WorldWideScience

Sample records for stamp program microform

  1. Programming the BasicStamp : using MacBS2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djajadiningrat, J.P.; Stienstra, M.

    2004-01-01

    This article explains how to program a BasicStamp microcontroller using a Macintosh. It takes an absolute beginner's perspective and talks you through the whole process including how to hook up a programmer board, how to write some programs in the BasisStamp language PBASIC, and how to do some

  2. 78 FR 10201 - Proposed Information Collection; Electronic Duck Stamp Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ..., Interior. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: We (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service) will ask the... refuges where admission is charged. Duck Stamps and products that bear stamp images are also popular... fee the State will charge for issuance of an electronic stamp. Description of the process the State...

  3. Food Safety Knowledge and Practices of Older Adult Participants of the Food Stamp Nutrition Education Program

    OpenAIRE

    Rasnake, Crystal Michelle

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine food safety knowledge and practices of older adult participants in the Food Stamp Nutrition Education Program (FSNEP) in Virginia. One hundred and sixty-five FSNEP participants were assigned to two possible intervention groups, group one received the food safety lesson from the Healthy Futures Series currently used in FSNEP, while group two received the food safety lesson plus an additional food safety video. FSNEP participants completed food safet...

  4. Scandiatransplant acceptable mismatch program (STAMP) a bridge to transplanting highly immunized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koefoed-Nielsen, P; Weinreich, I; Bengtsson, M; Lauronen, J; Naper, C; Gäbel, M; Sørensen, S S; Wennberg, L; Reisaeter, A V; Møller, B K

    2017-07-01

    Highly immunized patients are a challenge for organ transplantation programs. One way of increasing the likelihood of transplantation in this group of patients is to expand the possible donations by defining acceptable HLA mismatches. In the Scandiatransplant Acceptable Mismatch Program (STAMP), a de-centralized approach has been implemented in 2009. The program has been improved during the years from utilizing HLA-A, -B, -DR matching only to include typing of all deceased donors for HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1 and -DQB1. The calculation of a transplantability score (TS) has been introduced in order to take both HLA and AB0 into consideration resulting in a more realistic picture of the transplantability chance. Patients were selected for eligibility and results of immunisation status were prepared in each of the 9 tissue typing laboratories, while access to the program is finally governed by a common steering group of immunologists and clinicians. In the period from March 2009 until February 2015, 96 patients were transplanted within this program. The mean recipient age was 49 years and 57% were females, 30% of the patients were first transplants and of these 93% were females. The majority of the patients had 2-5 HLA-A, -B. -DR mismatches. The allograft survival at 60 months was 79.1%. Applying the TS to the cohort confirmed that patients with a low TS score had longer waiting times. The program has matured during the years and now proves to be a valid approach for transplanting highly immunized patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Practical Microform Materials for Libraries: Silver, Diazo, Vesicular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veaner, Allen B.

    1982-01-01

    Remarks on the relative permanence and durability of three types of film in use in library microform reproduction (silver, diazo, and vesicular) and points out some technical and economic facts that govern the choice of microform materials for libraries. A 6-item reference list is included. (Author/JL)

  6. Five Decades of Microforms at the Library of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Robert C.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the history of the microform collections at the Library of Congress (LC), highlighting the exchange of microfilmed newspapers between LC and the Biblioteca Nacional, Brazil. Recent developments in preservation microfilming, LC's acquisition of microforms, and the activities of the LC Preservation Microfilming Office are described. (3…

  7. Scandiatransplant acceptable mismatch program (STAMP) a bridge to transplanting highly immunized patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed-Nielsen, Pernille; Weinreich, I; Bengtsson, M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Highly immunized patients are a challenge for organ transplantation programs. One way of increasing the likelihood of transplantation in this group of patients is to expand the possible donations by defining acceptable HLA mismatches. In the Scandiatransplant Acceptable Mismatch Program...

  8. 75 FR 4911 - Food Stamp Program: Eligibility and Certification Provisions of the Farm Security and Rural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... the State's Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) cash assistance or Medicaid programs... is adjusted annually for cost-of-living increases; allow States to simplify the Standard Utility Allowance (SUA) if the State elects to use the SUA rather than actual utility costs for all households...

  9. 36 CFR 1238.26 - What are the restrictions on use for permanent and unscheduled microform records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... permanent and unscheduled microform records? (a) Agencies must not use the silver gelatin master microform or duplicate silver gelatin microform of permanent or unscheduled records created in accordance with...

  10. Microform Market Place 1974/1975. An International Directory of Micropublishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veaner, Allen B., Ed.; Meckler, Alan M., Ed.

    The information for this international buyer's guide for the microform purchaser was gathered from questionnaires to the publishers themselves. The guide is divided into eight sections: directory of micropublishers, mergers and acquisitions, bibliography of first sources for the microform library, microform jobbers, organizations, a geographical…

  11. Measurement of material mechanical properties in microforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Wang; Xu, Zhenying; Hui, Huang; Zhou, Jianzhong

    2006-02-01

    As the rapid market need of micro-electro-mechanical systems engineering gives it the wide development and application ranging from mobile phones to medical apparatus, the need of metal micro-parts is increasing gradually. Microforming technology challenges the plastic processing technology. The findings have shown that if the grain size of the specimen remains constant, the flow stress changes with the increasing miniaturization, and also the necking elongation and the uniform elongation etc. It is impossible to get the specimen material properties in conventional tensile test machine, especially in the high precision demand. Therefore, one new measurement method for getting the specimen material-mechanical property with high precision is initiated. With this method, coupled with the high speed of Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera and high precision of Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM), the elongation and tensile strain in the gauge length are obtained. The elongation, yield stress and other mechanical properties can be calculated from the relationship between the images and CCD camera movement. This measuring method can be extended into other experiments, such as the alignment of the tool and specimen, micro-drawing process.

  12. ANCIENT BREAD STAMPS FROM JORDAN

    OpenAIRE

    Kakish, Randa

    2014-01-01

    Marking bread was an old practice performed in different parts of the old world. It was done for religious, magical, economic and identification purposes. Bread stamps differ from other groups of stamps. Accordingly, the aim of this article is to identify such stamps, displayed or stored, in a number of Jordanian Archaeological Museums. A col-lection of twelve ancient bread stamps were identified and studied. Two of the stamps were of unknown provenance while the others came from al-Shuneh, D...

  13. Research Sources and Microforms in Black Studies: An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridinger, Robert B. Marks

    1985-01-01

    Analyzes 93 reference works and 23 microform collections concerning the Black American experience in 13 subject areas of the social sciences (anthropology, biography, race relations and civil rights, the Black church, communication studies, economics, education, dance, genealogy, Black history, sports, women's studies, and literature and language)…

  14. Stamping through astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Dicati, Renato

    2013-01-01

    Stamps and other postal documents are an attractive vehicle for presenting astronomy and its development. Written with expertise and great enthusiasm, this unique book offers a historical and philatelic survey of astronomy and some related topics on space exploration. It contains more than 1300 color reproductions of stamps relating to the history of astronomy, ranging from the earliest observations of the sky to modern research conducted with satellites and space probes. Featured are the astronomers and astrophysicists who contributed to this marvelous story – not only Ptolemy, Copernicus, Kepler, Newton, Herschel, and Einstein but also hundreds of other minor protagonists who played an important role in the development of this, the most ancient yet the most modern of all the sciences. The book also examines in depth the diverse areas which have contributed to the history of astronomy, including the instrumentation, the theories, and the observations. Many stamps illustrate the beauty and the mystery of ce...

  15. Stamp in honour of CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    1966-01-01

    21 February 1966. The Swiss post office issued a stamp in CERN's honour. This stamp showed the flags of the thirteen Member States at the time arranged in the geometrical outline of Switzerland against a background of a track photograph.

  16. SPS commemorative stamp

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    The turn on of the SPS was commemorated in France by the issue of a CERN stamp. The date of issue, 22 Octber 1976, coincided with the first tests of the beam line taking particles to experiments in the West Hall. (CERN Courier 1976 p. 382)

  17. Rapid thermal processing by stamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stradins, Pauls; Wang, Qi

    2013-03-05

    A rapid thermal processing device and methods are provided for thermal processing of samples such as semiconductor wafers. The device has components including a stamp (35) having a stamping surface and a heater or cooler (40) to bring it to a selected processing temperature, a sample holder (20) for holding a sample (10) in position for intimate contact with the stamping surface; and positioning components (25) for moving the stamping surface and the stamp (35) in and away from intimate, substantially non-pressured contact. Methods for using and making such devices are also provided. These devices and methods allow inexpensive, efficient, easily controllable thermal processing.

  18. 36 CFR 1238.30 - What must agencies do when transferring permanent microform records to the National Archives of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... specified in § 1232.14(c) of this subchapter. (c) Transfer the silver gelatin original (or duplicate silver gelatin microform created in accordance with § 1238.14) plus one microform copy. (d) Ensure that the... separately from the silver gelatin original or silver duplicate microform copy and clearly label them as non...

  19. Micro-scaled products development via microforming deformation behaviours, processes, tooling and its realization

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Ming Wang

    2014-01-01

    ‘Micro-scaled Products Development via Microforming’ presents state-of-the-art research on microforming processes, and focuses on the development of micro-scaled metallic parts via microforming processes. Microforming refers to the fabrication of microparts via micro-scaled plastic deformation and  presents a promising micromanufacturing process. When compared to other  micromanufacturing processes, microforming offers advantages such as high productivity and good mechanical properties of the deformed microparts. This book provides extensive and informative illustrations, tables and photos in order to convey this information clearly and directly to readers. Although the knowledge of macroforming processes is abundant and widely used in industry, microparts cannot be developed by leveraging existing knowledge of macroforming because the size effect presents a barrier to this knowledge transfer. Therefore systematic knowledge of microforming needs to be developed. In tandem with product miniaturization, t...

  20. Development of microforming process combined with thin film transfer printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshimizu Kazushi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microforming receives a lot of attentions in the recent years due to the increased use of microparts in electronics and medical sectors. For the further functionalization of these micro devices, high functional surface with noble metals are strongly required for the devices in bio- and medical fields, such as bio-sensors. To realize the submillimeter structure of metal foils and micro to nanometer structures in one forming process, the present study proposes a combined process of microforming for metal foils and transfer printing of gold (Au thin films. To clarify the availability of the proposed combined process, transferability of Au thin films under micro bulging deformation are investigated. 0.1 mm-thick pure titanium (Ti foils and 100 nm-thick Au films were used as blank and functional materials, respectively. The forming tests of the proposed process were conducted. With increasing strain of Ti foils, Au TP areas increase. By this experiment, it’s confirmed that the hydrogen reduction of oxidation layers and the strain of Ti foil are significant factor for Au TP on Ti foils.

  1. 36 CFR 1238.20 - How must microform records be stored?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... relative humidity of the storage area must be a constant 35 percent RH, plus or minus 5 percent. Non-silver copies of microforms must be maintained in a different storage area than are silver gelatin originals or...

  2. Fabrication of Nanoimprint stamps for photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouba, J; Kubenz, M; Mai, A; Ropers, G; Eberhardt, W; Loechel, B

    2006-01-01

    We report on fabrication of nanoimprint stamps for fabrication of two dimensional photonic crystals in visible range of spectra. Nanoimprint stamps made of silicon and/or nickel were successfully fabricated using electron beam lithography and advanced dry etching techniques. The quality of the stamps was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. The fabricated stamps were also evaluated by imprinting them into suitable polymer materials

  3. Review on progressive microforming of bulk metal parts directly using sheet metals (Keynote Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu M.W.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the ubiquitous trend of product miniaturization, energy saving and weight reduction, micro/meso-scale parts have been widely used in many industrial clusters. Micromanufacturing processes for production of such micro/meso-scale parts are thus critically needed. Microforming, as one of these micro manufacturing processes, is a promising process and thus got many explorations and researches. Compared with the research on size effect affected deformation behaviours, less attention has been paid to the process development for mass production of micro-parts. The product quality and fabrication productivity of micro-parts depend on the involved process chain. To address the difficulty in handling and transporting of the micro-sized workpiece, development of a progressive microforming process for directly fabricating bulk micro-parts using sheet metals seems quite promising as it avoids or facilitates billet handling, transportation, positioning, and ejection in the process chain. In this paper, an intensive review on the latest development of progressive microforming technologies is presented. First of all, the paper summarizes the characteristic of progressive microforming directly using sheet metal. The size effect-affected deformation behaviour and the dimensional accuracy, deformation load, ductile fracture, and the surface finish of the microformed parts by progressive microforming using sheet metals are then presented. Finally, some research issues from the implementation of mass production perspective are also discussed.

  4. Stamp Verification for Automated Document Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micenková, Barbora; van Beusekom, Joost; Shafait, Faisal

    Stamps, along with signatures, can be considered as the most widely used extrinsic security feature in paper documents. In contrast to signatures, however, for stamps little work has been done to automatically verify their authenticity. In this paper, an approach for verification of color stamps ...... and copied stamps. Sensitivity and specificity of up to 95% could be obtained on a data set that is publicly available....

  5. Digital time stamping system based on open source technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskinis, Rimantas; Smirnov, Dmitrij; Urba, Emilis; Burokas, Andrius; Malysko, Bogdan; Laud, Peeter; Zuliani, Francesco

    2010-03-01

    A digital time stamping system based on open source technologies (LINUX-UBUNTU, OpenTSA, OpenSSL, MySQL) is described in detail, including all important testing results. The system, called BALTICTIME, was developed under a project sponsored by the European Commission under the Program FP 6. It was designed to meet the requirements posed to the systems of legal and accountable time stamping and to be applicable to the hardware commonly used by the national time metrology laboratories. The BALTICTIME system is intended for the use of governmental and other institutions as well as personal bodies. Testing results demonstrate that the time stamps issued to the user by BALTICTIME and saved in BALTICTIME's archives (which implies that the time stamps are accountable) meet all the regulatory requirements. Moreover, the BALTICTIME in its present implementation is able to issue more than 10 digital time stamps per second. The system can be enhanced if needed. The test version of the BALTICTIME service is free and available at http://baltictime. pfi.lt:8080/btws/ and http://baltictime.lnmc.lv:8080/btws/.

  6. Microform-related community patterns of methane-cycling microbes in boreal Sphagnum bogs are site specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juottonen, Heli; Kotiaho, Mirkka; Robinson, Devin; Merilä, Päivi; Fritze, Hannu; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina

    2015-09-01

    Vegetation and water table are important regulators of methane emission in peatlands. Microform variation encompasses these factors in small-scale topographic gradients of dry hummocks, intermediate lawns and wet hollows. We examined methane production and oxidization among microforms in four boreal bogs that showed more variation of vegetation within a bog with microform than between the bogs. Potential methane production was low and differed among bogs but not consistently with microform. Methane oxidation followed water table position with microform, showing higher rates closer to surface in lawns and hollows than in hummocks. Methanogen community, analysed by mcrA terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and dominated by Methanoregulaceae or 'Methanoflorentaceae', varied strongly with bog. The extent of microform-related variation of methanogens depended on the bog. Methanotrophs identified as Methylocystis spp. in pmoA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis similarly showed effect of bog, and microform patterns were stronger within individual bogs. Our results suggest that methane-cycling microbes in boreal Sphagnum bogs with seemingly uniform environmental conditions may show strong site-dependent variation. The bog-intrinsic factor may be related to carbon availability but contrary to expectations appears to be unrelated to current surface vegetation, calling attention to the origin of carbon substrates for microbes in bogs. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Stamping the Earth from space

    CERN Document Server

    Dicati, Renato

    2017-01-01

    This unique book presents a historical and philatelic survey of Earth exploration from space. It covers all areas of research in which artificial satellites have contributed in designing a new image of our planet and its environment: the atmosphere and ionosphere, the magnetic field, radiation belts and the magnetosphere, weather, remote sensing, mapping of the surface, observation of the oceans and marine environments, geodesy, and the study of life and ecological systems. Stamping the Earth from Space presents the results obtained with the thousands of satellites launched by the two former superpowers, the Soviet Union and the United States, and also those of the many missions carried out by the ESA, individual European countries, Japan, China, India, and the many emerging space nations. Beautifully illustrated, it contains almost 1100 color reproductions of philatelic items. In addition to topical stamps and thematic postal documents, the book provides an extensive review of astrophilatelic items. The most...

  8. Tool Wear and Life Span Variations in Cold Forming Operations and Their Implications in Microforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders E. W. Jarfors

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper aims to review tooling life span, failure modes and models in cold microforming processes. As there is nearly no information available on tool-life for microforming the starting point was conventional cold forming. In cold forming common failures are (1 over stressing of the tool; (2 abrasive wear; (3 galling or adhesive wear, and (4 fatigue failure. The large variation in tool life observed in production and how to predict this was reviewed as this is important to the viability of microforming based on that the tooling cost takes a higher portion of the part cost. Anisotropic properties of the tool materials affect tool life span and depend on both the as-received and in-service conditions. It was concluded that preconditioning of the tool surface, and coating are important to control wear and fatigue. Properly managed, the detrimental effects from surface particles can be reduced. Under high stress low-cycle fatigue conditions, fatigue failure form internal microstructures and inclusions are common. To improve abrasive wear resistance larger carbides are commonly the solution which will have a negative impact on tooling life as these tend to be the root cause of fatigue failures. This has significant impact on cold microforming.

  9. Influence of Prepreg Characteristics on Stamp Consolidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slange, T.K.; Warnet, L.L.; Grouve, W.J.B.; Akkerman, R.

    2017-01-01

    Stamp forming is a rapid manufacturing technology used to shape flat blanks of thermoplastic composite material into three-dimensional components. The development of automated lay-up technologies further extends the applicability of stamp forming by allowing rapid lay-up of tailored blanks and

  10. Wildfire effects on vadose zone hydrology in forested boreal peatland microforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dan K.; Waddington, James M.

    2013-04-01

    SummaryPeatland vulnerability to wildfire disturbance has been shown to vary as a function of hummock and hollow microforms and vadose zone hydrology, with low-lying hollow microforms most susceptible to deep combustion of peat. To better understand how this microform induced pattern of burning alters vadose water storage, pore-water pressure, and water table relationships, we examined a paired burned and unburned peatland in the boreal plain region of north central Alberta. Water table response to rain events increased significantly after wildfire, resulting in a more variable unsaturated zone thickness that was more responsive to smaller rain events. Water storage losses in the vadose zone occurred primarily at depths greater than 15 cm. Large peat surface water loss occurred in hummock microforms in the early spring due to the presence of unsaturated frozen peat at depth, likely a result of a vapour gradient from the unfrozen peat into the frozen peat underneath. During this period, the loss of water storage in the vadose zone satisfied up to 25% of daily evaporative demand, compared to only 3-5% during ice-free periods. A similar but less severe drying was observed late in summer, with burned hummocks the most vulnerable with high pore-water pressures. The enhanced surface drying observed is a precursor to high pore-water pressure conditions that inhibit Sphagnum regeneration. Our observations point to a paradox where the hummocks, being most resistant to combustion, are themselves most prone to high pore-water pressures following wildfire. The harsher hummock environment may contribute to the observed delay in post-fire Sphagnum regeneration in hummocks compared to hollows.

  11. Unilateral microform cleft lip repair: application of muscle tension line group theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ningbei; Song, Tao; Wu, Jiajun; Chen, Bo; Ma, Hengyuan; Zhao, Zhenmin; Wang, Yongqian; Li, Haidong; Wu, Di

    2015-03-01

    In microform cleft lip repair, reconstructing the elaborate structures is difficult. We describe a new technique of unilateral microform cleft lip repair that is based on the muscle tension line group theory. According to the shape of Cupid bow, a different small incision is used without creating an obvious cutaneous scar. First, the nasolabial muscle around the nasal floor (the first auxiliary tension line group) is reconstructed, and then the orbicularis oris muscle around the philtrum (the second auxiliary tension line group) is reconstructed based on the muscle tension line group theory. From June 2006 to June 2012, the technique was used in 263 unilateral microform cleft lip repairs. For 18 months, 212 patients were followed up. The appearance of the nasal alar, nasal sill, philtrum, and Cupid bow peak improved. Most patients had a satisfactory appearance. Based on the muscle tension line group theory, using this technique offers the ability to adduct the nasal alar effectively to form a good nasal sill and philtrum.

  12. 7 CFR Appendix A to Part 277 - Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Administration of the Food Stamp Program by State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Act, including any portion of the Program financed by the State agency. Local unit means any political... plan in a ratio to all work performed by the State agency. The process involves applying a percentage... allowable. (2) Advertising. Advertising media includes newspapers, magazines, radio and television programs...

  13. Development of in-situ observation system of dynamic contact interface between dies and materials during microforming operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu Tetsuhide

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of diamond like carbon (DLC films are reported in several microforming processes, in view of its great tribological performance owe to the low friction and the high chemical stability. However, due to its high internal residual stress, the film properties with the low adhesion strength and the high wear rate under severe tribological conditions are still remain as technical issues. However, since the dynamic variation of the contact state cannot be observed during the forming operation, it is difficult to recognize the origin and the influential tribological factors of tool life for DLC coated microforming die. Therefore, the appropriate DLC film properties for the contact state in microforming operation have not been clarified. To observe the dynamic variation of the contact state during the microforming operation, present study developed a novel microforming die assembly installed the in-situ observation system with silica glass die and high speed recording camera. By using this system, the dynamic delamination behaviour of DLC films during the progressive micro-bending process was successfully demonstrated. The influential factors for the durability of DLC coated microdies were discussed.

  14. Stamping SERS for creatinine sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Du, Yong; Zhao, Fusheng; Zeng, Jianbo; Santos, Greggy M.; Mohan, Chandra; Shih, Wei-Chuan

    2015-03-01

    Urine can be obtained easily, readily and non-invasively. The analysis of urine can provide metabolic information of the body and the condition of renal function. Creatinine is one of the major components of human urine associated with muscle metabolism. Since the content of creatinine excreted into urine is relatively constant, it is used as an internal standard to normalize water variations. Moreover, the detection of creatinine concentration in urine is important for the renal clearance test, which can monitor the filtration function of kidney and health status. In more details, kidney failure can be imminent when the creatinine concentration in urine is high. A simple device and protocol for creatinine sensing in urine samples can be valuable for point-of-care applications. We reported quantitative analysis of creatinine in urine samples by using stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS) technique with nanoporous gold disk (NPGD) based SERS substrate. S-SERS technique enables label-free and multiplexed molecular sensing under dry condition, while NPGD provides a robust, controllable, and high-sensitivity SERS substrate. The performance of S-SERS with NGPDs is evaluated by the detection and quantification of pure creatinine and creatinine in artificial urine within physiologically relevant concentration ranges.

  15. Usage and Recall of the Food Stamp Office Resource Kit (FSORK) by Food Stamp Applicants in 4 California Counties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghirardelli, Alyssa; Linares, Amanda; Fong, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate recall and usage of the Food Stamp Office Resource Kit (FSORK), a set of nutrition education materials designed for use in food stamp offices. Design: Client intercept exit surveys, an environmental scan, and individual observations of clients in the food stamp office. Setting: Four food stamp offices in California.…

  16. Influence of prepreg characteristics on stamp consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slange, T. K.; Warnet, L. L.; Grouve, W. J. B.; Akkerman, R.

    2017-10-01

    Stamp forming is a rapid manufacturing technology used to shape flat blanks of thermoplastic composite material into three-dimensional components. The development of automated lay-up technologies further extends the applicability of stamp forming by allowing rapid lay-up of tailored blanks and partial preconsolidation. This partial preconsolidation makes the influence of prepreg more critical compared to conventional preconsolidation methods which provide full preconsolidation. This paper aims to highlight consolidation challenges that can appear when stamp forming blanks manufactured by automated lay-up. Important prepreg characteristics were identified based on an experimental study where a comparison was made between various prepreg in their as-received, deconsolidated and stamp consolidated state. It was found that adding up small thickness variations across the width of a prepreg when stacking plies into a blank by automated lay-up can cause non-uniform consolidation. Additionally, deconsolidation of the prepreg does not seem to obstruct interlaminar bonding, while intralaminar voids initially present in a prepreg cannot be removed during stamp forming. An additional preconsolidation step after automated lay-up seems necessary to remove blank thickness variations and intralaminar voids for the current prepregs. Eliminating this process step and the successful combination of rapid automated lay-up and stamp forming requires prepregs which are void-free and have less thickness variation.

  17. Evolutions of Advanced Stamping CAE -- Technology Adventures and Business Impact on Automotive Dies and Stamping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chuantao

    2005-01-01

    In the past decade, sheet metal forming and die development has been transformed to a science-based and technology-driven engineering and manufacturing enterprise from a tryout-based craft. Stamping CAE, especially the sheet metal forming simulation, as one of the core components in digital die making and digital stamping, has played a key role in this historical transition. The stamping simulation technology and its industrial applications have greatly impacted automotive sheet metal product design, die developments, die construction and tryout, and production stamping. The stamping CAE community has successfully resolved the traditional formability problems such as splits and wrinkles. The evolution of the stamping CAE technology and business demands opens even greater opportunities and challenges to stamping CAE community in the areas of (1) continuously improving simulation accuracy, drastically reducing simulation time-in-system, and improving operationalability (friendliness) (2) resolving those historically difficult-to-resolve problems such as dimensional quality problems (springback and twist) and surface quality problems (distortion and skid/impact lines) (3) resolving total manufacturability problems in line die operations including blanking, draw/redraw, trim/piercing, and flanging, and (4) overcoming new problems in forming new sheet materials with new forming techniques. In this article, the author first provides an overview of the stamping CAE technology adventures and achievements, and industrial applications in the past decade. Then the author presents a summary of increasing manufacturability needs from the formability to total quality and total manufacturability of sheet metal stampings. Finally, the paper outlines the new needs and trends for continuous improvements and innovations to meet increasing challenges in line die formability and quality requirements in automotive stamping

  18. Evolutions of Advanced Stamping CAE — Technology Adventures and Business Impact on Automotive Dies and Stamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuantao (C. T.)

    2005-08-01

    In the past decade, sheet metal forming and die development has been transformed to a science-based and technology-driven engineering and manufacturing enterprise from a tryout-based craft. Stamping CAE, especially the sheet metal forming simulation, as one of the core components in digital die making and digital stamping, has played a key role in this historical transition. The stamping simulation technology and its industrial applications have greatly impacted automotive sheet metal product design, die developments, die construction and tryout, and production stamping. The stamping CAE community has successfully resolved the traditional formability problems such as splits and wrinkles. The evolution of the stamping CAE technology and business demands opens even greater opportunities and challenges to stamping CAE community in the areas of (1) continuously improving simulation accuracy, drastically reducing simulation time-in-system, and improving operationalability (friendliness), (2) resolving those historically difficult-to-resolve problems such as dimensional quality problems (springback and twist) and surface quality problems (distortion and skid/impact lines), (3) resolving total manufacturability problems in line die operations including blanking, draw/redraw, trim/piercing, and flanging, and (4) overcoming new problems in forming new sheet materials with new forming techniques. In this article, the author first provides an overview of the stamping CAE technology adventures and achievements, and industrial applications in the past decade. Then the author presents a summary of increasing manufacturability needs from the formability to total quality and total manufacturability of sheet metal stampings. Finally, the paper outlines the new needs and trends for continuous improvements and innovations to meet increasing challenges in line die formability and quality requirements in automotive stamping.

  19. Fabrication of Times and Micro-Formation of Discourse at a Secondary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalis Kontopodis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presented here starts with a reference to modernist time theories, followed by a presentation of alternative views in the works of FOUCAULT, DELEUZE, LATOUR and others. The study concentrates on the concrete context of an experimental school aiming at incorporation of excluded students into society. Based on the synthesis of discourse analysis and Actor-Network-Theory, the study puts forward a twofold question: a whether and how the "fabrication of times" is interrelated to micro-formations of discourses and b how micro-formations of discourses emerge as processes in the concrete setting of a school in regard to their temporal and other aspects. To answer this query, I combine some critical ethnographic work with an Actor-Network-Theory methodology—an approach which could be regarded as "rhizomatic analysis" (DELEUZE & GUATTARI, 1980. Examining discursive and non-discursive action with a particular focus on materialities (sites, students' documents, educational reports, CVs, and files, I introduce the notion of "temporal devices of control" and map two of them: that of synchronicity and that of convergence. In this way, I propose a new understanding of time and relate it to discourse formation. This, in turn, reveals a new potential for critical reflection on theories of time as well as on all action taking place in the school. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701119

  20. 36 CFR 1238.28 - What must agencies do when sending permanent microform records to a records storage facility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 1232 of this chapter and the additional requirements in this section. (b) Package non-silver copies separately from the silver gelatin original or silver duplicate microform copy and clearly label them as non-silver copies. (c) Include the following information on the transmittal (SF 135 for NARA Federal Records...

  1. Stamp Detection in Color Document Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micenkova, Barbora; van Beusekom, Joost

    2011-01-01

    , moreover, it can be imprinted with a variable quality and rotation. Previous methods were restricted to detection of stamps of particular shapes or colors. The method presented in the paper includes segmentation of the image by color clustering and subsequent classification of candidate solutions...... by geometrical and color-related features. The approach allows for differentiation of stamps from other color objects in the document such as logos or texts. For the purpose of evaluation, a data set of 400 document images has been collected, annotated and made public. With the proposed method, recall of 83...

  2. The effect of cushion-ram pulsation on hot stamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgrebe, Dirk; Rautenstrauch, Anja; Kunke, Andreas; Polster, Stefan; Kriechenbauer, Sebastian; Mauermann, Reinhard

    2016-10-01

    Hot stamping is an important technology for manufacturing high-strength components. This technology offers the possibility to achieve significant weight reductions. In this study, cushion-ram pulsation (CRP), a new technology for hot stamping on servo-screw presses, was investigated and applied for hot stamping. Compared to a conventional process, the tests yielded a significantly higher drawing depth. In this paper, the CRP technology and the first test results with hot stamping were described in comparison to the conventional process.

  3. Can laboratory and pilot recycling trials predict adhesive removal in commercial recycling systems? : results from the USPS environmentally benign stamp project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl Houtman; Daniel Seiter; Nancy Ross Sutherland; Donald Donermeyer

    2002-01-01

    The ultimate goal of the US Postal Service (USPS) Environmentally Benign Stamp Program is to develop stamp laminates, i.e., face paper, adhesive and siliconized liner, that do not cause difficulties in recycling mills. The criterion for success, and the USPS definition of benignity, is the avoidance of process and product quality hardships when such PSA laminates are...

  4. METAMORPHOSES OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STAMP IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARAUS MADALINA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Romania's alignment to European standards is a difficult process with many legislative changes, with direct impact on taxpayers. The necessity of collecting substantial revenues to the State budget, which provide vital economic growth of the Romanian State, loses the substance when we are talking about taxes levied in relation to taxpayer. The environmental stamp, otherwise a controversial tax, represent for the State another way to earn revenue in advance, “as a loan", because in the end it's forced to repay the amounts concerned taxpayers, under the effect of a final and irrevocable court decision. The effects of the legislative changes bring every time complaints both from taxpayers, because they can demand repayment of the environmental stamp only during the period of prescription, as well as on the part of public servants who are grappling with a large volume of work, with the possibility of overcoming the term to handle requests. An equitable solution in solving these distortions would be the inclusion of the environmental stamp within the tax on means of transport, tax that is paid annually by vehicle owners. At the moment the level of the environmental stamp is calculated depending on the CO2 emissions, exhaust emissions and the age of the vehicle. Tax on means of transport is calculated based on engine capacity, an amount determined by CO2 emissions multiplying with each group of 200 cc or fraction on it. Therefore the unification of the two taxes would create a balance for all categories of vehicles.

  5. E-Commerce-Objected E-Stamp Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Boosting e-stamp's advantages are conduced to promote logistics to go forward and help postal departments to improve the quality of service, many other businesses add-valued can be developed in e-stamp systems. This paper analyzeds, designs e-commerce-objected e-stamp system, and discusseds crucial technologies involved in detail.

  6. Postage stamps: A convergence of metallurgy, art, and history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habashi, Fathi

    2002-04-01

    Postage stamps have been used around the world to commemorate, in miniature, significant events and people, including those of importance in the history of metals and mineral production. From the presence of gold artifacts in an ancient Egyptian tomb to the role of uranium in nuclear power, stamps have captured the evolution of metallurgical processes. This article highlights some of those stamps.

  7. Ex-Post : The Investment Performance of Collectible Stamps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimson, E.; Spaenjers, C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the returns on British collectible postage stamps over the very long run, based on stamp catalogue prices. Between 1900 and 2008, we find an annualized return on stamps of 6.7% in nominal terms, which is equivalent to an average real return of 2.7% per annum. Prices have

  8. Fast thermal nanoimprint lithography by a stamp with integrated heater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tormen, Massimo; Malureanu, Radu; Pedersen, Rasmus Haugstrup

    2008-01-01

    We propose fast nanoimprinting lithography (NIL) process based on the use of stamps with integrated heater. The latter consists of heavily ion implantation n-type doped silicon layer buried below the microstructured surface of the stamp. The stamp is heated by Joule effect, by 50 μs 25 Hz...

  9. Cost-benefit analysis of providing a special subsistence allowance to military personnel who qualify for food stamps

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Curtis A., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited Recent reports cite that military Food Stamp Program beneficiaries may range from 6,400 to 20,000. The need for food stamps has been attributed to several factors, one of which is the perceived military "pay gap". Although, significant strides have been made in recent years to improve quality of life for our service men and women and their families, the military pay system tends to lag behind the civilian employment cost growth index. ...

  10. Numerical simulation of temperature field, microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of HSS during hot stamping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Dongyong; Liu, Wenquan; Ying, Liang; Hu, Ping; Shen, Guozhe

    2013-01-01

    The hot stamping of boron steels is widely used to produce ultra high strength automobile components without any spring back. The ultra high strength of final products is attributed to the fully martensitic microstructure that is obtained through the simultaneous forming and quenching of the hot blanks after austenization. In the present study, a mathematical model incorporating both heat transfer and the transformation of austenite is presented. A FORTRAN program based on finite element technique has been developed which permits the temperature distribution and microstructure evolution of high strength steel during hot stamping process. Two empirical diffusion-dependent transformation models under isothermal conditions were employed respectively, and the prediction capability on mechanical properties of the models were compared with the hot stamping experiment of an automobile B-pillar part

  11. Hot stamping advanced manufacturing technology of lightweight car body

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Ping; He, Bin

    2017-01-01

    This book summarizes the advanced manufacturing technology of original innovations in hot stamping of lightweight car body. A detailed description of the technical system and basic knowledge of sheet metal forming is given, which helps readers quickly understand the relevant knowledge in the field. Emphasis has been placed on the independently developed hot stamping process and equipment, which help describe the theoretical and experimental research on key problems involving stress field, thermal field and phase transformation field in hot stamping process. Also, a description of the formability at elevated temperature and the numerical simulation algorithms for high strength steel hot stamping is given in combination with the experiments. Finally, the book presents some application cases of hot stamping technology such as the lightweight car body design using hot stamping components and gradient hardness components, and the cooling design of the stamping tool. This book is intended for researchers, engineers...

  12. DOUBLE SHEAR DESIGN TO REDUCED STAMPING FORCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Kurniawan Arief

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ideally processing of part using stamping machine using only 70-80 % of available force to keep machine in good shape for a long periods. But in some certain case the force may equal to or exceed the available maximum force so the company must sent the process to another outsource company. A case found in a metal stamping company where a final product consist of 3 parts to assembly with one part exceeded the force of available machine. This part can only process in a 1000 tons machine while this company only have 2 of this machine with full workload. Sending this parts outsource will induce delivery problems because other parts are processed, assembled and paint inhouse, this also need additional transportation cost and extra supervision to ensure the quality and delivery schedule. The only exit action of this problem is by reducing the force tonnage. This paper using punch inclining method to reduce the force. The incline punch will distributed the force along the inclined surface that reduce stamping force as well. Inclined surface of punch also cause another major problems that the product becoming curved after process. This problems solved with additional flattening process that add more process cost but better than to outsource the process. Chisel type of inclining punch tip was choosen to avoid worst deformation of product. This paper will give the scientific recomendation to the company.

  13. STAMP alters the growth of transformed and ovarian cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yuanzheng; Blackford, John A Jr; Kohn, Elise C; Simons, S Stoney Jr

    2010-01-01

    Steroid receptors play major roles in the development, differentiation, and homeostasis of normal and malignant tissue. STAMP is a novel coregulator that not only enhances the ability of p160 coactivator family members TIF2 and SRC-1 to increase gene induction by many of the classical steroid receptors but also modulates the potency (or EC 50 ) of agonists and the partial agonist activity of antisteroids. These modulatory activities of STAMP are not limited to gene induction but are also observed for receptor-mediated gene repression. However, a physiological role for STAMP remains unclear. The growth rate of HEK293 cells stably transfected with STAMP plasmid and overexpressing STAMP protein is found to be decreased. We therefore asked whether different STAMP levels might also contribute to the abnormal growth rates of cancer cells. Panels of different stage human cancers were screened for altered levels of STAMP mRNA. Those cancers with the greatest apparent changes in STAMP mRNA were pursued in cultured cancer cell lines. Higher levels of STAMP are shown to have the physiologically relevant function of reducing the growth of HEK293 cells but, unexpectedly, in a steroid-independent manner. STAMP expression was examined in eight human cancer panels. More extensive studies of ovarian cancers suggested the presence of higher levels of STAMP mRNA. Lowering STAMP mRNA levels with siRNAs alters the proliferation of several ovarian cancer tissue culture lines in a cell line-specific manner. This cell line-specific effect of STAMP is not unique and is also seen for the conventional effects of STAMP on glucocorticoid receptor-regulated gene transactivation. This study indicates that a physiological function of STAMP in several settings is to modify cell growth rates in a manner that can be independent of steroid hormones. Studies with eleven tissue culture cell lines of ovarian cancer revealed a cell line-dependent effect of reduced STAMP mRNA on cell growth rates. This

  14. How Do Stamp Duties Affect the Housing Market?

    OpenAIRE

    Davidoff, Ian; Leigh, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Land transfer taxes are a substantial portion of the cost of moving house in many developed countries. Since stamp duties are endogenous with respect to the house price, we create an instrumental variable that is the stamp duty on a property, given that postcode's starting house price and the national house price trend. In a specification with postcode and year fixed effects, this instrument effectively captures policy changes and nonlinearities in the stamp duty schedule. We find that the im...

  15. Analysis of alternative technologies stamping compressor blades of marine engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Сергійович Аніщенко

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The author has made an analysis of several technologies stamping forgings compressor blades from titanium alloy ВT3-1. These technologies use different types of forming equipment: crank hot press, high-speed hammers, screw presses with hydraulic drive (SPHD, as well as isothermal forging hydraulic press. He pointed out the main advantages and disadvantages of the technology, noting that high-speed punching in the shipbuilding industry of Ukraine is not used for the manufacture of forgings blades. The article contains an economic analysis of the cost of forgings blades, which are made on four technologies: punching and calibration to crank hot press, stamping and calibration to press for isothermal forging, stamping and calibration on SPHD-press, stamping on SPHD-press and calibration to press for isothermal forging. The author has identified the effective use of these technologies. He showed that the use of SPHD-presses and hydraulic presses for isothermal forging reduces the cost of forging on the average 12% in comparison with the technology at the crank hot stamping press, increases the utilization of metal 1,3-1,5 times more, reduces power consumption 1,05-3,0 times less and complexity of manufacturing 1,8-4,2 times. However SPHD-press increases capital investment in the organization of stamping technology 2,6-5,3 times more and depreciation 2-4 times. Isothermal forging technology requires the cost of the stamps in 1,4-2,0 times higher than stamps for crank presses. The author argues that stamping forging blades technology improvement should be implemented saving basic materials first of all. Efficiency of isothermal stamping and calibration will be the higher, the more geometric dimensions of stamped forgings are

  16. Stamp duties in Indian states - a case for reform

    OpenAIRE

    Alm, James; Annez, Patricia; Modi, Arbind

    2004-01-01

    The authors review the options for reform of stamp duties on immovable property transfers collected by Indian state governments. After briefly reviewing some of the many administrative difficulties experienced with the tax, they turn to an examination of its economic impacts. A review of stamp duties internationally indicates that Indian rates are exceptionally high, at rates often above 1...

  17. 27 CFR 479.87 - Cancellation of stamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OTHER FIREARMS Transfer Tax Application and Order for Transfer of Firearm § 479.87 Cancellation of stamp. The method of cancellation of the stamp required by this subpart as prescribed in § 479.67 shall be used. Exemptions Relating to Transfers of Firearms ...

  18. Patterning of polymers: precise channel stamping by optimizing wetting properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seemann, Ralf; Kramer, Edward J; Lange, Frederick F

    2004-01-01

    Channel stamping is a soft lithography technique that can be used to fabricate small structures of polymeric materials. This technique is cheap and easy but a considerable drawback is the fact that reproduction of the patterns of the stamp is often imprecise due to the wetting properties of liquid and stamp. In this paper, we report on experiments that reveal the parameters governing the behaviour of liquids in grooves and on edges. Optimizing these parameters leads to better-quality channel-stamped structures and enables the design of sophisticated structured polymeric materials, allowing channels as small as about 100 nm to be fabricated. Moreover, we show that it is even possible to build up a freestanding three-dimensional structure by stamping line patterns on top of each other

  19. Authentication, Time-Stamping and Digital Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Judah

    1996-01-01

    Time and frequency data are often transmitted over public packet-switched networks, and the use of this mode of distribution is likely to increase in the near future as high-speed logical circuits transmitted via networks replace point-to-point physical circuits. ALthough these networks have many technical advantages, they are susceptible to evesdropping, spoofing, and the alteration of messages enroute using techniques that are relatively simple to implement and quite difficult to detect. I will discuss a number of solutions to these problems, including the authentication mechanism used in the Network Time Protocol (NTP) and the more general technique of signing time-stamps using public key cryptography. This public key method can also be used to implement the digital analog of a Notary Public, and I will discuss how such a system could be realized on a public network such as the Internet.

  20. Can Food Stamps Do More to Improve Food Choices? An Economic Perspective--Making Healthy Food Choices Easier: Ideas From Behavioral Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Mancino, Lisa; Andrews, Margaret S.

    2007-01-01

    With obesity the most prevalent nutrition problem facing Americans at all economic levels, promoting diets that provide adequate nutrition without too many calories has become an important objective for the Food Stamp Program. Findings from behavioral economics suggest innovative, low-cost ways to improve the diet quality of food stamp participants without restricting their freedom of choice. Unlike more traditional economic interventions, such as changing prices or banning specific foods, th...

  1. Characterization of thermoplastic composites for hot stamp forming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, Bert; Grouve, Wouter; Akkerman, Remko

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes state-of-the-art characterization methods for thermoplastic composites at high processing temperature and provides a few examples of application in simulations of the hot stamp forming process.

  2. Development of Methods and Equipment for Sheet Stamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botashev, A. Yu; Bisilov, N. U.; Malsugenov, R. S.

    2018-03-01

    New methods of sheet stamping were developed: the gas forming with double-sided heating of a blank part and the gas molding with backpressure. In case of the first method the blank part is heated to the set temperature by means of a double-sided impact of combustion products of gas mixtures, after which, under the influence of gas pressure a stamping process is performed. In case of gas molding with backpressure, the blank part is heated to the set temperature by one-sided impact of the combustion products, while backpressure is created on the opposite side of the blank part by compressed air. In both methods the deformation takes place in the temperature range of warm or hot treatment due to the heating of a blank part. This allows one to form parts of complicated shape within one technological operation, which significantly reduces the cost of production. To implement these methods, original devices were designed and produced, which are new types of forging and stamping equipment. Using these devices, an experimental research on the stamping process was carried out and high-quality parts were obtained, which makes it possible to recommend the developed methods of stamping in the industrial production. Their application in small-scale production will allow one to reduce the cost price of stamped parts 2 or 3 times.

  3. Tribological Behavior of Laser Textured Hot Stamping Dies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Shihomatsu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hot stamping of high strength steels has been continuously developed in the automotive industry to improve mechanical properties and surface quality of stamped components. One of the main challenges faced by researchers and technicians is to improve stamping dies lifetime by reducing the wear caused by high pressures and temperatures present during the process. This paper analyzes the laser texturing of hot stamping dies and discusses how different surfaces textures influence the lubrication and wear mechanisms. To this purpose, experimental tests and numerical simulation were carried out to define the die region to be texturized and to characterize the textured surface topography before and after hot stamping tests with a 3D surface profilometer and scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that laser texturing influences the lubrication at the interface die-hot sheet and improves die lifetime. In this work, the best texture presented dimples with the highest diameter, depth, and spacing, with the surface topography and dimples morphology practically preserved after the hot stamping tests.

  4. Why Stamp Duties are an Increasing Financial Burden on Australian Home Buyers

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Gavin A.

    1994-01-01

    The purchaser of housing incurs stamp duty liabilities in all Australian States. These stamp duties are levied on the conveyance of residential property and mortgage sums secured. In general, stamp duties were a growing financial burden on home buyers during the period 1985-1991. This paper examines the role of house price inflation in causing increases in average rates of stamp duty, the responsiveness of average rates of stamp duty to future changes in the nominal tax base and the effective...

