WorldWideScience

Sample records for stamp leavers research

  1. Shedding Light: Private "For Profit" Training Providers and Young Early School Leavers. NCVER Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myconos, George; Clarke, Kira; te Riele, Kitty

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates the oft-criticised segment of the vocational education and training (VET) sector in Australia--private, for-profit registered training organisations (RTOs)--with the aim of gaining a clearer understanding of the approaches they adopt in training 15 to 19-year-olds who have left school early. Through a nationwide survey…

  2. Job Satisfaction: The Comparison between School-Leavers and College Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarulzaman, Wirawani; Nordin, Mohamad Sahari

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to address the gaps in the literature and compare the job satisfaction between school leavers and college graduates. Specifically, the proposed study sought to expand the existing, yet limited research exploring job satisfaction between school-leavers and college graduates. In this study, the comparison includes these…

  3. Does the Food Stamp Program cause obesity? A realist review and a call for place-based research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBono, Nathaniel L; Ross, Nancy A; Berrang-Ford, Lea

    2012-07-01

    The high prevalence of obesity among low income groups has led some to question the role of food assistance programs in contributing to the problem. The USDA's Food Stamp Program (now known as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program - SNAP) is the largest food assistance program in the United States with over 40 million participants. This paper employed systematic realist review methods to determine whether participation in the Food Stamp Program causes obesity and the causal pathways through which this relationship may exist. Findings indicate a more consistent positive relationship for women than for men, especially for women who are long term users of the program. All studies discussed the "food stamp cycle" and an "income effect" as explanations for the role of food stamps in increased obesity yet evidence for these factors is limited. Curiously, the research in this field does not address obesogenic environments and we suggest that the absence of an understanding of household behavior in local contexts is a significant impediment to the reform of the Food Stamp Program. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Stamping through astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Dicati, Renato

    2013-01-01

    Stamps and other postal documents are an attractive vehicle for presenting astronomy and its development. Written with expertise and great enthusiasm, this unique book offers a historical and philatelic survey of astronomy and some related topics on space exploration. It contains more than 1300 color reproductions of stamps relating to the history of astronomy, ranging from the earliest observations of the sky to modern research conducted with satellites and space probes. Featured are the astronomers and astrophysicists who contributed to this marvelous story – not only Ptolemy, Copernicus, Kepler, Newton, Herschel, and Einstein but also hundreds of other minor protagonists who played an important role in the development of this, the most ancient yet the most modern of all the sciences. The book also examines in depth the diverse areas which have contributed to the history of astronomy, including the instrumentation, the theories, and the observations. Many stamps illustrate the beauty and the mystery of ce...

  5. Culture-lovers and Culture-leavers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank Huysmans; Andries van den Broek; Jos de Haan

    2005-01-01

    Who are the people in the Netherlands with an active interest in cultural heritage and the performing arts, and who prefer to leave these forms of culture alone? Have the size and composition of the groups of 'culture-lovers' and 'culture-leavers' changed since the end of the 1970s? These are the

  6. Early School-Leavers: A Neglected Group in Rural Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Doug; Hemmings, Brian; Green, Kerrie

    2000-01-01

    Interviews with six Australian adolescent school-leavers, six employers, six employment service providers, and eight trainers found that schools deemphasize school-to-work; school leavers lack vocational maturity; unemployment may lead them to a peer culture discouraging further education; and employment services and training providers do not…

  7. Hot stamping advanced manufacturing technology of lightweight car body

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Ping; He, Bin

    2017-01-01

    This book summarizes the advanced manufacturing technology of original innovations in hot stamping of lightweight car body. A detailed description of the technical system and basic knowledge of sheet metal forming is given, which helps readers quickly understand the relevant knowledge in the field. Emphasis has been placed on the independently developed hot stamping process and equipment, which help describe the theoretical and experimental research on key problems involving stress field, thermal field and phase transformation field in hot stamping process. Also, a description of the formability at elevated temperature and the numerical simulation algorithms for high strength steel hot stamping is given in combination with the experiments. Finally, the book presents some application cases of hot stamping technology such as the lightweight car body design using hot stamping components and gradient hardness components, and the cooling design of the stamping tool. This book is intended for researchers, engineers...

  8. Stamping the Earth from space

    CERN Document Server

    Dicati, Renato

    2017-01-01

    This unique book presents a historical and philatelic survey of Earth exploration from space. It covers all areas of research in which artificial satellites have contributed in designing a new image of our planet and its environment: the atmosphere and ionosphere, the magnetic field, radiation belts and the magnetosphere, weather, remote sensing, mapping of the surface, observation of the oceans and marine environments, geodesy, and the study of life and ecological systems. Stamping the Earth from Space presents the results obtained with the thousands of satellites launched by the two former superpowers, the Soviet Union and the United States, and also those of the many missions carried out by the ESA, individual European countries, Japan, China, India, and the many emerging space nations. Beautifully illustrated, it contains almost 1100 color reproductions of philatelic items. In addition to topical stamps and thematic postal documents, the book provides an extensive review of astrophilatelic items. The most...

  9. A Second Chance at Education for Early School Leavers

    OpenAIRE

    Polidano, Cain; Tabasso, Domenico; Tseng, Yi-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Despite efforts to engage youth in education, there have been only modest improvements in the rates of school completion across OECD countries since the mid- 1990s. These modest improvements underline the importance of programs that encourage early school leavers to return to post-school education. The objective of this paper is to better understand the factors that affect the chances of re-engaging early school leavers in education, with a particular focus on the importance of time out from ...

  10. Mentally handicapped school leavers: where do they go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A M

    1987-01-01

    This study presents the findings of a population-based study of severely educationally subnormal (ESN(S] and moderately educationally subnormal (ESN(M] school leavers in the borough of Trafford over a 4-year period. The ESN(S) school leavers attended adult training centres (ATCs), day centres or remained at home. Some later obtained part-time places at these centres. The numbers varied from year to year and the trends are examined. The numbers of ESN(S) pupils outside the borough were small and there were only 10 such leavers during the 4 years. Most of these (five) needed continuous inpatient care at the hospital attached to their residential school. Three of the 10 leavers were accommodated in a bungalow project in the borough. Almost half of the ESN(M) school leavers made use of government schemes to help youth unemployment. A large group progressed to further education, usually on the life skills course. The numbers entering open employment were small (23 out of 214) and of these the largest single number went into their families' businesses or worked in shops. The combined benefits of the special school, government youth training schemes and the courses of further education designed for the ESN(M) group are reflected in the small number of pupils who became unemployed after leaving school (13 out of 214). This proportion (6%) is less than the 8% total unemployed school leavers in the borough.

  11. Rapid thermal processing by stamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stradins, Pauls; Wang, Qi

    2013-03-05

    A rapid thermal processing device and methods are provided for thermal processing of samples such as semiconductor wafers. The device has components including a stamp (35) having a stamping surface and a heater or cooler (40) to bring it to a selected processing temperature, a sample holder (20) for holding a sample (10) in position for intimate contact with the stamping surface; and positioning components (25) for moving the stamping surface and the stamp (35) in and away from intimate, substantially non-pressured contact. Methods for using and making such devices are also provided. These devices and methods allow inexpensive, efficient, easily controllable thermal processing.

  12. A Second Chance at Education for Early School Leavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidano, Cain; Tabasso, Domenico; Tseng, Yi-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to better understand the factors that affect the chances of re-engaging early school leavers in education, with a particular focus on the importance of time out from school (duration dependence) and school-related factors. Using data from three cohorts of the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Youth and duration…

  13. Early school leavers and sustainable learning environments in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, I show by means of Yosso's community cultural wealth theoretical framework how equal numbers of early school leavers (ESLs) from the rural and the urban parts of the North-West province cite similar reasons for their early departure from school. The conclusion drawn from this scenario is that, irrespective of ...

  14. Flexible Stamp for Nanoimprint Lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Theodor; Pedersen, Rasmus H.; Hansen, Ole

    2005-01-01

    by membranes. The bending stiffness difference between the imprint areas and the membranes ensures that the deformation of the stamp during the imprint process mainly takes place in the membranes, leaving the imprint structures unaffected. By this design the strong demand to the parallelism between stamp...... and substrate in the imprint situation is decoupled from the pressing tool and the wafer quality. The stamp consist of 1562 imprint areas (1 mm × 1 mm) containing the patterns to be replicated. The imprinted patterns are characterized with respect to the imprint depth and the polymer residual layer thickness...

  15. Fabrication of Nanoimprint stamps for photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouba, J; Kubenz, M; Mai, A; Ropers, G; Eberhardt, W; Loechel, B

    2006-01-01

    We report on fabrication of nanoimprint stamps for fabrication of two dimensional photonic crystals in visible range of spectra. Nanoimprint stamps made of silicon and/or nickel were successfully fabricated using electron beam lithography and advanced dry etching techniques. The quality of the stamps was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. The fabricated stamps were also evaluated by imprinting them into suitable polymer materials

  16. Education and School Leavers' Unemployment Saga: Implication for Educational Planning in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwambam, Aja Sunday; Eze, Prisca Ijeoma

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviewed the relationship between the type of education and school leavers' unemployment with the view to highlighting its implications for educational planning in Nigeria. The concept of education, reasons for steady increase in the number of unemployed school leavers and what to do in order to curb educated unemployment were…

  17. Facile stamp patterning method for superhydrophilic/superhydrophobic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyu, Sungnam, E-mail: blueden@postech.ac.kr; Hwang, Woonbong, E-mail: whwang@postech.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 680-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-16

    Patterning techniques are essential to many research fields such as chemistry, biology, medicine, and micro-electromechanical systems. In this letter, we report a simple, fast, and low-cost superhydrophobic patterning method using a superhydrophilic template. The technique is based on the contact stamping of the surface during hydrophobic dip coating. Surface characteristics were measured using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis. The results showed that the hydrophilic template, which was contacted with the stamp, was not affected by the hydrophobic solution. The resolution study was conducted using a stripe shaped stamp. The patterned line was linearly proportional to the width of the stamp line with a constant narrowing effect. A surface with regions of four different types of wetting was fabricated to demonstrate the patterning performance.

  18. Research on optimization design of conformal cooling channels in hot stamping tool based on response surface methodology and multi-objective optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Bin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to optimize the layout of the conformal cooling channels in hot stamping tools, a response surface methodology and multi-objective optimization technique are proposed. By means of an Optimal Latin Hypercube experimental design method, a design matrix with 17 factors and 50 levels is generated. Three kinds of design variables, the radius Rad of the cooling channel, the distance H from the channel center to tool work surface and the ratio rat of each channel center, are optimized to determine the layout of cooling channels. The average temperature and temperature deviation of work surface are used to evaluate the cooling performance of hot stamping tools. On the basis of the experimental design results, quadratic response surface models are established to describe the relationship between the design variables and the evaluation objectives. The error analysis is performed to ensure the accuracy of response surface models. Then the layout of the conformal cooling channels is optimized in accordance with a multi-objective optimization method to find the Pareto optimal frontier which consists of some optimal combinations of design variables that can lead to an acceptable cooling performance.

  19. Implementation of time stamping service

    OpenAIRE

    Tomažin , Vito

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with different ways of how to safely time-stamp digital content. The need for time-stamping arises when we would like to create evidence that certain content existed (or that a certain person was present somewhere) in a precisely specified period of time, so that later we can refer to this evidence. Creating temporal order in the digital world can prove to be difficult, since no data, including time, is recorded permanently. The system clock, which measures time with the ...

  20. Food Stamps. Learning Packet No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Bar Association, Washington, DC. Clearinghouse for Offender Literacy Programs.

    This package of instructional materials is designed to aid adults in prison to perform the functional skill of applying for food stamps. The materials consist of instructions for teachers, a sample application for food stamps, a student's work sheet and answer sheet, vocabulary flash cards, and resource materials on food stamps. (MKM)

  1. 7 CFR 916.115 - Lot stamping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lot stamping. 916.115 Section 916.115 Agriculture... and Regulations § 916.115 Lot stamping. Except when loaded directly into railway cars, exempted under... Inspection Service lot stamp number, assigned by such Service, showing that such fruit has been USDA...

  2. 7 CFR 917.150 - Lot stamping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lot stamping. 917.150 Section 917.150 Agriculture... CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations Regulation of Daily Shipments § 917.150 Lot stamping. Except when loaded..., prior to shipment, with a Federal-State Inspection Service lot stamp number, assigned by such Service...

  3. Stamp Verification for Automated Document Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micenková, Barbora; van Beusekom, Joost; Shafait, Faisal

    Stamps, along with signatures, can be considered as the most widely used extrinsic security feature in paper documents. In contrast to signatures, however, for stamps little work has been done to automatically verify their authenticity. In this paper, an approach for verification of color stamps ...

  4. Minerals on postage stamps: A mix of art, history, economics and geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Most people would agree that minerals represent some of the most beautiful natural objects known to mankind, especially in the form of precious and semi-precious gemstones. It is hardly surprising, therefore, that they are often illustrated on stamps. Examples are the fine crystalline forms represented as coloured etchings in the French 1986 issue, and the stylized simplicity of the mineral stamps that were part of the Swiss Pro Patria series, issued annually between 1958 and 1961. I aim in this presentation to introduce the beautiful world of mineral illustrations on stamps. The talk cannot be comprehensive because of the very large number of minerals and stamps concerned, but it will introduce the range of minerals depicted on stamps, then look in some greater detail at several sets from France, Southern Africa and East Germany. Minerals become the subject of sets of stamps for many reasons. In many cases, it is part of an attempt by the particular national post office to depict the whole of the natural history of their country in stamp form - a statement of nationality and politics. The 1986 French issue was an example which followed sets of stamps that had already portrayed insects, flowers, trees and birds native to France. We also find that certain countries have produced several sets of stamps to mark the importance to their economy of mining particular minerals. Many African states depend upon minerals for much of their wealth and economic power, explaining why, for instance, Sierra Leone issued over 35 stamps on the subject of diamonds between 1965 and 1978, and why over 77% of mineral stamps come from countries with major mining interests. Countries with traditional links with the history of the study of geology and mining also produce mineral stamps. These are usually European countries with a long record of the study of the Earth, such as Germany and Switzerland. Curiously enough, though, despite its fine tradition of geological observation and research

  5. Best Strategies to Improve School-leavers' Knowledge of Nutrition and Food Systems: Views from Experts in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadegholvad, Sanaz; Yeatman, Heather; Omidvar, Nasrin; Parrish, Anne-Maree; Worsley, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    The research to date does not present an articulated approach to ensure nutrition and food systems education is systematically implemented within schools. This paper aimed to investigate food experts' views of the best strategies to improve school-leavers' knowledge of nutrition and food systems. In this qualitative study, 28 Iranian food and nutrition experts from four major provinces (Tehran, Fars, Isfahan, and Gilan) were selected and agreed to be interviewed. Required data were collected through in-depth, semi-structured, face-to-face, or telephone interviews and were analyzed thematically using NVivo. The experts' suggested strategies to improve Iranian school-leavers' knowledge of nutrition and food systems fell into three key themes: Policy, education processes, and supportive environments. Together they formed an overarching theme of a multileveled system approach for transferring knowledge. Development of a scaffolded education program could assist curriculum developers and policy makers to assess and update current nutrition and food systems education programs in schools. Insights gained about education initiatives in one country such as Iran can provide an important impetus to support nutrition and food system education more widely.

  6. The STAMP Software for State Space Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Mendelssohn

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the use of STAMP (Structural Time Series Analyser, Modeler and Predictor for modeling time series data using state-space methods with unobserved components. STAMP is a commercial, GUI-based program that runs on Windows, Linux and Macintosh computers as part of the larger OxMetrics System. STAMP can estimate a wide-variety of both univariate and multivariate state-space models, provides a wide array of diagnostics, and has a batch mode capability. The use of STAMP is illustrated for the Nile river data which is analyzed throughout this issue, as well as by modeling a variety of oceanographic and climate related data sets. The analyses of the oceanographic and climate data illustrate the breadth of models available in STAMP, and that state-space methods produce results that provide new insights into important scientific problems.

  7. Experts' views regarding Australian school-leavers' knowledge of nutrition and food systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadegholvad, Sanaz; Yeatman, Heather; Parrish, Anne-Maree; Worsley, Anthony

    2017-10-01

    To explore Australian experts' views regarding strengths and gaps in school-leavers' knowledge of nutrition and food systems ( N&FS) and factors that influence that knowledge. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 highly experienced food-related experts in Australia. Qualitative data were analysed thematically using Attride-Stirling's thematic network framework. Two global themes and several organising themes were identified. The first global theme, 'structural curriculum-based problems', emerged from three organising themes of: inconsistencies in provided food education programs at schools in Australia; insufficient coverage of food-related skills and food systems topics in school curricula; and the lack of trained school teachers. The second global theme, 'insufficient levels of school-leavers knowledge of N&FS ', was generated from four organising themes, which together described Australian school-leavers' poor knowledge of N&FS more broadly and knowledge translation problem for everyday practices. Study findings identified key problems relating to current school-based N&FS education programs in Australia and reported knowledge gaps in relation to N&FS among Australian school-leavers. These findings provide important guidance for N&FS curriculum development, to clearly articulate broadly-based N&FS knowledge acquisition in curriculum policy and education documents for Australian schools. © 2017 The Authors.

  8. Therapeutic Responses to "At Risk" Disengaged Early School Leavers in a Rural Alternative Education Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Tim

    2017-01-01

    The identification of disengaged early school leavers as young people "at risk" can lead to a deficit-based framing of how educational institutions respond to them. A rural secondary school in Victoria, Australia established an alternative education programme to cater for local disengaged young people. A critical ethnographic study was…

  9. Factors Contributing to Attrition as Reported by Leavers of Secondary Agriculture Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, Laura L.; Brashears, M. Todd; Burris, Scott; Meyers, Courtney; Price, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    There exists in our profession a persistent shortage of quality teachers in our high school agricultural education classrooms. A multitude of studies have identified challenges faced by agriculture teachers, however, few, if any, have investigated reasons for attrition by directly asking leavers why they left. This study sought to identify reasons…

  10. Time Stamps for Fixed-Point Approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damian, Daniela

    2001-01-01

    Time stamps were introduced in Shivers's PhD thesis for approximating the result of a control-flow analysis. We show them to be suitable for computing program analyses where the space of results (e.g., control-flow graphs) is large. We formalize time-stamping as a top-down, fixed-point approximat......Time stamps were introduced in Shivers's PhD thesis for approximating the result of a control-flow analysis. We show them to be suitable for computing program analyses where the space of results (e.g., control-flow graphs) is large. We formalize time-stamping as a top-down, fixed...

  11. Stamping SERS for creatinine sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Du, Yong; Zhao, Fusheng; Zeng, Jianbo; Santos, Greggy M.; Mohan, Chandra; Shih, Wei-Chuan

    2015-03-01

    Urine can be obtained easily, readily and non-invasively. The analysis of urine can provide metabolic information of the body and the condition of renal function. Creatinine is one of the major components of human urine associated with muscle metabolism. Since the content of creatinine excreted into urine is relatively constant, it is used as an internal standard to normalize water variations. Moreover, the detection of creatinine concentration in urine is important for the renal clearance test, which can monitor the filtration function of kidney and health status. In more details, kidney failure can be imminent when the creatinine concentration in urine is high. A simple device and protocol for creatinine sensing in urine samples can be valuable for point-of-care applications. We reported quantitative analysis of creatinine in urine samples by using stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS) technique with nanoporous gold disk (NPGD) based SERS substrate. S-SERS technique enables label-free and multiplexed molecular sensing under dry condition, while NPGD provides a robust, controllable, and high-sensitivity SERS substrate. The performance of S-SERS with NGPDs is evaluated by the detection and quantification of pure creatinine and creatinine in artificial urine within physiologically relevant concentration ranges.

  12. Soil Temperature and Moisture Profile (STAMP) System Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, David R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The soil temperature and moisture profile system (STAMP) provides vertical profiles of soil temperature, soil water content (soil-type specific and loam type), plant water availability, soil conductivity, and real dielectric permittivity as a function of depth below the ground surface at half-hourly intervals, and precipitation at one-minute intervals. The profiles are measured directly by in situ probes at all extended facilities of the SGP climate research site. The profiles are derived from measurements of soil energy conductivity. Atmospheric scientists use the data in climate models to determine boundary conditions and to estimate the surface energy flux. The data are also useful to hydrologists, soil scientists, and agricultural scientists for determining the state of the soil. The STAMP system replaced the SWATS system in early 2016.

  13. Process control for sheet-metal stamping process modeling, controller design and shop-floor implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Yongseob; Ulsoy, A Galip

    2014-01-01

    Process Control for Sheet-Metal Stamping presents a comprehensive and structured approach to the design and implementation of controllers for the sheet metal stamping process. The use of process control for sheet-metal stamping greatly reduces defects in deep-drawn parts and can also yield large material savings from reduced scrap. Sheet-metal forming is a complex process and most often characterized by partial differential equations that are numerically solved using finite-element techniques. In this book, twenty years of academic research are reviewed and the resulting technology transitioned to the industrial environment. The sheet-metal stamping process is modeled in a manner suitable for multiple-input multiple-output control system design, with commercially available sensors and actuators. These models are then used to design adaptive controllers and real-time controller implementation is discussed. Finally, experimental results from actual shopfloor deployment are presented along with ideas for further...

  14. Evolutions of Advanced Stamping CAE — Technology Adventures and Business Impact on Automotive Dies and Stamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuantao (C. T.)

    2005-08-01

    In the past decade, sheet metal forming and die development has been transformed to a science-based and technology-driven engineering and manufacturing enterprise from a tryout-based craft. Stamping CAE, especially the sheet metal forming simulation, as one of the core components in digital die making and digital stamping, has played a key role in this historical transition. The stamping simulation technology and its industrial applications have greatly impacted automotive sheet metal product design, die developments, die construction and tryout, and production stamping. The stamping CAE community has successfully resolved the traditional formability problems such as splits and wrinkles. The evolution of the stamping CAE technology and business demands opens even greater opportunities and challenges to stamping CAE community in the areas of (1) continuously improving simulation accuracy, drastically reducing simulation time-in-system, and improving operationalability (friendliness), (2) resolving those historically difficult-to-resolve problems such as dimensional quality problems (springback and twist) and surface quality problems (distortion and skid/impact lines), (3) resolving total manufacturability problems in line die operations including blanking, draw/redraw, trim/piercing, and flanging, and (4) overcoming new problems in forming new sheet materials with new forming techniques. In this article, the author first provides an overview of the stamping CAE technology adventures and achievements, and industrial applications in the past decade. Then the author presents a summary of increasing manufacturability needs from the formability to total quality and total manufacturability of sheet metal stampings. Finally, the paper outlines the new needs and trends for continuous improvements and innovations to meet increasing challenges in line die formability and quality requirements in automotive stamping.

  15. Evolutions of Advanced Stamping CAE -- Technology Adventures and Business Impact on Automotive Dies and Stamping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chuantao

    2005-01-01

    In the past decade, sheet metal forming and die development has been transformed to a science-based and technology-driven engineering and manufacturing enterprise from a tryout-based craft. Stamping CAE, especially the sheet metal forming simulation, as one of the core components in digital die making and digital stamping, has played a key role in this historical transition. The stamping simulation technology and its industrial applications have greatly impacted automotive sheet metal product design, die developments, die construction and tryout, and production stamping. The stamping CAE community has successfully resolved the traditional formability problems such as splits and wrinkles. The evolution of the stamping CAE technology and business demands opens even greater opportunities and challenges to stamping CAE community in the areas of (1) continuously improving simulation accuracy, drastically reducing simulation time-in-system, and improving operationalability (friendliness) (2) resolving those historically difficult-to-resolve problems such as dimensional quality problems (springback and twist) and surface quality problems (distortion and skid/impact lines) (3) resolving total manufacturability problems in line die operations including blanking, draw/redraw, trim/piercing, and flanging, and (4) overcoming new problems in forming new sheet materials with new forming techniques. In this article, the author first provides an overview of the stamping CAE technology adventures and achievements, and industrial applications in the past decade. Then the author presents a summary of increasing manufacturability needs from the formability to total quality and total manufacturability of sheet metal stampings. Finally, the paper outlines the new needs and trends for continuous improvements and innovations to meet increasing challenges in line die formability and quality requirements in automotive stamping

  16. Stamp Detection in Color Document Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micenkova, Barbora; van Beusekom, Joost

    2011-01-01

    , moreover, it can be imprinted with a variable quality and rotation. Previous methods were restricted to detection of stamps of particular shapes or colors. The method presented in the paper includes segmentation of the image by color clustering and subsequent classification of candidate solutions...... by geometrical and color-related features. The approach allows for differentiation of stamps from other color objects in the document such as logos or texts. For the purpose of evaluation, a data set of 400 document images has been collected, annotated and made public. With the proposed method, recall of 83...

  17. METAMORPHOSES OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STAMP IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARAUS MADALINA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Romania's alignment to European standards is a difficult process with many legislative changes, with direct impact on taxpayers. The necessity of collecting substantial revenues to the State budget, which provide vital economic growth of the Romanian State, loses the substance when we are talking about taxes levied in relation to taxpayer. The environmental stamp, otherwise a controversial tax, represent for the State another way to earn revenue in advance, “as a loan", because in the end it's forced to repay the amounts concerned taxpayers, under the effect of a final and irrevocable court decision. The effects of the legislative changes bring every time complaints both from taxpayers, because they can demand repayment of the environmental stamp only during the period of prescription, as well as on the part of public servants who are grappling with a large volume of work, with the possibility of overcoming the term to handle requests. An equitable solution in solving these distortions would be the inclusion of the environmental stamp within the tax on means of transport, tax that is paid annually by vehicle owners. At the moment the level of the environmental stamp is calculated depending on the CO2 emissions, exhaust emissions and the age of the vehicle. Tax on means of transport is calculated based on engine capacity, an amount determined by CO2 emissions multiplying with each group of 200 cc or fraction on it. Therefore the unification of the two taxes would create a balance for all categories of vehicles.

  18. Stamping Die Making. 439-318/320.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunke, P.; And Others

    Each unit in this curriculum guide on stamping die making contains an introduction, objectives, materials required, lessons, space for notes, figures, and diagrams. There are 29 units in this guide, dealing with the following topics: EZ-MILL programming; EZ-MILL BATT; print of punch and EZ-MILL part programming; download to Computer Numerical…

  19. Fast thermal nanoimprint lithography by a stamp with integrated heater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tormen, Massimo; Malureanu, Radu; Pedersen, Rasmus Haugstrup

    2008-01-01

    We propose fast nanoimprinting lithography (NIL) process based on the use of stamps with integrated heater. The latter consists of heavily ion implantation n-type doped silicon layer buried below the microstructured surface of the stamp. The stamp is heated by Joule effect, by 50 μs 25 Hz...

  20. Ex-Post : The Investment Performance of Collectible Stamps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimson, E.; Spaenjers, C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the returns on British collectible postage stamps over the very long run, based on stamp catalogue prices. Between 1900 and 2008, we find an annualized return on stamps of 6.7% in nominal terms, which is equivalent to an average real return of 2.7% per annum. Prices have

  1. Stamped coal cakes in cokemaking technology Part 2 - The investigation of cake strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, F.; Rosenkranz, J.; Kuyumcu, H.Z. [Technical University of Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    Coking of coal blends using high volatile coals with poor caking properties to produce a high quality coke for blast furnace application can be achieved by compacting the whole coal blend before the pyrolysis in the so called stamp charge operation. Using stamp charging not only improves the flexibility of the cokemaking plant using cost efficient raw materials, but also increases oven throughput. Therefore, in recent years, densification of coals has been introduced even to coals with good carbonisation properties when heat recovery ovens are used. At the Department for Mechanical Process Engineering and Solids Processing of the Technical University Berlin, the two subprocesses, densification and strengthening during stamping, were theoretically and experimentally investigated. The research work aims on the development of an integrated mathematical model, allowing the calculation of cake density and strength of the coal cake for a given coal blend and as a function of the stamping energy. In the first part of the paper, investigations on the stampability of coal blends were reported. In this paper, the development of a new strength test device for the systematic investigation of mechanical strength of coal compacts produced by stamping is described. Results from compressive strength tests indicate an elastic-plastic behaviour with failure by plastic fracture. Shear test results show similarity to the yield limit description in soil mechanics.

  2. Hot stamping of AA7075 aluminum sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiguren, J.; Saenz de Argandona, E.; Galdos, L.

    2016-11-01

    In this work the formability of a high strength aluminium alloy (AA7075-T6) for the stamping of an automotive component has been studied. Due to the low formability of the selected alloy, two different heat assisted forming strategies have been analysed. On the one hand, the W-temper process, where the thermal process is carried out prior to the forming operation. On the other hand, the hot stamping process, where the thermal process is carried out at the same time as the forming. The results showed that both technology were able to form the component avoiding any failure of the material. On the contrary, both processes reduced the final mechanical properties of the material compared to the as received material condition. However, the obtained mechanical properties doubled the strength of commonly used 5xxx and 6xxx aluminium alloys.

  3. DOUBLE SHEAR DESIGN TO REDUCED STAMPING FORCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Kurniawan Arief

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ideally processing of part using stamping machine using only 70-80 % of available force to keep machine in good shape for a long periods. But in some certain case the force may equal to or exceed the available maximum force so the company must sent the process to another outsource company. A case found in a metal stamping company where a final product consist of 3 parts to assembly with one part exceeded the force of available machine. This part can only process in a 1000 tons machine while this company only have 2 of this machine with full workload. Sending this parts outsource will induce delivery problems because other parts are processed, assembled and paint inhouse, this also need additional transportation cost and extra supervision to ensure the quality and delivery schedule. The only exit action of this problem is by reducing the force tonnage. This paper using punch inclining method to reduce the force. The incline punch will distributed the force along the inclined surface that reduce stamping force as well. Inclined surface of punch also cause another major problems that the product becoming curved after process. This problems solved with additional flattening process that add more process cost but better than to outsource the process. Chisel type of inclining punch tip was choosen to avoid worst deformation of product. This paper will give the scientific recomendation to the company.

