurence.ressier@insa-toulouse.fr [Universite de Toulouse, LPCNO, INSA-CNRS-UPS, 135 Avenue de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse (France)

    2011-09-30

    Immobilization of live micro-organisms on solid substrates is an important prerequisite for atomic force microscopy (AFM) bio-experiments. The method employed must immobilize the cells firmly enough to enable them to withstand the lateral friction forces exerted by the tip during scanning but without denaturing the cell interface. In this work, a generic method for the assembly of living cells on specific areas of substrates is proposed. It consists in assembling the living cells within the patterns of microstructured, functionalized poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps using convective/capillary deposition. This versatile approach is validated by applying it to two systems of foremost importance in biotechnology and medicine: Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and Aspergillus fumigatus fungal spores. We show that this method allows multiplexing AFM nanomechanical measurements by force spectroscopy on S. cerevisiae yeasts and high-resolution AFM imaging of germinated Aspergillus conidia in buffer medium. These two examples clearly demonstrate the immense potential of micro-organism assembly on functionalized, microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for performing rigorous AFM bio-experiments on living cells.

  10. Assembly of live micro-organisms on microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for AFM bio-experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dague, E.; Jauvert, E.; Laplatine, L.; Viallet, B.; Thibault, C.; Ressier, L.

    2011-09-01

    Immobilization of live micro-organisms on solid substrates is an important prerequisite for atomic force microscopy (AFM) bio-experiments. The method employed must immobilize the cells firmly enough to enable them to withstand the lateral friction forces exerted by the tip during scanning but without denaturing the cell interface. In this work, a generic method for the assembly of living cells on specific areas of substrates is proposed. It consists in assembling the living cells within the patterns of microstructured, functionalized poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps using convective/capillary deposition. This versatile approach is validated by applying it to two systems of foremost importance in biotechnology and medicine: Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and Aspergillus fumigatus fungal spores. We show that this method allows multiplexing AFM nanomechanical measurements by force spectroscopy on S. cerevisiae yeasts and high-resolution AFM imaging of germinated Aspergillus conidia in buffer medium. These two examples clearly demonstrate the immense potential of micro-organism assembly on functionalized, microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for performing rigorous AFM bio-experiments on living cells.

  11. Assembly of live micro-organisms on microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for AFM bio-experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dague, E; Jauvert, E; Laplatine, L; Thibault, C; Viallet, B; Ressier, L

    2011-01-01

    Immobilization of live micro-organisms on solid substrates is an important prerequisite for atomic force microscopy (AFM) bio-experiments. The method employed must immobilize the cells firmly enough to enable them to withstand the lateral friction forces exerted by the tip during scanning but without denaturing the cell interface. In this work, a generic method for the assembly of living cells on specific areas of substrates is proposed. It consists in assembling the living cells within the patterns of microstructured, functionalized poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps using convective/capillary deposition. This versatile approach is validated by applying it to two systems of foremost importance in biotechnology and medicine: Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and Aspergillus fumigatus fungal spores. We show that this method allows multiplexing AFM nanomechanical measurements by force spectroscopy on S. cerevisiae yeasts and high-resolution AFM imaging of germinated Aspergillus conidia in buffer medium. These two examples clearly demonstrate the immense potential of micro-organism assembly on functionalized, microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for performing rigorous AFM bio-experiments on living cells.

  12. Event for the launch of the Georges Charpak postage stamp | 26-27 February | Prévessin site

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    At the end of February, the French post office is releasing a new €0.70 stamp featuring an image of Georges Charpak. CERN is taking part in this event by hosting a temporary post office on the Prévessin site, which will sell the stamp with a special “first day” postmark before it goes on general sale.     Georges Charpak arrived at CERN in 1959 and, in the late 1960s, revolutionised particle detection technology by developing the multiwire proportional chamber. This technique brought particle detectors into the electronic era, setting physicists free from the laborious task of studying photographs one by one. In 1992, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his invention. Charpak chambers are still used today in the LHC detectors and have paved the way for the technology in numerous other modern detectors. In the 1990s, Charpak was involved in developing medical applications based on particle detection technology. He was als...

  13. Optimal land use management for soil erosion control by using an interval-parameter fuzzy two-stage stochastic programming approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing-Cheng; Huang, Guo-He; Zhang, Hua; Li, Zhong

    2013-09-01

    Soil erosion is one of the most serious environmental and public health problems, and such land degradation can be effectively mitigated through performing land use transitions across a watershed. Optimal land use management can thus provide a way to reduce soil erosion while achieving the maximum net benefit. However, optimized land use allocation schemes are not always successful since uncertainties pertaining to soil erosion control are not well presented. This study applied an interval-parameter fuzzy two-stage stochastic programming approach to generate optimal land use planning strategies for soil erosion control based on an inexact optimization framework, in which various uncertainties were reflected. The modeling approach can incorporate predefined soil erosion control policies, and address inherent system uncertainties expressed as discrete intervals, fuzzy sets, and probability distributions. The developed model was demonstrated through a case study in the Xiangxi River watershed, China's Three Gorges Reservoir region. Land use transformations were employed as decision variables, and based on these, the land use change dynamics were yielded for a 15-year planning horizon. Finally, the maximum net economic benefit with an interval value of [1.197, 6.311] × 10(9) $ was obtained as well as corresponding land use allocations in the three planning periods. Also, the resulting soil erosion amount was found to be decreased and controlled at a tolerable level over the watershed. Thus, results confirm that the developed model is a useful tool for implementing land use management as not only does it allow local decision makers to optimize land use allocation, but can also help to answer how to accomplish land use changes.

  14. Inventory parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a detailed overview of various parameters/factors involved in inventory analysis. It especially focuses on the assessment and modeling of basic inventory parameters, namely demand, procurement cost, cycle time, ordering cost, inventory carrying cost, inventory stock, stock out level, and stock out cost. In the context of economic lot size, it provides equations related to the optimum values. It also discusses why the optimum lot size and optimum total relevant cost are considered to be key decision variables, and uses numerous examples to explain each of these inventory parameters separately. Lastly, it provides detailed information on parameter estimation for different sectors/products. Written in a simple and lucid style, it offers a valuable resource for a broad readership, especially Master of Business Administration (MBA) students.

  15. Development and Testing of a Nutrition, Food Safety, and Physical Activity Checklist for EFNEP and FSNE Adult Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Traliece; Serrano, Elena L.; Cox, Ruby H.; Lambur, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To develop and assess reliability and validity of the Nutrition, Food Safety, and Physical Activity Checklist to measure nutrition, food safety, and physical activity practices among adult Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) and Food Stamp Nutrition Education program (FSNE) participants. Methods: Test-retest…

  16. Do Children in Rural Areas Still Have Different Access to Health Care? Results from a Statewide Survey of Oregon's Food Stamp Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devoe, Jennifer E.; Krois, Lisa; Stenger, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if rural residence is independently associated with different access to health care services for children eligible for public health insurance. Methods: We conducted a mail-return survey of 10,175 families randomly selected from Oregon's food stamp population (46% rural and 54% urban). With a response rate of 31%, we used a…

  17. Use of the Performance Diagnostic Checklist to Select an Intervention Designed to Increase the Offering of Promotional Stamps at Two Sites of a Restaurant Franchise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Manuel; Wilder, David A.; Therrien, Kelly; Wine, Byron; Miranti, Reylissa; Daratany, Kenneth; Salume, Gloria; Baranovsky, Greg; Rodriquez, Matias

    2006-01-01

    The performance diagnostic checklist (PDC) was administered to examine the variables influencing the offering of promotional stamps by employees at two sites of a restaurant franchise. PDC results suggested that a lack of appropriate antecedents, equipment and processes, and consequences were responsible for the deficits. Based on these results,…

  18. The comparison of two continuum damage mechanics-based material models for formability prediction of AA6082 under hot stamping conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Z.; Li, N.; Lin, J.

    2017-09-01

    The hot stamping and cold die quenching process has experienced tremendous development in order to obtain shapes of structural components with great complexity in automotive applications. Prediction of the formability of a metal sheet is significant for practical applications of forming components in the automotive industry. Since microstructural evolution in an alloy at elevated temperature has a large effect on formability, continuum damage mechanics (CDM)-based material models can be used to characterise the behaviour of metals when a forming process is conducted at elevated temperatures. In this paper, two sets of unified multi-axial constitutive equations based on material’s stress states and strain states, respectively, were calibrated and used to effectively predict the thermo-mechanical response and forming limits of alloys under complex hot stamping conditions. In order to determine and calibrate the two material models, formability tests of AA6082 using a developed novel biaxial testing system were conducted at various temperatures and strain rates under hot stamping conditions. The determined unified constitutive equations from experimental data are presented in this paper. It is found that both of the stress-state based and strain-state based material models can predict the formability of AA6082 under hot stamping conditions.

  19. Stable Atlas-based Mapped Prior (STAMP) machine-learning segmentation for multicenter large-scale MRI data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Young; Magnotta, Vincent A; Liu, Dawei; Johnson, Hans J

    2014-09-01

    Machine learning (ML)-based segmentation methods are a common technique in the medical image processing field. In spite of numerous research groups that have investigated ML-based segmentation frameworks, there remains unanswered aspects of performance variability for the choice of two key components: ML algorithm and intensity normalization. This investigation reveals that the choice of those elements plays a major part in determining segmentation accuracy and generalizability. The approach we have used in this study aims to evaluate relative benefits of the two elements within a subcortical MRI segmentation framework. Experiments were conducted to contrast eight machine-learning algorithm configurations and 11 normalization strategies for our brain MR segmentation framework. For the intensity normalization, a Stable Atlas-based Mapped Prior (STAMP) was utilized to take better account of contrast along boundaries of structures. Comparing eight machine learning algorithms on down-sampled segmentation MR data, it was obvious that a significant improvement was obtained using ensemble-based ML algorithms (i.e., random forest) or ANN algorithms. Further investigation between these two algorithms also revealed that the random forest results provided exceptionally good agreement with manual delineations by experts. Additional experiments showed that the effect of STAMP-based intensity normalization also improved the robustness of segmentation for multicenter data sets. The constructed framework obtained good multicenter reliability and was successfully applied on a large multicenter MR data set (n>3000). Less than 10% of automated segmentations were recommended for minimal expert intervention. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using the ML-based segmentation tools for processing large amount of multicenter MR images. We demonstrated dramatically different result profiles in segmentation accuracy according to the choice of ML algorithm and intensity

  20. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) Spectroscopy as a Forensic Method to Determine the Composition of Inks Used to Print the United States One-cent Blue Benjamin Franklin Postage Stamps of the 19th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Harry G

    2016-01-01

    Through the combined use of infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) sampling, the composition of inks used to print the many different types of one-cent Benjamin Franklin stamps of the 19th century has been established. This information permits a historical evaluation of the formulations used at various times, and also facilitates the differentiation of the various stamps from each other. In two instances, the ink composition permits the unambiguous identification of stamps whose appearance is identical, and which (until now) have only been differentiated through estimates of the degree of hardness or softness of the stamp paper, or through the presence or absence of a watermark in the paper. In these instances, the use of ATR Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectroscopy effectively renders irrelevant two 100-year-old practices of stamp identification. Furthermore, since the use of ATR sampling makes it possible to obtain the spectrum of a stamp still attached to its cover, it is no longer necessary to identify these blue Franklin stamps using their cancellation dates. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. 77 FR 17070 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Application From Det Norske Veritas Healthcare (DNVHC) for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... for persons wishing to retain a proof of filing by stamping in and retaining an extra copy of the... accrediting body's approved program would be deemed to have met the Medicare conditions. A national... the national accrediting body making the request, describing the nature of the request, and providing...

  2. Bomb parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, George D.; Young, Rebert W.; Cullings, Harry M.; Christry, Robert F.

    2005-01-01

    The reconstruction of neutron and gamma-ray doses at Hiroshima and Nagasaki begins with a determination of the parameters describing the explosion. The calculations of the air transported radiation fields and survivor doses from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs require knowledge of a variety of parameters related to the explosions. These various parameters include the heading of the bomber when the bomb was released, the epicenters of the explosions, the bomb yields, and the tilt of the bombs at time of explosion. The epicenter of a bomb is the explosion point in air that is specified in terms of a burst height and a hypocenter (or the point on the ground directly below the epicenter of the explosion). The current reassessment refines the energy yield and burst height for the Hiroshima bomb, as well as the locations of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki hypocenters on the modern city maps used in the analysis of the activation data for neutrons and TLD data for gamma rays. (J.P.N.)

  3. Hot stamping of an Al-Li alloy: a feasibility study

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, H; Weng, T; Liu, J; Li, Z; Wang, L

    2016-01-01

    The feasibility of forming a third generation aluminium-lithium alloy (AA2060) into a complex shaped panel component, was studied by using an advanced forming technology called solution heat treatment, cold die forming and in-die quenching (HFQa) process. The main challenges using HFQ technology to form complex shaped AA2060 component was to find out optimum forming parameters, such as forming temperature, forming speed, lubrication condition and blank holding force. In this paper, the optimu...

  4. Cracking and interfacial debonding of the Al–Si coating in hot stamping of pre-coated boron steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gui, Zhong-Xiang; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Yi-Sheng [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die and Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhu, Bin, E-mail: zhubin26@gmail.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die and Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Cracking failure of the Al–Si coating in hot stamping process was investigated. • Microcracks initiated inside the coating during the austenitization. • Microcrack initiation in the hot deformation correlated to the Fe–Al intermetallics. • Macrocracks extended along the Mode I path led to the coating break into segments. • Macrocracks growth followed Mode II path resulted in the interfacial debonding. - Abstract: This study is focused on the mechanisms of cracks initiation, propagation and interfacial debonding of the Al–Si coating in hot stamping of the pre-coated boron steel. The investigation was performed isothermally at three deformation temperatures (700, 750, 800 °C) at a strain rate of 0.1/s. Cracking and interfacial debonding of the coating were observed with optical and scanning electron microscope, to reveal the damage evolution under applied tensile strains. Microstructures and phase inside the coating before and after austenitization were determined by energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results indicate that austenitization led to micro-cracks and Kirkendall voids initiation inside the Al–Si coating because of thermal loading, and the cracks were arrested by α-Fe diffusion layer. When the coating on substrate system was submitted to the uniaxial tensile test, the surface coating exhibited multiple cracking normal to the tensile direction. The Kirkendall voids seemed to promote the macro-crack growth through the diffusion layer. The macro-cracks followed a Mode I path, leading to the coating deteriorates to cracked segments. The macro-cracks then continued to propagate following a Mode II path that along the diffusion layer/substrate interface because of shear stress transferred from the deformed substrate, resulting in the interfacial debonding of the coating segments. The crack density firstly increased with the increasing tensile strain and then reached saturation. Decreasing deformation

  5. Influence of Temperature on AA6014 Alloy Tribological Behaviour in Stamping Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgarabotto, F.; Ghiotti, A.; Bruschi, S.

    2011-05-01

    The evaluation of the tribological characteristics at the metal blank-tool interface during sheet metal working operations is usually carried out by accurately reproducing the mechanical and kinematical parameters occurring during the real process. The high rate production characterizing the industrial processes can induce significant temperature increase in both the blank and the dies during deformation. With respect to this aspect, among the other process conditions, an accurate tribological characterization should take into account the influence of the temperature variations at the blank and the dies. In the present paper, a novel apparatus to investigate the tribological conditions during sheet metal working processes is presented. In addition to the control of mechanical (i.e. normal pressure) and kinematic parameters (i.e. sliding speed, sliding length), the developed testing machine permits to reproduce the thermal fields and monitor the thermal conditions of the sheet and tool materials. Experiments were carried out on aluminium alloy sheets between 20° and 200thinsp;° C by using both coated and uncoated dies. It is proved that the temperature influences the tribological behaviour, especially when coated dies are utilized.

  6. Stress analysis of biomass fuel molding machine piston type stamping forming cone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Gaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is established the ram biomass straw machine as the analysis object in this paper,the molding machine cones of stress in the forming process of the analysis of the system. We used pottery instead of Wear-resistant cast iron for improving the performance of forming sleeve. The structure of the forming sleeve was analyzed with the mechanical module of a soft named Pro/engineer in this paper. The result indicated that the program was feasible. With the sensitivity analysis we identified the suitable angle for the sleeve.

  7. Supergranular Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udayashankar, Paniveni

    2016-07-01

    I study the complexity of supergranular cells using intensity patterns from Kodaikanal solar observatory. The chaotic and turbulent aspect of the solar supergranulation can be studied by examining the interrelationships amongst the parameters characterizing supergranular cells namely size, horizontal flow field, lifetime and physical dimensions of the cells and the fractal dimension deduced from the size data. The findings are supportive of Kolmogorov's theory of turbulence. The Data consists of visually identified supergranular cells, from which a fractal dimension 'D' for supergranulation is obtained according to the relation P α AD/2 where 'A' is the area and 'P' is the perimeter of the supergranular cells. I find a fractal dimension close to about 1.3 which is consistent with that for isobars and suggests a possible turbulent origin. The cell circularity shows a dependence on the perimeter with a peak around (1.1-1.2) x 105 m. The findings are supportive of Kolmogorov's theory of turbulence.

  8. New organic photo-curable nanoimprint resist ≪mr-NIL210≫ for high volume fabrication applying soft PDMS-based stamps

    OpenAIRE

    Messerschmidt, Martin; Greer, Andrew; Schlachter, Florian; Barnett, Julian; Thesen, Manuel W.; Gadegaard, Nikolaj; Grutzner, Gabi; Schleunitz, Arne

    2017-01-01

    Herein, we report on a newly developed and commercialized organic photo-curable Nanoimprint Lithography (NIL) resist, namely mr-NIL210. Since this new NIL resist follows an innovative design concept and contains solely specific monomers with a characteristic chemistry and molecular design, an extended longevity of applied polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) stamps is enabled addressing a crucial key metric for industrial high-volume manufacturing processes. Moreover, the mr-NIL210 is characterized b...