  5. Draw-in Map - A Road Map for Simulation-Guided Die Tryout and Stamping Process Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chuantao; Zhang, Jimmy J.; Goan, Norman

    2005-01-01

    Sheet metal forming is a displacement or draw-in controlled manufacturing process in which a flat blank is drawn into die cavity to form an automotive body panel. Draw-in amount is the single most important stamping manufacturing index that controls all forming characteristics (strains, stresses, thinning, etc.), stamping failures (splits, wrinkles, surface distortion, etc.) and line die operations and automations. Draw-in Map is engineered for math-based die developments via advanced stamping simulation technology. Then the Draw-in Map is provided to die makers in plants as a road map for math-guided die tryout in which the die tryout workers follow the engineered tryout conditions and matches the engineered draw-in amount so that the tryout time and cost are greatly reduced, and quality is ensured. The Map can also be used as a math-based trouble-shooting tool to identify the causes of formability problems in stamping production. The engineered Draw-in Map has been applied to all draw die tryout for all GM vehicle programs since 1998. A minimum 50% reduction in both lead-time and cost and significant improvement in panel quality in tryout have been reported. This paper presents the concept and process to apply the engineered Draw-in Map in die tryout

  6. Time Stamp Synchronization of PEFP Distributed Control Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Young Gi; An, Eun Mi; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Cho, Yong Sub

    2010-01-01

    Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) proton linac consists of several types of control systems, such as soft Input Output Controllers (IOC) and embedded IOC based on Experimental Physics Industrial Control System (EPICS) for each subsection of PEFP facility. One of the important factors is that IOC's time clock is synchronized. The synchronized time and time stamp can be achieved with Network Time Protocol (NTP) and EPICS time stamp record without timing hardware. The requirement of the time accuracy of IOCs is less than 1 second. The main objective of this study is to configure a master clock and produce Process Variable (PV) time stamps using local CPU time synchronized from the master clock. The distributed control systems are attached on PEFP control network

  7. Sulforaphane inhibits osteoclast differentiation by suppressing the cell-cell fusion molecules DC-STAMP and OC-STAMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Tomohiro; Inoue, Hirofumi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Katsumata-Tsuboi, Rie; Uehara, Mariko

    2017-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN), a kind of isothiocyanate, is derived from broccoli sprouts. It has anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidation activity. The molecular function of SFN in the inhibition of osteoclast differentiation is not well-documented. In this study, we assessed the effect of SFN on osteoclast differentiation in vitro. SFN inhibited osteoclast differentiation in both bone marrow cells and RAW264.7 cells. Key molecules involved in the inhibitory effects of SFN on osteoclast differentiation were determined using a microarray analysis, which showed that SFN inhibits osteoclast-associated genes, such as osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR), nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic-1, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, and cathepsin K. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of the cell-cell fusion molecules dendritic cell specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) and osteoclast stimulatory transmembrane protein (OC-STAMP) were strongly suppressed in cells treated with SFN. Furthermore, SFN increased the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), a regulator of macrophage and osteoclast cell fusion. Thus, our data suggested that SFN significantly inhibits the cell-cell fusion molecules DC-STAMP and OC-STAMP by inducing the phosphorylation of STAT1 (Tyr701), which might be regulated by interactions with OSCAR. - Highlights: • Sulforaphane inhibited osteoclast differentiation and osteoclast cell-fusion. • Sulforaphane suppressed not only NFATc1, but also cell-cell fusion molecules, DC-STAMP and OC-STAMP. • Sulforaphane decreased multinucleated osteoclasts, whereas increased mono-nucleated osteoclasts. • Sulforaphane inhibits the cell-cell fusion by inducing the phosphorylation of STAT1 (Tyr701).

  8. design and development of a soap stamping and tableting machine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-02

    Jul 2, 2012 ... for these two operations. The manual ... chine, the cutting and stamping operations were done at different .... slack side belt tensions Tj were determined as 131.66N and 162.71N for the .... vironmental Management, Vol. 6, No.

  9. 41 CFR 101-25.103-3 - Trading stamps or bonus goods received from contractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Trading stamps or bonus... PROCUREMENT 25-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.103-3 Trading stamps or bonus goods received from contractors. When contracts contain a price reduction clause, any method (such as trading stamps or bonus...

  10. Women: Putting Our Stamp on America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... SCOPE The Topical Research Intern Program provides the opportunity for servicemembers and DOD civilian employees to work on diversity/equal opportunity projects while on a 30-day tour of duty at the Institute...

  11. Over, under, or about right: misperceptions of body weight among food stamp participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ver Ploeg, Michele L; Chang, Hung-Hao; Lin, Biing-Hwan

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the associations between misperception of body weight and sociodemographic factors such as food stamp participation status, income, education, and race/ethnicity. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 1999-2004 and multivariate logistic regression are used to estimate how sociodemographic factors are associated with (i) the probability that overweight adults misperceive themselves as healthy weight; (ii) the probability that healthy-weight adults misperceive themselves as underweight; and (iii) the probability that healthy-weight adults misperceive themselves as overweight. NHANES data are representative of the US civilian noninstitutionalized population. The analysis included 4,362 men and 4,057 women. BMI derived from measured weight and height was used to classify individuals as healthy weight or overweight. These classifications were compared with self-reported categorical weight status. We find that differences across sociodemographic characteristics in the propensity to underestimate or overestimate weight status were more pronounced for women than for men. Overweight female food stamp participants were more likely to underestimate weight status than income-eligible nonparticipants. Among healthy-weight and overweight women, non-Hispanic black and Mexican-American women, and women with less education were more likely to underestimate actual weight status. We found few differences across sociodemographic characteristics for men. Misperceptions of weight are common among both overweight and healthy-weight individuals and vary across socioeconomic and demographic groups. The nutrition education component of the Food Stamp Program could increase awareness of healthy body weight among participants.

  12. A compact system for large-area thermal nanoimprint lithography using smart stamps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Haugstrup; Hansen, Ole; Kristensen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    We present a simple apparatus for thermal nanoimprint lithography. In this work, the stamp is designed to significantly reduce the requirements for pressure application on the external imprint system. By MEMS-based processing, an air cavity inside the stamp is created, and the required pressure...... for successful imprint is reduced. Additionally, the stamp is capable of performing controlled demolding after imprint. Due to the complexity of the stamp, a compact and cost-effective imprint apparatus can be constructed. The design and fabrication of the advanced stamp as well as the simple imprint equipment...

  13. Efficient methods of nanoimprint stamp cleaning based on imprint self-cleaning effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng Fantao; Chu Jinkui [Key Laboratory for Micro/Nano Technology and System of Liaoning Province, Dalian University of Technology, 116024 Dalian (China); Luo Gang; Zhou Ye; Carlberg, Patrick; Heidari, Babak [Obducat AB, SE-20125 Malmoe (Sweden); Maximov, Ivan; Montelius, Lars; Xu, H Q [Division of Solid State Physics, Lund University, Box 118, S-22100 Lund (Sweden); Nilsson, Lars, E-mail: ivan.maximov@ftf.lth.se [Department of Food Technology, Engineering and Nutrition, Lund University, Box 117, S-22100 Lund (Sweden)

    2011-05-06

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a nonconventional lithographic technique that promises low-cost, high-throughput patterning of structures with sub-10 nm resolution. Contamination of nanoimprint stamps is one of the key obstacles to industrialize the NIL technology. Here, we report two efficient approaches for removal of typical contamination of particles and residual resist from stamps: thermal and ultraviolet (UV) imprinting cleaning-both based on the self-cleaning effect of imprinting process. The contaminated stamps were imprinted onto polymer substrates and after demolding, they were treated with an organic solvent. The images of the stamp before and after the cleaning processes show that the two cleaning approaches can effectively remove contamination from stamps without destroying the stamp structures. The contact angles of the stamp before and after the cleaning processes indicate that the cleaning methods do not significantly degrade the anti-sticking layer. The cleaning processes reported in this work could also be used for substrate cleaning.

  14. Soil Temperature and Moisture Profile (STAMP) System Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, David R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The soil temperature and moisture profile system (STAMP) provides vertical profiles of soil temperature, soil water content (soil-type specific and loam type), plant water availability, soil conductivity, and real dielectric permittivity as a function of depth below the ground surface at half-hourly intervals, and precipitation at one-minute intervals. The profiles are measured directly by in situ probes at all extended facilities of the SGP climate research site. The profiles are derived from measurements of soil energy conductivity. Atmospheric scientists use the data in climate models to determine boundary conditions and to estimate the surface energy flux. The data are also useful to hydrologists, soil scientists, and agricultural scientists for determining the state of the soil. The STAMP system replaced the SWATS system in early 2016.

  15. Experimental Validation for Hot Stamping Process by Using Taguchi Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzi Zamri, Mohd; Lim, Syh Kai; Razlan Yusoff, Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    Due to the demand for reduction in gas emissions, energy saving and producing safer vehicles has driven the development of Ultra High Strength Steel (UHSS) material. To strengthen UHSS material such as boron steel, it needed to undergo a process of hot stamping for heating at certain temperature and time. In this paper, Taguchi method is applied to determine the appropriate parameter of thickness, heating temperature and heating time to achieve optimum strength of boron steel. The experiment is conducted by using flat square shape of hot stamping tool with tensile dog bone as a blank product. Then, the value of tensile strength and hardness is measured as response. The results showed that the lower thickness, higher heating temperature and heating time give the higher strength and hardness for the final product. In conclusion, boron steel blank are able to achieve up to 1200 MPa tensile strength and 650 HV of hardness.

  16. CO2 Laser Cutting of Hot Stamping Boron Steel Sheets

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquale Russo Spena

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the quality of CO2 laser cutting of hot stamping boron steel sheets that are employed in the fabrication of automotive body-in-white. For this purpose, experimental laser cutting tests were conducted on 1.2 mm sheets at varying levels of laser power, cutting speed, and oxygen pressure. The resulting quality of cut edges was evaluated in terms of perpendicularity tolerance, surface irregularity, kerf width, heat affected zone, and dross extension. Experimental tests wer...

  17. American Society of Mechanical Engineers' N stamp requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Row, P.D.

    1977-01-01

    Incorporated with ASME Section III, Nuclear Power Plant Components, is an Appendix on Quality Assurance Systems which includes provision for ASME surveys. Manufacturers and installers passing the survey successfully receive an N Symbol Stamp and an ASME Certificate of Authorization. An outline is given of the prerequisites for a survey to be scheduled and of the requirements and procedures adopted by the survey team. (U.K.)

  18. Use of tobacco tax stamps to prevent and reduce illicit tobacco trade--United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie; DeLong, Hillary; Gourdet, Camille; Chaloupka, Frank; Edwards, Sarah Matthes; Xu, Xin; Promoff, Gabbi

    2015-05-29

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States. Increasing the unit price on tobacco products is the most effective tobacco prevention and control measure. Illicit tobacco trade (illicit trade) undermines high tobacco prices by providing tobacco users with cheaper-priced alternatives. In the United States, illicit trade primarily occurs when cigarettes are bought from states, jurisdictions, and federal reservation land with lower or no excise taxes, and sold in jurisdictions with higher taxes. Applying tax stamps to tobacco products, which provides documentation that taxes have been paid, is an important tool to combat illicit trade. Comprehensive tax stamping policy, which includes using digital, encrypted ("high-tech") stamps, applying stamps to all tobacco products, and working with tribes on stamping agreements, can further prevent and reduce illicit trade. This report describes state laws governing tax stamps on cigarettes, little cigars (cigarette-sized cigars), roll-your-own tobacco (RYOT), and tribal tobacco sales across the United States as of January 1, 2014, and assesses the extent of comprehensive tobacco tax stamping in the United States. Forty-four states (including the District of Columbia [DC]) applied traditional paper ("low-tech") tax stamps to cigarettes, whereas four authorized more effective high-tech stamps. Six states explicitly required stamps on other tobacco products (i.e., tobacco products other than cigarettes), and in approximately one third of states with tribal lands, tribes required tax stamping to address illicit purchases by nonmembers. No U.S. state had a comprehensive approach to tobacco tax stamping. Enhancing tobacco tax stamping across the country might further prevent and reduce illicit trade in the United States.

  19. Comparison of the hot-stamped boron-alloyed steel and the warm-stamped medium-Mn steel on microstructure and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaodong; Chang, Ying; Wang, Cunyu; Hu, Ping; Dong, Han

    2017-01-01

    The application of high strength steels (HSS) for automotive structural parts is an effective way to realize lightweight and enhance safety. Therefore, improvements in mechanical properties of HSS are needed. In the present study, the warm stamping process of the third generation automotive medium-Mn steel was discussed, the characteristics of martensitic transformation were investigated, as well as the microstructure and mechanical properties were analyzed, compared to the popular hot-stamped 22MnB5 steel in the automotive industry. The results are indicated as follows. Firstly, the quenching rate of the medium-Mn steel can be selected in a wide range based on its CCT curves, which is beneficial to the control of forming process. Secondly, the influence of stamping temperature and pressure on the M s temperature of the medium-Mn steel is not obvious and can be neglected, which is favorable to the even distribution of martensitic microstructure and mechanical properties. Thirdly, the phenomenon of decarbonization is hardly found on the surface of the warm-stamped medium-Mn steel, and the ultra-fine-grained microstructure is found inside the medium-Mn steel after warm stamping. Besides, the warm-stamped medium-Mn steel holds the better comprehensive properties, such as a lower yield ratio, higher total elongation and higher tear toughness than the hot-stamped 22MnB5 steel. Furthermore, an actual warm-stamped B-pillar of medium-Mn steel is stamped and ultra-fine-grained martensitic microstructure is obtained. The mechanical properties are evenly distributed. As a result, this paper proves that the warm-stamped medium-Mn steel part can meet the requirements of lightweight and crash safety, and is promising for the industrial production of automotive structural parts.

  20. Comparison of the hot-stamped boron-alloyed steel and the warm-stamped medium-Mn steel on microstructure and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaodong [School of Automotive Engineering, State Key Lab of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Chang, Ying, E-mail: yingc@dlut.edu.cn [School of Automotive Engineering, State Key Lab of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wang, Cunyu [East China Branch of Central Iron & Steel Research Institute (CISRI), Beijing 100081 (China); Hu, Ping [School of Automotive Engineering, State Key Lab of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Dong, Han [East China Branch of Central Iron & Steel Research Institute (CISRI), Beijing 100081 (China)

    2017-01-02

    The application of high strength steels (HSS) for automotive structural parts is an effective way to realize lightweight and enhance safety. Therefore, improvements in mechanical properties of HSS are needed. In the present study, the warm stamping process of the third generation automotive medium-Mn steel was discussed, the characteristics of martensitic transformation were investigated, as well as the microstructure and mechanical properties were analyzed, compared to the popular hot-stamped 22MnB5 steel in the automotive industry. The results are indicated as follows. Firstly, the quenching rate of the medium-Mn steel can be selected in a wide range based on its CCT curves, which is beneficial to the control of forming process. Secondly, the influence of stamping temperature and pressure on the M{sub s} temperature of the medium-Mn steel is not obvious and can be neglected, which is favorable to the even distribution of martensitic microstructure and mechanical properties. Thirdly, the phenomenon of decarbonization is hardly found on the surface of the warm-stamped medium-Mn steel, and the ultra-fine-grained microstructure is found inside the medium-Mn steel after warm stamping. Besides, the warm-stamped medium-Mn steel holds the better comprehensive properties, such as a lower yield ratio, higher total elongation and higher tear toughness than the hot-stamped 22MnB5 steel. Furthermore, an actual warm-stamped B-pillar of medium-Mn steel is stamped and ultra-fine-grained martensitic microstructure is obtained. The mechanical properties are evenly distributed. As a result, this paper proves that the warm-stamped medium-Mn steel part can meet the requirements of lightweight and crash safety, and is promising for the industrial production of automotive structural parts.

  1. Mathematical Modeling of Hydroelastic Oscillations of the Stamp and the Plate, Resting on Pasternak Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogilevich, L. I.; Popov, V. S.; Popova, A. A.; Christoforova, A. V.

    2018-01-01

    The forced oscillations of the elastic fixed stamp and the plate, resting on Pasternak foundation are studied. The oscillations are caused by pressure pulsation in liquid layer between the stamp and the plate. Pasternak model is chosen as an elastic foundation. The laws of the stamp movement, the plate deflection and pressure in the liquid are discovered on the basis of hydroelasticity problem analytical solution. The functions of amplitude deflection distribution and liquid pressure along the plate are constructed, as well as the stamp amplitude-frequency characteristic. The obtained mathematical model allows to investigate the dynamics of hydroelastic interaction of the stamp with the plate, resting on elastic foundation, to define resonance frequencies of the plate and the stamp and corresponding deflections amplitudes, as well as liquid presser amplitudes.

  2. Application of Modified Digital Halftoning Techniques to Data Hiding in Personalized Stamps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hsi-Chun Wang; Chi-Ming Lian; Pei-Chi Hsiao

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research is to embed information in personalized stamps by modified digital halftoning techniques. The displaced and deformed halftone dots are used to encode data in the personalized stamps. Hidden information can be retrieved by either an optical decoder or digital image processing techniques.The results show that personalized stamps with value-added features like data hiding or digital watermarking can be successfully implemented.

  3. Minerals on postage stamps: A mix of art, history, economics and geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Most people would agree that minerals represent some of the most beautiful natural objects known to mankind, especially in the form of precious and semi-precious gemstones. It is hardly surprising, therefore, that they are often illustrated on stamps. Examples are the fine crystalline forms represented as coloured etchings in the French 1986 issue, and the stylized simplicity of the mineral stamps that were part of the Swiss Pro Patria series, issued annually between 1958 and 1961. I aim in this presentation to introduce the beautiful world of mineral illustrations on stamps. The talk cannot be comprehensive because of the very large number of minerals and stamps concerned, but it will introduce the range of minerals depicted on stamps, then look in some greater detail at several sets from France, Southern Africa and East Germany. Minerals become the subject of sets of stamps for many reasons. In many cases, it is part of an attempt by the particular national post office to depict the whole of the natural history of their country in stamp form - a statement of nationality and politics. The 1986 French issue was an example which followed sets of stamps that had already portrayed insects, flowers, trees and birds native to France. We also find that certain countries have produced several sets of stamps to mark the importance to their economy of mining particular minerals. Many African states depend upon minerals for much of their wealth and economic power, explaining why, for instance, Sierra Leone issued over 35 stamps on the subject of diamonds between 1965 and 1978, and why over 77% of mineral stamps come from countries with major mining interests. Countries with traditional links with the history of the study of geology and mining also produce mineral stamps. These are usually European countries with a long record of the study of the Earth, such as Germany and Switzerland. Curiously enough, though, despite its fine tradition of geological observation and research

  4. Analysis Of Die Design For The Stamping Of A Bathtub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojny M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents example results of numerical and photogrammetric analysis leading to identify the causes of cracking and wrinkling during bathtub W1200 production. The verification of tools for the stamping of bathtub W1200 was performed using finite element method and photogrammetric system ATOS Triple Scan. A series of industrial tests was conducted to identify the model parameters. The major and minor strain distributions obtained from the finite element simulations were used in conjunction with the forming limit diagram to predict the onset of fracture. In addition, the effects of blank holder pressure and friction on the occurrence of fracture and wrinkling were investigated.

  5. An interactive and flexible approach to stamping design and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Subir; Kunju, Ravi; Kirby, David

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient method that integrates finite element analysis (FEA), mesh morphing and response surface based optimization in order to implement an automated and flexible software tool to optimize stamping tool and process design. For FEA, a robust and extremely fast inverse solver is chosen. For morphing, a state of the art mesh morpher that interactively generates shape variables for optimization studies is used. The optimization algorithm utilized in this study enables a global search for a multitude of parameters and is highly flexible with regards to the choice of objective functions. A quality function that minimizes formability defects resulting from stretching and compression is implemented

  6. DC-STAMP Is an Osteoclast Fusogen Engaged in Periodontal Bone Resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisitrasameewong, W; Kajiya, M; Movila, A; Rittling, S; Ishii, T; Suzuki, M; Matsuda, S; Mazda, Y; Torruella, M R; Azuma, M M; Egashira, K; Freire, M O; Sasaki, H; Wang, C Y; Han, X; Taubman, M A; Kawai, T

    2017-06-01

    Dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) plays a key role in the induction of osteoclast (OC) cell fusion, as well as DC-mediated immune regulation. While DC-STAMP gene expression is upregulated in the gingival tissue with periodontitis, its pathophysiological roles in periodontitis remain unclear. To evaluate the effects of DC-STAMP in periodontitis, anti-DC-STAMP-monoclonal antibody (mAb) was tested in a mouse model of ligature-induced periodontitis ( n = 6-7/group) where Pasteurella pneumotropica ( Pp)-reactive immune response activated T cells to produce receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), which, in turn, promotes the periodontal bone loss via upregulation of osteoclastogenesis. DC-STAMP was expressed on the cell surface of mature multinuclear OCs, as well as immature mononuclear OCs, in primary cultures of RANKL-stimulated bone marrow cells. Anti-DC-STAMP-mAb suppressed the emergence of large, but not small, multinuclear OCs, suggesting that DC-STAMP is engaged in the late stage of cell fusion. Anti-DC-STAMP-mAb also inhibited pit formation caused by RANKL-stimulated bone marrow cells. Attachment of ligature to a second maxillary molar induced DC-STAMP messenger RNA and protein, along with elevated tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP+) OCs and alveolar bone loss. As we expected, systemic administration of anti-DC-STAMP-mAb downregulated the ligature-induced alveolar bone loss. Importantly, local injection of anti-DC-STAMP-mAb also suppressed alveolar bone loss and reduced the total number of multinucleated TRAP+ cells in mice that received ligature attachment. Attachment of ligature induced significantly elevated tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and RANKL in the gingival tissue compared with the control site without ligature ( P < 0.05), which was unaffected by local injection with either anti-DC-STAMP-mAb or control-mAb. Neither in vivo anti- Pp IgG antibody nor in vitro anti- Pp T

  7. Size Effect Studies on Tensile Tests for Hot Stamping Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaodu; Li, Yuanyuan; Han, Xianhong; Zhang, Junbo

    2018-02-01

    Tensile tests have been widely used to determine basic mechanical properties of materials. However, the properties measured may be related to geometrical factors of the tested samples especially for high-strength steels; this makes the properties' definitions and comparisons difficult. In this study, a series of tensile tests of ultra-high-strength hot-stamped steel were performed; the geometric shapes and sizes as well as the cutting direction were modified. The results demonstrate that the hot-stamped parts were isotropic and the cutting direction had no effect; the measured strengths were practically unrelated to the specimen geometries, including both size and shape. The elongations were slightly related to sample sizes within the studied range but highly depended on the sample shape, represented by the coefficient K. Such phenomena were analyzed and discussed based on microstructural observations and fracture morphologies. Moreover, two widely used elongation conversion equations, the Oliver formula and Barba's law, were introduced to verify their applicability, and a new interpolating function was developed and compared.

  8. STAMPS: development and verification of swallowing kinematic analysis software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo Hyung; Chun, Changmook; Seo, Han Gil; Lee, Seung Hak; Oh, Byung-Mo

    2017-10-17

    Swallowing impairment is a common complication in various geriatric and neurodegenerative diseases. Swallowing kinematic analysis is essential to quantitatively evaluate the swallowing motion of the oropharyngeal structures. This study aims to develop a novel swallowing kinematic analysis software, called spatio-temporal analyzer for motion and physiologic study (STAMPS), and verify its validity and reliability. STAMPS was developed in MATLAB, which is one of the most popular platforms for biomedical analysis. This software was constructed to acquire, process, and analyze the data of swallowing motion. The target of swallowing structures includes bony structures (hyoid bone, mandible, maxilla, and cervical vertebral bodies), cartilages (epiglottis and arytenoid), soft tissues (larynx and upper esophageal sphincter), and food bolus. Numerous functions are available for the spatiotemporal parameters of the swallowing structures. Testing for validity and reliability was performed in 10 dysphagia patients with diverse etiologies and using the instrumental swallowing model which was designed to mimic the motion of the hyoid bone and the epiglottis. The intra- and inter-rater reliability tests showed excellent agreement for displacement and moderate to excellent agreement for velocity. The Pearson correlation coefficients between the measured and instrumental reference values were nearly 1.00 (P software is expected to be useful for researchers who are interested in the swallowing motion analysis.

  9. CO2 Laser Cutting of Hot Stamping Boron Steel Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Russo Spena

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the quality of CO2 laser cutting of hot stamping boron steel sheets that are employed in the fabrication of automotive body-in-white. For this purpose, experimental laser cutting tests were conducted on 1.2 mm sheets at varying levels of laser power, cutting speed, and oxygen pressure. The resulting quality of cut edges was evaluated in terms of perpendicularity tolerance, surface irregularity, kerf width, heat affected zone, and dross extension. Experimental tests were based on a L9(34 orthogonal array design, with the effects of the process parameters on the quality responses being determined by means of a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA. Quadratic mathematical models were developed to determine the relationships between the cutting parameters and the quality responses. Finally, a routine based on an optimization criterion was employed to predict the optimal setting of cutting factors and its effect on the quality responses. A confirmation experiment was conducted to verify the appropriateness of the optimization routine. The results show that all of the examined process parameters have a key role in determining the cut quality of hot stamping boron steel sheets, with cutting speed and their interactions having the most influencing effects. Particularly, interactions can have an opposite behavior for different levels of the process parameters.

  10. Stamping, Clapping and Chanting: An Ancient Learning Pathway?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion M. Long

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In this review I explore the effect of temporal integration as a means of improving learning in schoolchildren. I focus first on theorists that have linked physical activity with a positive effect on children’s learning and second to psychological studies that have established the existence of innate temporal patterns. These findings are related to a model of temporal integration that I have developed from Croce’s writings on aesthetics (1900. From philosophy to neurology, I discuss recent neurological findings relating to timing and conclude that an organ of temporal integration, regulation and coordination operates in the brain with respect to physical, intuitive and higher cognitive function. I link recent findings in neurophysiology to notably similar findings in recent biomusicological studies. The finding that humans have an involuntary physical response to loud, low-frequency sounds are attributed to an innate legacy of proto-music and proto-dance behaviour among hominids. I develop the model of temporal integration further by examining the literature on stamping and clapping patterns of ancient traditional dances in relation to Husserl’s writings on theoretical succession. From philosophy to pedagogy, I summarise the review by proposing stamping, clapping and chanting as a means of achieving improved temporal integration.

  11. Elsa Baxter, head of the Swiss Post Office's Stamps and Philately Unit, presents to Robert Aymar, CERN's Director-General, the Swiss commemorative stamp dedicated to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2004-01-01

    'I am delighted to offer you a special stamp which commemorates your Laboratory's fifty-year history and pays tribute to its achievements, its pioneering spirit and its perseverance' said Mrs Baxter to Robert Aymar, CERN's Director-General.

  12. Bifunctional, Chemically Patterned Flat Stamps for Microcontact Printing of Polar Inks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duan, X.; Sadhu, V.B.; Perl, A.; Péter, M.; Reinhoudt, David; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2008-01-01

    Different methods to create chemically patterned, flat PDMS stamps with two different chemical functionalities were compared. The best method for making such stamps, functionalized with 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (PFDTS) and 3-(aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTS), appeared to be full

  13. 27 CFR 70.332 - Unauthorized use or sale of stamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unauthorized use or sale....332 Unauthorized use or sale of stamps. Any person who buys, sells, offers for sale, uses, transfers... Code or in regulations made pursuant thereto, any stamp, coupon, ticket, book, or other device...

  14. 27 CFR 46.116 - Issuance, distribution, and examination of special tax stamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... multiple locations, TTB will send to the taxpayer's principal place of business (or principal office in the... attachment to TTB Form 5630.5t required by § 46.101(b)(2). (b) Distribution of special tax stamps for... for each location listed on the attachment to TTB Form 5630.5t and that the information on each stamp...

  15. Food Stamps and Food Insecurity: What Can Be Learned in the Presence of Nonclassical Measurement Error?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Craig; Kreider, Brent

    2008-01-01

    Policymakers have been puzzled to observe that food stamp households appear more likely to be food insecure than observationally similar eligible nonparticipating households. We reexamine this issue allowing for nonclassical reporting errors in food stamp participation and food insecurity. Extending the literature on partially identified…

  16. Women Putting Our Stamp on America: Biographies and Activities for National Women's History Month, March 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Women's History Project, Windsor, CA.

    This booklet, intended for use by educators and by workplace and community organizers, introduces women who have been featured on U.S. postage stamps as well as a few of the women who clearly merit such honor in the future. Postage stamps featuring women have been relatively few and far between and have only skimmed the surface of U.S. women in…

  17. Determination of the interfacial heat transfer coefficient in the hot stamping of AA7075

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiaochuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC is a key parameter in hot stamping processes, in which a hot blank is formed and quenched by cold dies simultaneously. The IHTC should therefore be identified and used in FE models to improve the accuracy of simulation results of hot stamping processes. In this work, a hot stamping simulator was designed and assembled in a Gleeble 3800 thermo-mechanical testing system and a FE model was built in PAM-STAMP to determine the IHTC value between a hot aluminium alloy 7075 blank and cold dies. The IHTC was determined at different contact pressures under both dry and lubricated (Omega-35 conditions. In addition, a model to calculate the IHTC value at different contact pressures and area densities of lubricant was developed for the hot stamping process.

  18. Determination of the Interfacial Heat Transfer Coefficient in the Hot Stamping of AA7075

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC is a key parameter in hot stamping processes, in which a hot blank is formed and quenched by cold dies simultaneously. The IHTC should therefore be identified and used in FE simulations to improve the accuracy of simulation results of hot stamping processes. In this work, a hot stamping simulator was designed and assembled in a Gleeble 3800 thermo-mechanical testing system and a FE model was built in PAM-STAMP to determine the IHTC values between a hot aluminium alloy 7075 blank and cold dies. The IHTC values were determined at different contact pressures under both dry and lubricated (Omega-35 conditions. In addition, a model to calculate the IHTC value at different contact pressures and area densities of lubricant was developed for the hot stamping process, which was proved to be working well with verification tests.

  19. A compact system for large-area thermal nanoimprint lithography using smart stamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, R H; Hansen, O; Kristensen, A

    2008-01-01

    We present a simple apparatus for thermal nanoimprint lithography. In this work, the stamp is designed to significantly reduce the requirements for pressure application on the external imprint system. By MEMS-based processing, an air cavity inside the stamp is created, and the required pressure for successful imprint is reduced. Additionally, the stamp is capable of performing controlled demolding after imprint. Due to the complexity of the stamp, a compact and cost-effective imprint apparatus can be constructed. The design and fabrication of the advanced stamp as well as the simple imprint equipment is presented. Test imprints of micrometer- and nanometer-scale structures are performed and characterized with respect to uniformity across a large area (35 mm radius). State-of-the-art uniformity for µm-scale features is demonstrated

  20. Influence of preconsolidation on consolidation quality after stamp forming of C/PEEK composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slange, T. K.; Warnet, L.; Grouve, W. J. B.; Akkerman, R.

    2016-10-01

    Stamp forming is a rapid manufacturing technology used to shape flat blanks of thermoplastic composite material into three-dimensional components. Currently, expensive autoclave and press consolidation are used to preconsolidate blanks. This study investigates the influence of preconsolidation on final consolidation quality after stamp forming and explores the potential of alternative blank manufacturing methods that could reduce part costs. Blanks were manufactured using various blank manufacturing methods and subsequently were stamp formed. The consolidation quality both before and after stamp forming was compared, where the focus was on void content as the main measure for consolidation quality. The void content was characterized through thickness and density measurements, as well as by microscopy analysis. Results indicate that preconsolidation quality does have an influence on the final consolidation quality. This is due to the severe deconsolidation and limited reconsolidation during stamp forming. Nevertheless, the potential of automated fiber placement and ultrasonic spot welding as alternative blank manufacturing methods was demonstrated.

  1. Fabrication of Ni stamp with high aspect ratio, two-leveled, cylindrical microstructures using dry etching and electroplating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ritika Singh; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Hansen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    obtained by defining a reservoir and a separating trench with different depths of 85 and 125 μm, respectively, in a single embossing step. The fabrication of the required two leveled stamp is done using a modified DEEMO (dry etching, electroplating and molding) process. Dry etching using the Bosch process...... and electroplating are optimized to obtain a stamp with smooth stamp surfaces and a positive sidewall profile. Using this stamp, hot embossing is performed successfully with excellent yield and high replication fidelity....

  2. A Path-Independent Forming Limit Criterion for Stamping Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xinhai; Chappuis, Laurent; Xia, Z. Cedric

    2005-01-01

    Forming Limit Diagram (FLD) has been proved to be a powerful tool for assessing necking failures in sheet metal forming analysis for majority of stamping operations over the last three decades. However, experimental evidence and theoretical analysis suggest that its applications are limited to linear or almost linear strain paths during its deformation history. Abrupt changes or even gradual deviations from linear strain-paths will shift forming limit curves from their original values, a situation that occurs in vast majority of sequential stamping operations such as where the drawing process is followed by flanging and re-strike processes. Various forming limit models have been put forward recently to provide remedies for the problem, noticeably stress-based and strain gradient-based forming limit criteria. This study presents an alternative path-independent forming limit criterion. Instead of traditional Forming Limit Diagrams (FLD) which are constructed in terms of major - minor principal strains throughout deformation history, the new criterion defines a critical effective strain ε-bar* as the limit strain for necking, and it is shown that ε-bar* can be expressed as a function of current strain rate state and material work hardening properties, without the need of explicitly considering strain-path effects. It is given by ε-bar* = f(β, k, n) where β = (dε 2 /dε 1 ) at current deformation state, and k and n are material strain hardening parameters if a power law is assumed. The analysis is built upon previous work by Storen and Rice [1975] and Zhu et al [2002] with the incorporation of anisotropic yield models such as Hill'48 for quadratic orthotropic yield and Hill'79 for non-quadratic orthotropic yield. Effects of anisotropic parameters such as R-values and exponent n-values on necking are investigated in detail for a variety of strain paths. Results predicted according to current analysis are compared against experimental data gathered from literature

  3. Titanium nitride stamps replicating nanoporous anodic alumina films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navas, D; Sanchez, O; Asenjo, A; Jaafar, M; Baldonedo, J L; Vazquez, M; Hernandez-Velez, M

    2007-01-01

    Fabrication of nanostructured TiN films by magnetron sputtering using nanoporous anodic alumina films (NAAF) as substrates is reported. These hard nanostructured films could be used for pre-patterning aluminium foils and to obtain nanoporous films replicating the starting NAAF over a wide range of pore diameters and spacings. Pre-patterned Al foils are obtained by compression with pressures lower than those previously reported, then a new NAAF can be fabricated by means of only one anodization process. As an example, one of the TiN stamps was used for pre-patterning an Al foil at a pressure of 200 kg cm -2 and then it was anodized in oxalic acid solution obtaining the corresponding replica of the starting NAAF

  4. Extracting Hot spots of Topics from Time Stamped Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Chundi, Parvathi

    2011-01-01

    Identifying time periods with a burst of activities related to a topic has been an important problem in analyzing time-stamped documents. In this paper, we propose an approach to extract a hot spot of a given topic in a time-stamped document set. Topics can be basic, containing a simple list of keywords, or complex. Logical relationships such as and, or, and not are used to build complex topics from basic topics. A concept of presence measure of a topic based on fuzzy set theory is introduced to compute the amount of information related to the topic in the document set. Each interval in the time period of the document set is associated with a numeric value which we call the discrepancy score. A high discrepancy score indicates that the documents in the time interval are more focused on the topic than those outside of the time interval. A hot spot of a given topic is defined as a time interval with the highest discrepancy score. We first describe a naive implementation for extracting hot spots. We then construct an algorithm called EHE (Efficient Hot Spot Extraction) using several efficient strategies to improve performance. We also introduce the notion of a topic DAG to facilitate an efficient computation of presence measures of complex topics. The proposed approach is illustrated by several experiments on a subset of the TDT-Pilot Corpus and DBLP conference data set. The experiments show that the proposed EHE algorithm significantly outperforms the naive one, and the extracted hot spots of given topics are meaningful. PMID:21765568

  5. Analysis of roll-stamped light guide plate fabricated with laser-ablated stamper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hyunjun; Hong, Seokkwan; Kim, Jongsun; Hwang, Jeongho; Joo, Byungyun; Yoon, Kyunghwan; Kang, Jeongjin

    2017-12-01

    LGP (light guide plate) is one of the major components of LCD (liquid crystal display), and it makes surface illumination for LCD backlit. LGP is a transparent plastic plate usually produced by injection molding process. On the back of LGP there are micron size patterns for extraction of light. Recently a roll-stamping process has achieved the high mass productivity of thinner LGPs. In order to fabricate optical patterns on LGPs, a fabricating tool called as a stamper is used. Micro patterns on metallic stampers are made by several micro machining processes such as chemical etching, LIGA-reflow, and laser ablation. In this study, a roll-stamping process by using a laser ablated metallic stamper was dealt with in consideration of the compatibility with the roll-stamping process. LGP fabricating tests were performed using a roll-stamping process with four different roll pressures. Pattern shapes on the stamper fabricated by laser ablation and transcription ratios of the roll-stamping process were analyzed, and LGP luminance was evaluated. Based on the evaluation, optical simulation model for LGP was made and simulation accuracy was evaluated. Simulation results showed good agreements with optical performance of LGPs in the brightness and uniformity. It was also shown that the roll-stamped LGP has the possibility of better optical performance than the conventional injection molded LGP. It was also shown that the roll-stamped LGP with the laser ablated stamper is potential to have better optical performance than the conventional injection molded LGP.

  6. Resistless Fabrication of Nanoimprint Lithography (NIL Stamps Using Nano-Stencil Lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juergen Brugger

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to keep up with the advances in nano-fabrication, alternative, cost-efficient lithography techniques need to be implemented. Two of the most promising are nanoimprint lithography (NIL and stencil lithography. We explore here the possibility of fabricating the stamp using stencil lithography, which has the potential for a cost reduction in some fabrication facilities. We show that the stamps reproduce the membrane aperture patterns within ±10 nm and we validate such stamps by using them to fabricate metallic nanowires down to 100 nm in size.

  7. Limited indications of tax stamp discordance and counterfeiting on cigarette packs purchased in tobacco retailers, 97 counties, USA, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph G L; Golden, Shelley D; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2017-12-01

    Increasing the per-unit cost of tobacco products is one of the strongest interventions for tobacco control. In jurisdictions with higher taxes in the U.S., however, cigarette pack litter studies show a substantial proportion of littered packs lack the appropriate tax stamp. More limited but still present counterfeiting also exists. We sought to examine the role of tobacco retailers as a source for untaxed and counterfeit products. Data collectors purchased Newport Green (menthol) or Marlboro Red cigarette packs in a national probability-based sample of tobacco retailers (in 97 counties) from June-October 2012. They made no effort to buy counterfeit or untaxed cigarettes. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the presence, tax authority, and type (low-tech thermal vs. encrypted) of cigarette pack tax stamps; concordance of tax stamps with where the pack was purchased; and, for Marlboro cigarettes, publicly available visible indicators of counterfeiting. We purchased 2147 packs of which 2033 had tax stamps. Packs missing stamps were in states that do not require them. We found very limited discordance between store location and tax stamp(s) (tax stamps (13%). This occurred entirely with low-tech tax stamps and was not identified with encrypted tax stamps. We found no clear evidence of counterfeit products. Almost all tax stamps matched the location of purchase. Litter studies may be picking up legal tax avoidance instead of illegal tax evasion or, alternatively, purchase of illicit products requires special request by the purchaser.

  8. Impact of Simulation Technology on Die and Stamping Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Mark W.

    2005-08-01

    Over the last ten years, we have seen an explosion in the use of simulation-based techniques to improve the engineering, construction, and operation of GM production tools. The impact has been as profound as the overall switch to CAD/CAM from the old manual design and construction methods. The changeover to N/C machining from duplicating milling machines brought advances in accuracy and speed to our construction activity. It also brought significant reductions in fitting sculptured surfaces. Changing over to CAD design brought similar advances in accuracy, and today's use of solid modeling has enhanced that accuracy gain while finally leading to the reduction in lead time and cost through the development of parametric techniques. Elimination of paper drawings for die design, along with the process of blueprinting and distribution, provided the savings required to install high capacity computer servers, high-speed data transmission lines and integrated networks. These historic changes in the application of CAE technology in manufacturing engineering paved the way for the implementation of simulation to all aspects of our business. The benefits are being realized now, and the future holds even greater promise as the simulation techniques mature and expand. Every new line of dies is verified prior to casting for interference free operation. Sheet metal forming simulation validates the material flow, eliminating the high costs of physical experimentation dependent on trial and error methods of the past. Integrated forming simulation and die structural analysis and optimization has led to a reduction in die size and weight on the order of 30% or more. The latest techniques in factory simulation enable analysis of automated press lines, including all stamping operations with corresponding automation. This leads to manufacturing lines capable of running at higher levels of throughput, with actual results providing the capability of two or more additional strokes per

  9. Direct stamping of silver nanoparticles toward residue-free thick electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiseok Kim, Kevin Wubs, Byeong-Soo Bae and Woo Soo Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct stamping of functional materials has been developed for cost-effective and process-effective manufacturing of nano/micro patterns. However, there remain several challenging issues like the perfect removal of the residual layer and realization of high aspect ratio. We have demonstrated facile fabrication of flexible strain sensors that have microscale thick interdigitated capacitors with no residual layer by a simple direct stamping with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs. Polyurethane (PU prepolymer was utilized as an adhesive layer to transfer AgNPs more efficiently during the separation step of the flexible stamp from directly stamped AgNPs. Scanning electron microscopy images and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis revealed residue-free transfer of microscale thick interdigitated electrodes onto two different flexible substrates (elastomeric and brittle for the application to highly sensitive strain sensors.

  10. A burial with a stamp seal depicting a Bes-like figure from Abusir

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dulíková, V.; Odler, M.; Březinová, Helena; Havelková, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2015, č. 15 (2015), s. 69-75 ISSN 1214-3189 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Abusir * Old Kingdom * First Intermediate Period * stamp seal * amulet * Bes * reed coffin * entheses Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  11. STAMP model and its application prospect in DCS safety analysis of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaohua; Liu Jie; Liu Zhaohui; Liu Hua; Yu Tonglan

    2013-01-01

    The application of DCS (Digit Control System) is a certain trend for the development of nuclear power. DCS not only improves the control capability of nuclear power system, but also increases the complexity of the system. Traditional safety analysis techniques based on event-chain model are facing challenges. In order to improve the safety performance of nuclear power DCS, the latest research achievement in the field of safety engineering should be focused, studied and applied into nuclear power safety. This paper introduces a new safety analysis model named STAMP (Systems-Theoretic Accident Modeling and Processes) based on the system theory, analyzes its advantages and disadvantages compared with the traditional ones, and explains the basic steps of STPA (STAMP-Based Hazard Analysis) technology. Finally, according to the application status of STAMP at home and abroad, it prospects the development of STAMP in China's nuclear power safety. (authors)

  12. Process control for sheet-metal stamping process modeling, controller design and shop-floor implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Yongseob; Ulsoy, A Galip

    2014-01-01

    Process Control for Sheet-Metal Stamping presents a comprehensive and structured approach to the design and implementation of controllers for the sheet metal stamping process. The use of process control for sheet-metal stamping greatly reduces defects in deep-drawn parts and can also yield large material savings from reduced scrap. Sheet-metal forming is a complex process and most often characterized by partial differential equations that are numerically solved using finite-element techniques. In this book, twenty years of academic research are reviewed and the resulting technology transitioned to the industrial environment. The sheet-metal stamping process is modeled in a manner suitable for multiple-input multiple-output control system design, with commercially available sensors and actuators. These models are then used to design adaptive controllers and real-time controller implementation is discussed. Finally, experimental results from actual shopfloor deployment are presented along with ideas for further...

  13. 49 CFR 238.119 - Rim-stamped straight-plate wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... input to the wheel during braking. (b) A rim-stamped straight-plate wheel shall not be used as a... that is periodically tread-braked for a short duration by automatic circuitry for the sole purpose of...

  14. 26 CFR 301.7209-1 - Unauthorized use or sale of stamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., transfers, takes or gives in exchange, or pledges or gives in pledge, except as authorized in the Code or in regulations made pursuant thereto, any stamp, coupon, ticket, book, or other device prescribed by the...

  15. Characteristic Evaluation of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Prepared with Stamp Printing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apisit Chittawanij

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We have reported on a stamp printing technique that uses PET release film as a printing stamp to deposit TPBi thin film served as the electron transport layer of the organic light-emitting diodes. TPBi thin film was printed with a good uniformity and resolution. Effect of deposition conditions on optical and electrical properties and surface roughness of TPBi thin film have been studied under spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy, respectively. It is found that characteristic of TPBi thin film is improved via controlled stamp temperature and time. Since TPBi thin film exhibits the surface morphology comparable to that of conventional spin-coating thin film, our findings suggest that PET release film-based stamp printing approach is possible to use as an alternative deposition of the organic thin film as compared with a traditional one.

  16. High Thermal Conductivity and High Wear Resistance Tool Steels for cost-effective Hot Stamping Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, I.; Hamasaiid, A.; Padré, A.

    2017-09-01

    In hot stamping/press hardening, in addition to its shaping function, the tool controls the cycle time, the quality of the stamped components through determining the cooling rate of the stamped blank, the production costs and the feasibility frontier for stamping a given component. During the stamping, heat is extracted from the stamped blank and transported through the tool to the cooling medium in the cooling lines. Hence, the tools’ thermal properties determine the cooling rate of the blank, the heat transport mechanism, stamping times and temperature distribution. The tool’s surface resistance to adhesive and abrasive wear is also an important cost factor, as it determines the tool durability and maintenance costs. Wear is influenced by many tool material parameters, such as the microstructure, composition, hardness level and distribution of strengthening phases, as well as the tool’s working temperature. A decade ago, Rovalma developed a hot work tool steel for hot stamping that features a thermal conductivity of more than double that of any conventional hot work tool steel. Since that time, many complimentary grades have been developed in order to provide tailored material solutions as a function of the production volume, degree of blank cooling and wear resistance requirements, tool geometries, tool manufacturing method, type and thickness of the blank material, etc. Recently, Rovalma has developed a new generation of high thermal conductivity, high wear resistance tool steel grades that enable the manufacture of cost effective tools for hot stamping to increase process productivity and reduce tool manufacturing costs and lead times. Both of these novel grades feature high wear resistance and high thermal conductivity to enhance tool durability and cut cycle times in the production process of hot stamped components. Furthermore, one of these new grades reduces tool manufacturing costs through low tool material cost and hardening through readily

  17. EFFECTS OF EBT CUSTOMER SERVICE WAIVERS ON FOOD STAMP RECIPIENTS: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    OpenAIRE

    Kirlin, John A.; Logan, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    Most State agencies are now using electronic benefits transfer (EBT) systems to issue food stamp benefits. To promote operational efficiency, some States have received waivers of certain rules governing EBT use. An exploratory study was conducted to ascertain the effects of these waivers on food stamp recipients. The results show that two of the waivers-those allowing recipients to select their own personal identification numbers and to receive EBT training by mail rather than in person-cause...