  4. The collection of Tuvan stamps (1926–1943 in the National Museum of the Republic of Tuva and the prospects of philately in Tuva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaadyr-ool A. Bicheldey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stamps of the People’s Republic of Tuva (PRT, 1921-1944 as indicia and as items of collectors’ interest, are universally renowned, and as such have been the subject of a good deal of research. These works contain more than a mere story of Tuvan stamps – they provide a lot of useful information on Tuva, its history, including the history of postal service in the region. This article describes the collection of indicia (more than 500 pieces dated 1926-1943 and preserved at Aldan Maadyr National Museum of Tuva. On the basis of this analysis we have formulated the current problems and prospects of philately in the region. The stamp collection in the National Museum fills 4 albums of various sizes and a number of envelopes with 1-72 stamps in each. The compilers of 2 albums attempted to systematize stamps by issue date, but this work is far from complete. There is no definitive collection of Tuvan stamps to act as a model for others, regardless of the quality of the stamps preserved. The rest of the stamps in the museum collection is in unsorted state. Overall, the degree of preservation can be tentatively described as average. Given the great interest of scholars and collectors, Tuvan stamps are relatively little studies. The overall bulk of material on the uses of stamps in Tuva lacks an overarching study. We have summed up the main research problems that call for in-depth research, including studying Tuvan stamps as pieces of art, the financial and economic viability of issuing stamps in PRT, the official documentations licensing the issue, full catalogization of all existing issues, the study of individual stamps, etc. Especially urgent is the issue of propagating knowledge of history of Tuvan postal service as a precondition for collecting and preserving PRT stamps. Archives of many Tuvan families may contain unique stamps, rare envelopes or postcards – but few of their owners recognize the full value of what they have. This puts unique

  5. The quantitative literacy of South African school-leavers who qualify for higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Prince

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There is an articulation gap for many students between the literacy practices developed at school and those demanded by higher education. While the school sector is often well attuned to the school-leaving assessments, it may not be as aware of the implicit quantitative literacy (QL demands placed on students in higher education. The National Benchmark Test (NBT in QL provides diagnostic information to inform teaching and learning. The performance of a large sample of school-leavers who wrote the NBT QL test was investigated (1 to demonstrate how school-leavers performed on this QL test, (2 to explore the relationship between performance on this test and on cognate school-leaving subjects and (3 to provide school teachers and curriculum advisors with a sense of the QL demands made on their students. Descriptive statistics were used to describe performance and linear regression to explore the relationships between performance in the NBT QL test and on the school subjects Mathematics and Mathematical Literacy. Only 13% of the NBT QL scores in the sample were classified as proficient and the majority of school-leavers would need support to cope with the QL demands of higher education. The results in neither Mathematics nor Mathematical Literacy were good predictors of performance on the NBT QL test. Examination of performance on selected individual items revealed that many students have difficulty with quantitative language and with interpreting data in tables. Given that QL is bound to context, it is important that teachers develop QL practices within their disciplinary contexts.

  6. viStaMPS: The Application For Viewing And Manipulating StaMPS Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Joaquim; Sousa, Antonio; Magalhaes, Luis; Ruiz, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    viStaMPS (visual StaMPS) is a new visual application developed to enhance the visualization, manipulation and exportation of StaMPS results. The programmed application is developed in Matlab® through the Graphical User Interface (GUI) and no coding is required for running it, which avoids any programming language knowledge for standard uses. This tool integrates fully new features together with various scripts from StaMPS, allowing the generation of the desired plots/maps in a user-friendly interface. It is done by simply clicking some buttons or changing some parameters located in visual panels, instead of input commands in a prompt. Moreover, since it is written in Matlab, it gives the users the opportunity to access the data very easily and make their own modifications. Being a research tool, viStaMPS is continually under development and will count on the dynamism of its users to improve and/or add new features.

  7. Two Important Stamp Motifs in Roman Britain and Thereafter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana C. Briscoe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Stamped pottery has had a long and varied history in Britain. There have been periods when it flourished and periods when it almost totally disappeared. This article considers two variations of the rosette motif (A 5 and their fortunes from the late Iron Age to the Early Saxon period. Having been of little importance in the Iron Age and early Roman periods, they became some of the most widely used and distributed motifs in the fourth century. By the fifth century, they were still important, but formed a much smaller proportion of the total motifs than in the fourth century. In the vast majority of cases, there is no correlation between the find spots of fourth and fifth century examples. However, I have identified nine locations where one or other of the two motifs have been found on a late Roman site, which lies within a mile of another site with the same motif, but from the post-Roman period. In these rare conjunctions, I believe that ongoing usage of the motif can be demonstrated from Roman to post-Roman times. It is also clear that pot stamp evidence can be vital in identifying these highly unusual locations and pointing other researchers to sites worthy of special attention.

  8. How Do Stamp Duties Affect the Housing Market?

    OpenAIRE

    Davidoff, Ian; Leigh, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Land transfer taxes are a substantial portion of the cost of moving house in many developed countries. Since stamp duties are endogenous with respect to the house price, we create an instrumental variable that is the stamp duty on a property, given that postcode's starting house price and the national house price trend. In a specification with postcode and year fixed effects, this instrument effectively captures policy changes and nonlinearities in the stamp duty schedule. We find that the im...

  9. Trends in labour market flexibilization among Dutch school-leavers: The impact of economic globalization on educational differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, M. de; Gesthuizen, M.J.W.; Wolbers, M.H.J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines to what extent there is a trend towards increasing labour market flexibility among Dutch school-leavers between 1992 and 2007, particularly among less educated ones. In addition, the article aims to explain this trend and increasing educational differences by economic

  10. Stamp duties in Indian states - a case for reform

    OpenAIRE

    Alm, James; Annez, Patricia; Modi, Arbind

    2004-01-01

    The authors review the options for reform of stamp duties on immovable property transfers collected by Indian state governments. After briefly reviewing some of the many administrative difficulties experienced with the tax, they turn to an examination of its economic impacts. A review of stamp duties internationally indicates that Indian rates are exceptionally high, at rates often above 1...

  11. Design and Development of a Soap Stamping and Tableting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A soap stamping and tableting machine comprising a printing die/pattern inscriptioner, cutting blade, conveyor belt, and two electric motors was developed and tested. Performance test analysis conducted showed that the machine operated with an optimal stamping/tableting capacity of 10205 soap tablets per hour with an ...

  12. Stamped coal cakes in cokemaking technology Part 1 - A parameter study on stampability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, F.; Rosenkranz, J.; Kuyumcu, H.Z. [Technical University of Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    Coking of coal blends using high volatile coals with poor caking properties to produce a high quality coke for blast furnace application can be achieved by compacting the whole coal blend before pyrolysis in the so called stamp charge operation. Using stamp charging not only improves the flexibility of the coke making plant using cost efficient raw materials, but oven throughput is also increased. Therefore, in recent years, densification of coals has been introduced even to coals with good carbonisation properties when heat recovery ovens are used. At the Department for Mechanical Process Engineering and Solids Processing of the Technical University Berlin, the two subprocesses, densification and strengthening during stamping, were theoretically and experimentally investigated. The research work aims on the development of an integrated mathematical model, allowing the calculation of cake density and strength of the coal cake for a given coal blend depending on the stamping energy. The first part of this paper defines the overall process objectives and presents results from systematic investigations of the effects of several coal properties on the so called stampability as the integral model parameter for compacting. Surface moisture, coal granulometry and mechanical properties have significant influence on the densification. The incorporation of these parameters into the model allows the differentiated calculation of the cake density.

  13. What are school leavers' priorities for festival preparation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Alison; Cusack, Lynette; Zannettino, Lana; Shaefer, Sarah J M; Verdonk, Naomi; Arbon, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings from a qualitative research study that explored how young people prepared to minimise and/or avoid alcohol-related harm while attending a Schoolies Festival (SF). SFs are mass gatherings at which young people (schoolies) celebrate their graduation from high school. The attendance of schoolies, in various Australian communities, ranges between 10 000 and 30 000 individuals during the event. The literature suggests that schoolies are at higher than normal risk of harm at SF from misuse of alcohol, unsafe sex, aggressive behaviour, and other risk-taking factors. As a result of these concerns, SF organisers developed an infrastructure that treats alcohol-related harm, and provides on-site care (first aid stations) by St John Ambulance staff. This study used focus groups to identify strategies used by schoolies to avoid alcohol-related harm during SFs. Data revealed that schoolies did not actively seek health information before attending the event and did not display an interest in doing so. It is important to note that schoolies planned to use alcohol to celebrate and have a good time. Therefore a harm minimisation approach with a focus on providing the necessary infrastructure at SFs to minimise the dangers associated with excess alcohol use is important. Schoolies indicated that they had no desire for information about the hazards of alcohol ingestion. If any health messages were to be used by health authorities, it would be far more appropriate to promote the message of 'take care of your mate', to contribute to building a supportive environment at the event. This may be of more benefit to minimise harm at SFs than funding other health messages.

  14. What happens after you drop out? Transition to adulthood among early school-leavers in urban Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Utomo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The high incidence of young people dropping out of school prior to completing secondary schooling remains a nationwide problem in Indonesia. While it is commonly assumed that early school-leavers will become child workers, in fact little is known about their transition to adulthood. Objective: Using retrospective data from a sample of 799 young adults (ages 20-34 in Greater Jakarta who dropped out of school by age 16, this paper investigates their patterns of activity and employment in the adolescent years following their exit from the school system, the timing and patterns of reaching various markers of adulthood, and their current life situations. Results: Less than a quarter of early school-leavers worked in the immediate year following school exit. Instead about 30Š neither worked nor studied between the ages of 12-18. The likelihood of experiencing idleness was highest at age 13 and was relatively higher for females than males. Among those with early work experience the majority worked in the manufacturing industry, as domestic servants, or as informal traders. Early school-leavers left their parental home, married, and became parents at a younger age compared to those who left school at ages 17-19. Conclusions: Female early school-leavers are likely to spend a longer time economically and educationally inactive during their formative years, progress faster to their markers of adulthood, and are less likely to return to school, relative to their male counterparts. Qualitative insights suggest that adolescent dropouts who enter employment early are better off in their young adulthood than those who experience inactivity prior to adulthood.

  15. Everything moves on: referral trends to a leavers' group in a high secure hospital and trial leave progress of group graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adshead, Gwen; Pyszora, Natalie; Wilson, Claire; Gopie, Ramesh; Thomas, Deryk; Smith, Julia; Glorney, Emily; Moore, Estelle; Tapp, James

    2017-04-01

    Moving on from high secure psychiatric care can be a complex and potentially stressful experience, which may hinder progression. A leavers' group in a UK high secure hospital is offered to support patients with this transition. The aims of this study are to investigate characteristics of patients referred for the leavers' group and compare outcomes for leavers' group graduates with those for patients who never attended a leavers' group for any reason. A retrospective quasi-experimental design was applied to data extracted from various records sources - within and outside the high security hospital. About one-fifth of patients who left the hospital on trial leave during the study were referred to the leavers' group (N = 109). Referred patients were significantly more likely to have either been admitted from another high-security hospital or transferred from prison for treatment and have a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia. Patients not referred had a significantly higher rate of previously refusing to participate in groups. There was a tendency for rate of return from trial leave for group graduates to be lower than that of patients who did not attend the leavers' group, but this just failed to reach statistical significance (rate ratio [RR] = 1.04; CI 0.97-1.11). A leavers' group appeared to be a valued therapy option for people who had spent a long time in high secure psychiatric care, or those who continued to require hospital treatment beyond prison tariffs. There was a low return rate from trial leave, which made the evaluation of this outcome difficult. A detailed study into both the reasons for return from trial leave and successes would provide further information on ideal preparation for moving on. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. A cracked beam or plate transversely loaded by a stamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nied, H. F.; Erdogan, F.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the problem of an infinite elastic beam or a plate containing a crack is considered. The medium is loaded transversely through a stamp which may be rigid or elastic. The problem is a coupled crack-contact problem which cannot be solved by treating the crack and contact problems separately and by using a superposition technique. First the Green's functions for the general case are obtained. Then the integral equations for a cracked infinite strip loaded by a frictionless stamp are obtained. With the question of fracture in mind, the primary interest in the paper has been in calculating the stress intensity factors. The results are given for a rigid flat stamp with sharp edges and for an elastic curved stamp. The effect of friction at the supports on the stress intensity factors is also studied and a numerical example is given.

  17. design and development of a soap stamping and tableting machine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-02

    pattern inscriptioner, cutting blade, conveyor belt, and two electric motors was developed and tested. Performance test analysis conducted showed that the machine operated with an optimal stamping/tableting capacity of 10205.

  18. Why Stamp Duties are an Increasing Financial Burden on Australian Home Buyers

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Gavin A.

    1994-01-01

    The purchaser of housing incurs stamp duty liabilities in all Australian States. These stamp duties are levied on the conveyance of residential property and mortgage sums secured. In general, stamp duties were a growing financial burden on home buyers during the period 1985-1991. This paper examines the role of house price inflation in causing increases in average rates of stamp duty, the responsiveness of average rates of stamp duty to future changes in the nominal tax base and the effective...

  19. Do government training schemes for unemployed school leavers achieve their objectives? A psychological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddy, M; Donovan, A; Pardoe, R

    1984-12-01

    The increasing rates of youth unemployment have given rise to concern in academic and political circles as well as amongst the general public. So much so that successive governments have introduced employment schemes specifically for this age group. Although a variety of opinions have been expressed concerning the value of such schemes and much thought and planning has gone into the design of successive generations of schemes, there appears to be little hard evidence concerning the effects they have on the well-being of young people. In the course of a study of the wider aspects of unemployment amongst school leavers, the authors collected evidence which they believe bears directly on this question. In a prospective study, which began by assessing fifth formers before they left school, it was found that in general those who went on to YOP schemes occupied an intermediate position between those who obtained work and those who remained unemployed, on a variety of measures of psychological well-being. However, it was found that those on Schemes were less likely than those in either of the other two groups to believe that they had a measure of personal control over their lives. The findings are discussed in relation to the design of employment schemes and the longer term implications.

  20. Early unemployment can contribute to adult health problems: results from a longitudinal study of school leavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarström, A; Janlert, U

    2002-08-01

    To investigate the long term effects of early unemployment (a total of more than half a year of unemployment between the ages of 16 and 21) on health behaviour and psychological and somatic symptoms. A 14 year follow up of a cohort of school leavers was conducted from 1981 to 1995. Information was collected by questionnaires. An industrial town in northern Sweden. The original cohort was defined as all pupils in a middle sized municipality in the last year of compulsory school at age 16 (n=1083). The participants were followed up between the ages of 16 and 30. The analysis included 96% of the original sample, 547 men and 497 women After controlling for initial health behaviour and symptoms as well as for working class background and late unemployment, early unemployment among young men and women showed a significant explanatory effect on smoking, psychological symptoms and-among men only-somatic symptoms after a follow up of 14 years. No correlation was found between early unemployment and late excess alcohol consumption. Early unemployment can contribute to adult health problems. Thus, youth unemployment constitutes a significant public health problem, which to a certain extent remains in adult age.

  1. Early unemployment can contribute to adult health problems: results from a longitudinal study of school leavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, A; Janlert, U

    2002-01-01

    Study objective: To investigate the long term effects of early unemployment (a total of more than half a year of unemployment between the ages of 16 and 21) on health behaviour and psychological and somatic symptoms. Design: A 14 year follow up of a cohort of school leavers was conducted from 1981 to 1995. Information was collected by questionnaires. Setting: An industrial town in northern Sweden. Participants: The original cohort was defined as all pupils in a middle sized municipality in the last year of compulsory school at age 16 (n=1083). The participants were followed up between the ages of 16 and 30. The analysis included 96% of the original sample, 547 men and 497 women Main results: After controlling for initial health behaviour and symptoms as well as for working class background and late unemployment, early unemployment among young men and women showed a significant explanatory effect on smoking, psychological symptoms and—among men only—somatic symptoms after a follow up of 14 years. No correlation was found between early unemployment and late excess alcohol consumption. Conclusions: Early unemployment can contribute to adult health problems. Thus, youth unemployment constitutes a significant public health problem, which to a certain extent remains in adult age. PMID:12118056

  2. "Stamp-off" to micropattern sparse, multicomponent features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Ravi A; Rodriguez, Natalia M; Chen, Christopher S

    2014-01-01

    Spatially patterned subtractive de-inking, a process we term "stamp-off," provides a simple method to generate sparse, multicomponent protein micropatterns. It has been applied to control cell adhesion, study adhesion biology, as well as to micropattern fragile surfaces. This technique can also readily be applied to study nanoscale interactions between cell membrane receptors and surface-immobilized ligands. It is based on conventional microcontact printing and as such requires the same reagents, including photolithographically defined masters, a spin-coater, poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS), and conventional cell culture reagents such as glass coverslips and adhesive proteins. Stamp-off is conceptually simplified into three steps: (1) generation of an appropriate cell culture substrate, PDMS-coated glass, (2) micropatterning with stamp-off, and (3) cell deposition. After elaborating each of these three methods, we discuss limitations of the technique and its applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimum utilization of low ash carbonaceous constituents in stamp charging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dash, P.S.; Krishnan, S.H.; Sharma, R. [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur (India)

    2004-07-01

    To produce high strength coke at reasonable cost, Tata Steel went for stamp charging along with 40-45% imported coal. It is imperative to design the base stamp charge coal blend so as to possess enough fluidity to assimilate these infusible inerts and still produce coke with high coke strength after reaction (CSR). This paper describes the scope of utilising low ash carbonaceous inerts like fluid coke (a petroleum coke made in a fluidized bed) and anthracite optimally in the stamp charging blend by replacing the present imported semi-soft coal with high fluidity imported coals. The laboratory scale experimentation and its results regarding improvement in coke properties and yield are also described. 5 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Time Stamp Synchronization of PEFP Distributed Control Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Young Gi; An, Eun Mi; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Cho, Yong Sub

    2010-01-01

    Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) proton linac consists of several types of control systems, such as soft Input Output Controllers (IOC) and embedded IOC based on Experimental Physics Industrial Control System (EPICS) for each subsection of PEFP facility. One of the important factors is that IOC's time clock is synchronized. The synchronized time and time stamp can be achieved with Network Time Protocol (NTP) and EPICS time stamp record without timing hardware. The requirement of the time accuracy of IOCs is less than 1 second. The main objective of this study is to configure a master clock and produce Process Variable (PV) time stamps using local CPU time synchronized from the master clock. The distributed control systems are attached on PEFP control network

  5. The Formability of Friction Stir Welds in Automotive Stamping Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, Glenn J.; Davies, Richard W.; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Wazny, Scott; Kaunitz, Leon; Waldron, Douglas J.

    2006-02-01

    Automobile body and truck cab structures are composed primarily of stampings formed from monolithic and constant gage blanks. Cost and weight penalties can arise when strength or other requirements in one small area of the part leads to the use of a material or gage that is overmatched to the needs of the rest of the stamping. Tailor Welded Blanks (TWBs) are hybrid sheet products composed of either different materials or different thickness sheets that are joined together, then subjected to a stamping operation to create a formed assembly. The strategy is employed generally to save weight and material costs in the formed assembly by placing higher strength or thicker sections only where needed. The forming or stamping process requires the joint to be severely deformed along with the parent sheets. Aluminum TWBs for automotive applications are particularly problematic because of the low formability of aluminum weld metal. Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a process recently applied to Aluminum TWBs that has the potential to produce a higher quality weld. The current study presents data on the mechanical properties, formability, and FSW weld process parameter development for friction stir welded aluminum, Tailor Welded Blanks. Friction stir welded TWBs can be shown to have higher formability, higher ductility, and lower defect content than many competing joining processes, and they can be fabricated at speeds appropriate for automotive manufacturing.

  6. The Formability of Friction Stir Welds in Automotive Stamping Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, Glenn J.; Davies, Richard W.; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; wazny, scott; Kaunitz, Leon; Waldron, D.

    2005-04-01

    Automobile body and truck cab structures are composed primarily of stampings formed from monolithic and constant gage blanks. Cost and weight penalties can arrise when strength or other requirements in one small area of the part leads to the use of a material or gage that is overmatched to the needs of the rest of the stamping. Tailor Welded Blanks (TWBs) are hybrid sheet products composed of either different materials or different thickness sheets that are joined together, then subjected to a stamping operation to create a formed assembly. The strategy is employed generally to save weight and material costs in the formed assembly by placing higher strength or thicker sections only where needed. The forming or stamping process requires the joint to be severely deformed along with the parent sheets. Aluminum TWBs for automotive applications are particularly problematic because of the low formability of aluminum weld metal. Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a process recently applied to Aluminum TWBs that has the potential to produce a higher quality weld. The current study presents data on the mechanical properties, formability, and FSW weld process parameter development for friction stir woined, aluminum, Tailor Welded Blanks. Friction stir welded TWBs can be shown to have higher formability, higher ductility, and lower defect content than many competing joining processes, and they can be fabricated at speeds appropriate for automotive manufacturing.

  7. Modelling the deformation process of flexible stamps for nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mads Rostgaard

    The present thesis is devoted to numerical modelling of the deformation process of flexible stamps for nanoimprint lithography (NIL). The purpose of those models is to be able to predict the deformation and stretch of the flexixble stamps in order to take that into account when designing the plan...... 2D silicon master used in the NIL process. Two different manufacturing processes are investigated; (i) Embossing of an electroplated nickel foil into a hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) polymer resist on a double-curved surface, (ii) NIL of a flexible polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) stamps...... into a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resist. Challenges comprise several non-linear phenomena. First of all geometrical non-linearities arising from the inherent large strains and deformations during the process are modelled. Then, the constitutive behaviors of the nickel foil and the PTFE polymer during...... deformation are addressed. This is achieved by a general elasto-plastic description for the nickel foil and a viscoelastic-viscoplastic model for the PTFE material, in which the material parameters are found. Last, the contact conditions between the deforming stamp and the injection moulding tool insert...

  8. 46 CFR 53.10-10 - Certification by stamping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... boilers shall be as indicated in HG-530 of section IV of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certification by stamping. 53.10-10 Section 53.10-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING HEATING BOILERS Tests...

  9. The Impact of Computer and Mathematics Software Usage on Performance of School Leavers in the Western Cape Province of South Africa: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Garth Spencer; Hardman, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    In this study the impact of computer immersion on performance of school leavers Senior Certificate mathematics scores was investigated across 31 schools in the EMDC East education district of Cape Town, South Africa by comparing performance between two groups: a control and an experimental group. The experimental group (14 high schools) had access…

  10. How much does education matter and why? The effects of education on socio-economic outcomes among school-leavers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velden, R.K.W. van der; Wolbers, M.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the total (measured and unmeasured) impact of education on some of the main socio-economic outcomes (that is, employment opportunities, job security and wages) among school-leavers who finished upper secondary or tertiary education in the Netherlands. The empirical analysis

  11. How Much Does Education Matter and Why? The Effects of Education on Socio-economic Outcomes among School-leavers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velden, Rolf K.W. van der; Wolbers, Maarten H.J.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the total (measured and unmeasured) impact of education on some of the main socio-economic outcomes (that is, employment opportunities, job security and wages) among school-leavers who finished upper secondary or tertiary education in the Netherlands. The empirical analysis

  12. 41 CFR 101-25.103-3 - Trading stamps or bonus goods received from contractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Trading stamps or bonus... PROCUREMENT 25-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.103-3 Trading stamps or bonus goods received from contractors. When contracts contain a price reduction clause, any method (such as trading stamps or bonus...

  13. 26 CFR 301.7209-1 - Unauthorized use or sale of stamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unauthorized use or sale of stamps. 301.7209-1... § 301.7209-1 Unauthorized use or sale of stamps. (a) Any person who buys, sells, offers for sale, uses... regulations made pursuant thereto, any stamp, coupon, ticket, book, or other device prescribed by the...

  14. Efficient methods of nanoimprint stamp cleaning based on imprint self-cleaning effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Fantao; Chu Jinkui; Luo Gang; Zhou Ye; Carlberg, Patrick; Heidari, Babak; Maximov, Ivan; Montelius, Lars; Xu, H Q; Nilsson, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a nonconventional lithographic technique that promises low-cost, high-throughput patterning of structures with sub-10 nm resolution. Contamination of nanoimprint stamps is one of the key obstacles to industrialize the NIL technology. Here, we report two efficient approaches for removal of typical contamination of particles and residual resist from stamps: thermal and ultraviolet (UV) imprinting cleaning-both based on the self-cleaning effect of imprinting process. The contaminated stamps were imprinted onto polymer substrates and after demolding, they were treated with an organic solvent. The images of the stamp before and after the cleaning processes show that the two cleaning approaches can effectively remove contamination from stamps without destroying the stamp structures. The contact angles of the stamp before and after the cleaning processes indicate that the cleaning methods do not significantly degrade the anti-sticking layer. The cleaning processes reported in this work could also be used for substrate cleaning.

  15. Women: Putting Our Stamp on America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... SCOPE The Topical Research Intern Program provides the opportunity for servicemembers and DOD civilian employees to work on diversity/equal opportunity projects while on a 30-day tour of duty at the Institute...

  16. Reactive wet stamping for patterning of polyelectrolyte multilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chungyeon; Valverde, Lauralee; Ozin, Geoffrey A; Zacharia, Nicole S

    2010-08-17

    Patterning of soft films, especially their bulk and not only their surface properties, presents a challenge. Several lithographic techniques do exist, but many of them are complex or limited in their ability to change properties. A few methods of patterning polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEM) have been reported, including microcontact printing and selectively growing layers on patterned self-assembled monolayers, but these all come with certain limitations. We present here the use of a modified microcontact printing method, reactive wet stamping (r-WETs), using a hydrogel stamp soaked in aqueous solutions to create patterns in PEMs. With this technique we are able to locally cause swelling and porosity changes in the PEM films and use our method to qualitatively study the evolution of the porous film morphology. This technique has the potential to locally control chemical functionality, film thickness, and mechanical properties, leading to a new ability to control film architectures both at the film surface and within the bulk of the film.

  17. CO2 Laser Cutting of Hot Stamping Boron Steel Sheets

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquale Russo Spena

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the quality of CO2 laser cutting of hot stamping boron steel sheets that are employed in the fabrication of automotive body-in-white. For this purpose, experimental laser cutting tests were conducted on 1.2 mm sheets at varying levels of laser power, cutting speed, and oxygen pressure. The resulting quality of cut edges was evaluated in terms of perpendicularity tolerance, surface irregularity, kerf width, heat affected zone, and dross extension. Experimental tests wer...

  18. Monitoring enzymatic degradation of pericellular matrices through SERS stamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bo; Hong, Yan; Chen, Tianhong; Reinhard, Björn M.

    2012-06-01

    We introduce a surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) stamping approach for acquiring cell-surface specific vibrational spectra of individual living cells under physiological conditions. The SERS stamping approach utilizes a nanostructured metal surface on top of a lithographically defined piston that can be translated in 3-dimensions with nanometer resolution to contact living cells in solution with a pristine metal surface. We applied this approach to characterize the chemical composition of the cellular surface of living MCF7 breast cancer cells and to monitor its change upon addition of the enzyme hyaluronidase, which degrades major constituents of the pericellular matrix. Although the cell surface spectra show significant cell-to-cell fluctuations, a statistical barcode analysis of the spectra ensembles reveals systematic changes in the cell surface SERS spectra upon addition of hyaluronidase, which are consistent with a thinning of the pericellular matrix.We introduce a surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) stamping approach for acquiring cell-surface specific vibrational spectra of individual living cells under physiological conditions. The SERS stamping approach utilizes a nanostructured metal surface on top of a lithographically defined piston that can be translated in 3-dimensions with nanometer resolution to contact living cells in solution with a pristine metal surface. We applied this approach to characterize the chemical composition of the cellular surface of living MCF7 breast cancer cells and to monitor its change upon addition of the enzyme hyaluronidase, which degrades major constituents of the pericellular matrix. Although the cell surface spectra show significant cell-to-cell fluctuations, a statistical barcode analysis of the spectra ensembles reveals systematic changes in the cell surface SERS spectra upon addition of hyaluronidase, which are consistent with a thinning of the pericellular matrix. Electronic supplementary information

  19. ANALYSIS OF FOOD STAMP PROGRAM PARTICIPATION AND FOOD EXPENDITURES

    OpenAIRE

    Smallwood, David M.; Blaylock, James R.

    1985-01-01

    A two equation model is developed to examine jointly the determinants of household food stamp program participation and program effects on food expenditures. The model is unique in that it postulates that the participation decision is based on a cost-benefit ratio, selected socioeconomic characteristics, and the potential for increasing both food and nonfood expenditures. Data from the 1977-78 USDA Nationwide Food Consumption Survey Supplemental Low Income Sample is used to estimate the model...

  20. Construindo devoções: as estampas de santos na criação religiosa e na pesquisa histórica – o caso da Nossa Senhora Aparecida do Vagão Queimado / Building devotions: the stamps of saints in religious creation and historical research – the case of Nossa Senhora Aparecida do Vagão Queimado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício de Aquino

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available It is intended to discuss the specificities, the uses and potential of prints of Catholicsaints in historical research, particularly in the construction of the devotion to Nossa Senhora Aparecida do Vagão Queimado de Ourinhos, state of São Paulo, Brazil. In recent decades, especially in the 1970s, central points in the production of historical knowledge have been transformed, mainly, by the eruption of new conceptions of time and source. In this context, religious history, showing significant growth and renewal, has expanded its objects and, indeed, its sources, enhancing the traditional iconography in its modern format extensions, as in the case of the prints of saints. The meanings and uses of these stamps must be sought in the interaction with determined devotional practice marked by the temporal, spatial and social situations of a specific historical context, through the confluence of the perspectives of social history of art, anthropology, sociology, and cultural semiotics, adjusted to the specifically historical way of producing knowledge.Pretende-se discutir as especificidades, os usos e as potencialidades das estampas de santos católicos na pesquisa histórica, em particular, na construção da devoção a Nossa Senhora Aparecida do Vagão Queimado de Ourinhos-SP. Nas últimas décadas, sobretudo nos anos 1970, pontos centrais da produção do conhecimento histórico foram transformados, principalmente, pela irrupção de novas concepções de tempo e de fonte. Nesse contexto a história religiosa, em expressivo crescimento e renovação, expandiu seus objetos e, com efeito, suas fontes, valorizando a tradicional iconografia em suas extensões de formato moderno, como no caso das estampas dos santos. Os sentidos e os usos dessas estampas devem ser buscados na interação com determinada prática devocional marcada pelas situações temporais, espaciais e sociais de um específico contexto histórico a partir da confluência de

  1. Use of tobacco tax stamps to prevent and reduce illicit tobacco trade--United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie; DeLong, Hillary; Gourdet, Camille; Chaloupka, Frank; Edwards, Sarah Matthes; Xu, Xin; Promoff, Gabbi

    2015-05-29

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States. Increasing the unit price on tobacco products is the most effective tobacco prevention and control measure. Illicit tobacco trade (illicit trade) undermines high tobacco prices by providing tobacco users with cheaper-priced alternatives. In the United States, illicit trade primarily occurs when cigarettes are bought from states, jurisdictions, and federal reservation land with lower or no excise taxes, and sold in jurisdictions with higher taxes. Applying tax stamps to tobacco products, which provides documentation that taxes have been paid, is an important tool to combat illicit trade. Comprehensive tax stamping policy, which includes using digital, encrypted ("high-tech") stamps, applying stamps to all tobacco products, and working with tribes on stamping agreements, can further prevent and reduce illicit trade. This report describes state laws governing tax stamps on cigarettes, little cigars (cigarette-sized cigars), roll-your-own tobacco (RYOT), and tribal tobacco sales across the United States as of January 1, 2014, and assesses the extent of comprehensive tobacco tax stamping in the United States. Forty-four states (including the District of Columbia [DC]) applied traditional paper ("low-tech") tax stamps to cigarettes, whereas four authorized more effective high-tech stamps. Six states explicitly required stamps on other tobacco products (i.e., tobacco products other than cigarettes), and in approximately one third of states with tribal lands, tribes required tax stamping to address illicit purchases by nonmembers. No U.S. state had a comprehensive approach to tobacco tax stamping. Enhancing tobacco tax stamping across the country might further prevent and reduce illicit trade in the United States.