  9. Dynamic Stability Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    then there is positive work done by the incident wind tending to overdrive the motion. In this situation the container is dynamically unstable. (c...Employing a Real-Time Digital System. NASA TN D-6735, 1972. 32. Ross , A. Jean; and Foster, G. W.: FORTRAN Programs for the Determination of... Ross , A. Jean: Determination of Aerodynamic Derivatives From Transient Responses in Manoeuvring Flight. Methods for Aircraft State and Parameter

  10. ‘Postage-stamp PIV’: small velocity fields at 400 kHz for turbulence spectra measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresh, Steven J.; Henfling, John F.; Spillers, Russell W.; Spitzer, Seth M.

    2018-03-01

    Time-resolved particle image velocimetry recently has been demonstrated in high-speed flows using a pulse-burst laser at repetition rates reaching 50 kHz. Turbulent behavior can be measured at still higher frequencies if the field of view is greatly reduced and lower laser pulse energy is accepted. Current technology allows image acquisition at 400 kHz for sequences exceeding 4000 frames but for an array of only 128  ×  120 pixels, giving the moniker of ‘postage-stamp PIV’. The technique has been tested far downstream of a supersonic jet exhausting into a transonic crossflow. Two-component measurements appear valid until 120 kHz, at which point a noise floor emerges whose magnitude is dependent on the reduction of peak locking. Stereoscopic measurement offers three-component data for turbulent kinetic energy spectra, but exhibits a reduced signal bandwidth and higher noise in the out-of-plane component due to the oblique camera images. The resulting spectra reveal two regions exhibiting power-law dependence describing the turbulent decay. The frequency response of the present measurement configuration exceeds nearly all previous velocimetry measurements in high speed flow.

  11. Estimating Bus Loads and OD Flows Using Location-Stamped Farebox and Wi-Fi Signal Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiong Ji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic fareboxes integrated with Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL systems can provide location-stamped records to infer passenger boarding at individual stops. However, bus loads and Origin-Destination (OD flows, which are useful for route planning, design, and real-time controls, cannot be derived directly from farebox data. Recently, Wi-Fi sensors have been used to collect passenger OD flow information. But the data are insufficient to capture the variation of passenger demand across bus trips. In this study, we propose a hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate trip-level OD flow matrices and a period-level OD flow matrix using sampled OD flow data collected by Wi-Fi sensors and boarding data provided by fareboxes. Bus loads on each bus trip are derived directly from the estimated trip-level OD flow matrices. The proposed method is evaluated empirically on an operational bus route and the results demonstrate that it provides good and detailed transit route-level passenger demand information by combining farebox and Wi-Fi signal data.

  12. Development of low-friction and wear-resistant surfaces for low-cost Al hot stamping tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Y.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, advanced surfaces and coatings have been developed using plasma thermochemical treatment, PVD coating, electroless Ni-BN plating and duplex surface engineering to produce low-friction and wear-resistant surfaces for cast iron stamping tools. Their microstructural and nano-mechanical properties were systematically analysed and the tribological behaviour of these new surfaces and coatings were evaluated. The experimental results have shown that under dry sliding condition, the tribological behaviour of aluminium differed great from that of steel regardless of the counterpart material. Highly reactive aluminium had a strong tendency to solder with tool surfaces during dry sliding. However, the lubricity of gray cast irons can be significantly improved by Ni-BN and DLC coatings. The coefficient of friction reduced from about 0.5 for untreated cast irons to about 0.2 sliding against aluminium. Duplex treatment combining plasma nitrocarburising with low-friction coatings showed superior durability than both DLC and Ni-BN coatings.

  13. ABC di corpi: alcuni alfabeti figurati del XVI secolo del Gabinetto Disegni e Stampe della Pinacoteca Nazionale di Bologna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Butera

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Fra le diverse tipologie di motivi ornamentali, gli alfabeti figurati costituiscono un vero e proprio genere a se stante, che attinge al repertorio iconografico del proprio tempo e lo riflette in composizioni dotate di grande fascino e originalità. Per la quantità, la qualità e l’eterogeneità degli esemplari custoditi, il Gabinetto Disegni e Stampe della Pinacoteca Nazionale di Bologna costituisce un caso più unico che raro in Italia, vantando alfabeti figurati che abbracciano ampi confini geografici e cronologici, spaziando dal tardo gotico al XIX secolo. Dopo una breve introduzione sulle vicende collezionistiche di un nucleo grafico così insolito e particolare, l’articolo si concentra su alcuni esemplari di alfabeti figurati del Cinquecento di area transalpina. Partendo dall’alfabeto dei bambini di Hans Weiditz (1521, costruito rispettando le più rigorose regole geometriche, codificate nei coevi trattati rinascimentali, ma anche riflesso del rinato gusto per i fregi all’antica con putti, si passa agli alfabeti di Peter Flötner (1534 e di Jost Amman (1567, dove le lettere sono integralmente costituite da corpi umani, forzati in complicate posture, talvolta persino licenziose. Questi esemplari rappresentano degli interessanti esperimenti calligrafici, dove l’uomo diviene concretamente l’unità di misura dei caratteri dell’alfabeto.

  14. Physiological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natera, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    The physiological characteristics of man depend on the intake, metabolism and excretion of stable elements from food, water, and air. The physiological behavior of natural radionuclides and radionuclides from nuclear weapons testing and from the utilization of nuclear energy is believed to follow the pattern of stable elements. Hence information on the normal physiological processes occurring in the human body plays an important role in the assessment of the radiation dose received by man. Two important physiological parameters needed for internal dose determination are the pulmonary function and the water balance. In the Coordinated Research Programme on the characterization of Asian population, five participants submitted data on these physiological characteristics - China, India, Japan, Philippines and Viet Nam. During the CRP, data on other pertinent characteristics such as physical and dietary were simultaneously being collected. Hence, the information on the physiological characteristics alone, coming from the five participants were not complete and are probably not sufficient to establish standard values for the Reference Asian Man. Nonetheless, the data collected is a valuable contribution to this research programme

  15. Hot stamping of an Al-Li alloy: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Haoxiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of forming a third generation aluminium-lithium alloy (AA2060 into a complex shaped panel component, was studied by using an advanced forming technology called solution heat treatment, cold die forming and in-die quenching (HFQa process. The main challenges using HFQ technology to form complex shaped AA2060 component was to find out optimum forming parameters, such as forming temperature, forming speed, lubrication condition and blank holding force. In this paper, the optimum forming temperature was mainly concerned. The flow stresses of AA2060 were obtained at different temperatures ranging from 350 to 520 °C at the strain rate of 2 s−1. The suitable temperature to achieve the adequate ductility was found at 470 °C. By forming the AA2060 blanks at the optimum forming temperature, experimental results exhibited the feasibility for forming complex-shaped AA2060 components. The formed components were analysed through strain measurements. The post-form mechanical properties of AA2060 were assessed using hardness and tensile tests.

  16. 78 FR 57857 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Application from the Compliance Team for Initial CMS-Approval of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... for persons wishing to retain a proof of filing by stamping in and retaining an extra copy of the... entity accredited by the national accrediting body's approved program would be deemed to meet the... body making the request, describing the nature of the request, and providing at least a 30-day public...

  17. WIPP Compliance Certification Application calculations parameters. Part 1: Parameter development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeast New Mexico has been studied as a transuranic waste repository for the past 23 years. During this time, an extensive site characterization, design, construction, and experimental program was completed, which provided in-depth understanding of the dominant processes that are most likely to influence the containment of radionuclides for 10,000 years. Nearly 1,500 parameters were developed using information gathered from this program; the parameters were input to numerical models for WIPP Compliance Certification Application (CCA) Performance Assessment (PA) calculations. The CCA probabilistic codes frequently require input values that define a statistical distribution for each parameter. Developing parameter distributions begins with the assignment of an appropriate distribution type, which is dependent on the type, magnitude, and volume of data or information available. The development of the parameter distribution values may require interpretation or statistical analysis of raw data, combining raw data with literature values, scaling of lab or field data to fit code grid mesh sizes, or other transformation. Parameter development and documentation of the development process were very complicated, especially for those parameters based on empirical data; they required the integration of information from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) code sponsors, parameter task leaders (PTLs), performance assessment analysts (PAAs), and experimental principal investigators (PIs). This paper, Part 1 of two parts, contains a discussion of the parameter development process, roles and responsibilities, and lessons learned. Part 2 will discuss parameter documentation, traceability and retrievability, and lessons learned from related audits and reviews

  18. An investigation into the suitability of some etching reagents to restoring obliterated stamped numbers on cast iron engine blocks of cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Wahab, Mohd Farizon; Mohamad Ghani, Nurul Izwani; Kuppuswamy, R

    2012-11-30

    Most of the automotive companies use cast iron for their engine blocks. Restoration of obliterated number on these iron surfaces by chemical etching is known to be quite difficult. Heating of the obliterated surface using oxyacetylene flame is an alternative recovery treatment suggested in literature and used in practice. However chemical etching has been established to be the most sensitive technique for detection of metal deformation present under stamped serial numbers. Hence, the current work investigated the suitability of some common etchants on cast iron surfaces with a view to determining the most suitable one for revealing the obliterated marks. The reagents tested were mostly copper containing Fry's reagent and its modifications. Two cast iron engine blocks (3.29%C and 3.1%C) of two cars--a Proton Saga and a Toyota--were utilized for the experiments. The engine blocks were cut into several small plates and each plate was stamped with some numerical characters at 8 kN load using Instron Table Mounted Universal Testing Machine. The depth of stamping impression varied between 0.2 mm and 0.3 mm. The stamped number was completely ground off manually using a metal file. The grounded surface was then polished smooth using emery papers and etched with a few selected reagents mostly by swabbing. Experimental results showed that a modified Fry's composition consisting of 4 5g CuCl(2), 100 mL HCl, and 180 mL H(2)O restored the number with better contrast at a reasonably shorter time. The above reagent is a slightly modified form of one of the Fry's original compositions--45 g CuCl(2), 180 mL HCl, and 100 mL H(2)O. Quite importantly the proposed reagent restored the original stamped numbers of both Proton and Toyota cars and also a Mitsubishi car that had been obliterated. The most widely used Fry's composition (90 g CuCl(2), 120 mL HCl and 100 mL H(2)O), although recovered the obliterated number, did not cause the desired contrast. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland

  19. A computer program for calculation of parameters necessary for the computation of reliable pair distribution functions of non-crystalline materials from limited diffraction data. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, F.Y.

    1978-01-01

    The pair distribution function of non-crystalline materials may be obtained by a Fourier transform of the structure factor as calculated in part I of this series. The structure factor is often limited in the sense that it shows significant oscillations at the maximal wave vector transfers obtainable. The Fourier transform of such functions, therefore, introduces truncation errors in the transformed function. With this program a parametrization of the small distance part of the pair distribution function is obtained according to a method described which enables one to eliminate truncation error from the final pair distribution function. It is based on a least squares fit calculation of the small distance part of the pair distribution function obtained by a direct transform of the experimental structure factor and a model pair distribution function obtained from a model structure factor truncated at the same wave vector transfers as the experimental factor. The storage requirement depends on the number of structure factor data and the number of peaks used to resolve the small distance part of the pair distribution function. In the present set-up storage requirement is set to 15083 words, which is estimated to be satisfactory for a large number of cases. (Auth.)

  20. Key performance indicators score (KPIs-score) based on clinical and laboratorial parameters can establish benchmarks for internal quality control in an ART program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, José G; Petersen, Claudia G; Mauri, Ana L; Vagnini, Laura D; Renzi, Adriana; Petersen, Bruna; Mattila, M C; Comar, Vanessa A; Ricci, Juliana; Dieamant, Felipe; Oliveira, João Batista A; Baruffi, Ricardo L R

    2017-06-01

    KPIs have been employed for internal quality control (IQC) in ART. However, clinical KPIs (C-KPIs) such as age, AMH and number of oocytes collected are never added to laboratory KPIs (L-KPIs), such as fertilization rate and morphological quality of the embryos for analysis, even though the final endpoint is the evaluation of clinical pregnancy rates. This paper analyzed if a KPIs-score strategy with clinical and laboratorial parameters could be used to establish benchmarks for IQC in ART cycles. In this prospective cohort study, 280 patients (36.4±4.3years) underwent ART. The total KPIs-score was obtained by the analysis of age, AMH (AMH Gen II ELISA/pre-mixing modified, Beckman Coulter Inc.), number of metaphase-II oocytes, fertilization rates and morphological quality of the embryonic lot. The total KPIs-score (C-KPIs+L-KPIs) was correlated with the presence or absence of clinical pregnancy. The relationship between the C-KPIs and L-KPIs scores was analyzed to establish quality standards, to increase the performance of clinical and laboratorial processes in ART. The logistic regression model (LRM), with respect to pregnancy and total KPIs-score (280 patients/102 clinical pregnancies), yielded an odds ratio of 1.24 (95%CI = 1.16-1.32). There was also a significant difference (pperformed to assess quality standards. This total KPIs-score could set up benchmarks for clinical pregnancy. Moreover, IQC can use C-KPIs and L-KPIs scores to detect problems in the clinical-laboratorial interface.

  1. Divergent selection on home pen locomotor activity in a chicken model: Selection program, genetic parameters and direct response on activity and body weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joergen B Kjaer

    Full Text Available General locomotor activity (GLA in poultry has attracted attention, as it negatively influences production costs (energy expenditure and feed consumption and welfare parameters (bone strength, litter quality, feather pecking and cannibalism. Laying hen lines diverging in the average level of spontaneous locomotor activity in the home pen were developed by genetic selection using the founder New Hampshire line. Activity was recorded using RFID technology at around five weeks of age during four to five days in the home pen. After initial phenotyping, the least active birds were selected for the low activity line and the most active for the high activity line, with no gene transfer between lines. In each of six generations, approximately ten sires were mated to twenty dams producing 158 to 334 offspring per line per generation. The response to selection was rapid and of a considerable magnitude. In sixth generation, the level of GLA was approximately halved in the low and doubled in the high line compared to the control (7.2, 14.9 and 28.7 recordings/h. Estimated heritability of locomotor activity in the low and high line was 0.38 and 0.33, respectively. Males, in general, were more active than females. High line birds were significantly heavier than low line birds. In fourth, fifth, and sixth generation, low as well as high line birds were lighter than control line birds. This selection experiment demonstrates variation in heritability for GLA and, as a result, genetically diverged lines have been developed. These lines can be used as models for further studies of underlying physiological, neural and molecular genetic mechanisms of spontaneous locomotor activity.

  2. A Mechanical, Microstructural, and Damage Study of Various Tailor Hot Stamped Material Conditions Consisting of Martensite, Bainite, Ferrite, and Pearlite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardelcik, Alexander; Vowles, Caryn J.; Worswick, Michael J.

    2018-02-01

    This paper examines the mechanical, microstructural, and damage characteristics of five different material conditions that were created using the tailored hot stamping process with in-die heating. The tailored material conditions, TMC1 to TMC5 (softest-hardest), were created using die temperatures ranging from 700 °C to 400 °C, respectively. The tensile strength (and total elongation) ranged from 615 MPa (0.24) for TMC1 to 1122 MPa (0.11) for TMC5. TMC3 and TMC4 exhibited intermediate strength levels, with almost no increase in total elongation relative to TMC5. FE-SEM microscopy was used to quantify the mixed-phase microstructures, which ranged in volume fractions of ferrite, pearlite, bainite, and martensite. High-resolution optical microscopy was used to quantify void accumulation and showed that the total void area fraction at 0.60 thickness strain was low for TMC1 and TMC5 ( 0.09 pct) and highest for TMC3 (0.31 pct). Damage modes were characterized and revealed that the poor damage behavior of TMC3 (martensite/bainite/ferrite composition) was a result of small martensitic grains forming at grain boundaries and grain boundary junctions, which facilitated void nucleation as shown by the highest measured void density for this particular material condition. The excellent ductility of TMC1 was a result of a large grained ferritic/pearlitic microstructure that was less susceptible to void nucleation and growth. Large titanium nitride (TiN) inclusions were observed in all of the tailored material conditions and it was shown that they noticeably contributed to the total void accumulation, specifically for the TMC3 and TMC4 material conditions.

  3. StaMPS Improvement for Deformation Analysis in Mountainous Regions: Implications for the Damavand Volcano and Mosha Fault in Alborz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Vajedian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR capability to detect slow deformation over terrain areas is limited by temporal decorrelation, geometric decorrelation and atmospheric artefacts. Multitemporal InSAR methods such as Persistent Scatterer (PS-InSAR and Small Baseline Subset (SBAS have been developed to deal with various aspects of decorrelation and atmospheric problems affecting InSAR observations. Nevertheless, the applicability of both PS-InSAR and SBAS in mountainous regions is still challenging. Correct phase unwrapping in both methods is hampered due to geometric decorrelation in particular when using C-band SAR data for deformation analysis. In this paper, we build upon the SBAS method implemented in StaMPS software and improved the technique, here called ISBAS, to assess tectonic and volcanic deformation in the center of the Alborz Mountains in Iran using both Envisat and ALOS SAR data. We modify several aspects within the chain of the processing including: filtering prior to phase unwrapping, topographic correction within three-dimensional phase unwrapping, reducing the atmospheric noise with the help of additional GPS data, and removing the ramp caused by ionosphere turbulence and/or orbit errors to better estimate crustal deformation in this tectonically active region. Topographic correction is done within the three-dimensional unwrapping in order to improve the phase unwrapping process, which is in contrast to previous methods in which DEM error is estimated before/after phase unwrapping. Our experiments show that our improved SBAS approach is able to better characterize the tectonic and volcanic deformation in the center of the Alborz region than the classical SBAS. In particular, Damavand volcano shows an average uplift rate of about 3 mm/year in the year 2003–2010. The Mosha fault illustrates left-lateral motion that could be explained with a fault that is locked up to 17–18 km depths and slips with 2–4 mm

  4. A Mechanical, Microstructural, and Damage Study of Various Tailor Hot Stamped Material Conditions Consisting of Martensite, Bainite, Ferrite, and Pearlite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardelcik, Alexander; Vowles, Caryn J.; Worswick, Michael J.