  18. Springback Prediction, Compensation and Correlation for Automotive Stamping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Siguang; Zhao Kunmin; Lanker, Terry; Zhang, Jimmy; Wang, C.T.

    2005-01-01

    To reduce weight and increase fuel efficiency and safety, more and more automotive sheet stamping parts are being made of aluminum and high strength steels. Forming of such materials encounters not just reduced formability but also dimensional quality problems. Springback prediction accuracy and compensation effectiveness have been the major challenge to die development, construction and tryout. In this paper, the factors that affect the accuracy of springback prediction are discussed, which includes the effect of material models, the selection of element size, and the contact algorithms. Springback predictions of several automotive aluminum and high strength panels are compared with measurement data. The examples show that the prediction correlates with measurement data in both springback trend and magnitude. The effect of springback on final product can be reduced or eliminated through process control and die face compensation. The process control method involves finding the root causes of springback and eliminating them through process modification. The geometrical compensation of die surface is a direct way to eliminate the springback effect. The global scaling compensation method is normally limited to parts with relatively small springback. For large springback and twisting, a new approach is discussed, which takes into account of the effect of deformation and springback history. The compensation is achieved iteratively by solving a system of non-linear equations. Production dies were cut to the compensated surface, which shows that the die compensation is an efficient way to reduce springback-induced geometry deviation

  19. Comparison between Laser and Stamping without Die (SWD for Micro Tapered Hole Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Chou Hung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The forming of a micro tapered hole is based on nanosecond pulsed laser processing, which conforms to fast processing time and high throughput; however, the microhole quality should be improved. Micro stamping is a technology providing high precise size and speed. The greatest difficulty in forming a microhole by micro stamping is the precision alignment of the punch head to the lower die. In order to overcome the difficulty, we proposed a concept of stamping without die (SWD. Without a lower die, the tapered punch head was directly applied to the workpiece for micro stamping, and a thicker workpiece surrounding the punching area provides a better support to the stamping process. Thus, a successful forming of micro tapered holes is completed. The micro tapered hole depth is 300 μm, and the maximum ratio of inlet to outlet diameter is 18:1. In order to reduce the number of experiments, the finite element analysis software DEFORM-3D was used for forming analysis. The simulation forecast result was compared with the experimental processing, which was well validated. Under different experimental parameters of laser energy and defocusing distance, drilling results by two methods show that the microhole quality by stamping process is better than by laser processing.

  20. Carbon nanotube substrates and catalyzed hot stamp for polishing and patterning the substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhuang [Evanston, IL; Hauge, Robert H [Houston, TX; Schmidt, Howard K [Houston, TX; Kim, Myung Jong [Houston, TX; Kittrell, W Carter [Houston, TX

    2009-09-08

    The present invention is generally directed to catalyzed hot stamp methods for polishing and/or patterning carbon nanotube-containing substrates. In some embodiments, the substrate, as a carbon nanotube fiber end, is brought into contact with a hot stamp (typically at 200-800.degree. C.), and is kept in contact with the hot stamp until the morphology/patterns on the hot stamp have been transferred to the substrate. In some embodiments, the hot stamp is made of material comprising one or more transition metals (Fe, Ni, Co, Pt, Ag, Au, etc.), which can catalyze the etching reaction of carbon with H.sub.2, CO.sub.2, H.sub.2O, and/or O.sub.2. Such methods can (1) polish the carbon nanotube-containing substrate with a microscopically smooth finish, and/or (2) transfer pre-defined patterns from the hot stamp to the substrate. Such polished or patterned carbon nanotube substrates can find application as carbon nanotube electrodes, field emitters, and field emitter arrays for displays and electron sources.

  1. A Fully Automated and Robust Method to Incorporate Stamping Data in Crash, NVH and Durability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniswamy, Hariharasudhan; Kanthadai, Narayan; Roy, Subir; Beauchesne, Erwan

    2011-08-01

    Crash, NVH (Noise, Vibration, Harshness), and durability analysis are commonly deployed in structural CAE analysis for mechanical design of components especially in the automotive industry. Components manufactured by stamping constitute a major portion of the automotive structure. In CAE analysis they are modeled at a nominal state with uniform thickness and no residual stresses and strains. However, in reality the stamped components have non-uniformly distributed thickness and residual stresses and strains resulting from stamping. It is essential to consider the stamping information in CAE analysis to accurately model the behavior of the sheet metal structures under different loading conditions. Especially with the current emphasis on weight reduction by replacing conventional steels with aluminum and advanced high strength steels it is imperative to avoid over design. Considering this growing need in industry, a highly automated and robust method has been integrated within Altair Hyperworks® to initialize sheet metal components in CAE models with stamping data. This paper demonstrates this new feature and the influence of stamping data for a full car frontal crash analysis.

  2. Cooling Systems Design in Hot Stamping Tools by a Thermal-Fluid-Mechanical Coupled Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Lin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hot stamping tools with cooling systems are the key facilities for hot stamping process of Ultrahigh strength steels (UHSS in automotive industry. Hot stamping tools have significant influence on the final microstructure and properties of the hot stamped parts. In serials production, the tools should be rapidly cooled by cooling water. Hence, design of hot stamping tools with cooling systems is important not only for workpieces of good quality but also for the tools with good cooling performance and long life. In this paper, a new multifield simulation method was proposed for the design of hot stamping tools with cooling system. The deformation of the tools was also analyzed by this method. Based on MpCCI (Mesh-based parallel Code Coupling Interface, thermal-fluid simulation and thermal-fluid-mechanical coupled simulation were performed. Subsequently, the geometrical parameters of the cooling system are investigated for the design. The results show that, both the distance between the ducts and the distance between the ducts and the tools loaded contour have significant influence on the quenching effect. And better quenching effect can be achieved with the shorter distance from the tool surface and with smaller distance between ducts. It is also shown that, thermal expansion is the main reason for deformation of the hot forming tools, which causes the distortion of the cooling ducts, and the stress concentration at corner of the ducts.

  3. The Study on Weldability of Boron Steel and Hot-Stamped Steel by Using Laser Heat Source (Ⅲ) - Comparison on Laser Weldability of Boron Steel and Hot -Stamped Steel-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, So Young; Kim, Jong Do [Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Su [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    This study was conducted to compare the laser weldability of boron steel and hot-stamped steel. In general, boron steel is used in the hot-stamping process. Hot-stamping is a method for simultaneously forming and cooling boron steel in a press die after heating it to the austenitizing temperature. Hot-stamped steel has a strength of 1500 MPa or more. Thus, in this study, the laser weldability of boron steel and that of hot-stamped steel were investigated and compared. A continuous wave disk laser was used to produce butt and lap joints. In the butt welding, the critical cooling speed at which full penetration was obtained in the hot-stamped steel was lower than that of boron steel. In the lap welding, the joint widths were similar regardless of the welding speed when full penetration was obtained.

  4. The Study on Weldability of Boron Steel and Hot-Stamped Steel by Using Laser Heat Source (Ⅲ) - Comparison on Laser Weldability of Boron Steel and Hot -Stamped Steel-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, So Young; Kim, Jong Do; Kim, Jong Su

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the laser weldability of boron steel and hot-stamped steel. In general, boron steel is used in the hot-stamping process. Hot-stamping is a method for simultaneously forming and cooling boron steel in a press die after heating it to the austenitizing temperature. Hot-stamped steel has a strength of 1500 MPa or more. Thus, in this study, the laser weldability of boron steel and that of hot-stamped steel were investigated and compared. A continuous wave disk laser was used to produce butt and lap joints. In the butt welding, the critical cooling speed at which full penetration was obtained in the hot-stamped steel was lower than that of boron steel. In the lap welding, the joint widths were similar regardless of the welding speed when full penetration was obtained

  5. Tribological performances of new steel grades for hot stamping tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medea, F.; Venturato, G.; Ghiotti, A.; Bruschi, S.

    2017-09-01

    In the last years, the use of High Strength Steels (HSS) as structural parts in car body-in-white manufacturing has rapidly increased thanks to their favourable strength-to-weight ratio and stiffness, which allow a reduction of the fuel consumption to accommodate the new restricted regulations for CO2 emissions control. The survey of the technical and scientific literature shows a large interest in the development of different coatings for the blanks from the traditional Al-Si up to new Zn-based coatings and on the analysis of hard PVD, CVD coatings and plasma nitriding applied on the tools. By contrast, fewer investigations have been focused on the development and test of new tools steels grades capable to improve the wear resistance and the thermal properties that are required for the in-die quenching during forming. On this base, the paper deals with the analysis and comparison the tribological performances in terms of wear, friction and heat transfer of new tool steel grades for high-temperature applications, characterized by a higher thermal conductivity than the commonly used tools. Testing equipment, procedures as well as measurements analyses to evaluate the friction coefficient, the wear and heat transfer phenomena are presented. Emphasis is given on the physical simulation techniques that were specifically developed to reproduce the thermal and mechanical cycles on the metal sheets and dies as in the industrial practice. The reference industrial process is the direct hot stamping of the 22MnB5 HSS coated with the common Al-Si coating for automotive applications.

  6. Diversity of Physicians’ Handwriting and Name Stamp in Chemotherapy Prescriptions: Potential Target for Fraud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asiyeh Amouei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BBackgrounds: Verification and authentication of the paper-based handwritten prescriptions is of great importance for antineoplastic medications that are good targets for forgery and fraud. Pharmacists usually investigate handwriting, signature and name stamp of prescribers to verify prescriptions in Iran. Anecdotal reports of variations in handwriting and name stamp of physicians who wrote antineoplastic prescriptions raised concerns in this regard. The aim of the study was to investigate the reported diversity and evaluate the quality of writing physician identity and required items in antineoplastic prescriptions.Methods: All insured hand-written prescriptions contained at least one antineoplastic medication and were dispensed by four main authorized community pharmacies dispensing antineoplastic medications in Tehran during one month were included. Prescriptions that were written by specialties other than oncology-related fields were excluded. Prescriptions of each physician were evaluated considering handwriting and name stamp by experienced pharmacy staff and the frequency of detected handwriting and name stamp types was recorded.Results: Of the 11022 included prescriptions, 10944 were eligible and written by 241 physicians. Median (third quartile number of physicians’ prescriptions was 17 (51. Maximum number of observed handwriting and name stamp types were eight and six respectively. High prescribers tended to have several handwriting and name stamp types.Conclusion: The observed diversity and variation in handwriting and name stamp of the physicians in antineoplastic prescriptions may facilitate the entrance of forged prescription and makes fraud detection difficult. Administrative and regulatory interventions in addition to notification of health care professionals about the observed potential might be necessary.

  7. Kinetic and kinematic analysis of stamping impacts during simulated rucking in rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudshoorn, Bodil Y; Driscoll, Heather F; Dunn, Marcus; James, David

    2018-04-01

    Laceration injuries account for up to 23% of injuries in rugby union. They are frequently caused by studded footwear as a result of a player stamping onto another player during the ruck. Little is known about the kinetics and kinematics of rugby stamping impacts; current test methods assessing laceration injury risk of stud designs therefore lack informed test parameters. In this study, twelve participants stamped on an anthropomorphic test device in a one-on-one simulated ruck setting. Velocity and inclination angle of the foot prior to impact was determined from high-speed video footage. Total stamping force and individual stud force were measured using pressure sensors. Mean foot inbound velocity was 4.3 m ∙ s -1 (range 2.1-6.3 m ∙ s -1 ). Mean peak total force was 1246 N and mean peak stud force was 214 N. The total mean effective mass during stamping was 6.6 kg (range: 1.6-13.5 kg) and stud effective mass was 1.2 kg (range: 0.5-2.9 kg). These results provide representative test parameters for mechanical test devices designed to assess laceration injury risk of studded footwear for rugby union.

  8. Influence of Plastic Deformation on Martensitic Transformation During Hot Stamping of Complex Structure Auto Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuhan; Song, Yanli; Hua, Lin; Lu, Jue

    2017-04-01

    The ultra-high strength steel auto parts manufactured by hot stamping are widely applied for weight reduction and safety improvement. During the hot stamping process, hot forming and quenching are performed in one step wherein plastic deformation and phase transformation simultaneously take place and affect each other. Thereinto, the influence of deformation on martensitic transformation is of great importance. In the present paper, the influence of plastic deformation on martensitic transformation during hot stamping of complex structure auto parts was investigated. For this purpose, a B-pillar reinforced panel in B1500HS steel was manufactured by hot stamping, and the process was simulated by finite element software based on a thermo-mechanical-metallurgical coupled model. Considering various deformation degrees, the microstructures and mechanical properties at four typical locations of the hot stamped B-pillar reinforced panel were detected. The results show that the martensitic content and the microhardness increase with the increase in the deformation amount. There are two reasons causing this phenomenon: (1) the increase in mechanical driving force and (2) the increased probability of the martensitic nucleation at crystal defects. The x-ray diffraction analysis indicates the carbon enrichment in retained austenite which results from the carbon diffusion during the low-carbon martensite formation. Furthermore, the carbon content decreases with the increase in the deformation amount, because the deformation of austenite suppresses the carbon diffusion.

  9. Associations of food stamp participation with dietary quality and obesity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cindy W; Blumenthal, Susan J; Hoffnagle, Elena E; Jensen, Helen H; Foerster, Susan B; Nestle, Marion; Cheung, Lilian W Y; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Willett, Walter C

    2013-03-01

    To determine if obesity and dietary quality in low-income children differed by participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), formerly the Food Stamp Program. The study population included 5193 children aged 4 to 19 with household incomes ≤130% of the federal poverty level from the 1999-2008 NHANES. Diet was measured by using 24-hour recalls. Among low-income US children, 28% resided in households currently receiving SNAP benefits. After adjusting for sociodemographic differences, SNAP participation was not associated with a higher rate of childhood obesity (odds ratio = 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.71-1.74). Both SNAP participants and low-income nonparticipants were below national recommendations for whole grains, fruits, vegetables, fish, and potassium, while exceeding recommended limits for processed meat, sugar-sweetened beverages, saturated fat, and sodium. Zero percent of low-income children met at least 7 of 10 dietary recommendations. After multivariate adjustment, compared with nonparticipants, SNAP participants consumed 43% more sugar-sweetened beverages (95% CI: 8%-89%), 47% more high-fat dairy (95% CI: 7%, 101%), and 44% more processed meats (95% CI: 9%-91%), but 19% fewer nuts, seeds, and legumes (95% CI: -35% to 0%). In part due to these differences, intakes of calcium, iron, and folate were significantly higher among SNAP participants. Significant differences by SNAP participation were not evident in total energy, macronutrients, Healthy Eating Index 2005 scores, or Alternate Healthy Eating Index scores. The diets of low-income children are far from meeting national dietary recommendations. Policy changes should be considered to restructure SNAP to improve children's health.

  10. Limited indications of tax stamp discordance and counterfeiting on cigarette packs purchased in tobacco retailers, 97 counties, USA, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph G.L. Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the per-unit cost of tobacco products is one of the strongest interventions for tobacco control. In jurisdictions with higher taxes in the U.S., however, cigarette pack litter studies show a substantial proportion of littered packs lack the appropriate tax stamp. More limited but still present counterfeiting also exists. We sought to examine the role of tobacco retailers as a source for untaxed and counterfeit products. Data collectors purchased Newport Green (menthol or Marlboro Red cigarette packs in a national probability-based sample of tobacco retailers (in 97 counties from June–October 2012. They made no effort to buy counterfeit or untaxed cigarettes. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the presence, tax authority, and type (low-tech thermal vs. encrypted of cigarette pack tax stamps; concordance of tax stamps with where the pack was purchased; and, for Marlboro cigarettes, publicly available visible indicators of counterfeiting. We purchased 2147 packs of which 2033 had tax stamps. Packs missing stamps were in states that do not require them. We found very limited discordance between store location and tax stamp(s (<1%. However, a substantial minority of cigarette packs had damaged tax stamps (13%. This occurred entirely with low-tech tax stamps and was not identified with encrypted tax stamps. We found no clear evidence of counterfeit products. Almost all tax stamps matched the location of purchase. Litter studies may be picking up legal tax avoidance instead of illegal tax evasion or, alternatively, purchase of illicit products requires special request by the purchaser. Keywords: Taxes, Smoking, Tobacco products, Government regulation, Government

  11. Imprints of the Neolithic mind – clay stamps from the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goce Naumov

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence and unusual structure of clay stamps found in Neolithic settlements often give rise to multiple interpretations to define their character. The small dimensions and specific shape of the stamps suggests that these portable objects were important in the social relations and visual communication between members within the same community and, possibly, more distant communities. The definite patterns distinguishe their function in maintaining the visual traditions of the populations inhabiting southeastern Europe. They had an important role in building the Neolithic image modularity, so that they fitted into the comprehensive decorative structure of Neolithic iconography, and the patterns present on the stamps are related to several aspects of Neolithic material culture from the Balkans and Anatolia. This homogeneity of patterns indicates that they were actively included in the transposition of cognition into visual metaphors.

  12. A framework for development of an intelligent system for design and manufacturing of stamping dies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, H. M. A.; Kumar, S.

    2014-07-01

    An integration of computer aided design (CAD), computer aided process planning (CAPP) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM) is required for development of an intelligent system to design and manufacture stamping dies in sheet metal industries. In this paper, a framework for development of an intelligent system for design and manufacturing of stamping dies is proposed. In the proposed framework, the intelligent system is structured in form of various expert system modules for different activities of design and manufacturing of dies. All system modules are integrated with each other. The proposed system takes its input in form of a CAD file of sheet metal part, and then system modules automate all tasks related to design and manufacturing of stamping dies. Modules are coded using Visual Basic (VB) and developed on the platform of AutoCAD software.

  13. A framework for development of an intelligent system for design and manufacturing of stamping dies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, H M A; Kumar, S

    2014-01-01

    An integration of computer aided design (CAD), computer aided process planning (CAPP) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM) is required for development of an intelligent system to design and manufacture stamping dies in sheet metal industries. In this paper, a framework for development of an intelligent system for design and manufacturing of stamping dies is proposed. In the proposed framework, the intelligent system is structured in form of various expert system modules for different activities of design and manufacturing of dies. All system modules are integrated with each other. The proposed system takes its input in form of a CAD file of sheet metal part, and then system modules automate all tasks related to design and manufacturing of stamping dies. Modules are coded using Visual Basic (VB) and developed on the platform of AutoCAD software

  14. Micromechanical exfoliation of two-dimensional materials by a polymeric stamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, M C Ferraz da; Ribeiro, H B; Kessler, F; Souza, E A T de; Fechine, G J M

    2016-01-01

    In this work, an alternative technique to the traditional micromechanical exfoliation of two-dimensional materials is proposed, consisting of isolated flakes of graphite and molybdenum disulphide onto polymeric surfaces films. The set made up of polymer and flakes is fabricated by using a hot-press machine called polymeric stamp. The polymeric stamp was used to allocate flakes and also to allow the exfoliation process to take place just in one face of isolated flake. Optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy results showed that multilayers, bilayers and single layers of graphene and MoS 2 were obtained by using a polymeric stamp as tool for micromechanical exfoliation. These crystals were more easily found because the exfoliation process concentrates them in well-defined locations. The results prove the effectiveness of the method by embedding two-dimensional materials into polymers to fabricate fewer layers crystals in a fast, economic and clean way. (paper)

  15. Micromechanical exfoliation of two-dimensional materials by a polymeric stamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz da Costa, M. C.; Ribeiro, H. B.; Kessler, F.; de Souza, E. A. T.; Fechine, G. J. M.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, an alternative technique to the traditional micromechanical exfoliation of two-dimensional materials is proposed, consisting of isolated flakes of graphite and molybdenum disulphide onto polymeric surfaces films. The set made up of polymer and flakes is fabricated by using a hot-press machine called polymeric stamp. The polymeric stamp was used to allocate flakes and also to allow the exfoliation process to take place just in one face of isolated flake. Optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy results showed that multilayers, bilayers and single layers of graphene and MoS2 were obtained by using a polymeric stamp as tool for micromechanical exfoliation. These crystals were more easily found because the exfoliation process concentrates them in well-defined locations. The results prove the effectiveness of the method by embedding two-dimensional materials into polymers to fabricate fewer layers crystals in a fast, economic and clean way.

  16. Multi-cycle rolled aluminum alloy 3103 sandwiches: mechanical properties and stamp ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosova Ekaterina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Constructional part producing by sheet stamping of multilayer composites requires the stamping ability data. The aim of a work is to estimate mechanical properties, stamping ratio and anisotropy indexes of 2, 4, 8 and 12 layer sandwiches produced from aluminium alloy AA3103. The pieces were received by the cold rolling. Interoperation annealing was at 500°C for 1 hour. Charts of tensile strength, yield stress, elongation depending on layer thickness were composed. It was found that cold strain hardening does not disappear after annealing if the foil’s thickness become 0.4 mm and less. Microstructure analysis has shown a good contact between layers for all samples and thicker outer layers.

  17. Transfer printing of 3D hierarchical gold structures using a sequentially imprinted polymer stamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fengxiang; Low, Hong Yee

    2008-01-01

    Complex three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structures on polymeric materials are fabricated through a process referred to as sequential imprinting. In this work, the sequentially imprinted polystyrene film is used as a soft stamp to replicate hierarchical structures onto gold (Au) films, and the Au structures are then transferred to a substrate by transfer printing at an elevated temperature and pressure. Continuous and isolated 3D structures can be selectively fabricated with the assistance of thermo-mechanical deformation of the polymer stamp. Hierarchical Au structures are achieved without the need for a corresponding three-dimensionally patterned mold

  18. Determination of Unit Pressure Force in Material Volume in the Course of Refractory Stamping Press Moulding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orłowicz A.W.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of assessment of the unit pressure force within the refractory material volume in the course press-moulding of stampings for refractory precast shapes. The force was evaluated with the use of physical simulation of deformation undergone by lead balls placed in the raw refractory mass subjected to pressing in a metal die. To determine the value of unit pressure force applied to the aggregate grains in the course of stamping press-moulding, physical model of deformation of a sphere induced by the uniaxial stress state was used.

  19. Development and introduction of stamping technique for large-size laterals of NPP pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romashko, N.I.; Moshnin, E.N.; Timokhin, V.S.; Bryukhanov, Yu.V.; Lebedev, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of development and introduction of stamping technique for large-size laterals of NPP high-pressure pipelines are presented. The main experimental data characterizing technological possibilities of the process are given. The technological process and design of the stamp assure production of laterals from ovalized bars per one heating of the bar and per one running of the press cronnhead. Introduction of new technology decreased labour input of lateral production, reliability and serviceability of pipelines increased in this case. Introduction of this technology gives a considerable benefit

  20. 45 CFR 205.25 - Eligibility of supplemental security income beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities. 205.25 Section 205.25 Public Welfare Regulations Relating....25 Eligibility of supplemental security income beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities... XVI of the Social Security Act, the State agency shall make the following determinations: (1) The...

  1. Stamp design effect on 100 nm feature size for 8 inch NanoImprint lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landis, S; Chaix, N; Gourgon, C; Perret, C; Leveder, T

    2006-01-01

    Sub-100 nm resolution on a 200 mm silicon stamp has been hot embossed into commercial Sumitomo NEB 22 resist. A single pattern, exposed with electron beam lithography, has been considered to define the stamp and thus make it possible to point out the impact of stamp design on the printing. These results may be considered as a first attempt to define rules to solve the proximity printing effects (PPEs). Moreover, a large range of initial resist thickness, from 56 to 506 nm, has been spin coated to assess the effect of polymer flow properties for the stamp cavity filling and the printed defects. A detailed analysis of the printed resist in dense hole patterns showed that the application volume conservation is enough to calculate the residual layer thickness as the height of the printed resist feature. Good accordance has been obtained between the theoretical approach and experimental results. Moreover, the impact of the pattern symmetry breakdown on mould deformation is clearly shown in this paper in the printed areas as well as in the unprinted areas

  2. Time-stamping system for nuclear physics experiments at RIKEN RIBF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, H.; Ichihara, T.; Ohnishi, T.; Takeuchi, S.; Yoshida, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Ota, S.; Shimoura, S.; Yoshinaga, K.

    2015-01-01

    A time-stamping system for nuclear physics experiments has been introduced at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. Individual trigger signals can be applied for separate data acquisition (DAQ) systems. After the measurements are complete, separately taken data are merged based on the time-stamp information. In a typical experiment, coincidence trigger signals are formed from multiple detectors to take desired events only. The time-stamping system allows the use of minimum bias triggers. Since coincidence conditions are given by software, a variety of physics events can be flexibly identified. The live time for a DAQ system is important when attempting to determine reaction cross-sections. However, the combined live time for separate DAQ systems is not clearly known because it depends not only on the DAQ dead time but also on the coincidence conditions. Using the proposed time-stamping system, all trigger timings can be acquired, so that the combined live time can be easily determined. The combined live time is also estimated using Monte Carlo simulations, and the results are compared with the directly measured values in order to assess the accuracy of the simulation

  3. Impact of Electronic Signatures and Time Stamping for the Protection of Electronic Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Limba

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article e495 valuates the impact of e-signatures and time stamping on electronic contracts and electronic documents for performing e-business opportunities and goals, and analyses e-signature application for business cases. Various electronic services, virtual shopping, electronic cash transactions are becoming increasingly popular as they allow users to quickly perform different actions, operations and functions. It is important not only for convenience, but also to ensure consumer data security and reliability. Security reasons are not enough for security transmitted data, since this method does not allow clarification of information about sender identity.Use of electronic signatures, electronic identities, checgs and ensures a very high level of data security in interchange data processes. E-signature allows e-business companies to transfer the company’s operation business processes and their application to the organization and management in the electronic environment, also automate internal and external compans processes, includinggon-going business processes.The object of paper is .-signature and time stamping application in the theoretical and practical way.The goal of this paper while evaluating and estimating the .-signature and time stamping application, i’s regulation and legal implementation worldwidesand in Lithuania—is to provideluseful recommendations for more efficient impact developing -commerce and -business in situations when -signature and time stamping is used for ensuring electronic contracs security.

  4. Impact of Electronic Signatures and Time Stamping for the Protection of Electronic Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Limba

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article e495 valuates the impact of e-signatures and time stamping on electronic contracts and electronic documents for performing e-business opportunities and goals, and analyses e-signature application for business cases. Various electronic services, virtual shopping, electronic cash transactions are becoming increasingly popular as they allow users to quickly perform different actions, operations and functions. It is important not only for convenience, but also to ensure consumer data security and reliability. Security reasons are not enough for security transmitted data, since this method does not allow clarification of information about sender identity. Use of electronic signatures, electronic identities, checgs and ensures a very high level of data security in interchange data processes. E-signature allows e-business companies to transfer the company’s operation business processes and their application to the organization and management in the electronic environment, also automate internal and external compans processes, includinggon-going business processes. The object of paper is .-signature and time stamping application in the theoretical and practical way. The goal of this paper while evaluating and estimating the .-signature and time stamping application, i’s regulation and legal implementation worldwidesand in Lithuania—is to provideluseful recommendations for more efficient impact developing -commerce and -business in situations when -signature and time stamping is used for ensuring electronic contracs security.

  5. Studying the Solar System Can Be More than Just "Stamp Collecting"

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    While teaching his first-ever introductory college astronomy course, I heard a graduate student make the comment that compared to other areas of astronomy, studying the solar system is just "stamp collecting." Coverage of the solar system in an introductory college astronomy course certainly "could" consist mostly of showing…

  6. A rapid co-culture stamping device for studying intercellular communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh-Barforoushi, Amin; Shemesh, Jonathan; Farbehi, Nona; Asadnia, Mohsen; Yeoh, Guan Heng; Harvey, Richard P.; Nordon, Robert E.; Warkiani, Majid Ebrahimi

    2016-10-01

    Regulation of tissue development and repair depends on communication between neighbouring cells. Recent advances in cell micro-contact printing and microfluidics have facilitated the in-vitro study of homotypic and heterotypic cell-cell interaction. Nonetheless, these techniques are still complicated to perform and as a result, are seldom used by biologists. We report here development of a temporarily sealed microfluidic stamping device which utilizes a novel valve design for patterning two adherent cell lines with well-defined interlacing configurations to study cell-cell interactions. We demonstrate post-stamping cell viability of >95%, the stamping of multiple adherent cell types, and the ability to control the seeded cell density. We also show viability, proliferation and migration of cultured cells, enabling analysis of co-culture boundary conditions on cell fate. We also developed an in-vitro model of endothelial and cardiac stem cell interactions, which are thought to regulate coronary repair after myocardial injury. The stamp is fabricated using microfabrication techniques, is operated with a lab pipettor and uses very low reagent volumes of 20 μl with cell injection efficiency of >70%. This easy-to-use device provides a general strategy for micro-patterning of multiple cell types and will be important for studying cell-cell interactions in a multitude of applications.

  7. Ramón y Cajal erroneously identified as Camillo Golgi on a souvenir postage stamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triarhou, Lazaros C; del Cerro, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Focusing on a philatelic oddity that erringly identifies a picture of Santiago Ramón y Cajal as that of Camillo Golgi, this brief article examines official and unofficial stamp issues honoring the two great neuroanatomists, one from Spain and the other from Italy, who were early Nobel Prize winners in Physiology or Medicine.

  8. Stamping of Thin-Walled Structural Components with Magnesium Alloy AZ31 Sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, F.-K.; Chang, C.-K.

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, the stamping process for manufacturing cell phone cases with magnesium alloy AZ31 sheets was studied using both the experimental approach and the finite element analysis. In order to determine the proper forming temperature and set up a fracture criterion, tensile tests and forming limit tests were first conducted to obtain the mechanical behaviors of AZ31 sheets at various elevated temperatures. The mechanical properties of Z31 sheets obtained from the experiments were then adopted in the finite element analysis to investigate the effects of the process parameters on the formability of the stamping process of cell phone cases. The finite element simulation results revealed that both the fracture and wrinkle defects could not be eliminated at the same time by adjusting blank-holder force or blank size. A drawbead design was then performed using the finite element simulations to determine the size and the location of drawbead required to suppress the wrinkle defect. An optimum stamping process, including die geometry, forming temperature, and blank dimension, was then determined for manufacturing the cell phone cases. The finite element analysis was validated by the good agreement between the simulation results and the experimental data. It confirms that the cell phone cases can be produced with magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet by the stamping process at elevated temperatures

  9. POLYELECTROLYTE MULTILAYER STAMPING IN AQUEOUS PHASE AND NON-CONTACT MODE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Sumit; Lee, Ilsoon; Liu, Chun; Chan, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) transfer printing has been previously achieved by stamping under dry conditions. Here, we show for the first time, that PEM can be transferred from a stamp to the base substrate under aqueous conditions whereby the two surfaces are in a non-contact mode. Degradable multilayers of (PAA/PEG)10.5 followed by non-degradable multilayers of (PDAC/SPS)80.5 were fabricated under acidic pH conditions on either PDMS or glass (stamp), and subsequently transferred over top of another multilayer prepared on a different substrate (base substrate), with a spacing of ~ 200 μm between the stamping surface and the base substrate. This multilayer transfer was performed under physiological pH conditions. This process is referred to herein as non-contact, aqueous-phase multilayer (NAM) transfer. NAM transfer can be useful for applications such as fabricating three-dimensional (3-D) cellular scaffolds. We attempted to create a 3-D cellular scaffold using NAM transfer, and characterized the scaffolds with conventional and fluorescence microscopy. PMID:21860540

  10. Human factors science and safety engineering : can the STAMP model serve in establishing a common language?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanikas, Nektarios; Schwarz, M; Harfmann, J

    2017-01-01

    A symbiotic relationship between human factors and safety scientists is needed to ensure the provision of holistic solutions for problems emerging in modern socio-technical systems. System Theoretic Accident Model and Processes (STAMP) tackles both interactions and individual failures of human and

  11. Silicon oxide nanoimprint stamp fabrication by edge lithography reinforced with silicon nitride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Yiping; Berenschot, Johan W.; de Boer, Meint J.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Tas, Niels Roelof; Huskens, Jurriaan; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2007-01-01

    The fabrication of silicon oxide nanoimprint stamp employing edge lithography in combination with silicon nitride deposition is presented. The fabrication process is based on conventional photolithography an weg etching methods. Nanoridges with width dimension of sub-20 nm were fabricated by edge

  12. Fabrication of a silicon oxide stamp by edge lithography reinforced with silicon nitride for nanoimprint lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Yiping; Berenschot, Johan W.; de Boer, M.; de Boer, Meint J.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Tas, Niels Roelof; Huskens, Jurriaan; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2008-01-01

    The fabrication of a stamp reinforced with silicon nitride is presented for its use in nanoimprint lithography. The fabrication process is based on edge lithography using conventional optical lithography and wet anisotropic etching of 110 silicon wafers. SiO2 nano-ridges of 20 nm in width were

  13. Determination of Proper Austenitization Temperatures for Hot Stamping of AISI 4140 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadian, Pedram; Parsa, Mohammad Habibi; Shakeri, Amid

    2014-04-01

    High strength steels are desirable materials for use in automobile bodies in order to reduce vehicle weight and increase the safety of car passengers, but steel grades with high strength commonly show poor formability. Recently, steels with controlled microstructures and compositions are used to gain adequate strength after hot stamping while maintaining good formability during processing. In this study, microstructure evolutions and changes in mechanical properties of AISI 4140 steel sheets resulting from the hot stamping process at different austenitization temperatures were investigated. To determine the proper austenitization temperatures, the results were compared with those of the cold-worked and cold-worked plus quench-tempered specimens. Comparisons showed that the austenitization temperatures of 1000 and 1100 °C are proper for hot stamping of 3-mm-thick AISI 4140 steel sheets due to the resultant martensitic microstructure which led to the yield and ultimate tensile strength of 1.3 and 2.1 GPa, respectively. Such conditions resulted in more favorable simultaneous strength and elongation than those of hot-stamped conventional boron steels.

  14. Development of Core Competencies for Paraprofessional Nutrition Educators Who Deliver Food Stamp Nutrition Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Susan S.; Pearson, Meredith; Chipman, Helen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to describe the process used for the development of core competencies for paraprofessional nutrition educators in Food Stamp Nutrition Education (FSNE). The development process included the efforts of an expert panel of state and multicounty FSNE leaders to draft the core competencies and the validation of those…

  15. Corrosion resistance characteristics of stamped and hydroformed proton exchange membrane fuel cell metallic bipolar plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dundar, F. [NSF I/UCRC Center for Precision Forming (CPF), Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gebze Institute of Technology (Turkey); Dur, Ender; Koc, M. [NSF I/UCRC Center for Precision Forming (CPF), Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Mahabunphachai, S. [NSF I/UCRC Center for Precision Forming (CPF), Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); National Metal and Materials Technology Center (MTEC), Pathumthani (Thailand)

    2010-06-01

    Metallic bipolar plates have several advantages over bipolar plates made from graphite and composites due to their high conductivity, low material and production costs. Moreover, thin bipolar plates are possible with metallic alloys, and hence low fuel cell stack volume and mass are. Among existing fabrication methods for metallic bipolar plates, stamping and hydroforming are seen as prominent approaches for mass production scales. In this study, the effects of important process parameters of these manufacturing processes on the corrosion resistance of metallic bipolar plates made of SS304 were investigated. Specifically, the effects of punch speed, pressure rate, stamping force and hydroforming pressure were studied as they were considered to inevitably affect the bipolar plate micro-channel dimensions, surface topography, and hence the corrosion resistance. Corrosion resistance under real fuel cell conditions was examined using both potentiodynamic and potentiostatic experiments. The majority of the results exhibited a reduction in the corrosion resistance for both stamped and hydroformed plates when compared with non-deformed blank plates of SS304. In addition, it was observed that there exist an optimal process window for punch speed in stamping and the pressure rate in hydroforming to achieve improved corrosion resistance at a faster production rate. (author)

  16. MECHANICAL VIBRATION INHIBITS OSTEOCLAST FORMATION BY REDUCING DC-STAMP RECEPTOR EXPRESSION IN OSTEOCLAST PRECURSOR CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, R.N.; Voglewede, P.A.; Liu, D.

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that physical inactivity leads to loss of muscle mass, but it also causes bone loss. Mechanistically, osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption have recently been shown to be regulated by vibration. However, the underlying mechanism behind the inhibition of osteoclast formation is yet unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether mechanical vibration of osteoclast precursor cells affects osteoclast formation by the involvement of fusion-related molecules such as dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), and P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). RAW264.7 (a murine osteoclastic-like cell line) cells were treated with 20 ng/ml receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). For 3 consecutive days, the cells were subjected to 1 hour of mechanical vibration with 20 µm displacement at a frequency of 4 Hz and compared to the control cells that were treated under the same condition but without the vibration. After 5 days of culture, osteoclast formation was determined. Gene expression of DC-STAMP and P2X7R by RAW264.7 cells were determined after 1 hour mechanical vibration, while protein production of the DC-STAMP was determined after 6 hours of post incubation after vibration. As a result, mechanical vibration of RAW264.7 cells inhibited the formation of osteoclasts. Vibration down-regulated DC-STAMP gene expression by 1.6-fold in the presence of RANKL and by 1.4-fold in the absence of RANKL. Additionally, DC-STAMP protein production was also down-regulated by 1.4-fold in the presence of RANKL and by 1.2-fold in the absence of RANKL in RAW264.7 cells in response to mechanical vibration. However, vibration did not affect P2X7R gene expression. Mouse anti-DC-STAMP antibody inhibited osteoclast formation in the absence of vibration. Our results suggest that mechanical vibration of osteoclast precursor cells reduce DC-STAMP expression in osteoclast precursor cells leading to the inhibition of osteoclast formation. PMID:23994170

  17. Mechanical vibration inhibits osteoclast formation by reducing DC-STAMP receptor expression in osteoclast precursor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Rishikesh N; Voglewede, Philip A; Liu, Dawei

    2013-12-01

    It is well known that physical inactivity leads to loss of muscle mass, but it also causes bone loss. Mechanistically, osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption have recently been shown to be regulated by vibration. However, the underlying mechanism behind the inhibition of osteoclast formation is yet unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether mechanical vibration of osteoclast precursor cells affects osteoclast formation by the involvement of fusion-related molecules such as dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) and P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). RAW264.7 (a murine osteoclastic-like cell line) cells were treated with 20ng/ml receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). For 3 consecutive days, the cells were subjected to 1h of mechanical vibration with 20μm displacement at a frequency of 4Hz and compared to the control cells that were treated under the same condition but without the vibration. After 5days of culture, osteoclast formation was determined. Gene expression of DC-STAMP and P2X7R by RAW264.7 cells was determined after 1h of mechanical vibration, while protein production of the DC-STAMP was determined after 6h of postincubation after vibration. As a result, mechanical vibration of RAW264.7 cells inhibited the formation of osteoclasts. Vibration down-regulated DC-STAMP gene expression by 1.6-fold in the presence of RANKL and by 1.4-fold in the absence of RANKL. Additionally, DC-STAMP protein production was also down-regulated by 1.4-fold in the presence of RANKL and by 1.2-fold in the absence of RANKL in RAW264.7 cells in response to mechanical vibration. However, vibration did not affect P2X7R gene expression. Mouse anti-DC-STAMP antibody inhibited osteoclast formation in the absence of vibration. Our results suggest that mechanical vibration of osteoclast precursor cells reduces DC-STAMP expression in osteoclast precursor cells leading to the inhibition of osteoclast formation. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of Contact Heat Transfer Coefficient and Phase Transformation during Hot Stamping of a Hat-Type Part

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heung-Kyu; Lee, Seong Hyeon; Choi, Hyunjoo

    2015-01-01

    Using an inverse analysis technique, the heat transfer coefficient on the die-workpiece contact surface of a hot stamping process was evaluated as a power law function of contact pressure. This evaluation was to determine whether the heat transfer coefficient on the contact surface could be used for finite element analysis of the entire hot stamping process. By comparing results of the finite element analysis and experimental measurements of the phase transformation, an evaluation was performed to determine whether the obtained heat transfer coefficient function could provide reasonable finite element prediction for workpiece properties affected by the hot stamping process. PMID:28788046

  19. Nanostructured submicron block copolymer dots by sacrificial stamping: a potential preconcentration platform for locally resolved sensing, chemistry and cellular interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Peilong; Han, Weijia; Philippi, Michael; Schäfer, Helmut; Steinhart, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Classical contact lithography involves patterning of surfaces by embossing or by transfer of ink. We report direct lithographic transfer of parts of sacrificial stamps onto counterpart surfaces. Using sacrificial stamps consisting of the block copolymer polystyrene-block-poly(2-pyridine) (PS-b-P2VP), we deposited arrays of nanostructured submicron PS-b-P2VP dots with heights of about 100 nm onto silicon wafers and glass slides. The sacrificial PS-b-P2VP stamps were topographically patterned w...

  20. Comparison of the methods for calculating the interfacial heat transfer coefficient in hot stamping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Kunmin; Wang, Bin; Chang, Ying; Tang, Xinghui; Yan, Jianwen

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a hot stamping experimentation and three methods for calculating the Interfacial Heat Transfer Coefficient (IHTC) of 22MnB5 boron steel. Comparison of the calculation results shows an average error of 7.5% for the heat balance method, 3.7% for the Beck's nonlinear inverse estimation method (the Beck's method), and 10.3% for the finite-element-analysis-based optimization method (the FEA method). The Beck's method is a robust and accurate method for identifying the IHTC in hot stamping applications. The numerical simulation using the IHTC identified by the Beck's method can predict the temperature field with a high accuracy. - Highlights: • A theoretical formula was derived for direct calculation of IHTC. • The Beck's method is a robust and accurate method for identifying IHTC. • Finite element method can be used to identify an overall equivalent IHTC

  1. Organic thin film transistors and polymer light-emitting diodes patterned by polymer inking and stamping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dawen; Guo, L Jay

    2008-01-01

    To fully realize the advantages of organic flexible electronics, patterning is very important. In this paper we show that a purely additive patterning technique, termed polymer inking and stamping, can be used to pattern conductive polymer PEDOT and fabricate sub-micron channel length organic thin film transistors. In addition, we applied the technique to transfer a stack of metal/conjugated polymer in one step and fabricated working polymer light-emitting devices. Based on the polymer inking and stamping technique, a roll-to-roll printing for high throughput fabrication has been demonstrated. We investigated and explained the mechanism of this process based on the interfacial energy consideration and by using the finite element analysis. This technique can be further extended to transfer more complex stacked layer structures, which may benefit the research on patterning on flexible substrates

  2. Silicon micro-masonry using elastomeric stamps for three-dimensional microfabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keum, Hohyun; Eisenhaure, Jeffrey D; Kim, Seok; Carlson, Andrew; Ning, Hailong; Mihi, Agustin; Braun, Paul V; Rogers, John A

    2012-01-01

    We present a micromanufacturing method for constructing microsystems, which we term ‘micro-masonry’ based on individual manipulation, influenced by strategies for deterministic materials assembly using advanced forms of transfer printing. Analogous to masonry in construction sites, micro-masonry consists of the preparation, manipulation, and binding of microscale units to assemble microcomponents and microsystems. In this paper, for the purpose of demonstration, we used microtipped elastomeric stamps as manipulators and built three dimensional silicon microstructures. Silicon units of varied shapes were fabricated in a suspended format on donors, retrieved, delivered, and placed on a target location on a receiver using microtipped stamps. Annealing of the assembled silicon units permanently bound them and completed the micro-masonry procedure. (paper)

  3. Solid-state superionic stamping with silver iodide-silver metaphosphate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, K E; Hsu, K H; Han, X; Azeredo, B P; Ferreira, P M; Kumar, A; Fang, N X

    2011-01-01

    This paper demonstrates and analyzes the new use of the glassy solid electrolyte AgI-AgPO 3 for direct nanopatterning of thin silver films with feature resolutions of 30 nm. AgI-AgPO 3 has a high room temperature ionic conductivity with Ag + as the mobile ion, leading to silver etch/patterning rates of up to 20 nm s -1 at an applied bias of 300 mV. The glass can be melt-processed at temperatures below 200 deg. C, providing a facile and economical pathway for creating large area stamps, including the 25 mm 2 stamps shown in this study. Further, the glass is sufficiently transparent to permit integration with existing tools such as aligners and imprint tools, enabling high overlay registration accuracy and facilitating insertion into multi-step fabrication recipes.

  4. Characterization of the interfacial heat transfer coefficient for hot stamping processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Xi; Liu, Xiaochuan; Fang, Haomiao; Ji, Kang; El Fakir, Omer; Wang, LiLiang

    2016-08-01

    In hot stamping processes, the interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) between the forming tools and hot blank is an essential parameter which determines the quenching rate of the process and hence the resulting material microstructure. The present work focuses on the characterization of the IHTC between an aluminium alloy 7075-T6 blank and two different die materials, cast iron (G3500) and H13 die steel, at various contact pressures. It was found that the IHTC between AA7075 and cast iron had values 78.6% higher than that obtained between AA7075 and H13 die steel. Die materials and contact pressures had pronounced effects on the IHTC, suggesting that the IHTC can be used to guide the selection of stamping tool materials and the precise control of processing parameters.