  2. Comparison of the hot-stamped boron-alloyed steel and the warm-stamped medium-Mn steel on microstructure and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaodong; Chang, Ying; Wang, Cunyu; Hu, Ping; Dong, Han

    2017-01-01

    The application of high strength steels (HSS) for automotive structural parts is an effective way to realize lightweight and enhance safety. Therefore, improvements in mechanical properties of HSS are needed. In the present study, the warm stamping process of the third generation automotive medium-Mn steel was discussed, the characteristics of martensitic transformation were investigated, as well as the microstructure and mechanical properties were analyzed, compared to the popular hot-stamped 22MnB5 steel in the automotive industry. The results are indicated as follows. Firstly, the quenching rate of the medium-Mn steel can be selected in a wide range based on its CCT curves, which is beneficial to the control of forming process. Secondly, the influence of stamping temperature and pressure on the M s temperature of the medium-Mn steel is not obvious and can be neglected, which is favorable to the even distribution of martensitic microstructure and mechanical properties. Thirdly, the phenomenon of decarbonization is hardly found on the surface of the warm-stamped medium-Mn steel, and the ultra-fine-grained microstructure is found inside the medium-Mn steel after warm stamping. Besides, the warm-stamped medium-Mn steel holds the better comprehensive properties, such as a lower yield ratio, higher total elongation and higher tear toughness than the hot-stamped 22MnB5 steel. Furthermore, an actual warm-stamped B-pillar of medium-Mn steel is stamped and ultra-fine-grained martensitic microstructure is obtained. The mechanical properties are evenly distributed. As a result, this paper proves that the warm-stamped medium-Mn steel part can meet the requirements of lightweight and crash safety, and is promising for the industrial production of automotive structural parts.

  3. Mathematical Modeling of Hydroelastic Oscillations of the Stamp and the Plate, Resting on Pasternak Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogilevich, L. I.; Popov, V. S.; Popova, A. A.; Christoforova, A. V.

    2018-01-01

    The forced oscillations of the elastic fixed stamp and the plate, resting on Pasternak foundation are studied. The oscillations are caused by pressure pulsation in liquid layer between the stamp and the plate. Pasternak model is chosen as an elastic foundation. The laws of the stamp movement, the plate deflection and pressure in the liquid are discovered on the basis of hydroelasticity problem analytical solution. The functions of amplitude deflection distribution and liquid pressure along the plate are constructed, as well as the stamp amplitude-frequency characteristic. The obtained mathematical model allows to investigate the dynamics of hydroelastic interaction of the stamp with the plate, resting on elastic foundation, to define resonance frequencies of the plate and the stamp and corresponding deflections amplitudes, as well as liquid presser amplitudes.

  4. Time series analysis of tool wear in sheet metal stamping using acoustic emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignesh Shanbhag, V.; Pereira, P. Michael; Rolfe, F. Bernard; Arunachalam, N.

    2017-09-01

    Galling is an adhesive wear mode that often affects the lifespan of stamping tools. Since stamping tools represent significant economic cost, even a slight improvement in maintenance cost is of high importance for the stamping industry. In other manufacturing industries, online tool condition monitoring has been used to prevent tool wear-related failure. However, monitoring the acoustic emission signal from a stamping process is a non-trivial task since the acoustic emission signal is non-stationary and non-transient. There have been numerous studies examining acoustic emissions in sheet metal stamping. However, very few have focused in detail on how the signals change as wear on the tool surface progresses prior to failure. In this study, time domain analysis was applied to the acoustic emission signals to extract features related to tool wear. To understand the wear progression, accelerated stamping tests were performed using a semi-industrial stamping setup which can perform clamping, piercing, stamping in a single cycle. The time domain features related to stamping were computed for the acoustic emissions signal of each part. The sidewalls of the stamped parts were scanned using an optical profilometer to obtain profiles of the worn part, and they were qualitatively correlated to that of the acoustic emissions signal. Based on the wear behaviour, the wear data can be divided into three stages: - In the first stage, no wear is observed, in the second stage, adhesive wear is likely to occur, and in the third stage severe abrasive plus adhesive wear is likely to occur. Scanning electron microscopy showed the formation of lumps on the stamping tool, which represents galling behavior. Correlation between the time domain features of the acoustic emissions signal and the wear progression identified in this study lays the basis for tool diagnostics in stamping industry.

  5. Multi-cycle rolled aluminum alloy 3103 sandwiches: mechanical properties and stamp ability

    OpenAIRE

    Nosova Ekaterina; Erisov Yaroslav; Grechnikov Fedor

    2017-01-01

    Constructional part producing by sheet stamping of multilayer composites requires the stamping ability data. The aim of a work is to estimate mechanical properties, stamping ratio and anisotropy indexes of 2, 4, 8 and 12 layer sandwiches produced from aluminium alloy AA3103. The pieces were received by the cold rolling. Interoperation annealing was at 500°C for 1 hour. Charts of tensile strength, yield stress, elongation depending on layer thickness were composed. It was found that cold strai...

  6. 49 CFR 238.119 - Rim-stamped straight-plate wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rim-stamped straight-plate wheels. 238.119 Section... Requirements § 238.119 Rim-stamped straight-plate wheels. (a)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this... than a private car, that is equipped with a rim-stamped straight-plate wheel if a brake shoe acts on...

  7. Studies on the finite element simulation in sheet metal stamping processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying

    The sheet metal stamping process plays an important role in modern industry. With the ever-increasing demand for shape complexity, product quality and new materials, the traditional trial and error method for setting up a sheet metal stamping process is no longer efficient. As a result, the Finite Element Modeling (FEM) method has now been widely used. From a physical point of view, the formability and the quality of a product are influenced by several factors. The design of the product in the initial stage and the motion of the press during the production stage are two of these crucial factors. This thesis focuses on the numerical simulation for these two factors using FEM. Currently, there are a number of commercial FEM software systems available in the market. These software systems are based on an incremental FEM process that models the sheet metal stamping process in small incremental steps. Even though the incremental FEM is accurate, it is not suitable for the initial conceptual design for its needing of detailed design parameters and enormous calculation times. As a result, another type of FEM, called the inverse FEM method or one-step FEM method, has been proposed. While it is less accurate than that of the incremental method, this method requires much less computation and hence, has a great potential. However, it also faces a number of unsolved problems, which limits its application. This motivates the presented research. After the review of the basic theory of the inverse method, a new modified arc-length search method is proposed to find better initial solution. The methods to deal with the vertical walls are also discussed and presented. Then, a generalized multi-step inverse FEM method is proposed. It solves two key obstacles: the first one is to determine the initial solution of the intermediate three-dimensional configurations and the other is to control the movement of nodes so they could only slide on constraint surfaces during the search by

  8. Determination of the Interfacial Heat Transfer Coefficient in the Hot Stamping of AA7075

    OpenAIRE

    Ji Kang; Liu Xiaochuan; El Fakir Omer; Liu Jun; Zhang Qunli; Wang Liliang

    2016-01-01

    The interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) is a key parameter in hot stamping processes, in which a hot blank is formed and quenched by cold dies simultaneously. The IHTC should therefore be identified and used in FE simulations to improve the accuracy of simulation results of hot stamping processes. In this work, a hot stamping simulator was designed and assembled in a Gleeble 3800 thermo-mechanical testing system and a FE model was built in PAM-STAMP to determine the IHTC values betwe...

  9. Determination of the interfacial heat transfer coefficient in the hot stamping of AA7075

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Xiaochuan; Ji Kang; Fakir Omer El; Liu Jun; Zhang Qunli; Wang Liliang

    2015-01-01

    The interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) is a key parameter in hot stamping processes, in which a hot blank is formed and quenched by cold dies simultaneously. The IHTC should therefore be identified and used in FE models to improve the accuracy of simulation results of hot stamping processes. In this work, a hot stamping simulator was designed and assembled in a Gleeble 3800 thermo-mechanical testing system and a FE model was built in PAM-STAMP to determine the IHTC value between a h...

  10. Simulation Study on Hot Stamping Forming of the Drive Axle Housing of Heavy Truck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yongqian; Ji, Jianyi; Luo, Lingjiang

    2018-01-01

    Aiming at the national energy-saving and emission reduction requirements, lightweight of the heavy truck is imminent. Several parameters related to hot stamping forming process of heavy truck drive axle housing are studied in this paper. The results show that the existing two-step stamping with air cooling molding process, can be improved into one-step hot stamping process. The initial temperature of the blank, stamping speed and other parameters related to the forming process were optimized. The results provides useful reference for improving the existing forming process of the drive axle housing, and it is also helpful for realizing the lightweight design of drive axle housing.

  11. An interactive and flexible approach to stamping design and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Subir; Kunju, Ravi; Kirby, David

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient method that integrates finite element analysis (FEA), mesh morphing and response surface based optimization in order to implement an automated and flexible software tool to optimize stamping tool and process design. For FEA, a robust and extremely fast inverse solver is chosen. For morphing, a state of the art mesh morpher that interactively generates shape variables for optimization studies is used. The optimization algorithm utilized in this study enables a global search for a multitude of parameters and is highly flexible with regards to the choice of objective functions. A quality function that minimizes formability defects resulting from stretching and compression is implemented

  12. CO2 Laser Cutting of Hot Stamping Boron Steel Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Russo Spena

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the quality of CO2 laser cutting of hot stamping boron steel sheets that are employed in the fabrication of automotive body-in-white. For this purpose, experimental laser cutting tests were conducted on 1.2 mm sheets at varying levels of laser power, cutting speed, and oxygen pressure. The resulting quality of cut edges was evaluated in terms of perpendicularity tolerance, surface irregularity, kerf width, heat affected zone, and dross extension. Experimental tests were based on a L9(34 orthogonal array design, with the effects of the process parameters on the quality responses being determined by means of a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA. Quadratic mathematical models were developed to determine the relationships between the cutting parameters and the quality responses. Finally, a routine based on an optimization criterion was employed to predict the optimal setting of cutting factors and its effect on the quality responses. A confirmation experiment was conducted to verify the appropriateness of the optimization routine. The results show that all of the examined process parameters have a key role in determining the cut quality of hot stamping boron steel sheets, with cutting speed and their interactions having the most influencing effects. Particularly, interactions can have an opposite behavior for different levels of the process parameters.

  13. Core-satellite supraparticles to ballistically stamp nanostructures on surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppmann, Maximilian; Miller, Franziska; Thürauf, Sandra; Groppe, Philipp; Prieschl, Johannes; Stauch, Claudia; Mandel, Karl

    2018-03-27

    Nanostructured surfaces are of great importance in a very wide range of fields. They can be obtained by imprint or deposition techniques. However, these are usually sophisticated to perform. Generally, it is not easy to equip an object/product with a nanostructure post manufacturing. Yet, it would be very beneficial to achieve a modification of an arbitrary surface with a nanostructure of choice at a later stage by an approach that is simple to perform without the need of sophisticated equipment or excessive treatment by physico-chemical methods. Herein, such a process is reported which combines two "old-fashioned" techniques, namely sandblasting and rubber-stamping, and translates them to the "nano-world". By creating core-satellite supraparticles via spray-drying, a ballistic core-satellite stamp particle system is obtained which can be used to easily transfer a wide range of nanoparticles to a great variety of surfaces to equip these with a nanostructure and subsequently advanced properties. These include water-repellant, anti-fouling or anti-dust surfaces. Moreover, it is also demonstrated that the approach can be used to manufacture well-defined nano-imprinted surfaces. Such surfaces showed an improved spreading behavior for aliphatic alcohols, thus rendering such surfaces for instance very susceptible for disinfectants. All in all, the simple technique described herein has a great potential for creating nanostructured surfaces on nearly any surface.

  14. Stamping, Clapping and Chanting: An Ancient Learning Pathway?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion M. Long

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In this review I explore the effect of temporal integration as a means of improving learning in schoolchildren. I focus first on theorists that have linked physical activity with a positive effect on children’s learning and second to psychological studies that have established the existence of innate temporal patterns. These findings are related to a model of temporal integration that I have developed from Croce’s writings on aesthetics (1900. From philosophy to neurology, I discuss recent neurological findings relating to timing and conclude that an organ of temporal integration, regulation and coordination operates in the brain with respect to physical, intuitive and higher cognitive function. I link recent findings in neurophysiology to notably similar findings in recent biomusicological studies. The finding that humans have an involuntary physical response to loud, low-frequency sounds are attributed to an innate legacy of proto-music and proto-dance behaviour among hominids. I develop the model of temporal integration further by examining the literature on stamping and clapping patterns of ancient traditional dances in relation to Husserl’s writings on theoretical succession. From philosophy to pedagogy, I summarise the review by proposing stamping, clapping and chanting as a means of achieving improved temporal integration.

  15. Size Effect Studies on Tensile Tests for Hot Stamping Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaodu; Li, Yuanyuan; Han, Xianhong; Zhang, Junbo

    2018-02-01

    Tensile tests have been widely used to determine basic mechanical properties of materials. However, the properties measured may be related to geometrical factors of the tested samples especially for high-strength steels; this makes the properties' definitions and comparisons difficult. In this study, a series of tensile tests of ultra-high-strength hot-stamped steel were performed; the geometric shapes and sizes as well as the cutting direction were modified. The results demonstrate that the hot-stamped parts were isotropic and the cutting direction had no effect; the measured strengths were practically unrelated to the specimen geometries, including both size and shape. The elongations were slightly related to sample sizes within the studied range but highly depended on the sample shape, represented by the coefficient K. Such phenomena were analyzed and discussed based on microstructural observations and fracture morphologies. Moreover, two widely used elongation conversion equations, the Oliver formula and Barba's law, were introduced to verify their applicability, and a new interpolating function was developed and compared.

  16. Elsa Baxter, head of the Swiss Post Office's Stamps and Philately Unit, presents to Robert Aymar, CERN's Director-General, the Swiss commemorative stamp dedicated to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2004-01-01

    'I am delighted to offer you a special stamp which commemorates your Laboratory's fifty-year history and pays tribute to its achievements, its pioneering spirit and its perseverance' said Mrs Baxter to Robert Aymar, CERN's Director-General.

  17. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY SCORE: COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN PUBLIC And PRIVATE COMPANIES, BASED In ibase SOCIAL stamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Reis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article intends to arguing the existing differences and similarities between Social Responsibility actions and praticals developed by the private and public companies. This comparative study of exploring character was carried with the companies owners of Social Stamp IBASE, wich published its Social Balances in the model considered for the institute in the year of 2004. For such, beyond the documentary research involving the published balances, a conceptual revision over the main subjects was necessary and also it constitutes part of the study. The joined results supply measurable and representative information about the main characteristics of social action of the companies, propitiating a comparative analysis and the emission of critical considerations, that do not finish themselves, but establishes a possibility of different readings concerning the models of social responsible management undertaken by companies from public and private segments.

  18. Women Putting Our Stamp on America: Biographies and Activities for National Women's History Month, March 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Women's History Project, Windsor, CA.

    This booklet, intended for use by educators and by workplace and community organizers, introduces women who have been featured on U.S. postage stamps as well as a few of the women who clearly merit such honor in the future. Postage stamps featuring women have been relatively few and far between and have only skimmed the surface of U.S. women in…

  19. Food Stamps and Food Insecurity: What Can Be Learned in the Presence of Nonclassical Measurement Error?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Craig; Kreider, Brent

    2008-01-01

    Policymakers have been puzzled to observe that food stamp households appear more likely to be food insecure than observationally similar eligible nonparticipating households. We reexamine this issue allowing for nonclassical reporting errors in food stamp participation and food insecurity. Extending the literature on partially identified…

  20. 27 CFR 70.332 - Unauthorized use or sale of stamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unauthorized use or sale....332 Unauthorized use or sale of stamps. Any person who buys, sells, offers for sale, uses, transfers... Code or in regulations made pursuant thereto, any stamp, coupon, ticket, book, or other device...

  1. Framework for simulation-driven design of stamping dies considering elastic die and press deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilthammar, Johan; Wall, Johan; Sigvant, Mats

    2017-10-01

    Sheet metal forming (SMF) simulations are used extensively throughout the development phase of industrial stamping dies. In these SMF simulations, the die and press are normally considered as rigid. Previous research has however shown that elastic deformation in these parts has a significant negative impact on process performance. This paper demonstrates methods for counteracting these negative effects, with a high potential for improved production support and a reduced lead time through a shorter try-out process. A structural finite element model (FE-model) of a simplified die is studied. To account for elastic deformation, the blankholder surfaces are first virtually reworked by adjusting the nodal positions on the die surfaces attaining a pressure distribution in accordance to the design phase SMF simulations with rigid surfaces. The elastic FE-model with reworked surfaces then represents a stamping die in running production. The die is now assumed to be exposed to changed process conditions giving an undesired blankholder pressure distribution. The changed process conditions could for example be due to a change of press line. An optimization routine is applied to compensate the negative effects of the new process conditions. The optimization routine uses the contact forces acting on the shims of the spacer blocks and cushion pins as optimization variables. A flexible simulation environment using MATLAB and ABAQUS is used. ABAQUS is executed from MATLAB and the results are automatically read back into MATLAB. The suggested optimization procedure reaches a pressure distribution very similar to the initial distribution assumed to be the optimum, and thereby verifying the method. Further research is needed for a method to transform the calculated forces in the optimization routine back to shims thicknesses. Furthermore, the optimization time is relatively long and needs to be reduced in the future for the method to reach its full potential.

  2. Recognition of Time Stamps on Full-Disk Hα Images Using Machine Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y.; Huang, N.; Jing, J.; Liu, C.; Wang, H.; Fu, G.

    2016-12-01

    Observation and understanding of the physics of the 11-year solar activity cycle and 22-year magnetic cycle are among the most important research topics in solar physics. The solar cycle is responsible for magnetic field and particle fluctuation in the near-earth environment that have been found increasingly important in affecting the living of human beings in the modern era. A systematic study of large-scale solar activities, as made possible by our rich data archive, will further help us to understand the global-scale magnetic fields that are closely related to solar cycles. The long-time-span data archive includes both full-disk and high-resolution Hα images. Prior to the widely use of CCD cameras in 1990s, 35-mm films were the major media to store images. The research group at NJIT recently finished the digitization of film data obtained by the National Solar Observatory (NSO) and Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) covering the period of 1953 to 2000. The total volume of data exceeds 60 TB. To make this huge database scientific valuable, some processing and calibration are required. One of the most important steps is to read the time stamps on all of the 14 million images, which is almost impossible to be done manually. We implemented three different methods to recognize the time stamps automatically, including Optical Character Recognition (OCR), Classification Tree and TensorFlow. The latter two are known as machine learning algorithms which are very popular now a day in pattern recognition area. We will present some sample images and the results of clock recognition from all three methods.

  3. Determination of the Interfacial Heat Transfer Coefficient in the Hot Stamping of AA7075

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC is a key parameter in hot stamping processes, in which a hot blank is formed and quenched by cold dies simultaneously. The IHTC should therefore be identified and used in FE simulations to improve the accuracy of simulation results of hot stamping processes. In this work, a hot stamping simulator was designed and assembled in a Gleeble 3800 thermo-mechanical testing system and a FE model was built in PAM-STAMP to determine the IHTC values between a hot aluminium alloy 7075 blank and cold dies. The IHTC values were determined at different contact pressures under both dry and lubricated (Omega-35 conditions. In addition, a model to calculate the IHTC value at different contact pressures and area densities of lubricant was developed for the hot stamping process, which was proved to be working well with verification tests.

  4. Determination of the interfacial heat transfer coefficient in the hot stamping of AA7075

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiaochuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC is a key parameter in hot stamping processes, in which a hot blank is formed and quenched by cold dies simultaneously. The IHTC should therefore be identified and used in FE models to improve the accuracy of simulation results of hot stamping processes. In this work, a hot stamping simulator was designed and assembled in a Gleeble 3800 thermo-mechanical testing system and a FE model was built in PAM-STAMP to determine the IHTC value between a hot aluminium alloy 7075 blank and cold dies. The IHTC was determined at different contact pressures under both dry and lubricated (Omega-35 conditions. In addition, a model to calculate the IHTC value at different contact pressures and area densities of lubricant was developed for the hot stamping process.

  5. Influence of preconsolidation on consolidation quality after stamp forming of C/PEEK composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slange, T. K.; Warnet, L.; Grouve, W. J. B.; Akkerman, R.

    2016-10-01

    Stamp forming is a rapid manufacturing technology used to shape flat blanks of thermoplastic composite material into three-dimensional components. Currently, expensive autoclave and press consolidation are used to preconsolidate blanks. This study investigates the influence of preconsolidation on final consolidation quality after stamp forming and explores the potential of alternative blank manufacturing methods that could reduce part costs. Blanks were manufactured using various blank manufacturing methods and subsequently were stamp formed. The consolidation quality both before and after stamp forming was compared, where the focus was on void content as the main measure for consolidation quality. The void content was characterized through thickness and density measurements, as well as by microscopy analysis. Results indicate that preconsolidation quality does have an influence on the final consolidation quality. This is due to the severe deconsolidation and limited reconsolidation during stamp forming. Nevertheless, the potential of automated fiber placement and ultrasonic spot welding as alternative blank manufacturing methods was demonstrated.

  6. Automatic machine for the stamp charging of cakes of coal for coking. Machine automatique pour le pilonnage des pains de charbon a cokefier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baro, R.; Crauser, L.; Mely, A.

    1988-06-29

    This machine, which consists of several basic stamp chargers that are interlinked and each of which has several stamps, has a total length that is one run less than the length of the stamp charging box, all the stamps being a constant distance apart which is at most equal to the said run so that the alternating movement of the machine along the rung ensures that the coal is stamp charged along the whole length of the stamp charging box, the stamps being, in addition, braked and stopped when necessary by an idler roller device that acts automatically in the stamp's ascending direction.

  7. Titanium nitride stamps replicating nanoporous anodic alumina films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navas, D; Sanchez, O; Asenjo, A; Jaafar, M; Baldonedo, J L; Vazquez, M; Hernandez-Velez, M

    2007-01-01

    Fabrication of nanostructured TiN films by magnetron sputtering using nanoporous anodic alumina films (NAAF) as substrates is reported. These hard nanostructured films could be used for pre-patterning aluminium foils and to obtain nanoporous films replicating the starting NAAF over a wide range of pore diameters and spacings. Pre-patterned Al foils are obtained by compression with pressures lower than those previously reported, then a new NAAF can be fabricated by means of only one anodization process. As an example, one of the TiN stamps was used for pre-patterning an Al foil at a pressure of 200 kg cm -2 and then it was anodized in oxalic acid solution obtaining the corresponding replica of the starting NAAF

  8. A novel time stamping technique for distributed data acquisition systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, E. T.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we discuss the design and implementation of a synchronizing technique for data acquisition systems, which can effectively use the normal, standard local area network cables to provide a time stamp, with a range up to 32 days, resolution of 10 ns, and synchronization within ± 5 ns. This system may be used to synchronize data being collected by independent heterogeneous data acquisition modules, that acquire events independently. Such distributed systems are generally designed with a tree-like structure or independent self-triggered acquisition boxes. These leaf edges are connected through branches to the root node, via non-bus based inter-connecting links. The present system has been tested with a set of self-triggered digital signal processing based data acquisition engines, having a 100 MHz analog to digital converter front end.

  9. Analysis of roll-stamped light guide plate fabricated with laser-ablated stamper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hyunjun; Hong, Seokkwan; Kim, Jongsun; Hwang, Jeongho; Joo, Byungyun; Yoon, Kyunghwan; Kang, Jeongjin

    2017-12-01

    LGP (light guide plate) is one of the major components of LCD (liquid crystal display), and it makes surface illumination for LCD backlit. LGP is a transparent plastic plate usually produced by injection molding process. On the back of LGP there are micron size patterns for extraction of light. Recently a roll-stamping process has achieved the high mass productivity of thinner LGPs. In order to fabricate optical patterns on LGPs, a fabricating tool called as a stamper is used. Micro patterns on metallic stampers are made by several micro machining processes such as chemical etching, LIGA-reflow, and laser ablation. In this study, a roll-stamping process by using a laser ablated metallic stamper was dealt with in consideration of the compatibility with the roll-stamping process. LGP fabricating tests were performed using a roll-stamping process with four different roll pressures. Pattern shapes on the stamper fabricated by laser ablation and transcription ratios of the roll-stamping process were analyzed, and LGP luminance was evaluated. Based on the evaluation, optical simulation model for LGP was made and simulation accuracy was evaluated. Simulation results showed good agreements with optical performance of LGPs in the brightness and uniformity. It was also shown that the roll-stamped LGP has the possibility of better optical performance than the conventional injection molded LGP. It was also shown that the roll-stamped LGP with the laser ablated stamper is potential to have better optical performance than the conventional injection molded LGP.

  10. A unique patterned diamond stamp for a periodically hierarchical nanoarray structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Shen, Yanting; Xu, Weiqing; Xu, Shuping; Li, Hongdong

    2016-10-01

    A diamond stamp with a hierarchical pattern was designed for the direct preparation of a periodic nanoarray structure, which was prepared by the reactive ion etching technique with a hierarchical ultrathin alumina membrane (HUTAM) as a mask. The optimal etching conditions for fabricating the diamond stamp were discussed in order to realize a vertical nanopore structure, avoiding structural damage from lateral etching. By using this diamond stamp, a polymer film with the desired hierarchical nanorod array structure can be obtained easily via the simple stamping process, which greatly simplifies the processing procedure. More importantly, the stamp is reusable because of its super-hardness, which ensures the reproducibility of the nanorod array pattern. Another merit is that the smooth surface of the etched diamond can avoid the use of a release agent. Our results prove that this hard stamp can be used for quick preparation of an elaborate periodic nanoarray structure. This study is significant in that it solves the problems of high cost and easy damage of stamps in nanoimprint lithography, and it might inspire more sophisticated applications of such an ordered structure in nanoplasmonics, biochemical sensing and nanophotonic devices.

  11. Resistless Fabrication of Nanoimprint Lithography (NIL Stamps Using Nano-Stencil Lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juergen Brugger

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to keep up with the advances in nano-fabrication, alternative, cost-efficient lithography techniques need to be implemented. Two of the most promising are nanoimprint lithography (NIL and stencil lithography. We explore here the possibility of fabricating the stamp using stencil lithography, which has the potential for a cost reduction in some fabrication facilities. We show that the stamps reproduce the membrane aperture patterns within ±10 nm and we validate such stamps by using them to fabricate metallic nanowires down to 100 nm in size.

  12. Conical tungsten stamps for the replication of pore arrays in anodic aluminium oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeClere, D. J.; Thompson, G. E.; Derby, B.

    2009-06-01

    A tungsten master stamp has been generated by applying a novel procedure that includes two-step anodizing, followed by sequential anodizing and pore widening to develop nominally funnelled pores. These conical-shaped pores were filled with tungsten by sputter coating to manufacture a master stamp. Under a pressure of 65 MPa, the master stamp successfully embossed the surface of annealed and electropolished aluminium. The embossed surface was then used to control the position of pores created by anodizing under the conditions used to produce the original pore array.

  13. Limited indications of tax stamp discordance and counterfeiting on cigarette packs purchased in tobacco retailers, 97 counties, USA, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph G L; Golden, Shelley D; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2017-12-01

    Increasing the per-unit cost of tobacco products is one of the strongest interventions for tobacco control. In jurisdictions with higher taxes in the U.S., however, cigarette pack litter studies show a substantial proportion of littered packs lack the appropriate tax stamp. More limited but still present counterfeiting also exists. We sought to examine the role of tobacco retailers as a source for untaxed and counterfeit products. Data collectors purchased Newport Green (menthol) or Marlboro Red cigarette packs in a national probability-based sample of tobacco retailers (in 97 counties) from June-October 2012. They made no effort to buy counterfeit or untaxed cigarettes. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the presence, tax authority, and type (low-tech thermal vs. encrypted) of cigarette pack tax stamps; concordance of tax stamps with where the pack was purchased; and, for Marlboro cigarettes, publicly available visible indicators of counterfeiting. We purchased 2147 packs of which 2033 had tax stamps. Packs missing stamps were in states that do not require them. We found very limited discordance between store location and tax stamp(s) (tax stamps (13%). This occurred entirely with low-tech tax stamps and was not identified with encrypted tax stamps. We found no clear evidence of counterfeit products. Almost all tax stamps matched the location of purchase. Litter studies may be picking up legal tax avoidance instead of illegal tax evasion or, alternatively, purchase of illicit products requires special request by the purchaser.

  14. Mars Express/MARSIS - Analysis and solution of an anomaly event: MARSIS Data Bad Time Stamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuppi, S.; Cartacci, M.; Cicchetti, A.; Noschese, R.; Orosei, R.

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes the detection, the analysis and the possible solutions of an anomaly event occurred sometimes in MARSIS science data consisting in the corruption of the Spacecraft Event Time (SCET): MARSIS Data Bad Time Stamp.

  15. 31 CFR 500.410 - Currency, coins, and postage and other stamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... postage and other stamps issued by North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam are merchandise of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian, or South Vietnamese origin subject to § 500.204(a)(1). ...