    2018-04-01

    This paper examines the mechanical, microstructural, and damage characteristics of five different material conditions that were created using the tailored hot stamping process with in-die heating. The tailored material conditions, TMC1 to TMC5 (softest-hardest), were created using die temperatures ranging from 700 °C to 400 °C, respectively. The tensile strength (and total elongation) ranged from 615 MPa (0.24) for TMC1 to 1122 MPa (0.11) for TMC5. TMC3 and TMC4 exhibited intermediate strength levels, with almost no increase in total elongation relative to TMC5. FE-SEM microscopy was used to quantify the mixed-phase microstructures, which ranged in volume fractions of ferrite, pearlite, bainite, and martensite. High-resolution optical microscopy was used to quantify void accumulation and showed that the total void area fraction at 0.60 thickness strain was low for TMC1 and TMC5 ( 0.09 pct) and highest for TMC3 (0.31 pct). Damage modes were characterized and revealed that the poor damage behavior of TMC3 (martensite/bainite/ferrite composition) was a result of small martensitic grains forming at grain boundaries and grain boundary junctions, which facilitated void nucleation as shown by the highest measured void density for this particular material condition. The excellent ductility of TMC1 was a result of a large grained ferritic/pearlitic microstructure that was less susceptible to void nucleation and growth. Large titanium nitride (TiN) inclusions were observed in all of the tailored material conditions and it was shown that they noticeably contributed to the total void accumulation, specifically for the TMC3 and TMC4 material conditions.

  5. [Study on the screening program of thalassemia and the genotype and hematologic parameter among people of productive age in a village, Nanning Guangxi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Hua; Zhou, Ying-Jie; Li, Ping-Ping; Luo, Rui-Gui; Ruan, Li-Ming; Wang, Rong-Xin; Wu, Zhi-Kui; Li, Min; Huang, You-Wen

    2006-09-01

    To investigate the carrier ratio and the genotype of thalassemia in the rural people of reproductive age in Nanning, and to analyze the characteristics of hematologic parameter in thalassemia carriers. 2044 cases of productive age youths were detected with hemoglobin autoanalyse-Variant (HPLC) and Cell Dyn 1700 automatic hemocyte analysator. Among them,430 cases (75 couples randomly selected in thalassemia screening, 140 couples who were told that one or both of them were positive for thalassemia phenotype through hemocyte analysis) carried out thalassemia gene detection in synchronism. 163 cases were detected beta-thalassemia and the thus beta-thalassemia carrier ratio was 7.97%. 13 cases were detected HbH disease, and 2 cases Hb Manitoba, 2 cases HbJ, and 1 case HbQ. As for genotypes,-alpha (3.7)/alpha,-alpha(CS)/alphaalpha and -alpha(WS)/alphaalpha were common ones with in alpha-thalassemia-2, --(SEA)/alphaalpha the most common one in alpha-thalassemia-1, and 41-42 were the most common ones in beta-thalassemia heterozygotes. The detection ratio of alpha,beta combination thalassemia was also relatively high. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) were low in all cases of HbH disease and beta-thalassemia, also low in 86 cases of alpha-thalassemia-1 with the exception of normal MCH in 1 case, yet normal in 17 cases out of 66 cases of alpha-thalassemia-2. HbF raised in 32 cases out of 69 cases of beta-thalassemia heterozygote, no case showed raised HbF without the raise of HbA2. Hematologic characteristic of alpha, beta combination thalassemia was mainly caused by beta-thalassemia. Carrier ratio of thalassemia in rural productive age youths in Nanning was high while alpha-thalassemia-2 with the genotype -alpha(WS)/alphaalpha and -alpha(CS)/ alphaalpha were common. To those with low MCV and MCH in high-risk region, thalassemia should be suspected.

  6. WIPP Compliance Certification Application calculations parameters. Part 2: Parameter documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeast New Mexico has been studied as a transuranic waste repository for the past 23 years. During this time, an extensive site characterization, design, construction, and experimental program was completed, which provided in depth understanding of the dominant processes that are most likely to influence the containment of radionuclides for 10,000 years. Nearly 1,500 parameters were developed using information gathered from this program and were input to numerical models for WIPP Compliance Certification Application (CCA) Performance Assessment (PA) calculations. The CCA probability models require input parameters that are defined by a statistical distribution. Developing parameters begins with the assignment of an appropriate distribution type, which is dependent on the type, magnitude, and volume of data or information available. Parameter development may require interpretation or statistical analysis of raw data, combining raw data with literature values, scaling laboratory or field data to fit code grid mesh sizes, or other transformations. Documentation of parameter development is designed to answer two questions: What source information was used to develop this parameter? and Why was this particular data set/information used? Therefore, complete documentation requires integrating information from code sponsors, parameter task leaders, performance assessment analysts, and experimental principal investigators. This paper, Part 2 of 2 parts, contains a discussion of the WIPP CCA PA Parameter Tracking System, document traceability and retrievability, and lessons learned from related audits and reviews

  7. Evaluation of the Possibility of Performing Cold Backward Extrusion of Axisymmetrical Thinwalled Aluminum Die Stampings with Square Section / Ocena Możliwości Wyciskania Przeciwbieżnego Na Zimno Osiowosymetrycznych Wyprasek Z Cienką Ścianką O Przekroju Kwadratowym Z Aluminium

    OpenAIRE

    Miłek T.; Kowalik B.; Kuliński B.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents evaluation of the possibility of performing cold backward extrusion of axisymmetrical thin-walled aluminum (Al 99.50, ENAW-1050A) die stampings with a square section at the strain ε=ln(A0/A1)=2 (where A0 - cross sectional area of the billet, A1 - cross sectional area of the die stamping), and the ratio h1/b=3.6 (where h1 - height of the die stamping in mm, b - width of the base of the die stamping in mm). The analysis was conducted on the basis of the results of computer mo...

  8. Constellation Program Electrical Ground Support Equipment Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Keegan S.

    2010-01-01

    At the Kennedy Space Center, I engaged in the research and development of electrical ground support equipment for NASA's Constellation Program. Timing characteristics playa crucial role in ground support communications. Latency and jitter are two problems that must be understood so that communications are timely and consistent within the Kennedy Ground Control System (KGCS). I conducted latency and jitter tests using Alien-Bradley programmable logic controllers (PLCs) so that these two intrinsic network properties can be reduced. Time stamping and clock synchronization also play significant roles in launch processing and operations. Using RSLogix 5000 project files and Wireshark network protocol analyzing software, I verified master/slave PLC Ethernet module clock synchronization, master/slave IEEE 1588 communications, and time stamping capabilities. All of the timing and synchronization test results are useful in assessing the current KGCS operational level and determining improvements for the future.

  9. MRI for clinically suspected pediatric appendicitis: an implemented program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Michael M.; Gustas, Cristy N.; Choudhary, Arabinda K.; Methratta, Sosamma T.; Hulse, Michael A.; Eggli, Kathleen D.; Boal, Danielle K.B. [Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Mail Code H066, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA (United States); Geeting, Glenn [Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Emergency Medicine, Hershey, PA (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Emergent MRI is now a viable alternative to CT for evaluating appendicitis while avoiding the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation. However, primary employment of MRI in the setting of clinically suspected pediatric appendicitis has remained significantly underutilized. To describe our institution's development and the results of a fully implemented clinical program using MRI as the primary imaging evaluation for children with suspected appendicitis. A four-sequence MRI protocol consisting of coronal and axial single-shot turbo spin-echo (SS-TSE) T2, coronal spectral adiabatic inversion recovery (SPAIR), and axial SS-TSE T2 with fat saturation was performed on 208 children, ages 3 to 17 years, with clinically suspected appendicitis. No intravenous or oral contrast material was administered. No sedation was administered. Data collection includes two separate areas: time parameter analysis and MRI diagnostic results. Diagnostic accuracy of MRI for pediatric appendicitis indicated a sensitivity of 97.6% (CI: 87.1-99.9%), specificity 97.0% (CI: 93.2-99.0%), positive predictive value 88.9% (CI: 76.0-96.3%), and negative predictive value 99.4% (CI: 96.6-99.9%). Time parameter analysis indicated clinical feasibility, with time requested to first sequence obtained mean of 78.7 +/- 52.5 min, median 65 min; first-to-last sequence time stamp mean 14.2 +/- 8.8 min, median 12 min; last sequence to report mean 57.4 +/- 35.2 min, median 46 min. Mean age was 11.2 +/- 3.6 years old. Girls represented 57% of patients. MRI is an effective and efficient method of imaging children with clinically suspected appendicitis. Using an expedited four-sequence protocol, sensitivity and specificity are comparable to CT while avoiding the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  10. Programas de luz sobre o desempenho e parâmetros seminais de galos semi-pesados Lightning programs on the performance and seminal parameters of semi-heavy roosters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Patrícia Maciel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de diferentes programas de luz sobre os parâmetros seminais de galos de linhagem semi-pesada, foram utilizados 24 galos da linhagem Lohman Brown com idade inicial de 19 semanas, sendo submetidos a três tratamentos: 1 programa de luz contínuo; 2 programa de luz intermitente e 3 programa de luz natural crescente. Os animais foram distribuídos num delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com oito repetições, sendo a unidade experimental constituída de um animal. O período experimental teve duração de 140 dias e as variáveis avaliadas foram: consumo de ração (g ave-1 dia-1; peso corporal (g; produção de sêmen (ml, motilidade (% e vigor espermáticos (0 a 5, concentração espermática (número de células x 10(9, número de células espermáticas totais (NCT = volume x concentração e morfologia espermática (alterações de cabeça, cauda e alterações totais. Os galos submetidos aos programas de luz contínuo e intermitente apresentaram maior produção de sêmen e maior NCT (P0,05 dos tratamentos sobre as demais variáveis. Conclui-se que os programas de luz contínuo e intermitente podem ser utilizados para galos semi-pesados durante o período reprodutivo, sem prejudicar o desempenho e os parâmetros seminais.This study aimed to evaluate the influence of different lighting programs on the performance and semen parameters of semi-heavy cock strain. Twenty four roosters, aging 19 weeks, of the Lohman Brown strain were used, and submitted to three treatments: 1 continuous lightning programs 2 intermittent lightning programs and 3 increasing natural lightning programs. The animals were distributed into a completely randomized design, with 8 replicates being the experimental unit constituted of 1 animal. The experimental period lasted 140 days and the evaluated variables were: feed intake (g/chicken/day, body weight (g, semen production (ml, motility (% and vigor (0 to 5 of the

  11. [Inequities in access to food stamps and meal vouchers in Brazil: an analysis of the Brazilian Household Budgets Survey, 2008-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canella, Daniela Silva; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique

    2016-03-01

    Food stamps and meal vouchers can determine workers' dietary choices. The study aimed to assess the coverage of these benefits in Brazil and their distribution according to the beneficiaries' socio-demographic and regional characteristics, using data from the Brazilian Household Budgets Survey, 2008-2009. Eligibility criteria were having an occupation and a private or government job, including domestic or temporary work in rural areas. Only 3.2% of eligible individuals reported receiving such benefits. Highest coverage rates were verified with the Southeast region, urban areas, male gender, employment in the private sector, and monthly earnings > five times the minimum wage. The mean monthly amount of such benefits was R$ 177.20 (US$ 100 at the 2009 exchange rate). After adjusting for other variables, the highest amounts were associated with male gender, higher salaries, the Northeast and Central regions, and employment in the public sector. This first analysis of the national coverage of food stamps and meal vouchers showed that a large share of Brazilian workers lack access or have unequal access to such benefits.

  12. Research on optimization design of conformal cooling channels in hot stamping tool based on response surface methodology and multi-objective optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Bin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to optimize the layout of the conformal cooling channels in hot stamping tools, a response surface methodology and multi-objective optimization technique are proposed. By means of an Optimal Latin Hypercube experimental design method, a design matrix with 17 factors and 50 levels is generated. Three kinds of design variables, the radius Rad of the cooling channel, the distance H from the channel center to tool work surface and the ratio rat of each channel center, are optimized to determine the layout of cooling channels. The average temperature and temperature deviation of work surface are used to evaluate the cooling performance of hot stamping tools. On the basis of the experimental design results, quadratic response surface models are established to describe the relationship between the design variables and the evaluation objectives. The error analysis is performed to ensure the accuracy of response surface models. Then the layout of the conformal cooling channels is optimized in accordance with a multi-objective optimization method to find the Pareto optimal frontier which consists of some optimal combinations of design variables that can lead to an acceptable cooling performance.

  13. Impact of Si on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of 22MnB5 Hot Stamping Steel Treated by Quenching & Partitioning (Q&P)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Bernd M.; Gerber, Thomas; Hatscher, Ansgar; Salvatori, Ilaria; Aranguren, Iñigo; Arribas, Maribel

    2018-01-01

    Based on 22MnB5 hot stamping steel, three model alloys containing 0.5, 0.8, and 1.5 wt pct Si were produced, heat treated by quenching and partitioning (Q&P), and characterized. Aided by DICTRA calculations, the thermal Q&P cycles were designed to fit into industrial hot stamping by keeping partitioning times ≤ 30 seconds. As expected, Si increased the amount of retained austenite (RA) stabilized after final cooling. However, for the intermediate Si alloy the heat treatment exerted a particularly pronounced influence with an RA content three times as high for the one-step process compared to the two-step process. It appeared that 0.8 wt pct Si sufficed to suppress direct cementite formation from within martensite laths but did not sufficiently stabilize carbon-soaked RA at higher temperatures. Tensile and bending tests showed strongly diverging effects of austenite on ductility. Total elongation improved consistently with increasing RA content independently from its carbon content. In contrast, the bending angle was not impacted by high-carbon RA but deteriorated almost linearly with the amount of low-carbon RA.

  14. Identifying parameter regions for multistationarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradi, Carsten; Feliu, Elisenda; Mincheva, Maya

    2017-01-01

    is the avoidance of numerical analysis and parameter sampling. The procedure consists of a number of steps. Each of these steps might be addressed algorithmically using various computer programs and available software, or manually. We demonstrate our procedure on several models of gene transcription and cell...

  15. Trapping and release of cargo molecules from a micro-stamped mesoporous thin film controlled by Poly(NIPAAm-co-AAm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Melissa M; Raboin, Lorraine; Guardado-Alvarez, Tania M; Zink, Jeffrey I

    2014-05-01

    Materials that utilize the micropatterned structure of a mesoporous silica film to successfully load and release cargo using a thermal sensitive polymer are presented in this paper. Films with pore sizes of ~2 nm and ~5 nm aligned in the pulling direction were synthesized using evaporation induced self-assembly techniques. The pores are exposed using a new method of stamping micropatterns without the use hydrofluoric acid. A well studied temperature dependent polymer (poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-Acrylamide)) was grafted onto the surface of these films to act as a temperature activated gatekeeper. Below the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) the polymer is erect and can block the pore openings, trapping cargo inside the pores. When the temperature is above the LCST the polymer collapses and unblocks the pores, allowing cargo to escape. The loading capacities as well as the reusability of these films were studied.

  16. A new approach for improved time and position measurements for TOF-PET: Time-stamping of the photo-electrons using analogue SiPMs

    CERN Document Server

    Doroud, K

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of the Time-of-Flight (TOF) of the 511 keV gammas brings an important reduction of statistical noise in the PET image, with higher precision time measurements producing clearer images. The common method of coupling a photodetector to scintillating crystals is to have two matching matrices, with a one-to-one coupling between the crystal and the photodetector. We propose a new geometry based on analogue strip SiPMs reading out a scintillator cut into slabs. This technique allows the time stamping of individual photo-electrons and extracts the best time resolution using a specific algorithm. Here we present the results from the first ‘slab module’ test.

  17. A new approach for improved time and position measurements for TOF-PET: Time-stamping of the photo-electrons using analogue SiPMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doroud, K., E-mail: Katayoun.Doroud@cern.ch [CERN Geneva (Switzerland); Williams, M.C.S. [CERN Geneva (Switzerland); INFN, Bologna (Italy)

    2017-03-21

    Measurement of the Time-of-Flight (TOF) of the 511 keV gammas brings an important reduction of statistical noise in the PET image, with higher precision time measurements producing clearer images. The common method of coupling a photodetector to scintillating crystals is to have two matching matrices, with a one-to-one coupling between the crystal and the photodetector. We propose a new geometry based on analogue strip SiPMs reading out a scintillator cut into slabs. This technique allows the time stamping of individual photo-electrons and extracts the best time resolution using a specific algorithm. Here we present the results from the first ‘slab module’ test.

  18. Do children in rural areas still have different access to health care? Results from a statewide survey of Oregon's food stamp population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoe, Jennifer E; Krois, Lisa; Stenger, Rob

    2009-01-01

    To determine if rural residence is independently associated with different access to health care services for children eligible for public health insurance. We conducted a mail-return survey of 10,175 families randomly selected from Oregon's food stamp population (46% rural and 54% urban). With a response rate of 31%, we used a raking ratio estimation process to weight results back to the overall food stamp population. We examined associations between rural residence and access to health care (adjusting for child's age, child's race/ethnicity, household income, parental employment, and parental and child's insurance type). A second logistic regression model controlled for child's special health care needs. Compared with urban children (reference = 1.00), rural children were more likely to have unmet medical care needs (odds ratio [OR] 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-2.04), problems getting dental care (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.03-1.79), and at least one emergency department visit in the past year (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.10-1.81). After adjusting for special health care needs (more prevalent among rural children), there was no rural-urban difference in unmet medical needs, but physician visits were more likely among rural children. There were no statistically significant differences in unmet prescription needs, delayed urgent care, or having a usual source of care. These findings suggest that access disparities between rural and urban low-income children persist, even after adjusting for health insurance. Coupled with continued expansions in children's health insurance coverage, targeted policy interventions are needed to ensure the availability of health care services for children in rural areas, especially those with special needs.