  5. Polymer microlens replication by Nanoimprint Lithography using proton beam fabricated Ni stamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, R.K.; Kan, J.A. van; Bettiol, A.A.; Watt, F.

    2007-01-01

    It is essential to have a simplified and a rapid method for fabricating micro/nano structures in different kinds of polymeric materials. Though it is possible to fabricate arrays of microlens directly by P beam writing (PBW), it is restricted to a few types of resist materials. Therefore we have fabricated a Ni electroplated metallic stamp comprising of arrays of inverse/negative features of microlenses. The metallic stamp of about 500 μm thick is made on a silicon wafer coated with 10 μm thick polymethylglutarimide (PMGI) resist and the desired structures are written by PBW followed by thermal reflow and Ni electroplating. An array of microlenses is imprinted on a polycarbonate (PC) substrate by the Nanoimprint Lithography (NIL) technique and the replicated microlenses featuring various numerical apertures, diameters and pitches are characterized

  6. Boron nitride stamp for ultra-violet nanoimprinting lithography fabricated by focused ion beam lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altun, Ali Ozhan; Jeong, Jun-Ho; Rha, Jong-Joo; Kim, Ki-Don; Lee, Eung-Sug

    2007-01-01

    Cubic boron nitride (c-BN) is one of the hardest known materials (second after diamond). It has a high level of chemical resistance and high UV transmittance. In this study, a stamp for ultra-violet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) was fabricated using a bi-layered BN film deposited on a quartz substrate. Deposition of the BN was done using RF magnetron sputtering. A hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) layer was deposited for 30 min before c-BN was deposited for 30 min. The thickness of the film was measured as 160 nm. The phase of the c-BN layer was investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and it was found that the c-BN layer has a 40% cubic phase. The deposited film was patterned using focused ion beam (FIB) lithography for use as a UV-NIL stamp. Line patterns were fabricated with the line width and line distance set at 150 and 150 nm, respectively. The patterning process was performed by applying different currents to observe the effect of the current value on the pattern profile. The fabricated patterns were investigated using AFM, and it was found that the pattern fabricated by applying a current value of 50 picoamperes (pA) has a better profile with a 65 nm line depth. The UV transmittance of the 160 nm thick film was measured to be 70-86%. The hardness and modulus of the BN was measured to be 12 and 150 GPa, respectively. The water contact angle of the stamp surface was measured at 75 0 . The stamp was applied to UV-NIL without coating with an anti-adhesion layer. Successful imprinting was proved via scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the imprinted resin

  7. Low temperature high density plasma nitriding of stainless steel molds for stamping of oxide glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizawa Tatsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Various kinds of stainless steels have been widely utilized as a die for mold- and direct-stamping processes of optical oxide glasses. Since they suffered from high temperature transients and thermal cycles in practice, they must be surface-treated by dry and wet coatings, or, by plasma nitriding. Martensitic stainless steel mold was first wet plated by the nickel phosphate (NiP, which was unstable at the high temperature stamping condition; and, was easy to crystalize or to fracture by itself. This issue of nuisance significantly lowered the productivity in fabrication of optical oxide-glass elements. In the present paper, the stainless steel mold was surface-treated by the low-temperature plasma nitriding. The nitrided layer by this surface modification had higher nitrogen solute content than 4 mass%; the maximum solid-solubility of nitrogen is usually 0.1 mass% in the equilibrium phase diagram. Owing to this solid-solution with high nitrogen concentration, the nitrided layer had high hardness over 1400 HV within its thickness of 50 μm without any formation of nitrides after plasma nitriding at 693 K for 14.4 ks. This plasma-nitrided mold was utilized for mold-stamping of two colored oxide glass plates at 833 K; these plates were successfully deformed and joined into a single glass plate by this stamping without adhesion or galling of oxide glasses onto the nitrided mold surface.

  8. Using stamping punch force variation for the identification of changes in lubrication and wear mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, B. M.; Pereira, M. P.; Rolfe, B. F.; Doolan, M. C.

    2017-09-01

    The growth in use of Advanced High Strength Steels in the automotive industry for light-weighting and safety has increased the rates of tool wear in sheet metal stamping. This is an issue that adds significant costs to production in terms of manual inspection and part refinishing. To reduce these costs, a tool condition monitoring system is required and a firm understanding of process signal variation must form the foundation for any such monitoring system. Punch force is a stamping process signal that is widely collected by industrial presses and has been linked closely to part quality and tool condition, making it an ideal candidate as a tool condition monitoring signal. In this preliminary investigation, the variation of punch force due to different lubrication conditions and progressive wear are examined. Linking specific punch force signature changes to developing lubrication and wear events is valuable for die wear and stamping condition monitoring. A series of semi-industrial channel forming trials were conducted under different lubrication regimes and progressive die wear. Punch force signatures were captured for each part and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to determine the key Principal Components of the signature data sets. These Principal Components were linked to the evolution of friction conditions over the course of the stroke for the different lubrication regimes and mechanism of galling wear. As a result, variation in punch force signatures were correlated to the current mechanism of wear dominant on the formed part; either abrasion or adhesion, and to changes in lubrication mechanism. The outcomes of this study provide important insights into punch force signature variation, that will provide a foundation for future work into the development of die wear and lubrication monitoring systems for sheet metal stamping.

  9. Time stamp technique using a nuclear emulsion multi-stage shifter for gamma-ray telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Satoru; Aoki, Shigeki; Rokujo, Hiroki; Hamada, Kaname; Komatsu, Masahiro; Morishima, Kunihiro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Nakano, Toshiyuki; Niwa, Kimio; Sato, Osamu; Yoshioka, Teppei; Kodama, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear emulsion has a potential use as a gamma-ray telescope with high angular resolution. For this application it is necessary to know the time when each track was recorded in the emulsion. In previous experiments using nuclear emulsion, various efforts were used to associate time to nuclear emulsion tracks and to improve the time resolution. Using a high speed readout system for nuclear emulsion together with a clock-based multi-stage emulsion shifter, we invented a technique to give a time-stamp to emulsion tracks and greatly improve the time resolution. A test experiment with a 2-stage shifter was used to demonstrate the principle of multi-stage shifting, and we achieved a time resolution 1.5 s for 12.1 h (about 1 part in 29 000) with the time stamp reliability 97% and the time stamp efficiency 98%. This multi-stage shifter can achieve the time resolution required for a gamma-ray telescope and can also be applied to another cosmic ray observations and accelerator experiments using nuclear emulsion.

  10. Stochastic analysis and robust optimization for a deck lid inner panel stamping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Bo; Wang, Wurong; Li, Shuhui; Lin, Zhongqin; Xia, Z. Cedric

    2010-01-01

    FE-simulation and optimization are widely used in the stamping process to improve design quality and shorten development cycle. However, the current simulation and optimization may lead to non-robust results due to not considering the variation of material and process parameters. In this study, a novel stochastic analysis and robust optimization approach is proposed to improve the stamping robustness, where the uncertainties are involved to reflect manufacturing reality. A meta-model based stochastic analysis method is developed, where FE-simulation, uniform design and response surface methodology (RSM) are used to construct meta-model, based on which Monte-Carlo simulation is performed to predict the influence of input parameters variation on the final product quality. By applying the stochastic analysis, uniform design and RSM, the mean and the standard deviation (SD) of product quality are calculated as functions of the controllable process parameters. The robust optimization model composed of mean and SD is constructed and solved, the result of which is compared with the deterministic one to show its advantages. It is demonstrated that the product quality variations are reduced significantly, and quality targets (reject rate) are achieved under the robust optimal solution. The developed approach offers rapid and reliable results for engineers to deal with potential stamping problems during the early phase of product and tooling design, saving more time and resources.

  11. Investigations on the Hot Stamping of AW-7921-T4 Alloy Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available AW-7xxx alloys have been nowadays considered for greater light weighting potential in automotive industry due to its higher strength compared to AW-5xxx and AW-6xxx alloys. However, due to their lower formability the forming processes are still in development. This paper investigates one such forming process called hot stamping. The investigation started by carrying out hot tensile testing of an AW-7xxx alloy, that is, AW-7921 at temperatures between 350°C and 475°C, to measure the strength and formability. Formability was found to improve with increasing temperature and was sensitive to the strain rate. Dynamic recovery is considered as usual reason for the formability improvement. However, examining the precipitation states of the as-received condition and after hot stamping using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, the dissolution of precipitates was also believed to contribute to this increase in formability. Following solution heat treatment there was no precipitation during cooling across the cooling rates investigated (5–10°C/s. Samples taken from parts hot stamped at 10 and 20 mm s−1 had similar yield strengths. A 3-step paint baking heat treatment yielded a higher postpaint baking strength than a single step treatment.

  12. Tribological behavior of a new green industrial lubricant for stamping operations - Application to Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buteri, A.; Borgeot, M.; Roizard, X.; Lallemand, F.; Melot, J.-M.; Morand, L.

    2016-11-01

    Thanks to a fruitful collaboration between different academic and industrial research entities, a new green lubricant solution AFULudine has been developed for stamping operations in substitution to the usual mineral oils, with the idea and the wish to combine different essential properties such as a low environmental impact and ease-of-use according to the market needs and the more and more restrictive environmental legislation (e.g. REACH). Based on the Self-Assembled-Monolayer (SAM) principle and so, on a perfect control of the chemical reaction between the solution and the substrate (grafting of molecules onto the surface), AFULudine offers an efficient technical answer for improving stamping processes. The present study, focused on stainless steel stampings (comparison between a 441-1.4509 grade and a 304-1.4301 grade), investigates the performances of this new green industrial lubricant at different levels: from laboratory tests to industrial conditions through the production of hundreds of parts. Additional results coming from tests made on a rotational pin- on-disk tribometer will allow us to appreciate and retrieve more local information about the tribofilm creation during sliding. Moreover, the comparison with different mineral oils currently used at industrial scale, will strengthen the AFULudine performances. Indeed, this new solution usually outperforms a majority of such oils whatever their viscosity and their own composition: formulation, content of extreme pressure additives (Cl, S, P)...

  13. Martensitic microstructural transformations from the hot stamping, quenching and partitioning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Heping; Jin Xuejun; Dong Han; Shi Jie

    2011-01-01

    Hot stamping, which combines forming and quenching in one process, produces high strength steels with limited ductility because the quenching is uncontrolled. A new processing technique has been proposed in which the hot stamping step is followed by a controlled quenching and partitioning process, producing a microstructure containing retained austenite and martensite. To investigate this microstructure, specimens were heated at a rate of 10 deg. C/s to the austenitizing temperature of 900 deg. C, held for 5 min to eliminate thermal gradients, and cooled at a rate of 50 deg. C/s to a quenching temperature of 300 deg. C, which is between the martensite start temperature and the martensite finish temperatures. The resulting microstructure was examined using optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The material produced contains irregular, fragmented martensite plates, a result of the improved strength of the austenite phase and the constraints imposed by a high dislocation density. - Research Highlights: → A novel heat treatment of advanced high strength steels is proposed. → The processing technique is hot stamping plus quenching and partitioning process. → The material produced contains irregular, fragmented martensite plates. → The reason is strength of austenite phase and constraint of dislocation density.

  14. Prediction of Proper Temperatures for the Hot Stamping Process Based on the Kinetics Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadian, P.; Parsa, M. H.; Mirzadeh, H.

    2015-02-01

    Nowadays, the application of kinetics models for predicting microstructures of steels subjected to thermo-mechanical treatments has increased to minimize direct experimentation, which is costly and time consuming. In the current work, the final microstructures of AISI 4140 steel sheets after the hot stamping process were predicted using the Kirkaldy and Li kinetics models combined with new thermodynamically based models in order for the determination of the appropriate process temperatures. In this way, the effect of deformation during hot stamping on the Ae3, Acm, and Ae1 temperatures was considered, and then the equilibrium volume fractions of phases at different temperatures were calculated. Moreover, the ferrite transformation rate equations of the Kirkaldy and Li models were modified by a term proposed by Åkerström to consider the influence of plastic deformation. Results showed that the modified Kirkaldy model is satisfactory for the determination of appropriate austenitization temperatures for the hot stamping process of AISI 4140 steel sheets because of agreeable microstructure predictions in comparison with the experimental observations.

  15. Causal Analysis to a Subway Accident: A Comparison of STAMP and RAIB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Accident investigation and analysis after the accident, vital to prevent the occurrence of similar accident and improve the safety of the system. Different methods led to a different understanding of the accident. In this paper, a subway accident was analysed with a systemic accident analysis model – STAMP (System-Theoretic Accident Modelling and Processes. The hierarchical safety control structure was obtained, and the system-level safety constraints were obtained, controllers of the physical layer were analysed one by one, and put forward the relevant safety requirements and constraints, the dynamic analysis of the structure of the safety control is carried out, and the targeted recommendations are pointed out. In comparison with the analysis results obtained by the Rail Accident Investigation Branch (RAIB. Some useful findings have been concluded. STAMP treats safety as a control problem and reduces or eliminates causes of the accident from the controlling perspective. Whereas RAIB obtains causes of the accident by analysing the sequence of events related to the accident and reasons of these events, then chooses one(or moreevent(s as the immediate cause and some of the key events as causal factors. RAIB analysis is based on the sequential event models, but STAMP analysis provides us with a holistic, dynamic way to control system to maintain safety.

  16. Failure Mechanisms of the Protective Coatings for the Hot Stamping Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chen

    In the present study, four different nitriding techniques were carried on the ductile irons NAAMS-D6510 and cast steels NAAMS-S0050A, which are widely used stamping die materials; duplex treatments (PVD CrN coating+nitriding) were carried on H13 steels, which are common inserts for the hot stamping dies. Inclined impact-sliding wear tests were performed on the nitriding cases under simulated stamping conditions. Surface profilometer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to investigate the wear and failure mechanisms of the protective coatings. It was found that the nitrided ductile iron samples performed better than the nitrided cast steel specimens. High temperature inclined impact-sliding wear tests were carried out on the CrN coatings. It was found that the coating performed better at elevated temperature. XPS analysis indicated the top surface layer (about 3-4nm) of the coating was oxidized at 400 °C and formed a Cr2O3 protective film. The in-situ formation of the thin Cr2O3 protective layer likely led to the change of wear mechanisms from severe adhesive failure to mild abrasive wear.

  17. Probabilistic Design in a Sheet Metal Stamping Process under Failure Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buranathiti, Thaweepat; Cao, Jian; Chen, Wei; Xia, Z. Cedric

    2005-01-01

    Sheet metal stamping processes have been widely implemented in many industries due to its repeatability and productivity. In general, the simulations for a sheet metal forming process involve nonlinearity, complex material behavior and tool-material interaction. Instabilities in terms of tearing and wrinkling are major concerns in many sheet metal stamping processes. In this work, a sheet metal stamping process of a mild steel for a wheelhouse used in automobile industry is studied by using an explicit nonlinear finite element code and incorporating failure analysis (tearing and wrinkling) and design under uncertainty. Margins of tearing and wrinkling are quantitatively defined via stress-based criteria for system-level design. The forming process utilizes drawbeads instead of using the blank holder force to restrain the blank. The main parameters of interest in this work are friction conditions, drawbead configurations, sheet metal properties, and numerical errors. A robust design model is created to conduct a probabilistic design, which is made possible for this complex engineering process via an efficient uncertainty propagation technique. The method called the weighted three-point-based method estimates the statistical characteristics (mean and variance) of the responses of interest (margins of failures), and provide a systematic approach in designing a sheet metal forming process under the framework of design under uncertainty

  18. Rubber stamp templates for improving clinical documentation: A paper-based, m-Health approach for quality improvement in low-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleczka, Bernadette; Musiega, Anita; Rabut, Grace; Wekesa, Phoebe; Mwaniki, Paul; Marx, Michael; Kumar, Pratap

    2018-06-01

    The United Nations' Sustainable Development Goal #3.8 targets 'access to quality essential healthcare services'. Clinical practice guidelines are an important tool for ensuring quality of clinical care, but many challenges prevent their use in low-resource settings. Monitoring the use of guidelines relies on cumbersome clinical audits of paper records, and electronic systems face financial and other limitations. Here we describe a unique approach to generating digital data from paper using guideline-based templates, rubber stamps and mobile phones. The Guidelines Adherence in Slums Project targeted ten private sector primary healthcare clinics serving informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. Each clinic was provided with rubber stamp templates to support documentation and management of commonly encountered outpatient conditions. Participatory design methods were used to customize templates to the workflows and infrastructure of each clinic. Rubber stamps were used to print templates into paper charts, providing clinicians with checklists for use during consultations. Templates used bubble format data entry, which could be digitized from images taken on mobile phones. Besides rubber stamp templates, the intervention included booklets of guideline compilations, one Android phone for digitizing images of templates, and one data feedback/continuing medical education session per clinic each month. In this paper we focus on the effect of the intervention on documentation of three non-communicable diseases in one clinic. Seventy charts of patients enrolled in the chronic disease program (hypertension/diabetes, n=867; chronic respiratory diseases, n=223) at one of the ten intervention clinics were sampled. Documentation of each individual patient encounter in the pre-intervention (January-March 2016) and post-intervention period (May-July) was scored for information in four dimensions - general data, patient assessment, testing, and management. Control criteria included

  19. Effects of surface coating on weld growth of resistance spot-welded hot-stamped boron steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Chang Wook; Lee, Hyun Ju; Kim, Yang Do; Jo, Il Guk; Choi, Il Dong; Park, Yeong Do

    2014-01-01

    Aluminum-silicon-based and zinc-based metallic coatings have been widely used for hot-stamped boron steel in automotive applications. In this study, resistance spot weldability was explored by investigating the effects of the properties of metallic coating layers on heat development and nugget growth during resistance spot welding. In the case of the aluminum-silicon-coated hot-stamped boron steel, the intermetallic coating transformed into a liquid film that covered the faying interface. A wide, weldable current range was obtained with slow heat development because of low contact resistance and large current passage. In the case of the zinc-coated hot-stamped boron steel, a buildup of liquid and vapor formation under large vapor pressure was observed at the faying interface because of the high contact resistance and low vaporization temperature of the intermetallic layers. With rapid heat development, the current passage was narrow because of the limited continuous layer at the faying interface. A more significant change in nugget growth was observed in the zinc coated hot-stamped boron steel than in the aluminum-silicon-coated hot-stamped boron steel.

  20. Fabrication of a roller type PDMS stamp using SU-8 concave molds and its application for roll contact printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jongho; Kim, Beomjoon

    2016-01-01

    Continuous fabrication of micropatterns at low-cost is attracting attention in various applications within industrial fields. To meet such demands, we have demonstrated a roll contact printing technique, using roller type polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps with roll-to-flat and roll-to-roll stages. Roller type PDMS stamps for roll contact printing were fabricated using a custom-made metal support and SU-8 microstructures fabricated on concave substrates as a mold. The molding/casting method which we developed here provided faster and easier fabrication than conventional methods for roller type stamps. Next, roll contact printing was performed using fabricated roller type PDMS stamps with roll-to-flat and roll-to-roll stages. Patterns with minimum widths of 3 μm and 2.1 μm were continuously fabricated for each stage, respectively. In addition, the relationship between applied pressures and dimensional changes of roll contact printed patterns was investigated. Finally, we confirmed that roll contact printing and the new fabrication method for roller stamps presented in this study demonstrated the feasibility for industrial applications. (paper)

  1. Micropatterning of a stretchable conductive polymer using inkjet printing and agarose stamping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Steen; Hassager, Ole; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2007-01-01

    A highly conducting stretchable polymer material has been patterned using additive inkjet printing and by subtractive agarose stamping of a deactivation agent (hypochlorite). The material consisted of elastomeric polyurethane combined in an interpenetrating network with a conductive polymer, poly(3....... Inkjet printing of the material was only possible if a short-chain polyurethane was used as elastomer to overcome strain hardening at the neck of the droplets produced for printing. Reproducible line widths down to 200 μm could be achieved by inkjet printing. Both methods were used to fabricate test...

  2. Time stamp generation with inverse FIR filters for Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namias, Mauro

    2009-01-01

    Photon coincidence detection is the process by which Positron Emission Tomography (PET) works. This requires the determination of the time of impact of each coincident photon at the detector system, also known as time stamp. In this work, the timestamp was generated by means of digital time-domain deconvolution with FIR filters for a INa(Tl) based system. The detector deadtime was reduced from 350 ns to 175 ns while preserving the system's energy resolution and a direct relation between the amount of light collected and the temporal resolution was found.(author)

  3. Stamps, Stickers and Stigmata. A Social Practice of Antisemitism Presented in a Slide-show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Enzenbach

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Antisemitic stickers were disseminated in Germany from the 1880s/1890s onwards. They were glued on letters or postcards, placed visibly in public space or collected in the private sphere. In rethinking antisemitism as a social practice, these stickers, stamps and adhesive labels can be seen as a prototypical source demonstrating the performative dimension of antisemtism. The antisemitic movement used various media such as leaflets, cartoons, speeches, historical novels, articles or newspapers to mobilize people and to build up a community.

  4. Nowcasting and Forecasting the Monthly Food Stamps Data in the US Using Online Search Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantazzini, Dean

    2014-01-01

    We propose the use of Google online search data for nowcasting and forecasting the number of food stamps recipients. We perform a large out-of-sample forecasting exercise with almost 3000 competing models with forecast horizons up to 2 years ahead, and we show that models including Google search data statistically outperform the competing models at all considered horizons. These results hold also with several robustness checks, considering alternative keywords, a falsification test, different out-of-samples, directional accuracy and forecasts at the state-level. PMID:25369315

  5. The collection of Tuvan stamps (1926–1943 in the National Museum of the Republic of Tuva and the prospects of philately in Tuva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaadyr-ool A. Bicheldey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stamps of the People’s Republic of Tuva (PRT, 1921-1944 as indicia and as items of collectors’ interest, are universally renowned, and as such have been the subject of a good deal of research. These works contain more than a mere story of Tuvan stamps – they provide a lot of useful information on Tuva, its history, including the history of postal service in the region. This article describes the collection of indicia (more than 500 pieces dated 1926-1943 and preserved at Aldan Maadyr National Museum of Tuva. On the basis of this analysis we have formulated the current problems and prospects of philately in the region. The stamp collection in the National Museum fills 4 albums of various sizes and a number of envelopes with 1-72 stamps in each. The compilers of 2 albums attempted to systematize stamps by issue date, but this work is far from complete. There is no definitive collection of Tuvan stamps to act as a model for others, regardless of the quality of the stamps preserved. The rest of the stamps in the museum collection is in unsorted state. Overall, the degree of preservation can be tentatively described as average. Given the great interest of scholars and collectors, Tuvan stamps are relatively little studies. The overall bulk of material on the uses of stamps in Tuva lacks an overarching study. We have summed up the main research problems that call for in-depth research, including studying Tuvan stamps as pieces of art, the financial and economic viability of issuing stamps in PRT, the official documentations licensing the issue, full catalogization of all existing issues, the study of individual stamps, etc. Especially urgent is the issue of propagating knowledge of history of Tuvan postal service as a precondition for collecting and preserving PRT stamps. Archives of many Tuvan families may contain unique stamps, rare envelopes or postcards – but few of their owners recognize the full value of what they have. This puts unique

  6. On the Determination of the Blank Shape Contour for Thin Precision Parts Obtained by Stamping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azaouzi, M.; Delameziere, A.; Naceur, H.; Batoz, J. L.; Sibaud, D.; Belouettar, S.

    2007-01-01

    The present study deals with the 'automatic' determination of the initial blank shape contour for 3D thin metallic precision parts obtained by stamping, knowing the 3D CAD geometry of the final part (the desired product). The forming process can involve several steps presented in this paper that consists in applying a heuristic method of optimization to find out the initial blank shape of thin precision metallic part in order to obtain a final part, with a required 3D geometry (specified). The purpose of the present approach is to replace the experimental trial and error optimization method used currently, which is expensive and time consuming. The principle of the 'heuristic' optimization method is to first estimate the blank shape using the Inverse Approach, then to compensate the shape error calculated in each node of the blank contour. The 'heuristic' optimization loop is done using a precise incremental code (Abaqus Explicit or Stampack) and, the iterations loop is stopped when the shape errors are within some initially fixed tolerances. The method is tested in the case of a special stamping process where the parts are pressed in one or more steps using a manual press, without blank holder and by the mean of tools having complex shape. The sensitivities of the process parameters regarding the optimal solution are investigated

  7. Experimental Investigation About Stamping Behaviour of 3D Warp Interlock Composite Preforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Clément; Wang, Peng; Boussu, François; Soulat, Damien

    2014-10-01

    Forming of continuous fibre reinforcements and thermoplastic resin commingled prepregs can be performed at room temperature due to its similar textile structure. The "cool" forming stage is better controlled and more economical. The increase of temperature and the resin consolidation phases after the forming can be carried out under the isothermal condition thanks to a closed system. It can avoid the manufacturing defects easily experienced in the non-isothermal thermoforming, in particular the wrinkling [1]. Glass/Polypropylene commingled yarns have been woven inside different three-dimensional (3D) warp interlock fabrics and then formed using a double-curved shape stamping tool. The present study investigates the in-plane and through-thickness behaviour of the 3D warp interlock fibrous reinforcements during forming with a hemispherical punch. Experimental data allow analysing the forming behaviour in the warp and weft directions and on the influence of warp interlock architectures. The results point out that the layer to layer warp interlock preform has a better stamping behaviour, in particular no forming defects and good homogeneity in thickness.

  8. Defect detection and classification of galvanized stamping parts based on fully convolution neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhitao; Leng, Yanyi; Geng, Lei; Xi, Jiangtao

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a new convolution neural network method is proposed for the inspection and classification of galvanized stamping parts. Firstly, all workpieces are divided into normal and defective by image processing, and then the defective workpieces extracted from the region of interest (ROI) area are input to the trained fully convolutional networks (FCN). The network utilizes an end-to-end and pixel-to-pixel training convolution network that is currently the most advanced technology in semantic segmentation, predicts result of each pixel. Secondly, we mark the different pixel values of the workpiece, defect and background for the training image, and use the pixel value and the number of pixels to realize the recognition of the defects of the output picture. Finally, the defect area's threshold depended on the needs of the project is set to achieve the specific classification of the workpiece. The experiment results show that the proposed method can successfully achieve defect detection and classification of galvanized stamping parts under ordinary camera and illumination conditions, and its accuracy can reach 99.6%. Moreover, it overcomes the problem of complex image preprocessing and difficult feature extraction and performs better adaptability.

  9. Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, and Toughening Mechanisms of a New Hot Stamping-Bake Toughening Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Song, Hong-Wu; Zhang, Shi-Hong; Cheng, Ming; Liu, Wei-Jie; Chen, Yun

    2015-09-01

    In this article, the hot stamping-bake toughening process has been proposed following the well-known concept of bake hardening. The influences of the bake time on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of the hot stamped-baked part were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and mechanical tests at room temperature. The results show that the amount of the retained austenite was nearly not changed by the bake process. Also observed were spherical Cu-rich precipitates of about 15 nm in martensite laths. According to the Orowan mechanism, their contribution of the Cu-rich precipitates to the strength is approximately 245 MPa. With the increase of the bake time, the tensile strength of the part was decreased, whereas both the ductility and the product of the tensile strength and ductility were increased then decreased. The tensile strength and ductility product and the tensile strength are as high as 21.9 GPa pct, 2086 MPa, respectively. The excellent combined properties are due to the transformation-induced plasticity effect caused by retained austenite.

  10. Springback Reduction in Stamping of Front Side Member with a Response Surface Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jung-Han; Huh, Hoon; Kim, Se-Ho; Park, Sung-Ho

    2005-01-01

    Springback is a common phenomenon in sheet metal forming since the elastic recovery of the internal stresses is induced after removal of the tooling. The numerical analysis of springback is a complicated time-consuming job and its result is greatly effected by a type of the yield function, finite elements used and the constraint condition for eliminating a rigid body motion. In this paper, optimization of the draw-bead force is carried out utilizing the response surface method in order to reduce springback and improve shape accuracy of a deep drawn product. In the optimization process, the tendency of springback is evaluated qualitatively without springback simulation usually done with the implicit solving scheme. Instead of springback simulation, the amount of stress deviation along the thickness direction in the deep drawn product is used as an indicator of springback. The stamping process is analyzed for a front side member formed with advanced high strength steel (AHSS) sheets such as DP60. The analysis procedure fully covers the binder-wrap, stamping, trimming and springback processes with the commercial elasto-plastic finite element code LS-DYNA 3D. The effect of the restraining force of draw-beads is confirmed with the decreased stress deviation. The analysis result shown in the final springback simulation demonstrates that the present analysis provides a guideline for controlling the evolution of springback based on the finite element simulation of complicated auto-body members

  11. Studies on the finite element simulation in sheet metal stamping processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying

    The sheet metal stamping process plays an important role in modern industry. With the ever-increasing demand for shape complexity, product quality and new materials, the traditional trial and error method for setting up a sheet metal stamping process is no longer efficient. As a result, the Finite Element Modeling (FEM) method has now been widely used. From a physical point of view, the formability and the quality of a product are influenced by several factors. The design of the product in the initial stage and the motion of the press during the production stage are two of these crucial factors. This thesis focuses on the numerical simulation for these two factors using FEM. Currently, there are a number of commercial FEM software systems available in the market. These software systems are based on an incremental FEM process that models the sheet metal stamping process in small incremental steps. Even though the incremental FEM is accurate, it is not suitable for the initial conceptual design for its needing of detailed design parameters and enormous calculation times. As a result, another type of FEM, called the inverse FEM method or one-step FEM method, has been proposed. While it is less accurate than that of the incremental method, this method requires much less computation and hence, has a great potential. However, it also faces a number of unsolved problems, which limits its application. This motivates the presented research. After the review of the basic theory of the inverse method, a new modified arc-length search method is proposed to find better initial solution. The methods to deal with the vertical walls are also discussed and presented. Then, a generalized multi-step inverse FEM method is proposed. It solves two key obstacles: the first one is to determine the initial solution of the intermediate three-dimensional configurations and the other is to control the movement of nodes so they could only slide on constraint surfaces during the search by

  12. Fabrication of a metallic roll stamp with low internal stress and high hardness for large area display applications by a pulse reverse current electroforming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joongeok; Han, Jungjin; Kim, Taekyung; Kang, Shinill

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing demand for large scale micro/nano components in the fields of display, energy and electrical devices, etc, the establishment of a roll imprinting process has become a priority. The fabrication of a roll stamp with high dimensional accuracy and uniformity is one of the key issues in the roll imprinting process, because the roll stamp determines the properties of the replicated micro/nano structures. In this study, a method to fabricate a metallic roll stamp with low internal stress, high flatness, and high hardness was proposed by a pulse reverse current (PRC) electroforming process. The effects of PRC electroforming processes on the internal stress, hardness, and grain size of the electroformed stamp were examined, and the optimum process conditions were suggested. As a practical example of the proposed method, various micro-patterns for electronic circuits were fabricated via the roll imprinting process using a PRC electroformed stamp. (paper)

  13. Ben Franklin, America’s Postage Stamp Star — on the Wane?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Brunet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an assessment of Ben Franklin’s evolving figure in U.S. postage stamps, focusing especially on the contrast between the 2006 tercentennial Franklin 4-stamp panel, a rather high-brow representation of Franklin as an intellectual, and his traditional image as a homely, common face. The singular history of U.S. postage stamps, with their innovative choice of historical figures as subject matter and their broader emphasis on commemoration, is briefly summarized. The evolution of the Franklin figure — the most common postal image, along with George Washington — is then detailed, showing how the traditional image prevailed until the 1950s, before being progressively displaced by a more cultural and, lately, intellectual image of the nation’s “electrizer”.Cet article vise à interpréter l’évolution de la figure de Benjamin Franklin dans les timbres-poste des Etats-Unis, en se fondant notamment sur le contraste entre le bloc de quatre timbres émis lors du tricentenaire en 2006, qui représente Franklin dans les différents métiers d’un intellectuel des Lumières, et son image traditionnelle d’Américain simple et moyen. On retrace tout d’abord l’histoire singulière des timbres américains, caractérisée par le choix innovant de figures historiques comme sujets et plus généralement par la prééminence de la fonction commémorative. Puis on étudie en détail l’évolution de la figure de Franklin — sujet le plus fréquent des timbres américains avec George Washington — en montrant que l’image traditionnelle s’est perpétuée jusqu’aux années 1950, avant de céder progressivement à une image plus culturelle et, récemment, plus intellectuelle.

  14. Modeling and simulation of stamp deflections in nanoimprint lithography: Exploiting backside grooves to enhance residual layer thickness uniformity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Hayden; Smistrup, Kristian; Boning, Duane

    2011-01-01

    We describe a model for the compliance of a nanoimprint stamp etched with a grid of backside grooves. We integrate the model with a fast simulation technique that we have previously demonstrated, to show how etched grooves help reduce the systematic residual layer thickness (RLT) variations...

  15. Investigation of Hardness Change for Spot Welded Tailored Blank in Hot Stamping Using CCT and Deformation-CCT Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogo, Yasuhiro; Kurato, Nozomi; Iwata, Noritoshi

    2018-04-01

    When an outer panel of a B-pillar is manufactured with the hot stamping process, reinforcements are spot welded on its inner side. Before reinforcements are added, the microstructure of the outer panel is martensite. However, reheating during spot welding changes the martensite to ferrite, which has a lower hardness in the heat-affected zone than in other areas. If spot welding is conducted before hot stamping for making a spot welded tailored blank, the microstructure in the spot welded tailored blank after hot stamping is martensite. This sequence of processes avoids hardness reduction due to spot welding. In this study, the hardness and microstructure around spot welded parts of the tailored blank were investigated. The results clearly showed that areas close to the spot welded parts are severely stretched during hot stamping. In addition, stretching suppresses the martensitic phase transformation and reduces the hardness. To characterize this phenomenon, a simulation was conducted that considered the effects of pre-strain on the phase transformation. A continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram and a deformation continuous cooling transformation (DCCT) diagram were made in order to quantify the effect of the cooling rate and pre-strain on the phase transformation and hardness. The hardness was then calculated using the experimentally measured CCT and DCCT diagrams and the finite element analysis results. The calculated hardness was compared with the experimental hardness. Good agreement was found between the calculated and experimental results.

  16. The new Swiss commemorative stamp dedicated to CERN available at the Organization's Meyrin post office on Tuesday, 9 March!

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    For some people, the stamp's rays are spreading outwards towards the infinitely large, while for others they focus inwards towards the infinitely small. It's a bit like the proverbial half-full or half-empty glass or a picture that conveys two different images, depending on how you look at it.

  17. Microstructure and Properties of a New Cr - Mn Steel without Boron Additions for Use in Hot Stamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H.; Zhu, G.; Li, Q.; Chen, Q.

    2015-09-01

    Anew hot-stamping steel that is alloyed with chromium and manganese and does not contain boron additions has been developed. The effect of reheating temperature and cooling rates on the mechanical properties and structure of the steel is determined. Atreatment regime that increases the ductility of the steel without a noticeable decrease in its strength is proposed.

  18. Investigation of Hardness Change for Spot Welded Tailored Blank in Hot Stamping Using CCT and Deformation-CCT Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogo, Yasuhiro; Kurato, Nozomi; Iwata, Noritoshi

    2018-06-01

    When an outer panel of a B-pillar is manufactured with the hot stamping process, reinforcements are spot welded on its inner side. Before reinforcements are added, the microstructure of the outer panel is martensite. However, reheating during spot welding changes the martensite to ferrite, which has a lower hardness in the heat-affected zone than in other areas. If spot welding is conducted before hot stamping for making a spot welded tailored blank, the microstructure in the spot welded tailored blank after hot stamping is martensite. This sequence of processes avoids hardness reduction due to spot welding. In this study, the hardness and microstructure around spot welded parts of the tailored blank were investigated. The results clearly showed that areas close to the spot welded parts are severely stretched during hot stamping. In addition, stretching suppresses the martensitic phase transformation and reduces the hardness. To characterize this phenomenon, a simulation was conducted that considered the effects of pre-strain on the phase transformation. A continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram and a deformation continuous cooling transformation (DCCT) diagram were made in order to quantify the effect of the cooling rate and pre-strain on the phase transformation and hardness. The hardness was then calculated using the experimentally measured CCT and DCCT diagrams and the finite element analysis results. The calculated hardness was compared with the experimental hardness. Good agreement was found between the calculated and experimental results.

  19. 7 CFR 272.5 - Program informational activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... creed, national origin or political belief. (c) Program informational activities for low-income..., application procedures, and benefits of the Food Stamp Program. Program informational materials used in such... the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of the target population, types of media used...

  20. Finite element analysis and optimization of process parameters during stamp forming of composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesan, S; Kalyanasundaram, S

    2010-01-01

    In the manufacture of parts for high performance structures using composite materials, the quality and robustness of the parts is of utmost importance. The quality of the produced parts depends largely on the process parameters and manufacturing methodologies. This study presents the use of a temperature dependant orthotropic material for a coupled structural-thermal analysis of the stamp forming process. The study investigated the effects of process parameters such as pre-heat temperature, blank holder force and process time on the formability of composite materials. Temperature was found to be the dominant factor governing the formability of the composite material while higher blank holder forces were deemed to be important for achieving high quality of the parts manufactured. Finally, an optimum set of parameters was used to compare the simulations with experimental results using an optical strain measurement system.

  1. Determination of stamp deformation during imprinting on semi-spherical surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafka, Jan; Matschuk, Maria; Pranov, Henrik

    of sol-gel was applied onto spherical injection mold inserts and subsequently imprinted using a flexible stamp. A hard curing step transformed the sol-gel into a quartz-like and durable material. As an example, we present theory and results regarding the imprint of pillar nanostructures on semi......-spherical mold surfaces. Imprints were realized on three different radii of circumferenceof the spherical mold: R = 0.5 mm, R = 1.0 mm, and R = 2 mm. After hard-curing of theimprinted sol-gel, the inserts were used for cold-mold as well as vario-therm injection molding.The polymer replicas and the inserts were...

  2. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY SCORE: COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN PUBLIC And PRIVATE COMPANIES, BASED In ibase SOCIAL stamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Reis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article intends to arguing the existing differences and similarities between Social Responsibility actions and praticals developed by the private and public companies. This comparative study of exploring character was carried with the companies owners of Social Stamp IBASE, wich published its Social Balances in the model considered for the institute in the year of 2004. For such, beyond the documentary research involving the published balances, a conceptual revision over the main subjects was necessary and also it constitutes part of the study. The joined results supply measurable and representative information about the main characteristics of social action of the companies, propitiating a comparative analysis and the emission of critical considerations, that do not finish themselves, but establishes a possibility of different readings concerning the models of social responsible management undertaken by companies from public and private segments.

  3. Deterministic transfer of two-dimensional materials by all-dry viscoelastic stamping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellanos-Gomez, Andres; Buscema, Michele; Molenaar, Rianda; Singh, Vibhor; Janssen, Laurens; Van der Zant, Herre S J; Steele, Gary A

    2014-01-01

    The deterministic transfer of two-dimensional crystals constitutes a crucial step towards the fabrication of heterostructures based on the artificial stacking of two-dimensional materials. Moreover, controlling the positioning of two-dimensional crystals facilitates their integration in complex devices, which enables the exploration of novel applications and the discovery of new phenomena in these materials. To date, deterministic transfer methods rely on the use of sacrificial polymer layers and wet chemistry to some extent. Here, we develop an all-dry transfer method that relies on viscoelastic stamps and does not employ any wet chemistry step. This is found to be very advantageous to freely suspend these materials as there are no capillary forces involved in the process. Moreover, the whole fabrication process is quick, efficient, clean and it can be performed with high yield. (letter)

  4. Spectral analysis of postage stamps and banknotes from the region of Rijeka in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelovica Badovinac, I.; Orlić, N.; Lofrumento, C.; Dobrinić, J.; Orlić, M.

    2010-07-01

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray emission spectroscopy induced using radioactive source have been applied to analyze two types of samples important for the history of Rijeka, Croatian port on the Adriatic Sea. In this paper we will present study of thirty-three original Hungarian postage stamps issued for Rijeka and overprinted with the word FIUME in 1918, after the World War I and the one-Lira banknotes (one original brown banknote and four trial prints: brown, blue, green and dark green) from Economy bank for Rijeka, Istria and Slovenian Littoral (1945-1947), the so-called Jugolire. This investigation was carried out to determine the differences between the original machine, original hand-made and fake overprints FIUME and to compare the pigments used on original banknote from circulation with the pigments on the trial prints.

  5. Large-area fabrication of patterned ZnO-nanowire arrays using light stamping lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jae K; Cho, Sangho; Seo, Eun K; Myoung, Jae M; Sung, Myung M

    2009-12-01

    We demonstrate selective adsorption and alignment of ZnO nanowires on patterned poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) thin layers with (aminopropyl)siloxane self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). Light stamping lithography (LSL) was used to prepare patterned PDMS thin layers as neutral passivation regions on Si substrates. (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane-based SAMs were selectively formed only on regions exposing the silanol groups of the Si substrates. The patterned positively charged amino groups define and direct the selective adsorption of ZnO nanowires with negative surface charges in the protic solvent. This procedure can be adopted in automated printing machines that generate patterned ZnO-nanowire arrays on large-area substrates. To demonstrate its usefulness, the LSL method was applied to prepare ZnO-nanowire transistor arrays on 4-in. Si wafers.

  6. A Fully Integrated Humidity Sensor System-on-Chip Fabricated by Micro-Stamping Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Che-Wei; Huang, Yu-Jie; Lu, Shey-Shi; Lin, Chih-Ting

    2012-01-01

    A fully integrated humidity sensor chip was designed, implemented, and tested. Utilizing the micro-stamping technology, the pseudo-3D sensor system-on-chip (SSoC) architecture can be implemented by stacking sensing materials directly on the top of a CMOS-fabricated chip. The fabricated sensor system-on-chip (2.28 mm × 2.48 mm) integrated a humidity sensor, an interface circuit, a digital controller, and an On-Off Keying (OOK) wireless transceiver. With low power consumption, i.e., 750 μW without RF operation, the sensitivity of developed sensor chip was experimentally verified in the relative humidity (RH) range from 32% to 60%. The response time of the chip was also experimentally verified to be within 5 seconds from RH 36% to RH 64%. As a consequence, the implemented humidity SSoC paves the way toward the an ultra-small sensor system for various applications.

  7. Verification of human actions in SBO sequences with LOCA stamps in Westinghouse PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queral, C.; Mena Rosell, L.; Jimenez Varas, G.

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima accident has shown the need for tools and methodologies able to analyze human activities and / or capabilities of portable systems that has given the Spanish plants as a result of the stress tests . In this work we have applied the methodology of integrated safety analysis developed by the CSN , to SBO sequences with LOCA stamp. The aim is to show a methodology for testing the performances of the Emergency Operating Procedures and Guides Severe Accident Management. The simulations were performed with the tool SCAIS coupled to MAAP . The results show that there are human activities that may be beneficial in certain sequences but harmful in others. This type of problem is already known and referred to in the GGAS . However, FSR shows a practical way to check human actions cannot be obtained with other methods.

  8. Spectral analysis of postage stamps and banknotes from the region of Rijeka in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelovica Badovinac, I., E-mail: ijelov@phy.uniri.h [Department of Physics, University of Rijeka, Omladinska 14, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Orlic, N. [Department of Physics, University of Rijeka, Omladinska 14, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Lofrumento, C. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dobrinic, J. [Faculty of Engineering, University of Rijeka, Vukovarska 58, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Orlic, M. [Department of Civil Engineering, Polytechnic of Zagreb, Av. V. Holjevca 15, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2010-07-21

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray emission spectroscopy induced using radioactive source have been applied to analyze two types of samples important for the history of Rijeka, Croatian port on the Adriatic Sea. In this paper we will present study of thirty-three original Hungarian postage stamps issued for Rijeka and overprinted with the word FIUME in 1918, after the World War I and the one-Lira banknotes (one original brown banknote and four trial prints: brown, blue, green and dark green) from Economy bank for Rijeka, Istria and Slovenian Littoral (1945-1947), the so-called Jugolire. This investigation was carried out to determine the differences between the original machine, original hand-made and fake overprints FIUME and to compare the pigments used on original banknote from circulation with the pigments on the trial prints.

  9. Study of mechanical properties on powdermetalurgy aluminium matrix composites fabricated by stamping or extrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busquets, D.; Gomez, L.; Amigo, V.; Salvador-Moya, M. D.

    2005-01-01

    We have developed composite materials from AA6061 aluminium alloy powders used as matrix and ceramics powders of boron carbide, silicon carbide and boron nitride, used as reinforcements in 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10% vol. by mechanical mixing and milling in planetary mill at 360 rpm vial velocity for 4 h followed of hot stamping and extrusion process on green compacts. Mechanical properties obtained from tensile tests are influenced by the heat treatment, reinforcement fractions and nature. Moreover, these mechanical characteristic are dependent from the processing route. Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy analysis revealed the microstructure of materials and let describe the tripartite relation; structure-processing-properties, of the developed materials. (Author) 20 refs

  10. Construction of Time-Stamped Mobility Map for Path Tracking via Smith-Waterman Measurement Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Path tracking in wireless and mobile environments is a fundamental technology for ubiquitous location-based services (LBSs. In particular, it is very challenging to develop highly accurate and cost-efficient tracking systems applied to the anonymous areas where the floor plans are not available for security and privacy reasons. This paper proposes a novel path tracking approach for large Wi-Fi areas based on the time-stamped unlabeled mobility map which is constructed from Smith-Waterman received signal strength (RSS measurement matching. Instead of conventional location fingerprinting, we construct mobility map with the technique of dimension reduction from the raw measurement space into a low-dimensional embedded manifold. The feasibility of our proposed approach is verified by the real-world experiments in the HKUST campus Wi-Fi networks, sMobileNet. The experimental results prove that our approach is adaptive and capable of achieving an adequate precision level in path tracking.