  16. A burial with a stamp seal depicting a Bes-like figure from Abusir

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dulíková, V.; Odler, M.; Březinová, Helena; Havelková, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2015, č. 15 (2015), s. 69-75 ISSN 1214-3189 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Abusir * Old Kingdom * First Intermediate Period * stamp seal * amulet * Bes * reed coffin * entheses Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  17. The response of 1578 school leavers to a campaign combining commercial, Health Boards' and GDPs' sponsorship in an effort to improve dental attendance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craven, R; Blinkhorn, A S; Schou, L

    1993-01-01

    A dental health promotion campaign was developed by Forth Valley Health Board in conjunction with the Scottish Health Education Group and the Department of Marketing at Strathclyde University. The aim was to encourage dental attendance among early school leavers. The emphasis was on the contribut......A dental health promotion campaign was developed by Forth Valley Health Board in conjunction with the Scottish Health Education Group and the Department of Marketing at Strathclyde University. The aim was to encourage dental attendance among early school leavers. The emphasis...... was on the contribution of dental care to appearance and attractiveness. To highlight the importance of appearance, a major clothing retailer offered discounts on clothes to participants who made a dental visit. The impact of the campaign was evaluated by a questionnaire 3 months after its close. Recall of the campaign...... was high at 62% and 16% actually initiated a dental visit. However, only 2% claimed that the campaign was their main reason for attending. The project demonstrated the feasibility of collaboration between a commercial company and a health board in a health promotion effort. The results underline...

  18. High Thermal Conductivity and High Wear Resistance Tool Steels for cost-effective Hot Stamping Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, I.; Hamasaiid, A.; Padré, A.

    2017-09-01

    In hot stamping/press hardening, in addition to its shaping function, the tool controls the cycle time, the quality of the stamped components through determining the cooling rate of the stamped blank, the production costs and the feasibility frontier for stamping a given component. During the stamping, heat is extracted from the stamped blank and transported through the tool to the cooling medium in the cooling lines. Hence, the tools’ thermal properties determine the cooling rate of the blank, the heat transport mechanism, stamping times and temperature distribution. The tool’s surface resistance to adhesive and abrasive wear is also an important cost factor, as it determines the tool durability and maintenance costs. Wear is influenced by many tool material parameters, such as the microstructure, composition, hardness level and distribution of strengthening phases, as well as the tool’s working temperature. A decade ago, Rovalma developed a hot work tool steel for hot stamping that features a thermal conductivity of more than double that of any conventional hot work tool steel. Since that time, many complimentary grades have been developed in order to provide tailored material solutions as a function of the production volume, degree of blank cooling and wear resistance requirements, tool geometries, tool manufacturing method, type and thickness of the blank material, etc. Recently, Rovalma has developed a new generation of high thermal conductivity, high wear resistance tool steel grades that enable the manufacture of cost effective tools for hot stamping to increase process productivity and reduce tool manufacturing costs and lead times. Both of these novel grades feature high wear resistance and high thermal conductivity to enhance tool durability and cut cycle times in the production process of hot stamped components. Furthermore, one of these new grades reduces tool manufacturing costs through low tool material cost and hardening through readily

  19. Insulation from basaltic stamp sand. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, F. D.

    1981-04-01

    A Midwest Appropriate Technology Grant was awarded to determine the technical and economic feasibility of producing mineral-fiber insulation directly from extensive deposits of basaltic sand produced during former mining and milling operations in the Keweenaw Peninsula region of Michigan's Upper Peninsula. The amounts of local basaltic sands available and representative chemical compositions were determined. The variation of viscosity with temperature and chemical composition was estimated. Samples were melted and either pulled or blown into fiber. In all cases fiber could be made with a reasonable tensile strength to ensure usefulness. It was concluded that it was technically feasible to produce fibers from basaltic stamp sands of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. A technical feasibility study using published data, a cost and design analysis of a basalt fiber production plant, a market survey of fiber needs, and an economic analysis for investing in a basalt fiber venture was undertaken. These studies concluded that the local production of basaltic insulation was both feasible and economically reasonable. It was suggested that the plant be located in a region of greater population density with lower utility costs. A representative one-third of these studies is included as appendices A, B, C, and D.

  20. Investigation of the reduction of mouldboard ploughshare wear through hot stamping and hardfacing processes

    OpenAIRE

    YAZICI, Aysel

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the hot stamping process and different hardfacing techniques, such as shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) and gas metal arc welding (GMAW), on the abrasive wear of ploughshares were investigated under field operational conditions. The abrasive wear losses were determined by measuring the weight and dimension changes before and after tillage. The wear losses of hot-stamped and hardfaced ploughshares were less significant than those of the conventionally heat-treated ploughshare sp...

  1. Springback analysis of AA5754 after hot stamping: Experiments and FE modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, A; Zhong, K; El Fakir, O; Sun, C; Wang, L; Lin, J; Dean, TA

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the springback of the aluminium alloy AA5754 under hot stamping conditions was characterised under stretch and pure bending conditions. It was found that elevated temperature stamping was beneficial for springback reduction, particularly when using hot dies. Using cold dies, the flange springback angle decreased by 9.7 % when the blank temperature was increased from 20 to 450 ?C, compared to the 44.1 % springback reduction when hot dies were used. Various other forming conditio...

  2. A Fully Automated and Robust Method to Incorporate Stamping Data in Crash, NVH and Durability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniswamy, Hariharasudhan; Kanthadai, Narayan; Roy, Subir; Beauchesne, Erwan

    2011-08-01

    Crash, NVH (Noise, Vibration, Harshness), and durability analysis are commonly deployed in structural CAE analysis for mechanical design of components especially in the automotive industry. Components manufactured by stamping constitute a major portion of the automotive structure. In CAE analysis they are modeled at a nominal state with uniform thickness and no residual stresses and strains. However, in reality the stamped components have non-uniformly distributed thickness and residual stresses and strains resulting from stamping. It is essential to consider the stamping information in CAE analysis to accurately model the behavior of the sheet metal structures under different loading conditions. Especially with the current emphasis on weight reduction by replacing conventional steels with aluminum and advanced high strength steels it is imperative to avoid over design. Considering this growing need in industry, a highly automated and robust method has been integrated within Altair Hyperworks® to initialize sheet metal components in CAE models with stamping data. This paper demonstrates this new feature and the influence of stamping data for a full car frontal crash analysis.

  3. Hot Stamping of Boron Steel Using Partition Heating for Tailored Properties: Experimental Trials and Numerical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Yanhong; Wang, Baoyu; Zhou, Jing; Huang, Xu; Li, Xuetao

    2017-11-01

    Hot-stamped components with tailored properties are becoming popular for their better performance in collision. In this article, an M-shaped part with varying properties was formed by hot stamping using partition heating. Different soaking temperatures induce different austenite fractions at the different regions of the blank, resulting in the partitioned microstructure and mechanical properties in a single part. In the high-temperature region, the average tensile strength and elongation are 1565 MPa and 8.65 pct, respectively, and the average tensile strength and elongation are 626 MPa and 24.37 pct, respectively, in the low-temperature region. A finite element model of hot stamping using partition heating was established based on the relationship of austenite fraction with heating temperature determined by the dilatometer test and the stress-strain curve of 22MnB5 with different austenite fractions acquired from the hot tensile test.The differences of temperature, thickness, and Vickers hardness in different zones of the M-shaped part during forming and quenching stages were analyzed. The effects of hot stamping parameters, such as stamping velocity and heating temperature, on the forming and mechanical properties of the tailored M-shaped part were investigated, providing theoretical guidance for the production of tailored hot-stamped components using partition heating.

  4. Carbon nanotube substrates and catalyzed hot stamp for polishing and patterning the substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhuang [Evanston, IL; Hauge, Robert H [Houston, TX; Schmidt, Howard K [Houston, TX; Kim, Myung Jong [Houston, TX; Kittrell, W Carter [Houston, TX

    2009-09-08

    The present invention is generally directed to catalyzed hot stamp methods for polishing and/or patterning carbon nanotube-containing substrates. In some embodiments, the substrate, as a carbon nanotube fiber end, is brought into contact with a hot stamp (typically at 200-800.degree. C.), and is kept in contact with the hot stamp until the morphology/patterns on the hot stamp have been transferred to the substrate. In some embodiments, the hot stamp is made of material comprising one or more transition metals (Fe, Ni, Co, Pt, Ag, Au, etc.), which can catalyze the etching reaction of carbon with H.sub.2, CO.sub.2, H.sub.2O, and/or O.sub.2. Such methods can (1) polish the carbon nanotube-containing substrate with a microscopically smooth finish, and/or (2) transfer pre-defined patterns from the hot stamp to the substrate. Such polished or patterned carbon nanotube substrates can find application as carbon nanotube electrodes, field emitters, and field emitter arrays for displays and electron sources.

  5. Experimental and Numerical Studies on the Formability of Materials in Hot Stamping and Cold Die Quenching Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, N.; Mohamed, M. S.; Cai, J.; Lin, J.; Balint, D.; Dean, T. A.

    2011-05-01

    Formability of steel and aluminium alloys in hot stamping and cold die quenching processes is studied in this research. Viscoplastic-damage constitutive equations are developed and determined from experimental data for the prediction of viscoplastic flow and ductility of the materials. The determined unified constitutive equations are then implemented into the commercial Finite Element code Abaqus/Explicit via a user defined subroutine, VUMAT. An FE process simulation model and numerical procedures are established for the modeling of hot stamping processes for a spherical part with a central hole. Different failure modes (failure takes place either near the central hole or in the mid span of the part) are obtained. To validate the simulation results, a test programme is developed, a test die set has been designed and manufactured, and tests have been carried out for the materials with different forming rates. It has been found that very close agreements between experimental and numerical process simulation results are obtained for the ranges of temperatures and forming rates carried out.

  6. Experimental and Numerical Studies on the Formability of Materials in Hot Stamping and Cold Die Quenching Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, N.; Mohamed, M. S.; Cai, J.; Lin, J.; Balint, D.; Dean, T. A.

    2011-01-01

    Formability of steel and aluminium alloys in hot stamping and cold die quenching processes is studied in this research. Viscoplastic-damage constitutive equations are developed and determined from experimental data for the prediction of viscoplastic flow and ductility of the materials. The determined unified constitutive equations are then implemented into the commercial Finite Element code Abaqus/Explicit via a user defined subroutine, VUMAT. An FE process simulation model and numerical procedures are established for the modeling of hot stamping processes for a spherical part with a central hole. Different failure modes (failure takes place either near the central hole or in the mid span of the part) are obtained. To validate the simulation results, a test programme is developed, a test die set has been designed and manufactured, and tests have been carried out for the materials with different forming rates. It has been found that very close agreements between experimental and numerical process simulation results are obtained for the ranges of temperatures and forming rates carried out.

  7. Investigation into the Fiber Orientation Effect on the Formability of GLARE Materials in the Stamp Forming Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shichen; Lang, Lihui; Sherkatghanad, Ehsan; Wang, Yao; Xu, Wencai

    2018-04-01

    Glass-reinforced aluminum laminate (GLARE) is a new class of fiber metal laminates (FMLs) which has the advantages such as high tensile strength, outstanding fatigue, impact resistance, and excellent corrosion properties. GLARE has been extensively applied in advanced aerospace and automobile industries. However, the deformation behavior of the glass fiber during forming must be studied to the benefits of the good-quality part we form. In this research, we focus on the effect of fiber layer orientation on the GLARE laminate formability in stamp forming process. Experimental and numerical analysis of stamping a hemisphere part in different fiber orientation is investigated. The results indicate that unidirectional and multi-directional fiber in the middle layer make a significant effect on the thinning and also surface forming quality of the three layer sheet. Furthermore, the stress-strain distribution of the aluminum alloy and the unique anisotropic property of the fiber layer exhibit that fiber layer orientation can also affect the forming depths as well as the fracture modes of the laminate. According to the obtained results, it is revealed that multi-directional fiber layers are a good alternative compared to the unidirectional fibers especially when a better formability is the purpose.

  8. Tribological performances of new steel grades for hot stamping tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medea, F.; Venturato, G.; Ghiotti, A.; Bruschi, S.

    2017-09-01

    In the last years, the use of High Strength Steels (HSS) as structural parts in car body-in-white manufacturing has rapidly increased thanks to their favourable strength-to-weight ratio and stiffness, which allow a reduction of the fuel consumption to accommodate the new restricted regulations for CO2 emissions control. The survey of the technical and scientific literature shows a large interest in the development of different coatings for the blanks from the traditional Al-Si up to new Zn-based coatings and on the analysis of hard PVD, CVD coatings and plasma nitriding applied on the tools. By contrast, fewer investigations have been focused on the development and test of new tools steels grades capable to improve the wear resistance and the thermal properties that are required for the in-die quenching during forming. On this base, the paper deals with the analysis and comparison the tribological performances in terms of wear, friction and heat transfer of new tool steel grades for high-temperature applications, characterized by a higher thermal conductivity than the commonly used tools. Testing equipment, procedures as well as measurements analyses to evaluate the friction coefficient, the wear and heat transfer phenomena are presented. Emphasis is given on the physical simulation techniques that were specifically developed to reproduce the thermal and mechanical cycles on the metal sheets and dies as in the industrial practice. The reference industrial process is the direct hot stamping of the 22MnB5 HSS coated with the common Al-Si coating for automotive applications.

  9. Diversity of Physicians’ Handwriting and Name Stamp in Chemotherapy Prescriptions: Potential Target for Fraud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asiyeh Amouei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BBackgrounds: Verification and authentication of the paper-based handwritten prescriptions is of great importance for antineoplastic medications that are good targets for forgery and fraud. Pharmacists usually investigate handwriting, signature and name stamp of prescribers to verify prescriptions in Iran. Anecdotal reports of variations in handwriting and name stamp of physicians who wrote antineoplastic prescriptions raised concerns in this regard. The aim of the study was to investigate the reported diversity and evaluate the quality of writing physician identity and required items in antineoplastic prescriptions.Methods: All insured hand-written prescriptions contained at least one antineoplastic medication and were dispensed by four main authorized community pharmacies dispensing antineoplastic medications in Tehran during one month were included. Prescriptions that were written by specialties other than oncology-related fields were excluded. Prescriptions of each physician were evaluated considering handwriting and name stamp by experienced pharmacy staff and the frequency of detected handwriting and name stamp types was recorded.Results: Of the 11022 included prescriptions, 10944 were eligible and written by 241 physicians. Median (third quartile number of physicians’ prescriptions was 17 (51. Maximum number of observed handwriting and name stamp types were eight and six respectively. High prescribers tended to have several handwriting and name stamp types.Conclusion: The observed diversity and variation in handwriting and name stamp of the physicians in antineoplastic prescriptions may facilitate the entrance of forged prescription and makes fraud detection difficult. Administrative and regulatory interventions in addition to notification of health care professionals about the observed potential might be necessary.

  10. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based microstructural prediction model for 22MnB5 boron steel during tailored hot stamping

    OpenAIRE

    Chokshi, Prasun; Dashwood, R. J.; Hughes, Darren J.

    2017-01-01

    Because of demand for lower emissions and better crashworthiness, the use of hot stamped 22MnB5 boron steel has greatly increased in manufacturing of automobile components. However, for many applications it is required that only certain regions in hot stamped parts are fully hardened whereas other regions need be more ductile. The innovative process of tailored hot stamping does this by controlling the localized microstructures through tailored cooling rates by dividing the tooling into heate...

  11. Influence of Plastic Deformation on Martensitic Transformation During Hot Stamping of Complex Structure Auto Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuhan; Song, Yanli; Hua, Lin; Lu, Jue

    2017-04-01

    The ultra-high strength steel auto parts manufactured by hot stamping are widely applied for weight reduction and safety improvement. During the hot stamping process, hot forming and quenching are performed in one step wherein plastic deformation and phase transformation simultaneously take place and affect each other. Thereinto, the influence of deformation on martensitic transformation is of great importance. In the present paper, the influence of plastic deformation on martensitic transformation during hot stamping of complex structure auto parts was investigated. For this purpose, a B-pillar reinforced panel in B1500HS steel was manufactured by hot stamping, and the process was simulated by finite element software based on a thermo-mechanical-metallurgical coupled model. Considering various deformation degrees, the microstructures and mechanical properties at four typical locations of the hot stamped B-pillar reinforced panel were detected. The results show that the martensitic content and the microhardness increase with the increase in the deformation amount. There are two reasons causing this phenomenon: (1) the increase in mechanical driving force and (2) the increased probability of the martensitic nucleation at crystal defects. The x-ray diffraction analysis indicates the carbon enrichment in retained austenite which results from the carbon diffusion during the low-carbon martensite formation. Furthermore, the carbon content decreases with the increase in the deformation amount, because the deformation of austenite suppresses the carbon diffusion.

  12. THE EFFECTS OF FIXED-TERM EMPLOYMENT SPELLS ON THE INTEGRATION OF SCHOOL-LEAVERS ON THE LABOUR MARKET: EVIDENCE FROM FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Calavrezo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the impact of fixed term employment spells (fixed-term contracts and temporary work on the integration on the labour market (translated by the transition to a permanent contract for French school-leavers. We study, at the same time, the impact of three categories of determinants on the schoolleavers' integration on the labour market: individual's features, a first fixed-term employment spell and a later fixed-term employment episode. More precisely, by taking into account the fixed-term employment spell duration, we identify four possible trajectories and we examine if fixed term employment is a "stepping-stone" to permanent employment. In order to control for possible endogeneity biases, trivariate probit models are implemented on a sample of 11 303 individuals obtained from the French "Generation 98" survey.

  13. Stayers, leavers, and switchers among certified nursing assistants in nursing homes: a longitudinal investigation of turnover intent, staff retention, and turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Jules; Stiehl, Emily M; Mittal, Vikas; Leana, Carrie R

    2011-10-01

    Studies of certified nursing assistant (CNA) turnover in nursing homes are typically cross-sectional and include full-time and part-time workers. We conducted a longitudinal study to evaluate the job factors and work attitudes associated with just full-time staying or leaving. For those who did not stay, we assessed reasons for leaving and satisfaction following job transition. A random sample of CNAs identified through the Pennsylvania Department of Health's CNA registry, working ≥ 30 hr weekly in a nursing facility was surveyed by telephone at baseline and 1 year later. Of the 620 responding to both surveys, 532 (85.8%) remained (stayers), 52 (8.4%) switched to another facility (switchers), and 36 (5.8%) left the industry (leavers). At baseline, switchers reported higher turnover intentions and fewer benefits compared with stayers and left for new opportunities. Leavers had lower job satisfaction and emotional well-being and left for health reasons. Turnover intentions were predicted by low job satisfaction and low emotional well-being. Actual turnover was predicted only by turnover intentions and by the absence of health insurance. Pay was not a predictor of turnover intent or turnover. There are two distinct groups of CNAs contributing to turnover. Attitudinal factors, such as job satisfaction and emotional well-being, are mediated via turnover intentions to effect actual turnover. Even accounting for methodological differences, this turnover rate is lower than previous studies, which use alternative methods and include part-time workers. This study should help nursing home administrators better understand the work-related factors associated with staff turnover.

  14. A framework for development of an intelligent system for design and manufacturing of stamping dies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, H M A; Kumar, S

    2014-01-01

    An integration of computer aided design (CAD), computer aided process planning (CAPP) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM) is required for development of an intelligent system to design and manufacture stamping dies in sheet metal industries. In this paper, a framework for development of an intelligent system for design and manufacturing of stamping dies is proposed. In the proposed framework, the intelligent system is structured in form of various expert system modules for different activities of design and manufacturing of dies. All system modules are integrated with each other. The proposed system takes its input in form of a CAD file of sheet metal part, and then system modules automate all tasks related to design and manufacturing of stamping dies. Modules are coded using Visual Basic (VB) and developed on the platform of AutoCAD software

  15. Numerical simulation of temperature field, microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of HSS during hot stamping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Dongyong; Liu, Wenquan; Ying, Liang; Hu, Ping; Shen, Guozhe

    2013-01-01

    The hot stamping of boron steels is widely used to produce ultra high strength automobile components without any spring back. The ultra high strength of final products is attributed to the fully martensitic microstructure that is obtained through the simultaneous forming and quenching of the hot blanks after austenization. In the present study, a mathematical model incorporating both heat transfer and the transformation of austenite is presented. A FORTRAN program based on finite element technique has been developed which permits the temperature distribution and microstructure evolution of high strength steel during hot stamping process. Two empirical diffusion-dependent transformation models under isothermal conditions were employed respectively, and the prediction capability on mechanical properties of the models were compared with the hot stamping experiment of an automobile B-pillar part

  16. Multi-cycle rolled aluminum alloy 3103 sandwiches: mechanical properties and stamp ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosova Ekaterina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Constructional part producing by sheet stamping of multilayer composites requires the stamping ability data. The aim of a work is to estimate mechanical properties, stamping ratio and anisotropy indexes of 2, 4, 8 and 12 layer sandwiches produced from aluminium alloy AA3103. The pieces were received by the cold rolling. Interoperation annealing was at 500°C for 1 hour. Charts of tensile strength, yield stress, elongation depending on layer thickness were composed. It was found that cold strain hardening does not disappear after annealing if the foil’s thickness become 0.4 mm and less. Microstructure analysis has shown a good contact between layers for all samples and thicker outer layers.

  17. Modeling the constitutive and frictional behavior of PTFE flexible stamps for nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, the deformation on micro-scale of PTFE flexible stamps for nanoimprint lithography is modeled. This is achieved via a combination of proper models for the constitutive behavior as well as the frictional conditions between the deforming PTFE stamp and the steel tool. The model...... was verified through an experiment, where a PTFE sheet was deformed by a steel sphere mounted in a tensile test machine. Good agreement between simulations and experimental results is found, both regarding force–displacement and corresponding principal strain measurements. As expected, applying the correct...... frictional behavior between PTFE and steel on micro-scale is shown to be of major importance in order to accurately simulate the strain field in the deformed PTFE stamp. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved...

  18. Micromechanical exfoliation of two-dimensional materials by a polymeric stamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, M C Ferraz da; Ribeiro, H B; Kessler, F; Souza, E A T de; Fechine, G J M

    2016-01-01

    In this work, an alternative technique to the traditional micromechanical exfoliation of two-dimensional materials is proposed, consisting of isolated flakes of graphite and molybdenum disulphide onto polymeric surfaces films. The set made up of polymer and flakes is fabricated by using a hot-press machine called polymeric stamp. The polymeric stamp was used to allocate flakes and also to allow the exfoliation process to take place just in one face of isolated flake. Optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy results showed that multilayers, bilayers and single layers of graphene and MoS 2 were obtained by using a polymeric stamp as tool for micromechanical exfoliation. These crystals were more easily found because the exfoliation process concentrates them in well-defined locations. The results prove the effectiveness of the method by embedding two-dimensional materials into polymers to fabricate fewer layers crystals in a fast, economic and clean way. (paper)

  19. Micromechanical exfoliation of two-dimensional materials by a polymeric stamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz da Costa, M. C.; Ribeiro, H. B.; Kessler, F.; de Souza, E. A. T.; Fechine, G. J. M.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, an alternative technique to the traditional micromechanical exfoliation of two-dimensional materials is proposed, consisting of isolated flakes of graphite and molybdenum disulphide onto polymeric surfaces films. The set made up of polymer and flakes is fabricated by using a hot-press machine called polymeric stamp. The polymeric stamp was used to allocate flakes and also to allow the exfoliation process to take place just in one face of isolated flake. Optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy results showed that multilayers, bilayers and single layers of graphene and MoS2 were obtained by using a polymeric stamp as tool for micromechanical exfoliation. These crystals were more easily found because the exfoliation process concentrates them in well-defined locations. The results prove the effectiveness of the method by embedding two-dimensional materials into polymers to fabricate fewer layers crystals in a fast, economic and clean way.

  20. A framework for development of an intelligent system for design and manufacturing of stamping dies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, H. M. A.; Kumar, S.

    2014-07-01

    An integration of computer aided design (CAD), computer aided process planning (CAPP) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM) is required for development of an intelligent system to design and manufacture stamping dies in sheet metal industries. In this paper, a framework for development of an intelligent system for design and manufacturing of stamping dies is proposed. In the proposed framework, the intelligent system is structured in form of various expert system modules for different activities of design and manufacturing of dies. All system modules are integrated with each other. The proposed system takes its input in form of a CAD file of sheet metal part, and then system modules automate all tasks related to design and manufacturing of stamping dies. Modules are coded using Visual Basic (VB) and developed on the platform of AutoCAD software.

  1. Investigation of the influence of process parameters on adhesive wear under hot stamping conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwingenschlögl, P.; Weldi, M.; Merklein, M.

    2017-09-01

    Current challenges like increasing safety standards and reducing fuel consumption motivate lightweight construction in modern car bodies. Besides using lightweight workpiece materials like aluminum, hot stamping has been established as a key technology for producing safety relevant components. Producing hot stamped parts out of ultra-high strength steels offers the possibility to improve the crash performance. At the same time the weight of car structure is reduced by using thinner sheet thicknesses. In order to avoid oxide scale formation and ensure corrosion protection, AlSi coatings are commonly deposited on the sheet surfaces used for direct hot stamping. This workpiece coating has a critical impact on the tribological conditions within the forming process and, as a consequence, influences the quality of hot stamped parts as well as tool wear. AlSi coatings have been identified as major reason for adhesive wear, which represents the main wear mechanism in hot stamping. Within this study, the influence of the process parameters on adhesive wear are investigated in dependency of workpiece and tool temperatures, drawing velocities and contact pressures. The tribological behavior is analyzed based on strip drawing experiments under direct hot stamping conditions. The experiments are performed with AlSi coated 22MnB5 in contact with the hot working tool steel 1.2367. For analyzing the amount of adhesion on the friction jaws, the surfaces are characterized by optical measurements. The experiments indicate that higher workpiece temperatures cause severe adhesive wear on the tool surface, while an increase of drawing velocity or contact pressure led to reduced adhesion. The measured friction coefficients decreased with rising amount of adhesion and remained at a constant level after a certain adhesive layer was built up on the tool surface.

  2. STAMPS: software tool for automated MRI post-processing on a supercomputer

    OpenAIRE

    Bigler, Don C.; Aksu, Yaman; Yang, Qing X.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a Software Tool for Automated MRI Post-processing (STAMP) of multiple types of brain MRIs on a workstation and for parallel processing on a supercomputer (STAMPS). This software tool enables the automation of nonlinear registration for a large image set and for multiple MR image types. The tool uses standard brain MRI post-processing tools (such as SPM, FSL, and HAMMER) for multiple MR image types in a pipeline fashion. It also contains novel MRI post-processing features....

  3. A compact system for large-area thermal nanoimprint lithography using smart stamps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Haugstrup; Hansen, Ole; Kristensen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    We present a simple apparatus for thermal nanoimprint lithography. In this work, the stamp is designed to significantly reduce the requirements for pressure application on the external imprint system. By MEMS-based processing, an air cavity inside the stamp is created, and the required pressure f...... is presented. Test imprints of micrometer- and nanometer-scale structures are performed and characterized with respect to uniformity across a large area (35 mm radius). State-of-the-art uniformity for mu m-scale features is demonstrated....

  4. Development and introduction of stamping technique for large-size laterals of NPP pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romashko, N.I.; Moshnin, E.N.; Timokhin, V.S.; Bryukhanov, Yu.V.; Lebedev, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of development and introduction of stamping technique for large-size laterals of NPP high-pressure pipelines are presented. The main experimental data characterizing technological possibilities of the process are given. The technological process and design of the stamp assure production of laterals from ovalized bars per one heating of the bar and per one running of the press cronnhead. Introduction of new technology decreased labour input of lateral production, reliability and serviceability of pipelines increased in this case. Introduction of this technology gives a considerable benefit

  5. Transfer printing of 3D hierarchical gold structures using a sequentially imprinted polymer stamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fengxiang; Low, Hong Yee

    2008-01-01

    Complex three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structures on polymeric materials are fabricated through a process referred to as sequential imprinting. In this work, the sequentially imprinted polystyrene film is used as a soft stamp to replicate hierarchical structures onto gold (Au) films, and the Au structures are then transferred to a substrate by transfer printing at an elevated temperature and pressure. Continuous and isolated 3D structures can be selectively fabricated with the assistance of thermo-mechanical deformation of the polymer stamp. Hierarchical Au structures are achieved without the need for a corresponding three-dimensionally patterned mold

  6. Internet-Based Training to Improve Preschool Playground Safety: Evaluation of the Stamp-in-Safety Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C.; Pennefather, Jordan; Marquez, Brion; Marquez, Jessie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Playground injuries result in over 200,000 US pediatric emergency department visits annually. One strategy to reduce injuries is improved adult supervision. The Stamp-in-Safety programme, which involves supervisors stamping rewards for children playing safely, has been demonstrated in preliminary classroom-based work to reduce child…

  7. Experimental Investigations of the In-Die Quenching Efficiency and Die Surface Temperature of Hot Stamping Aluminium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailun Zheng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The in-die quenching is a key stage in the hot stamping volume production chain which determines the post-formed strength of lightweight alloy components, tool life, and hot stamping productivity. In this paper, the performance of in-die quenching, reflected by the quenching efficiency (the time of work-piece held within stamping dies and die surface temperature during the simulated hot stamping process of AA6082, was experimentally and analytically investigated. A range of in-die quenching experiments were performed for different initial work-piece and die temperatures, quenching pressures, work-piece thickness, and die clearances, under hot stamping conditions. In addition, a one-dimensional (1D closed-form heat transfer model was used to calculate the die surface temperature evolution that is difficult to obtain during practical manufacture situations. The results have shown that the in-die quenching efficiency can be significantly increased by decreasing the initial work-piece and die temperatures. Die clearances are required to be designed precisely to obtain sufficiently high quenching rates and satisfying post-formed strength for hot-stamped panel components. This study systematically considered an extensive variety of influencing factors on the in-die quenching performance, which can provide practical guides for stamping tool designers and manufacture systems for hot-stamping volume production.

  8. Stamping an S on DMEK Donor Tissue to Prevent Upside-Down Grafts: Laboratory Validation and Detailed Preparation Technique Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Peter B; Dye, Philip K; Holiman, Jeffrey D; Mayko, Zachary M; Sáles, Christopher S; Straiko, Michael D; Stoeger, Christopher G; Terry, Mark A

    2015-09-01

    To report endothelial cell loss (ECL) caused by a novel S-stamp preparation technique for Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK). Six cadaveric human corneas were prepared for DMEK transplantation using a single standardized technique, including the application of a dry ink gentian violet S-stamp to the stromal side of Descemet membrane. Endothelial cell death was evaluated and quantified using computerized analysis of vital dye staining. ECL caused by the S-stamp was 0.6% (range 0.1%-1.0%), which comprised less than one-tenth of the total ECL caused by our preparation of the DMEK graft from the start to finish, including recovery, prestripping, S-stamping, and trephination (13.7% total ECL, range 9.9%-17.6%). Our novel S-stamp donor tissue preparation technique is intuitive to learn and holds the promise of preventing iatrogenic primary graft failure due to upside-down grafts without causing unacceptable increases in ECL.