  19. PENGUKURAN NILAI OVERALL EQUIPMENT EFFECTIVENESS SEBAGAI DASAR USAHA PERBAIKAN PROSES MANUFAKTUR PADA LINI PRODUKSI (Studi Kasus pada Stamping Production Division Sebuah Industri Otomotif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robby Suhendra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE is an effectiveness measurement method of equipment utilization in the implementation of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM. The ability of identification in details toward main problem and the cause factors that makes the improvement efforts become more focused is the reason why this method applied comprehensively by all manufacturing companies around the world. Manufacturing process at Stamping Production Division an automotive isdustry still keeps some unrevealed problems. This condition makes the achievement of OEE figure below the target that means production equipments are not utilized optimally yet. The expression of main problem and the cause factors is needed before the company starts some improvement efforts. This research is started by understanding the equipment losses that existed in company. Then, measuring the achievement of OEE figure in one period and through the pareto analysis toward the measurement's results, the main problem and the cause factors are obtained and clearly depicted in cause-and-effect diagram. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE adalah metode pengukuran efektivitas penggunaan suatu peralatan. OEE dikenal sebagai salah satu aplikasi progam Total Productive Maintenance (TPM. Kemampuan mengidentifikasikan secara jelas akar permasalahan dan faktor penyebabnya sehingga membuat usaha perbaikan menjadi terfokus merupakan faktor utama metode ini diaplikasikan secara menyeluruh oleh banyak perusahaan didunia. Saat ini proses manufaktur di Stamping Production Division sebuah industri otomotif memiliki permasalahan yang belum terungkap jelas. Hal tersebut mengakibatkan penggunaan peralatan yang ada belum optimal. Pengungkapan akar masalah dan faktor penyebabnya diperlukan sebelum perusahaan melakukan usaha perbaikan. Penelitian ini dimulai dengan mengidentifikasi kerugian peralatan (Equipment Losses yang terjadi. Kemudian mengukur pencapaian nilai OEE

  20. Booster parameter list

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.

    1986-10-01

    The AGS Booster is designed to be an intermediate synchrotron injector for the AGS, capable of accelerating protons from 200 MeV to 1.5 GeV. The parameters listed include beam and operational parameters and lattice parameters, as well as parameters pertaining to the accelerator's magnets, vacuum system, radio frequency acceleration system, and the tunnel. 60 refs., 41 figs

  1. Lumped-parameter models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, M.

    2006-12-15

    A lumped-parameter model represents the frequency dependent soil-structure interaction of a massless foundation placed on or embedded into an unbounded soil domain. In this technical report the steps of establishing a lumped-parameter model are presented. Following sections are included in this report: Static and dynamic formulation, Simple lumped-parameter models and Advanced lumped-parameter models. (au)

  2. Reactivity parameters for safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    The reactor core model in the most commonly used computer programs for safety analysis is a point kinetics model. The core average fission rate is calculated knowing the reactivity, neutron generation time and delayed-neutron parameters. The reactivity is a time dependent function taking account of the effect of changes in water density and temperature, fuel temperature, control rod position and soluble boron concentration. In this presentation some of the alternative ways of representing this reactivity function are reviewed

  3. SUSY Parameter Measurements with Fittino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtle, P.; /SLAC; Desch, K.; Wienemann, P.; /Freiburg U.

    2005-12-14

    This article presents the results of a realistic global fit of the Lagrangian parameters of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with no assumptions on the SUSY breaking mechanism using the fit program Fittino. The fit is performed using the precision of future mass measurements of superpartners at the LHC and mass and polarized topological cross-section measurements at the ILC. Higher order radiative corrections are accounted for wherever possible to date. Results are obtained for a modified SPS1a MSSM benchmark scenario (general MSSM without assumptions on the breaking mechanism) and for a specific mSUGRA scenario. Exploiting a simulated annealing algorithm, a stable result is obtained without any a priori assumptions on the fit parameters. Most of the Lagrangian parameters can be extracted at the percent level or better if theoretical uncertainties are neglected. Neither LHC nor ILC measurements alone will be sufficient to obtain a stable result.

  4. Redefining solubility parameters: the partial solvation parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayiotou, Costas

    2012-03-21

    The present work reconsiders a classical and universally accepted concept of physical chemistry, the solubility parameter. Based on the insight derived from modern quantum chemical calculations, a new definition of solubility parameter is proposed, which overcomes some of the inherent restrictions of the original definition and expands its range of applications. The original single solubility parameter is replaced by four partial solvation parameters reflecting the dispersion, the polar, the acidic and the basic character of the chemical compounds as expressed either in their pure state or in mixtures. Simple rules are adopted for the definition and calculation of these four parameters and their values are tabulated for a variety of common substances. In contrast, however, to the well known Hansen solubility parameters, their design and evaluation does not rely exclusively on the basic rule of "similarity matching" for solubility but it makes also use of the other basic rule of compatibility, namely, the rule of "complementarity matching". This complementarity matching becomes particularly operational with the sound definition of the acidic and basic components of the solvation parameter based on the third σ-moments of the screening charge distributions of the quantum mechanics-based COSMO-RS theory. The new definitions are made in a simple and straightforward manner, thus, preserving the strength and appeal of solubility parameter stemming from its simplicity. The new predictive method has been applied to a variety of solubility data for systems of pharmaceuticals and polymers. The results from quantum mechanics calculations are critically compared with the results from Abraham's acid/base descriptors.

  5. Measuring the chargino parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Enlarging the spectrum of physical states together with the necessity of including the. SUSY breaking terms gives rise to a large number of parameters. Even in the minimal supersymmetric model (MSSM) more than 100 new parameters are introduced! This number of parameters, reflecting our ignorance of SUSY breaking ...

  6. Supersymmetry Parameter Analysis : SPA Convention and Project

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Allanach, Benjamin C; Arnowitt, R; Baer, H A; Bagger, J A; Balázs, C; Barger, V; Barnett, M; Bartl, Alfred; Battaglia, M; Bechtle, P; Belyaev, A; Berger, E L; Blair, G; Boos, E; Bélanger, G; Carena, M S; Choi, S Y; Deppisch, F; Desch, Klaus; Djouadi, A; Dutta, B; Dutta, S; Díaz, M A; Eberl, H; Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Erler, Jens; Fraas, H; Freitas, A; Fritzsche, T; Godbole, Rohini M; Gounaris, George J; Guasch, J; Gunion, J F; Haba, N; Haber, Howard E; Hagiwara, K; Han, L; Han, T; He, H J; Heinemeyer, S; Hesselbach, S; Hidaka, K; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hirsch, M; Hohenwarter-Sodek, K; Hollik, W; Hou, W S; Hurth, Tobias; Jack, I; Jiang, Y; Jones, D R T; Kalinowski, Jan; Kamon, T; Kane, G; Kang, S K; Kernreiter, T; Kilian, W; Kim, C S; King, S F; Kittel, O; Klasen, M; Kneur, J L; Kovarik, K; Kraml, Sabine; Krämer, M; Lafaye, R; Langacker, P; Logan, H E; Ma, W G; Majerotto, Walter; Martyn, H U; Matchev, K; Miller, D J; Mondragon, M; Moortgat-Pick, G; Moretti, S; Mori, T; Moultaka, G; Muanza, S; Mukhopadhyaya, B; Mühlleitner, M M; Nauenberg, U; Nojiri, M M; Nomura, D; Nowak, H; Okada, N; Olive, Keith A; Oller, W; Peskin, M; Plehn, T; Polesello, G; Porod, Werner; Quevedo, Fernando; Rainwater, D L; Reuter, J; Richardson, P; Rolbiecki, K; de Roeck, A; Weber, Ch.

    2006-01-01

    High-precision analyses of supersymmetry parameters aim at reconstructing the fundamental supersymmetric theory and its breaking mechanism. A well defined theoretical framework is needed when higher-order corrections are included. We propose such a scheme, Supersymmetry Parameter Analysis SPA, based on a consistent set of conventions and input parameters. A repository for computer programs is provided which connect parameters in different schemes and relate the Lagrangian parameters to physical observables at LHC and high energy e+e- linear collider experiments, i.e., masses, mixings, decay widths and production cross sections for supersymmetric particles. In addition, programs for calculating high-precision low energy observables, the density of cold dark matter (CDM) in the universe as well as the cross sections for CDM search experiments are included. The SPA scheme still requires extended efforts on both the theoretical and experimental side before data can be evaluated in the future at the level of the d...

  7. Characterization and methodology for calculating the mechanical properties of a TRIP-steel submitted to hot stamping and quenching and partitioning (Q&P)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariza, E.A.; Nishikawa, A.S; Goldenstein, H.; Tschiptschin, A.P.

    2016-01-01

    Thermomechanical simulation of quenching, hot stamping, and quenching and partitioning processes of a high-strength TRIP-assisted steel were carried out in a Gleeble®3S50 thermo-mechanical simulator, coupled to the synchrotron X-ray diffraction line. The microstructures and mechanical properties were analyzed using Field Emission Gun Scanning Electron Microscopy (FEG-SEM), X-ray diffraction, and nanoindentation. The microstructures of thermomechanical treated specimens were modeled using the Object Oriented Finite Element (OOF) technique. The modeled microstructures were then fed into a finite element model to predict the mechanical behavior. By using a reverse algorithm method, the elasto-plastic mechanical properties of different microconstituents were determined. This was done through the analysis of instrumented nanoindentation loading-penetration curves. Tensile properties of the thermomechanical processed steels were measured by tensile testing of subsized specimens cut from samples processed on the Gleeble®3S50. The comparison between the experimental results and those of the reverse algorithm and the OOF modeled microstructure showed quite good agreement.

  8. Characterization and methodology for calculating the mechanical properties of a TRIP-steel submitted to hot stamping and quenching and partitioning (Q&P)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ariza, E.A., E-mail: andersonariza@usp.br [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of São Paulo, Av. Prof. Mello Moraes, 2463, São Paulo, SP CEP 05508-030 (Brazil); Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory, LNNano, CNPEM, Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (Brazil); Nishikawa, A.S; Goldenstein, H. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of São Paulo, Av. Prof. Mello Moraes, 2463, São Paulo, SP CEP 05508-030 (Brazil); Tschiptschin, A.P. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of São Paulo, Av. Prof. Mello Moraes, 2463, São Paulo, SP CEP 05508-030 (Brazil); Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory, LNNano, CNPEM, Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (Brazil)

    2016-08-01

    Thermomechanical simulation of quenching, hot stamping, and quenching and partitioning processes of a high-strength TRIP-assisted steel were carried out in a Gleeble®3S50 thermo-mechanical simulator, coupled to the synchrotron X-ray diffraction line. The microstructures and mechanical properties were analyzed using Field Emission Gun Scanning Electron Microscopy (FEG-SEM), X-ray diffraction, and nanoindentation. The microstructures of thermomechanical treated specimens were modeled using the Object Oriented Finite Element (OOF) technique. The modeled microstructures were then fed into a finite element model to predict the mechanical behavior. By using a reverse algorithm method, the elasto-plastic mechanical properties of different microconstituents were determined. This was done through the analysis of instrumented nanoindentation loading-penetration curves. Tensile properties of the thermomechanical processed steels were measured by tensile testing of subsized specimens cut from samples processed on the Gleeble®3S50. The comparison between the experimental results and those of the reverse algorithm and the OOF modeled microstructure showed quite good agreement.

  9. STUDI BANDING PELAPISAN MATERIAL SKD11 DENGAN METODE PHYSICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION DAN THERMAL DIFUSION PADA KOMPONEN INSERT DIES MESIN STAMPING PRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertus Suryo Bisono

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan pelapisan menggunakan Titanium Alumunium Nitrid (TIAlN dengan metode PVD Coating (Physical Vapour Diposition dan TD (Thermal Difusion  untuk perlakuan permukaan baja perkakas SKD11 sebagai material Insert Die komponen mesin Stamping Press setelah perlakuan hardening. Perlakuan permukaan dimaksudkan untuk meningkatkan kualitas permukaan khususnya kekerasan dan perubahan struktur mikro yang terjadi. Untuk mengetahui tingkat keberhasilan dari perlakuan permukaan tersebut dilakukan dengan memvariasi waktu proses, masing masing 2 sample diproses pada 4 jam, 5 jam dan 6 jam dengan temperatur  proses masing-masing  400ᴼ C. Kemudian satu dari tiap variable sample tersebut di panaskan pada suhu 1000ᴼ C selama 1 jam, pendinginan dilalukan dengan udara bebas tanpa proses quenching Untuk mengetahui hasilnya dilakukan uji kekerasan mikro Vickers, pengamatan struktur mikro Scanning Eectron Microscope (SEM, dan pengujian komposisi dengan Energy Defersif Sepectroscopy (EDS untuk mengetahui tingkat penyerapan material terdifusi. Hasil menunjukan bahwa SKD11 yang dilapisi TiAlN dengan metode PVD selama 6 jam menghasilkan lapisan yang paling keras yaitu 1363 HV dengan ketebalan lapisan 5,3µm. Proses pemanasan 1000⁰C selama 1 jam pada sample mengakibatkan penurunan kekerasan sample dan lapisan permukaan sample menjadi lebih tebal hingga 50µm. Penambahan lapisan diakibatkan oleh terdifusinya atom atom yang menyusun lapisan TiAlN ke dalam substrat serta keluarnya atom atom penyusun lapisan hingga membentuk lapisan kompleks.

  10. Case Study to Illustrate the Potential of Conformal Cooling Channels for Hot Stamping Dies Manufactured Using Hybrid Process of Laser Metal Deposition (LMD and Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Cortina

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hot stamping dies include cooling channels to treat the formed sheet. The optimum cooling channels of dies and molds should adapt to the shape and surface of the dies, so that a homogeneous temperature distribution and cooling are guaranteed. Nevertheless, cooling ducts are conventionally manufactured by deep drilling, attaining straight channels unable to follow the geometry of the tool. Laser Metal Deposition (LMD is an additive manufacturing technique capable of fabricating nearly free-form integrated cooling channels and therefore shape the so-called conformal cooling. The present work investigates the design and manufacturing of conformal cooling ducts, which are additively built up on hot work steel and then milled in order to attain the final part. Their mechanical performance and heat transfer capability has been evaluated, both experimentally and by means of thermal simulation. Finally, conformal cooling conduits are evaluated and compared to traditional straight channels. The results show that LMD is a proper technology for the generation of cooling ducts, opening the possibility to produce new geometries on dies and molds and, therefore, new products.

  11. SYVAC3 parameter distribution package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres, T.; Skeet, A.

    1995-01-01

    SYVAC3 (Systems Variability Analysis Code, generation 3) is a computer program that implements a method called systems variability analysis to analyze the behaviour of a system in the presence of uncertainty. This method is based on simulating the system many times to determine the variation in behaviour it can exhibit. SYVAC3 specializes in systems representing the transport of contaminants, and has several features to simplify the modelling of such systems. It provides a general tool for estimating environmental impacts from the dispersal of contaminants. This report describes a software object type (a generalization of a data type) called Parameter Distribution. This object type is used in SYVAC3, and can also be used independently. Parameter Distribution has the following subtypes: beta distribution; binomial distribution; constant distribution; lognormal distribution; loguniform distribution; normal distribution; piecewise uniform distribution; Triangular distribution; and uniform distribution. Some of these distributions can be altered by correlating two parameter distribution objects. This report provides complete specifications for parameter distributions, and also explains how to use them. It should meet the needs of casual users, reviewers, and programmers who wish to add their own subtypes. (author). 30 refs., 75 tabs., 56 figs

  12. Cosmological Parameters 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Primack, Joel R.

    2000-01-01

    The cosmological parameters that I emphasize are the age of the universe $t_0$, the Hubble parameter $H_0 \\equiv 100 h$ km s$^{-1}$ Mpc$^{-1}$, the average matter density $\\Omega_m$, the baryonic matter density $\\Omega_b$, the neutrino density $\\Omega_\

  13. Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigby, D.; Mrugala, M.; Shideler, G.; Davidsavor, T.; Leem, J.; Buesch, D.; Sun, Y.; Potyondy, D.; Christianson, M.

    2003-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project is entering a the license application (LA) stage in its mission to develop the nation's first underground nuclear waste repository. After a number of years of gathering data related to site characterization, including activities ranging from laboratory and site investigations, to numerical modeling of processes associated with conditions to be encountered in the future repository, the Project is realigning its activities towards the License Application preparation. At the current stage, the major efforts are directed at translating the results of scientific investigations into sets of data needed to support the design, and to fulfill the licensing requirements and the repository design activities. This document addresses the program need to address specific technical questions so that an assessment can be made about the suitability and adequacy of data to license and construct a repository at the Yucca Mountain Site. In July 2002, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published an Integrated Issue Resolution Status Report (NRC 2002). Included in this report were the Repository Design and Thermal-Mechanical Effects (RDTME) Key Technical Issues (KTI). Geotechnical agreements were formulated to resolve a number of KTI subissues, in particular, RDTME KTIs 3.04, 3.05, 3.07, and 3.19 relate to the physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the host rock (NRC 2002, pp. 2.1.1-28, 2.1.7-10 to 2.1.7-21, A-17, A-18, and A-20). The purpose of the Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report is to present an accounting of current geotechnical information that will help resolve KTI subissues and some other project needs. The report analyzes and summarizes available qualified geotechnical data. It evaluates the sufficiency and quality of existing data to support engineering design and performance assessment. In addition, the corroborative data obtained from tests performed by a number of research organizations is presented to reinforce

  14. Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Rigby; M. Mrugala; G. Shideler; T. Davidsavor; J. Leem; D. Buesch; Y. Sun; D. Potyondy; M. Christianson

    2003-12-17

    The Yucca Mountain Project is entering a the license application (LA) stage in its mission to develop the nation's first underground nuclear waste repository. After a number of years of gathering data related to site characterization, including activities ranging from laboratory and site investigations, to numerical modeling of processes associated with conditions to be encountered in the future repository, the Project is realigning its activities towards the License Application preparation. At the current stage, the major efforts are directed at translating the results of scientific investigations into sets of data needed to support the design, and to fulfill the licensing requirements and the repository design activities. This document addresses the program need to address specific technical questions so that an assessment can be made about the suitability and adequacy of data to license and construct a repository at the Yucca Mountain Site. In July 2002, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published an Integrated Issue Resolution Status Report (NRC 2002). Included in this report were the Repository Design and Thermal-Mechanical Effects (RDTME) Key Technical Issues (KTI). Geotechnical agreements were formulated to resolve a number of KTI subissues, in particular, RDTME KTIs 3.04, 3.05, 3.07, and 3.19 relate to the physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the host rock (NRC 2002, pp. 2.1.1-28, 2.1.7-10 to 2.1.7-21, A-17, A-18, and A-20). The purpose of the Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report is to present an accounting of current geotechnical information that will help resolve KTI subissues and some other project needs. The report analyzes and summarizes available qualified geotechnical data. It evaluates the sufficiency and quality of existing data to support engineering design and performance assessment. In addition, the corroborative data obtained from tests performed by a number of research organizations is presented to reinforce

  15. Forest Biophysical Parameters (SNF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Biophysical parameters (DBH, NPP, biomass, bark area index, LAI, subcanopy LAI) by study site for Aspen and Spruce in the Superior National Forest, MN (SNF)

  16. SATELLITE CONSTELLATION DESIGN PARAMETER

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. SATELLITE CONSTELLATION DESIGN PARAMETER. 1. ORBIT CHARACTERISTICS. ORBITAL HEIGHT >= 20,000 KM. LONGER VISIBILITY; ORBITAL PERIOD. PERTURBATIONS(MINIMUM). SOLAR RADIATION PRESSURE (IMPACTS ECCENTRICITY); LUNI ...