  11. Spectral analysis of postage stamps and banknotes from the region of Rijeka in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelovica Badovinac, I.; Orlic, N.; Lofrumento, C.; Dobrinic, J.; Orlic, M.

    2010-01-01

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray emission spectroscopy induced using radioactive source have been applied to analyze two types of samples important for the history of Rijeka, Croatian port on the Adriatic Sea. In this paper we will present study of thirty-three original Hungarian postage stamps issued for Rijeka and overprinted with the word FIUME in 1918, after the World War I and the one-Lira banknotes (one original brown banknote and four trial prints: brown, blue, green and dark green) from Economy bank for Rijeka, Istria and Slovenian Littoral (1945-1947), the so-called Jugolire. This investigation was carried out to determine the differences between the original machine, original hand-made and fake overprints FIUME and to compare the pigments used on original banknote from circulation with the pigments on the trial prints.

  12. Time-stamp correction of magnetic observatory data acquired during unavailability of time-synchronization services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coïsson, Pierdavide; Telali, Kader; Heumez, Benoit; Lesur, Vincent; Lalanne, Xavier; Jiang Xin, Chang

    2017-09-01

    During magnetic observatory data acquisition, the data time stamp is kept synchronized with a precise source of time. This is usually done using a GPS-controlled pulse per second (PPS) signal. For some observatories located in remote areas or where internet restrictions are enforced, only the magnetometer data are transmitted, limiting the capabilities of monitoring the acquisition operations. The magnetic observatory in Lanzhou (LZH), China, experienced an unnoticed interruption of the GPS PPS starting 7 March 2013. The data logger clock drifted slowly in time: in 6 months a lag of 27 s was accumulated. After a reboot on 2 April 2014 the drift became faster, -2 s per day, before the GPS PPS could be restored on 8 July 2014. To estimate the time lags that LZH time series had accumulated, we compared it with data from other observatories located in East Asia. A synchronization algorithm was developed. Natural sources providing synchronous events could be used as markers to obtain the time lag between the observatories. The analysis of slices of 1 h of 1 s data at arbitrary UTC allowed estimating time lags with an uncertainty of ˜ 11 s, revealing the correct trends of LZH time drift. A precise estimation of the time lag was obtained by comparing data from co-located instruments controlled by an independent PPS. In this case, it was possible to take advantage of spikes and local noise that constituted precise time markers. It was therefore possible to determine a correction to apply to LZH time stamps to correct the data files and produce reliable 1 min averaged definitive magnetic data.

  13. Recognition of Time Stamps on Full-Disk Hα Images Using Machine Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y.; Huang, N.; Jing, J.; Liu, C.; Wang, H.; Fu, G.

    2016-12-01

    Observation and understanding of the physics of the 11-year solar activity cycle and 22-year magnetic cycle are among the most important research topics in solar physics. The solar cycle is responsible for magnetic field and particle fluctuation in the near-earth environment that have been found increasingly important in affecting the living of human beings in the modern era. A systematic study of large-scale solar activities, as made possible by our rich data archive, will further help us to understand the global-scale magnetic fields that are closely related to solar cycles. The long-time-span data archive includes both full-disk and high-resolution Hα images. Prior to the widely use of CCD cameras in 1990s, 35-mm films were the major media to store images. The research group at NJIT recently finished the digitization of film data obtained by the National Solar Observatory (NSO) and Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) covering the period of 1953 to 2000. The total volume of data exceeds 60 TB. To make this huge database scientific valuable, some processing and calibration are required. One of the most important steps is to read the time stamps on all of the 14 million images, which is almost impossible to be done manually. We implemented three different methods to recognize the time stamps automatically, including Optical Character Recognition (OCR), Classification Tree and TensorFlow. The latter two are known as machine learning algorithms which are very popular now a day in pattern recognition area. We will present some sample images and the results of clock recognition from all three methods.

  14. Integrated Stamping Simulation Using State Of The Art Techniques To Fulfill Quality Assessment Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, David; Lambriks, Marc; El Khaldi, Fouad

    2005-01-01

    The last few years have seen the use of stamping simulation evolve to the extent that it is now a mainstream activity; a core part of the press tool engineering process. Now, new requirements for the use of challenging materials like Dual phase / Complex phase steel, VHSS, and aluminum, together with more stringent quality expectations, and shorter development cycles, there is a need to assess the panel quality in a wider context, before committing to tool manufacture.The integrated approach from ESI Group allows early up-front feasibility assessment, geometry and process optimization, and detailed process validation all within one system. Rapid die design and quick forming simulation modules play an essential role in the early stages of the process. A seamless connection between simulation and geometry is a vital characteristic, with the accurate simulation being used to validate and fine tune the process in order to assess final component quality in unprecedented detail, utilizing some of the most accurate material models available today. The combination of the distributed memory processing (DMP) solver together with new cost effective cluster based compute servers provide a practical solution to the problems of 'one million element' model sizes, and more sophisticated modeling methodologies become realistic for the first time.It is no longer sufficient to merely focus on the draw die, forming simulation must now consider the entire die line up. Typically, around half of forming issues arise from the draw die, so the time has now come to address the other half as well! This paper will discuss how the PAM-STAMP 2G TM integrated solution is successfully used to deliver a positive business impact, by providing virtual panel quality assessment, tolerance control, and springback compensation. The paper will also discuss how other forming processes can be accurately modeled using the new modules

  15. Discrimination between authentic and false tax stamps from liquor bottles using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and chemometrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzaga, Fabiano Barbieri; Rocha, Werickson Fortunato de Carvalho; Correa, Deleon Nascimento

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the preliminary application of a compact and low-cost laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument for falsification detection of tax stamps used in alcoholic beverages. The new instrument was based on a diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YLF microchip laser and a mini-spectrometer containing a Czerny–Turner polichromator coupled to a non-intensified, non-gated, and non-cooled 2048 pixel linear sensor array (200 to 850 nm spectral range). Twenty-three tax stamp samples were analyzed by firing laser pulses within two different regions of each sample: a hologram and a blank paper region. For each acquired spectrum, the emitted radiation was integrated for 3000 ms under the continuous application of laser pulses at 100 Hz (integration of 300 plasmas). Principal component analysis (PCA) or hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of all emission spectra from the hologram or blank paper region revealed two well-defined groups of authentic and false samples. Moreover, for the hologram data, three subgroups of false samples were found. Additionally, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was successfully applied for the detection of the false tax stamps using all emission spectra from hologram or blank paper region. The discrimination between the samples was mostly ascribed to different levels of calcium concentration in the samples. - Highlights: • Compact and low-cost laser-induced breakdown spectrometer • Analysis of tax stamps used in alcoholic beverages • Detection of false tax stamps using the LIBS spectra and chemometrics • Falsification detection ascribed to different levels of calcium concentration

  16. Discrimination between authentic and false tax stamps from liquor bottles using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzaga, Fabiano Barbieri, E-mail: fbgonzaga@inmetro.gov.br [Chemical Metrology Division, National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (INMETRO), Av. Nossa Senhora das Graças, 50, Xerém, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Rocha, Werickson Fortunato de Carvalho [Chemical Metrology Division, National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (INMETRO), Av. Nossa Senhora das Graças, 50, Xerém, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Correa, Deleon Nascimento [Technical–Scientific Police Superintendency, Criminalistic Institute Dr. Octávio Eduardo de Brito Alvarenga—IC-SPTC-SP, 05507-060 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This work describes the preliminary application of a compact and low-cost laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument for falsification detection of tax stamps used in alcoholic beverages. The new instrument was based on a diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YLF microchip laser and a mini-spectrometer containing a Czerny–Turner polichromator coupled to a non-intensified, non-gated, and non-cooled 2048 pixel linear sensor array (200 to 850 nm spectral range). Twenty-three tax stamp samples were analyzed by firing laser pulses within two different regions of each sample: a hologram and a blank paper region. For each acquired spectrum, the emitted radiation was integrated for 3000 ms under the continuous application of laser pulses at 100 Hz (integration of 300 plasmas). Principal component analysis (PCA) or hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of all emission spectra from the hologram or blank paper region revealed two well-defined groups of authentic and false samples. Moreover, for the hologram data, three subgroups of false samples were found. Additionally, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was successfully applied for the detection of the false tax stamps using all emission spectra from hologram or blank paper region. The discrimination between the samples was mostly ascribed to different levels of calcium concentration in the samples. - Highlights: • Compact and low-cost laser-induced breakdown spectrometer • Analysis of tax stamps used in alcoholic beverages • Detection of false tax stamps using the LIBS spectra and chemometrics • Falsification detection ascribed to different levels of calcium concentration.

  17. Can Food Stamps Do More to Improve Food Choices? An Economic Perspective--Higher Cost of Food in Some Areas May Affect Food Stamp Households' Ability To Make Healthy Food Choices

    OpenAIRE

    Nord, Mark; Hopwood, Heather

    2007-01-01

    The cost of “enough food,” estimated from the amount that low- and medium-income households in a geographic area report needing to spend to just meet their food needs, differs substantially across States and among metropolitan areas. In areas with high food costs, many food-stamp recipients are likely to have inadequate food resources to support healthy food choices.

  18. All-silica nanofluidic devices for DNA-analysis fabricated by imprint of sol-gel silica with silicon stamp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Morten Bo Lindholm; Letailleur, Alban A; Søndergård, Elin

    2011-01-01

    We present a simple and cheap method for fabrication of silica nanofluidic devices for single-molecule studies. By imprinting sol-gel materials with a multi-level stamp comprising micro- and nanofeatures, channels of different depth are produced in a single process step. Calcination of the imprin......We present a simple and cheap method for fabrication of silica nanofluidic devices for single-molecule studies. By imprinting sol-gel materials with a multi-level stamp comprising micro- and nanofeatures, channels of different depth are produced in a single process step. Calcination...... of the imprinted hybrid sol-gel material produces purely inorganic silica, which has very low autofluorescence and can be fusion bonded to a glass lid. Compared to top-down processing of fused silica or silicon substrates, imprint of sol-gel silica enables fabrication of high-quality nanofluidic devices without...

  19. Fabrication of Glass Microchannel via Glass Imprinting using a Vitreous Carbon Stamp for Flow Focusing Droplet Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refatul Haq, Muhammad; Kim, Youngkyu; Kim, Jun; Oh, Pyoung-hwa; Ju, Jonghyun; Kim, Seok-Min; Lim, Jiseok

    2017-01-01

    This study reports a cost-effective method of replicating glass microfluidic chips using a vitreous carbon (VC) stamp. A glass replica with the required microfluidic microstructures was synthesized without etching. The replication method uses a VC stamp fabricated by combining thermal replication using a furan-based, thermally-curable polymer with carbonization. To test the feasibility of this method, a flow focusing droplet generator with flow-focusing and channel widths of 50 µm and 100 µm, respectively, was successfully fabricated in a soda-lime glass substrate. Deviation between the geometries of the initial shape and the vitreous carbon mold occurred because of shrinkage during the carbonization process, however this effect could be predicted and compensated for. Finally, the monodispersity of the droplets generated by the fabricated microfluidic device was evaluated. PMID:29286341

  20. Fabrication of Glass Microchannel via Glass Imprinting using a Vitreous Carbon Stamp for Flow Focusing Droplet Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungjun Jang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reports a cost-effective method of replicating glass microfluidic chips using a vitreous carbon (VC stamp. A glass replica with the required microfluidic microstructures was synthesized without etching. The replication method uses a VC stamp fabricated by combining thermal replication using a furan-based, thermally-curable polymer with carbonization. To test the feasibility of this method, a flow focusing droplet generator with flow-focusing and channel widths of 50 µm and 100 µm, respectively, was successfully fabricated in a soda-lime glass substrate. Deviation between the geometries of the initial shape and the vitreous carbon mold occurred because of shrinkage during the carbonization process, however this effect could be predicted and compensated for. Finally, the monodispersity of the droplets generated by the fabricated microfluidic device was evaluated.

  1. Improvement in current density of nano- and micro-structured Si solar cells by cost-effective elastomeric stamp process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Kiseok; Jee, Hongsub; Lim, Sangwoo; Park, Min Joon; Jeong, Chaehwan

    2018-03-01

    Effective incident light should be controlled for improving the current density of solar cells by employing nano- and micro-structures on silicon surface. The elastomeric stamp process, which is more cost effective and simpler than conventional photolithography, was proposed for the fabrication of nano- and micro-structures. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was poured on a mother pattern with a diameter of 6 μm and a spacing of 2 μm; then, curing was performed to create a PDMS mold. The regular micropattern was stamped on a low-viscosity resin-coated silicon surface, followed by the simple reactive ion etching process. Nano-structures were formed using the Ag-based electroless etching process. As etching time was increased to 6 min, reflectance decreased to 4.53% and current density improved from 22.35 to 34.72 mA/cm2.

  2. Micro-patterned ZnO semiconductors for high performance thin film transistors via chemical imprinting with a PDMS stamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Kieun; Kim, Kyongjun; Park, Si Yun; Kim, Youn Sang

    2013-04-07

    Chemical imprinting was conducted on ZnO semiconductor films via a chemical reaction at the contact regions between a micro-patterned PDMS stamp and ZnO films. In addition, we applied the chemical imprinting on Li doped ZnO thin films for high performance TFTs fabrication. The representative micro-patterned Li doped ZnO TFTs showed a field effect mobility of 4.2 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) after sintering at 300 °C.

  3. Influence of temperature and friction on the 22MnB5 formability under hot stamping conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturato, G.; Ghiotti, A.; Bruschi, S.

    2018-05-01

    The need to increase the safety and decrease the weight of the car body-in-white has determined the success of the direct hot stamping process as a primary technology for the automotive sector. Thanks to this process, parts with high strength-to-weight ratio can be obtained along with high stiffness and increase of the crashworthiness properties. Moreover, the thinner metal sheets used to manufacture the pieces lead to a decrease of the total weight of the car body-in-white, with a consequent reduction of the CO2 emissions. The direct hot stamping process is becoming the key to obtain pieces with high mechanical properties, thanks to the quenching stage that allows the manufacture of complex shapes characterized by a fully martensitic structure, thanks to the forming stage at elevated temperature and subsequent hardening inside the cooled dies. The aim of this paper is the investigation of the influence that the forming temperature may have on the formability of 22MnB5 steel sheets, commonly used in the hot stamping process of automotive components. Nakajima tests were carried out at different temperatures and the Forming Limit Diagrams (FLDs) at rupture were obtained and analysed. The temperature influenced both the major and the minor strain at which the sheet failed, indicating that not only the formability increased at increasing temperature, but there was also a modification of the strain path, which means a modification of the strain states through which the part passes during the deformation process. Moreover, the influence of friction is studied using a model developed in the LS-Dyna FEM environment. The obtained data are of great importance for an accurate calibration of Finite Element (FE) models of the hot stamping of real components in order to get optimal process parameters to obtain defects-free pieces.

  4. Experimental analysis of electro-pneumatic optimization of hot stamping machine control systems with on-delay timer

    OpenAIRE

    Bankole I. Oladapo; Vincent A. Balogun; Adeyinka O.M. Adeoye; Ige E. Olubunmi; Samuel O. Afolabi

    2017-01-01

    The sustainability criterion in the manufacturing industries is imperative, especially in the automobile industries. Currently, efforts are being made by the industries to mitigate CO2 emission by the total vehicle weight optimization, machine utilization and resource efficiency. In lieu of this, it is important to understudy the manufacturing machines adopted in the automobile industries. One of such machine is the hot stamping machine that is used for about 35% of the manufacturing operatio...

  5. Capillary-Force-Assisted Clean-Stamp Transfer of Two-Dimensional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xuezhi; Liu, Qiushi; Xu, Da; Zhu, Yangzhi; Kim, Sanggon; Cui, Yongtao; Zhong, Lanlan; Liu, Ming

    2017-11-08

    A simple and clean method of transferring two-dimensional (2D) materials plays a critical role in the fabrication of 2D electronics, particularly the heterostructure devices based on the artificial vertical stacking of various 2D crystals. Currently, clean transfer techniques rely on sacrificial layers or bulky crystal flakes (e.g., hexagonal boron nitride) to pick up the 2D materials. Here, we develop a capillary-force-assisted clean-stamp technique that uses a thin layer of evaporative liquid (e.g., water) as an instant glue to increase the adhesion energy between 2D crystals and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) for the pick-up step. After the liquid evaporates, the adhesion energy decreases, and the 2D crystal can be released. The thin liquid layer is condensed to the PDMS surface from its vapor phase, which ensures the low contamination level on the 2D materials and largely remains their chemical and electrical properties. Using this method, we prepared graphene-based transistors with low charge-neutral concentration (3 × 10 10 cm -2 ) and high carrier mobility (up to 48 820 cm 2 V -1 s -1 at room temperature) and heterostructure optoelectronics with high operation speed. Finally, a capillary-force model is developed to explain the experiment.

  6. Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of High-Strength Steel Controlled by Hot Stamping Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Hang; Zhang, Xu; Xu, Junrui; Li, Guangyao; Cui, Junjia

    2018-03-01

    A novel design and manufacturing method, dubbed "precast," of the cooling system and tools for a hot forming process was proposed in this paper. The integrated structures of the punch and blank holder were determined by analyzing the bending and reverse-bending deformation of the forming parts. The desired crashworthiness performance of an automotive front bumper constructed with this process was obtained by a tailored phase transformation, which generated martensite-bainite in the middle and full martensite transformation in the corner areas. Varying cooling effects in the formed parts caused the highest temperature to be located in the bottom and the lowest on the end of the formed parts. Moreover, the microstructural distributions demonstrated that the bottom possessed a relatively lower content of martensite, while, conversely, the end possessed a higher content. This was precisely the most desired phase distributions for the hot formed parts. For the six-process cycle stamping, the temperatures reached a stable status after an initial rapid increase in the first three process cycles. The microstructural results verified the feasibility of the hot forming tools under multiprocess cycles.

  7. The Effect of Process and Model Parameters in Temperature Prediction for Hot Stamping of Boron Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoyang Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite element models of the hot stamping and cold die quenching process for boron steel sheet were developed using either rigid or elastic tools. The effect of tool elasticity and process parameters on workpiece temperature was investigated. Heat transfer coefficient between blank and tools was modelled as a function of gap and contact pressure. Temperature distribution and thermal history in the blank were predicted, and thickness distribution of the blank was obtained. Tests were carried out and the test results are used for the validation of numerical predictions. The effect of holding load and the size of cooling ducts on temperature distribution during the forming and the cool die quenching process was also studied by using two models. The results show that higher accuracy predictions of blank thickness and temperature distribution during deformation were obtained using the elastic tool model. However, temperature results obtained using the rigid tool model were close to those using the elastic tool model for a range of holding load.

  8. Identification of a process window for tailored carburization of sheet metals in hot stamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Alexander; Merklein, Marion

    2018-05-01

    Due to governmental regulations concerning the reduction of CO2 emissions and increasing safety standards, hot stamping of high strength boron manganese steel sheets has evolved into a state of the art process for manufacturing structural car body parts. The combined forming and in-die quenching process enables the formation of a fully martensitic microstructure. Therefore, press hardened steels offer high strength, but low ductility. In order to further improve passenger safety, a tailored configuration of mechanical properties is desired. Besides state of the art methods, like the application of locally different heat treatment temperatures or varying quenching rates, the adjustment of mechanical properties of sheet metals by a tailored carburization is a novel approach. For the carburization process, the specimens are first coated with graphite and subsequently heat treated. Within this contribution, different coating strategies as well as heat treatment temperatures and dwell times are investigated. For the determination of a process window, mechanical properties such as tensile strength and microhardness will be analyzed and correlated with the resulting microstructure.

  9. A Fully Integrated Humidity Sensor System-on-Chip Fabricated by Micro-Stamping Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ting Lin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A fully integrated humidity sensor chip was designed, implemented, and tested. Utilizing the micro-stamping technology, the pseudo-3D sensor system-on-chip (SSoC architecture can be implemented by stacking sensing materials directly on the top of a CMOS-fabricated chip. The fabricated sensor system-on-chip (2.28 mm × 2.48 mm integrated a humidity sensor, an interface circuit, a digital controller, and an On-Off Keying (OOK wireless transceiver. With low power consumption, i.e., 750 μW without RF operation, the sensitivity of developed sensor chip was experimentally verified in the relative humidity (RH range from 32% to 60%. The response time of the chip was also experimentally verified to be within 5 seconds from RH 36% to RH 64%. As a consequence, the implemented humidity SSoC paves the way toward the an ultra-small sensor system for various applications.

  10. Improving the Quality of Hot Stamping Parts with Innovative Press Technology and Inline Process Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, R.; Palm, C.

    2017-09-01

    The increasing number of hot stamped parts in the automotive industry is challenging different process areas. This paper presents a method how to improve the production rates over the whole life cycle of a hot forming part. In the core element of a hot forming line, the hydraulic press, mainly two processing steps are performed. Forming and quenching of the sheet metal part. In addition to the forming operation, it is inevitable to optimize the quenching condition in the bottom dead centre in order to reach a fully martensitic structure and tight geometrical tolerances of the part. Deviations in the blank thickness, tool wear, polishing of classical tools impair the quenching condition and therefore the part quality over the time. A new press and tool design has been developed to counter this effect by providing homogenous contact pressure over the whole die. Especially with a multi cavity tool, the new method is advantageous. Test series have shown that the new tool and press concept can produce parts with a blank thickness of 1.0 mm within 8.0 s cycle time. The so called PCH flex principle makes it possible to produce such high output rates under reliable conditions.

  11. Mechanical behavior and modelisation of Ti-6Al-4V titanium sheet under hot stamping conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirvin, Q.; Velay, V.; Bonnaire, R.; Penazzi, L.

    2017-10-01

    The Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy is widely used for the manufacture of aeronautical and automotive parts (solid parts). In aeronautics, this alloy is employed for its excellent mechanical behavior associated with low density, outstanding corrosion resistance and good mechanical properties up to 600°C. It is especially used for the manufacture of fuselage frames, on the pylon for carrying out the primary structure (machining forged blocks) and the secondary structure in sheet form. In this last case, the sheet metal forming can be done through various methods: at room temperature by drawing operation, at very high temperature (≃900°C) by superplastic forming (SPF) and at intermediate temperature (≥750°C) by hot forming (HF). In order to reduce production costs and environmental troubles, the cycle times reduction associated with a decrease of temperature levels are relevant. This study focuses on the behavior modelling of Ti-6Al-4V alloy at temperatures above room temperature to obtained greater formability and below SPF condition to reduce tools workshop and energy costs. The displacement field measurement obtained by Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is based on innovative surface preparation pattern adapted to high temperature exposures. Different material parameters are identified to define a model able to predict the mechanical behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy under hot stamping conditions. The hardening plastic model identified is introduced in FEM to simulate an omega shape forming operation.

  12. Effects of Pre-Strain on the Aging Behavior of Al 7075 Alloy for Hot-Stamping Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Ho Jung

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the significance of pre-strain on the T6 aging behavior of an Al 7075 alloy for evaluating the applicability of hot stamping. In practice, the alloy was pre-strained up to 15% during solution heat treatment at 480 °C prior to quenching, and artificial aging was conducted at 120 °C. The peak aging time and precipitation behavior were compared with the alloy with pre-straining at room temperature after quenching but immediately before the artificial aging. The results showed that increasing amounts of pre-strain tend to reduce the aging time up to 50% for achieving peak hardness, which is consistent with the alloy at the T6 condition. There is a limitation for the maximum attainable amount of pre-strain of 10% for the homogeneous distribution of strain when the alloy is strained at room temperature (RT due to the low formability. The pre-strained alloy as hot stamping exhibited lowering of the peak reaction temperatures for dissolution and formation of Guinier–Preston (GP-Zones and precipitated with increasing amounts of pre-strain towards 15% through the differential scanning calorimetry analysis, thereby confirming the shortening of the peak aging time. The present study confirms the excellent potential of the hot-stamping process to extend the capability of an Al 7075 alloy.

  13. Investigation of the Phase Formation of AlSi-Coatings for Hot Stamping of Boron Alloyed Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veit, R.; Kolleck, R.; Hofmann, H.; Sikora, S.

    2011-01-01

    Hot stamping of boron alloyed steel is gaining more and more importance for the production of high strength automotive body parts. Within hot stamping of quenchenable steels the blank is heated up to austenitization temperature, transferred to the tool, formed rapidly and quenched in the cooled tool. To avoid scale formation during the heating process of the blank, the sheet metal can be coated with an aluminium-silicum alloy. The meltimg temperature of this coating is below the austenitization temperature of the base material. This means, that a diffusion process between base material and coating has to take place during heating, leading to a higher melting temperature of the coating.In conventional heating devices, like roller hearth furnaces, the diffusion process is reached by relatively low heating rates. New technologies, like induction heating, reach very high heating rates and offer great potentials for the application in hot stamping. Till now it is not proofed, that this technology can be used with aluminum-silicon coated materials. This paper will present the results of comparative heating tests with a conventional furnace and an induction heating device. For different time/temperature-conditions the phase formation within the coating will be described.

  14. Very Low-Cost Nutritious Diet Plans Designed by Linear Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foytik, Jerry

    1981-01-01

    Provides procedural details of Linear Programing, developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture to devise a dietary guide for consumers that minimizes food costs without sacrificing nutritional quality. Compares Linear Programming with the Thrifty Food Plan, which has been a basis for allocating coupons under the Food Stamp Program. (CS)

  15. Helium-hydrogen microplasma device (MPD) on postage-stamp-size plastic-quartz chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weagant, Scott; Karanassios, Vassili

    2009-10-01

    A new design of a miniaturized, atmospheric-pressure, low-power (e.g., battery-operated), self-igniting, planar-geometry microplasma device (MPD) for use with liquid microsamples is described. The inexpensive MPD was a hybrid, three-substrate quartz-plastic-plastic structure and it was formed on chips with area the size of a small postage stamp. The substrates were chosen for rapid prototyping and for speedy device-geometry testing and evaluation. The approximately 700-microm (diameter) and 7-mm (long) He-H(2) (3% H(2)) microplasma was formed by applying high-voltage ac between two needle electrodes. Operating conditions were found to be critical in sustaining stable microplasma on plastic substrates. Spectral interference from the electrode materials was not observed. A small-size, electrothermal vaporization system was used for introduction of microliter volumes of liquids into the MPD. The microplasma was operated from an inexpensive power supply. And, operation from a 14.4-V battery has been demonstrated. Microplasma background emission in the spectral range between 200 and 850 nm obtained using a portable, fiber-optic spectrometer is reported. Analyte emission from microliter volumes of dilute single-element standard solutions of Cd, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, and Zn is documented. Element-dependent precision was between 10-25% (the average was 15%) and detection limits ranged between 1.5 and 350 ng. The system was used for the determination of Na in diluted bottled-water samples.

  16. Probing Protein Multidimensional Conformational Fluctuations by Single-Molecule Multiparameter Photon Stamping Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Conformational motions of proteins are highly dynamic and intrinsically complex. To capture the temporal and spatial complexity of conformational motions and further to understand their roles in protein functions, an attempt is made to probe multidimensional conformational dynamics of proteins besides the typical one-dimensional FRET coordinate or the projected conformational motions on the one-dimensional FRET coordinate. T4 lysozyme hinge-bending motions between two domains along α-helix have been probed by single-molecule FRET. Nevertheless, the domain motions of T4 lysozyme are rather complex involving multiple coupled nuclear coordinates and most likely contain motions besides hinge-bending. It is highly likely that the multiple dimensional protein conformational motions beyond the typical enzymatic hinged-bending motions have profound impact on overall enzymatic functions. In this report, we have developed a single-molecule multiparameter photon stamping spectroscopy integrating fluorescence anisotropy, FRET, and fluorescence lifetime. This spectroscopic approach enables simultaneous observations of both FRET-related site-to-site conformational dynamics and molecular rotational (or orientational) motions of individual Cy3-Cy5 labeled T4 lysozyme molecules. We have further observed wide-distributed rotational flexibility along orientation coordinates by recording fluorescence anisotropy and simultaneously identified multiple intermediate conformational states along FRET coordinate by monitoring time-dependent donor lifetime, presenting a whole picture of multidimensional conformational dynamics in the process of T4 lysozyme open-close hinge-bending enzymatic turnover motions under enzymatic reaction conditions. By analyzing the autocorrelation functions of both lifetime and anisotropy trajectories, we have also observed the dynamic and static inhomogeneity of T4 lysozyme multidimensional conformational fluctuation dynamics, providing a fundamental

  17. 25 CFR 36.40 - Standard XIII-Library/media program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... philosophy. The librarian or educational media specialist, with students and staff, shall set objectives... the following: Tactile objects, globes, models, maps, films, film-strips, microforms, slides, audio...

  18. Effect of Al-Si Coating on Weld Microstructure and Properties of 22MnB5 Steel Joints for Hot Stamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenhu; Li, Fang; Wu, Dongsheng; Chen, Xiaoguan; Hua, Xueming; Pan, Hua

    2018-03-01

    22MnB5 hot stamping steels are gradually being used in tailor-welded blank applications. In this experiment, 1-mm-thick Al-Si coated and de-coated 22MnB5 steels were laser-welded and then hot-stamped. The chemical compositions, solidification process, microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated to reveal the effect of Al-Si coating and heat treatment. In the welded condition, the coated joints had an Al content of approximately 2.5 wt.% in the fusion zone and the de-coated joints had 0.5 wt.% Al. The aluminum promoted the δ-ferrite formation as the skeletal structure during solidification. In the high-aluminum weld, the microstructure consisted of martensite and long and band-like δ-ferrite. Meanwhile, the low-aluminum weld was full of lath martensite. After the hot stamping process, the δ-ferrite fraction increased from 10 to 24% in the coated joints and the lath martensite became finer in the de-coated joints. The tensile strengths of the coated joints or de-coated joints were similar to that before hot stamping, but the strength of the coated joints was reduced heavily after hot stamping compared to the de-coated joints and base material. The effect of δ-ferrite on the tensile properties became stronger when the fusion zone was soft and deformed first in the hot-stamped specimens. The coated weld showed a brittle fracture surface with many cleavage planes, and the de-coated weld showed a ductile fracture surface with many dimples in hot-stamped conditions.

  19. New technique for laryngotracheal mucosa transplantation. 'Stamp' welding using indocyanine green dye and albumin interaction with diode laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Pankratov, M M; Gleich, L L; Rebeiz, E E; Shapshay, S M

    1995-07-01

    To investigate (1) the possibility of survival of free mucosa "stamp" grafts fixed in the airway with a new technique using indocyanine green-dyed albumin solder activated with a diode laser and (2) the degree of improvement of wound healing in the airway by applying modified microskin transplantation techniques from burn surgery to cover a relatively large wound with a few small pieces of mucosa anchored in place with the previously mentioned technique. Three (one control and two experimental) rectangular (10 x 8 mm) wounds in tracheal mucosa were produced in four experimental animals (dogs) using a carbon dioxide laser. The control wound was left uncovered. In the first experimental wound, a mucosal flap was raised and then fixed in place by a trapdoor flap method. In the second experimental wound, two small (each 2 x 3 mm) autogenous mucosa grafts were anchored onto the surface with indocyanine green-dyed albumin activated with an 810-nm diode laser. Histomorphologically, the postoperative results from three wounds were compared. The experimental wounds were completely covered by regenerated squamous cells in 1 week and by ciliated epithelium in 2 weeks after the operation despite the discrepancy in size of the graft to wound area (1:6.7) covered with the stamp mucosa. No thermal damage from the diode laser was noted in the second experimental wounds. In the control wounds, no coverage was observed at 1 week, and only squamous cells were noted 2 weeks postoperatively. All the wounds had normal ciliated epithelium coverage at 4 weeks. Transplanted stamp grafts provided similar or better healing than trapdoor flap transplants. This new technique made endoscopic mucosal grafting possible and offers a potential breakthrough in the management of laryngotracheal stenosis.

  20. Design and implementation of a nanosecond time-stamping readout system-on-chip for photo-detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anvar, Shebli; Château, Frédéric; Le Provost, Hervé; Louis, Frédéric; Manolopoulos, Konstantinos; Moudden, Yassir; Vallage, Bertrand; Zonca, Eric

    2014-01-01

    A readout system suitable for a large number of synchronized photo-detection units has been designed. Each unit embeds a specifically designed fully integrated communicating system based on Xilinx FPGA SoC technology. It runs the VxWorks real-time OS and a custom data acquisition software designed within the Ice middleware framework, resulting in a highly flexible, controllable and scalable distributed application. Clock distribution and delay calibration over customized fixed latency gigabit Ethernet links enable synchronous time-stamping of events with nanosecond precision. The implementation of this readout system on several data-collecting units as well as its performances are described

  1. The reduction of irregularities in the use of “process fmea”: a study for a cold stamping process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Estorilio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA is a requirement for ISO/TS 16949. However, researches show nonconformities in its use by automotive suppliers. The objective of this study is to identify these nonconformities, aiming to suggest methods for minimizing this problem. Therefore, questionnaires were applied in seven automotive suppliers and, for each one, ten FMEA`s were analysed. The research identified nonconformities in the use of FMEA for the stamping process and highlighted seven influencing factors. Based on this data, a strategy is suggested. A partially parameterised FMEA spreadsheet is suggested and tested in three suppliers, showing significant improvements.

  2. SU-D-9A-03: STAMP: Simulator for Texture Analysis in MRI/PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laberge, S; Vallieres, M; Levesque, I R.; El Naqa, I [McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a convenient simulation platform to facilitate PET/MR image analysis with the prospect of gaining a better understanding of the influence of acquisition parameters on PET/MRI textural features. The simulation platform is demonstrated by showing textural variations of a representative case study using different image acquisition parameters. Methods: The simulation platform is composed of MRI simulators JEMRIS and SIMRI to achieve simulations of customized MRI sequences on sample tumor models. The PET simulator GATE is used to get 2D and 3D Monte Carlo acquisitions of voxelized PET sources using a phantom geometry and a customized scanner architecture. The platform incorporates a series of graphical user interfaces written in Matlab. Two GUIs are used to facilitate communication with the simulation executables installed on a computer cluster. A third GUI is used to collect and display the clinical and simulated images, as well as fused PET/MRI images, and perform computation of textural features.To illustrate the capabilities of this platform, one FDG-PET and T1-weighted (T1w) digitized tumor models were generated from clinical images of a soft-tissue sarcoma patient. Numerically simulated MR images were produced using 3 different echo times (TE) and 5 different repetition times (TR). PET 2D images were simulated using an OSEM algorithm with 1 to 32 iterations and a post-reconstruction Gaussian filter of 0, 2, 4 or 6 mm width. Results: STAMP was successfully used to produce numerically simulated FDG-PET and MRI images, and to calculate their corresponding textures. Three typical textures (GLCM-Contrast, GLSZM-ZSV and NGTDM-Coarseness) were found to vary by a range of 45% on average compared to reference scanning conditions in the case of FDG-PET, and by a range of 40% in the case of T1w MRI. Conclusion: We have successfully developed a Matlab-based simulation platform to facilitate PET/MRI texture image analysis for outcome prediction.

  3. Disruption of Ttll5/stamp gene (tubulin tyrosine ligase-like protein 5/SRC-1 and TIF2-associated modulatory protein gene) in male mice causes sperm malformation and infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geun-Shik; He, Yuanzheng; Dougherty, Edward J; Jimenez-Movilla, Maria; Avella, Matteo; Grullon, Sean; Sharlin, David S; Guo, Chunhua; Blackford, John A; Awasthi, Smita; Zhang, Zhenhuan; Armstrong, Stephen P; London, Edra C; Chen, Weiping; Dean, Jurrien; Simons, S Stoney

    2013-05-24

    TTLL5/STAMP (tubulin tyrosine ligase-like family member 5) has multiple activities in cells. TTLL5 is one of 13 TTLLs, has polyglutamylation activity, augments the activity of p160 coactivators (SRC-1 and TIF2) in glucocorticoid receptor-regulated gene induction and repression, and displays steroid-independent growth activity with several cell types. To examine TTLL5/STAMP functions in whole animals, mice were prepared with an internal deletion that eliminated several activities of the Stamp gene. This mutation causes both reduced levels of STAMP mRNA and C-terminal truncation of STAMP protein. Homozygous targeted mutant (Stamp(tm/tm)) mice appear normal except for marked decreases in male fertility associated with defects in progressive sperm motility. Abnormal axonemal structures with loss of tubulin doublets occur in most Stamp(tm/tm) sperm tails in conjunction with substantial reduction in α-tubulin polyglutamylation, which closely correlates with the reduction in mutant STAMP mRNA. The axonemes in other structures appear unaffected. There is no obvious change in the organs for sperm development of WT versus Stamp(tm/tm) males despite the levels of WT STAMP mRNA in testes being 20-fold higher than in any other organ examined. This defect in male fertility is unrelated to other Ttll genes or 24 genes previously identified as important for sperm function. Thus, STAMP appears to participate in a unique, tissue-selective TTLL-mediated pathway for α-tubulin polyglutamylation that is required for sperm maturation and motility and may be relevant for male fertility.

  4. Event for the launch of the Georges Charpak postage stamp | 26-27 February | Prévessin site

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    At the end of February, the French post office is releasing a new €0.70 stamp featuring an image of Georges Charpak. CERN is taking part in this event by hosting a temporary post office on the Prévessin site, which will sell the stamp with a special “first day” postmark before it goes on general sale.     Georges Charpak arrived at CERN in 1959 and, in the late 1960s, revolutionised particle detection technology by developing the multiwire proportional chamber. This technique brought particle detectors into the electronic era, setting physicists free from the laborious task of studying photographs one by one. In 1992, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his invention. Charpak chambers are still used today in the LHC detectors and have paved the way for the technology in numerous other modern detectors. In the 1990s, Charpak was involved in developing medical applications based on particle detection technology. He was als...

  5. Assembly of live micro-organisms on microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for AFM bio-experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dague, E; Jauvert, E; Laplatine, L; Thibault, C; Viallet, B; Ressier, L

    2011-01-01

    Immobilization of live micro-organisms on solid substrates is an important prerequisite for atomic force microscopy (AFM) bio-experiments. The method employed must immobilize the cells firmly enough to enable them to withstand the lateral friction forces exerted by the tip during scanning but without denaturing the cell interface. In this work, a generic method for the assembly of living cells on specific areas of substrates is proposed. It consists in assembling the living cells within the patterns of microstructured, functionalized poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps using convective/capillary deposition. This versatile approach is validated by applying it to two systems of foremost importance in biotechnology and medicine: Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and Aspergillus fumigatus fungal spores. We show that this method allows multiplexing AFM nanomechanical measurements by force spectroscopy on S. cerevisiae yeasts and high-resolution AFM imaging of germinated Aspergillus conidia in buffer medium. These two examples clearly demonstrate the immense potential of micro-organism assembly on functionalized, microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for performing rigorous AFM bio-experiments on living cells.

  6. Fabrication of a Ni nano-imprint stamp for an anti-reflective layer using an anodic aluminum oxide template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Mi; Lim, Seung-Kyu; Ra, Senug-Hyun; Suh, Su-Jung

    2013-11-01

    Aluminum anodizing can alter pore diameter, density distribution, periodicity and layer thickness in a controlled way. Because of this property, porous type anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as a template for nano-structure fabrication. The alumina layer generated at a constant voltage increased the pore size from 120 nm to 205 nm according to an increasing process time from 60 min to 150 min. The resulting fabricated AAO templates had pore diameters at or less than 200 nm. Ni was sputtered as a conductive layer onto this AAO template and electroplated using DC and pulse power. Comparing these Ni stamps, those generated from electroplating using on/reverse/off pulsing had an ordered pillar array and maintained the AAO template morphology. This stamp was used for nano-imprinting on UV curable resin coated glass wafer. Surface observations via electron microscopy showed that the nano-imprinted patterned had the same shape as the AAO template. A soft mold was subsequently fabricated and nano-imprinted to form a moth-eye structure on the glass wafer. An analysis of the substrate transmittance using UV-VIS/NIR spectroscopy showed that the transmittance of the substrate with the moth-eye structure was 5% greater that the non-patterned substrate.

  7. Experimental study on the warm forming and quenching behavior for hot stamping of high-strength aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degner, J.; Horn, A.; Merklein, M.

    2017-09-01

    Within the last decades, stringent regulations on fuel consumption, CO2 emissions and product recyclability forced the automotive sector to implement new strategies within the field of car body manufacturing. Due to their low density and good corrosion resistance, aluminum became one of the most relevant lightweight materials. Recently, especially high- strength aluminum alloys for structural components gained importance. Since the low formability of these alloys limits their application, there is a need for novel process strategies in order to enhance the forming behavior. One promising approach is the hot stamping of aluminum alloys. The combination of quenching and forming in one step after solution heat treatment leads to a significant improvement of the formability. Furthermore, higher manufacturing accuracy can be achieved due to reduced spring back. Within this contribution, the influence of forming temperature on the subsequent material behavior and the heat transfer during quenching will be analyzed. Therefore, the mechanical and thermal material characteristics such as flow behavior and heat transfer coefficient during hot stamping are investigated.

  8. Investigation into the Fiber Orientation Effect on the Formability of GLARE Materials in the Stamp Forming Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shichen; Lang, Lihui; Sherkatghanad, Ehsan; Wang, Yao; Xu, Wencai

    2018-04-01

    Glass-reinforced aluminum laminate (GLARE) is a new class of fiber metal laminates (FMLs) which has the advantages such as high tensile strength, outstanding fatigue, impact resistance, and excellent corrosion properties. GLARE has been extensively applied in advanced aerospace and automobile industries. However, the deformation behavior of the glass fiber during forming must be studied to the benefits of the good-quality part we form. In this research, we focus on the effect of fiber layer orientation on the GLARE laminate formability in stamp forming process. Experimental and numerical analysis of stamping a hemisphere part in different fiber orientation is investigated. The results indicate that unidirectional and multi-directional fiber in the middle layer make a significant effect on the thinning and also surface forming quality of the three layer sheet. Furthermore, the stress-strain distribution of the aluminum alloy and the unique anisotropic property of the fiber layer exhibit that fiber layer orientation can also affect the forming depths as well as the fracture modes of the laminate. According to the obtained results, it is revealed that multi-directional fiber layers are a good alternative compared to the unidirectional fibers especially when a better formability is the purpose.

  9. 77 FR 4688 - National School Lunch Program: Direct Certification Continuous Improvement Plans Required by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... local educational agencies (LEAs) that participate in the NSLP and/or School Breakfast Program to... performance benchmarks for directly certifying for free school meals those children who are members of... requirements, School breakfast and lunch programs. 7 CFR Part 272 Alaska, Civil rights, Claims, Food stamps...

  10. Use of the Performance Diagnostic Checklist to Select an Intervention Designed to Increase the Offering of Promotional Stamps at Two Sites of a Restaurant Franchise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Manuel; Wilder, David A.; Therrien, Kelly; Wine, Byron; Miranti, Reylissa; Daratany, Kenneth; Salume, Gloria; Baranovsky, Greg; Rodriquez, Matias

    2006-01-01

    The performance diagnostic checklist (PDC) was administered to examine the variables influencing the offering of promotional stamps by employees at two sites of a restaurant franchise. PDC results suggested that a lack of appropriate antecedents, equipment and processes, and consequences were responsible for the deficits. Based on these results,…

  11. The comparison of two continuum damage mechanics-based material models for formability prediction of AA6082 under hot stamping conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Z.; Li, N.; Lin, J.

    2017-09-01

    The hot stamping and cold die quenching process has experienced tremendous development in order to obtain shapes of structural components with great complexity in automotive applications. Prediction of the formability of a metal sheet is significant for practical applications of forming components in the automotive industry. Since microstructural evolution in an alloy at elevated temperature has a large effect on formability, continuum damage mechanics (CDM)-based material models can be used to characterise the behaviour of metals when a forming process is conducted at elevated temperatures. In this paper, two sets of unified multi-axial constitutive equations based on material’s stress states and strain states, respectively, were calibrated and used to effectively predict the thermo-mechanical response and forming limits of alloys under complex hot stamping conditions. In order to determine and calibrate the two material models, formability tests of AA6082 using a developed novel biaxial testing system were conducted at various temperatures and strain rates under hot stamping conditions. The determined unified constitutive equations from experimental data are presented in this paper. It is found that both of the stress-state based and strain-state based material models can predict the formability of AA6082 under hot stamping conditions.

  12. Experimental verification of tailor welded joining partners for hot stamping and analytical modeling of TWBs rheological constitutive in austenitic state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Bingtao, E-mail: tbtsh@hotmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong Jianzhu University, Shandong, Jinan 250101 (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body, Hunan University, Hunan, Changsha 410082 (China); Yuan, Zhengjun; Cheng, Gang [School of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan 250101 (China); Huang, Lili; Zheng, Wei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong Jianzhu University, Shandong, Jinan 250101 (China); Xie, Hui [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body, Hunan University, Hunan, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Hot stamping of quenchable ultra high strength steels currently represents a standard forming technology in the automotive industry for the manufacture of safety and crash relevant components. Recently, hot stamping of Tailor-Welded Blanks (TWBs) is proposed to meet the environmental and safety requirements by supplying car structural body components with functionally optimized and tailored mechanical properties. In this paper, an appropriate partner material for the quenchenable boron steel B1500HS based on the phase transformation and deformation behavior under process relevant conditions is determined. It is generally accepted that the mechanical properties for joint partner after quenching process should meet the following requirements. The value of yield strength (YS) should be between 350 and 500 MPa. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) should be within the limits of 500–650 MPa, and the total elongation (TEL) until rupture should be higher than 13%. Two kinds of High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA) cold rolled steels B340LA and B410LA are chosen for verification of which one is appropriate as joint partner. Microhardness is measured and metallographic is investigated on different base materials and corresponding weld seams. It is pointed out that the B340LA steel is an appropriate joint partner with ideal thermal and mechanical properties. An optimized Arrhenius constitutive law is implemented to improve the characterization and description of the mechanical properties of the base and joint partner, as well as the weld seam in austenitic state. The comparisons with simplified Hensel–Spittel constitutive model show the optimized Arrhenius constitutive law describes the experimental data fairly well.