  9. Aluminium Pneumoconiosis I. In Vitro Comparison of Stamped Aluminium Powders Containing Different Lubricating Agents and a Granular Aluminium Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrin, B.

    1963-01-01

    The discrepancy in previous reports of the action of aluminium on the lung may be explained by differences between stamped and granular aluminium powders. A stamped powder of the variety causing pulmonary fibrosis showed a brisk reaction with water, but a granular powder was unreactive. This difference is primarily due to the granular particles being covered by inert aluminium oxide, the formation of which is partially prevented in the stamping process by stearine and mineral oil. The reactivity of the flake-like stamped particles is also dependent on their large surface area per unit volume. The appearance of aluminium pneumoconiosis in Britain is explained by the introduction of mineral oil into the stamping industry for, in contrast to stearine, mineral oil permits the powder to react with water. The lung damage is believed to be caused by a soluble form of aluminium. PMID:14072616

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-19

    Sep 19, 2012 ... The control measures include immediate reports of suspected outbreaks, prompt laboratory confirmation and rapid modified stamping out with compensations paid to affected farmers. Decontamination of infected farm premises, re- organization of live bird market were carried out, and bio security measures ...

  11. Time-stamping system for nuclear physics experiments at RIKEN RIBF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, H.; Ichihara, T.; Ohnishi, T.; Takeuchi, S.; Yoshida, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Ota, S.; Shimoura, S.; Yoshinaga, K.

    2015-03-01

    A time-stamping system for nuclear physics experiments has been introduced at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. Individual trigger signals can be applied for separate data acquisition (DAQ) systems. After the measurements are complete, separately taken data are merged based on the time-stamp information. In a typical experiment, coincidence trigger signals are formed from multiple detectors to take desired events only. The time-stamping system allows the use of minimum bias triggers. Since coincidence conditions are given by software, a variety of physics events can be flexibly identified. The live time for a DAQ system is important when attempting to determine reaction cross-sections. However, the combined live time for separate DAQ systems is not clearly known because it depends not only on the DAQ dead time but also on the coincidence conditions. Using the proposed time-stamping system, all trigger timings can be acquired, so that the combined live time can be easily determined. The combined live time is also estimated using Monte Carlo simulations, and the results are compared with the directly measured values in order to assess the accuracy of the simulation.

  12. Human factors science and safety engineering : can the STAMP model serve in establishing a common language?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanikas, Nektarios; Schwarz, M; Harfmann, J

    2017-01-01

    A symbiotic relationship between human factors and safety scientists is needed to ensure the provision of holistic solutions for problems emerging in modern socio-technical systems. System Theoretic Accident Model and Processes (STAMP) tackles both interactions and individual failures of human and

  13. Impact of Electronic Signatures and Time Stamping for the Protection of Electronic Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Limba

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article e495 valuates the impact of e-signatures and time stamping on electronic contracts and electronic documents for performing e-business opportunities and goals, and analyses e-signature application for business cases. Various electronic services, virtual shopping, electronic cash transactions are becoming increasingly popular as they allow users to quickly perform different actions, operations and functions. It is important not only for convenience, but also to ensure consumer data security and reliability. Security reasons are not enough for security transmitted data, since this method does not allow clarification of information about sender identity.Use of electronic signatures, electronic identities, checgs and ensures a very high level of data security in interchange data processes. E-signature allows e-business companies to transfer the company’s operation business processes and their application to the organization and management in the electronic environment, also automate internal and external compans processes, includinggon-going business processes.The object of paper is .-signature and time stamping application in the theoretical and practical way.The goal of this paper while evaluating and estimating the .-signature and time stamping application, i’s regulation and legal implementation worldwidesand in Lithuania—is to provideluseful recommendations for more efficient impact developing -commerce and -business in situations when -signature and time stamping is used for ensuring electronic contracs security.

  14. Impact of Electronic Signatures and Time Stamping for the Protection of Electronic Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Limba

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article e495 valuates the impact of e-signatures and time stamping on electronic contracts and electronic documents for performing e-business opportunities and goals, and analyses e-signature application for business cases. Various electronic services, virtual shopping, electronic cash transactions are becoming increasingly popular as they allow users to quickly perform different actions, operations and functions. It is important not only for convenience, but also to ensure consumer data security and reliability. Security reasons are not enough for security transmitted data, since this method does not allow clarification of information about sender identity. Use of electronic signatures, electronic identities, checgs and ensures a very high level of data security in interchange data processes. E-signature allows e-business companies to transfer the company’s operation business processes and their application to the organization and management in the electronic environment, also automate internal and external compans processes, includinggon-going business processes. The object of paper is .-signature and time stamping application in the theoretical and practical way. The goal of this paper while evaluating and estimating the .-signature and time stamping application, i’s regulation and legal implementation worldwidesand in Lithuania—is to provideluseful recommendations for more efficient impact developing -commerce and -business in situations when -signature and time stamping is used for ensuring electronic contracs security.

  15. Time-stamping system for nuclear physics experiments at RIKEN RIBF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, H.; Ichihara, T.; Ohnishi, T.; Takeuchi, S.; Yoshida, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Ota, S.; Shimoura, S.; Yoshinaga, K.

    2015-01-01

    A time-stamping system for nuclear physics experiments has been introduced at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. Individual trigger signals can be applied for separate data acquisition (DAQ) systems. After the measurements are complete, separately taken data are merged based on the time-stamp information. In a typical experiment, coincidence trigger signals are formed from multiple detectors to take desired events only. The time-stamping system allows the use of minimum bias triggers. Since coincidence conditions are given by software, a variety of physics events can be flexibly identified. The live time for a DAQ system is important when attempting to determine reaction cross-sections. However, the combined live time for separate DAQ systems is not clearly known because it depends not only on the DAQ dead time but also on the coincidence conditions. Using the proposed time-stamping system, all trigger timings can be acquired, so that the combined live time can be easily determined. The combined live time is also estimated using Monte Carlo simulations, and the results are compared with the directly measured values in order to assess the accuracy of the simulation

  16. 41 CFR 101-25.103-4 - Disposition of promotional materials, trading stamps, or bonus goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., arrange for transfer of promotional materials, trading stamps, or bonus goods, without reimbursement in...) The contract does not contain a price reduction clause, or (2) The contractor refuses to grant a price... promotional items as a price reduction, and (4) The procuring or receiving agency has no practical use for the...

  17. Impacting Mediators of Change for Physical Activity among Elderly Food Stamp Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Cheryl J.; Williams, Joel E.; Kemper, Karen A.; McGuire, Francis A.; Aybar-Damali, Begum

    2012-01-01

    A multidisciplinary team developed and pilot-tested a curriculum, delivered by trained lay educators, to increase self-efficacy for physical activity among elderly food stamp recipients. Curriculum development was guided by a comprehensive literature review. Process evaluation was used to revise the curriculum and to assess lay educator training…

  18. 75 FR 4911 - Food Stamp Program: Eligibility and Certification Provisions of the Farm Security and Rural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    .... Several commenters suggested that the Department amend the current regulations to clarify that human trafficking victims and certain family members are eligible for food stamps to ensure that victims and their...). The guidance reflects the requirements under the ``Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000'' (Pub...

  19. Fabrication of microlens array on silicon surface using electrochemical wet stamping technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Lei-Jie; Zhou, Hang; Zhu, Li-Min

    2016-02-01

    This paper focuses on the fabrication of microlens array (MLA) on silicon surface by taking advantage of a novel micromachining approach, the electrochemical we stamping (E-WETS). The E-WETS allows the direct imprinting of MLA on an agarose stamp into the substrate through a selective anodic dissolution process. The pre-patterned agarose stamp can direct and supply the solution preferentially on the contact area between the agarose stamp and the substrate, to which the electrochemical reaction is confined. The anodic potential vs. saturated calomel electrode is optimized and 1.5 V is chosen as the optimum value for the electrochemical polishing of p-Si. A refractive MLA on a PMMA mold is successfully transferred onto the p-Si surface. The machining deviations of the fabricated MLA from those on the mold are 0.44% in diameter and 2.1% in height respectively, and the machining rate in HF is around 1.1 μm/h. The surface roughness of the fabricated MLA is less than 12 nm owing to the electrochemical polishing process. The results demonstrate that E-WETS is a promising approach to fabricate MLA on p-Si surface with high accuracy and efficiency.

  20. Honoring Avicenna, the great Persian physician on the world's postage stamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Ahmadreza

    2010-09-01

    Many nations are indebted to Avicenna (Ibn-Sina) for their scientific progressions and civilization. Many countries in the Middle East, Africa, and Europe have honored Avicenna, the great Persian scientist, by depicting his vignette on their postage stamps. The symbolic value of Avicenna has been chosen to commemorate scientific occasions, achievements and anniversaries, which represents the ultimate performance of conscious honoring.

  1. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers... Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers. (1) The Director is responsible for the designation of yellow fever vaccination centers...

  2. Food Stamp and School Lunch Programs Alleviate Food Insecurity in Rural America. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kristin; Savage, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    The Food Stamp and the National School Lunch Programs play a vital role in helping poor, rural Americans obtain a more nutritious diet and alleviate food insecurity and hunger. This fact sheet looks at the extent to which rural America depends on these programs and describes characteristics of beneficiaries of these federal nutrition assistance…

  3. Studying the Solar System Can Be More than Just "Stamp Collecting"

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    While teaching his first-ever introductory college astronomy course, I heard a graduate student make the comment that compared to other areas of astronomy, studying the solar system is just "stamp collecting." Coverage of the solar system in an introductory college astronomy course certainly "could" consist mostly of showing…

  4. Silicon oxide nanoimprint stamp fabrication by edge lithography reinforced with silicon nitride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Yiping; Berenschot, Johan W.; de Boer, Meint J.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Tas, Niels Roelof; Huskens, Jurriaan; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2007-01-01

    The fabrication of silicon oxide nanoimprint stamp employing edge lithography in combination with silicon nitride deposition is presented. The fabrication process is based on conventional photolithography an weg etching methods. Nanoridges with width dimension of sub-20 nm were fabricated by edge

  5. Micropatterning of a stretchable conductive polymer using inkjet printing and agarose stamping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Steen; Hassager, Ole; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2007-01-01

    ,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). The agarose stamping produced 50 μm wide conducting lines with high spatial fidelity. The deactivation agent was found to cause some degradation of the remaining conducting lines, as revealed by a stronger increase in resistance upon straining compared to the pristine polymer material...

  6. MECHANICAL VIBRATION INHIBITS OSTEOCLAST FORMATION BY REDUCING DC-STAMP RECEPTOR EXPRESSION IN OSTEOCLAST PRECURSOR CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, R.N.; Voglewede, P.A.; Liu, D.

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that physical inactivity leads to loss of muscle mass, but it also causes bone loss. Mechanistically, osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption have recently been shown to be regulated by vibration. However, the underlying mechanism behind the inhibition of osteoclast formation is yet unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether mechanical vibration of osteoclast precursor cells affects osteoclast formation by the involvement of fusion-related molecules such as dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), and P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). RAW264.7 (a murine osteoclastic-like cell line) cells were treated with 20 ng/ml receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). For 3 consecutive days, the cells were subjected to 1 hour of mechanical vibration with 20 µm displacement at a frequency of 4 Hz and compared to the control cells that were treated under the same condition but without the vibration. After 5 days of culture, osteoclast formation was determined. Gene expression of DC-STAMP and P2X7R by RAW264.7 cells were determined after 1 hour mechanical vibration, while protein production of the DC-STAMP was determined after 6 hours of post incubation after vibration. As a result, mechanical vibration of RAW264.7 cells inhibited the formation of osteoclasts. Vibration down-regulated DC-STAMP gene expression by 1.6-fold in the presence of RANKL and by 1.4-fold in the absence of RANKL. Additionally, DC-STAMP protein production was also down-regulated by 1.4-fold in the presence of RANKL and by 1.2-fold in the absence of RANKL in RAW264.7 cells in response to mechanical vibration. However, vibration did not affect P2X7R gene expression. Mouse anti-DC-STAMP antibody inhibited osteoclast formation in the absence of vibration. Our results suggest that mechanical vibration of osteoclast precursor cells reduce DC-STAMP expression in osteoclast precursor cells leading to the inhibition of osteoclast formation. PMID:23994170

  7. Mechanical vibration inhibits osteoclast formation by reducing DC-STAMP receptor expression in osteoclast precursor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Rishikesh N; Voglewede, Philip A; Liu, Dawei

    2013-12-01

    It is well known that physical inactivity leads to loss of muscle mass, but it also causes bone loss. Mechanistically, osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption have recently been shown to be regulated by vibration. However, the underlying mechanism behind the inhibition of osteoclast formation is yet unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether mechanical vibration of osteoclast precursor cells affects osteoclast formation by the involvement of fusion-related molecules such as dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) and P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). RAW264.7 (a murine osteoclastic-like cell line) cells were treated with 20ng/ml receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). For 3 consecutive days, the cells were subjected to 1h of mechanical vibration with 20μm displacement at a frequency of 4Hz and compared to the control cells that were treated under the same condition but without the vibration. After 5days of culture, osteoclast formation was determined. Gene expression of DC-STAMP and P2X7R by RAW264.7 cells was determined after 1h of mechanical vibration, while protein production of the DC-STAMP was determined after 6h of postincubation after vibration. As a result, mechanical vibration of RAW264.7 cells inhibited the formation of osteoclasts. Vibration down-regulated DC-STAMP gene expression by 1.6-fold in the presence of RANKL and by 1.4-fold in the absence of RANKL. Additionally, DC-STAMP protein production was also down-regulated by 1.4-fold in the presence of RANKL and by 1.2-fold in the absence of RANKL in RAW264.7 cells in response to mechanical vibration. However, vibration did not affect P2X7R gene expression. Mouse anti-DC-STAMP antibody inhibited osteoclast formation in the absence of vibration. Our results suggest that mechanical vibration of osteoclast precursor cells reduces DC-STAMP expression in osteoclast precursor cells leading to the inhibition of osteoclast formation. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Stable Atlas-based Mapped Prior (STAMP) machine-learning segmentation for multicenter large-scale MRI data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Young; Magnotta, Vincent A; Liu, Dawei; Johnson, Hans J

    2014-09-01

    Machine learning (ML)-based segmentation methods are a common technique in the medical image processing field. In spite of numerous research groups that have investigated ML-based segmentation frameworks, there remains unanswered aspects of performance variability for the choice of two key components: ML algorithm and intensity normalization. This investigation reveals that the choice of those elements plays a major part in determining segmentation accuracy and generalizability. The approach we have used in this study aims to evaluate relative benefits of the two elements within a subcortical MRI segmentation framework. Experiments were conducted to contrast eight machine-learning algorithm configurations and 11 normalization strategies for our brain MR segmentation framework. For the intensity normalization, a Stable Atlas-based Mapped Prior (STAMP) was utilized to take better account of contrast along boundaries of structures. Comparing eight machine learning algorithms on down-sampled segmentation MR data, it was obvious that a significant improvement was obtained using ensemble-based ML algorithms (i.e., random forest) or ANN algorithms. Further investigation between these two algorithms also revealed that the random forest results provided exceptionally good agreement with manual delineations by experts. Additional experiments showed that the effect of STAMP-based intensity normalization also improved the robustness of segmentation for multicenter data sets. The constructed framework obtained good multicenter reliability and was successfully applied on a large multicenter MR data set (n>3000). Less than 10% of automated segmentations were recommended for minimal expert intervention. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using the ML-based segmentation tools for processing large amount of multicenter MR images. We demonstrated dramatically different result profiles in segmentation accuracy according to the choice of ML algorithm and intensity

  9. Evaluation of Contact Heat Transfer Coefficient and Phase Transformation during Hot Stamping of a Hat-Type Part

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heung-Kyu; Lee, Seong Hyeon; Choi, Hyunjoo

    2015-01-01

    Using an inverse analysis technique, the heat transfer coefficient on the die-workpiece contact surface of a hot stamping process was evaluated as a power law function of contact pressure. This evaluation was to determine whether the heat transfer coefficient on the contact surface could be used for finite element analysis of the entire hot stamping process. By comparing results of the finite element analysis and experimental measurements of the phase transformation, an evaluation was performed to determine whether the obtained heat transfer coefficient function could provide reasonable finite element prediction for workpiece properties affected by the hot stamping process. PMID:28788046

  10. Polymer microlens replication by Nanoimprint Lithography using proton beam fabricated Ni stamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, R.K.; Kan, J.A. van; Bettiol, A.A.; Watt, F.

    2007-01-01

    It is essential to have a simplified and a rapid method for fabricating micro/nano structures in different kinds of polymeric materials. Though it is possible to fabricate arrays of microlens directly by P beam writing (PBW), it is restricted to a few types of resist materials. Therefore we have fabricated a Ni electroplated metallic stamp comprising of arrays of inverse/negative features of microlenses. The metallic stamp of about 500 μm thick is made on a silicon wafer coated with 10 μm thick polymethylglutarimide (PMGI) resist and the desired structures are written by PBW followed by thermal reflow and Ni electroplating. An array of microlenses is imprinted on a polycarbonate (PC) substrate by the Nanoimprint Lithography (NIL) technique and the replicated microlenses featuring various numerical apertures, diameters and pitches are characterized

  11. Silicon micro-masonry using elastomeric stamps for three-dimensional microfabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keum, Hohyun; Eisenhaure, Jeffrey D; Kim, Seok; Carlson, Andrew; Ning, Hailong; Mihi, Agustin; Braun, Paul V; Rogers, John A

    2012-01-01

    We present a micromanufacturing method for constructing microsystems, which we term ‘micro-masonry’ based on individual manipulation, influenced by strategies for deterministic materials assembly using advanced forms of transfer printing. Analogous to masonry in construction sites, micro-masonry consists of the preparation, manipulation, and binding of microscale units to assemble microcomponents and microsystems. In this paper, for the purpose of demonstration, we used microtipped elastomeric stamps as manipulators and built three dimensional silicon microstructures. Silicon units of varied shapes were fabricated in a suspended format on donors, retrieved, delivered, and placed on a target location on a receiver using microtipped stamps. Annealing of the assembled silicon units permanently bound them and completed the micro-masonry procedure. (paper)

  12. Characterization of the interfacial heat transfer coefficient for hot stamping processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Xi; Liu, Xiaochuan; Fang, Haomiao; Ji, Kang; El Fakir, Omer; Wang, LiLiang

    2016-08-01

    In hot stamping processes, the interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) between the forming tools and hot blank is an essential parameter which determines the quenching rate of the process and hence the resulting material microstructure. The present work focuses on the characterization of the IHTC between an aluminium alloy 7075-T6 blank and two different die materials, cast iron (G3500) and H13 die steel, at various contact pressures. It was found that the IHTC between AA7075 and cast iron had values 78.6% higher than that obtained between AA7075 and H13 die steel. Die materials and contact pressures had pronounced effects on the IHTC, suggesting that the IHTC can be used to guide the selection of stamping tool materials and the precise control of processing parameters.

  13. Combined Randomized-Local Hough Transform versus UpWrite Transform in stamp detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Tondini

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The conventional Hough Transform used for detection of objects with known shape and size has proved its robustness. One typical task for this transform can be the detection of stamp(s on an envelope. Unfortunately, the Hough Transform has an important drawback: the heavy computational effort and, as consequence, a big execution time. This paper introduces a variant of Hough Transform that speeds up the process. One important aid is given by a filtering step based on a fast analysis of a rough deformation model. This method is a combination of Randomized and Local Hough Transform. Experiments were made comparing the modified Hough Transform approach with the UpWrite Transform and they proved that the first approach preserves the quality of the Hough Transform results at a higher speed.

  14. Influence of operating parameters on coke end temperature in stamp charged batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, U.S.; Sarkar, P.; Deshpande, D.P. [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur (India)

    2004-07-01

    Coke end temperature (CET) indicates the final temperature of coke mass after pushing it out from the oven and before quenching and thus is an indicator of the preparedness of the coke. Analysis of plant data from stamp charged batteries at Tata Steel show that it depends on coal blend characteristics and battery conditions. Increased input coal ash, its crushing fineness and volatile matters increases but the moisture decreases it. The heating rate, battery and regenerator temperatures all increase the coke end temperature. The present paper documents that observations on parameters influencing coke end temperature under stamp charged conditions and attempts to hypothesise the possible explanation for the results obtained. 3 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Modeling and Simulating Material Behavior during Hot Blank - Cold Die (HB-CD) Stamping of Aluminium Alloy Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Abu-Farha, Fadi

    2016-08-01

    Hot blank - cold die (HB-CD) stamping, non-isothermal hot stamping, of aluminium alloy sheets offers great opportunities for high production rates at low cost, while overcoming limited material formability issues. Yet developing an accurate model that can describe the complex material behavior over the wide ranging conditions of HB-CD stamping (temperatures ranging between 25 and 350 °C) is challenging. Moreover, validation of the developed models under transient conditions is problematic. This work presents he results of a comprehensive characterization, material modeling, FE simulation and experimental validation effort to capture the behavior of an aluminium alloy sheet during HB-CD stamping. In particular, we highlight the integration between temperature measurements (thermography) and strain measurements (digital image correlation) for the accurate validation of model predictions of non-isothermal material deformation.

  16. 75 FR 11913 - Chrysler, LLC; Warren Stamping Plant, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Caravan Knight...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... firm. The workers produce stamping parts for automobiles. New information shows that workers leased... under the control of the subject firm to be considered leased workers. Based on these findings, the...

  17. Boron nitride stamp for ultra-violet nanoimprinting lithography fabricated by focused ion beam lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altun, Ali Ozhan; Jeong, Jun-Ho; Rha, Jong-Joo; Kim, Ki-Don; Lee, Eung-Sug

    2007-01-01

    Cubic boron nitride (c-BN) is one of the hardest known materials (second after diamond). It has a high level of chemical resistance and high UV transmittance. In this study, a stamp for ultra-violet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) was fabricated using a bi-layered BN film deposited on a quartz substrate. Deposition of the BN was done using RF magnetron sputtering. A hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) layer was deposited for 30 min before c-BN was deposited for 30 min. The thickness of the film was measured as 160 nm. The phase of the c-BN layer was investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and it was found that the c-BN layer has a 40% cubic phase. The deposited film was patterned using focused ion beam (FIB) lithography for use as a UV-NIL stamp. Line patterns were fabricated with the line width and line distance set at 150 and 150 nm, respectively. The patterning process was performed by applying different currents to observe the effect of the current value on the pattern profile. The fabricated patterns were investigated using AFM, and it was found that the pattern fabricated by applying a current value of 50 picoamperes (pA) has a better profile with a 65 nm line depth. The UV transmittance of the 160 nm thick film was measured to be 70-86%. The hardness and modulus of the BN was measured to be 12 and 150 GPa, respectively. The water contact angle of the stamp surface was measured at 75 0 . The stamp was applied to UV-NIL without coating with an anti-adhesion layer. Successful imprinting was proved via scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the imprinted resin

  18. Boron nitride stamp for ultra-violet nanoimprinting lithography fabricated by focused ion beam lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altun, Ali Ozhan [Nano-Mechanical Systems Research Center, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 171 Jang-dong, Yuseung-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jun-Ho [Nano-Mechanical Systems Research Center, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 171 Jang-dong, Yuseung-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Rha, Jong-Joo [Surface Technology Research Center, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 66 Sangnam-Dong, Changwon-Shi, Kyungnam-Do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki-Don [Nano-Mechanical Systems Research Center, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 171 Jang-dong, Yuseung-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eung-Sug [Nano-Mechanical Systems Research Center, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 171 Jang-dong, Yuseung-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-11-21

    Cubic boron nitride (c-BN) is one of the hardest known materials (second after diamond). It has a high level of chemical resistance and high UV transmittance. In this study, a stamp for ultra-violet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) was fabricated using a bi-layered BN film deposited on a quartz substrate. Deposition of the BN was done using RF magnetron sputtering. A hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) layer was deposited for 30 min before c-BN was deposited for 30 min. The thickness of the film was measured as 160 nm. The phase of the c-BN layer was investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and it was found that the c-BN layer has a 40% cubic phase. The deposited film was patterned using focused ion beam (FIB) lithography for use as a UV-NIL stamp. Line patterns were fabricated with the line width and line distance set at 150 and 150 nm, respectively. The patterning process was performed by applying different currents to observe the effect of the current value on the pattern profile. The fabricated patterns were investigated using AFM, and it was found that the pattern fabricated by applying a current value of 50 picoamperes (pA) has a better profile with a 65 nm line depth. The UV transmittance of the 160 nm thick film was measured to be 70-86%. The hardness and modulus of the BN was measured to be 12 and 150 GPa, respectively. The water contact angle of the stamp surface was measured at 75{sup 0}. The stamp was applied to UV-NIL without coating with an anti-adhesion layer. Successful imprinting was proved via scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the imprinted resin.

  19. A rapid co-culture stamping device for studying intercellular communication

    OpenAIRE

    Amin Hassanzadeh-Barforoushi; Jonathan Shemesh; Nona Farbehi; Mohsen Asadnia; Guan Heng Yeoh; Richard P. Harvey; Robert E. Nordon; Majid Ebrahimi Warkiani

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of tissue development and repair depends on communication between neighbouring cells. Recent advances in cell micro-contact printing and microfluidics have facilitated the in-vitro study of homotypic and heterotypic cell-cell interaction. Nonetheless, these techniques are still complicated to perform and as a result, are seldom used by biologists. We report here development of a temporarily sealed microfluidic stamping device which utilizes a novel valve design for patterning two a...

  20. A new marking technique for peripheral lung nodules avoiding pleural puncture: the intrathoracic stamping method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Masaya; Okubo, Tetsuyuki; Poudel, Saseem; Suzuki, Yoshinori; Kawarada, Yo; Kitashiro, Shuji; Okushiba, Shunichi; Katoh, Hiroyuki

    2013-03-01

    While performing thoracoscopic wedge resection of the lung, the location of the lesion is generally identified by visual inspection or palpation. When difficulty in identification of the lesion by thoracoscopy is anticipated, preoperative marking is performed. However, complications and technical difficulties plague current marking techniques. To overcome this problem, we designed a new, safe and easy marking technique that avoids pleural puncture, called the intrathoracic stamping method.

  1. Improved Formability by Control of Strain Distribution in Sheet Stamping Using Electromagnetic Impulses

    OpenAIRE

    Daehn, G. S.; Shang, J.; Vohnout, V. J.

    2004-01-01

    Stamping failures consist of, broadly speaking, either tearing (excessive local strain energy) or wrinkling (insufficient or inappropriate local strain energy). Good parts are produced when the strain energy or plastic work is effectively distributed during the forming process such that tears and wrinkles are eliminated. The process window framed by tearing and wrinkling limits can be rather small for some materials, notably aluminum alloys. At present, there are no established methods of dir...

  2. A new marking technique for peripheral lung nodules avoiding pleural puncture: the intrathoracic stamping method

    OpenAIRE

    Kawada, Masaya; Okubo, Tetsuyuki; Poudel, Saseem; Suzuki, Yoshinori; Kawarada, Yo; Kitashiro, Shuji; Okushiba, Shunichi; Katoh, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    While performing thoracoscopic wedge resection of the lung, the location of the lesion is generally identified by visual inspection or palpation. When difficulty in identification of the lesion by thoracoscopy is anticipated, preoperative marking is performed. However, complications and technical difficulties plague current marking techniques. To overcome this problem, we designed a new, safe and easy marking technique that avoids pleural puncture, called the intrathoracic stamping method.

  3. Characterization of the interfacial heat transfer coefficient for hot stamping processes

    OpenAIRE

    Luan, X; Liu, X; Fang, H; Ji, K; El Fakir, O; Wang, L

    2016-01-01

    In hot stamping processes, the interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) between the forming tools and hot blank is an essential parameter which determines the quenching rate of the process and hence the resulting material microstructure. The present work focuses on the characterization of the IHTC between an aluminium alloy 7075-T6 blank and two different die materials, cast iron (G3500) and H13 die steel, at various contact pressures. It was found that the IHTC between AA7075 and cast ir...

  4. Anisotropic behaviour law for sheets used in stamping: A comparative study of steel and aluminium

    OpenAIRE

    Sinou, Jean-Jacques; Macquaire, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    International audience; For a car manufacturer, reducing the weight of vehicles is an obvious aim. Replacing steel by aluminium moves towards that goal. Unfortunately, aluminium's stamping numerical simulation results are not yet as reliable as those of steel. Punch-strength and spring-back phenomena are not correctly described. This study on aluminium validates the behaviour law Hill 48 quadratic yield criterion with both isotropic and kinematic hardening. It is based on the yield surface an...

  5. Low temperature high density plasma nitriding of stainless steel molds for stamping of oxide glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizawa Tatsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Various kinds of stainless steels have been widely utilized as a die for mold- and direct-stamping processes of optical oxide glasses. Since they suffered from high temperature transients and thermal cycles in practice, they must be surface-treated by dry and wet coatings, or, by plasma nitriding. Martensitic stainless steel mold was first wet plated by the nickel phosphate (NiP, which was unstable at the high temperature stamping condition; and, was easy to crystalize or to fracture by itself. This issue of nuisance significantly lowered the productivity in fabrication of optical oxide-glass elements. In the present paper, the stainless steel mold was surface-treated by the low-temperature plasma nitriding. The nitrided layer by this surface modification had higher nitrogen solute content than 4 mass%; the maximum solid-solubility of nitrogen is usually 0.1 mass% in the equilibrium phase diagram. Owing to this solid-solution with high nitrogen concentration, the nitrided layer had high hardness over 1400 HV within its thickness of 50 μm without any formation of nitrides after plasma nitriding at 693 K for 14.4 ks. This plasma-nitrided mold was utilized for mold-stamping of two colored oxide glass plates at 833 K; these plates were successfully deformed and joined into a single glass plate by this stamping without adhesion or galling of oxide glasses onto the nitrided mold surface.

  6. Using stamping punch force variation for the identification of changes in lubrication and wear mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, B. M.; Pereira, M. P.; Rolfe, B. F.; Doolan, M. C.