  17. Reassessment of safeguards parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Richter, J.L.; Mullen, M.F.

    1994-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency is reassessing the timeliness and goal quantity parameters that are used in defining safeguards approaches. This study reviews technology developments since the parameters were established in the 1970s and concludes that there is no reason to relax goal quantity or conversion time for reactor-grade plutonium relative to weapons-grade plutonium. For low-enriched uranium, especially in countries with advanced enrichment capability there may be an incentive to shorten the detection time.

  18. C++ Programming Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    C++ Programming Language: The C++ seminar covers the fundamentals of C++ programming language. The C++ fundamentals are grouped into three parts where each part includes both concept and programming examples aimed at for hands-on practice. The first part covers the functional aspect of C++ programming language with emphasis on function parameters and efficient memory utilization. The second part covers the essential framework of C++ programming language, the object-oriented aspects. Information necessary to evaluate various features of object-oriented programming; including encapsulation, polymorphism and inheritance will be discussed. The last part of the seminar covers template and generic programming. Examples include both user defined and standard templates.

  19. Influence of operating parameters on tar yield in coke oven batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, U.S.; Kumar, D.; Sarkar, P.; Kumar, A. [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur (India)

    2002-07-01

    The requirements on coke quality and cost consciousness have changed the cokemaking practical at Tata Steel significantly. The changes are on two fronts - firstly, the very technology itself and secondly, the coal blend for cokemaking. On the technological front, various pre-carbonization techniques with their specific pros and cons are available. Likewise, there is an increase in the variety of coals used for cokemaking - coals ranging from non-coking to semi-hard coking characteristics and with a range of volatile matter have been used in the recent years. This may be looked at as the outcome of advancement in cokemaking technology - the pre-carbonization techniques. However, the influence of such changes in cokemaking recovery of by-product is not very well established, particularly the most valuable one, coal tar. The coal tar yield is governed by the content of volatile matter, its characteristics, the extent of cracking during carbonization inside the oven and transport of the gas from the oven to the tar collector. The cracking of volatiles is guided by the thermal regime inside the oven, the free-space and the gas carrying main as well as the space between the coal cake and the oven wall. Stamp charging technology, in which coal is charged in the form of a cake into the ovens at higher bulk density, provides greater opportunity for cracking of the volatiles resulting in lower tar yield. This paper outlines the theoretical considerations for increasing the tar yield and validates it with some significant parameters under operating conditions in an industrial plant having both stamp charged as well as conventional top charged ovens. 12 refs., 14 figs.

  20. Development of a dual-energy computed tomography quality control program: Characterization of scanner response and definition of relevant parameters for a fast-kVp switching dual-energy computed tomography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nute, Jessica L; Jacobsen, Megan C; Stefan, Wolfgang; Wei, Wei; Cody, Dianna D

    2018-04-01

    A prototype QC phantom system and analysis process were developed to characterize the spectral capabilities of a fast kV-switching dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) scanner. This work addresses the current lack of quantitative oversight for this technology, with the goal of identifying relevant scan parameters and test metrics instrumental to the development of a dual-energy quality control (DEQC). A prototype elliptical phantom (effective diameter: 35 cm) was designed with multiple material inserts for DECT imaging. Inserts included tissue equivalent and material rods (including iodine and calcium at varying concentrations). The phantom was scanned on a fast kV-switching DECT system using 16 dual-energy acquisitions (CTDIvol range: 10.3-62 mGy) with varying pitch, rotation time, and tube current. The circular head phantom (22 cm diameter) was scanned using a similar protocol (12 acquisitions; CTDIvol range: 36.7-132.6 mGy). All acquisitions were reconstructed at 50, 70, 110, and 140 keV and using a water-iodine material basis pair. The images were evaluated for iodine quantification accuracy, stability of monoenergetic reconstruction CT number, noise, and positional constancy. Variance component analysis was used to identify technique parameters that drove deviations in test metrics. Variances were compared to thresholds derived from manufacturer tolerances to determine technique parameters that had a nominally significant effect on test metrics. Iodine quantification error was largely unaffected by any of the technique parameters investigated. Monoenergetic HU stability was found to be affected by mAs, with a threshold under which spectral separation was unsuccessful, diminishing the utility of DECT imaging. Noise was found to be affected by CTDIvol in the DEQC body phantom, and CTDIvol and mA in the DEQC head phantom. Positional constancy was found to be affected by mAs in the DEQC body phantom and mA in the DEQC head phantom. A streamlined scan protocol

  1. Magnetic S-parameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    the magnetic S-parameter, i.e. the one determined via the dual magnetic gauge theory, assumes a simple expression in terms of the elementary magnetic degrees of freedom. The results further support our recent conjecture of the existence of a universal lower bound on the S parameter and indicates...... that it is an ideal operator for counting the active physical degrees of freedom within the conformal window. Our results can be directly used to unveil possible four dimensional gauge duals and constitute the first explicit computation of a nonperturbative quantity, in the electric variables, via nonsupersymmetric...

  2. PARAMETER DESIGN PROPELLER KAPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ridwan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available   Designer propeller kapal harus mempertimbangkan berbagai parameter untuk menghasilkan bentuk, type dan ukuran propeller yang memiliki nilai  efektifitas dan effisiensi propulsi tinggi. Propulsi kapal merupakan faktor yang mendominasi  operasional kapal, karena pemakaian bahan bakar untuk operasional propulsi kapal merupakan 42% dari total cost operasional kapal dan merupakan added value yang akan diperoleh oleh perusahaan pelayaran. Pertimbangan parameter desain propeller argonomis dapat mendukung tujuan di atas sehingga dapat menurunkan pemakaian bahan bakar hingga 20 % saat kapal dioperaionalkan.

  3. Band parameters of phosphorene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lew Yan Voon, L. C.; Wang, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorene is a two-dimensional nanomaterial with a direct band-gap at the Brillouin zone center. In this paper, we present a recently derived effective-mass theory of the band structure in the presence of strain and electric field, based upon group theory. Band parameters for this theory...... are computed using a first-principles theory based upon the generalized-gradient approximation to the density-functional theory. These parameters and Hamiltonian will be useful for modeling physical properties of phosphorene....

  4. Evaluating the benefits of vaccination when used in combination with stamping-out measures against hypothetical introductions of foot-and-mouth disease into New Zealand: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanson, R L; Rawdon, T; Owen, K; Hickey, K; van Andel, M; Yu, Z D

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the benefits of vaccination against simulated outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in New Zealand, when applied as an additional measure to stamping-out. A simulation modelling approach was used. The study population comprised all known farms in New Zealand with FMD-susceptible livestock. Infection was seeded into three different areas of New Zealand. Transmission mechanisms included direct and indirect contacts, local spread and airborne spread. Efficacies of some of the stamping-out measures were varied. Vaccination strategies involved different start times, size and type of vaccination zone, and species vaccinated. Personnel resources for vaccination were varied as was the herd immunity profile following vaccination. Altogether, 336 models were specified, with 100 iterations conducted for each model. Generalised linear modelling and boosted regression trees were used to evaluate which variables had the biggest effect on the number of infected premises (IP), epidemic duration and area under control. Vaccination, when used as an adjunct to the standard stamping-out programme, significantly reduced the outbreak size. Vaccination reduced the median number of IP by 26 (95% CI=18-35), epidemic duration by 16 (95% CI=13-19) days and area under control by 474 (95% CI=250-699) km 2 when there was no airborne spread; and when there was airborne spread the median reduction was 87 (95% CI=70-105) IP, 32 (95% CI=28-35) days and 898 (95% CI=665-1139) km 2 , respectively. Multivariable analyses showed that starting vaccination 11 days after first detection of FMD produced greater benefits than starting 16 or 21 days after detection. Increasing vaccination zones resulted in increased benefits. Boosted regression tree analyses showed that the most influential variables on the outcome measures were interval to first detection, incursion location, whether there was airborne spread or not and herd immunity profile. This study showed that there are benefits to

  5. Evaluation of the Possibility of Performing Cold Backward Extrusion of Axisymmetrical Thinwalled Aluminum Die Stampings with Square Section / Ocena Możliwości Wyciskania Przeciwbieżnego Na Zimno Osiowosymetrycznych Wyprasek Z Cienką Ścianką O Przekroju Kwadratowym Z Aluminium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miłek T.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents evaluation of the possibility of performing cold backward extrusion of axisymmetrical thin-walled aluminum (Al 99.50, ENAW-1050A die stampings with a square section at the strain ε=ln(A0/A1=2 (where A0 - cross sectional area of the billet, A1 - cross sectional area of the die stamping, and the ratio h1/b=3.6 (where h1 - height of the die stamping in mm, b - width of the base of the die stamping in mm. The analysis was conducted on the basis of the results of computer modelling (FEM and experimental investigations on backward extrusion. The boundary conditions for numerical calculations were determined experimentally with respect to the flow curve and mechanical properties of aluminum. The results of investigations into backward extrusion of thin-walled square-sectioned aluminum die stampings might be used as guidelines to develop a technological process for industrial practice.

  6. Possible Extent and Depth of Salt Contamination in Ground Water Using Geophysical Techniques, Red River Aluminum Site, Stamps, Arkansas, April 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Gregory P.; Kress, Wade; Hobza, Christopher M.; Czarnecki, John B.

    2003-01-01

    A surface-geophysical investigation of the Red River Aluminum site at Stamps, Arkansas, was conducted in cooperation with the Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality to determine the possible extent and depth of saltwater contamination. Water-level measurements indicate the distance to water level below land surface ranges from about 1.2 to 3.9 feet (0.37 to 1.19 meters) in shallow monitor wells and about 10.5 to 17.1 feet (3.20 to 5.21 meters) in deeper monitoring wells. The two-dimensional, direct-current resistivity method identified resistivities less than 5 ohm-meters which indicated possible areas of salt contamination occurring in near-surface or deep subsurface ground water along four resistivity lines within the site. One line located east of the site yielded data that demonstrated no effect of salt contamination. Sections from two of the five data sets were modeled. The input model grids were created on the basis of the known geology and the results and interpretations of borehole geophysical data. The clay-rich Cook Mountain Formation is modeled as 25 ohm-meters and extends from 21 meters (68.9 feet) below land surface to the bottom of the model (about 52 meters (170.6 feet)). The models were used to refine interpretation of the resistivity data and to determine extent of saltwater contamination and depth to the Cook Mountain Formation. Data from the resistivity lines indicate both near-surface and subsurface saltwater contamination. The near-surface contamination appears as low resistivity (less than 5 ohm-meters) on four of the five resistivity lines, extending up to 775 meters (2,542.8 feet) horizontally in a line that traverses the entire site south to north. Model resistivity data indicate that the total depth of saltwater contamination is about 18 meters (59 feet) below land surface. Data from four resistivity lines identified areas containing low resistivity anomalies interpreted as possible salt contamination. A fifth line located just east

  7. Measuring the chargino parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    After the supersymmetric particles have been discovered, the priority will be to determine independently the fundamental parameters to reveal the structure of the underlying supersymmetric theory. In my talk I discuss how the chargino sector can be reconstructed completely by measuring the cross-sections with polarized ...

  8. Measuring the chargino parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Instytut Fizyki Teoretycznej UW, Hoza 69, 00681 Warszawa, Poland. Abstract. After the supersymmetric particles have been discovered, the priority will be to deter- mine independently the fundamental parameters to reveal the structure of the underlying super- symmetric theory. In my talk I discuss how the chargino sector ...

  9. Dynamic Stability Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    on an aircraft fuselage or a slender body, as is demonstrated by the results obtained by Ruben 1 for his strut design (Fig. 13). Perkins showed the...are unique and demonstrate a very successful symbiosis of the powerful and flexible tool of parameter identification together with highly qualified

  10. Response model parameter linking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrett, M.L.D.

    2015-01-01

    With a few exceptions, the problem of linking item response model parameters from different item calibrations has been conceptualized as an instance of the problem of equating observed scores on different test forms. This thesis argues, however, that the use of item response models does not require

  11. PESTO: Parameter EStimation TOolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapor, Paul; Weindl, Daniel; Ballnus, Benjamin; Hug, Sabine; Loos, Carolin; Fiedler, Anna; Krause, Sabrina; Hroß, Sabrina; Fröhlich, Fabian; Hasenauer, Jan; Wren, Jonathan

    2018-02-15

    PESTO is a widely applicable and highly customizable toolbox for parameter estimation in MathWorks MATLAB. It offers scalable algorithms for optimization, uncertainty and identifiability analysis, which work in a very generic manner, treating the objective function as a black box. Hence, PESTO can be used for any parameter estimation problem, for which the user can provide a deterministic objective function in MATLAB. PESTO is a MATLAB toolbox, freely available under the BSD license. The source code, along with extensive documentation and example code, can be downloaded from https://github.com/ICB-DCM/PESTO/. jan.hasenauer@helmholtz-muenchen.de. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Ovarian reserve parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J G; Forman, Julie Lyng; Pinborg, Anja

    2012-01-01

    2-5 of the menstrual cycle or during withdrawal bleeding, blood sampling and transvaginal sonography was performed. After adjusting for age, ovarian reserve parameters were lower among users than among non-users of hormonal contraception: serum AMH concentration by 29.8% (95% CI 19.9 to 38...... was observed between duration of hormonal-contraception use and ovarian reserve parameters. No dose-response relation was found between the dose of ethinyloestradiol and AMH or AFC. This study indicates that ovarian reserve markers are lower in women using sex steroids for contraception. Thus, AMH...... concentration and AFC may not retain their accuracy as predictors of ovarian reserve in women using hormonal contraception. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentration is an indirect marker of the number of small follicles in the ovary and thereby the ovarian reserve. The AMH concentration is now widely...