  13. Experimental verification of tailor welded joining partners for hot stamping and analytical modeling of TWBs rheological constitutive in austenitic state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Bingtao; Yuan, Zhengjun; Cheng, Gang; Huang, Lili; Zheng, Wei; Xie, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Hot stamping of quenchable ultra high strength steels currently represents a standard forming technology in the automotive industry for the manufacture of safety and crash relevant components. Recently, hot stamping of Tailor-Welded Blanks (TWBs) is proposed to meet the environmental and safety requirements by supplying car structural body components with functionally optimized and tailored mechanical properties. In this paper, an appropriate partner material for the quenchenable boron steel B1500HS based on the phase transformation and deformation behavior under process relevant conditions is determined. It is generally accepted that the mechanical properties for joint partner after quenching process should meet the following requirements. The value of yield strength (YS) should be between 350 and 500 MPa. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) should be within the limits of 500–650 MPa, and the total elongation (TEL) until rupture should be higher than 13%. Two kinds of High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA) cold rolled steels B340LA and B410LA are chosen for verification of which one is appropriate as joint partner. Microhardness is measured and metallographic is investigated on different base materials and corresponding weld seams. It is pointed out that the B340LA steel is an appropriate joint partner with ideal thermal and mechanical properties. An optimized Arrhenius constitutive law is implemented to improve the characterization and description of the mechanical properties of the base and joint partner, as well as the weld seam in austenitic state. The comparisons with simplified Hensel–Spittel constitutive model show the optimized Arrhenius constitutive law describes the experimental data fairly well

  14. Programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, this model is elaborated to produce the required program outputs; third, the resulting program is transformed to run efficiently in the execution environment. The first two stages deal in network structures of sequential processes; only the third is concerned with procedure hierarchies. (orig.)

  15. Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, M A

    1982-01-01

    The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, thi...

  16. Development and Testing of a Nutrition, Food Safety, and Physical Activity Checklist for EFNEP and FSNE Adult Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Traliece; Serrano, Elena L.; Cox, Ruby H.; Lambur, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To develop and assess reliability and validity of the Nutrition, Food Safety, and Physical Activity Checklist to measure nutrition, food safety, and physical activity practices among adult Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) and Food Stamp Nutrition Education program (FSNE) participants. Methods: Test-retest…

  17. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) Spectroscopy as a Forensic Method to Determine the Composition of Inks Used to Print the United States One-cent Blue Benjamin Franklin Postage Stamps of the 19th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Harry G

    2016-01-01

    Through the combined use of infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) sampling, the composition of inks used to print the many different types of one-cent Benjamin Franklin stamps of the 19th century has been established. This information permits a historical evaluation of the formulations used at various times, and also facilitates the differentiation of the various stamps from each other. In two instances, the ink composition permits the unambiguous identification of stamps whose appearance is identical, and which (until now) have only been differentiated through estimates of the degree of hardness or softness of the stamp paper, or through the presence or absence of a watermark in the paper. In these instances, the use of ATR Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectroscopy effectively renders irrelevant two 100-year-old practices of stamp identification. Furthermore, since the use of ATR sampling makes it possible to obtain the spectrum of a stamp still attached to its cover, it is no longer necessary to identify these blue Franklin stamps using their cancellation dates. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. 77 FR 4564 - Request for Information Regarding the Reinsurance Program Under the Affordable Care Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ...? 12. What COIs could arise for such potential subcontractors? Data Collection 13. Describe current... comments in the CMS drop slots located in the main lobby of the building. A stamp- in clock is available... reinsurance program. Section 1321(c)(1) of the Affordable Care Act directs the Secretary to take such actions...

  19. 77 FR 17070 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Application From Det Norske Veritas Healthcare (DNVHC) for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... for persons wishing to retain a proof of filing by stamping in and retaining an extra copy of the... accrediting body's approved program would be deemed to have met the Medicare conditions. A national... the national accrediting body making the request, describing the nature of the request, and providing...

  20. 78 FR 78788 - Nondiscrimination in Programs or Activities Conducted by the United States Department of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... programs to include religion, sex, age, marital status, familial status, sexual orientation, disability... inclusion of political beliefs will prohibit discrimination consistent with the Food Stamp Act of 1964... political affiliation), and the Secretary of Agriculture's civil rights policy statements. The inclusion of...

  1. Optimum stamping die structure based on analytical method of die deformation during draw process; Seikei katei no kanagata henkei kaiseki ni motozuku, press kanagata kozo no saitekika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahara, T; Tamai, H [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    We measured an actual deformation and pressure distribution in draw process of bending cam, and analyzed deformation process of die structure, in order to eliminate adjusting work considering die deformation by stamping force. We studied die structure improvement with simulation based on analytical method. This report describes a sample of die structure improvement based on a simulation and actual measurement. 1 ref., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Using the fibre structure of paper to determine authenticity of the documents: analysis of transmitted light images of stamps and banknotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takalo, Jouni; Timonen, Jussi; Sampo, Jouni; Rantala, Maaria; Siltanen, Samuli; Lassas, Matti

    2014-11-01

    A novel method is presented for distinguishing postal stamp forgeries and counterfeit banknotes from genuine samples. The method is based on analyzing differences in paper fibre networks. The main tool is a curvelet-based algorithm for measuring overall fibre orientation distribution and quantifying anisotropy. Using a couple of more appropriate parameters makes it possible to distinguish forgeries from genuine originals as concentrated point clouds in two- or three-dimensional parameter space. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Stress analysis of biomass fuel molding machine piston type stamping forming cone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Gaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is established the ram biomass straw machine as the analysis object in this paper,the molding machine cones of stress in the forming process of the analysis of the system. We used pottery instead of Wear-resistant cast iron for improving the performance of forming sleeve. The structure of the forming sleeve was analyzed with the mechanical module of a soft named Pro/engineer in this paper. The result indicated that the program was feasible. With the sensitivity analysis we identified the suitable angle for the sleeve.

  4. Disruption of Ttll5/Stamp Gene (Tubulin Tyrosine Ligase-like Protein 5/SRC-1 and TIF2-associated Modulatory Protein Gene) in Male Mice Causes Sperm Malformation and Infertility*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geun-Shik; He, Yuanzheng; Dougherty, Edward J.; Jimenez-Movilla, Maria; Avella, Matteo; Grullon, Sean; Sharlin, David S.; Guo, Chunhua; Blackford, John A.; Awasthi, Smita; Zhang, Zhenhuan; Armstrong, Stephen P.; London, Edra C.; Chen, Weiping; Dean, Jurrien; Simons, S. Stoney

    2013-01-01

    TTLL5/STAMP (tubulin tyrosine ligase-like family member 5) has multiple activities in cells. TTLL5 is one of 13 TTLLs, has polyglutamylation activity, augments the activity of p160 coactivators (SRC-1 and TIF2) in glucocorticoid receptor-regulated gene induction and repression, and displays steroid-independent growth activity with several cell types. To examine TTLL5/STAMP functions in whole animals, mice were prepared with an internal deletion that eliminated several activities of the Stamp gene. This mutation causes both reduced levels of STAMP mRNA and C-terminal truncation of STAMP protein. Homozygous targeted mutant (Stamptm/tm) mice appear normal except for marked decreases in male fertility associated with defects in progressive sperm motility. Abnormal axonemal structures with loss of tubulin doublets occur in most Stamptm/tm sperm tails in conjunction with substantial reduction in α-tubulin polyglutamylation, which closely correlates with the reduction in mutant STAMP mRNA. The axonemes in other structures appear unaffected. There is no obvious change in the organs for sperm development of WT versus Stamptm/tm males despite the levels of WT STAMP mRNA in testes being 20-fold higher than in any other organ examined. This defect in male fertility is unrelated to other Ttll genes or 24 genes previously identified as important for sperm function. Thus, STAMP appears to participate in a unique, tissue-selective TTLL-mediated pathway for α-tubulin polyglutamylation that is required for sperm maturation and motility and may be relevant for male fertility. PMID:23558686

  5. Estimating Bus Loads and OD Flows Using Location-Stamped Farebox and Wi-Fi Signal Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiong Ji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic fareboxes integrated with Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL systems can provide location-stamped records to infer passenger boarding at individual stops. However, bus loads and Origin-Destination (OD flows, which are useful for route planning, design, and real-time controls, cannot be derived directly from farebox data. Recently, Wi-Fi sensors have been used to collect passenger OD flow information. But the data are insufficient to capture the variation of passenger demand across bus trips. In this study, we propose a hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate trip-level OD flow matrices and a period-level OD flow matrix using sampled OD flow data collected by Wi-Fi sensors and boarding data provided by fareboxes. Bus loads on each bus trip are derived directly from the estimated trip-level OD flow matrices. The proposed method is evaluated empirically on an operational bus route and the results demonstrate that it provides good and detailed transit route-level passenger demand information by combining farebox and Wi-Fi signal data.

  6. Theoretical and experimental study of the rule for heat transfer coefficient in hot stamping of high strength steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Xianhong; Hao, Xin; Yang, Kun; Zhong, Yaoyao

    2013-01-01

    Heat transfer is a crucial aspect for hot stamping process, the fully austenitized boron steel blank with temperature about 900°C is transferred to the tool, then formed rapidly and quenched in the cooled tool. The desired fully martensitic transformation will happen only if the cooling rate exceeds a critical value approximately 27 K/s. During such process, the heat transfer coefficient (abbreviated as HTC) between the tool and blank plays a decisive role for the variation of the blank temperature. In this work, a theoretical formula based on the joint-roughness model is presented to describe the law of HTC, which relies on the roughness, hardness, and other material parameters of the tool and blank. Moreover, a non-contact temperature measuring system based on the infrared thermal camera is built to catch the temperature change course, and then the HTC value is derived through the inverse analysis. Based on the theoretical and experimental results, the change rule of HTC especially its dependence on the process pressure will be discussed in detail

  7. ABC di corpi: alcuni alfabeti figurati del XVI secolo del Gabinetto Disegni e Stampe della Pinacoteca Nazionale di Bologna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Butera

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Fra le diverse tipologie di motivi ornamentali, gli alfabeti figurati costituiscono un vero e proprio genere a se stante, che attinge al repertorio iconografico del proprio tempo e lo riflette in composizioni dotate di grande fascino e originalità. Per la quantità, la qualità e l’eterogeneità degli esemplari custoditi, il Gabinetto Disegni e Stampe della Pinacoteca Nazionale di Bologna costituisce un caso più unico che raro in Italia, vantando alfabeti figurati che abbracciano ampi confini geografici e cronologici, spaziando dal tardo gotico al XIX secolo. Dopo una breve introduzione sulle vicende collezionistiche di un nucleo grafico così insolito e particolare, l’articolo si concentra su alcuni esemplari di alfabeti figurati del Cinquecento di area transalpina. Partendo dall’alfabeto dei bambini di Hans Weiditz (1521, costruito rispettando le più rigorose regole geometriche, codificate nei coevi trattati rinascimentali, ma anche riflesso del rinato gusto per i fregi all’antica con putti, si passa agli alfabeti di Peter Flötner (1534 e di Jost Amman (1567, dove le lettere sono integralmente costituite da corpi umani, forzati in complicate posture, talvolta persino licenziose. Questi esemplari rappresentano degli interessanti esperimenti calligrafici, dove l’uomo diviene concretamente l’unità di misura dei caratteri dell’alfabeto.

  8. ‘Postage-stamp PIV’: small velocity fields at 400 kHz for turbulence spectra measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresh, Steven J.; Henfling, John F.; Spillers, Russell W.; Spitzer, Seth M.

    2018-03-01

    Time-resolved particle image velocimetry recently has been demonstrated in high-speed flows using a pulse-burst laser at repetition rates reaching 50 kHz. Turbulent behavior can be measured at still higher frequencies if the field of view is greatly reduced and lower laser pulse energy is accepted. Current technology allows image acquisition at 400 kHz for sequences exceeding 4000 frames but for an array of only 128  ×  120 pixels, giving the moniker of ‘postage-stamp PIV’. The technique has been tested far downstream of a supersonic jet exhausting into a transonic crossflow. Two-component measurements appear valid until 120 kHz, at which point a noise floor emerges whose magnitude is dependent on the reduction of peak locking. Stereoscopic measurement offers three-component data for turbulent kinetic energy spectra, but exhibits a reduced signal bandwidth and higher noise in the out-of-plane component due to the oblique camera images. The resulting spectra reveal two regions exhibiting power-law dependence describing the turbulent decay. The frequency response of the present measurement configuration exceeds nearly all previous velocimetry measurements in high speed flow.

  9. Development of low-friction and wear-resistant surfaces for low-cost Al hot stamping tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Y.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, advanced surfaces and coatings have been developed using plasma thermochemical treatment, PVD coating, electroless Ni-BN plating and duplex surface engineering to produce low-friction and wear-resistant surfaces for cast iron stamping tools. Their microstructural and nano-mechanical properties were systematically analysed and the tribological behaviour of these new surfaces and coatings were evaluated. The experimental results have shown that under dry sliding condition, the tribological behaviour of aluminium differed great from that of steel regardless of the counterpart material. Highly reactive aluminium had a strong tendency to solder with tool surfaces during dry sliding. However, the lubricity of gray cast irons can be significantly improved by Ni-BN and DLC coatings. The coefficient of friction reduced from about 0.5 for untreated cast irons to about 0.2 sliding against aluminium. Duplex treatment combining plasma nitrocarburising with low-friction coatings showed superior durability than both DLC and Ni-BN coatings.

  10. Vertically integrated deep N-well CMOS MAPS with sparsification and time stamping capabilities for thin charged particle trackers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratti, L.; Gaioni, L.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.

    2010-01-01

    A fine pitch, deep N-well CMOS monolithic active pixel sensor (DNW CMOS MAPS) with sparsified readout architecture and time stamping capabilities has been designed in a vertical integration (3D) technology. In this process, two 130 nm CMOS wafers are face-to-face bonded by means of thermo-compression techniques ensuring both the mechanical stability of the structure and the electrical interconnection between circuits belonging to different layers. This 3D design represents the evolution of a DNW monolithic sensor already fabricated in a planar 130 nm CMOS technology in view of applications to the vertex detector of the International Linear Collider (ILC). The paper is devoted to discussing the main design features and expected performance of the 3D DNW MAPS. Besides describing the front-end circuits and the general architecture of the detector, the work also provides some results from calculations and Monte Carlo device simulations comparing the old 2D solution with the new 3D one and illustrating the attainable detection efficiency improvements.

  11. Effect Analysis of Geometric Parameters on Stainless Steel Stamping Multistage Pump by Experimental Test and Numerical Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the efficiency of stainless steel stamping multistage pump, quadratic regression orthogonal test, hydraulic design, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD are used to analyze the effect of pump geometric parameters. Sixteen impellers are designed based on the quadratic regression orthogonal test, which have three factors including impeller outlet slope, impeller blade outlet stagger angle, and impeller blade outlet width. Through quadratic regression equation, the function relationship between efficiency values and three factors is established. The optimal combination of geometric parameters is found through the analysis of the regression equation. To further study the influence of blade thickness on the performance of multistage pump, numerical simulations of multistage pump with different blade thicknesses are carried out. The influence law of blade thickness on pump performance is built from the external characteristics and internal flow field. In conclusion, with the increase of blade thickness, the best efficiency point of the pump shifts to the small flow rate direction, and the vortex regions inside the pump at rated flow gradually increase, which is the main reason that pump efficiency decreases along with the increase of the blade thickness at rated flow.

  12. Vertically integrated deep N-well CMOS MAPS with sparsification and time stamping capabilities for thin charged particle trackers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratti, L., E-mail: lodovico.ratti@unipv.i [Universita di Pavia, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Via Ferrata 1, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Gaioni, L. [Universita di Pavia, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Via Ferrata 1, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G. [Universita di Bergamo, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Via Marconi 5, I-24044 Dalmine (Bulgaria) (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2010-12-11

    A fine pitch, deep N-well CMOS monolithic active pixel sensor (DNW CMOS MAPS) with sparsified readout architecture and time stamping capabilities has been designed in a vertical integration (3D) technology. In this process, two 130 nm CMOS wafers are face-to-face bonded by means of thermo-compression techniques ensuring both the mechanical stability of the structure and the electrical interconnection between circuits belonging to different layers. This 3D design represents the evolution of a DNW monolithic sensor already fabricated in a planar 130 nm CMOS technology in view of applications to the vertex detector of the International Linear Collider (ILC). The paper is devoted to discussing the main design features and expected performance of the 3D DNW MAPS. Besides describing the front-end circuits and the general architecture of the detector, the work also provides some results from calculations and Monte Carlo device simulations comparing the old 2D solution with the new 3D one and illustrating the attainable detection efficiency improvements.

  13. Auto-représentations de l’Irlande à travers les timbres et la monnaie Self-representations of Ireland through Stamps and Coinage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Dilys-Slaby

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The representation of Ireland on stamps and coinage is the locus of the formulation by the government of national identity—a crucial stage in the development of a newly independent state. Charles Sanders Peirce’s semiotic trilogy—symbol, icon and index—enables one to better understand the intentions and the evolution informing the State’s self-representation. The stakes vary from one medium to another. Coins and notes are images of Ireland which circulate inside the country only and last longer, the government intervening only occasionally to change those images. It can be noted that these media, which are more apolitical and atemporal, retain a symbolic function longer. As for stamps, they are meant to represent Ireland inside the country as well as abroad. They are then particularly entitled to representing the events or characters which Ireland includes in the development of its identity as a young State. Thus, stamps display a general evolution from being symbols to being indexes as the government acknowledges as foundations of its identity no longer merely nationalism and religion, but also scientific development, sports and art. On the level of the form, this evolution is backed by a movement towards simplification and universal legibility.

  14. Constitutive relationships of hot stamping boron steel B1500HS based on the modified Arrhenius and Johnson–Cook model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huiping; He, Lianfang; Zhao, Guoqun; Zhang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Constitutive relationship of boron steel is one of the most necessary mathematical models in the numerical simulation of hot stamping; it describes the relationship of the flow stress with strain, strain rate and temperature. In order to attain the constitutive relationship of boron steel B1500HS, four types of samples with microstructure of austenite, ferrite+pearlite, bainite or martensite are prepared by the Gleeble 1500D thermo-mechanical simulator. Isothermal uniaxial tension testings for these specimens are performed at 20–900 °C at the strain rates of 0.01 s –1 , 0.1 s –1 , 1.0 s –1 and 10 s –1 by Gleeble 1500D, and the true stress–strain curves at the relative conditions are gained. The experimental results show that, the flow stress of samples with relative microstructure rises with the decrease of the deformation temperature, and with the increase of the strain rate. The modified Arrhenius model is used to describe the hot deformation of samples with austenite microstructure, and the modified Johnson–Cook model is used to describe the deformation process of samples with ferrite+pearlite, bainite or martensite microstructure. The constitutive equations depending on the strain, strain rate and temperature are attained by the regression analysis for the experimental data of flow stress, strain, strain rate, temperature, etc. The comparison of the computational data and the experimental results shows that, the computational data using the constitutive relationships are well consistent with the experimental data

  15. StaMPS Improvement for Deformation Analysis in Mountainous Regions: Implications for the Damavand Volcano and Mosha Fault in Alborz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Vajedian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR capability to detect slow deformation over terrain areas is limited by temporal decorrelation, geometric decorrelation and atmospheric artefacts. Multitemporal InSAR methods such as Persistent Scatterer (PS-InSAR and Small Baseline Subset (SBAS have been developed to deal with various aspects of decorrelation and atmospheric problems affecting InSAR observations. Nevertheless, the applicability of both PS-InSAR and SBAS in mountainous regions is still challenging. Correct phase unwrapping in both methods is hampered due to geometric decorrelation in particular when using C-band SAR data for deformation analysis. In this paper, we build upon the SBAS method implemented in StaMPS software and improved the technique, here called ISBAS, to assess tectonic and volcanic deformation in the center of the Alborz Mountains in Iran using both Envisat and ALOS SAR data. We modify several aspects within the chain of the processing including: filtering prior to phase unwrapping, topographic correction within three-dimensional phase unwrapping, reducing the atmospheric noise with the help of additional GPS data, and removing the ramp caused by ionosphere turbulence and/or orbit errors to better estimate crustal deformation in this tectonically active region. Topographic correction is done within the three-dimensional unwrapping in order to improve the phase unwrapping process, which is in contrast to previous methods in which DEM error is estimated before/after phase unwrapping. Our experiments show that our improved SBAS approach is able to better characterize the tectonic and volcanic deformation in the center of the Alborz region than the classical SBAS. In particular, Damavand volcano shows an average uplift rate of about 3 mm/year in the year 2003–2010. The Mosha fault illustrates left-lateral motion that could be explained with a fault that is locked up to 17–18 km depths and slips with 2–4 mm

  16. Optimization of the blankholder force distribution with application to the stamping of a car front door panel (Numisheet'99)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayed, L. Ben; Delameziere, A.; Batoz, J.L.; Knopf-Lenoir, C.

    2005-01-01

    New materials such as dual phase steel or aluminium and complex geometries of industrial parts increase the difficulties to obtain a defect free part by stamping. One way of solution is a better regulation of the blankholder pressures. Our work is based on an original idea of Siegert, Haeussermann and Haller. The goal is to control the movement of the blank under the blankholder. Thanks to a deformable flexible blankholder, it is possible to create some independent zones. In each zone, a blankholder force can be applied on the sheet, so that a strong force can hold the blank in a zone, and a smaller one can let it move in another zone. The methodology is presented as well as some results dealing with the optimization of the blankholder force considering the drawing of a front door panel (Numisheet'99 benchmark test). The numerical simulations are performed using ABAQUS Explicit. The parameters of the finite element model (mesh density, speed of punch) are set to achieve a good prediction with a minimum simulation time. The objective function is defined to minimize the work of the punch. Three inequality constraints functions were defined to avoid necking and wrinkling. To avoid necking, the major stress of the blank is limited to a value, which is determined by using the modified maximum force criterion (MMFC). To avoid wrinkling, under the blankholder, the angle between the blankholder surface and an element of the blank is limited to a value set by the user, as proposed by Gelin and Labergere. However, in the useful part of the workpiece, the major stress is limited to a value, which was proposed by Brunet, Batoz and Bouabdallah. For the localization of the optimum, we use a response surface method computed with a diffuse approximation and coupled with an adaptative strategy to update the research space

  17. Optimization of the blankholder force distribution with application to the stamping of a car front door panel (Numisheet'99)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayed, L. Ben; Delamézière, A.; Batoz, J. L.; Knopf-Lenoir, C.

    2005-08-01

    New materials such as dual phase steel or aluminium and complex geometries of industrial parts increase the difficulties to obtain a defect free part by stamping. One way of solution is a better regulation of the blankholder pressures. Our work is based on an original idea of Siegert, Häussermann and Haller. The goal is to control the movement of the blank under the blankholder. Thanks to a deformable flexible blankholder, it is possible to create some independent zones. In each zone, a blankholder force can be applied on the sheet, so that a strong force can hold the blank in a zone, and a smaller one can let it move in another zone. The methodology is presented as well as some results dealing with the optimization of the blankholder force considering the drawing of a front door panel (Numisheet'99 benchmark test). The numerical simulations are performed using ABAQUS Explicit. The parameters of the finite element model (mesh density, speed of punch) are set to achieve a good prediction with a minimum simulation time. The objective function is defined to minimize the work of the punch. Three inequality constraints functions were defined to avoid necking and wrinkling. To avoid necking, the major stress of the blank is limited to a value, which is determined by using the modified maximum force criterion (MMFC). To avoid wrinkling, under the blankholder, the angle between the blankholder surface and an element of the blank is limited to a value set by the user, as proposed by Gelin and Labergere. However, in the useful part of the workpiece, the major stress is limited to a value, which was proposed by Brunet, Batoz and Bouabdallah. For the localization of the optimum, we use a response surface method computed with a diffuse approximation and coupled with an adaptative strategy to update the research space.

  18. A general dead-time correction method based on live-time stamping. Application to the measurement of short-lived radionuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvenet, B; Bobin, C; Bouchard, J

    2017-12-01

    Dead-time correction formulae are established in the general case of superimposed non-homogeneous Poisson processes. Based on the same principles as conventional live-timed counting, this method exploits the additional information made available using digital signal processing systems, and especially the possibility to store the time stamps of live-time intervals. No approximation needs to be made to obtain those formulae. Estimates of the variances of corrected rates are also presented. This method is applied to the activity measurement of short-lived radionuclides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Constellation Program Electrical Ground Support Equipment Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Keegan S.

    2010-01-01

    At the Kennedy Space Center, I engaged in the research and development of electrical ground support equipment for NASA's Constellation Program. Timing characteristics playa crucial role in ground support communications. Latency and jitter are two problems that must be understood so that communications are timely and consistent within the Kennedy Ground Control System (KGCS). I conducted latency and jitter tests using Alien-Bradley programmable logic controllers (PLCs) so that these two intrinsic network properties can be reduced. Time stamping and clock synchronization also play significant roles in launch processing and operations. Using RSLogix 5000 project files and Wireshark network protocol analyzing software, I verified master/slave PLC Ethernet module clock synchronization, master/slave IEEE 1588 communications, and time stamping capabilities. All of the timing and synchronization test results are useful in assessing the current KGCS operational level and determining improvements for the future.

  20. Památky starověké Núbie na známkách světa // Monuments of Ancient Nubia on postage stamps of the modern world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Břetislav Vachala

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The successful International UNESCO Campaign to Save the Monuments of (Egyptian and Sudanese Nubia became an important motif on the postage stamps of 47 countries of the world in the years 1960–1980. The stamps host famous rescued temples (listed here according to frequency of the used motifs, including general views, details of architecture and relief decoration of Abu Simbel, Philae, Wadi es-Sebua, and Dakka, the Kiosk of Qertassi and the South - ern temple of Buhen. Moreover, some of the unique painted murals found in the episcopal cathedral at Faras were reproduced on Polish stamps. The philatelic contribution to the campaign was far from symbolic. The total philatelic revenue (including income from the Philae Medals reached 112,665.64 US dollars. The philatelic activity of 47 countries substantially contributed to the publicity of the UNESCO Nubia Campaign around the world.

  1. Systems thinking, the Swiss Cheese Model and accident analysis: a comparative systemic analysis of the Grayrigg train derailment using the ATSB, AcciMap and STAMP models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Peter; Waterson, Patrick

    2014-07-01

    The Swiss Cheese Model (SCM) is the most popular accident causation model and is widely used throughout various industries. A debate exists in the research literature over whether the SCM remains a viable tool for accident analysis. Critics of the model suggest that it provides a sequential, oversimplified view of accidents. Conversely, proponents suggest that it embodies the concepts of systems theory, as per the contemporary systemic analysis techniques. The aim of this paper was to consider whether the SCM can provide a systems thinking approach and remain a viable option for accident analysis. To achieve this, the train derailment at Grayrigg was analysed with an SCM-based model (the ATSB accident investigation model) and two systemic accident analysis methods (AcciMap and STAMP). The analysis outputs and usage of the techniques were compared. The findings of the study showed that each model applied the systems thinking approach. However, the ATSB model and AcciMap graphically presented their findings in a more succinct manner, whereas STAMP more clearly embodied the concepts of systems theory. The study suggests that, whilst the selection of an analysis method is subject to trade-offs that practitioners and researchers must make, the SCM remains a viable model for accident analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Research on optimization design of conformal cooling channels in hot stamping tool based on response surface methodology and multi-objective optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Bin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to optimize the layout of the conformal cooling channels in hot stamping tools, a response surface methodology and multi-objective optimization technique are proposed. By means of an Optimal Latin Hypercube experimental design method, a design matrix with 17 factors and 50 levels is generated. Three kinds of design variables, the radius Rad of the cooling channel, the distance H from the channel center to tool work surface and the ratio rat of each channel center, are optimized to determine the layout of cooling channels. The average temperature and temperature deviation of work surface are used to evaluate the cooling performance of hot stamping tools. On the basis of the experimental design results, quadratic response surface models are established to describe the relationship between the design variables and the evaluation objectives. The error analysis is performed to ensure the accuracy of response surface models. Then the layout of the conformal cooling channels is optimized in accordance with a multi-objective optimization method to find the Pareto optimal frontier which consists of some optimal combinations of design variables that can lead to an acceptable cooling performance.

  3. Impact of Si on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of 22MnB5 Hot Stamping Steel Treated by Quenching & Partitioning (Q&P)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Bernd M.; Gerber, Thomas; Hatscher, Ansgar; Salvatori, Ilaria; Aranguren, Iñigo; Arribas, Maribel

    2018-01-01

    Based on 22MnB5 hot stamping steel, three model alloys containing 0.5, 0.8, and 1.5 wt pct Si were produced, heat treated by quenching and partitioning (Q&P), and characterized. Aided by DICTRA calculations, the thermal Q&P cycles were designed to fit into industrial hot stamping by keeping partitioning times ≤ 30 seconds. As expected, Si increased the amount of retained austenite (RA) stabilized after final cooling. However, for the intermediate Si alloy the heat treatment exerted a particularly pronounced influence with an RA content three times as high for the one-step process compared to the two-step process. It appeared that 0.8 wt pct Si sufficed to suppress direct cementite formation from within martensite laths but did not sufficiently stabilize carbon-soaked RA at higher temperatures. Tensile and bending tests showed strongly diverging effects of austenite on ductility. Total elongation improved consistently with increasing RA content independently from its carbon content. In contrast, the bending angle was not impacted by high-carbon RA but deteriorated almost linearly with the amount of low-carbon RA.

  4. A new approach for improved time and position measurements for TOF-PET: Time-stamping of the photo-electrons using analogue SiPMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doroud, K., E-mail: Katayoun.Doroud@cern.ch [CERN Geneva (Switzerland); Williams, M.C.S. [CERN Geneva (Switzerland); INFN, Bologna (Italy)

    2017-03-21

    Measurement of the Time-of-Flight (TOF) of the 511 keV gammas brings an important reduction of statistical noise in the PET image, with higher precision time measurements producing clearer images. The common method of coupling a photodetector to scintillating crystals is to have two matching matrices, with a one-to-one coupling between the crystal and the photodetector. We propose a new geometry based on analogue strip SiPMs reading out a scintillator cut into slabs. This technique allows the time stamping of individual photo-electrons and extracts the best time resolution using a specific algorithm. Here we present the results from the first ‘slab module’ test.

  5. A new approach for improved time and position measurements for TOF-PET: Time-stamping of the photo-electrons using analogue SiPMs

    CERN Document Server

    Doroud, K

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of the Time-of-Flight (TOF) of the 511 keV gammas brings an important reduction of statistical noise in the PET image, with higher precision time measurements producing clearer images. The common method of coupling a photodetector to scintillating crystals is to have two matching matrices, with a one-to-one coupling between the crystal and the photodetector. We propose a new geometry based on analogue strip SiPMs reading out a scintillator cut into slabs. This technique allows the time stamping of individual photo-electrons and extracts the best time resolution using a specific algorithm. Here we present the results from the first ‘slab module’ test.

  6. Micromechanics-based modeling of stress–strain and fracture behavior of heat-treated boron steels for hot stamping process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srithananan, P.; Kaewtatip, P.; Uthaisangsuk, V., E-mail: vitoon.uth@kmutt.ac.th

    2016-06-14

    In the automotive industry, hot stamped parts with tailored properties have shown advantageous safety performance. Such components are produced by applying different heat treatment conditions after forming for different zones in order to obtain various combinations of hard and soft microstructures. In this work, pure martensitic, pure bainitic, and three martensitic/bainitic phase microstructures were initially generated from the boron steel grade 22MnB5 by a two-step quenching procedure in which different holding times in the bainitic temperature range were varied. Increased phase fraction of bainite due to longer holding time led to decreased yield and tensile strength; however, elongation and resulting energy absorbability became significantly higher. To describe mechanical properties and failure behavior of hot stamped parts containing multiphase microstructures, influences of microstructure characteristics should be considered on the micro-scale. Using modeling, 2-D representative volume elements (RVE) were generated from observed real microstructures and flow curves of the individual single phases were defined, taking into account a dislocation theory based model and local chemical compositions. Then, effective stress–strain curves of the heat-treated boron steels were calculated by using the isostrain and non-isostrain methods and compared with tensile test results. Regarding fracture behavior, damage curves of fully martensitic and bainitic structures were determined by means of tensile tests of different notched samples and a hybrid digital image correlation (DIC)–finite element (FE) approach. 2-D RVE simulations of a martensite/bainite mixture were carried out under various states of stress, in which the obtained damage curves were individually applied for each phase. The predicted damage curve from RVE simulations for two-phase boron steel fairly agreed with experimental fracture strains. Moreover, correspondingly normalized Lode angle could be

  7. PENGUKURAN NILAI OVERALL EQUIPMENT EFFECTIVENESS SEBAGAI DASAR USAHA PERBAIKAN PROSES MANUFAKTUR PADA LINI PRODUKSI (Studi Kasus pada Stamping Production Division Sebuah Industri Otomotif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robby Suhendra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE is an effectiveness measurement method of equipment utilization in the implementation of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM. The ability of identification in details toward main problem and the cause factors that makes the improvement efforts become more focused is the reason why this method applied comprehensively by all manufacturing companies around the world. Manufacturing process at Stamping Production Division an automotive isdustry still keeps some unrevealed problems. This condition makes the achievement of OEE figure below the target that means production equipments are not utilized optimally yet. The expression of main problem and the cause factors is needed before the company starts some improvement efforts. This research is started by understanding the equipment losses that existed in company. Then, measuring the achievement of OEE figure in one period and through the pareto analysis toward the measurement's results, the main problem and the cause factors are obtained and clearly depicted in cause-and-effect diagram. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE adalah metode pengukuran efektivitas penggunaan suatu peralatan. OEE dikenal sebagai salah satu aplikasi progam Total Productive Maintenance (TPM. Kemampuan mengidentifikasikan secara jelas akar permasalahan dan faktor penyebabnya sehingga membuat usaha perbaikan menjadi terfokus merupakan faktor utama metode ini diaplikasikan secara menyeluruh oleh banyak perusahaan didunia. Saat ini proses manufaktur di Stamping Production Division sebuah industri otomotif memiliki permasalahan yang belum terungkap jelas. Hal tersebut mengakibatkan penggunaan peralatan yang ada belum optimal. Pengungkapan akar masalah dan faktor penyebabnya diperlukan sebelum perusahaan melakukan usaha perbaikan. Penelitian ini dimulai dengan mengidentifikasi kerugian peralatan (Equipment Losses yang terjadi. Kemudian mengukur pencapaian nilai OEE

  8. The art of grocery shopping on a food stamp budget: factors influencing the food choices of low-income women as they try to make ends meet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiig, Kristen; Smith, Chery

    2009-10-01

    Amidst a hunger-obesity paradox, the purpose of the present study was to examine the grocery shopping behaviour and food stamp usage of low-income women with children to identify factors influencing their food choices on a limited budget. Focus groups, which included questions based on Social Cognitive Theory constructs, examined food choice in the context of personal, behavioural and environmental factors. A quantitative grocery shopping activity required participants to prioritize food purchases from a 177-item list on a budget of $US 50 for a one-week period, an amount chosen based on the average household food stamp allotment in 2005. Ninety-two low-income women, with at least one child aged 9-13 years in their household, residing in the Twin Cities, Minnesota, USA. Participants' mean age was 37 years, and 76% were overweight or obese (BMI> or =25.0 kg/m2). Key findings suggest that their food choices and grocery shopping behaviour were shaped by not only individual and family preferences, but also their economic and environmental situation. Transportation and store accessibility were major determinants of shopping frequency, and they used various strategies to make their food dollars stretch (e.g. shopping based on prices, in-store specials). Generally, meat was the most important food group for purchase and consumption, according to both the qualitative and quantitative data. Efforts to improve food budgeting skills, increase nutrition knowledge, and develop meal preparation strategies involving less meat and more fruits and vegetables, could be valuable in helping low-income families nutritionally make the best use of their food dollars.

  9. Characterization and methodology for calculating the mechanical properties of a TRIP-steel submitted to hot stamping and quenching and partitioning (Q&P)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariza, E.A.; Nishikawa, A.S; Goldenstein, H.; Tschiptschin, A.P.

    2016-01-01

    Thermomechanical simulation of quenching, hot stamping, and quenching and partitioning processes of a high-strength TRIP-assisted steel were carried out in a Gleeble®3S50 thermo-mechanical simulator, coupled to the synchrotron X-ray diffraction line. The microstructures and mechanical properties were analyzed using Field Emission Gun Scanning Electron Microscopy (FEG-SEM), X-ray diffraction, and nanoindentation. The microstructures of thermomechanical treated specimens were modeled using the Object Oriented Finite Element (OOF) technique. The modeled microstructures were then fed into a finite element model to predict the mechanical behavior. By using a reverse algorithm method, the elasto-plastic mechanical properties of different microconstituents were determined. This was done through the analysis of instrumented nanoindentation loading-penetration curves. Tensile properties of the thermomechanical processed steels were measured by tensile testing of subsized specimens cut from samples processed on the Gleeble®3S50. The comparison between the experimental results and those of the reverse algorithm and the OOF modeled microstructure showed quite good agreement.

  10. Case Study to Illustrate the Potential of Conformal Cooling Channels for Hot Stamping Dies Manufactured Using Hybrid Process of Laser Metal Deposition (LMD and Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Cortina

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hot stamping dies include cooling channels to treat the formed sheet. The optimum cooling channels of dies and molds should adapt to the shape and surface of the dies, so that a homogeneous temperature distribution and cooling are guaranteed. Nevertheless, cooling ducts are conventionally manufactured by deep drilling, attaining straight channels unable to follow the geometry of the tool. Laser Metal Deposition (LMD is an additive manufacturing technique capable of fabricating nearly free-form integrated cooling channels and therefore shape the so-called conformal cooling. The present work investigates the design and manufacturing of conformal cooling ducts, which are additively built up on hot work steel and then milled in order to attain the final part. Their mechanical performance and heat transfer capability has been evaluated, both experimentally and by means of thermal simulation. Finally, conformal cooling conduits are evaluated and compared to traditional straight channels. The results show that LMD is a proper technology for the generation of cooling ducts, opening the possibility to produce new geometries on dies and molds and, therefore, new products.

  11. Characterization and methodology for calculating the mechanical properties of a TRIP-steel submitted to hot stamping and quenching and partitioning (Q&P)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ariza, E.A., E-mail: andersonariza@usp.br [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of São Paulo, Av. Prof. Mello Moraes, 2463, São Paulo, SP CEP 05508-030 (Brazil); Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory, LNNano, CNPEM, Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (Brazil); Nishikawa, A.S; Goldenstein, H. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of São Paulo, Av. Prof. Mello Moraes, 2463, São Paulo, SP CEP 05508-030 (Brazil); Tschiptschin, A.P. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of São Paulo, Av. Prof. Mello Moraes, 2463, São Paulo, SP CEP 05508-030 (Brazil); Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory, LNNano, CNPEM, Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (Brazil)

    2016-08-01

    Thermomechanical simulation of quenching, hot stamping, and quenching and partitioning processes of a high-strength TRIP-assisted steel were carried out in a Gleeble®3S50 thermo-mechanical simulator, coupled to the synchrotron X-ray diffraction line. The microstructures and mechanical properties were analyzed using Field Emission Gun Scanning Electron Microscopy (FEG-SEM), X-ray diffraction, and nanoindentation. The microstructures of thermomechanical treated specimens were modeled using the Object Oriented Finite Element (OOF) technique. The modeled microstructures were then fed into a finite element model to predict the mechanical behavior. By using a reverse algorithm method, the elasto-plastic mechanical properties of different microconstituents were determined. This was done through the analysis of instrumented nanoindentation loading-penetration curves. Tensile properties of the thermomechanical processed steels were measured by tensile testing of subsized specimens cut from samples processed on the Gleeble®3S50. The comparison between the experimental results and those of the reverse algorithm and the OOF modeled microstructure showed quite good agreement.

  12. STUDI BANDING PELAPISAN MATERIAL SKD11 DENGAN METODE PHYSICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION DAN THERMAL DIFUSION PADA KOMPONEN INSERT DIES MESIN STAMPING PRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertus Suryo Bisono

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan pelapisan menggunakan Titanium Alumunium Nitrid (TIAlN dengan metode PVD Coating (Physical Vapour Diposition dan TD (Thermal Difusion  untuk perlakuan permukaan baja perkakas SKD11 sebagai material Insert Die komponen mesin Stamping Press setelah perlakuan hardening. Perlakuan permukaan dimaksudkan untuk meningkatkan kualitas permukaan khususnya kekerasan dan perubahan struktur mikro yang terjadi. Untuk mengetahui tingkat keberhasilan dari perlakuan permukaan tersebut dilakukan dengan memvariasi waktu proses, masing masing 2 sample diproses pada 4 jam, 5 jam dan 6 jam dengan temperatur  proses masing-masing  400ᴼ C. Kemudian satu dari tiap variable sample tersebut di panaskan pada suhu 1000ᴼ C selama 1 jam, pendinginan dilalukan dengan udara bebas tanpa proses quenching Untuk mengetahui hasilnya dilakukan uji kekerasan mikro Vickers, pengamatan struktur mikro Scanning Eectron Microscope (SEM, dan pengujian komposisi dengan Energy Defersif Sepectroscopy (EDS untuk mengetahui tingkat penyerapan material terdifusi. Hasil menunjukan bahwa SKD11 yang dilapisi TiAlN dengan metode PVD selama 6 jam menghasilkan lapisan yang paling keras yaitu 1363 HV dengan ketebalan lapisan 5,3µm. Proses pemanasan 1000⁰C selama 1 jam pada sample mengakibatkan penurunan kekerasan sample dan lapisan permukaan sample menjadi lebih tebal hingga 50µm. Penambahan lapisan diakibatkan oleh terdifusinya atom atom yang menyusun lapisan TiAlN ke dalam substrat serta keluarnya atom atom penyusun lapisan hingga membentuk lapisan kompleks.

  13. Tribological influence of tool surface roughness within microforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Rasmus Solmer; Weidel, S.; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2010-01-01

    A comparative friction study of tooling dies with a simple internal cylindrical geometry has been performed. The purpose of the experiment consist of studying the influence of the surface characteristics of tooling dies on the frictional behaviour in a micro bulk forming operation. This research ...

  14. A Guide to the Microform Collections of the USMA Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    the Renaissance and the Elizabethian period. One may find the earliest editions of Chaucer, Spenser, Shakespeare , More, Erasumus, and Bacon. Military...laws. As a companion to its indexing and abstracting services, CIS provides a comprehensive collection of contemporary government documents on

  15. ABOUT THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE ISSUES SIGN OF LANGUAGE SYSTEM AND STAMP OF LANGUAGE SYSTEM DİLİN İŞARET SİSTEMİYLE DİLİN DAMGA SİSTEMİ ARASINDAKİ MESELELERİN İLİŞKİSİ HAKKINDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekmağanbetov ŞANJARHAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it is elaborated that ‘stamp system’ which is considered as one of basic issues of linguistics. Stamps of language and some particular features of these stamps are mentioned. In Turkish consideration, there are dimension, size of stamp and the stamp’s being profound and substantive. In modern linguistics, notion of stamp is used instead of notion znak ‘symbol’ in Russian, and notion sign ‘sign’ in English. In the article, after the explanation of the notion of UP (flat universe emerged with worldly basis, it is made mention that language is all associated with the stamp system(s. Bu makalede, genel dil bilimin temel konularından biri kabul edilen dilin ‘damga sistemi’ üzerinde durulmuştur. Dil damgalarından ve bu damgaların belli özelliklerinden söz edilmiştir. Türk’ün düşüncesinde damganın genişliği, büyüklüğü, derin ve anlamlı oluşu vardır. Çağdaş dil biliminde damga kavramı, Rusçada znak ‘simge’, İngilizcede sign ‘işaret’ kavramının yerine kullanılmaktadır. Makalede, dünyevî temel ile ortaya çıkan UP (âlem daire kavramı açıklandıktan sonra dilin damga/lar sistemi üzerine oturtulduğundan söz edilmiştir.

  16. Verification of human actions in SBO sequences with LOCA stamps in Westinghouse PWRs; Verificacion de las actuaciones humanas en secuencias de SBO con LOCA de sellos en reactores PWR Westinghouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queral, C.; Mena Rosell, L.; Jimenez Varas, G.

    2013-07-01

    The Fukushima accident has shown the need for tools and methodologies able to analyze human activities and / or capabilities of portable systems that has given the Spanish plants as a result of the stress tests . In this work we have applied the methodology of integrated safety analysis developed by the CSN , to SBO sequences with LOCA stamp. The aim is to show a methodology for testing the performances of the Emergency Operating Procedures and Guides Severe Accident Management. The simulations were performed with the tool SCAIS coupled to MAAP . The results show that there are human activities that may be beneficial in certain sequences but harmful in others. This type of problem is already known and referred to in the GGAS . However, FSR shows a practical way to check human actions cannot be obtained with other methods.

  17. Functional Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Chitil, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    Functional programming is a programming paradigm like object-oriented programming and logic programming. Functional programming comprises both a specific programming style and a class of programming languages that encourage and support this programming style. Functional programming enables the programmer to describe an algorithm on a high-level, in terms of the problem domain, without having to deal with machine-related details. A program is constructed from functions that only map inputs to ...