    2017-09-01

    The growth in use of Advanced High Strength Steels in the automotive industry for light-weighting and safety has increased the rates of tool wear in sheet metal stamping. This is an issue that adds significant costs to production in terms of manual inspection and part refinishing. To reduce these costs, a tool condition monitoring system is required and a firm understanding of process signal variation must form the foundation for any such monitoring system. Punch force is a stamping process signal that is widely collected by industrial presses and has been linked closely to part quality and tool condition, making it an ideal candidate as a tool condition monitoring signal. In this preliminary investigation, the variation of punch force due to different lubrication conditions and progressive wear are examined. Linking specific punch force signature changes to developing lubrication and wear events is valuable for die wear and stamping condition monitoring. A series of semi-industrial channel forming trials were conducted under different lubrication regimes and progressive die wear. Punch force signatures were captured for each part and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to determine the key Principal Components of the signature data sets. These Principal Components were linked to the evolution of friction conditions over the course of the stroke for the different lubrication regimes and mechanism of galling wear. As a result, variation in punch force signatures were correlated to the current mechanism of wear dominant on the formed part; either abrasion or adhesion, and to changes in lubrication mechanism. The outcomes of this study provide important insights into punch force signature variation, that will provide a foundation for future work into the development of die wear and lubrication monitoring systems for sheet metal stamping.

  7. Boron nitride stamp for ultra-violet nanoimprinting lithography fabricated by focused ion beam lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozhan Altun, Ali; Jeong, Jun-Ho; Rha, Jong-Joo; Kim, Ki-Don; Lee, Eung-Sug

    2007-11-01

    Cubic boron nitride (c-BN) is one of the hardest known materials (second after diamond). It has a high level of chemical resistance and high UV transmittance. In this study, a stamp for ultra-violet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) was fabricated using a bi-layered BN film deposited on a quartz substrate. Deposition of the BN was done using RF magnetron sputtering. A hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) layer was deposited for 30 min before c-BN was deposited for 30 min. The thickness of the film was measured as 160 nm. The phase of the c-BN layer was investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and it was found that the c-BN layer has a 40% cubic phase. The deposited film was patterned using focused ion beam (FIB) lithography for use as a UV-NIL stamp. Line patterns were fabricated with the line width and line distance set at 150 and 150 nm, respectively. The patterning process was performed by applying different currents to observe the effect of the current value on the pattern profile. The fabricated patterns were investigated using AFM, and it was found that the pattern fabricated by applying a current value of 50 picoamperes (pA) has a better profile with a 65 nm line depth. The UV transmittance of the 160 nm thick film was measured to be 70 86%. The hardness and modulus of the BN was measured to be 12 and 150 GPa, respectively. The water contact angle of the stamp surface was measured at 75°. The stamp was applied to UV-NIL without coating with an anti-adhesion layer. Successful imprinting was proved via scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the imprinted resin.

  8. Validation of the stamping method for CaSO{sub 4}:RE + Teflon® pellets production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Maira G.; Rodrigues, Leticia L.C., E-mail: mgnunes@ipen.br, E-mail: lcrodri@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The IPEN method for the CaSO{sub 4}:RE + Teflon® production, developed and patented at the Dosimetric Materials Laboratory - LMD/IPEN in the earlier 1980's, is highly time-demanding, so that the use of the stamping method, already widely industrially applied, would enhance the CaSO{sub 4}:RE + Teflon® pellets production. Thus, validating the stamping method, by comparing the dosimetric properties of a batch of pellets produced by each method, became a must. The stamped batch presents the same mean non-irradiated signals either after sintering or annealing while IPEN batch mean non-irradiated signals vary in 23%. The mean TL signal after irradiation was about 50 nC, but the standard deviation varies from 20% to 33% for IPEN batch and keeps in 10% for the stamped batch. 24 h after the irradiation, the TL signal decreased to about 35 nC, with no differences in IPEN batch standard deviation and a decrease to 5% in stamped batch standard deviation, for the five performed essays. Calibration curves present a linear behavior over the entire studied dose range and the same coefficients for both methods, however, the uncertainties in the coefficients determined to the calibration curve obtained with stamped pellets are significantly smaller, leading to a more precise dose determination. This results show that the stamping method produces more homogeneous batches, with pellets that maintain the dosimetric characteristics of the detectors produced by IPEN method, in such a way that the stamping method can substitute with advantages the IPEN method in the CaSO{sub 4}:RE + Teflon® dosimetric pellets production. (author)

  9. Application of a Model for Quenching and Partitioning in Hot Stamping of High-Strength Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bin; Liu, Zhuang; Wang, Yanan; Rolfe, Bernard; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Yisheng

    2018-04-01

    Application of quenching and partitioning process in hot stamping has proven to be an effective method to improve the plasticity of advanced high-strength steels (AHSSs). In this study, the hot stamping and partitioning process of advanced high-strength steel 30CrMnSi2Nb is investigated with a hot stamping mold. Given the specific partitioning time and temperature, the influence of quenching temperature on the volume fraction of microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of the above steel are studied in detail. In addition, a model for quenching and partitioning process is applied to predict the carbon diffusion and interface migration during partitioning, which determines the retained austenite volume fraction and final properties of the part. The predicted trends of the retained austenite volume fraction agree with the experimental results. In both cases, the volume fraction of retained austenite increases first and then decreases with the increasing quenching temperature. The optimal quenching temperature is approximately 290 °C for 30CrMnSi2Nb with the partition conditions of 425 °C and 20 seconds. It is suggested that the model can be used to help determine the process parameters to obtain retained austenite as much as possible.

  10. Fabrication of 3D high aspect ratio PDMS microfluidic networks with a hybrid stamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Yu-Chun; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Fan, Yu-Jui; Chiou, Pei-Yu

    2015-04-21

    We report a novel methodology for fabricating large-area, multilayer, thin-film, high aspect ratio, 3D microfluidic structures with through-layer vias and open channels that can be bonded between hard substrates. It is realized by utilizing a hybrid stamp with a thin plastic sheet embedded underneath a PDMS surface. This hybrid stamp solves an important edge protrusion issue during PDMS molding while maintaining necessary stamp elasticity to ensure the removal of PDMS residues at through-layer regions. Removing edge protrusion is a significant progress toward fabricating 3D structures since high aspect ratio PDMS structures with flat interfaces can be realized to facilitate multilayer stacking and bonding to hard substrates. Our method also allows for the fabrication of 3D deformable channels, which can lead to profound applications in electrokinetics, optofluidics, inertial microfluidics, and other fields where the shape of the channel cross section plays a key role in device physics. To demonstrate, as an example, we have fabricated a microfluidic channel by sandwiching two 20 μm wide, 80 μm tall PDMS membranes between two featureless ITO glass substrates. By applying electrical bias to the two ITO substrates and pressure to deform the thin membrane sidewalls, strong electric field enhancement can be generated in the center of a channel to enable 3D sheathless dielectrophoretic focusing of biological objects including mammalian cells and bacteria at a flow speed up to 14 cm s(-1).

  11. Prevention of crack in stretch flanging process using hot stamping technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafiq, Y. Mohd; Hamedon, Z.; Azila Aziz, Wan; Razlan Yusoff, Ahmad

    2017-10-01

    Demand for enhancing of passenger safety as well as weight reduction of automobiles has increased the use of high strength steel sheets. As a sheet metal is a lightweight having high strength is suitable for producing automotive parts such as white body panel. The stretch flanging of the high strength steel sheet is a problem due to high springback and easy to crack. This study uses three methods to stretch flange the sheets; using lubricants, shear-edge polishing and hot stamping. The effectiveness of these methods will be measured by comparing the flange length of each methods can achieved. For stretch flange with lubricant and polished sheared edge, the flange length failed to achieve the target 15 mm while hot stamping improved the formability of the sheet and preventing the occurrence of the springback and crack. Hot stamping not only improved formability of the sheet but also transformed the microstructure into martensite thus improve the hardness and the strength of the sheet after been quenched with the dies.

  12. Investigations on the Hot Stamping of AW-7921-T4 Alloy Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available AW-7xxx alloys have been nowadays considered for greater light weighting potential in automotive industry due to its higher strength compared to AW-5xxx and AW-6xxx alloys. However, due to their lower formability the forming processes are still in development. This paper investigates one such forming process called hot stamping. The investigation started by carrying out hot tensile testing of an AW-7xxx alloy, that is, AW-7921 at temperatures between 350°C and 475°C, to measure the strength and formability. Formability was found to improve with increasing temperature and was sensitive to the strain rate. Dynamic recovery is considered as usual reason for the formability improvement. However, examining the precipitation states of the as-received condition and after hot stamping using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, the dissolution of precipitates was also believed to contribute to this increase in formability. Following solution heat treatment there was no precipitation during cooling across the cooling rates investigated (5–10°C/s. Samples taken from parts hot stamped at 10 and 20 mm s−1 had similar yield strengths. A 3-step paint baking heat treatment yielded a higher postpaint baking strength than a single step treatment.

  13. Conformal contact and pattern stability of stamps used for soft lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bietsch, Alexander; Michel, Bruno

    2000-10-01

    Patterning in soft lithography techniques such as microcontact printing or light-coupling mask lithography is mediated by surface topographical patterns of elastomeric stamps: intimate contact with the substrate is achieved locally at the protruding areas, whereas a gap remains between the substrate and recessed zones. This principle challenges the properties of the stamp, especially when printing high-resolution or extreme aspect-ratio patterns with high accuracy. On the one hand, the stamp must be soft enough to enable conformal contact with the substrate, which means that it must adapt elastically without leaving voids created by the natural roughness of the substrate. On the other hand, a precise definition of micropatterns requires a rigid material. In this article, we analyze the conditions of elasticity, roughness, and energy of adhesion to establish conformal contact between an elastomer and the target surface. Furthermore, we address questions of replication accuracy and evaluate local elastic deformation induced by normal forces using model calculations for simple pattern geometries. Pressure applied during contact leads to a sagging or collapse of the unsupported areas. We discuss implications on both material and pattern design that allow spontaneous propagation of conformal contact while inhibiting the spreading of collapse.

  14. On the die face design for stamping an automotive engine hood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Zhi; Wang, Shi-Wei; Lin, Ching-I.; Chen, Fuh-Kuo

    2017-09-01

    Since the engine hood is mainly manufactured in the drawing operation, the die addendum design is the key to the success of manufacturing a defect free product. In this study, the existing die addendum designs corresponding to those engine hoods were reviewed and the design parameters were constructed. The preliminary study was then performed to examine the influences of the stamping die angle, binder surface shape, and die open line shape on the defects occurred in the part. Based on the simulation results, the optimum design for the die addendum face was then investigated and a systematic design guideline was proposed. In order to validate the proposed design guideline, actual engine hoods were stamped according to the finite element analysis and the production part shapes, thickness distributions, and the stretch at the central region were compared with those obtained from the finite element simulations. The consistent agreement between the product parts and the simulation results confirms the validity of the design guideline proposed in the present study for stamping an engine hood.

  15. Evaluation of resistless Ga+ beam lithography for UV NIL stamp fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumler, M.; Fader, R.; Haas, A.; Rommel, M.; Bauer, A. J.; Frey, L.

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents an alternative rapid prototyping approach for the fabrication of stamps for UV nanoimprint lithography. In this process, areas implanted with gallium serve as an etch mask for the dry etching of quartz. The implantation is performed using a focused ion beam system. To avoid charging of the quartz substrate the use of thin layers of chromium or carbon on the quartz substrate has been evaluated. The resulting quartz structures exhibit very smooth surfaces after dry etching, if the implantation dose is high enough to form a stable etch mask. Furthermore, anisotropic etching could be realized by optimization of a quartz etching process involving C4F8 and O2 after the use of resistless Ga+ beam lithography. Finally, imprints into a UV curing resist are performed successfully with the manufactured stamps, proving that the presence of Ga rich areas on the stamp is not detrimental to the curing of the resist or the functionality of the anti-sticking layer.

  16. Molecular dynamics study on the effects of stamp shape, adhesive energy, and temperature on the nanoimprint lithography process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Kwang-Seop; Kim, Kyung-Woong

    2010-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of nanoimprint lithography (NIL) were performed to investigate the effects of three critical process parameters in NIL: stamp shape, adhesive energy between the stamp and polymer film, and imprint temperature. The proposed simulation model of the NIL process consists of an amorphous SiO 2 stamp with a line pattern, an amorphous poly(methylmethacrylate) film, and a Si substrate under the periodic boundary condition in the horizontal direction to simulate a real NIL process imprinting periodical line patterns. The behavior of polymer deformation and the effects of adhesion on pattern transfer were investigated by observing the deformation process, calculating the imprint and separation forces, and analyzing the density and stress distribution inside the polymer film. In addition, their dependency on the process parameters is also discussed with reference to the changes in pattern shape, adhesive energy between the stamp and polymer atoms, and imprint temperature of the polymer film. During the imprint process, the rectangular pattern shows inferior cavity filling and higher stress concentration compared to trapezoidal and triangular patterns because it requires much larger flow and deformation of the polymer film. Low imprint temperature also produces high stress concentration and large imprint force due to the lower fluidity of polymer film. In the separation process, the rectangular pattern generates the largest separation force and causes the most serious defects of the transferred pattern and even the polymer film, while the triangular pattern shows the most satisfactory pattern transfer. In addition, the adhesive energy between the stamp and the polymer film also strongly influences the adhesion between the stamp and the polymer film. Low adhesive energy reduces the separation force of the stamp and transferred pattern defects, and therefore enhances the quality of pattern transfer.

  17. SINCERITIES: Inferring gene regulatory networks from time-stamped single cell transcriptional expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papili Gao, Nan; Ud-Dean, S M Minhaz; Gandrillon, Olivier; Gunawan, Rudiyanto

    2017-09-14

    Single cell transcriptional profiling opens up a new avenue in studying the functional role of cell-to-cell variability in physiological processes. The analysis of single cell expression profiles creates new challenges due to the distributive nature of the data and the stochastic dynamics of gene transcription process. The reconstruction of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) using single cell transcriptional profiles is particularly challenging, especially when directed gene-gene relationships are desired. We developed SINCERITIES (SINgle CEll Regularized Inference using TIme-stamped Expression profileS) for the inference of GRNs from single cell transcriptional profiles. We focused on time-stamped cross-sectional expression data, commonly generated from transcriptional profiling of single cells collected at multiple time points after cell stimulation. SINCERITIES recovers directed regulatory relationships among genes by employing regularized linear regression (ridge regression), using temporal changes in the distributions of gene expressions. Meanwhile, the modes of the gene regulations (activation and repression) come from partial correlation analyses between pairs of genes. We demonstrated the efficacy of SINCERITIES in inferring GRNs using in silico time-stamped single cell expression data and single cell transcriptional profiles of THP-1 monocytic human leukemia cells. The case studies showed that SINCERITIES could provide accurate GRN predictions, significantly better than other GRN inference algorithms such as TSNI, GENIE3 and JUMP3. Moreover, SINCERITIES has a low computational complexity and is amenable to problems of extremely large dimensionality. Finally, an application of SINCERITIES to single cell expression data of T2EC chicken erythrocytes pointed to BATF as a candidate novel regulator of erythroid development. The MATLAB and R version of SINCERITIES is freely available from the following websites: http://www.cabsel.ethz.ch/tools/sincerities.html and

  18. Studying the Solar System Can Be More Than Just "Stamp Collecting"

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2017-04-01

    While teaching his first-ever introductory college astronomy course, I heard a graduate student make the comment that compared to other areas of astronomy, studying the solar system is just "stamp collecting." Coverage of the solar system in an introductory college astronomy course certainly could consist mostly of showing images and reporting facts, but by using observations that can be made from images and also data and other known facts about the objects, instruction on solar system topics can be more conceptual, involving just as much inquiry and discovery as any area of astronomy or physics.

  19. Analysis of the Phenomenon of Speculative Trading in One of its Basic Manifestations:. Postage Stamp Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehner, B.; Sornette, D.

    We document and analyze the empirical facts concerning one of the clearest evidence of speculation in financial trading as observed in the postage collection stamp market. We unravel some of the mechanisms of speculative behavior which emphasize the role of fancy and collective behavior. In our conclusion, we propose a classification of speculative markets based on two parameters, namely the amplitude of the price peak and a second parameter that measures its "sharpness". This study is offered to anchor modeling efforts to realistic market constraints and observations.

  20. Time stamp generation with inverse FIR filters for Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namias, Mauro

    2009-01-01

    Photon coincidence detection is the process by which Positron Emission Tomography (PET) works. This requires the determination of the time of impact of each coincident photon at the detector system, also known as time stamp. In this work, the timestamp was generated by means of digital time-domain deconvolution with FIR filters for a INa(Tl) based system. The detector deadtime was reduced from 350 ns to 175 ns while preserving the system's energy resolution and a direct relation between the amount of light collected and the temporal resolution was found.(author)

  1. Use of atomic force microscopy in the forensic application of chronological order of toners and stamping inks in questioned documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae-Yi; Lee, Joong; Park, Byung-Wook

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the application of the atomic force microscopy (AFM) as a nano-indentation method and introduces a new method of identifying the chronological order of the application of the toner and stamping ink on the surface of documents by removing either of them. Various toners were used as samples for the AFM nano-indentation method. The chronological order of the application of the toner and stamping ink with either the toner placed over the stamping ink or the stamping ink placed over the toner, could be identified, regardless of the kinds of toners made by various companies. This paper provides the new approach for physically removing the toner and checking the material below it to identify questioned documents, which allows the method to be used to appraise documents forensically. Blind testing has shown that the method to analyze the chronological order of toner-printed documents and the seal stamping on them could accurately identify the order in all samples, while minimizing damage to the samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fabrication of a roller type PDMS stamp using SU-8 concave molds and its application for roll contact printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jongho; Kim, Beomjoon

    2016-01-01

    Continuous fabrication of micropatterns at low-cost is attracting attention in various applications within industrial fields. To meet such demands, we have demonstrated a roll contact printing technique, using roller type polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps with roll-to-flat and roll-to-roll stages. Roller type PDMS stamps for roll contact printing were fabricated using a custom-made metal support and SU-8 microstructures fabricated on concave substrates as a mold. The molding/casting method which we developed here provided faster and easier fabrication than conventional methods for roller type stamps. Next, roll contact printing was performed using fabricated roller type PDMS stamps with roll-to-flat and roll-to-roll stages. Patterns with minimum widths of 3 μm and 2.1 μm were continuously fabricated for each stage, respectively. In addition, the relationship between applied pressures and dimensional changes of roll contact printed patterns was investigated. Finally, we confirmed that roll contact printing and the new fabrication method for roller stamps presented in this study demonstrated the feasibility for industrial applications. (paper)

  3. New method for springback compensation for the stamping of sheet metal components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkert, A.; Hartmann, B.; Straub, M.

    2017-09-01

    The need for car body structures of higher strength and at the same time lower weight results in serious challenges for the stamping process. Especially the use of high strength steel and aluminium sheets is causing growing problems with regard to elastic springback. To produce accurate parts the stamping dies must be adjusted more or less by the amount of the springback in the opposite direction. For this purpose well-known software solutions use the Displacement Adjustment Method or algorithms which are closely based on that method. A crucial issue of this method is that the generated die surfaces deviate from those of the target geometry with regard to surface area. A new Physical Compensation Method has been developed and validated which takes geometrical nonlinearity into account and creates compensated die geometries with equal-in-area die surfaces. In contrast to the standard mathematical/geometrical approach, the adjusted geometry is generated by a physical approach, which makes use of the virtual part stiffness. Hereby the target geometry is being deformed mechanically in a virtual process based on the springback simulation results by applying virtual forces in an additional elastic simulation. By doing so better part dimensions can be obtained in less tool optimization loops.

  4. A Material Perspective on Consequence of Deformation Heating During Stamping of DP Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şimşir, C.; Çetin, B.; Efe, M.; Davut, K.; Bayramin, B.

    2017-09-01

    Recent studies showed that, during stamping of high strength steels at industrially relevant production rates, local temperature in the blank may rise up to 200°C - 300°C due to deformation heating. Moreover, die temperature may also rise up to 100°C - 150°C for progressive stamping dies. Based on the common assumption that the blank softens as the temperature increases, thermal softening creates a margin in Forming Limit Diagram (FLD) and therefore the FLD determined at room temperature can safely be used for those cases. In this article, the validity of this assumption on DP590 steel is questioned by high temperature tensile tests (RT - 300°C) at various strain rates (10-3 s-1 - 1 s-1). The results indicated a decrease both in uniform and total elongation in 200°C - 300°C range together with several other symptoms of Dynamic Strain Aging (DSA) at all strain rates. Concurrent with the DSA, the simulated FLD confirms the lower formability at high temperature and strain rates. Thus, it is concluded FLD determined at RT may not be valid for the investigated steels.

  5. Predication of coke strength from textural analysis of stamp charged coke supported by coal petrography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, R.; Dash, P.S.; Chakraborty, D.; Banerjee, P.K.; Kumar, D. [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur (India)

    2005-07-01

    Materials science tells us that defects or flaws in a solid material control the mechanical behaviour of that material. Similarly, in a coke, its strength is associated with the microstructure and texture. Optical microscopy is the most appropriate method for measuring these features. Attempts were made to correlate different types of textures with the strength of stamp charged coke at Tata Steel. The studies revealed that anisotropic carbon is less reactive to carbon dioxide compared to isotropic carbon. There may be two reasons for this: a lower surface area of the carbon available for reaction; the intrinsic reactivity may be lower for molecules which constitute anisotropic carbon. The strength after reaction depends on its anisotropic texture - the smaller size mosaic texture contributes to higher post strength. There are very few reports about use of micro textural analysis to predict cold strength of coke. Test results show that there exists an influence of isotropic carbon on M{sub 10} index. With an increase in isotropic texture, the M{sub 10} index deteriorates. The performance of coke in blast furnaces may be improved by improving room temperature and high temperature strength of coke by selecting coal with higher vitrinite distribution in the present blend through the stamp charging route. 18 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Virtual method for the determination of an optimum thermal design of hot stamping tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiß, W.; Koplenig, M.; Alb, M.; Graf, J.

    2016-11-01

    This work presents a new virtual method for the optimised thermal design of hot stamping tools. It provides optimal positions of the tool's tempering ducts with respect to the average working temperature and its homogeneous distribution on the surface of a tool. It consists of a specific procedure for hot stamping tool design and a software framework in order to interconnect three domains: (I) a parametrised CAD tool model, (II) a linear thermal solver using a fast boundary element method and (III) an optimisation algorithm. This enables the automated set-up, simulation and optimisation of a duct topology. The boundary conditions for the simulations are derived from a reduced model of the thermal loading of the tool. The virtual method proposed is demonstrated on simplified tool segment geometries. The results are transferred to complex tool designs used in industry. For a selected use case, the number of ducts could be reduced by 50% through the application of the proposed method. These results are validated virtually based on an existing design. Hence, the new virtual method contributes to a CAE-driven tool design and a more efficient tool manufacturing.

  7. Leaving or Staying in Teaching: A "Vignette" of an Experienced Urban Teacher "Leaver" of A London Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, Emma; Maguire, Meg

    2017-01-01

    In the field of teacher attrition, there is a significant body of literature on why teachers leave high-needs urban schools and particularly why beginning teachers leave their schools and the profession. However, there is little research on the reasons why experienced teachers leave the teaching profession. This paper examines this subject by…

  8. Curriculum Choices and School-To-Work Transitions among Upper-Secondary School Leavers in Scotland and Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannelli, Cristina; Smyth, Emer

    2017-01-01

    David Raffe was a highly influential figure in the field of transitions research. His work carefully delineated how national institutional policies shape transition processes and outcomes. Curriculum structure and organisation were seen as key features of these transition systems, his work tracing the relative impact of vocational and academic…

  9. Can laboratory and pilot recycling trials predict adhesive removal in commercial recycling systems? : results from the USPS environmentally benign stamp project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl Houtman; Daniel Seiter; Nancy Ross Sutherland; Donald Donermeyer

    2002-01-01

    The ultimate goal of the US Postal Service (USPS) Environmentally Benign Stamp Program is to develop stamp laminates, i.e., face paper, adhesive and siliconized liner, that do not cause difficulties in recycling mills. The criterion for success, and the USPS definition of benignity, is the avoidance of process and product quality hardships when such PSA laminates are...

  10. Fabrication of a metallic roll stamp with low internal stress and high hardness for large area display applications by a pulse reverse current electroforming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joongeok; Han, Jungjin; Kim, Taekyung; Kang, Shinill

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing demand for large scale micro/nano components in the fields of display, energy and electrical devices, etc, the establishment of a roll imprinting process has become a priority. The fabrication of a roll stamp with high dimensional accuracy and uniformity is one of the key issues in the roll imprinting process, because the roll stamp determines the properties of the replicated micro/nano structures. In this study, a method to fabricate a metallic roll stamp with low internal stress, high flatness, and high hardness was proposed by a pulse reverse current (PRC) electroforming process. The effects of PRC electroforming processes on the internal stress, hardness, and grain size of the electroformed stamp were examined, and the optimum process conditions were suggested. As a practical example of the proposed method, various micro-patterns for electronic circuits were fabricated via the roll imprinting process using a PRC electroformed stamp. (paper)

  11. Modeling and simulation of stamp deflections in nanoimprint lithography: Exploiting backside grooves to enhance residual layer thickness uniformity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Hayden; Smistrup, Kristian; Boning, Duane

    2011-01-01

    We describe a model for the compliance of a nanoimprint stamp etched with a grid of backside grooves. We integrate the model with a fast simulation technique that we have previously demonstrated, to show how etched grooves help reduce the systematic residual layer thickness (RLT) variations...

  12. 75 FR 52981 - Chrysler, LLC; Twinsburg Stamping Plant, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Caravan Knight...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Chrysler, LLC; Twinsburg Stamping Plant, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Caravan Knight Facilities Management LLC, Wackenhut Security, CR Associates, and Syncreon, Twinsburg, OH; Amended Certification Regarding...

  13. 75 FR 11913 - Chrysler, LLC, Sterling Stamping Plant, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Caravan Knight...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Chrysler, LLC, Sterling Stamping Plant, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Caravan Knight Facilities Management LLC, Sterling Heights, MI; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment...

  14. The new Swiss commemorative stamp dedicated to CERN available at the Organization's Meyrin post office on Tuesday, 9 March!

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    For some people, the stamp's rays are spreading outwards towards the infinitely large, while for others they focus inwards towards the infinitely small. It's a bit like the proverbial half-full or half-empty glass or a picture that conveys two different images, depending on how you look at it.

  15. Forming of an axially tailored automotive channel section through hot stamping of tailor-welded blanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peister, C.; George, R.; Omer, K.; Worswick, M. J.; Malcolm, S.; Dykeman, J.; Yau, C.; Soldaat, R.; Bernert, W.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, top-hat cross-section axial crush rail specimens with tailored properties along their length were investigated. These top-hat channels were hot stamped in a fully cooled die set from tailor-welded blanks (TWBs). The blanks were laser-welded and comprised Usibor® 1500-AS joined to Ductibor® 500-AS in 1.2 mm and 1.6 mm thicknesses. Micro-hardness measurements were taken along the length of the formed specimens to map the hardness profile along their length. The effect of gauge thickness on hardness was evaluated. The hardness profile of these TWB parts was compared to that of parts formed using tailored in-die heating (IDH).

  16. Weld Repair of a Stamped Pressure Vessel in a Radiologically Controlled Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannell, Gary L. [Fluor Enterprises, Inc.; Huth, Ralph J. [CH2MHill Plateau Remediation Company; Hallum, Randall T. [Fluor Government Group

    2013-08-26

    In September 2012 an ASME B&PVC Section VIII stamped pressure vessel located at the DOE Hanford Site Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) developed a through-wall leak. The vessel, a steam/brine heat exchanger, operated in a radiologically controlled zone (by the CH2MHill PRC or CHPRC), had been in service for approximately 17 years. The heat exchanger is part of a single train evaporator process and its failure caused the entire system to be shut down, significantly impacting facility operations. This paper describes the activities associated with failure characterization, technical decision making/planning for repair by welding, logistical challenges associated with performing work in a radiologically controlled zone, performing the repair, and administrative considerations related to ASME code requirements.

  17. Scandiatransplant acceptable mismatch program (STAMP) a bridge to transplanting highly immunized patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed-Nielsen, Pernille; Weinreich, I; Bengtsson, M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Highly immunized patients are a challenge for organ transplantation programs. One way of increasing the likelihood of transplantation in this group of patients is to expand the possible donations by defining acceptable HLA mismatches. In the Scandiatransplant Acceptable Mismatch Program...... (STAMP), a de-centralized approach has been implemented in 2009. AIMS: The program has been improved during the years from utilizing HLA-A, -B, -DR matching only to include typing of all deceased donors for HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1 and -DQB1. The calculation of a transplantability score (TS) has been...... introduced in order to take both HLA and AB0 into consideration resulting in a more realistic picture of the transplantability chance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were selected for eligibility and results of immunisation status were prepared in each of the 9 tissue typing laboratories, while access...

  18. Construction of Time-Stamped Mobility Map for Path Tracking via Smith-Waterman Measurement Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Path tracking in wireless and mobile environments is a fundamental technology for ubiquitous location-based services (LBSs. In particular, it is very challenging to develop highly accurate and cost-efficient tracking systems applied to the anonymous areas where the floor plans are not available for security and privacy reasons. This paper proposes a novel path tracking approach for large Wi-Fi areas based on the time-stamped unlabeled mobility map which is constructed from Smith-Waterman received signal strength (RSS measurement matching. Instead of conventional location fingerprinting, we construct mobility map with the technique of dimension reduction from the raw measurement space into a low-dimensional embedded manifold. The feasibility of our proposed approach is verified by the real-world experiments in the HKUST campus Wi-Fi networks, sMobileNet. The experimental results prove that our approach is adaptive and capable of achieving an adequate precision level in path tracking.

  19. Spectral analysis of postage stamps and banknotes from the region of Rijeka in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelovica Badovinac, I.; Orlić, N.; Lofrumento, C.; Dobrinić, J.; Orlić, M.

    2010-07-01

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray emission spectroscopy induced using radioactive source have been applied to analyze two types of samples important for the history of Rijeka, Croatian port on the Adriatic Sea. In this paper we will present study of thirty-three original Hungarian postage stamps issued for Rijeka and overprinted with the word FIUME in 1918, after the World War I and the one-Lira banknotes (one original brown banknote and four trial prints: brown, blue, green and dark green) from Economy bank for Rijeka, Istria and Slovenian Littoral (1945-1947), the so-called Jugolire. This investigation was carried out to determine the differences between the original machine, original hand-made and fake overprints FIUME and to compare the pigments used on original banknote from circulation with the pigments on the trial prints.