  13. Calculation of shielding parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya Z, J.

    1994-01-01

    With the propose of reduce the hazard to radiation, exist three basic factors: a) time, the time to exposition to working person inside to area, from exist determined speed the doses, is proportional of the time permanence; b) distance, the reduce to doses is inverse square of the distance to exposition point; c) building, consist to interpose between source and exposition point to material. The main aspect development to the analysis of parameters distance and building. The analysis consist to development of the mathematical implicit, in the model of source radioactive, beginning with the geometry to source, distance to exposition source, and configuration building. In the final part was realize one comparative studied to calculus of parameters to blinding, employs two codes CPBGAM and MICROSHIELD, the first made as part to work thesis. The point source its a good approximation to any one real source, but in the majority of the time to propose analysis the spatial distribution of the source must realized in explicit way. The buildings calculus in volumetry's source can be approximate begin's of plan as source adaptations. It's important to have present that not only the building exist the exposition to the radiation, and the parameters time and distance plays an important paper too. (Author)

  14. Method for Determining the Time Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Baslyk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a method for calculating one of the characteristics that represents the flight program of the first stage of ballistic rocket i.e. time parameter of the program of attack angle.In simulation of placing the payload for the first stage, a program of flight is used which consists of three segments, namely a vertical climb of the rocket, a segment of programmed reversal by attack angle, and a segment of gravitational reversal with zero angle of attack.The programed reversal by attack angle is simulated as a rapidly decreasing and increasing function. This function depends on the attack angle amplitude, time and time parameter.If the projected and ballistic parameters and the amplitude of attack angle were determined this coefficient is calculated based the constraint that the rocket velocity is equal to 0.8 from the sound velocity (0,264 km/sec when the angle of attack becomes equal to zero. Such constraint is transformed to the nonlinear equation, which can be solved using a Newton method.The attack angle amplitude value is unknown for the design analysis. Exceeding some maximum admissible value for this parameter may lead to excessive trajectory collapsing (foreshortening, which can be identified as an arising negative trajectory angle.Consequently, therefore it is necessary to compute the maximum value of the attack angle amplitude with the following constraints: a trajectory angle is positive during the entire first stage flight and the rocket velocity is equal to 0,264 km/sec by the end of program of angle attack. The problem can be formulated as a task of the nonlinear programming, minimization of the modified Lagrange function, which is solved using the multipliers method.If multipliers and penalty parameter are constant the optimization problem without constraints takes place. Using the determined coordinate descent method allows solving the problem of modified Lagrange function of unconstrained minimization with fixed

  15. ATLAS parameter study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to make an independent assessment on the parameters chosen for the ATLAS capacitor bank at LANL. The contractor will perform a study of the basic pulsed power parameters of the ATLAS device with baseline functional parameters of >25 MA implosion current and <2.5 microsecond current risetime. Nominal circuit parameters held fixed will be the 14 nH from the vacuum interface to the load, and the nominal load impedances of 1 milliohm for slow loads and 10 milliohms for fast loads. Single Ended designs, as opposed to bipolar designs, will be studied in detail. The ATLAS pulsed power design problem is about inductance. The reason that a 36 MJ bank is required is that such a bank has enough individual capacitors so that the parallel inductance is acceptably low. Since about half the inductance is in the bank, and the inductance and time constant of the submodules is fixed, the variation of output with a given parameter will generally be a weak one. In general, the dl/dt calculation demonstrates that for the real system inductances, 700 kV is the optimum voltage for the bank to drive X-ray loads. The optimum is broad, and there is little reduction in performance at voltages as low as 450 kV. The direct drive velocity analysis also shows that the optimum velocity is between 480 and 800 kV for a variety of assumptions, and that there is less than a 10% variation in velocity over this range. Voltages in the 120 kV--600 kV range are desirable for driving heavy liners. A compromise optimum operating point might be 480 kV, at which all X-ray operation scenarios are within 10% of their velocity optimum, and heavy liners can be configured to be near optimum if small enough. Based on very preliminary studies the author believes that the choice of a single operating voltage point (say, 480 kV) is unnecessary, and that a bank engineered for dual operation at 480 and 240 kV will be the best solution to the ATLAS problem

  16. ABOUT THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE ISSUES SIGN OF LANGUAGE SYSTEM AND STAMP OF LANGUAGE SYSTEM DİLİN İŞARET SİSTEMİYLE DİLİN DAMGA SİSTEMİ ARASINDAKİ MESELELERİN İLİŞKİSİ HAKKINDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekmağanbetov ŞANJARHAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it is elaborated that ‘stamp system’ which is considered as one of basic issues of linguistics. Stamps of language and some particular features of these stamps are mentioned. In Turkish consideration, there are dimension, size of stamp and the stamp’s being profound and substantive. In modern linguistics, notion of stamp is used instead of notion znak ‘symbol’ in Russian, and notion sign ‘sign’ in English. In the article, after the explanation of the notion of UP (flat universe emerged with worldly basis, it is made mention that language is all associated with the stamp system(s. Bu makalede, genel dil bilimin temel konularından biri kabul edilen dilin ‘damga sistemi’ üzerinde durulmuştur. Dil damgalarından ve bu damgaların belli özelliklerinden söz edilmiştir. Türk’ün düşüncesinde damganın genişliği, büyüklüğü, derin ve anlamlı oluşu vardır. Çağdaş dil biliminde damga kavramı, Rusçada znak ‘simge’, İngilizcede sign ‘işaret’ kavramının yerine kullanılmaktadır. Makalede, dünyevî temel ile ortaya çıkan UP (âlem daire kavramı açıklandıktan sonra dilin damga/lar sistemi üzerine oturtulduğundan söz edilmiştir.

  17. Supersymmetry Parameter Analysis: SPA Convention and Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinchliffe, I.; et al.

    2005-05-05

    High-precision analyses of supersymmetry parameters aim atreconstructing the fundamental supersymmetric theory and its breakingmechanism. A well defined theoretical framework is needed whenhigher-order corrections are included. We propose such a scheme,Supersymmetry Parameter Analysis SPA, based on a consistent set ofconventions and input parameters. A repository for computer programs isprovided which connect parameters in different schemes and relate theLagrangian parameters to physical observables at LHC and high energy e+e-linear collider experiments, i.e., masses, mixings, decay widths andproduction cross sections for supersymmetric particles. In addition,programs for calculating high-precision low energy observables, thedensity of cold dark matter (CDM) in the universe as well as the crosssections for CDM search experiments are included. The SPA scheme stillrequires extended efforts on both the theoretical and experimental sidebefore data can be evaluated in the future at the level of the desiredprecision. We take here an initial step of testing the SPA scheme byapplying the techniques involved to a specific supersymmetry referencepoint.

  18. Low prevalence of hepatitis B and C among tuberculosis patients in Duhok Province, Kurdistan: Are HBsAg and anti-HCV prerequisite screening parameters in tuberculosis control program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merza, Muayad A; Haji, Safer M; Alsharafani, Abid Mohialdeen Hasan; Muhammed, Shivan U

    2016-09-01

    Viral hepatitis, particularly hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), infections and tuberculosis (TB) are a global public health concern. Co-infection with HBV or HCV among TB patients may potentiate the risk of hepatotoxicity induced by anti-TB drugs. Hence, the aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of HBV and HCV among TB patients included in the Duhok National Tuberculosis Program (NTP). The Duhok NTP Center is a specialized institution in Duhok City, Iraq, concerned with management and follow-up of TB patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the center between June 2015 and May 2016. All documented TB patients were analyzed on the basis of socio-demographic and other characteristics. Thereafter, all patients underwent screening for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HCV, and anti-HIV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results obtained were analyzed by entering the data in binary format into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. A p value of Kurdistan, the negative history of injection drug use, and adherence to universal infection-control measures, including vaccination for HBV. Both history of dental intervention and belonging to a Syrian population were independent risk factors for HBV/TB co-infection. Copyright © 2016 Asian-African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Estimating RASATI scores using acoustical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agüero, P D; Tulli, J C; Moscardi, G; Gonzalez, E L; Uriz, A J

    2011-01-01

    Acoustical analysis of speech using computers has reached an important development in the latest years. The subjective evaluation of a clinician is complemented with an objective measure of relevant parameters of voice. Praat, MDVP (Multi Dimensional Voice Program) and SAV (Software for Voice Analysis) are some examples of software for speech analysis. This paper describes an approach to estimate the subjective characteristics of RASATI scale given objective acoustical parameters. Two approaches were used: linear regression with non-negativity constraints, and neural networks. The experiments show that such approach gives correct evaluations with ±1 error in 80% of the cases.

  20. Key parameters governing metallic nanoparticle electrocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yue; Cheng, Wenlong

    2015-10-21

    Engineering metallic nanoparticles constitutes a powerful route to design next-generation electrocatalysts to be used in future energy and environmental industries. In this mini review, we cover recent advances in metallic nanoparticle electrocatalysis, with a focus on understanding how the parameters such as particle sizes, crystalline structures, shapes, compositions, nanoscale alloying and interfaces influence their electrocatalytic activity and selectivity. In addition, this review highlights viable approaches for fabrication of nanoparticle-based electrocatalytic electrodes and discusses their influences on the overall catalytic performances. Finally, we discuss the opportunities and challenges ahead to program these key parameters to achieve highly durable designer electrocatalysts in future.

  1. Radiation portal evaluation parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    York, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    The detection of the unauthorized movement of radioactive materials is one of the most effective nonproliferation measures. Automatic special nuclear material (SNM) portal monitors are designed to detect this unauthorized movement and are an important part of the safeguard systems at US nuclear facilities. SNM portals differ from contamination monitors because they are designed to have high sensitivity for the low energy gamma-rays associated with highly enriched uranium (HEU) and plutonium. These instruments are now being installed at international borders to prevent the spread of radioactive contamination an SNM. In this paper the parameters important to evaluating radiation portal monitors are discussed. (author)

  2. CELSS engineering parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drysdale, Alan; Sager, John; Wheeler, Ray; Fortson, Russ; Chetirkin, Peter

    1993-01-01

    The most important Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) engineering parameters are, in order of decreasing importance, manpower, mass, and energy. The plant component is a significant contributor to the total system equivalent mass. In this report, a generic plant component is described and the relative equivalent mass and productivity are derived for a number of instances taken from the KSC CELSS Breadboard Project data and literature. Typical specific productivities (edible biomass produced over 10 years divided by system equivalent mass) for closed systems are of the order of 0.2.

  3. Timetable Attractiveness Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schittenhelm, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Timetable attractiveness is influenced by a set of key parameters that are described in this article. Regarding the superior structure of the timetable, the trend in Europe goes towards periodic regular interval timetables. Regular departures and focus on optimal transfer possibilities make...... these timetables attractive. The travel time in the timetable depends on the characteristics of the infrastructure and rolling stock, the heterogeneity of the planned train traffic and the necessary number of transfers on the passenger’s journey. Planned interdependencies between trains, such as transfers...

  4. Infrared Drying Parameter Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew R.

    In recent years, much research has been done to explore direct printing methods, such as screen and inkjet printing, as alternatives to the traditional lithographic process. The primary motivation is reduction of the material costs associated with producing common electronic devices. Much of this research has focused on developing inkjet or screen paste formulations that can be printed on a variety of substrates, and which have similar conductivity performance to the materials currently used in the manufacturing of circuit boards and other electronic devices. Very little research has been done to develop a process that would use direct printing methods to manufacture electronic devices in high volumes. This study focuses on developing and optimizing a drying process for conductive copper ink in a high volume manufacturing setting. Using an infrared (IR) dryer, it was determined that conductive copper prints could be dried in seconds or minutes as opposed to tens of minutes or hours that it would take with other drying devices, such as a vacuum oven. In addition, this study also identifies significant parameters that can affect the conductivity of IR dried prints. Using designed experiments and statistical analysis; the dryer parameters were optimized to produce the best conductivity performance for a specific ink formulation and substrate combination. It was determined that for an ethylene glycol, butanol, 1-methoxy 2- propanol ink formulation printed on Kapton, the optimal drying parameters consisted of a dryer height of 4 inches, a temperature setting between 190 - 200°C, and a dry time of 50-65 seconds depending on the printed film thickness as determined by the number of print passes. It is important to note that these parameters are optimized specifically for the ink formulation and substrate used in this study. There is still much research that needs to be done into optimizing the IR dryer for different ink substrate combinations, as well as developing a

  5. Engineering parameters for expansion of MPT berths, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayakumar, S.; Chandramohan, P.; Jena, B.K.; Pednekar, P.S.

    Comprehensive program for a harbour development and management requires general and detailed information on the coastal environment including engineering characteristics in addition to physical, chemical and biological parameters. Mormugao Port...

  6. Low prevalence of hepatitis B and C among tuberculosis patients in Duhok Province, Kurdistan: Are HBsAg and anti-HCV prerequisite screening parameters in tuberculosis control program?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muayad A Merza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective/background: Viral hepatitis, particularly hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV, infections and tuberculosis (TB are a global public health concern. Co-infection with HBV or HCV among TB patients may potentiate the risk of hepatotoxicity induced by anti-TB drugs. Hence, the aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of HBV and HCV among TB patients included in the Duhok National Tuberculosis Program (NTP. Methods: The Duhok NTP Center is a specialized institution in Duhok City, Iraq, concerned with management and follow-up of TB patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the center between June 2015 and May 2016. All documented TB patients were analyzed on the basis of socio-demographic and other characteristics. Thereafter, all patients underwent screening for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The results obtained were analyzed by entering the data in binary format into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. A p value of <.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Two-hundred fourteen documented TB patients were recruited in this study, with 127 (59.3% males and 87 (40.7% females. The mean age of the patients was 40.34 years (±20.29. Of the total number of patients, four cases (1.8% were HBsAg-positive and one case (0.9% was positive for anti-HCV. The variables significantly associated with HBV were history of surgical dental procedure [odds ratio (OR, 0.04; 95% confidence interval (CI, −0.01 to 0.04; p = .03], and nationality (OR, 13.67; 95% CI, 0.46–210.85; p = .007. Conclusion: The prevalence of HBV and HCV co-infection among TB patients in this study was low. This may be explained by the low rate of blood transfusion among the patients, the very low prevalence of HIV infections in Kurdistan, the negative history of injection drug use, and adherence to universal infection-control measures, including vaccination for HBV

  7. Display Parameters and Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur, Birendra

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * HUMAN FACTORS * Anthropometry * Sensory * Cognitive * Discussions * THE HUMAN VISUAL SYSTEM - CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS * Cornea * Pupil and Iris * Lens * Vitreous Humor * Retina * RODS - NIGHT VISION * CONES - DAY VISION * RODS AND CONES - TWILIGHT VISION * VISUAL PIGMENTS * MACULA * BLOOD * CHOROID COAT * Visual Signal Processing * Pathways to the Brain * Spatial Vision * Temporal Vision * Colour Vision * Colour Blindness * DICHROMATISM * Protanopia * Deuteranopia * Tritanopia * ANOMALOUS TRICHROMATISM * Protanomaly * Deuteranomaly * Tritanomaly * CONE MONOCHROMATISM * ROD MONOCHROMATISM * Using Colour Effectively * COLOUR MIXTURES AND THE CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM * Colour Matching Functions and Chromaticity Co-ordinates * CIE 1931 Colour Space * CIE PRIMARIES * CIE COLOUR MATCHING FUNCTIONS AND CHROMATICITY CO-ORDINATES * METHODS FOR DETERMINING TRISTIMULUS VALUES AND COLOUR CO-ORDINATES * Spectral Power Distribution Method * Filter Method * CIE 1931 CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM * ADDITIVE COLOUR MIXTURE * CIE 1976 Chromaticity Diagram * CIE Uniform Colour Spaces and Colour Difference Formulae * CIELUV OR L*u*v* * CIELAB OR L*a*b* * CIE COLOUR DIFFERENCE FORMULAE * Colour Temperature and CIE Standard Illuminants and source * RADIOMETRIC AND PHOTOMETRIC QUANTITIES * Photopic (Vλ and Scotopic (Vλ') Luminous Efficiency Function * Photometric and Radiometric Flux * Luminous and Radiant Intensities * Incidence: Illuminance and Irradiance * Exitance or Emittance (M) * Luminance and Radiance * ERGONOMIC REQUIREMENTS OF DISPLAYS * ELECTRO-OPTICAL PARAMETERS AND REQUIREMENTS * Contrast and Contrast Ratio * Luminance and Brightness * Colour Contrast and Chromaticity * Glare * Other Aspects of Legibility * SHAPE AND SIZE OF CHARACTERS * DEFECTS AND BLEMISHES * FLICKER AND DISTORTION * ANGLE OF VIEW * Switching Speed * Threshold and Threshold Characteristic * Measurement Techniques For Electro-optical Parameters * RADIOMETRIC

  8. varying elastic parameters distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Moussawi, Ali

    2014-12-01

    The experimental identication of mechanical properties is crucial in mechanics for understanding material behavior and for the development of numerical models. Classical identi cation procedures employ standard shaped specimens, assume that the mechanical elds in the object are homogeneous, and recover global properties. Thus, multiple tests are required for full characterization of a heterogeneous object, leading to a time consuming and costly process. The development of non-contact, full- eld measurement techniques from which complex kinematic elds can be recorded has opened the door to a new way of thinking. From the identi cation point of view, suitable methods can be used to process these complex kinematic elds in order to recover multiple spatially varying parameters through one test or a few tests. The requirement is the development of identi cation techniques that can process these complex experimental data. This thesis introduces a novel identi cation technique called the constitutive compatibility method. The key idea is to de ne stresses as compatible with the observed kinematic eld through the chosen class of constitutive equation, making possible the uncoupling of the identi cation of stress from the identi cation of the material parameters. This uncoupling leads to parametrized solutions in cases where 5 the solution is non-unique (due to unknown traction boundary conditions) as demonstrated on 2D numerical examples. First the theory is outlined and the method is demonstrated in 2D applications. Second, the method is implemented within a domain decomposition framework in order to reduce the cost for processing very large problems. Finally, it is extended to 3D numerical examples. Promising results are shown for 2D and 3D problems.

  9. Characteristic parameters of drift chambers calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, I.; Martinez-Laso, L.

    1989-01-01

    We present here the methods we used to analyse the characteristic parameters of drift chambers. The algorithms to calculate the electric potential in any point for any drift chamber geometry are presented. We include the description of the programs used to calculate the electric field, the drift paths, the drift velocity and the drift time. The results and the errors are discussed. (Author) 7 refs

  10. THE ADVANCED CAMERA FOR SURVEYS GENERAL CATALOG: STRUCTURAL PARAMETERS FOR APPROXIMATELY HALF A MILLION GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Roger L.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cooper, Michael C. [Center for Galaxy Evolution, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Newman, Jeffrey A. [Pittsburgh Particle Physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology Center, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Comerford, Julia M. [Astronomy Department, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Davis, Marc [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, Hearst Field Annex B, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lotz, Jennifer M.; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Barden, Marco [Institute of Astro- and Particle Physics, University of Innsbruck, Technikerstr. 25, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Conselice, Christopher J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Capak, Peter L.; Scoville, Nick; Sheth, Kartik; Shopbell, Patrick [Spitzer Science Centre, 314-6 California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, CA (United States); Noeske, Kai G. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Willmer, Christopher N. A. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); and others

    2012-05-01

    We present the Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog (ACS-GC), a photometric and morphological database using publicly available data obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope. The goal of the ACS-GC database is to provide a large statistical sample of galaxies with reliable structural and distance measurements to probe the evolution of galaxies over a wide range of look-back times. The ACS-GC includes approximately 470,000 astronomical sources (stars + galaxies) derived from the AEGIS, COSMOS, GEMS, and GOODS surveys. GALAPAGOS was used to construct photometric (SEXTRACTOR) and morphological (GALFIT) catalogs. The analysis assumes a single Sersic model for each object to derive quantitative structural parameters. We include publicly available redshifts from the DEEP2, COMBO-17, TKRS, PEARS, ACES, CFHTLS, and zCOSMOS surveys to supply redshifts (spectroscopic and photometric) for a considerable fraction ({approx}74%) of the imaging sample. The ACS-GC includes color postage stamps, GALFIT residual images, and photometry, structural parameters, and redshifts combined into a single catalog.

  11. Thermal neutron diffusion parameters in homogeneous mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdowicz, K.; Krynicka, E.