  18. Direct stamp of technology or origin on the genotypic and phenotypic variation of indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae population in a natural model of boiled grape juice fermentation into traditional Msalais wine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Xia; Wang, Guan-Qiong; Xue, Ju-Lan; Gou, Dong-Qi; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2017-08-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains worldwide show genetic and phenotypic diversity and their population substructures are greatly affected by their technological application or geographical origins. Msalais is a traditional wine obtained via a unique method of spontaneous fermentation of local boiled grape juice in Southern Xinjiang. We analyzed 436 indigenous S. cerevisiae strains associated with Msalais fermentation. These strains were highly diverse with respect to the interdelta region and 24 phenotypic traits, with apparent differentiation according to strain origins and technologies used to produce Msalais. The genetic and phenotypic diversity of strains from traditional workshops was higher than in strains from modern plants. These local strains had different origin- or technology-specific fermentative characteristics. Strains growing in large-scale fermentation tanks tolerated high temperature, whereas strains from traditional workshops tolerated high alcohol content (16%) and low temperature (13°C). Almost all the strains were characterized by the highest fermenting vigor, with weak H2S production and no histamine, cadaverine, phenethylamine and tryptamine production. Majority of strains had pronounced autolytic activity with high β-glucosidase and polygalacturonase activity and alcohol production. Our study reveals a direct stamp of technology or origin on genotypic and phenotypic variation of an indigenous S. cerevisiae population. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. 7 CFR 277.4 - Funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PAYMENTS OF CERTAIN ADMINISTRATIVE COSTS OF STATE AGENCIES...' allowable Food Stamp Program administrative costs. This rate includes reimbursement for food stamp... designed to persuade an individual who has made an informed choice not to apply for food stamps to change...

  20. Program specialization

    CERN Document Server

    Marlet, Renaud

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the principles and techniques of program specialization - a general method to make programs faster (and possibly smaller) when some inputs can be known in advance. As an illustration, it describes the architecture of Tempo, an offline program specializer for C that can also specialize code at runtime, and provides figures for concrete applications in various domains. Technical details address issues related to program analysis precision, value reification, incomplete program specialization, strategies to exploit specialized program, incremental specialization, and data speci

  1. Essential Role of DAP12 Signaling in Macrophage Programming into a Fusion-Competent State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helming, Laura; Tomasello, Elena; Kyriakides, Themis R.; Martinez, Fernando O.; Takai, Toshiyuki; Gordon, Siamon; Vivier, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Multinucleated giant cells, formed by fusion of macrophages, are a hallmark of granulomatous inflammation. With a genetic approach, we show that signaling through the adaptor protein DAP12 (DNAX activating protein of 12 kD), its associated receptor triggering receptor expressed by myeloid cells 2 (TREM-2), and the downstream protein tyrosine kinase Syk is required for the cytokine-induced formation of giant cells and that overexpression of DAP12 potentiates macrophage fusion. We also present evidence that DAP12 is a general macrophage fusion regulator and is involved in modulating the expression of several macrophage-associated genes, including those encoding known mediators of macrophage fusion, such as DC-STAMP and Cadherin 1. Thus, DAP12 is involved in programming of macrophages through the regulation of gene and protein expression to induce a fusion-competent state. PMID:18957693

  2. Two Wrongs Do Not Make a Right: Flaws in Alternatives to Fee-for-Service Payment Plans Do Not Mean Fee-for-Service Is a Good Solution to Rising Prices Comment on "Fee-for-Service Payment - An Evil Practice That Must Be Stamped Out?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Ross

    2015-05-11

    Professor Naoki Ikegami's "Fee-for-service payment - an evil practice that must be stamped out" summarizes many of the failings of alternatives to fee-for-service (FFS) payment systems. His article also offers several suggestions for improving FFS systems. However, even powerful arguments against many of the alternatives to FFS, does not make a convincing argument for FFS systems. In addition, there are significant misunderstandings in Professor Ikegami's presentation of and use of United States payment methods, the role of private vs. public insurance systems, and the increasing role of "accountable care organizations. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  3. Battery-operated, argon-hydrogen microplasma on hybrid, postage stamp-sized plastic-quartz chips for elemental analysis of liquid microsamples using a portable optical emission spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weagant, Scott; Chen, Vivian; Karanassios, Vassili

    2011-11-01

    A battery-operated, atmospheric pressure, self-igniting, planar geometry Ar-H(2) microplasma for elemental analysis of liquid microsamples is described. The inexpensive microplasma device (MPD) fabricated for this work was a hybrid plastic-quartz structure that was formed on chips with an area (roughly) equal to that of a small-sized postage stamp (MPD footprint, 12.5-mm width by 38-mm length). Plastic substrates were chosen due to their low cost, for rapid prototyping purposes, and for a speedy microplasma device evaluation. To enhance portability, the microplasma was operated from an 18-V rechargeable battery. To facilitate portability even further, it was demonstrated that the battery can be recharged by a portable solar panel. The battery-supplied dc voltage was converted to a high-voltage ac. The ~750-μm (diameter) and 12-mm (long) Ar-H(2) (3% H(2)) microplasma was formed by applying the high-voltage ac between two needle electrodes. Spectral interference from the electrode materials or from the plastic substrate was not observed. Operating conditions were found to be key to igniting and sustaining a microplasma that was simply "warm" to the touch (thus alleviating the need for cooling or other thermal management) and that had a stable background emission. A small-sized (900 μL internal volume) electrothermal vaporization system (40-W max power) was used for microsample introduction. Microplasma background emission in the spectral region between 200 and 850 nm obtained using a portable fiber-optic spectrometer is reported and the effect of the operating conditions is described. Analyte emission from microliter volumes of dilute single-element standard solutions of Cd, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, and Zn is documented. The majority of spectral lines observed for the elements tested were from neutral atoms. The relative lack of emission from ion lines simplified the spectra, thus facilitating the use of a portable spectrometer. Despite the relative spectral

  4. Physiological and Environmental Sensor Skin Stamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future exploration missions will require astronauts to autonomously monitor physiological and atmospheric conditions. Recent technological advances in the developing...

  5. 78 FR 60304 - Information Collection Request Sent to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for Approval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ...; Electronic Duck Stamp Program AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice; request for... and products that bear stamp images are also popular collector items. The Electronic Duck Stamp Act of... issuance of an electronic stamp. Description of the process the State will use to account for and transfer...

  6. Program History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn how the National Cancer Institute transitioned the former Cooperative Groups Program to the National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN) program. The NCTN gives funds and other support to cancer research organizations to conduct cancer clinical trials.

  7. Program auto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.; Plagnol, E.

    1990-01-01

    The program AUTO was developed to be used in the analysis of dE vs E type spectra. This program is written in FORTRAN and calculates dE vs E lines in MeV. The provision is also made in the program to convert these lines from MeV to ADC channel numbers to facilitate the comparison with the raw data from the experiments. Currently the output of this program can be plotted with the display program, called VISU, but it can also be used independent of the program VISU, with little or no modification in the actual fortran code. The program AUTO has many useful applications. In this article the program AUTO is described along with its applications

  8. Creating a peaceful school learning environment: the impact of an antibullying program on educational attainment in elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonagy, Peter; Twemlow, Stuart W; Vernberg, Eric; Sacco, Frank C; Little, Todd D

    2005-07-01

    The impact of a bullying and violence prevention program on education attainment was studied in five elementary schools (K-5), over a 5-year period. A multiple baseline design was used and academic attainment test scores of 1,106 students were monitored before and after the introduction of the program across the school district. This sample was contrasted with an equivalent control sample of 1,100 students from the school district who attended schools that did not join the program. Program participation was associated with pronounced improvements in the students' achievement test scores. Notable reductions in the scores of those students who left schools with active programs were also observed. This simple, low-cost anti-violence intervention, involves all those who work in schools, not just students. It appears to significantly benefit educational performance of children in the participating elementary schools. The program focuses attention on the interaction between the bully, victim and audience of bystanders who are seen as pivotal in either promoting or ameliorating violence. Buy in to the philosophy by teachers & administration is high, because the format allows each school to create materials with its own personal stamp, and since there is no classroom curriculum add on, the burden to teachers is vastly reduced. Psychiatrists who work with schools could easily assist a school to put the program in place as part of their consultation work.

  9. A Guide to the Microform Collections of the USMA (United States Military Academy) Library,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    period. One may find the earliest editions of Chaucer, Spenser, Shakespeare , More, Erasumus, and Bacon. Military, legal, royal and other public...Information Service, Inc., provides reference and information retrieval services to Congressional publications and public lava. As a companion to its

  10. Material Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna; Boer, Laurens; Tsaknaki, Vasiliki

    2017-01-01

    . Consequently we ask what the practice of programming and giving form to such materials would be like? How would we be able to familiarize ourselves with the dynamics of these materials and their different combinations of cause and effect? Which tools would we need and what would they look like? Will we program......, and color, but additionally being capable of sensing, actuating, and computing. Indeed, computers will not be things in and by themselves, but embedded into the materials that make up our surroundings. This also means that the way we interact with computers and the way we program them, will change...... these computational composites through external computers and then transfer the code them, or will the programming happen closer to the materials? In this feature we outline a new research program that floats between imagined futures and the development of a material programming practice....

  11. Effective Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Jacob

    To investigate the use of VTLoE as a basis for formal derivation of functional programs with effects. As a part of the process, a number of issues central to effective formal programming are considered. In particular it is considered how to develop a proof system suitable for pratical reasoning......, how to implement this system in the generic proof assistant Isabelle and finally how to apply the logic and the implementation to programming....

  12. Program Fullerene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirz, Lukas; Peter, Schwerdtfeger,; Avery, James Emil

    2013-01-01

    Fullerene (Version 4.4), is a general purpose open-source program that can generate any fullerene isomer, perform topological and graph theoretical analysis, as well as calculate a number of physical and chemical properties. The program creates symmetric planar drawings of the fullerene graph, an......-Fowler, and Brinkmann-Fowler vertex insertions. The program is written in standard Fortran and C++, and can easily be installed on a Linux or UNIX environment....

  13. Programming F#

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Why learn F#? This multi-paradigm language not only offers you an enormous productivity boost through functional programming, it also lets you develop applications using your existing object-oriented and imperative programming skills. With Programming F#, you'll quickly discover the many advantages of Microsoft's new language, which includes access to all the great tools and libraries of the .NET platform. Learn how to reap the benefits of functional programming for your next project -- whether it's quantitative computing, large-scale data exploration, or even a pursuit of your own. With th

  14. PLC Programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seong Jae; Wi, Seong Dong; Yoo, Jong Seon; Kim, Se Chan

    2001-02-01

    This book tells of PLC programming for KGL-WIN with summary of PLC, performance and function of PLC like characteristic of KGL-WIN, connection method with PLC, basic performance of K200S/K300S/K1000S, diagram of input and output H/W, writing project, staring the program, editing of program, on-line function, debugging and instructions like control, timer and counter, data transmission, comparison, rotation and moving, system, data operating data conversion and application program.

  15. Programming Interactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Noble, Joshua

    2009-01-01

    Make cool stuff. If you're a designer or artist without a lot of programming experience, this book will teach you to work with 2D and 3D graphics, sound, physical interaction, and electronic circuitry to create all sorts of interesting and compelling experiences -- online and off. Programming Interactivity explains programming and electrical engineering basics, and introduces three freely available tools created specifically for artists and designers: Processing, a Java-based programming language and environment for building projects on the desktop, Web, or mobile phonesArduino, a system t

  16. Effective vulnerability assessments for physical security devices, systems, and programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, R.G.; Garcia, A.R.E.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The efficacy of devices, systems, and programs used for physical security depend critically on having periodic and effective vulnerability assessments. Effective vulnerability assessments, in turn, require certain conditions and attributes. These include: a proper understanding of their purpose; not confusing vulnerability assessments with other kinds of metrics, analyses, tests, and security exercises; the view that vulnerabilities are inevitable, and that finding them is good news (since they can then be mitigated), not bad news; rejection of findings of no vulnerabilities; avoidance of mere 'compliance mode' rubber stamping; the use of the proper outside, independent, imaginative personnel; psychologically predisposed to finding and demonstrating problems; the absence of conflicts of interest; no unrealistic constraints on the possible attack tools, procedures, personnel, or strategies; efforts to not just find and demonstrate vulnerabilities, but also to suggest possible countermeasures; proper context; input and buy-in from ALL facility security personnel, especially low-level personnel; emphasis on the simplest, most relevant attacks first; no underestimation of potential adversaries; consideration of fault analysis attacks; awareness of Rohrbach's Maxim and Shannon's Maxim. In addition to these factors, we will cover some of the complex issues and problems associated with the design of vulnerability assessments. There will also be suggestions on how to conduct effective vulnerability assessments on a severely limited budget. We will conclude with a discussion of both conventional and unconventional ways of reporting results. (author)

  17. Computer Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Tiffoni

    This module provides information on development and use of a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) software program that seeks to link literacy skills education, safety training, and human-centered design. Section 1 discusses the development of the software program that helps workers understand the MSDSs that accompany the chemicals with which they…

  18. BASIC Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Carol Ann

    Designed for use by both secondary- and postsecondary-level business teachers, this curriculum guide consists of 10 units of instructional materials dealing with Beginners All-Purpose Symbol Instruction Code (BASIC) programing. Topics of the individual lessons are numbering BASIC programs and using the PRINT, END, and REM statements; system…

  19. Choreographic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montesi, Fabrizio

    , as they offer a concise view of the message flows enacted by a system. For this reason, in the last decade choreographies have been used in the development of programming languages, giving rise to a programming paradigm that in this dissertation we refer to as Choreographic Programming. Recent studies show...... endpoint described in a choreography can then be automatically generated, ensuring that such implementations are safe by construction. However, current formal models for choreographies do not deal with critical aspects of distributed programming, such as asynchrony, mobility, modularity, and multiparty...... sessions; it remains thus unclear whether choreographies can still guarantee safety when dealing with such nontrivial features. This PhD dissertation argues for the suitability of choreographic programming as a paradigm for the development of safe distributed systems. We proceed by investigating its...

  20. Icobj Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Boussinot , Frédéric

    1996-01-01

    A simple and fully graphical programming method is presented, using a powerful means to combine behaviors. This programming is based on the notion of an «icobj» which has a behavioral aspect («object» part), a graphical aspect («icon» part), with an «animation» aspect. Icobj programming provides parallelism, broadcast event communication and migration through the network. An experimental system based on this approach is described in details. Its implementation with reactive scripts is also pr...

  1. Programming Python

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Mark

    2011-01-01

    If you've mastered Python's fundamentals, you're ready to start using it to get real work done. Programming Python will show you how, with in-depth tutorials on the language's primary application domains: system administration, GUIs, and the Web. You'll also explore how Python is used in databases, networking, front-end scripting layers, text processing, and more. This book focuses on commonly used tools and libraries to give you a comprehensive understanding of Python's many roles in practical, real-world programming. You'll learn language syntax and programming techniques in a clear and co

  2. Program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The program overview describes the following resources and facilities; laser facilities, main laser room, target room, energy storage, laboratory area, building support systems, general plant project, and the new trailer complex

  3. Linear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Solow, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This text covers the basic theory and computation for a first course in linear programming, including substantial material on mathematical proof techniques and sophisticated computation methods. Includes Appendix on using Excel. 1984 edition.

  4. Science Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory Delivering science and technology to protect our nation and promote world stability Science & ; Innovation Collaboration Careers Community Environment Science & Innovation Facilities Science Pillars Research Library Science Briefs Science News Science Highlights Lab Organizations Science Programs Applied

  5. SPOT Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason T.; Welsh, Sam J.; Farinetti, Antonio L.; Wegner, Tim; Blakeslee, James; Deboeck, Toni F.; Dyer, Daniel; Corley, Bryan M.; Ollivierre, Jarmaine; Kramer, Leonard; hide

    2010-01-01

    A Spacecraft Position Optimal Tracking (SPOT) program was developed to process Global Positioning System (GPS) data, sent via telemetry from a spacecraft, to generate accurate navigation estimates of the vehicle position and velocity (state vector) using a Kalman filter. This program uses the GPS onboard receiver measurements to sequentially calculate the vehicle state vectors and provide this information to ground flight controllers. It is the first real-time ground-based shuttle navigation application using onboard sensors. The program is compact, portable, self-contained, and can run on a variety of UNIX or Linux computers. The program has a modular objec-toriented design that supports application-specific plugins such as data corruption remediation pre-processing and remote graphics display. The Kalman filter is extensible to additional sensor types or force models. The Kalman filter design is also strong against data dropouts because it uses physical models from state and covariance propagation in the absence of data. The design of this program separates the functionalities of SPOT into six different executable processes. This allows for the individual processes to be connected in an a la carte manner, making the feature set and executable complexity of SPOT adaptable to the needs of the user. Also, these processes need not be executed on the same workstation. This allows for communications between SPOT processes executing on the same Local Area Network (LAN). Thus, SPOT can be executed in a distributed sense with the capability for a team of flight controllers to efficiently share the same trajectory information currently being computed by the program. SPOT is used in the Mission Control Center (MCC) for Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and International Space Station Program (ISSP) operations, and can also be used as a post -flight analysis tool. It is primarily used for situational awareness, and for contingency situations.

  6. Sprego programming

    OpenAIRE

    Csernoch, Mária; Biró, Piroska

    2015-01-01

    Spreadsheet management is a border-land between office applications and programming, however, it is rather communicated that spreadsheet is nothing more than an easily handled fun piece. Consequently, the complexity of spreadsheet handling, the unprepared end-users, their problem solving abilities and approaches do not match. To overcome these problems we have developed and introduced Sprego (Spreadsheet Lego). Sprego is a simplified functional programming language in spreadsheet environment,...

  7. Recombinant Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlak , Renaud; Cuesta , Carlos; Younessi , Houman

    2004-01-01

    This research report presents a promising new approach to computation called Recombinant Programming. The novelty of our approach is that it separates the program into two layers of computation: the recombination and the interpretation layer. The recombination layer takes sequences as inputs and allows the programmer to recombine these sequences through the definition of cohesive code units called extensions. The output of such recombination is a mesh that can be used by the interpretation la...

  8. Role of Information Professionals in Knowledge Management Programs: Empirical Evidence from Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    la Ajiferuke

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of a knowledge management program in an organization has the potential of im-proving customer services, quickly bringing new products to market, and reducing cost of business operations. Information technologies are often used in knowledge management programs in informing clients and employees of latest innovation/development in the business sector as well as sharing knowledge among the employees. The key professionals involved in knowledge management programs are information technologists and human resource managers but the information professionals also have a role to play as they are traditionally known as good managers of explicit knowledge. Hence, the aim of this study is to provide empirical evidence of the role of information professionals in knowledge management programs. 386 information professionals working in Canadian organizations were selected from the Special Libraries Association's Who's Who in Special Libraries 2001/2002, and a questionnaire with a stamped self-addressed envelope for its return was sent to each one of them. 63 questionnaires were completed and returned, and 8 in-depth interviews conducted. About 59% of the information professionals surveyed are working in organizations that have knowledge management programs with about 86% of these professionals being involved in the programs. Factors such as gender, age, and educational background (i.e. highest educational qualifications and discipline did not seem to have any relationship with involvement in knowledge management programs. Many of those involved in the programs are playing key roles, such as the design of the information architecture, development of taxonomy, or con-tent management of the organization's intranet. Others play lesser roles, such as providing information for the intranet, gathering competitive intelligence, or providing research services as requested by the knowledge management team.

  9. Ethical imperatives against item restriction in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisinger, Benjamin W

    2017-07-01

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly known as food stamps) is the federal government's largest form of food assistance, and a frequent focus of political and scholarly debate. Previous discourse in the public health community and recent proposals in state legislatures have suggested limiting the use of SNAP benefits on unhealthy food items, such as sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). This paper identifies two possible underlying motivations for item restriction, health and morals, and analyzes the level of empirical support for claims about the current state of the program, as well as expectations about how item restriction would change participant outcomes. It also assesses how item restriction would reduce individual agency of low-income individuals, and identifies mechanisms by which this may adversely affect program participants. Finally, this paper offers alternative policies to promote healthier purchasing and eating among SNAP participants that can be pursued without reducing individual agency. Health advocates and officials must more fully weigh the attendant risks of implementing SNAP item restrictions, including the reduction of individual agency of a vulnerable population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Integer programming

    CERN Document Server

    Conforti, Michele; Zambelli, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    This book is an elegant and rigorous presentation of integer programming, exposing the subject’s mathematical depth and broad applicability. Special attention is given to the theory behind the algorithms used in state-of-the-art solvers. An abundance of concrete examples and exercises of both theoretical and real-world interest explore the wide range of applications and ramifications of the theory. Each chapter is accompanied by an expertly informed guide to the literature and special topics, rounding out the reader’s understanding and serving as a gateway to deeper study. Key topics include: formulations polyhedral theory cutting planes decomposition enumeration semidefinite relaxations Written by renowned experts in integer programming and combinatorial optimization, Integer Programming is destined to become an essential text in the field.

  11. Programming Algol

    CERN Document Server

    Malcolme-Lawes, D J

    2014-01-01

    Programming - ALGOL describes the basics of computer programming using Algol. Commands that could be added to Algol and could increase its scope are described, including multiplication and division and the use of brackets. The idea of labeling or naming a command is also explained, along with a command allowing two alternative results. Most of the important features of Algol syntax are discussed, and examples of compound statements (that is, sets of commands enclosed by a begin ... end command) are given.Comprised of 11 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to the digital computer an

  12. Programming Interactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Noble, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Ready to create rich interactive experiences with your artwork, designs, or prototypes? This is the ideal place to start. With this hands-on guide, you'll explore several themes in interactive art and design-including 3D graphics, sound, physical interaction, computer vision, and geolocation-and learn the basic programming and electronics concepts you need to implement them. No previous experience is necessary. You'll get a complete introduction to three free tools created specifically for artists and designers: the Processing programming language, the Arduino microcontroller, and the openFr

  13. «Monetary Program» of Ancient Greek Olympic Games (History and British Historiography of the XIX – Early ХХ Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Gzhibovskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Commemorative coins are one of the attributes of the modern Olympic movement, relating to the category of «Games Product». Monetary program “Sochi 2014”, realized since 2011 is one of the most extensive and design diversified. The tradition to stamp out coins in the host city of the Olympic Games was established in Ancient Greece. They served not only as a means of exchange or as a store of value, ancient Greeks managed to make them works of art. Ancient authors’ data, concerning coinage site, time and type don’t give an accurate account of the coins we can reasonably call the “Olympic” ones. This problem has been solved by numismatologists from late XVIII century through the present. Their views of ancient “monetary program” differ. This article is focused on the special character of these discrepancies both in historical records and historiography

  14. SLED program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, Z.D.

    1977-04-01

    A FORTRAN program is described which, for a given cavity and timing, yields all fields as a (piecewise) function of time, and which, for any mix of SLEDded and non-SLEDded klystrons of any given energy/klystron, yields the SLED operation parameters. The note explains the input and output parameters as they appear in the code output. 3 figures, 19 tables

  15. ORGEL program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1963-09-01

    Parameter optimization studies for an ORGEL power plant are reported, and the ESSOR test reactor used in the program is described. Research at Ispra in reactor physics, technology, metallurgy, heat transfer, chemistry, and physical chemistry associated with ORGEL development is also summarized. (D.C.W.)

  16. Program evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings from the panel on program evaluation. Some of the papers included are the following: Seattle City Light's Industrial Retrofit Demonstration Project Uses Quasi-Experimental Research Design and Metering to Measure Savings, Evaluation for PUCs, and The Takeback Effect Low-income Weatherizations Fact or Fiction

  17. Sprego Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Csernoch

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Spreadsheet management is a border-land between office applications and programming, however, it is rather communicated that spreadsheet is nothing more than an easily handled fun piece. Consequently, the complexity of spreadsheet handling, the unprepared end-users, their problem solving abilities and approaches do not match. To overcome these problems we have developed and introduced Sprego (Spreadsheet Lego. Sprego is a simplified functional programming language in spreadsheet environment, and such as can be used both as introductory language and the language of end-user programmers. The essence of Sprego is that we use as few and simple functions as possible and based on these functions build multilevel formulas. With this approach, similar to high level programming, we are able solve advanced problems, developing algorithmic skills, computational thinking. The advantage of Sprego is the simplicity of the language, when the emphasis is not on the coding but on the problem. Beyond that spreadsheets would provide real life problems with authentic data and tables which students are more interested in than the artificial environment and semi-authentic problems of high level programming languages.

  18. Polytypic Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuring, J.T.; Jansson, P.

    1996-01-01

    Many functions have to be written over and over again for different datatypes, either because datatypes change during the development of programs, or because functions with similar functionality are needed on different datatypes. Examples of such functions are pretty printers, debuggers, equality

  19. Refurbishment programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irish, C.S.

    2004-01-01

    As nuclear plants age, equipment becomes obsolete, outdated or just simply unreliable. This puts a lot of emphasis on replacement of the subject equipment. This can be an expensive proposition for safety related equipment due to design changes, requalification charges and the cost of the new equipment, specifically when the original component is obsolete. The presentation will explain how comprehensive refurbishment programs on many different types of equipment can alleviate this situation. The refurbishment program is a systematic refurbishment of equipment to an as new condition by replacing all of the age sensitive components within the equipment. This is carried out on all of the same type of equipment in a scheduled program. For example the plant may to decide to refurbish all of their Lambda LME-24 power supplies, or all of their Bailey modules, or all of their Agastat DSC Series relays. Independent of the item the process is the same. Refurbish each piece of equipment to an as new condition by replacing all of the age sensitive equipment. The equipment is then returned to the client as safety related, existing qualification maintained and with a new service life/warranty. This is not a simple repair. It is a planned refurbishment to an as new condition of certain equipment types throughout the plant and then carried out from equipment piece to equipment piece. The refurbishment program may even include introducing new spares into the plant. This is normally performed by upgrading (dedicating for safety related use and refurbishing to an 'as new' condition) surplus equipment and using these equipment pieces in the rotation of the plant equipment to refurbish the entire population of a selected piece of equipment at the plant. This process can be performed on many equipment types including power supplies, circuit boards, modules, relays, motors, breakers, and many more. The refurbishment program greatly increases the reliability of the equipment without the

  20. Constraint Programming versus Mathematical Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) is a relatively new technique from the 80's with origins in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. Lately, much research have been focused on ways of using CLP within the paradigm of Operations Research (OR) and vice versa. The purpose of this paper...

  1. A Program to Teach Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, Robert R.; And Others

    1969-01-01

    The TEACH system was developed to provide inexpensive, effective, virtually instructorless instruction in programing. The TEACH system employed an interactive language, UNCL. Two full sections of the TEACH course were taught. The results of this experience suggested ways in which the research and development effort on the system should be…

  2. Program overview: Subsurface science program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The OHER Subsurface Science Program is DOE's core basic research program concerned with subsoils and groundwater. These practices have resulted in contamination by mixtures of organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals, and radionuclides. A primary long-term goal is to provide a foundation of knowledge that will lead to the reduction of environmental risks and to cost-effective cleanup strategies. Since the Program was initiated in 1985, a substantial amount of research in hydrogeology, subsurface microbiology, and the geochemistry of organically complexed radionuclides has been completed, leading to a better understanding of contaminant transport in groundwater and to new insights into microbial distribution and function in the subsurface environments. The Subsurface Science Program focuses on achieving long-term scientific advances that will assist DOE in the following key areas: providing the scientific basis for innovative in situ remediation technologies that are based on a concept of decontamination through benign manipulation of natural systems; understanding the complex mechanisms and process interactions that occur in the subsurface; determining the influence of chemical and geochemical-microbial processes on co-contaminant mobility to reduce environmental risks; improving predictions of contaminant transport that draw on fundamental knowledge of contaminant behavior in the presence of physical and chemical heterogeneities to improve cleanup effectiveness and to predict environmental risks

  3. Linear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Karloff, Howard

    1991-01-01

    To this reviewer’s knowledge, this is the first book accessible to the upper division undergraduate or beginning graduate student that surveys linear programming from the Simplex Method…via the Ellipsoid algorithm to Karmarkar’s algorithm. Moreover, its point of view is algorithmic and thus it provides both a history and a case history of work in complexity theory. The presentation is admirable; Karloff's style is informal (even humorous at times) without sacrificing anything necessary for understanding. Diagrams (including horizontal brackets that group terms) aid in providing clarity. The end-of-chapter notes are helpful...Recommended highly for acquisition, since it is not only a textbook, but can also be used for independent reading and study. —Choice Reviews The reader will be well served by reading the monograph from cover to cover. The author succeeds in providing a concise, readable, understandable introduction to modern linear programming. —Mathematics of Computing This is a textbook intend...

  4. Program summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    The operating, construction, and development activities of the Department of Energy in the areas of uranium enrichment are described. The DOE supplies the enrichment service through toll enrichment contracts with foreign and domestic utilities by enriching uranium supplied by the utility to the desired U-235 level. This role will continue well into the next century. In addition it provides enriched uranium for US Government needs and for R and D purposes. At the present time, almost all the world's capacity to produce enriched uranium uses the gaseous diffusion process. The United States built the first gaseous diffusion plant during World War II. Later this plant was expanded and two additional plants were built. There is presently a $1.5 billion improvement and uprating program near completion which will improve the plant efficiency and increase the total capacity of the three plants by 60 percent to 27.3 million SWU per year. The Administration's energy message in 1977 provided for a further expansion of this capacity by using gas centrifuge technology. The new gas centrifuge plant is being built near the existing GDP near Portsmouth, Ohio. The normal capacity of an 8 building process plant will be 13.2 million SWU per year. The first 2.2 million SWU of capacity is scheduled to be available in 1989. The remaining capacity will be added as needed to meet demand and the overall goal of the program. The goal of the Uranium Enrichment Program is to meet domestic, foreign, and US Government requirements for uranium enrichment services in an economical, reliable, safe and environmentally acceptable manner. To ensure accomplishment of this goal, the overall program is broken down into three areas of implementation; Enrichment Operations; Capacity Upgrading Operations; and Business Operations

  5. Robot Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Paris, France, June, 1982, 519-530. Latoinbe, J. C. "Equipe Intelligence Artificielle et Robotique: Etat d’avancement des recherches," Laboratoire...8217AD-A127 233 ROBOT PROGRRMMING(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OFGTECHi/ CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAB T LOZANO-PEREZ UNCLASSIFIED DC8 AI-9 N884...NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK Artificial Intelligence Laboratory AREA I WORK UNIT NUMBERS ,. 545 Technology Square Cambridge

  6. Micro Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Spanjersberg , Herman

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In the 1970s a need arose to perform special arithmetic operations on minicomputers much more quickly than had been possible in the past. This paper tells the story of why micro programming was needed for special arithmetic operations on mini computers in the 1970s and how it was implemented. The paper tells how the laboratory in which the first experiment took place had a PDP-9 minicomputer from Digital Equipment Corporation and how the author, with several colleagues...

  7. Choreographic Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Montesi, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Choreographies are descriptions of distributed systems where the developer gives a global view of how messages are exchanged by endpoint nodes (endpoints for short), instead of separately defining the behaviour of each endpoint. They have a significant impact on the quality of software, as they offer a concise view of the message flows enacted by a system. For this reason, in the last decade choreographies have been used in the development of programming languages, giving rise to a programmin...

  8. SUCO program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knebel, J.U.

    1995-01-01

    The SUCO program is a three-step series of scaled model experiments investigating the optional sump cooling concept of the EPR. This concept is entirely based on passive safety features. This report presents the basic physical phenomena and scaling criteria of decay heat removal from a large coolant pool by single-phase and two-phase natural circulation flow. The physical significance of the dimensionless similarity groups derived is evaluated. The report gives first measurement results of the 1:20 linearly scaled plane two-dimensional SUCOS-2D test facility. The real height SUCOT test facility that is in its building up phase is presented. (orig.)

  9. Programming Pig

    CERN Document Server

    Gates, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This guide is an ideal learning tool and reference for Apache Pig, the open source engine for executing parallel data flows on Hadoop. With Pig, you can batch-process data without having to create a full-fledged application-making it easy for you to experiment with new datasets. Programming Pig introduces new users to Pig, and provides experienced users with comprehensive coverage on key features such as the Pig Latin scripting language, the Grunt shell, and User Defined Functions (UDFs) for extending Pig. If you need to analyze terabytes of data, this book shows you how to do it efficiently

  10. Geothermal Technologies Program Overview - Peer Review Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milliken, JoAnn [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-06-06

    This Geothermal Technologies Program presentation was delivered on June 6, 2011 at a Program Peer Review meeting. It contains annual budget, Recovery Act, funding opportunities, upcoming program activities, and more.

  11. MRI for clinically suspected pediatric appendicitis: an implemented program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Michael M.; Gustas, Cristy N.; Choudhary, Arabinda K.; Methratta, Sosamma T.; Hulse, Michael A.; Eggli, Kathleen D.; Boal, Danielle K.B. [Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Mail Code H066, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA (United States); Geeting, Glenn [Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Emergency Medicine, Hershey, PA (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Emergent MRI is now a viable alternative to CT for evaluating appendicitis while avoiding the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation. However, primary employment of MRI in the setting of clinically suspected pediatric appendicitis has remained significantly underutilized. To describe our institution's development and the results of a fully implemented clinical program using MRI as the primary imaging evaluation for children with suspected appendicitis. A four-sequence MRI protocol consisting of coronal and axial single-shot turbo spin-echo (SS-TSE) T2, coronal spectral adiabatic inversion recovery (SPAIR), and axial SS-TSE T2 with fat saturation was performed on 208 children, ages 3 to 17 years, with clinically suspected appendicitis. No intravenous or oral contrast material was administered. No sedation was administered. Data collection includes two separate areas: time parameter analysis and MRI diagnostic results. Diagnostic accuracy of MRI for pediatric appendicitis indicated a sensitivity of 97.6% (CI: 87.1-99.9%), specificity 97.0% (CI: 93.2-99.0%), positive predictive value 88.9% (CI: 76.0-96.3%), and negative predictive value 99.4% (CI: 96.6-99.9%). Time parameter analysis indicated clinical feasibility, with time requested to first sequence obtained mean of 78.7 +/- 52.5 min, median 65 min; first-to-last sequence time stamp mean 14.2 +/- 8.8 min, median 12 min; last sequence to report mean 57.4 +/- 35.2 min, median 46 min. Mean age was 11.2 +/- 3.6 years old. Girls represented 57% of patients. MRI is an effective and efficient method of imaging children with clinically suspected appendicitis. Using an expedited four-sequence protocol, sensitivity and specificity are comparable to CT while avoiding the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  12. TNS Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The fusion program plan is briefly reviewed and the role of the prototype experimental power reactor, thought of as The Next Step (TNS), is discussed. The required device capabilities and basic reactor concepts for a TNS fusion electric plant are given. A detailed discussion of the physics considerations for the Power Generating Fusion Reactor (PGFR), including plasma heating, MHD equilibrium and stability, burn control resulting from toroidal field ripple, fueling, and boundary effects, is presented. Engineering considerations of the major PGFR systems, as well as diagnostics, instrumentation, control, and programmatic issues are also considered in detail. It is concluded that TNS design studies have established the existence of a technical basis for constructing a long pulse, D-T burning tokamak to be operational prior to 1990

  13. Telemedicine Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Since the 1970s, NASA has been involved in the research and demonstration of telemedicine for its potential in the care of astronauts in flight and Earth-bound applications. A combination of NASA funding, expertise and off-the-shelf computer and networking systems made telemedicine possible for a medically underserved hospital in Texas. Through two-way audio/video relay, the program links pediatric oncology specialists at the University of Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio to South Texas Hospital in Harlingen, providing easier access and better care to children with cancer. Additionally, the hospital is receiving teleclinics on pediatric oncology nursing, family counseling and tuberculosis treatment. VTEL Corporation, Sprint, and the Healthcare Open Systems and Trials Consortium also contributed staff and hardware.

  14. Russian programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heywood, A.

    1993-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) initiated several projects with the Boreskov Institute of Catalysis to develop innovative process technologies for the treatment of mixed and hazardous wastes containing a high percentage of organic material. Each of these processes involves the use of catalysts for oxidation (or initial reduction) of the hazardous organic constituents. Because of their commitment to a national mixed waste treatment program, both the Department of Energy/Office of Environmental Management (DOE/EM) and LLNL Environmental Restoration and Waste Management/Applied Technologies (ER-WM/AT) programs have a considerable interest in innovative/alternative flowsheets for organic mixed waste treatment. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) using ammonia as a reducing agent is current a preferred method of treating NO x in off-gases. The advantages of SCR over methods, such as wet scrubbing, include compact design, low maintenance, and the absence of gas cooling requirements and secondary wastes. Any further improvements in catalyst design would lower costs, improve their resistance to poisons, expand their ability to promote oxidation/reduction in mixtures such as NO x /CO, and increase their mechanical strength. An additional requirement of catalysts to be used in California is that the catalyst formulations must meet the California Land Ban disposal restrictions. A monitoring network is needed in Russia to coordinate the environmental monitoring activities of government (including military establishments and facilities) and commercial entities. The network shall incorporate existing as well as proposed monitoring stations. It will comply with all toxic substance control regulations and include analyses for all priority radiochemical and chemical substances. A database compatible with the Environmental Technologies for Remedial Actions Data Exchange (EnviroTRADE) database will ultimately be compiled

  15. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Trauma Programs Trauma Programs About Trauma Programs Violence Prevention BleedingControl.org Trauma Quality Programs National Trauma Data ... Conference Publications and Posters National Trauma System Injury Prevention and Control Quality and Safety Conference Quality and ...

  16. Human Reliability Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodin, Michael

    2012-09-25

    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  17. Vehicle Technologies Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-09-05

    Overview of the Vehicle Technologies Program including external assessment and market view; internal assessment, program history and progress; program justification and federal role; program vision, mission, approach, strategic goals, outputs, and outcomes; and performance goals.

  18. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Trauma Trauma Programs Trauma Programs About Trauma Programs Violence Prevention BleedingControl.org Trauma Quality Programs National Trauma ... Benefits Current Openings Newsroom Newsroom Newsroom Press Releases Media Resources The FIRST Trial ACS Publications ACS in ...

  19. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Safety Conference Participant Use Data File Surgical Risk Calculator Frequently Asked Questions Participant Hub Contact Us ... Trauma Programs Trauma Programs About Trauma Programs Violence Prevention BleedingControl.org Trauma Quality Programs National Trauma Data ...

  20. Practical C++ programming

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oualline, Steve

    2003-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 4 6 3 2. The Basics of Program Writing Programs from Conception to Execution Creating a Real Program Getting Help in Unix Getting Help in an IDE Programming...

  1. Functional Python programming

    CERN Document Server

    Lott, Steven

    2015-01-01

    This book is for developers who want to use Python to write programs that lean heavily on functional programming design patterns. You should be comfortable with Python programming, but no knowledge of functional programming paradigms is needed.

  2. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Membership Directory 2017 Annual Meeting 2016 Annual Meeting Women's Committee Mentorship Program Outside Activities ACS Archives Contact Us Quality Programs Quality Programs Overview About Quality Programs ACS ...

  3. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Continuous Certification Requirements SSR Login MIPS Resources and Education Quality and Safety Conference Trauma Trauma Programs Trauma Programs About Trauma Programs Violence Prevention BleedingControl.org Trauma Quality Programs National Trauma ...

  4. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Membership Directory 2017 Annual Meeting 2016 Annual Meeting Women's Committee Mentorship Program Outside Activities ACS Archives Contact Us Quality Programs Quality Programs Overview About Quality Programs ACS Leadership in Quality ACS Leadership in Quality Setting the ...

  5. Behavioral program synthesis with genetic programming

    CERN Document Server

    Krawiec, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Genetic programming (GP) is a popular heuristic methodology of program synthesis with origins in evolutionary computation. In this generate-and-test approach, candidate programs are iteratively produced and evaluated. The latter involves running programs on tests, where they exhibit complex behaviors reflected in changes of variables, registers, or memory. That behavior not only ultimately determines program output, but may also reveal its `hidden qualities' and important characteristics of the considered synthesis problem. However, the conventional GP is oblivious to most of that information and usually cares only about the number of tests passed by a program. This `evaluation bottleneck' leaves search algorithm underinformed about the actual and potential qualities of candidate programs. This book proposes behavioral program synthesis, a conceptual framework that opens GP to detailed information on program behavior in order to make program synthesis more efficient. Several existing and novel mechanisms subs...

  6. Low Compliance to Handwashing Program and High Nosocomial Infection in a Brazilian Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizandra Ferreira de Almeida e Borges

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is a fact that hand hygiene prevents nosocomial infection, but compliance with recommended instructions is commonly poor. The purpose of this study was to implement a hand hygiene program for increase compliance with hand hygiene and its relationship with nosocomial infection (NI and MRSA infection/colonization rates. Methods. Compliance to hand hygiene was evaluated in a hospital by direct observation and measured of health care-associated infections, including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, before and after an educational intervention, using visual poster, colorful stamps, and feedback of the results. Results. Overall compliance did not increase during intervention, only handwashing before and after patient contact has improved from 40% to 76% (=0.01 for HCWs, but NI and MRSA rates remained high and stable. Conclusion. In a combination of high prevalence of NI and low compliance to hand hygiene, the programme of measure does not motivate the HCW hand hygiene. Future interventions should employ incremental evaluation to develop effective hand hygiene initiatives.

  7. Temporal abstraction and inductive logic programming for arrhythmia recognition from electrocardiograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrault, G; Cordier, M-O; Quiniou, R; Wang, F

    2003-07-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach to cardiac arrhythmia recognition from electrocardiograms (ECGs). ECGs record the electrical activity of the heart and are used to diagnose many heart disorders. The numerical ECG is first temporally abstracted into series of time-stamped events. Temporal abstraction makes use of artificial neural networks to extract interesting waves and their features from the input signals. A temporal reasoner called a chronicle recogniser processes such series in order to discover temporal patterns called chronicles which can be related to cardiac arrhythmias. Generally, it is difficult to elicit an accurate set of chronicles from a doctor. Thus, we propose to learn automatically from symbolic ECG examples the chronicles discriminating the arrhythmias belonging to some specific subset. Since temporal relationships are of major importance, inductive logic programming (ILP) is the tool of choice as it enables first-order relational learning. The approach has been evaluated on real ECGs taken from the MIT-BIH database. The performance of the different modules as well as the efficiency of the whole system is presented. The results are rather good and demonstrate that integrating numerical techniques for low level perception and symbolic techniques for high level classification is very valuable.

  8. An Intelligent Robot Programing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Yong

    2012-01-15

    This book introduces an intelligent robot programing with background of the begging, introduction of VPL, and SPL, building of environment for robot platform, starting of robot programing, design of simulation environment, robot autonomy drive control programing, simulation graphic. Such as SPL graphic programing graphical image and graphical shapes, and graphical method application, application of procedure for robot control, robot multiprogramming, robot bumper sensor programing, robot LRF sencor programing and robot color sensor programing.

  9. System programming languages

    OpenAIRE

    Šmit, Matej

    2016-01-01

    Most operating systems are written in the C programming language. Similar is with system software, for example, device drivers, compilers, debuggers, disk checkers, etc. Recently some new programming languages emerged, which are supposed to be suitable for system programming. In this thesis we present programming languages D, Go, Nim and Rust. We defined the criteria which are important for deciding whether programming language is suitable for system programming. We examine programming langua...

  10. Purely Functional Structured Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Obua, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The idea of functional programming has played a big role in shaping today's landscape of mainstream programming languages. Another concept that dominates the current programming style is Dijkstra's structured programming. Both concepts have been successfully married, for example in the programming language Scala. This paper proposes how the same can be achieved for structured programming and PURELY functional programming via the notion of LINEAR SCOPE. One advantage of this proposal is that m...

  11. An Intelligent Robot Programing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seong Yong

    2012-01-01

    This book introduces an intelligent robot programing with background of the begging, introduction of VPL, and SPL, building of environment for robot platform, starting of robot programing, design of simulation environment, robot autonomy drive control programing, simulation graphic. Such as SPL graphic programing graphical image and graphical shapes, and graphical method application, application of procedure for robot control, robot multiprogramming, robot bumper sensor programing, robot LRF sencor programing and robot color sensor programing.

  12. Applied Energy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Programs Applied Energy Programs Civilian Nuclear Energy Programs Laboratory Directed Research » Applied Energy Program Applied Energy Program Los Alamos is using its world-class scientific capabilities to enhance national energy security by developing energy sources with limited environmental impact

  13. Profile of graduates of Israeli medical schools in 1981--2000: educational background, demography and evaluation of medical education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterman, Noemi; Shalev, Ilana

    2005-05-01

    In light of changes in the medical profession, the different requirements placed on physicians and the evolving needs of the healthcare system, the need arose to examine the medical education curriculum in Israel. This survey, conducted by the Samuel Neaman Institute for Science and Technology, summarizes 20 years of medical education in Israel's four medical schools, as the first stage in mapping the existing state of medical education in Israel and providing a basis for decision-making on future medical education programs. To characterize the academic background of graduates, evaluate their attitudes towards current and alternative medical education programs, and examine subgroups among graduates according to gender, medical school, high school education, etc. The survey included graduates from all four Israeli medical schools who graduated between the years 1981 and 2000 in a sample of 1:3. A questionnaire and stamped return envelope were sent to every third graduate; the questionnaire included open and quantitative questions graded on a scale of 1 to 5. The data were processed for the entire graduate population and further analyzed according to subgroups such as medical schools, gender, high school education, etc. The response rate was 41.3%. The survey provided a demographic profile of graduates over a 20 year period, their previous educational and academic background, additional academic degrees achieved, satisfaction, and suggestions for future medical education programs. The profile of the medical graduates in Israel is mostly homogenous in terms of demographics, with small differences among the four medical schools. In line with recommendations of the graduates, and as an expression of the changing requirements in the healthcare system and the medical profession, the medical schools should consider alternative medical education programs such as a bachelor's degree in life sciences followed by MD studies, or education programs that combine medicine with

  14. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Trauma Quality Programs National Trauma Data Bank Trauma Quality Improvement Program Mentoring for Excellence in Trauma Surgery Advanced Trauma Life Support Verification, Review, and Consultation Program for Hospitals ...