  20. Spectral analysis of postage stamps and banknotes from the region of Rijeka in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelovica Badovinac, I., E-mail: ijelov@phy.uniri.h [Department of Physics, University of Rijeka, Omladinska 14, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Orlic, N. [Department of Physics, University of Rijeka, Omladinska 14, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Lofrumento, C. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dobrinic, J. [Faculty of Engineering, University of Rijeka, Vukovarska 58, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Orlic, M. [Department of Civil Engineering, Polytechnic of Zagreb, Av. V. Holjevca 15, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2010-07-21

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray emission spectroscopy induced using radioactive source have been applied to analyze two types of samples important for the history of Rijeka, Croatian port on the Adriatic Sea. In this paper we will present study of thirty-three original Hungarian postage stamps issued for Rijeka and overprinted with the word FIUME in 1918, after the World War I and the one-Lira banknotes (one original brown banknote and four trial prints: brown, blue, green and dark green) from Economy bank for Rijeka, Istria and Slovenian Littoral (1945-1947), the so-called Jugolire. This investigation was carried out to determine the differences between the original machine, original hand-made and fake overprints FIUME and to compare the pigments used on original banknote from circulation with the pigments on the trial prints.

  1. Spectral analysis of postage stamps and banknotes from the region of Rijeka in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelovica Badovinac, I.; Orlic, N.; Lofrumento, C.; Dobrinic, J.; Orlic, M.

    2010-01-01

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray emission spectroscopy induced using radioactive source have been applied to analyze two types of samples important for the history of Rijeka, Croatian port on the Adriatic Sea. In this paper we will present study of thirty-three original Hungarian postage stamps issued for Rijeka and overprinted with the word FIUME in 1918, after the World War I and the one-Lira banknotes (one original brown banknote and four trial prints: brown, blue, green and dark green) from Economy bank for Rijeka, Istria and Slovenian Littoral (1945-1947), the so-called Jugolire. This investigation was carried out to determine the differences between the original machine, original hand-made and fake overprints FIUME and to compare the pigments used on original banknote from circulation with the pigments on the trial prints.

  2. Finite element analysis and optimization of process parameters during stamp forming of composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesan, S; Kalyanasundaram, S

    2010-01-01

    In the manufacture of parts for high performance structures using composite materials, the quality and robustness of the parts is of utmost importance. The quality of the produced parts depends largely on the process parameters and manufacturing methodologies. This study presents the use of a temperature dependant orthotropic material for a coupled structural-thermal analysis of the stamp forming process. The study investigated the effects of process parameters such as pre-heat temperature, blank holder force and process time on the formability of composite materials. Temperature was found to be the dominant factor governing the formability of the composite material while higher blank holder forces were deemed to be important for achieving high quality of the parts manufactured. Finally, an optimum set of parameters was used to compare the simulations with experimental results using an optical strain measurement system.

  3. Determination of stamp deformation during imprinting on semi-spherical surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafka, Jan; Matschuk, Maria; Pranov, Henrik

    of sol-gel was applied onto spherical injection mold inserts and subsequently imprinted using a flexible stamp. A hard curing step transformed the sol-gel into a quartz-like and durable material. As an example, we present theory and results regarding the imprint of pillar nanostructures on semi......-spherical mold surfaces. Imprints were realized on three different radii of circumferenceof the spherical mold: R = 0.5 mm, R = 1.0 mm, and R = 2 mm. After hard-curing of theimprinted sol-gel, the inserts were used for cold-mold as well as vario-therm injection molding.The polymer replicas and the inserts were...

  4. Optimization of the blankholder force distribution with application to the stamping of a car front door panel (Numisheet'99)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayed, L. Ben; Delameziere, A.; Batoz, J.L.; Knopf-Lenoir, C.

    2005-01-01

    New materials such as dual phase steel or aluminium and complex geometries of industrial parts increase the difficulties to obtain a defect free part by stamping. One way of solution is a better regulation of the blankholder pressures. Our work is based on an original idea of Siegert, Haeussermann and Haller. The goal is to control the movement of the blank under the blankholder. Thanks to a deformable flexible blankholder, it is possible to create some independent zones. In each zone, a blankholder force can be applied on the sheet, so that a strong force can hold the blank in a zone, and a smaller one can let it move in another zone. The methodology is presented as well as some results dealing with the optimization of the blankholder force considering the drawing of a front door panel (Numisheet'99 benchmark test). The numerical simulations are performed using ABAQUS Explicit. The parameters of the finite element model (mesh density, speed of punch) are set to achieve a good prediction with a minimum simulation time. The objective function is defined to minimize the work of the punch. Three inequality constraints functions were defined to avoid necking and wrinkling. To avoid necking, the major stress of the blank is limited to a value, which is determined by using the modified maximum force criterion (MMFC). To avoid wrinkling, under the blankholder, the angle between the blankholder surface and an element of the blank is limited to a value set by the user, as proposed by Gelin and Labergere. However, in the useful part of the workpiece, the major stress is limited to a value, which was proposed by Brunet, Batoz and Bouabdallah. For the localization of the optimum, we use a response surface method computed with a diffuse approximation and coupled with an adaptative strategy to update the research space

  5. Optimization of the blankholder force distribution with application to the stamping of a car front door panel (Numisheet'99)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayed, L. Ben; Delamézière, A.; Batoz, J. L.; Knopf-Lenoir, C.

    2005-08-01

    New materials such as dual phase steel or aluminium and complex geometries of industrial parts increase the difficulties to obtain a defect free part by stamping. One way of solution is a better regulation of the blankholder pressures. Our work is based on an original idea of Siegert, Häussermann and Haller. The goal is to control the movement of the blank under the blankholder. Thanks to a deformable flexible blankholder, it is possible to create some independent zones. In each zone, a blankholder force can be applied on the sheet, so that a strong force can hold the blank in a zone, and a smaller one can let it move in another zone. The methodology is presented as well as some results dealing with the optimization of the blankholder force considering the drawing of a front door panel (Numisheet'99 benchmark test). The numerical simulations are performed using ABAQUS Explicit. The parameters of the finite element model (mesh density, speed of punch) are set to achieve a good prediction with a minimum simulation time. The objective function is defined to minimize the work of the punch. Three inequality constraints functions were defined to avoid necking and wrinkling. To avoid necking, the major stress of the blank is limited to a value, which is determined by using the modified maximum force criterion (MMFC). To avoid wrinkling, under the blankholder, the angle between the blankholder surface and an element of the blank is limited to a value set by the user, as proposed by Gelin and Labergere. However, in the useful part of the workpiece, the major stress is limited to a value, which was proposed by Brunet, Batoz and Bouabdallah. For the localization of the optimum, we use a response surface method computed with a diffuse approximation and coupled with an adaptative strategy to update the research space.

  6. Time-stamp correction of magnetic observatory data acquired during unavailability of time-synchronization services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coïsson, Pierdavide; Telali, Kader; Heumez, Benoit; Lesur, Vincent; Lalanne, Xavier; Jiang Xin, Chang

    2017-09-01

    During magnetic observatory data acquisition, the data time stamp is kept synchronized with a precise source of time. This is usually done using a GPS-controlled pulse per second (PPS) signal. For some observatories located in remote areas or where internet restrictions are enforced, only the magnetometer data are transmitted, limiting the capabilities of monitoring the acquisition operations. The magnetic observatory in Lanzhou (LZH), China, experienced an unnoticed interruption of the GPS PPS starting 7 March 2013. The data logger clock drifted slowly in time: in 6 months a lag of 27 s was accumulated. After a reboot on 2 April 2014 the drift became faster, -2 s per day, before the GPS PPS could be restored on 8 July 2014. To estimate the time lags that LZH time series had accumulated, we compared it with data from other observatories located in East Asia. A synchronization algorithm was developed. Natural sources providing synchronous events could be used as markers to obtain the time lag between the observatories. The analysis of slices of 1 h of 1 s data at arbitrary UTC allowed estimating time lags with an uncertainty of ˜ 11 s, revealing the correct trends of LZH time drift. A precise estimation of the time lag was obtained by comparing data from co-located instruments controlled by an independent PPS. In this case, it was possible to take advantage of spikes and local noise that constituted precise time markers. It was therefore possible to determine a correction to apply to LZH time stamps to correct the data files and produce reliable 1 min averaged definitive magnetic data.

  7. PENGUKURAN NILAI OVERALL EQUIPMENT EFFECTIVENESS SEBAGAI DASAR USAHA PERBAIKAN PROSES MANUFAKTUR PADA LINI PRODUKSI (Studi Kasus pada Stamping Production Division Sebuah Industri Otomotif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robby Suhendra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE is an effectiveness measurement method of equipment utilization in the implementation of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM. The ability of identification in details toward main problem and the cause factors that makes the improvement efforts become more focused is the reason why this method applied comprehensively by all manufacturing companies around the world. Manufacturing process at Stamping Production Division an automotive isdustry still keeps some unrevealed problems. This condition makes the achievement of OEE figure below the target that means production equipments are not utilized optimally yet. The expression of main problem and the cause factors is needed before the company starts some improvement efforts. This research is started by understanding the equipment losses that existed in company. Then, measuring the achievement of OEE figure in one period and through the pareto analysis toward the measurement's results, the main problem and the cause factors are obtained and clearly depicted in cause-and-effect diagram. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE adalah metode pengukuran efektivitas penggunaan suatu peralatan. OEE dikenal sebagai salah satu aplikasi progam Total Productive Maintenance (TPM. Kemampuan mengidentifikasikan secara jelas akar permasalahan dan faktor penyebabnya sehingga membuat usaha perbaikan menjadi terfokus merupakan faktor utama metode ini diaplikasikan secara menyeluruh oleh banyak perusahaan didunia. Saat ini proses manufaktur di Stamping Production Division sebuah industri otomotif memiliki permasalahan yang belum terungkap jelas. Hal tersebut mengakibatkan penggunaan peralatan yang ada belum optimal. Pengungkapan akar masalah dan faktor penyebabnya diperlukan sebelum perusahaan melakukan usaha perbaikan. Penelitian ini dimulai dengan mengidentifikasi kerugian peralatan (Equipment Losses yang terjadi. Kemudian mengukur pencapaian nilai OEE

  8. Discrimination between authentic and false tax stamps from liquor bottles using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and chemometrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzaga, Fabiano Barbieri; Rocha, Werickson Fortunato de Carvalho; Correa, Deleon Nascimento

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the preliminary application of a compact and low-cost laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument for falsification detection of tax stamps used in alcoholic beverages. The new instrument was based on a diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YLF microchip laser and a mini-spectrometer containing a Czerny–Turner polichromator coupled to a non-intensified, non-gated, and non-cooled 2048 pixel linear sensor array (200 to 850 nm spectral range). Twenty-three tax stamp samples were analyzed by firing laser pulses within two different regions of each sample: a hologram and a blank paper region. For each acquired spectrum, the emitted radiation was integrated for 3000 ms under the continuous application of laser pulses at 100 Hz (integration of 300 plasmas). Principal component analysis (PCA) or hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of all emission spectra from the hologram or blank paper region revealed two well-defined groups of authentic and false samples. Moreover, for the hologram data, three subgroups of false samples were found. Additionally, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was successfully applied for the detection of the false tax stamps using all emission spectra from hologram or blank paper region. The discrimination between the samples was mostly ascribed to different levels of calcium concentration in the samples. - Highlights: • Compact and low-cost laser-induced breakdown spectrometer • Analysis of tax stamps used in alcoholic beverages • Detection of false tax stamps using the LIBS spectra and chemometrics • Falsification detection ascribed to different levels of calcium concentration

  9. Discrimination between authentic and false tax stamps from liquor bottles using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzaga, Fabiano Barbieri, E-mail: fbgonzaga@inmetro.gov.br [Chemical Metrology Division, National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (INMETRO), Av. Nossa Senhora das Graças, 50, Xerém, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Rocha, Werickson Fortunato de Carvalho [Chemical Metrology Division, National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (INMETRO), Av. Nossa Senhora das Graças, 50, Xerém, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Correa, Deleon Nascimento [Technical–Scientific Police Superintendency, Criminalistic Institute Dr. Octávio Eduardo de Brito Alvarenga—IC-SPTC-SP, 05507-060 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This work describes the preliminary application of a compact and low-cost laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument for falsification detection of tax stamps used in alcoholic beverages. The new instrument was based on a diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YLF microchip laser and a mini-spectrometer containing a Czerny–Turner polichromator coupled to a non-intensified, non-gated, and non-cooled 2048 pixel linear sensor array (200 to 850 nm spectral range). Twenty-three tax stamp samples were analyzed by firing laser pulses within two different regions of each sample: a hologram and a blank paper region. For each acquired spectrum, the emitted radiation was integrated for 3000 ms under the continuous application of laser pulses at 100 Hz (integration of 300 plasmas). Principal component analysis (PCA) or hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of all emission spectra from the hologram or blank paper region revealed two well-defined groups of authentic and false samples. Moreover, for the hologram data, three subgroups of false samples were found. Additionally, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was successfully applied for the detection of the false tax stamps using all emission spectra from hologram or blank paper region. The discrimination between the samples was mostly ascribed to different levels of calcium concentration in the samples. - Highlights: • Compact and low-cost laser-induced breakdown spectrometer • Analysis of tax stamps used in alcoholic beverages • Detection of false tax stamps using the LIBS spectra and chemometrics • Falsification detection ascribed to different levels of calcium concentration.

  10. Surviving or thriving in the primary health care research workforce: the Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver-Baxter, Jodie; Brown, Lynsey; McIntyre, Ellen

    2017-05-01

    Primary healthcare research strives for high-quality, priority-driven research to inform policy and practice. This relies on a robust and sustainable workforce to tackle complex problems faced in primary health care locally and globally. The current study investigated characteristics, experiences and career paths of the Australian primary healthcare research workforce. Thirty-seven former Research Higher Degree students from University Departments of General Practice and Rural Health completed a survey. Number of provisions for researchers and career path clarity were associated with job satisfaction. Motivators to stay in research included job satisfaction, research in role descriptions, and identification of problems requiring change. Barriers related to funding, time, and other work roles taking priority were identified. Comparisons were made between participants self-identifying as working in primary healthcare research ('stayers'; n=22) and those no longer part of this workforce ('leavers'; n=15). Leavers were more likely to be in permanent full-time work whereas stayers had experienced more career progression and mentoring. This study raises challenges faced by primary healthcare researchers and will inform strategies for supporting the sustainability of this workforce.

  11. Studies of OC-STAMP in Osteoclast Fusion: A New Knockout Mouse Model, Rescue of Cell Fusion, and Transmembrane Topology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Witwicka

    Full Text Available The fusion of monocyte/macrophage lineage cells into fully active, multinucleated, bone resorbing osteoclasts is a complex cell biological phenomenon that utilizes specialized proteins. OC-STAMP, a multi-pass transmembrane protein, has been shown to be required for pre-osteoclast fusion and for optimal bone resorption activity. A previously reported knockout mouse model had only mononuclear osteoclasts with markedly reduced resorption activity in vitro, but with paradoxically normal skeletal micro-CT parameters. To further explore this and related questions, we used mouse ES cells carrying a gene trap allele to generate a second OC-STAMP null mouse strain. Bone histology showed overall normal bone form with large numbers of TRAP-positive, mononuclear osteoclasts. Micro-CT parameters were not significantly different between knockout and wild type mice at 2 or 6 weeks old. At 6 weeks, metaphyseal TRAP-positive areas were lower and mean size of the areas were smaller in knockout femora, but bone turnover markers in serum were normal. Bone marrow mononuclear cells became TRAP-positive when cultured with CSF-1 and RANKL, but they did not fuse. Expression levels of other osteoclast markers, such as cathepsin K, carbonic anhydrase II, and NFATc1, were not significantly different compared to wild type. Actin rings were present, but small, and pit assays showed a 3.5-fold decrease in area resorbed. Restoring OC-STAMP in knockout cells by lentiviral transduction rescued fusion and resorption. N- and C-termini of OC-STAMP were intracellular, and a predicted glycosylation site was shown to be utilized and to lie on an extracellular loop. The site is conserved in all terrestrial vertebrates and appears to be required for protein stability, but not for fusion. Based on this and other results, we present a topological model of OC-STAMP as a 6-transmembrane domain protein. We also contrast the osteoclast-specific roles of OC- and DC-STAMP with more generalized

  12. Microstructure and Tensile-Shear Properties of Resistance Spot Welded 22MnMoB Hot-Stamping Annealed Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Cui, Xuetuan; Luo, Zhen; Ao, Sansan

    2017-01-01

    The present paper deals with the joining of 22MnMoB hot-stamping annealed steel carried out by the spot welding process. Microstructural characterization, microhardness testing and tensile-shear testing were conducted. The effects of the welding parameters, including the electrode tip diameter, welding current, welding time and electrode force upon the tensile-shear properties of the welded joints, were investigated. The results showed that a weld size of 9.6 mm was required to ensure pullout failure for the 1.8 -mm-thick hot-stamping annealed steel sheet. The welding current had the largest influence upon the tensile-shear properties of the 22MnMoB steel welded joint. The bulk resistance should play an important role in the nugget formation. In pullout failure mode, failure was initiated at the heat-affected zone, where softening occurs owing to the tempering of martensite.

  13. Characterization of patterns of Localized Doping Using Stamping technique for Selective n-Emitter Solar Cell Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangkornkaew, A.; Fangsuwannarak, T.

    2017-10-01

    In the present, a novel cost-effective process scheme for single step selective emitter diffusion was implemented. It is based on the fabrication of acid-resist pattern using a stamping technique with collaboration of a spin on dopant (SOD) and chemical etched-back emitter methods. The SOD diffusion process provided heavily doping n-emitter. Acid-resist pattern without exploitation of a complex method as a photolithography, was stamped as a metal contact pattern for prevention of a localized heavy-dope region from etching back. Phosphorus doping profiles were controlled by etching back time to provide the formation of n-type selective emitter. Sheet resistance is tunable from 10 to 180 Ohm/Sq on localized n-layer. After removal of the patterned acid-resist, the selective n-emitter solar cell structure was obtained under one-step diffusion to achieve a better blue-light response and low contact resistance.

  14. Developing roll-to-roll manufacturing system for flexible and stretchable electronics by direct stamping of silver nano-ink

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jiseok

    2014-01-01

    Direct stamping of silver nanoparticle based ink has been developed for cost-effective and process-effective manufacturing of flexible or stretchable electronic devices. Facile removal of residual layer from deposited silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) layer results in high fidelity of final silver electrode without further post-processes. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopic analysis have revealed residue-free transfer of microscale inter-digitated ca...

  15. Development of low-friction and wear-resistant surfaces for low-cost Al hot stamping tools

    OpenAIRE

    Dong Y.; Formosa D.; Fernandez J.; Li X.; Fuentes G.; Zoltan K.; Dong H.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, advanced surfaces and coatings have been developed using plasma thermochemical treatment, PVD coating, electroless Ni-BN plating and duplex surface engineering to produce low-friction and wear-resistant surfaces for cast iron stamping tools. Their microstructural and nano-mechanical properties were systematically analysed and the tribological behaviour of these new surfaces and coatings were evaluated. The experimental results have shown that under dry sliding condition, the tr...

  16. Development of a new biaxial testing system for generating forming limit diagrams for sheet metals under hot stamping conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Z; Li, N; Lin, J; Dean, TA

    2016-01-01

    Conventional experimental approaches used to generate forming limit diagrams (FLDs) for sheet metals at different linear strain paths are not applicable to hot stamping and cold die quenching processes because cooling occurs prior to deformation and consistent values of heating rate, cooling rate, deformation temperature and strain rate are not easy to obtain. A novel biaxial testing system for use in a Gleeble testing machine has been adopted to generate forming limits of sheet metals, inclu...

  17. Image Subtraction Reduction of Open Clusters M35 & NGC 2158 in the K2 Campaign 0 Super Stamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Furtado, M.; Hartman, J. D.; Bakos, G. Á.; Huang, C. X.; Penev, K.; Bhatti, W.

    2017-04-01

    We observed the open clusters M35 and NGC 2158 during the initial K2 campaign (C0). Reducing these data to high-precision photometric timeseries is challenging due to the wide point-spread function (PSF) and the blending of stellar light in such dense regions. We developed an image-subtraction-based K2 reduction pipeline that is applicable to both crowded and sparse stellar fields. We applied our pipeline to the data-rich C0 K2 super stamp, containing the two open clusters, as well as to the neighboring postage stamps. In this paper, we present our image subtraction reduction pipeline and demonstrate that this technique achieves ultra-high photometric precision for sources in the C0 super stamp. We extract the raw light curves of 3960 stars taken from the UCAC4 and EPIC catalogs and de-trend them for systematic effects. We compare our photometric results with the prior reductions published in the literature. For de-trended TFA-corrected sources in the 12-12.25 {{{K}}}{{p}} magnitude range, we achieve a best 6.5-hour window running rms of 35 ppm, falling to 100 ppm for fainter stars in the 14-14.25 {{{K}}}{{p}} magnitude range. For stars with {K}p> 14, our de-trended and 6.5-hour binned light curves achieve the highest photometric precision. Moreover, all our TFA-corrected sources have higher precision on all timescales investigated. This work represents the first published image subtraction analysis of a K2 super stamp. This method will be particularly useful for analyzing the Galactic bulge observations carried out during K2 campaign 9. The raw light curves and the final results of our de-trending processes are publicly available at http://k2.hatsurveys.org/archive/.

  18. The Choices programme: a simple, front-of-pack stamp making healthy choices easy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dötsch-Klerk, Mariska; Jansen, Léon

    2008-01-01

    Some food products fit better within a healthy diet than others, but how can consumers tell? The Choices programme is a simple and internationally-applicable programme to help consumers make a healthy choice on food and beverages and to stimulate industry towards healthy product innovation in all food groups. The essence of the programme is a front-of-pack stamp on products that pass an evaluation against scientific criteria. To that end generic criteria have been established for levels of saturated fat, trans fat, sugars and sodium, which are based on international dietary guidelines (FAO/WHO). For some food categories there are specific criteria for these nutrients as well as for dietary fibre and calories. In this way the criteria are challenging without being impossible to meet. The programme has been initiated by food industry and is open to all companies in food industry, retail and catering. The approach is also supported by nutritional scientists, governments and NGOs. An independent scientific committee is responsible for designing and periodically reviewing the qualifying criteria. The current qualifying criteria were developed by scientific committees in the Netherlands and Belgium. These criteria will now be reviewed by an International Scientific Committee, consisting of internationally-recognised food and nutrition experts. To accommodate the developments in nutrition science and food technology, this review will take place every two years.

  19. Mechanical behavior and modelisation of Ti-6Al-4V titanium sheet under hot stamping conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirvin, Q.; Velay, V.; Bonnaire, R.; Penazzi, L.

    2017-10-01

    The Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy is widely used for the manufacture of aeronautical and automotive parts (solid parts). In aeronautics, this alloy is employed for its excellent mechanical behavior associated with low density, outstanding corrosion resistance and good mechanical properties up to 600°C. It is especially used for the manufacture of fuselage frames, on the pylon for carrying out the primary structure (machining forged blocks) and the secondary structure in sheet form. In this last case, the sheet metal forming can be done through various methods: at room temperature by drawing operation, at very high temperature (≃900°C) by superplastic forming (SPF) and at intermediate temperature (≥750°C) by hot forming (HF). In order to reduce production costs and environmental troubles, the cycle times reduction associated with a decrease of temperature levels are relevant. This study focuses on the behavior modelling of Ti-6Al-4V alloy at temperatures above room temperature to obtained greater formability and below SPF condition to reduce tools workshop and energy costs. The displacement field measurement obtained by Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is based on innovative surface preparation pattern adapted to high temperature exposures. Different material parameters are identified to define a model able to predict the mechanical behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy under hot stamping conditions. The hardening plastic model identified is introduced in FEM to simulate an omega shape forming operation.

  20. Capillary-Force-Assisted Clean-Stamp Transfer of Two-Dimensional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xuezhi; Liu, Qiushi; Xu, Da; Zhu, Yangzhi; Kim, Sanggon; Cui, Yongtao; Zhong, Lanlan; Liu, Ming

    2017-11-08

    A simple and clean method of transferring two-dimensional (2D) materials plays a critical role in the fabrication of 2D electronics, particularly the heterostructure devices based on the artificial vertical stacking of various 2D crystals. Currently, clean transfer techniques rely on sacrificial layers or bulky crystal flakes (e.g., hexagonal boron nitride) to pick up the 2D materials. Here, we develop a capillary-force-assisted clean-stamp technique that uses a thin layer of evaporative liquid (e.g., water) as an instant glue to increase the adhesion energy between 2D crystals and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) for the pick-up step. After the liquid evaporates, the adhesion energy decreases, and the 2D crystal can be released. The thin liquid layer is condensed to the PDMS surface from its vapor phase, which ensures the low contamination level on the 2D materials and largely remains their chemical and electrical properties. Using this method, we prepared graphene-based transistors with low charge-neutral concentration (3 × 10 10 cm -2 ) and high carrier mobility (up to 48 820 cm 2 V -1 s -1 at room temperature) and heterostructure optoelectronics with high operation speed. Finally, a capillary-force model is developed to explain the experiment.

  1. A Fully Integrated Humidity Sensor System-on-Chip Fabricated by Micro-Stamping Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ting Lin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A fully integrated humidity sensor chip was designed, implemented, and tested. Utilizing the micro-stamping technology, the pseudo-3D sensor system-on-chip (SSoC architecture can be implemented by stacking sensing materials directly on the top of a CMOS-fabricated chip. The fabricated sensor system-on-chip (2.28 mm × 2.48 mm integrated a humidity sensor, an interface circuit, a digital controller, and an On-Off Keying (OOK wireless transceiver. With low power consumption, i.e., 750 μW without RF operation, the sensitivity of developed sensor chip was experimentally verified in the relative humidity (RH range from 32% to 60%. The response time of the chip was also experimentally verified to be within 5 seconds from RH 36% to RH 64%. As a consequence, the implemented humidity SSoC paves the way toward the an ultra-small sensor system for various applications.

  2. Hot stamping of AA6082 tailor welded blanks: experiment and FE simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An advanced forming technology, solution Heat treatment, Forming and in-die Quenching (HFQ®, has been employed to form AA6082 tailor welded blanks (TWBs. In comparison with conventional stamping of TWBs, the mechanical properties and formability of AA6082 laser TWBs could be improved under the HFQ® forming condition. The TWB was divided into three physical zones, i.e. base metal, heat affected zone (HAZ and weld zone, based on the hardness distribution. It was found that the degraded hardness of the weldment can be restored after HFQ® forming. TWBs of AA6082 with different thickness ratios of 2 (2–1 mm, 1.3 (2–1.5 mm and 1 (1.5–1.5 mm were used to study the TWB thickness ratio effects on the forming behaviour. Hemispherical punch dome tests on the TWBs with varying thickness ratios demonstrated different formabilities, and indicated increased displacement of the weld line with increasing thickness ratio. Finite element (FE modelling was adopted to analyse the weld line movement and strain distributions during HFQ® forming.

  3. Forming and quenching behaviours in hot stamping of thin quenchable sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakagawa Yuki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A thin aluminium-coated quenchable steel sheet was hot-stamped to investigate the effect of the thickness. The sheets having 0.6, 1.0 and 1.6 mm in thickness were heated at 900 ∘C by a furnace and formed after 7 s from the furnace. The cooling rates of 0.6 mm and 1.0 mm in thickness from 900 ∘C to 400 ∘C under air cooling were 20.9 ∘C/s and 13.6 ∘C/s, respectively. The hardness of the air-cooled sheets having 1.0 mm in thickness was 300 HV1, whereas that of the sheet having 0.6 mm in thickness was 380 HV1 because of the high cooling rate. The Vickers hardness of the U-bent sheets of 0.6 and 1.0 mm after 7 s from the furnace without the holding time at the bottom dead centre were 500 and 430 HV1, respectively.

  4. Improving the Quality of Hot Stamping Parts with Innovative Press Technology and Inline Process Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, R.; Palm, C.

    2017-09-01

    The increasing number of hot stamped parts in the automotive industry is challenging different process areas. This paper presents a method how to improve the production rates over the whole life cycle of a hot forming part. In the core element of a hot forming line, the hydraulic press, mainly two processing steps are performed. Forming and quenching of the sheet metal part. In addition to the forming operation, it is inevitable to optimize the quenching condition in the bottom dead centre in order to reach a fully martensitic structure and tight geometrical tolerances of the part. Deviations in the blank thickness, tool wear, polishing of classical tools impair the quenching condition and therefore the part quality over the time. A new press and tool design has been developed to counter this effect by providing homogenous contact pressure over the whole die. Especially with a multi cavity tool, the new method is advantageous. Test series have shown that the new tool and press concept can produce parts with a blank thickness of 1.0 mm within 8.0 s cycle time. The so called PCH flex principle makes it possible to produce such high output rates under reliable conditions.

  5. Effect of cooling rate during hot stamping on low cyclic fatigue of boron steel sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Chang Hee; Jang, Won Seok; Oh, Sang Kyun; Lee, Rac Gyu; Jung, Yun-Chul; Kim, Young Suk

    2012-08-01

    Boron steel is widely used throughout the automobile industry due to its high tensile strength and hardenability. When boron steel is used for body parts, only high strength is required for crashworthiness. However, when boron steel is used for chassis parts, a high fatigue life is needed. The microstructure of boron steel is mainly affected by the cooling rate during hot stamping. Therefore, this study investigated the low cyclic fatigue life according to the cooling rate. The fatigue life increased at a low strain amplitude when the cooling rate was fast. However, at a high strain amplitude, the fatigue life decreased, due to the low ductility and fracture toughness of the martensite formed by rapid cooling. Martensite formed by a fast cooling rate shows excellent fatigue life at a low total strain amplitude; however, a multiphase microstructure formed by a slow cooling rate is recommended if the parts experience high and low total strain amplitudes alternately. In addition, the cooling rate has little effect on the distribution of solute boron and boron precipitations, so it is expected that boron rarely affects low cyclic fatigue.

  6. Investigation of the Phase Formation of AlSi-Coatings for Hot Stamping of Boron Alloyed Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veit, R.; Hofmann, H.; Kolleck, R.; Sikora, S.

    2011-01-01

    Hot stamping of boron alloyed steel is gaining more and more importance for the production of high strength automotive body parts. Within hot stamping of quenchenable steels the blank is heated up to austenitization temperature, transferred to the tool, formed rapidly and quenched in the cooled tool. To avoid scale formation during the heating process of the blank, the sheet metal can be coated with an aluminium-silicum alloy. The meltimg temperature of this coating is below the austenitization temperature of the base material. This means, that a diffusion process between base material and coating has to take place during heating, leading to a higher melting temperature of the coating. In conventional heating devices, like roller hearth furnaces, the diffusion process is reached by relatively low heating rates. New technologies, like induction heating, reach very high heating rates and offer great potentials for the application in hot stamping. Till now it is not proofed, that this technology can be used with aluminum-silicon coated materials. This paper will present the results of comparative heating tests with a conventional furnace and an induction heating device. For different time/temperature-conditions the phase formation within the coating will be described.