    1995-01-01

    A physical background is presented for a computer program which calculates the thermal neutron diffusion parameters for homogeneous mixtures of any compounds. The macroscopic absorption, scattering and transport cross section of the mixture are defined which are generally function of the incident neutron energy. The energy-averaged neutron parameters are available when these energy dependences and the thermal neutron energy distribution are assumed. Then the averaged diffusion coefficient and the pulsed thermal neutron parameters (the absorption rare and the diffusion constant) are also defined. The absorption cross section is described by the 1/v law and deviations from this behaviour are considered. The scattering cross section can be assumed as being almost constant in the thermal neutron region (which results from the free gas model). Serious deviations are observed for hydrogen atoms bound in molecules and a special study in the paper is devoted to this problem. A certain effective scattering cross section is found in this case on a base of individual exact data for a few hydrogenous media. Approximations assumed for the average cosine of the scattering angle are also discussed. The macroscopic parameters calculated are averaged over the Maxwellian energy distribution for the thermal neutron flux. An information on the input data for the computer program is included. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs, 5 tabs

  12. Study of mechanical properties on powdermetalurgy aluminium matrix composites fabricated by stamping or extrusion; Estudio de las propiedades mecanicas en materiales compuestos de matriz aluminio pulvimetalurgicos conformados mediante forja o extrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busquets, D.; Gomez, L.; Amigo, V.; Salvador-Moya, M. D.

    2005-07-01

    We have developed composite materials from AA6061 aluminium alloy powders used as matrix and ceramics powders of boron carbide, silicon carbide and boron nitride, used as reinforcements in 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10% vol. by mechanical mixing and milling in planetary mill at 360 rpm vial velocity for 4 h followed of hot stamping and extrusion process on green compacts. Mechanical properties obtained from tensile tests are influenced by the heat treatment, reinforcement fractions and nature. Moreover, these mechanical characteristic are dependent from the processing route. Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy analysis revealed the microstructure of materials and let describe the tripartite relation; structure-processing-properties, of the developed materials. (Author) 20 refs.

  13. Verification of human actions in SBO sequences with LOCA stamps in Westinghouse PWRs; Verificacion de las actuaciones humanas en secuencias de SBO con LOCA de sellos en reactores PWR Westinghouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queral, C.; Mena Rosell, L.; Jimenez Varas, G.

    2013-07-01

    The Fukushima accident has shown the need for tools and methodologies able to analyze human activities and / or capabilities of portable systems that has given the Spanish plants as a result of the stress tests . In this work we have applied the methodology of integrated safety analysis developed by the CSN , to SBO sequences with LOCA stamp. The aim is to show a methodology for testing the performances of the Emergency Operating Procedures and Guides Severe Accident Management. The simulations were performed with the tool SCAIS coupled to MAAP . The results show that there are human activities that may be beneficial in certain sequences but harmful in others. This type of problem is already known and referred to in the GGAS . However, FSR shows a practical way to check human actions cannot be obtained with other methods.

  14. Reinar sobre el papel: sellos de placa de Juana I de Castilla durante la primera regencia de Fernando el Católico (Reigning on paper: stamps plate Joanna of Castile during the first regency of Ferdinand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José García Sánchez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este artículo versa sobre los usos y valores del sello real en los inicios del reinado de Juana I, período de interregno de gran interés desde el punto de vista sigilográfico. Se analiza de qué forma la estrategia política adoptada por el bando fernandino en su lucha por controlar el poder se vio reflejada en sus prácticas sigilográficas y cómo el sello se convirtió en un importante recurso de propaganda. Además, se estudia el sello real insertándolo en su contexto histórico y diplomático, estudiando su papel dentro de las estrategias documentales del partido de Fernando el Católico y su relación con otros elementos del discurso diplomático.Abstact: This article is about the uses and values of the royal seal in periods of interregnum. Specifically focuses on the early reign of Joanna I, moment of great interest from the point of view stamp, because raised to the death of Elizabeth I succession problems were reflected in the form and utilization the royal seal. It analizarde the politics strategy adopted by the fernandino side in their struggle to control the power was reflected in their practices stamps seal an important resource propaganda. In addition, the royal seal insert in its historical context and diplomatic, studying its role in the documentary strategies party Fernando Catholic and its relationship with other elements of diplomatic discourse.

  15. El sello y registro real en Panamá: la Real Audiencia y Cancillería en el siglo XVI (The royal stamp and record in Panamá: Royal Audience and Chancellery in the sixteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Ángeles Sanz García-Muñoz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El presente estudio pretende analizar la historia del sello y registro regio en una realidad espacio-temporal concreta, esto es, como elemento fundamental en la constitución de la Audiencia y Cancillería de Panamá durante el siglo XVI. El protagonista central de esta investigación va a ser el sello en sí mismo, abordando todo lo que pudo afectarle en el seno de esta Audiencia y Cancillería, desde su apertura y remisión a las Indias, hasta su custodia, pasando por el análisis de aquellas personas que fueron responsables del mismo y de los efectos que su uso o simple presencia supusieron en lugares tan apartados. El objetivo último es conocer la función y el uso que, este importante medio de validación documental, tuvo en el gobierno de tan lejanas tierras y en la representación de la monarquía.Abstract: The present study tries to analyze royal stamp and record space-time specific, namely, as a key element in the Audience and Chancellery constitution of Panamá during the sixteenth century. The main character is going to be the stamp itself, approaching everything that could impact within this Audience and Chancellery, since opening and dispatch to Indies, to custody, going through review those who were responsible for it and the effects about their use or simple presence which amounted in places as far apart. The ultimate goal is to understand the role and use this important means of document validation had in the government from so remote lands and the representation of monarchy.

  16. Parameters of care for craniosynostosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, Joseph G; Warren, Stephen M; Bernstein, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    A multidisciplinary meeting was held from March 4 to 6, 2010, in Atlanta, Georgia, entitled "Craniosynostosis: Developing Parameters for Diagnosis, Treatment, and Management." The goal of this meeting was to create parameters of care for individuals with craniosynostosis.......A multidisciplinary meeting was held from March 4 to 6, 2010, in Atlanta, Georgia, entitled "Craniosynostosis: Developing Parameters for Diagnosis, Treatment, and Management." The goal of this meeting was to create parameters of care for individuals with craniosynostosis....

  17. Probabilistic Quadratic Programming Problems with Some Fuzzy Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Barik

    2012-01-01

    making problem by using some specified random variables and fuzzy numbers. In the present paper, randomness is characterized by Weibull random variables and fuzziness is characterized by triangular and trapezoidal fuzzy number. A defuzzification method has been introduced for finding the crisp values of the fuzzy numbers using the proportional probability density function associated with the membership functions of these fuzzy numbers. An equivalent deterministic crisp model has been established in order to solve the proposed model. Finally, a numerical example is presented to illustrate the solution procedure.

  18. A parameter-adaptive dynamic programming approach for inferring cophylogenies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merkle, Daniel; Middendorf, Martin; Wieseke, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Background: Coevolutionary systems like hosts and their parasites are commonly used model systems for evolutionary studies. Inferring the coevolutionary history based on given phylogenies of both groups is often done by employing a set of possible types of events that happened during coevolution....... Costs are assigned to the different types of events and a reconstruction of the common history with a minimal sum of event costs is sought.Results: This paper introduces a new algorithm and a corresponding tool called CoRe-PA, that can be used to infer the common history of coevolutionary systems...

  19. A History of Probabilistic Inductive Logic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio eRiguzzi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The field of Probabilistic Logic Programming (PLP has seen significant advances in the last 20 years, with many proposals for languages that combine probability with logic programming. Since the start, the problem of learning probabilistic logic programs has been the focus of much attention. Learning these programs represents a whole subfield of Inductive Logic Programming (ILP. In Probabilistic ILP (PILP two problems are considered: learning the parameters of a program given the structure (the rules and learning both the structure and the parameters. Usually structure learning systems use parameter learning as a subroutine. In this article we present an overview of PILP and discuss the main results.

  20. BUILDING MODEL ANALYSIS APPLICATIONS WITH THE JOINT UNIVERSAL PARAMETER IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF RELIABILITY (JUPITER) API

    Science.gov (United States)

    The open-source, public domain JUPITER (Joint Universal Parameter IdenTification and Evaluation of Reliability) API (Application Programming Interface) provides conventions and Fortran-90 modules to develop applications (computer programs) for analyzing process models. The input ...

  1. Making maps of cosmological parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Suvodip; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2018-01-01

    We provide a fast algorithm to diagnose any directional dependence in the cosmological parameters by calculating maps of local cosmological parameter estimates and their joint errors. The technique implements a fast quadratic estimator technique based on Wiener filtering and convolution of the sky with a patch shape. It uses only three map-resolution spherical harmonic transforms per parameter and applies to any data set with full sky or a partial sky coverage. We apply this method to Planck SMICA-2015 and obtain fluctuation map for six cosmological parameters. Our estimate shows that the Planck data is consistent with a single global value of the cosmological parameters and is not influenced by any severe local contaminations. This method is applicable also to other angular or 3D data sets of future missions to scrutinize any local variation in the cosmological parameters.

  2. Aqueous Electrolytes: Model Parameters and Process Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj

    This thesis deals with aqueous electrolyte mixtures. The Extended UNIQUAC model is being used to describe the excess Gibbs energy of such solutions. Extended UNIQUAC parameters for the twelve ions Na+, K+, NH4+, H+, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, HSO4-, OH-, CO32-, HCO3-, and S2O82- are estimated. A computer ...... program including a steady state process simulator for the design, simulation, and optimization of fractional crystallization processes is presented.......This thesis deals with aqueous electrolyte mixtures. The Extended UNIQUAC model is being used to describe the excess Gibbs energy of such solutions. Extended UNIQUAC parameters for the twelve ions Na+, K+, NH4+, H+, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, HSO4-, OH-, CO32-, HCO3-, and S2O82- are estimated. A computer...

  3. Systematic of delayed neutron parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaev, S.G.; Piksaikin, V.M.

    2000-01-01

    The experimental studies of the energy dependence of the delayed neutron (DN) parameters for various fission systems has shown that the behaviour of a some combination of delayed neutron parameters has a similar features. On the basis of this findings the systematics of delayed neutron experimental data for thorium, uranium, plutonium and americium isotopes have been investigated with the purpose to find a correlation of DN parameters with characteristics of fissioning system as well as a correlation between the delayed neutron parameters themselves. It was presented the preliminary results which were obtained during study the physics interpretation of the results [ru

  4. Parameter estimation in food science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Kirk D; Mishra, Dharmendra K

    2013-01-01

    Modeling includes two distinct parts, the forward problem and the inverse problem. The forward problem-computing y(t) given known parameters-has received much attention, especially with the explosion of commercial simulation software. What is rarely made clear is that the forward results can be no better than the accuracy of the parameters. Therefore, the inverse problem-estimation of parameters given measured y(t)-is at least as important as the forward problem. However, in the food science literature there has been little attention paid to the accuracy of parameters. The purpose of this article is to summarize the state of the art of parameter estimation in food science, to review some of the common food science models used for parameter estimation (for microbial inactivation and growth, thermal properties, and kinetics), and to suggest a generic method to standardize parameter estimation, thereby making research results more useful. Scaled sensitivity coefficients are introduced and shown to be important in parameter identifiability. Sequential estimation and optimal experimental design are also reviewed as powerful parameter estimation methods that are beginning to be used in the food science literature.

  5. Random sampling and validation of covariance matrices of resonance parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plevnik, Lucijan; Zerovnik, Gašper

    2017-09-01

    Analytically exact methods for random sampling of arbitrary correlated parameters are presented. Emphasis is given on one hand on the possible inconsistencies in the covariance data, concentrating on the positive semi-definiteness and consistent sampling of correlated inherently positive parameters, and on the other hand on optimization of the implementation of the methods itself. The methods have been applied in the program ENDSAM, written in the Fortran language, which from a file from a nuclear data library of a chosen isotope in ENDF-6 format produces an arbitrary number of new files in ENDF-6 format which contain values of random samples of resonance parameters (in accordance with corresponding covariance matrices) in places of original values. The source code for the program ENDSAM is available from the OECD/NEA Data Bank. The program works in the following steps: reads resonance parameters and their covariance data from nuclear data library, checks whether the covariance data is consistent, and produces random samples of resonance parameters. The code has been validated with both realistic and artificial data to show that the produced samples are statistically consistent. Additionally, the code was used to validate covariance data in existing nuclear data libraries. A list of inconsistencies, observed in covariance data of resonance parameters in ENDF-VII.1, JEFF-3.2 and JENDL-4.0 is presented. For now, the work has been limited to resonance parameters, however the methods presented are general and can in principle be extended to sampling and validation of any nuclear data.

  6. Constant-parameter capture-recapture models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownie, C.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Jolly (1982, Biometrics 38, 301-321) presented modifications of the Jolly-Seber model for capture-recapture data, which assume constant survival and/or capture rates. Where appropriate, because of the reduced number of parameters, these models lead to more efficient estimators than the Jolly-Seber model. The tests to compare models given by Jolly do not make complete use of the data, and we present here the appropriate modifications, and also indicate how to carry out goodness-of-fit tests which utilize individual capture history information. We also describe analogous models for the case where young and adult animals are tagged. The availability of computer programs to perform the analysis is noted, and examples are given using output from these programs.

  7. Parameter Curation for Benchmark Queries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubichev, Andrey; Boncz, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of generating parameters for benchmark queries so these have stable behavior despite being executed on datasets (real-world or synthetic) with skewed data distributions and value correlations. We show that uniform random sampling of the substitution parameters

  8. Free flight in parameter space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlstedt, Palle; Nilsson, Per Anders

    2008-01-01

    The well-known difficulty of controlling many synthesis parameters in performance, for exploration and expression, is addressed. Inspired by interactive evolution, random vectors in parameter space are assigned to an array of pressure sensitive pads. Vectors are scaled with pressure and added...

  9. ACTIVATION PARAMETERS AND EXCESS THERMODYANAMIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Applying these data, viscosity-B-coefficients, activation parameters (Δμ10≠) and (Δμ20≠) and excess thermodynamic functions, viz., excess molar volume (VE), excess viscosity, ηE and excess molar free energy of activation of flow, (GE) were calculated. The value of interaction parameter, d, of Grunberg and Nissan ...

  10. NEWTONP - CUMULATIVE BINOMIAL PROGRAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, P. N.

    1994-01-01

    The cumulative binomial program, NEWTONP, is one of a set of three programs which calculate cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. The three programs, NEWTONP, CUMBIN (NPO-17555), and CROSSER (NPO-17557), can be used independently of one another. NEWTONP can be used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. The program has been used for reliability/availability calculations. NEWTONP calculates the probably p required to yield a given system reliability V for a k-out-of-n system. It can also be used to determine the Clopper-Pearson confidence limits (either one-sided or two-sided) for the parameter p of a Bernoulli distribution. NEWTONP can determine Bayesian probability limits for a proportion (if the beta prior has positive integer parameters). It can determine the percentiles of incomplete beta distributions with positive integer parameters. It can also determine the percentiles of F distributions and the midian plotting positions in probability plotting. NEWTONP is designed to work well with all integer values 0 < k <= n. To run the program, the user simply runs the executable version and inputs the information requested by the program. NEWTONP is not designed to weed out incorrect inputs, so the user must take care to make sure the inputs are correct. Once all input has been entered, the program calculates and lists the result. It also lists the number of iterations of Newton's method required to calculate the answer within the given error. The NEWTONP program is written in C. It was developed on an IBM AT with a numeric co-processor using Microsoft C 5.0. Because the source code is written using standard C structures and functions, it should compile correctly with most C compilers. The program format is interactive. It has been implemented under DOS 3.2 and has a memory requirement of 26K. NEWTONP was developed in 1988.

  11. MODALITIES OF TRAINING PARAMETER ALTERNATION IN NOWADAYS STRENGTH TRAINING PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RANISAVLJEV IGOR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Large number of variables could be alternated during the process of planning and programming in sports training. Superior training results in majority of sports are achieved by optimally manipulating training parameters in appropriate sequences and combinations. Additionally, in some sports they might be the result of appropriate periodization pattern. Today's tendency in strength training practice is training movements instead of training muscles. Exercise classification according to the dominant movement types, allows creating new modalities in training alternation. Additional variations in volume, intensity, rest brakes, repetition velocity andinter-repetition rest can be the important part of functional strength training program. Alternation and combination of different training parameters makes appropriate training stimulus for strength increase in the most of nowadays sports. Optimal alternation of basic training parameters should be the first part in the processof planning and programming. As a result, majority of athletes might not need advanced periodization patterns for optimal improvement in muscle strength and power

  12. Generating three-parameter sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filinyuk M. A.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Generating sensors provide the possibility of getting remote information and its easy conversion into digital form. Typically, these are one-parameter sensors formed by combination of a primary transmitter (PT and a sine wave generator. Two-parameter sensors are not widely used as their implementation causes a problem with ambiguity output when measuring the PT. Nevertheless, the problem of creating miniature, thrifty multi-parameter RF sensors for different branches of science and industry remains relevant. Considering ways of designing RF sensors, we study the possibility of constructing a three-parameter microwave radio frequency range sensor, which is based on a two-stage three-parameter generalized immitance convertor (GIC. Resistive, inductive and capacitive PT are used as sensing elements. A mathematical model of the sensor, which describes the relation of the sensor parameters to the parameters of GIC and PT was developed. The basic parameters of the sensor, its transfer function and sensitivity were studied. It is shown that the maximum value of the power generated signal will be observed at a frequency of 175 MHz, and the frequency ranges depending on the parameters of the PT will be different. Research results and adequacy of the mathematical model were verified by the experiment. Error of the calculated dependences of the lasing frequency on PT parameters change, compared with the experimental data does not exceed 2 %. The relative sensitivity of the sensor based on two-stage GIC showed that for the resistive channel it is about 1.88, for the capacitive channel –1,54 and for the inductive channel –11,5. Thus, it becomes possible to increase the sensor sensitivity compared with the sensitivity of the PT almost 1,2—2 times, and by using the two stage GIC a multifunctional sensor is provided.