  15. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recruiting Patients & Families Consortia, Networks & Centers Reports & Planning Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) The NIDDK-sponsored Diabetes Prevention ... Diabetes Prevention Program for those who are eligible. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) DPP Goal The DPP looked ...

  16. Research Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    PEER logo Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center home about peer news events research products laboratories publications nisee b.i.p. members education FAQs links research Research Program Overview Tall Buildings Initiative Transportation Research Program Lifelines Program Concrete Grand

  17. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safety Resources About the Patient Education Program The Recovery Room Choosing Wisely Educational Programs Educational Programs Educational ... and practice the skills needed for optimal postoperative recovery. The kit supports the entire surgical team with ...

  18. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Accreditation Program for Breast Centers About NAPBC Accreditation Education NAPBC Standards Cancer Programs News Quality in Geriatric ... Continuous Certification Requirements SSR Login MIPS Resources and Education Quality and Safety Conference Trauma Trauma Programs Trauma ...

  19. Stop smoking support programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... You can find out about smoking cessation programs from: Your ... Your employer Your local health department The National Cancer ...

  20. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Safety Inspiring Quality Initiative Resources Continuous Quality Improvement ACS Clinical Scholars in Residence AHRQ Safety Program ... Enrollment Webinars ACS NSQIP ACS National Surgical Quality Improvement Program ACS National Surgical Quality Improvement Program About ...

  1. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Quality and Safety Inspiring Quality Initiative Resources Continuous Quality Improvement ACS Clinical Scholars in Residence AHRQ Safety Program ... ISCR Enrollment Webinars ACS NSQIP ACS National Surgical Quality Improvement Program ACS National Surgical Quality Improvement Program About ...

  2. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ACS Careers at ACS About ACS Career Types Working at ACS ... Education Patients and Family Skills Programs Ostomy Home Skills Program Ostomy Home Skills Program Adult Ostomy ...

  3. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Policy Updates Selected Research Findings Quality Program Initiatives Communications to the Profession Advocacy Advocacy Overview Quality Payment Program QPP Resource Center QPP Resource Center 2018 Information 2017 Information Program Rules Surgeon Specific Registry Metabolic ...

  4. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Military Health System Strategic Partnership Military Health System Strategic Partnership About Excelsior Surgical Society ... Programs Quality Programs Overview About Quality Programs ACS Leadership in Quality ACS Leadership in Quality Setting the ...

  5. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Membership Directory 2017 Annual Meeting 2016 Annual Meeting Women's Committee Mentorship Program Outside Activities ACS Archives Contact ... Accreditation Program for Breast Centers About NAPBC Accreditation Education NAPBC Standards Cancer Programs News Quality in Geriatric ...

  6. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Verification, Review, and Consultation Program for Hospitals Trauma Systems Consultation Program Trauma Education Achieving Zero Preventable Deaths Conference Publications and Posters ...

  7. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in Trauma Surgery Advanced Trauma Life Support Verification, Review, and Consultation Program for Hospitals Trauma Systems Consultation Program Trauma Education Achieving Zero Preventable Deaths ...

  8. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Canada) International Fellows Associate Fellows Residents Medical Students Affiliate Members ACS Insurance Programs ACS Discount Programs FACS Resources Career Connection Update ...

  9. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Validation Programs Accreditation, Verification, and Validation Programs Accredited Education Institutes ... Entering Resident Readiness Assessment Evidence-Based Decisions in ...

  10. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... National Accreditation Program for Breast Centers About NAPBC Accreditation Education NAPBC Standards Cancer Programs News Quality in Geriatric Surgery Coalition for Quality in Geriatric ...

  11. National Transuranic Program Charter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The National Transuranic Program Plan and Charter describes the functional elements of the National TRU Program, organizational relationships, programmatic responsibilities, division of work scope among the various DOE organizations that comprise the program, and program baselines against which overall progress will be measured. The charter defines the authorities and responsibilities of various organizations involved in the management of TRU waste throughout the DOE complex

  12. Cavity design programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    Numerous computer programs are available to help accelerator physicists and engineers model and design accelerator cavities and other microwave components. This article discusses the problems these programs solve and the principles upon which these programs are based. Some examples of how these programs are used in the design of accelerator cavities are also given

  13. Programs as Data Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second Symposium on Programs as Data Objects, PADO 2001, held in Aarhus, Denmark, in May 2001. The 14 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 30 submissions. Various aspects of looking at programs as data objects...... are covered from the point of view of program analysis, program transformation, computational complexity, etc....

  14. The Cybernetic Writing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Kelly Fisher

    This paper looks at the role of a Writing Program Administrator, and applies the idea of a cybernetic system to the administration of the program. In this cybernetic model, the Writing Program Administrator (WPA) works as both a problem solver and problem causer, with the responsibility of keeping the program in proper balance. A cybernetic…

  15. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Advocacy Efforts Cancer Liaison Program Cancer Programs Conference Clinical Research Program Commission on Cancer National Accreditation Program for ... and Safety Conference ACS Clinical Scholars in Residence Clinical Trials ... Health Services Research Methods Course Surgeon Specific Registry Trauma Education Trauma ...

  16. Maintenance procedure upgrade programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.J.; Zimmerman, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a systematic approach to upgrading nuclear power plant maintenance procedures. The approach consists of four phases: diagnosis, program planning, program implementation, and program evaluation. Each phase is explained as a series of steps to ensure that all factors in a procedure upgrade program are considered

  17. Employee Assistance Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Hermine Zagat

    1985-01-01

    The author reports company responses to a questionnaire concerning employee assistance programs (EAP). Answers concern EAP structure, staff training, use of outside consultant, services provided by EAPs, program administration, employee confidence in EAPs, advertising the program, program philosophy, problems encountered by EAP users, coverage and…

  18. Environmental conditions analysis program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holten, J.

    1991-01-01

    The PC-based program discussed in this paper has the capability of determining the steady state temperatures of environmental zones (rooms). A program overview will be provided along with examples of formula use. Required input and output from the program will also be discussed. Specific application of plant monitored temperatures and utilization of this program will be offered. The presentation will show how the program can project individual room temperature profiles without continual temperature monitoring of equipment. A discussion will also be provided for the application of the program generated data. Evaluations of anticipated or planned plant modifications and the use of the subject program will also be covered

  19. C++ Programming Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    C++ Programming Language: The C++ seminar covers the fundamentals of C++ programming language. The C++ fundamentals are grouped into three parts where each part includes both concept and programming examples aimed at for hands-on practice. The first part covers the functional aspect of C++ programming language with emphasis on function parameters and efficient memory utilization. The second part covers the essential framework of C++ programming language, the object-oriented aspects. Information necessary to evaluate various features of object-oriented programming; including encapsulation, polymorphism and inheritance will be discussed. The last part of the seminar covers template and generic programming. Examples include both user defined and standard templates.

  20. Federal Wind Energy Program. Program summary. [USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The objective of the Federal Wind Energy Program is to accelerate the development of reliable and economically viable wind energy systems and enable the earliest possible commercialization of wind power. To achieve this objective for small and large wind systems requires advancing the technology, developing a sound industrial technology base, and addressing the non-technological issues which could deter the use of wind energy. This summary report outlines the projects being supported by the program through FY 1977 toward the achievement of these goals. It also outlines the program's general organization and specific program elements.

  1. An Analysis of Programming Beginners' Source Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Chieko; Nakashima, Toyoshiro; Ishii, Naohiro

    The production of animations was made the subject of a university programming course in order to make students understand the process of program creation, and so that students could tackle programming with interest. In this paper, the formats and composition of the programs which students produced were investigated. As a result, it was found that there were a lot of problems related to such matters as how to use indent, how to apply comments and functions etc. for the format and the composition of the source codes.

  2. Construindo devoções: as estampas de santos na criação religiosa e na pesquisa histórica – o caso da Nossa Senhora Aparecida do Vagão Queimado / Building devotions: the stamps of saints in religious creation and historical research – the case of Nossa Senhora Aparecida do Vagão Queimado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício de Aquino

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available It is intended to discuss the specificities, the uses and potential of prints of Catholicsaints in historical research, particularly in the construction of the devotion to Nossa Senhora Aparecida do Vagão Queimado de Ourinhos, state of São Paulo, Brazil. In recent decades, especially in the 1970s, central points in the production of historical knowledge have been transformed, mainly, by the eruption of new conceptions of time and source. In this context, religious history, showing significant growth and renewal, has expanded its objects and, indeed, its sources, enhancing the traditional iconography in its modern format extensions, as in the case of the prints of saints. The meanings and uses of these stamps must be sought in the interaction with determined devotional practice marked by the temporal, spatial and social situations of a specific historical context, through the confluence of the perspectives of social history of art, anthropology, sociology, and cultural semiotics, adjusted to the specifically historical way of producing knowledge.Pretende-se discutir as especificidades, os usos e as potencialidades das estampas de santos católicos na pesquisa histórica, em particular, na construção da devoção a Nossa Senhora Aparecida do Vagão Queimado de Ourinhos-SP. Nas últimas décadas, sobretudo nos anos 1970, pontos centrais da produção do conhecimento histórico foram transformados, principalmente, pela irrupção de novas concepções de tempo e de fonte. Nesse contexto a história religiosa, em expressivo crescimento e renovação, expandiu seus objetos e, com efeito, suas fontes, valorizando a tradicional iconografia em suas extensões de formato moderno, como no caso das estampas dos santos. Os sentidos e os usos dessas estampas devem ser buscados na interação com determinada prática devocional marcada pelas situações temporais, espaciais e sociais de um específico contexto histórico a partir da confluência de

  3. Introduction to parallel programming

    CERN Document Server

    Brawer, Steven

    1989-01-01

    Introduction to Parallel Programming focuses on the techniques, processes, methodologies, and approaches involved in parallel programming. The book first offers information on Fortran, hardware and operating system models, and processes, shared memory, and simple parallel programs. Discussions focus on processes and processors, joining processes, shared memory, time-sharing with multiple processors, hardware, loops, passing arguments in function/subroutine calls, program structure, and arithmetic expressions. The text then elaborates on basic parallel programming techniques, barriers and race

  4. Programming with joystick

    OpenAIRE

    Banič, Nejc

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, we implemented a way of programming by means of gaming accessories. The main reason is that to show a diferent way of developing programs, because vast majority of programers are using two input / output devices: keyboard and mouse. These two devices have become standard and will definitely remain so in the future. For our implementation, we used high-level programming language Java and NetBeans integrated development environment. The program is actually a ...

  5. Multiobjective programming and planning

    CERN Document Server

    Cohon, Jared L

    2004-01-01

    This text takes a broad view of multiobjective programming, emphasizing the methods most useful for continuous problems. It reviews multiobjective programming methods in the context of public decision-making problems, developing each problem within a context that addresses practical aspects of planning issues. Topics include a review of linear programming, the formulation of the general multiobjective programming problem, classification of multiobjective programming methods, techniques for generating noninferior solutions, multiple-decision-making methods, multiobjective analysis of water reso

  6. Technology Commercialization Program 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-01

    This reference compilation describes the Technology Commercialization Program of the Department of Energy, Defense Programs. The compilation consists of two sections. Section 1, Plans and Procedures, describes the plans and procedures of the Defense Programs Technology Commercialization Program. The second section, Legislation and Policy, identifies legislation and policy related to the Program. The procedures for implementing statutory and regulatory requirements are evolving with time. This document will be periodically updated to reflect changes and new material.

  7. Into the Curriculum. Interdisciplinary: Celebrating Our Animal Friends: An Across-the-Curriculum Unit for Middle Level Students [and] Music: Program Notes [and] Reading-Language Arts: Letters: Written, Licked, and Stamped [and] Science: Plants in Families [and] Science: Physics and Holiday Toys (Gravity) [and] Social Studies: Learning about Geography through Children's Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Rose; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents six curriculum guides for elementary and secondary education. Subjects include interdisciplinary instruction, music, reading/language arts, science, and social studies. Each guide provides library media skills objectives, curriculum objectives, grade levels, resources, instructional roles, activity and procedures for completion, a…

  8. Earning the Stamp of Approval: How To Achieve Optimal Usability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makar, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Describes the redesign of the Web site at the virtual library of the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology). Discusses usability problems with the original site, including navigation difficulties; focus groups to determine user needs; usability testing for the new Web site; and the importance of customer input. (LRW)

  9. Stamps, Sarcophagi, and Songs: Teaching World History with Online Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrum, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Teaching world history is challenging. In addition to covering the history of the world geographically and chronologically, it is difficult to find high quality, translated materials ready for classroom use. The Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media at George Mason University offers free, online materials, including primary sources,…

  10. Optimal higher-order encoder time-stamping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merry, R.J.E.; Molengraft, van de M.J.G.; Steinbuch, M.

    2013-01-01

    Optical incremental encoders are used to measure the position of motion control systems. The accuracy of the position measurement is determined and bounded by the number of slits on the encoder. The position measurement is affected by quantization errors and encoder imperfections. In this paper, an

  11. Modelling the deformation process of flexible stamps for nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mads Rostgaard

    of PTFE against steel on micro-scale is presented. The 2D axisymmetric model is verified through an experiment, in which a PTFE sheet with a predefined square grid pattern on the surface is deformed by a steel sphere mounted in a uniaxial tensile test machine. Good agreement between simulations...

  12. Taxation – Charges to stamp duty as consideration

    OpenAIRE

    Shardlow, Janice B.

    1998-01-01

    The author examines issues, illustrated by relevant case law, relating to the imposition of a charge to taxation at a fixed point in time by reference to consideration. Article by Janice B. Shardlow (Lecturer, University of Wolverhampton) published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies and its Society for Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, University of London.

  13. Earthworms, Stamps and Butterfly Wings: Encouraging Children's Interests and Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Ann

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the importance of encouraging children's interests and the pursuit of collections and hobbies as strategies for developing talent and abilities. Excerpts are cited from eminent people's lives as examples of early interests/collections and eventual success. Letters from children on their collections are included. (Contains…

  14. Malawian ethnic music: concepts of hand clapping, foot stamping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of this music. The songs used in this article are transcribed as heard and perceived from direct participation in singing them in their contexts. They are .... for understanding the concepts of pedagogy and memory aids that serve the. Yao well, for .... to some more general-non-verbal-aspects of the situation in which the words.

  15. Eleven Ways to Stamp Out the Potential for Sexual Harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Robert H.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the 1980 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission guidelines defining sexual harassment as a form of sex discrimination. Advises 11 steps, including creating clear-cut policies and guidelines to help school officials deal with the problem. Insets offer policy "pointers" and several recommendations for staff members desiring to counter…

  16. 26 CFR 301.6805-1 - Redemption of stamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... authorized by this section, shall in the absence of fraud or mistake in mathematical calculation, be final and not subject to revision by any accounting officer. [T.D. 7188, 37 FR 12795, June 29, 1972] ...

  17. Nanofaceting as a stamp for periodic graphene charge carrier modulations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondráček, Martin; Kalita, D.; Kučera, M.; Fekete, Ladislav; Kopeček, Jaromír; Lančok, Ján; Coraux, J.; Bouchiat, V.; Honolka, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, Apr (2016), 1-7, č. článku 23663. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1409; GA MŠk LM2015088 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) Fellowship J. E. Purkyně; SAFMAT(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/22132 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : graphene * ARPES * LEED * AFM * copper * nanofaceting Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  18. The "stamp method" : a new treatment for perforated peptic ulcer?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertleff, M.J.O.E.; Liem, RSB; Robinson, PH; Bonjer, HJ; Lange, J. F.; Bartels, H.; van der Werf, J.F.A.

    Background: The aim of this study was to develop a simple method for closure of a perforated peptic ulcer, making it more accessible for laparoscopic surgery. Methods: An experimental pilot study was performed using five male Wistar rats. The perforation was closed by a bioabsorbable patch made of

  19. Simulation of Stamping Process of Automotive Panel Considering Die Deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keum, Y.T.; Ahn, I.H.; Lee, I.K.; Song, M.H.; Kwon, S.O.; Park, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    In order to see the effect of die deformation on the forming of sheet metals, the draw-ins, strains, and spring-backs of an automotive fender panels are numerically simulated considering the die deformation, which is found by the simultaneous structural analysis of press and dies. By coupling the forming analysis and the structural analysis, the die deformation is simultaneously taken into account in the forming process. Furthermore, for the consideration of load difference transferred among the upper die, punch, and blank holder due to the changes in sheet thickness, the gap elements are employed instead of the blank sheet in the structural analysis. The numerical simulation results of an automotive fender draw panel are compared with the measurements. The comparison of the forming and spring-back analysis results between the rigid die and the deformed die shows that the deformed tool provides more accurate forming and spring-back prediction

  20. Nanosecond Level UTC Timing Generation and Stamping in CERN's LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez, P; Lewis, J; Serrano, J

    2003-01-01

    The General Machine Timing (GMT) at CERN uses an RS-485 multi-drop network through which messages are broadcast by a Central Timing Generator (CTG) module at a rate of 500 kb/s and decoded by many receiver modules in different form factors. For long distance transmission, optical fibers are used. As a result of cabling and capacitive loading of the receivers' inputs, the timing message signal presents an average jitter of 14 ns at any receiver input. For the LHC era, the 500 kb/s rate will be maintained to ensure compatibility with old receivers. However, a special kind of Phase Locked Loop (PLL), involving digital control in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and a DAC to control a Voltage Controlled Crystal Oscillator (VCXO), has been developed to generate a 40 MHz square wave at the receiving side which is locked on average to the timing message signal but presents a jitter of less than 1 ns. This 40 MHz signal is locked to UTC because the encoder in the CTG card uses a 40 MHz clock coming from a GPS r...

  1. Stochastic integer programming by dynamic programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lageweg, B.J.; Lenstra, J.K.; Rinnooy Kan, A.H.G.; Stougie, L.; Ermoliev, Yu.; Wets, R.J.B.

    1988-01-01

    Stochastic integer programming is a suitable tool for modeling hierarchical decision situations with combinatorial features. In continuation of our work on the design and analysis of heuristics for such problems, we now try to find optimal solutions. Dynamic programming techniques can be used to

  2. Analyzing Array Manipulating Programs by Program Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, J. Robert M.; Gange, Graeme; Navas, Jorge A.; Schachte, Peter; Sondergaard, Harald; Stuckey, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    We explore a transformational approach to the problem of verifying simple array-manipulating programs. Traditionally, verification of such programs requires intricate analysis machinery to reason with universally quantified statements about symbolic array segments, such as "every data item stored in the segment A[i] to A[j] is equal to the corresponding item stored in the segment B[i] to B[j]." We define a simple abstract machine which allows for set-valued variables and we show how to translate programs with array operations to array-free code for this machine. For the purpose of program analysis, the translated program remains faithful to the semantics of array manipulation. Based on our implementation in LLVM, we evaluate the approach with respect to its ability to extract useful invariants and the cost in terms of code size.

  3. Program reference schedule baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    This Program Reference Schedule Baseline (PRSB) provides the baseline Program-level milestones and associated schedules for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. It integrates all Program-level schedule-related activities. This schedule baseline will be used by the Director, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), and his staff to monitor compliance with Program objectives. Chapter 1 includes brief discussions concerning the relationship of the PRSB to the Program Reference Cost Baseline (PRCB), the Mission Plan, the Project Decision Schedule, the Total System Life Cycle Cost report, the Program Management Information System report, the Program Milestone Review, annual budget preparation, and system element plans. Chapter 2 includes the identification of all Level 0, or Program-level, milestones, while Chapter 3 presents and discusses the critical path schedules that correspond to those Level 0 milestones

  4. Programming Models in HPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipman, Galen M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-13

    These are the slides for a presentation on programming models in HPC, at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Parallel Computing Summer School. The following topics are covered: Flynn's Taxonomy of computer architectures; single instruction single data; single instruction multiple data; multiple instruction multiple data; address space organization; definition of Trinity (Intel Xeon-Phi is a MIMD architecture); single program multiple data; multiple program multiple data; ExMatEx workflow overview; definition of a programming model, programming languages, runtime systems; programming model and environments; MPI (Message Passing Interface); OpenMP; Kokkos (Performance Portable Thread-Parallel Programming Model); Kokkos abstractions, patterns, policies, and spaces; RAJA, a systematic approach to node-level portability and tuning; overview of the Legion Programming Model; mapping tasks and data to hardware resources; interoperability: supporting task-level models; Legion S3D execution and performance details; workflow, integration of external resources into the programming model.

  5. Revealing the programming process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because...... the textbook medium is static and therefore ill-suited to expose the process of programming. We have found that process recordings in the form of captured narrated programming sessions are a simple, cheap, and efficient way of providing the revelation.We identify seven different elements of the programming...

  6. General edition program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaturi, Sylvain

    1969-01-01

    Computerized edition is essential for data processing exploitation. When a more or less complex edition program is required for each task, then the need for a general edition program become obvious. The aim of this study is to create a general edition program. Universal programs are capable to execute numerous and varied tasks. For a more precise processing, the execution of which is frequently required, the use of a specialized program is preferable because, contradictory to the universal program, it goes straight to the point [fr

  7. Employee assistance programs: history and program description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, B

    1994-10-01

    1. The history and development of Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) can be traced back to the 1800s. There are currently over 10,000 EAPs in the United States. 2. Standards for program accreditation and counselor certification have been established for EAPs. The "core technology of Employee Assistance Programs" includes identification of behavioural problems based on job performance issues, expert consultation with supervisors, appropriate use of constructive confrontation, microlinkages with treatment providers and resources, macrolinkages between providers, resources, and work organizations, focus on substance abuse, and evaluation of employee success based on job performance. 3. Some EAPs take a broad brush approach, and incorporate health promotion and managed care functions.

  8. HUD Program Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Income limits used to determine the income eligibility of applicants for assistance under three programs authorized by the National Housing Act. These programs are...

  9. Astron Program final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, R.J.; Hester, R.E.; Porter, G.D.; Sherwood, W.A.; Spoerlein, R.; Stallard, B.W.; Taska, J.; Weiss, P.B.

    1975-01-01

    This report describes important experimental results obtained in the last two years of the Astron Program, an LLL controlled nuclear fusion program which terminated in 1973. Little theoretical work is included, but an extensive bibliography is given

  10. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Quality Standard Optimal Resources for Surgical Quality and Safety Inspiring Quality Initiative Resources Continuous Quality Improvement ACS Clinical Scholars in Residence AHRQ Safety Program for ISCR AHRQ Safety Program for ISCR ...

  11. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Member Fellows International Fellows Associate Fellows Residents Medical Students Affiliate Members Fees and Dues Realize the Potential ... and Canada) International Fellows Associate Fellows Residents Medical Students Affiliate Members ACS Insurance Programs ACS Discount Programs ...

  12. LOADING SIMULATION PROGRAM C

    Science.gov (United States)

    LSPC is the Loading Simulation Program in C++, a watershed modeling system that includes streamlined Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) algorithms for simulating hydrology, sediment, and general water quality

  13. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Program Trauma Education Achieving Zero Preventable Deaths Conference Publications and Posters National Trauma System Injury Prevention and ... Division of Education ACS Education and Training Courses Publications Resources Education Program Videos Contact Us Clinical Congress ...

  14. National Toxicology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NTP? NTP develops and applies tools of modern toxicology and molecular biology to identify substances in the ... depend on for decisions that matter. The National Toxicology Program provides the scientific basis for programs, activities, ...

  15. Veterans Choice Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — If you are already enrolled in VA health care, the Choice Program allows you to receive health care within your community. Using this program does NOT impact your...

  16. French plutonium management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greneche, D.

    2002-01-01

    The French plutonium management program is summarized in this paper. The program considers nuclear generation as a major component of national electric power supply and includes the reprocessing of the spent fuel. (author)

  17. Entrez Programming Utilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Entrez Programming Utilities (E-utilities) are a set of eight server-side programs that provide a stable interface into the Entrez query and database system at...

  18. LOADING SIMULATION PROGRAM C

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — LSPC is the Loading Simulation Program in C++, a watershed modeling system that includes streamlined Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) algorithms for...

  19. Coalbed Methane Outreach Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coalbed Methane Outreach Program, voluntary program seeking to reduce methane emissions from coal mining activities. CMOP promotes profitable recovery/use of coal mine methane (CMM), addressing barriers to using CMM instead of emitting it to atmosphere.

  20. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... JACS Jobs Events Find a Surgeon Patients and Family Contact My Profile Shop ( 0 ) Cart Donate American College of Surgeons Education Patients and Family Skills Programs Ostomy Home Skills Program Ostomy Home ...

  1. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... SESAP Sampler SRGS Resources in Surgical Education ACS Fundamentals of Surgery Curriculum Mastery in General Surgery Program ... Communications to the Profession Advocacy Advocacy Overview Quality Payment Program QPP Resource Center QPP Resource Center 2018 ...

  2. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Profession Member Benefits About Member Benefits About Member Benefits Fellows (US and Canada) International Fellows Associate Fellows Residents Medical Students Affiliate Members ACS Insurance Programs ACS Discount Programs ...

  3. STEM Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    & Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education

  4. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Program State Legislation Tracked by the College Maintenance of Certification Quality Quality Quality Electronic Health Records (EHR) Incentive Program Physician Quality Reporting System Value-Based Payment Modifier Quality and Resource Use ...

  5. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Quality Programs ACS Leadership in Quality ACS Leadership in Quality Setting the Quality Standard Optimal Resources for Surgical Quality and Safety Inspiring Quality Initiative Resources Continuous Quality Improvement ACS Clinical Scholars in Residence AHRQ Safety Program ...

  6. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... My OR EHR Incentive Program Global Codes and Data Collection Patient Opioid Use New Medicare Card Project Medicare ... self-care checklist Evaluation (Complete the Ostomy Patient Survey . We need your opinion!) Program outcomes The ACS ...

  7. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Careers at ACS Careers at ACS About ACS Career Types Working at ACS ... American College of Surgeons Education Patients and Family Skills Programs Ostomy Home Skills Program Ostomy Home Skills ...

  8. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Be a YFA Leader Meetings and Events YFA Mentor Programs YFA Speakers Bureau Top 10 Reasons to ... National Trauma Data Bank Trauma Quality Improvement Program Mentoring for Excellence in Trauma Surgery Advanced Trauma Life ...

  9. Understanding Participation in Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Alan L.

    1991-01-01

    Adherence to program planning principles does not guarantee participation. Attention must be paid to characteristics that make a program responsive: target audience, promotion and marketing, competition, and logistics. (SK)

  10. Materials Sciences Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A compilation and index of the ERDA materials sciences program is presented. This compilation is intended for use by administrators, managers, and scientists to help coordinate research and as an aid in selecting new programs

  11. ISTEF Laser Radar Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stryjewski, John

    1998-01-01

    The BMDO Innovative Science and Technology Experimentation Facility (BMDO/ISTEF) laser radar program is engaged in an ongoing program to develop and demonstrate advanced laser radar concepts for Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD...

  12. Programming Language Paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Felician ALECU

    2013-01-01

    This paper's goal is to briefly explain the basic theory behind programming languages and their history while taking a close look at different programming paradigms that are used today as well as describing their differences, benefits, and drawbacks

  13. ICASE Computer Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering computer science program is discussed in outline form. Information is given on such topics as problem decomposition, algorithm development, programming languages, and parallel architectures.

  14. Ecosystem Analysis Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research programs: analysis and modeling of ecosystems; EDFB/IBP data center; biome analysis studies; land/water interaction studies; and computer programs for development of models

  15. Python to learn programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanchikov, A.; Zhaparov, M.; Suliyev, R.

    2013-04-01

    Today we have a lot of programming languages that can realize our needs, but the most important question is how to teach programming to beginner students. In this paper we suggest using Python for this purpose, because it is a programming language that has neatly organized syntax and powerful tools to solve any task. Moreover it is very close to simple math thinking. Python is chosen as a primary programming language for freshmen in most of leading universities. Writing code in python is easy. In this paper we give some examples of program codes written in Java, C++ and Python language, and we make a comparison between them. Firstly, this paper proposes advantages of Python language in relation to C++ and JAVA. Then it shows the results of a comparison of short program codes written in three different languages, followed by a discussion on how students understand programming. Finally experimental results of students' success in programming courses are shown.

  16. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Meetings and Events Scholarships, Competitions, Awards, and Project Work Top 10 Reasons to Participate Grand Rounds Webinar ... Accreditation Program for Breast Centers About NAPBC Accreditation Education NAPBC Standards Cancer Programs News Quality in Geriatric ...

  17. Modeling EERE deployment programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, K. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hostick, D. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Belzer, D. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Livingston, O. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of the project was to identify and characterize the modeling of deployment programs within the EERE Technology Development (TD) programs, address possible improvements to the modeling process, and note gaps in knowledge for future research.

  18. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About ACS NSQIP Join ACS NSQIP Now Collaboratives Hospital Compare Quality and Safety Conference Participant Use Data ... Life Support Verification, Review, and Consultation Program for Hospitals Trauma Systems Consultation Program Trauma Education Achieving Zero ...

  19. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Centers National Cancer Database National Accreditation Program for Rectal Cancer Oncology Medical Home Accreditation Program Stereotactic Breast ... collaboration with the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons (ASCRS), American Urological Association (AUA), Certified Enterostomal ...

  20. Youth Suicide Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalafat, John

    2006-01-01

    Youth suicide prevention programs are described that promote the identification and referral of at-risk youth, address risk factors, and promote protective factors. Emphasis is on programs that are both effective and sustainable in applied settings.

  1. Crab Rationalization Permit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Crab Rationalization Program (Program) allocates BSAI crab resources among harvesters, processors, and coastal communities. The North Pacific Fishery Management...

  2. Dental Assisting Program Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This publication contains statewide standards for the dental assisting program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories: foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation); admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning); program…

  3. USSR imploding liner program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    A summary is given of the history and rationale of the USSR program to implode metallic liners for the fusion program. The explosive driven, magnetic drive, and compressed gas driven research is reviewed. (MOW)

  4. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Associate Fellows Residents Medical Students Affiliate Members ACS Insurance Programs ACS Discount Programs FACS Resources Career Connection ... and Awards Overview Scholarships, Fellowships, and Awards Overview Health Policy Scholarships Scholarships for International Surgeons Research Scholarships ...

  5. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Class Clinical Congress 2018 Events at Clinical Congress Child Care at Clinical Congress Info for International Attendees ... Accreditation Program for Breast Centers About NAPBC Accreditation Education NAPBC Standards Cancer Programs News Quality in Geriatric ...

  6. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You Want to Be a Surgeon Resident Resources Teaching Resources Online Guide to Choosing a Surgical Residency ... Research Findings Quality Program Initiatives Communications to the Profession Advocacy Advocacy Overview Quality Payment Program QPP Resource ...

  7. Implementing a fax referral program for quitline smoking cessation services in urban health centers: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantrell Jennifer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fax referral services that connect smokers to state quitlines have been implemented in 49 U.S. states and territories and promoted as a simple solution to improving smoker assistance in medical practice. This study is an in-depth examination of the systems-level changes needed to implement and sustain a fax referral program in primary care. Methods The study involved implementation of a fax referral system paired with a chart stamp prompting providers to identify smoking patients, provide advice to quit and refer interested smokers to a state-based fax quitline. Three focus groups (n = 26 and eight key informant interviews were conducted with staff and physicians at two clinics after the intervention. We used the Chronic Care Model as a framework to analyze the data, examining how well the systems changes were implemented and the impact of these changes on care processes, and to develop recommendations for improvement. Results Physicians and staff described numerous benefits of the fax referral program for providers and patients but pointed out significant barriers to full implementation, including the time-consuming process of referring patients to the Quitline, substantial patient resistance, and limitations in information and care delivery systems for referring and tracking smokers. Respondents identified several strategies for improving integration, including simplification of the referral form, enhanced teamwork, formal assignment of responsibility for referrals, ongoing staff training and patient education. Improvements in Quitline feedback were needed to compensate for clinics' limited internal information systems for tracking smokers. Conclusions Establishing sustainable linkages to quitline services in clinical sites requires knowledge of existing patterns of care and tailored organizational changes to ensure new systems are prioritized, easily integrated into current office routines, formally assigned to specific

  8. Reactive Programming in Java

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Reactive Programming in gaining a lot of excitement. Many libraries, tools, and frameworks are beginning to make use of reactive libraries. Besides, applications dealing with big data or high frequency data can benefit from this programming paradigm. Come to this presentation to learn about what reactive programming is, what kind of problems it solves, how it solves them. We will take an example oriented approach to learning the programming model and the abstraction.

  9. Photovoltaic systems. Program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-12-01

    Each of the Department of Energy's Photovoltaic Systems Program projects funded and/or in existence during fiscal year 1978 (October 1, 1977 through September 30, 1978) are described. The project sheets list the contractor, principal investigator, and contract number and funding and summarize the programs and status. The program is divided into various elements: program assessment and integration, research and advanced development, technology development, system definition and development, system application experiments, and standards and performance criteria. (WHK)

  10. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... State Requirements Contact Online Education Accreditation, Verification, and Validation Accreditation, Verification, and Validation Programs Accreditation, Verification, and ...

  11. Morning Programs Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Like British morning programs of recent decades, upstate New York program encourages parents and community residents to get involved in children's education. Parents and community residents--watercolor artists, auto mechanics, doll collectors, and others--are welcomed and valued in schools. Program's purpose is learning, not entertainment. Topics…

  12. Customer Service Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Use of computer program STRCMACS has enabled Illinois Bell Telephone, a subsidiary of American Telephone and Telegraph to cut software development costs about 10 percent by reducing program maintenance and by allowing the department to bring other software into operation more quickly. It has also been useful in company training of programming staff.

  13. Maine's Employability Skills Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, John M.; Wolffe, Karen E.; Wolfe, Judy; Brooker, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    This Practice Report describes the development and implementation of the "Maine Employability Skills Program," a model employment program developed by the Maine Division for the Blind and Visually Impaired (DBVI). The program was designed to support the efforts of the chronically unemployed or underemployed. These consumers were either…

  14. An Interdistrict Transfer Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Norman

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before the May 1974 public hearings of the New York City Commission on Human Rights by the Administrator, Urban-Suburban Transfer Program and Inter district Transfer Program, West Irondequoit School District, New York, reviews a program which began with 25 minority group youngsters from one racially-imbalanced Rochester school…

  15. The Trailblazer Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefney, Charles J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the "Three Pillars of Success" for the Trailblazer Program. The topics include: 1) The "Rocket Equation" for SSTO (Single Stage To Orbit); 2) The Rocket I* Barrier; 3) Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle Engine; 4) Potential for Reusability; 5) Factors Mitigating RBCC Performance; 6) The "Trailblazer" Program; 7) Trailblazer Performance Goals; 8) Trailblazer Reference Vehicle; and 9) Trailblazer Program Architecture.

  16. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Trauma Programs About Trauma Programs Violence Prevention BleedingControl.org Trauma Quality Programs National Trauma Data Bank Trauma ... 5000 (F) 312-202-5001 (E) postmaster@facs.org Copyright © 1996-2018 by the American College of ...

  17. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ostomy Home Skills Program Ostomy Home Skills Program Adult Ostomy Pediatric Ostomy Programa de Destrezas para manejo Doméstico de Ostomía Ostomy Home Skills Program Adult Ostomy Pediatric Ostomy Programa de Destrezas para manejo ...

  18. NCSU Reactor Sharing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, P.B.

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Reactor Program at North Carolina State University provides the PULSTAR Research Reactor and associated facilities to eligible institutions with support, in part, from the Department of Energy Reactor Sharing Program. Participation in the NCSU Reactor Sharing Program continues to increase steadily with visitors ranging from advance high school physics and chemistry students to Ph.D. level research from neighboring universities

  19. Programs, interfaces and components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Loots, M.E.

    The jump instruction is considered essential for an adequate theoretical understanding of imperative sequential programming. Using atomic actions and tests as a basis we outline an algebra of programs, denoted PGA, which captures the crux of sequential programming. PGA provides an ontology for

  20. Trends in Multicultural Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylopoulos, Chryss

    1985-01-01

    Outlines basic principles and philosophy behind library multicultural programs and provides brief overview of development of such programs in Canadian libraries. Programing themes (cultural identity, contribution of ethnocultural groups to Canadian society, interpretation of multiculturalism as social policy) and suggestions for integrating…

  1. Special Milk Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Special Milk Program provides milk to children in schools, child care institutions and eligible camps that do not participate in other Federal child nutrition meal service programs. The program reimburses schools and institutions for the milk they serve. In 2008, 4,676 schools and residential child care institutions participated, along with…

  2. YRE Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Div. of School Facilities Planning.

    This report examines single- and multi-track educational programs as found in California's public school system, explores the pros and cons of using year-round education (YRE) programs, and how to implement these programs. Each year-round tracking system is detailed using each of their calendars in a side-by-side comparison along with the…

  3. Modern programming language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, G. H.; Johnson, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Structural-programming language is especially-tailored for producing assembly language programs for MODCOMP II and IV mini-computes. Modern programming language consists of set of simple and powerful control structures that include sequencing alternative selection, looping, sub-module linking, comment insertion, statement continuation, and compilation termination capabilities.

  4. Programming the BBC micro

    CERN Document Server

    Ferguson, John D; Macari, Louie; Williams, Peter H

    1983-01-01

    Programming the BBC Micro is a 12-chapter book that begins with a description of the BBC microcomputer, its peripheral, and faults. Subsequent chapters focus on practice in programming, program development, graphics, words, numbers, sound, bits, bytes, and assembly language. The interfacing, file handling, and detailed description of BBC microcomputer are also shown.

  5. Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program - Weatherization Assistance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program reduces energy costs for low-income households by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes, while ensuring their health and safety.

  6. Equipment qualification research program: program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, R.G.; Smith, P.D.

    1982-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed this program plan for research in equipment qualification (EQA). In this report the research program which will be executed in accordance with this plan will be referred to as the Equipment Qualification Research Program (EQRP). Covered are electrical and mechanical equipment under the conditions described in the OBJECTIVE section of this report. The EQRP has two phases; Phase I is primarily to produce early results and to develop information for Phase II. Phase I will last 18 months and consists of six projects. The first project is program management. The second project is responsible for in-depth evaluation and review of EQ issues and EQ processes. The third project is responsible for detailed planning to initiate Phase II. The remaining three projects address specific equipment; i.e., valves, electrical equipment, and a pump

  7. Scallop License Limitation Program (SLLP) Permit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A federal Scallop License Limitation Program (SLLP) license is required onboard any vessel deployed in scallop fisheries in Federal waters off Alaska (except for...

  8. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009 is to provide an updated status of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commercial-scale demonstrations of clean coal technologies (CCT). These demonstrations have been performed under the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). Program Update 2009 provides: (1) a discussion of the role of clean coal technology demonstrations in improving the nation’s energy security and reliability, while protecting the environment using the nation’s most abundant energy resource—coal; (2) a summary of the funding and costs of the demonstrations; and (3) an overview of the technologies being demonstrated, along with fact sheets for projects that are active, recently completed, or recently discontinued.

  9. Programming in COBOL

    CERN Document Server

    Lancaster, G T

    2014-01-01

    Programming in COBOL is a simple yet concise how-to book that teaches the programming language in a short yet effective step-by-step manner, which can be easily understood by anyone with sufficient knowledge in information technology. Covering first the advantages of COBOL over other programming languages, the book discusses COBOL's divisions - identification, environment, procedure, and data, and then describes the testing of the COBOL source programs and program questions. The book is valuable for those who wish to learn basic COBOL language, but do not have the time to take manufacturers' o

  10. Energy research program 83

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The energy research program 83 (EFP-83) is prepared by the Danish Ministry of Energy in order to continue the extension of the Danish energy research and development started through the former Trade Ministry's programs EM-1 (1976) and EM-2 (1978), and the Ministry of Energy's programs EFP-80, EFP-81 and EFP-82. The new program is a continuation of the activities in the period 1983-85 with a total budget of 111 mio. DKK. The program gives a brief description of background, principles, organization and financing, and a detailed description of each research area. (ln)

  11. Energy research program 85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The energy research program 85 (EFP-85) is prepared by the Danish Ministry of Energy in order to continue the extension of the Danish energy research and development started through the former Trade Ministry's programs EM-1 (1976) and EM-2 (1978), and Ministry of Energy's programs EFP-80, EFP-81, EFP-82, EFP-83, and EFP-84. The new program is a continuation of the activities in the period 1985-87 with a total budget of 110 mio. DKK. The program gives a brief description of background, principles, organization and financing, and a detailed description of each research area. (ln)

  12. Energy research program 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The energy research program 82 (EFP-82) is prepared by the Danish ministry of energy in order to continue the extension of the Danish energy research and development started through the former trade ministry's programs EM-1 (1976) and EM-2 (1978), and the energy ministry's programs EFP-80 and EFP-81. The new program is a continuation of the activities in the period 1982-84 with a total budget of 100 mio.Dkr. The program gives a brief description of background, principles, organization and financing, and a detailed description of each research area. (BP)

  13. Energy research program 86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The energy research program 86 (EFP-86) is prepared by the Danish Ministry of Energy in order to continue the extension of the Danish energy research and development started through the former Trade Ministry's programs EM-1 (1976) and EM-2 (1978), and the Ministry of Energy's programs EFP-80, EFP-81, EFP-82, EFP-83, EFP-84, and EFP-85. The new program is a continuation of the activities in the period 1986-88 with a total budget of 116 mio. DKK. The program gives a brief description of background, principles, organization and financing, and a detailed description of each research area. (ln)

  14. Energy research program 84

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The energy research program 84 (EFP-84) is prepared by the Danish Ministry of Energy in order to continue the extension of the Danish energy research and development started through the former Trade Ministry's programs EM-1 (1976) and EM-2 (1978), and the Ministry of Energy's programs EFP-80, EFP-81, EFP-82 and EFP-83. The new program is a continuation of the activities in the period 1984-86 with a total budget of 112 mio. DKK. The program gives a brief description of background, principles, organization and financing, and a detailed description of each research area. (ln)

  15. Mixed language programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burow, Burkhard D.

    1996-01-01

    Computing in the next millennium will be using software from this millennium. Programming languages evolve and new ones continue to be created. The use of legacy code demonstrates why some present and future applications may span programming languages. Even a completely new application may mix programming languages, if it allows its components to be more conveniently expressed. Given the need, mixed language programming should be easy and robust. By resolving a variety of difficulties, the well established cfortran.h package provides, the desired convenient interface across the C and Fortran programming languages, as demonstrated using CERN's Book. (author)

  16. Surplus Facilities Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coobs, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    This is the second of two programs that are concerned with the management of surplus facilities. The facilities in this program are those related to commercial activities, which include the three surplus experimental and test reactors [(MSRE, HRE-2, and the Low Intensity Test Reactor (LITR)] and seven experimental loops at the ORR. The program is an integral part of the Surplus Facilities Management Program, which is a national program administered for DOE by the Richland Operations Office. Very briefly reported here are routine surveillance and maintenance of surplus radioactively contaminated DOE facilities awaiting decommissioning

  17. C++ how to program

    CERN Document Server

    Deitel, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    This best-selling comprehensive text is aimed at readers with little or no programming experience. It teaches programming by presenting the concepts in the context of full working programs and takes an early-objects approach. The authors emphasize achieving program clarity through structured and object-oriented programming, software reuse and component-oriented software construction. The Ninth Edition encourages students to connect computers to the community, using the Internet to solve problems and make a difference in our world. All content has been carefully fine-tuned in response to a team of distinguished academic and industry reviewers.

  18. SSCL quality program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedderick, R.V.; Threatt, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The Quality Program for the Superconducing Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) was developed for a number of reasons. The need for a quality program not only is a contractual requirement, but it also makes good economic sense to implement such a program. The quality program is the device used to coordinate the activities of different Laboratory organizations, such as Engineering and Procurement, and to improve operational reliability and safety. To be successful, the QA Program not only must satisfy Department of Energy (DOE) requirements and provide for flowdown of requirements to performing organizations, but must also be flexible enough so that the program is tailored to meet the needs of each internal organization. The keys to success are management support, acceptance by personnel, and cost effectiveness. These three items are assured by involving appropriate management at each step of program development, by personnel training and by feedback, and by programs to reduce defects and improve quality. Equally valuable is involvement of key organizations in program development. We will describe the basic SSCL Quality Program requirements, how the requirements are tailored to the needs of Laboratory organizations, and how the effectiveness of the program is validated

  19. Foreign criteria and programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Thompson, I.M.G.

    1993-03-01

    The concept of measurement quality assurance (MQA) as embodied in National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) programs is not generally used within European programs for testing or accreditation. Although the essential elements of quality control and quality assurance are in the European programs, the concept of testing the capability of the laboratory itself, in terms of its performance for the designated measurements, may not be included. Rather, the European programs use the concept of periodic calibration of laboratory reference standards against the next highest level of standards. Thus, they embody the concept of measurement traceability to appropriate primary standards. Within Europe a series of calibration accreditation programs has been established in the various countries tied together through a multilateral agreement. The radiation measurement programs are based on the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9000 series of standards. The purpose of this paper is to outline the overall operation of European Accreditation Programs in the radiation calibration and measurement areas. The operation of the radiation measurement programs of the National Measurement Accreditation Service (NAMAS) in the United Kingdom is described in detail along with other European programs. The manner in which these programs relate to individual dosimetry service programs is also described

  20. Functional Programming in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, Thomas

    Master functions and discover how to write functional programs in R. In this book, you'll make your functions pure by avoiding side-effects; you’ll write functions that manipulate other functions, and you’ll construct complex functions using simpler functions as building blocks. In Functional...... Programming in R, you’ll see how we can replace loops, which can have side-effects, with recursive functions that can more easily avoid them. In addition, the book covers why you shouldn't use recursion when loops are more efficient and how you can get the best of both worlds. Functional programming...... is a style of programming, like object-oriented programming, but one that focuses on data transformations and calculations rather than objects and state. Where in object-oriented programming you model your programs by describing which states an object can be in and how methods will reveal or modify...