  13. Mixed integer evolution strategies for parameter optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Emmerich, Michael T M; Eggermont, Jeroen; Bäck, Thomas; Schütz, M; Dijkstra, J; Reiber, J H C

    2013-01-01

    Evolution strategies (ESs) are powerful probabilistic search and optimization algorithms gleaned from biological evolution theory. They have been successfully applied to a wide range of real world applications. The modern ESs are mainly designed for solving continuous parameter optimization problems. Their ability to adapt the parameters of the multivariate normal distribution used for mutation during the optimization run makes them well suited for this domain. In this article we describe and study mixed integer evolution strategies (MIES), which are natural extensions of ES for mixed integer optimization problems. MIES can deal with parameter vectors consisting not only of continuous variables but also with nominal discrete and integer variables. Following the design principles of the canonical evolution strategies, they use specialized mutation operators tailored for the aforementioned mixed parameter classes. For each type of variable, the choice of mutation operators is governed by a natural metric for this variable type, maximal entropy, and symmetry considerations. All distributions used for mutation can be controlled in their shape by means of scaling parameters, allowing self-adaptation to be implemented. After introducing and motivating the conceptual design of the MIES, we study the optimality of the self-adaptation of step sizes and mutation rates on a generalized (weighted) sphere model. Moreover, we prove global convergence of the MIES on a very general class of problems. The remainder of the article is devoted to performance studies on artificial landscapes (barrier functions and mixed integer NK landscapes), and a case study in the optimization of medical image analysis systems. In addition, we show that with proper constraint handling techniques, MIES can also be applied to classical mixed integer nonlinear programming problems.

  14. Modeling and Parameter Estimation of a Small Wind Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Ramírez Gómez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The modeling and parameter estimation of a small wind generation system is presented in this paper. The system consists of a wind turbine, a permanent magnet synchronous generator, a three phase rectifier, and a direct current load. In order to estimate the parameters wind speed data are registered in a weather station located in the Fraternidad Campus at ITM. Wind speed data were applied to a reference model programed with PSIM software. From that simulation, variables were registered to estimate the parameters. The wind generation system model together with the estimated parameters is an excellent representation of the detailed model, but the estimated model offers a higher flexibility than the programed model in PSIM software.

  15. Focused ion beam scan routine, dwell time and dose optimizations for submicrometre period planar photonic crystal components and stamps in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopman, Wico C L; Ay, Feridun; Hu, Wenbin; Gadgil, Vishwas J; Kuipers, Laurens; Pollnau, Markus; Ridder, Rene M de

    2007-01-01

    Focused ion beam (FIB) milling is receiving increasing attention for nanostructuring in silicon (Si). These structures can for example be used for photonic crystal structures in a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) configuration or for moulds which can have various applications in combination with imprint technologies. However, FIB fabrication of submicrometre holes having perfectly vertical sidewalls is still challenging due to the redeposition effect in Si. In this study we show how the scan routine of the ion beam can be used as a sidewall optimization parameter. The experiments have been performed in Si and SOI. Furthermore, we show that sidewall angles as small as 1.5 0 are possible in Si membranes using a spiral scan method. We investigate the effect of the dose, loop number and dwell time on the sidewall angle, interhole milling and total milling depth by studying the milling of single and multiple holes into a crystal. We show that the sidewall angles can be as small as 5 0 in (bulk) Si and SOI when applying a larger dose. Finally, we found that a relatively large dwell time of 1 ms and a small loop number is favourable for obtaining vertical sidewalls. By comparing the results with those obtained by others, we conclude that the number of loops at a fixed dose per hole is the parameter that determines the sidewall angle and not the dwell time by itself

  16. Telemetry System of Biological Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Spisak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The mobile telemetry system of biological parameters serves for reading and wireless data transfer of measured values of selected biological parameters to an outlying computer. It concerns basically long time monitoring of vital function of car pilot.The goal of this projects is to propose mobile telemetry system for reading, wireless transfer and processing of biological parameters of car pilot during physical and psychical stress. It has to be made with respect to minimal consumption, weight and maximal device mobility. This system has to eliminate signal noise, which is created by biological artifacts and disturbances during the data transfer.

  17. The ESO-LV project - Automated parameter extraction for 16000 ESO/Uppsala galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauberts, Andris; Valentijn, Edwin A.

    1987-01-01

    A program to extract photometric and morphological parameters of the galaxies in the ESO/Uppsala survey (Lauberts and Valentijn, 1982) is discussed. The completeness and accuracy of the survey are evaluated and compared with other surveys. The parameters obtained in the program are listed.

  18. Learning physical parameters from dynamic scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Tomer D; Stuhlmüller, Andreas; Goodman, Noah D; Tenenbaum, Joshua B

    2018-04-10

    Humans acquire their most basic physical concepts early in development, and continue to enrich and expand their intuitive physics throughout life as they are exposed to more and varied dynamical environments. We introduce a hierarchical Bayesian framework to explain how people can learn physical parameters at multiple levels. In contrast to previous Bayesian models of theory acquisition (Tenenbaum, Kemp, Griffiths, & Goodman, 2011), we work with more expressive probabilistic program representations suitable for learning the forces and properties that govern how objects interact in dynamic scenes unfolding over time. We compare our model to human learners on a challenging task of estimating multiple physical parameters in novel microworlds given short movies. This task requires people to reason simultaneously about multiple interacting physical laws and properties. People are generally able to learn in this setting and are consistent in their judgments. Yet they also make systematic errors indicative of the approximations people might make in solving this computationally demanding problem with limited computational resources. We propose two approximations that complement the top-down Bayesian approach. One approximation model relies on a more bottom-up feature-based inference scheme. The second approximation combines the strengths of the bottom-up and top-down approaches, by taking the feature-based inference as its point of departure for a search in physical-parameter space. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. THE HAEMORHEOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF HYPERTENSIVE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    ) and. Whole Blood Relative Viscosity (WBRV) were determined by capillary viscometry as described by Reid and Ugwu (1987) and recently modified by Korubo-Owiye et al. (1997). All haemorheological parameters were analyzed within 2 ...

  20. Real-Time Parameter Identification

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers have implemented in the control room a technique for estimating in real time the aerodynamic parameters that describe the stability and control...

  1. THERMODYNAMIC PARAMETERS OF SOLUTIONS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-30

    Jun 30, 2014 ... THERMODYNAMIC PARAMETERS OF SOLUTIONS OF SILDENAFIL CITRATE. IN SOME ORGANIC SOLVENTS AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES. S. Baluja* and K. Bhesaniya. Physical Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry,. Saurashtra University, Rajkot-360005 (Gujarat), India. Received: 24 ...

  2. Parameters of care for craniosynostosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargervik, Karin; Rubin, Marcie S; Grayson, Barry H

    2012-01-01

    A multidisciplinary conference was convened in March 2010 with the charge to develop parameters of care for patients with craniosynostosis. The 52 participants represented 16 medical specialties and 16 professional societies. Herein, we present the dental, orthodontic, and surgical care...

  3. Impact Effects Calculator. Orbital Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazachev, D.; Naroenkov, S.; Kartashova, A.; Turuntaev, I.; Svetsov, V.; Shuvalov, V.; Popova, O.; Podobnaya, E.

    2017-09-01

    Next-generation Impact Calculator for quick assessment of impact consequences is preparing. The estimates of impact effects are revised. The possibility to manipulate with the orbital parameters and to determine impact point is included.

  4. Linking Item Response Model Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Wim J; Barrett, Michelle D

    2016-09-01

    With a few exceptions, the problem of linking item response model parameters from different item calibrations has been conceptualized as an instance of the problem of test equating scores on different test forms. This paper argues, however, that the use of item response models does not require any test score equating. Instead, it involves the necessity of parameter linking due to a fundamental problem inherent in the formal nature of these models-their general lack of identifiability. More specifically, item response model parameters need to be linked to adjust for the different effects of the identifiability restrictions used in separate item calibrations. Our main theorems characterize the formal nature of these linking functions for monotone, continuous response models, derive their specific shapes for different parameterizations of the 3PL model, and show how to identify them from the parameter values of the common items or persons in different linking designs.

  5. Digital Power Network Parameters Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Hribik, J.; Fuchs, P.; Hruskovic, M.; Michalek, R.; Lojko, B.

    2005-01-01

    Exact measurement of the parameters of a power network is now possible by digital methods. The description of the proposed and realized instrument based on the digital sampling method is given. It can measure basic parameters of the three-phase power network such as rms values of voltages and currents, powers, energies, power factors and the network frequency. Questions concerning the accuracy of measurement, error sources, and error correction are also given. A method of calibration based on...

  6. Inflation and cosmological parameter estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamann, J.

    2007-05-15

    In this work, we focus on two aspects of cosmological data analysis: inference of parameter values and the search for new effects in the inflationary sector. Constraints on cosmological parameters are commonly derived under the assumption of a minimal model. We point out that this procedure systematically underestimates errors and possibly biases estimates, due to overly restrictive assumptions. In a more conservative approach, we analyse cosmological data using a more general eleven-parameter model. We find that regions of the parameter space that were previously thought ruled out are still compatible with the data; the bounds on individual parameters are relaxed by up to a factor of two, compared to the results for the minimal six-parameter model. Moreover, we analyse a class of inflation models, in which the slow roll conditions are briefly violated, due to a step in the potential. We show that the presence of a step generically leads to an oscillating spectrum and perform a fit to CMB and galaxy clustering data. We do not find conclusive evidence for a step in the potential and derive strong bounds on quantities that parameterise the step. (orig.)

  7. 77 FR 13697 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program-Stage 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... encouraged to leave their comments in the CMS drop slots located in the main lobby of the building. A stamp... expanding the use of EHRs through the concept of meaningful use. Section 1903(t)(6)(C) of the Act also...

  8. Program specialization

    CERN Document Server

    Marlet, Renaud

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the principles and techniques of program specialization - a general method to make programs faster (and possibly smaller) when some inputs can be known in advance. As an illustration, it describes the architecture of Tempo, an offline program specializer for C that can also specialize code at runtime, and provides figures for concrete applications in various domains. Technical details address issues related to program analysis precision, value reification, incomplete program specialization, strategies to exploit specialized program, incremental specialization, and data speci

  9. Optimal parameters for the FFA-Beddoes dynamic stall model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerck, A.; Mert, M. [FFA, The Aeronautical Research Institute of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden); Madsen, H.A. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Unsteady aerodynamic effects, like dynamic stall, must be considered in calculation of dynamic forces for wind turbines. Models incorporated in aero-elastic programs are of semi-empirical nature. Resulting aerodynamic forces therefore depend on values used for the semi-empiricial parameters. In this paper a study of finding appropriate parameters to use with the Beddoes-Leishman model is discussed. Minimisation of the `tracking error` between results from 2D wind tunnel tests and simulation with the model is used to find optimum values for the parameters. The resulting optimum parameters show a large variation from case to case. Using these different sets of optimum parameters in the calculation of blade vibrations, give rise to quite different predictions of aerodynamic damping which is discussed. (au)

  10. Numerical optimization methods for controlled systems with parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyatyushkin, A. I.

    2017-10-01

    First- and second-order numerical methods for optimizing controlled dynamical systems with parameters are discussed. In unconstrained-parameter problems, the control parameters are optimized by applying the conjugate gradient method. A more accurate numerical solution in these problems is produced by Newton's method based on a second-order functional increment formula. Next, a general optimal control problem with state constraints and parameters involved on the righthand sides of the controlled system and in the initial conditions is considered. This complicated problem is reduced to a mathematical programming one, followed by the search for optimal parameter values and control functions by applying a multimethod algorithm. The performance of the proposed technique is demonstrated by solving application problems.

  11. Stochastic programming with integer recourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vlerk, Maarten Hendrikus

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis we consider two-stage stochastic linear programming models with integer recourse. Such models are at the intersection of two different branches of mathematical programming. On the one hand some of the model parameters are random, which places the problem in the field of stochastic

  12. Specification of PWR UO2 pellet design parameters with the fuel performance code FRAPCON-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.T.; Marra Neto, A.

    1988-08-01

    UO 2 pellet design parameters are analysed to verify their influence in the fuel basic properties and in its performance under irradiation in pressurized water reactors. Three groups of parameters are discussed: 1) content of fissionable and impurity materials; 2) stoichiometry; 3) density pore morpholoy, and microstructure. A methodology is applied with the fuel performance program FRAPCON-1 to specify these parameters. (author [pt

  13. Parameter Estimation Using VLA Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Willem C.

    The main objective of this dissertation is to extract parameters from multiple wavelength images, on a pixel-to-pixel basis, when the images are corrupted with noise and a point spread function. The data used are from the field of radio astronomy. The very large array (VLA) at Socorro in New Mexico was used to observe planetary nebula NGC 7027 at three different wavelengths, 2 cm, 6 cm and 20 cm. A temperature model, describing the temperature variation in the nebula as a function of optical depth, is postulated. Mathematical expressions for the brightness distribution (flux density) of the nebula, at the three observed wavelengths, are obtained. Using these three equations and the three data values available, one from the observed flux density map at each wavelength, it is possible to solve for two temperature parameters and one optical depth parameter at each pixel location. Due to the fact that the number of unknowns equal the number of equations available, estimation theory cannot be used to smooth any noise present in the data values. It was found that a direct solution of the three highly nonlinear flux density equations is very sensitive to noise in the data. Results obtained from solving for the three unknown parameters directly, as discussed above, were not physical realizable. This was partly due to the effect of incomplete sampling at the time when the data were gathered and to noise in the system. The application of rigorous digital parameter estimation techniques result in estimated parameters that are also not physically realizable. The estimated values for the temperature parameters are for example either too high or negative, which is not physically possible. Simulation studies have shown that a "double smoothing" technique improves the results by a large margin. This technique consists of two parts: in the first part the original observed data are smoothed using a running window and in the second part a similar smoothing of the estimated parameters

  14. Parameter estimation and inverse problems

    CERN Document Server

    Aster, Richard C; Thurber, Clifford H

    2005-01-01

    Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems primarily serves as a textbook for advanced undergraduate and introductory graduate courses. Class notes have been developed and reside on the World Wide Web for faciliting use and feedback by teaching colleagues. The authors'' treatment promotes an understanding of fundamental and practical issus associated with parameter fitting and inverse problems including basic theory of inverse problems, statistical issues, computational issues, and an understanding of how to analyze the success and limitations of solutions to these probles. The text is also a practical resource for general students and professional researchers, where techniques and concepts can be readily picked up on a chapter-by-chapter basis.Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems is structured around a course at New Mexico Tech and is designed to be accessible to typical graduate students in the physical sciences who may not have an extensive mathematical background. It is accompanied by a Web site that...

  15. Hecke algebras with unequal parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Lusztig, G

    2003-01-01

    Hecke algebras arise in representation theory as endomorphism algebras of induced representations. One of the most important classes of Hecke algebras is related to representations of reductive algebraic groups over p-adic or finite fields. In 1979, in the simplest (equal parameter) case of such Hecke algebras, Kazhdan and Lusztig discovered a particular basis (the KL-basis) in a Hecke algebra, which is very important in studying relations between representation theory and geometry of the corresponding flag varieties. It turned out that the elements of the KL-basis also possess very interesting combinatorial properties. In the present book, the author extends the theory of the KL-basis to a more general class of Hecke algebras, the so-called algebras with unequal parameters. In particular, he formulates conjectures describing the properties of Hecke algebras with unequal parameters and presents examples verifying these conjectures in particular cases. Written in the author's precise style, the book gives rese...

  16. Catalogue of HI PArameters (CHIPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saponara, J.; Benaglia, P.; Koribalski, B.; Andruchow, I.

    2015-08-01

    The catalogue of HI parameters of galaxies HI (CHIPA) is the natural continuation of the compilation by M.C. Martin in 1998. CHIPA provides the most important parameters of nearby galaxies derived from observations of the neutral Hydrogen line. The catalogue contains information of 1400 galaxies across the sky and different morphological types. Parameters like the optical diameter of the galaxy, the blue magnitude, the distance, morphological type, HI extension are listed among others. Maps of the HI distribution, velocity and velocity dispersion can also be display for some cases. The main objective of this catalogue is to facilitate the bibliographic queries, through searching in a database accessible from the internet that will be available in 2015 (the website is under construction). The database was built using the open source `` mysql (SQL, Structured Query Language, management system relational database) '', while the website was built with ''HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)'' and ''PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor)''.

  17. Supersymmetry Parameter Analysis with Fittino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtle, Philip; /SLAC; Desch, Klaus; Wienemann, Peter; /Freiburg U.

    2005-06-24

    We present the results of a realistic global fit of the Lagrangian parameters of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model to simulated data from ILC and LHC with realistic estimates of the observable uncertainties. Higher order radiative corrections are accounted for where ever possible to date. Results are obtained for a modified SPS1a MSSM benchmark scenario but they were checked not to depend critically on this assumption. Exploiting a simulated annealing algorithm, a stable result is obtained without any a priori assumptions on the fit parameters. Most of the Lagrangian parameters can be extracted at the percent level or better if theoretical uncertainties are neglected. Neither LHC nor ILC measurements alone will be sufficient to obtain a stable result. The effects of theoretical uncertainties arising from unknown higher-order corrections and parametric uncertainties are examined qualitatively. They appear to be relevant and the result motivates further precision calculations.

  18. Nonlinear genetic-based simulation of soil shear strength parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    New nonlinear solutions were developed to estimate the soil shear strength parameters utilizing linear genetic programming (LGP). The soil cohesion intercept () and angle of shearing resistance () were formulated in terms of the basic soil physical properties. The best models were selected after developing and ...

  19. 40 CFR 68.22 - Offsite consequence analysis parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... parameters. 68.22 Section 68.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Hazard Assessment § 68.22 Offsite consequence... limit. A lower flammability limit as provided in NFPA documents or other generally recognized sources...

  20. Nonlinear genetic-based simulation of soil shear strength parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    such as textural properties, stress history of soil, initial state, and permeability characteristics of soil. (Murthy 2008). Figure 1 shows the Mohr circles and failure envelopes in terms of the total stresses. Keywords. Soil shear strength parameters; soil physical properties; linear-based genetic programming; prediction. J. Earth ...