  7. Discrimination between authentic and false tax stamps from liquor bottles using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga, Fabiano Barbieri; Rocha, Werickson Fortunato de Carvalho; Correa, Deleon Nascimento

    2015-07-01

    This work describes the preliminary application of a compact and low-cost laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument for falsification detection of tax stamps used in alcoholic beverages. The new instrument was based on a diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YLF microchip laser and a mini-spectrometer containing a Czerny-Turner polichromator coupled to a non-intensified, non-gated, and non-cooled 2048 pixel linear sensor array (200 to 850 nm spectral range). Twenty-three tax stamp samples were analyzed by firing laser pulses within two different regions of each sample: a hologram and a blank paper region. For each acquired spectrum, the emitted radiation was integrated for 3000 ms under the continuous application of laser pulses at 100 Hz (integration of 300 plasmas). Principal component analysis (PCA) or hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of all emission spectra from the hologram or blank paper region revealed two well-defined groups of authentic and false samples. Moreover, for the hologram data, three subgroups of false samples were found. Additionally, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was successfully applied for the detection of the false tax stamps using all emission spectra from hologram or blank paper region. The discrimination between the samples was mostly ascribed to different levels of calcium concentration in the samples.

  8. Prototyping of masks, masters, and stamps/molds for soft lithography using an office printer and photographic reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng; Wu; Brittain; Whitesides

    2000-07-15

    This paper describes a practical method for the fabrication of photomasks, masters, and stamps/molds used in soft lithography that minimizes the need for specialized equipment. In this method, CAD files are first printed onto paper using an office printer with resolution of 600 dots/in. Photographic reduction of these printed patterns transfers the images onto 35-mm film or microfiche. These photographic films can be used, after development, as photomasks in 1:1 contact photolithography. With the resulting photoresist masters, it is straightforward to fabricate poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamps/molds for soft lithography. This process can generate microstructures as small as 15 microm; the overall time to go from CAD file to PDMS stamp is 4-24 h. Although access to equipment-spin coater and ultraviolet exposure tool-normally found in the clean room is still required, the cost of the photomask itself is small, and the time required to go from concept to device is short. A comparison between this method and all other methods that generate film-type photomasks has been performed using test patterns of lines, squares, and circles. Three microstructures have also been fabricated to demonstrate the utility of this method in practical applications.

  9. Probing Protein Multidimensional Conformational Fluctuations by Single-Molecule Multiparameter Photon Stamping Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Conformational motions of proteins are highly dynamic and intrinsically complex. To capture the temporal and spatial complexity of conformational motions and further to understand their roles in protein functions, an attempt is made to probe multidimensional conformational dynamics of proteins besides the typical one-dimensional FRET coordinate or the projected conformational motions on the one-dimensional FRET coordinate. T4 lysozyme hinge-bending motions between two domains along α-helix have been probed by single-molecule FRET. Nevertheless, the domain motions of T4 lysozyme are rather complex involving multiple coupled nuclear coordinates and most likely contain motions besides hinge-bending. It is highly likely that the multiple dimensional protein conformational motions beyond the typical enzymatic hinged-bending motions have profound impact on overall enzymatic functions. In this report, we have developed a single-molecule multiparameter photon stamping spectroscopy integrating fluorescence anisotropy, FRET, and fluorescence lifetime. This spectroscopic approach enables simultaneous observations of both FRET-related site-to-site conformational dynamics and molecular rotational (or orientational) motions of individual Cy3-Cy5 labeled T4 lysozyme molecules. We have further observed wide-distributed rotational flexibility along orientation coordinates by recording fluorescence anisotropy and simultaneously identified multiple intermediate conformational states along FRET coordinate by monitoring time-dependent donor lifetime, presenting a whole picture of multidimensional conformational dynamics in the process of T4 lysozyme open-close hinge-bending enzymatic turnover motions under enzymatic reaction conditions. By analyzing the autocorrelation functions of both lifetime and anisotropy trajectories, we have also observed the dynamic and static inhomogeneity of T4 lysozyme multidimensional conformational fluctuation dynamics, providing a fundamental

  10. Effect of Al-Si Coating on Weld Microstructure and Properties of 22MnB5 Steel Joints for Hot Stamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenhu; Li, Fang; Wu, Dongsheng; Chen, Xiaoguan; Hua, Xueming; Pan, Hua

    2018-03-01

    22MnB5 hot stamping steels are gradually being used in tailor-welded blank applications. In this experiment, 1-mm-thick Al-Si coated and de-coated 22MnB5 steels were laser-welded and then hot-stamped. The chemical compositions, solidification process, microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated to reveal the effect of Al-Si coating and heat treatment. In the welded condition, the coated joints had an Al content of approximately 2.5 wt.% in the fusion zone and the de-coated joints had 0.5 wt.% Al. The aluminum promoted the δ-ferrite formation as the skeletal structure during solidification. In the high-aluminum weld, the microstructure consisted of martensite and long and band-like δ-ferrite. Meanwhile, the low-aluminum weld was full of lath martensite. After the hot stamping process, the δ-ferrite fraction increased from 10 to 24% in the coated joints and the lath martensite became finer in the de-coated joints. The tensile strengths of the coated joints or de-coated joints were similar to that before hot stamping, but the strength of the coated joints was reduced heavily after hot stamping compared to the de-coated joints and base material. The effect of δ-ferrite on the tensile properties became stronger when the fusion zone was soft and deformed first in the hot-stamped specimens. The coated weld showed a brittle fracture surface with many cleavage planes, and the de-coated weld showed a ductile fracture surface with many dimples in hot-stamped conditions.

  11. Do differentials in the support and advice available at UK schools and colleges influence candidate performance in the medical school admissions interview? A survey of direct school leaver applicants to a UK medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambe, Paul; Waters, Catherine; Bristow, David

    2013-09-01

    To our knowledge, nothing is known about whether differentials in support and advice during preparation for the interview influence candidate performance and thereby contribute to bias in selection for medical school. To assess if differences in advice and support with preparation for the medical school admissions interview given type of school last attended influence interview score achieved by direct school leaver applicants to study on an undergraduate UK medical degree course. Confidential self-completed on-line questionnaire survey. Interview performance was positively related to whether a teacher, tutor or career advisors at the School or College last attended had advised a respondent to prepare for the interview, had advised about the various styles of medical interview used and the types of questions asked, and what resources were available to help in preparation. Respondents from Private/Independent schools were more likely than those from State schools to have received such advice and support. Differentials in access to advice on and support with preparation for the medical school interview may advantage some candidates over others. This inequity would likely be ameliorated by the provision of an authoritative and comprehensive guide to applying to medical school outlining admission requirements and the preparation strategy applicants should use in order to best meet those requirements. The guide could be disseminated to the Principals of all UK schools and colleges and freely available electronic versions signposted in medical school prospectuses and the course descriptor on the Universities and Colleges Admissions Service.

  12. Serial and parallel Si, Ge, and SiGe direct-write with scanning probes and conducting stamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasko, Stephanie E.; Kapetanovic, Adnan; Talla, Vamsi; Brasino, Michael D.; Zhu, Zihua; Scholl, Andreas; Torrey, Jessica D.; Rolandi, Marco

    2011-05-16

    Precise materials integration in nanostructures is fundamental for future electronic and photonic devices. We demonstrate Si, Ge, and SiGe nanostructure direct-write with deterministic size, geometry, and placement control. The biased probe of an atomic force microscope (AFM) reacts diphenylsilane or diphenylgermane to direct-write carbon-free Si, Ge, and SiGe nano and heterostructures. Parallel directwrite is available on large areas by substituting the AFM probe with conducting microstructured stamps. This facile strategy can be easily expanded to a broad variety of semiconductor materials through precursor selection.

  13. Design and implementation of a nanosecond time-stamping readout system-on-chip for photo-detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anvar, Shebli; Château, Frédéric; Le Provost, Hervé; Louis, Frédéric [CEA/Irfu/SEDI Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Manolopoulos, Konstantinos [Physics Department, University of Athens (Greece); Moudden, Yassir, E-mail: yassir.moudden@cea.fr [CEA/Irfu/SEDI Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Vallage, Bertrand [CEA/Irfu/SPP Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Zonca, Eric [CEA/Irfu/SEDI Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2014-01-21

    A readout system suitable for a large number of synchronized photo-detection units has been designed. Each unit embeds a specifically designed fully integrated communicating system based on Xilinx FPGA SoC technology. It runs the VxWorks real-time OS and a custom data acquisition software designed within the Ice middleware framework, resulting in a highly flexible, controllable and scalable distributed application. Clock distribution and delay calibration over customized fixed latency gigabit Ethernet links enable synchronous time-stamping of events with nanosecond precision. The implementation of this readout system on several data-collecting units as well as its performances are described.

  14. Wafer-scale patterning of reduced graphene oxide electrodes by transfer-and-reverse stamping for high performance OFETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joong Suk; Kim, Nam Hee; Kang, Moon Sung; Yu, Hojeong; Lee, Dong Ryoul; Oh, Joon Hak; Chang, Suk Tai; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2013-08-26

    A wafer-scale patterning method for solution-processed graphene electrodes, named the transfer-and-reverse stamping method, is universally applicable for fabricating source/drain electrodes of n- and p-type organic field-effect transistors with excellent performance. The patterning method begins with transferring a highly uniform reduced graphene oxide thin film, which is pre-prepared on a glass substrate, onto hydrophobic silanized (rigid/flexible) substrates. Patterns of the as-prepared reduced graphene oxide films are then formed by modulating the surface energy of the films and selectively delaminating the films using an oxygen-plasma-treated elastomeric stamp with patterns. Reduced graphene oxide patterns with various sizes and shapes can be readily formed onto an entire wafer. Also, they can serve as the source/drain electrodes for benchmark n- and p-type organic field-effect transistors with enhanced performance, compared to those using conventional metal electrodes. These results demonstrate the general utility of this technique. Furthermore, this simple, inexpensive, and scalable electrode-patterning-technique leads to assembling organic complementary circuits onto a flexible substrate successfully. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Experimental study on the warm forming and quenching behavior for hot stamping of high-strength aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degner, J.; Horn, A.; Merklein, M.

    2017-09-01

    Within the last decades, stringent regulations on fuel consumption, CO2 emissions and product recyclability forced the automotive sector to implement new strategies within the field of car body manufacturing. Due to their low density and good corrosion resistance, aluminum became one of the most relevant lightweight materials. Recently, especially high- strength aluminum alloys for structural components gained importance. Since the low formability of these alloys limits their application, there is a need for novel process strategies in order to enhance the forming behavior. One promising approach is the hot stamping of aluminum alloys. The combination of quenching and forming in one step after solution heat treatment leads to a significant improvement of the formability. Furthermore, higher manufacturing accuracy can be achieved due to reduced spring back. Within this contribution, the influence of forming temperature on the subsequent material behavior and the heat transfer during quenching will be analyzed. Therefore, the mechanical and thermal material characteristics such as flow behavior and heat transfer coefficient during hot stamping are investigated.

  16. A nanoscale conical polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) sub-wavelength structure with a high aspect ratio realized by a stamping method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Seon; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Jang, Jae-Hyung

    2013-04-08

    A high aspect ratio conical sub-wavelength structure (SWS) was designed by using rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) method and was realized on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) film using a stamping technique. The silicon template containing a hexagonal array of conical holes with a period of 350 nm and an aspect ratio of 2.8 was fabricated by electron-beam (e-beam) lithography followed by a two-step etching process. The SWS with a high aspect ratio was easily transferred from the fabricated silicon template to PMMA film using the stamping method. The replicated PMMA SWS has an array of cones with nanoscale tips and an aspect ratio higher than 2.8. The average reflectance and transmittance of the PMMA film with the conical SWS in the wavelength ranging from 500 and 1500 nm was improved from 7.1 and 91.1% to 4.3 and 94.2%, respectively, as compared to flat PMMA film.

  17. Fracture Profile and Crack Propagation of Ultra-High Strength Hot-Stamped Boron Steel During Mechanical Trimming Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xianhong; Yang, Kun; Chen, Sisi; Chen, Jun

    2015-10-01

    Mechanical trimming process for ultra-high strength boron steel after hot stamping was carried out in this study. Shear and tensile tests were designed to analyze the influences of stress state on the fracture mode; trimmed fracture surface and profile were observed and compared to other commonly used steels such as DP980 and Q235 etc.; the crack propagation during trimming process was studied through step-by-step tests. The observation and analysis reveal that the fracture mode of hot-stamped boron steel is highly related to the stress state, it belongs to cleavage fracture on low stress triaxiality but dimple fracture on high stress triaxiality. Such phenomenon is reflected in the trimming process, during which the stress state changes from shear-dominated state to tensile-dominated state. In addition, the burnish zone of trimmed boron steel is much smaller than other high strength steels, and the profile of cutting surface shows an `S'-like shape which is destructive to the trimming tool. Moreover, during the trimming process, most martensite laths near the cutting edge are stretched and rotated markedly to the direction of the shear band, and the main crack expands along those grain boundaries, which may penetrate through a few martensite laths and form small crack branches.

  18. Using Micro-Molding and Stamping to Fabricate Conductive Polydimethylsiloxane-Based Flexible High-Sensitivity Strain Gauges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chi-Jui; Chiang, Hsuan-Ping; Cheng, Yun-Chien

    2018-02-18

    In this study, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and conductive carbon nanoparticles were combined to fabricate a conductive elastomer PDMS (CPDMS). A high sensitive and flexible CPDMS strain sensor is fabricated by using stamping-process based micro patterning. Compared with conventional sensors, flexible strain sensors are more suitable for medical applications but are usually fabricated by photolithography, which suffers from a large number of steps and difficult mass production. Hence, we fabricated flexible strain sensors using a stamping-process with fewer processes than photolithography. The piezoresistive coefficient and sensitivity of the flexible strain sensor were improved by sensor pattern design and thickness change. Micro-patterning is used to fabricate various CPDMS microstructure patterns. The effect of gauge pattern was evaluated with ANSYS simulations. The piezoresistance of the strain gauges was measured and the gauge factor determined. Experimental results show that the piezoresistive coefficient of CPDMS is approximately linear. Gauge factor measurement results show that the gauge factor of a 140.0 μm thick strain gauge with five grids is the highest.

  19. All-silica nanofluidic devices for DNA-analysis fabricated by imprint of sol-gel silica with silicon stamp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Morten Bo Lindholm; Letailleur, Alban A; Søndergård, Elin

    2011-01-01

    We present a simple and cheap method for fabrication of silica nanofluidic devices for single-molecule studies. By imprinting sol-gel materials with a multi-level stamp comprising micro- and nanofeatures, channels of different depth are produced in a single process step. Calcination of the imprin......We present a simple and cheap method for fabrication of silica nanofluidic devices for single-molecule studies. By imprinting sol-gel materials with a multi-level stamp comprising micro- and nanofeatures, channels of different depth are produced in a single process step. Calcination...... of the imprinted hybrid sol-gel material produces purely inorganic silica, which has very low autofluorescence and can be fusion bonded to a glass lid. Compared to top-down processing of fused silica or silicon substrates, imprint of sol-gel silica enables fabrication of high-quality nanofluidic devices without...... expensive high-vacuum lithography and etching techniques. The applicability of the fabricated device for single-molecule studies is demonstrated by measuring the extension of DNA molecules of different lengths confined in the nanochannels....

  20. Assembly of live micro-organisms on microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for AFM bio-experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dague, E; Jauvert, E; Laplatine, L; Thibault, C [CNRS, LAAS, 7 Avenue du Colonel Roche, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Viallet, B; Ressier, L, E-mail: edague@laas.fr, E-mail: laurence.ressier@insa-toulouse.fr [Universite de Toulouse, LPCNO, INSA-CNRS-UPS, 135 Avenue de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse (France)

    2011-09-30

    Immobilization of live micro-organisms on solid substrates is an important prerequisite for atomic force microscopy (AFM) bio-experiments. The method employed must immobilize the cells firmly enough to enable them to withstand the lateral friction forces exerted by the tip during scanning but without denaturing the cell interface. In this work, a generic method for the assembly of living cells on specific areas of substrates is proposed. It consists in assembling the living cells within the patterns of microstructured, functionalized poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps using convective/capillary deposition. This versatile approach is validated by applying it to two systems of foremost importance in biotechnology and medicine: Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and Aspergillus fumigatus fungal spores. We show that this method allows multiplexing AFM nanomechanical measurements by force spectroscopy on S. cerevisiae yeasts and high-resolution AFM imaging of germinated Aspergillus conidia in buffer medium. These two examples clearly demonstrate the immense potential of micro-organism assembly on functionalized, microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for performing rigorous AFM bio-experiments on living cells.

  1. Assembly of live micro-organisms on microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for AFM bio-experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dague, E.; Jauvert, E.; Laplatine, L.; Viallet, B.; Thibault, C.; Ressier, L.

    2011-09-01

    Immobilization of live micro-organisms on solid substrates is an important prerequisite for atomic force microscopy (AFM) bio-experiments. The method employed must immobilize the cells firmly enough to enable them to withstand the lateral friction forces exerted by the tip during scanning but without denaturing the cell interface. In this work, a generic method for the assembly of living cells on specific areas of substrates is proposed. It consists in assembling the living cells within the patterns of microstructured, functionalized poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps using convective/capillary deposition. This versatile approach is validated by applying it to two systems of foremost importance in biotechnology and medicine: Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and Aspergillus fumigatus fungal spores. We show that this method allows multiplexing AFM nanomechanical measurements by force spectroscopy on S. cerevisiae yeasts and high-resolution AFM imaging of germinated Aspergillus conidia in buffer medium. These two examples clearly demonstrate the immense potential of micro-organism assembly on functionalized, microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for performing rigorous AFM bio-experiments on living cells.

  2. Assembly of live micro-organisms on microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for AFM bio-experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dague, E; Jauvert, E; Laplatine, L; Thibault, C; Viallet, B; Ressier, L

    2011-01-01

    Immobilization of live micro-organisms on solid substrates is an important prerequisite for atomic force microscopy (AFM) bio-experiments. The method employed must immobilize the cells firmly enough to enable them to withstand the lateral friction forces exerted by the tip during scanning but without denaturing the cell interface. In this work, a generic method for the assembly of living cells on specific areas of substrates is proposed. It consists in assembling the living cells within the patterns of microstructured, functionalized poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps using convective/capillary deposition. This versatile approach is validated by applying it to two systems of foremost importance in biotechnology and medicine: Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and Aspergillus fumigatus fungal spores. We show that this method allows multiplexing AFM nanomechanical measurements by force spectroscopy on S. cerevisiae yeasts and high-resolution AFM imaging of germinated Aspergillus conidia in buffer medium. These two examples clearly demonstrate the immense potential of micro-organism assembly on functionalized, microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for performing rigorous AFM bio-experiments on living cells.

  3. Event for the launch of the Georges Charpak postage stamp | 26-27 February | Prévessin site

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    At the end of February, the French post office is releasing a new €0.70 stamp featuring an image of Georges Charpak. CERN is taking part in this event by hosting a temporary post office on the Prévessin site, which will sell the stamp with a special “first day” postmark before it goes on general sale.     Georges Charpak arrived at CERN in 1959 and, in the late 1960s, revolutionised particle detection technology by developing the multiwire proportional chamber. This technique brought particle detectors into the electronic era, setting physicists free from the laborious task of studying photographs one by one. In 1992, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his invention. Charpak chambers are still used today in the LHC detectors and have paved the way for the technology in numerous other modern detectors. In the 1990s, Charpak was involved in developing medical applications based on particle detection technology. He was als...

  4. Do Children in Rural Areas Still Have Different Access to Health Care? Results from a Statewide Survey of Oregon's Food Stamp Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devoe, Jennifer E.; Krois, Lisa; Stenger, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if rural residence is independently associated with different access to health care services for children eligible for public health insurance. Methods: We conducted a mail-return survey of 10,175 families randomly selected from Oregon's food stamp population (46% rural and 54% urban). With a response rate of 31%, we used a…

  5. Use of the Performance Diagnostic Checklist to Select an Intervention Designed to Increase the Offering of Promotional Stamps at Two Sites of a Restaurant Franchise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Manuel; Wilder, David A.; Therrien, Kelly; Wine, Byron; Miranti, Reylissa; Daratany, Kenneth; Salume, Gloria; Baranovsky, Greg; Rodriquez, Matias

    2006-01-01

    The performance diagnostic checklist (PDC) was administered to examine the variables influencing the offering of promotional stamps by employees at two sites of a restaurant franchise. PDC results suggested that a lack of appropriate antecedents, equipment and processes, and consequences were responsible for the deficits. Based on these results,…

  6. The Confluence of Sociology, Statistics, and Public Policy in the Quality Control of the Food Stamps, AFDC, and Medicaid Family Assistance Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, S. James; Tanur, Judith M.

    1991-01-01

    Relevance of the intersection of sociology, statistics, and public policy to the study of quality control in three family assistance programs--food stamps, Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), and Medicaid--is reviewed using a study by the National Academy of Sciences of methods for improving quality control systems. (SLD)

  7. The comparison of two continuum damage mechanics-based material models for formability prediction of AA6082 under hot stamping conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Z.; Li, N.; Lin, J.

    2017-09-01

    The hot stamping and cold die quenching process has experienced tremendous development in order to obtain shapes of structural components with great complexity in automotive applications. Prediction of the formability of a metal sheet is significant for practical applications of forming components in the automotive industry. Since microstructural evolution in an alloy at elevated temperature has a large effect on formability, continuum damage mechanics (CDM)-based material models can be used to characterise the behaviour of metals when a forming process is conducted at elevated temperatures. In this paper, two sets of unified multi-axial constitutive equations based on material’s stress states and strain states, respectively, were calibrated and used to effectively predict the thermo-mechanical response and forming limits of alloys under complex hot stamping conditions. In order to determine and calibrate the two material models, formability tests of AA6082 using a developed novel biaxial testing system were conducted at various temperatures and strain rates under hot stamping conditions. The determined unified constitutive equations from experimental data are presented in this paper. It is found that both of the stress-state based and strain-state based material models can predict the formability of AA6082 under hot stamping conditions.

  8. Do Food Stamps without Education Improve the Nutrient Intake and Food-Related Behaviors of Recipients? Food Assistance Needs of the South's Vulnerable Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Katherine L.; Cox, Ruby H.; Burney, Janie L.

    This study examined the effect of food assistance on the dietary patterns of households in South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia. Data was collected from 6,969 participants in the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) and 3,552 participants in the Food Stamp Nutrition Education Program (FSNEP). EFNEP and FSNEP teach low-income…

  9. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-09-09

    Sep 9, 2015 ... Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Adiyaman University, 02040 Adiyaman, Turkey,3Department of Orthopedics and. Traumatology, Umraniye Research and Education Hospital, 34899 Istanbul, Turkey, 4Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Umraniye. Research and Education ...

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research methodology module was reviewed as part of the overall revision of the undergraduate physiotherapy curriculum of ... Structuring the research methodology module using an EBP teaching framework prepares students to formulate a research question, effectively ... manage, and organise bibliographic citations.

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-05-13

    May 13, 2015 ... Systems (SEEDS)-INDEPTH Network Accra, Ghana, 3KEMRI/Wellcome Trust Research Programme, The Centre of Geographical Medicine Research-. Coast, Kilifi, Kenya, 4Population Health Sciences/Research Support Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aga Khan University- East Africa, Nairobi,. Kenya ...

  12. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research process, as part of which students must find and appraise evidence from research.[5] This highlights that teaching research methodology is inclined towards equipping students ... Students believed that evidence-based practice was vital, yet their understanding of the concept was restricted when compared with the.

  13. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-03-02

    Mar 2, 2015 ... this program provided short-term and long-term research training to. US infectious disease fellows who would work on collaborative research projects with Kenyan trainees. Since the program began in. 1988, there have been 56 US trainees, and 13 of these continue to collaborate with Kenyan researchers.

  14. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) Spectroscopy as a Forensic Method to Determine the Composition of Inks Used to Print the United States One-cent Blue Benjamin Franklin Postage Stamps of the 19th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Harry G

    2016-01-01

    Through the combined use of infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) sampling, the composition of inks used to print the many different types of one-cent Benjamin Franklin stamps of the 19th century has been established. This information permits a historical evaluation of the formulations used at various times, and also facilitates the differentiation of the various stamps from each other. In two instances, the ink composition permits the unambiguous identification of stamps whose appearance is identical, and which (until now) have only been differentiated through estimates of the degree of hardness or softness of the stamp paper, or through the presence or absence of a watermark in the paper. In these instances, the use of ATR Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectroscopy effectively renders irrelevant two 100-year-old practices of stamp identification. Furthermore, since the use of ATR sampling makes it possible to obtain the spectrum of a stamp still attached to its cover, it is no longer necessary to identify these blue Franklin stamps using their cancellation dates. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Homelessness as viewed by incarcerated women: participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ruth Elwood; Hanson, Debra; Hemingway, Christine; Ramsden, Vivian; Buxton, Jane; Granger-Brown, Alison; Condello, Lara-Lisa; Macaulay, Ann; Janssen, Patti; Hislop, T Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the development, by incarcerated women who were members of a prison participatory health research team, of a survey tool regarding homelessness and housing, the survey findings and recommendations for policy. A survey was developed by incarcerated women in a minimum/medium security women's prison in Canada. Associations were examined between socio-demographic factors and reports of difficulty finding housing upon release, homelessness contributing to a return to crime, and a desire for relocation to another city upon release. Open-ended questions were examined to look for recurrent themes and to illuminate the survey findings. In total, 83 women completed the survey, a 72 per cent response rate. Of the 71 who were previously incarcerated, 56 per cent stated that homelessness contributed to their return to crime. Finding housing upon release was a problem for 63 per cent and 34 per cent desired relocation to another city upon release. Women indicated that a successful housing plan should incorporate flexible progressive staged housing. The present study focuses only on incarcerated women but could be expanded in future to include men. Incarcerated women used the findings to create a housing proposal for prison leavers and created a resource database of the limited housing resources for women prison leavers. Lack of suitable housing is a major factor leading to recidivism. This study highlights the reality of the cycle of homelessness, poverty, crime for survival, street-life leading to drug use and barriers to health, education and employment that incarcerated women face. Housing is a recognized basic determinant of health. No previous studies have used participatory research to address homelessness in a prison population.

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-01-19

    Jan 19, 2015 ... in Cameroon. This study aimed at examining the sexual risk behaviours of high school female learners in Mbonge subdivision of rural Cameroon. ... Despite a wealth of research on youth, little research has been done on the sexual ..... Behavior, and Mental Health: a study of University Students in. Uganda.

  17. researchers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Sociological Review, 7, (2), 2003, pp.149-161. RESEARCH REPORTS. Revisiting “insiders' and 'outsiders' as social researchers. Marlize Rabe .... use of knowledgeable fieldworkers is then examined by focussing on the work ... A study by Russell (1995:p.95–97) on the long-term effects of incestuous abuse.

  18. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-06

    May 6, 2014 ... facilitate and support articulation between the ECT mid-level worker qualification and the professional B EMC degree. Methods. The researchers used an exploratory, sequential mixed-method design, which is characterised by a qualitative phase of research followed by a quantitative phase. This design is ...

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In-depth telephonic interviews were voice recorded and transcribed. Through an inductive ... Two research assistants conducted the research to ..... Assistant Nutritionist. 1.25. M. 30.5. Single. BSc Food Science and Technology. Dietitian. 6. M. 25.6. Single. BSc Human Nutrition and Dietetics. Dietitian. 1. M. 29.6. Single.

  20. A review of enabling factors in support intervention programmes for early school leavers : What are the implications for Sub-Saharan Africa?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tukundane, Cuthbert; Minnaert, Alexander; Zeelen, Jacobus; Kanyandago, Peter

    One of the major problems facing education systems in Sub-Saharan Africa is the phenomenon of young people who leave school before completion. Research has shown that this phenomenon disadvantages young people and exposes them to various forms of social exclusion. Accordingly, there have been

  1. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    Research Team in Maternal and Child Health and Nutrition, Mohammed V. University, Rabat, Morocco. Key words: Breast cancer, risk factor, case-control study. Received: 04/01/2016 - Accepted: 17/03/2016 - Published: 06/05/2016. Abstract.

  2. Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathematics Teaching, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Implications for teachers from Piagetian-oriented piagetian-oriented research on problem solving reported in an article by Eleanor Duckworth are presented. Edward de Bono's Children Solve Problems,'' a collection of examples, is also discussed. (MS)

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    their academic performance, capabilities and functionings. At a tertiary educational level ... Research indicates that academic stressors, living circumstances, working conditions and where students undertake leisure activities affect academic performance .... Insufficient sleep, mild exhaustion, poor eating habits and little ...

  4. Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Subjects covered in this section are: (1) PCAST panel promotes energy research cooperation; (2) Letter issued by ANS urges funding balance in FFTF restart consideration and (3) FESAC panel releases report on priorities and balance

  5. Cracking and interfacial debonding of the Al–Si coating in hot stamping of pre-coated boron steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gui, Zhong-Xiang; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Yi-Sheng [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die and Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhu, Bin, E-mail: zhubin26@gmail.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die and Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Cracking failure of the Al–Si coating in hot stamping process was investigated. • Microcracks initiated inside the coating during the austenitization. • Microcrack initiation in the hot deformation correlated to the Fe–Al intermetallics. • Macrocracks extended along the Mode I path led to the coating break into segments. • Macrocracks growth followed Mode II path resulted in the interfacial debonding. - Abstract: This study is focused on the mechanisms of cracks initiation, propagation and interfacial debonding of the Al–Si coating in hot stamping of the pre-coated boron steel. The investigation was performed isothermally at three deformation temperatures (700, 750, 800 °C) at a strain rate of 0.1/s. Cracking and interfacial debonding of the coating were observed with optical and scanning electron microscope, to reveal the damage evolution under applied tensile strains. Microstructures and phase inside the coating before and after austenitization were determined by energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results indicate that austenitization led to micro-cracks and Kirkendall voids initiation inside the Al–Si coating because of thermal loading, and the cracks were arrested by α-Fe diffusion layer. When the coating on substrate system was submitted to the uniaxial tensile test, the surface coating exhibited multiple cracking normal to the tensile direction. The Kirkendall voids seemed to promote the macro-crack growth through the diffusion layer. The macro-cracks followed a Mode I path, leading to the coating deteriorates to cracked segments. The macro-cracks then continued to propagate following a Mode II path that along the diffusion layer/substrate interface because of shear stress transferred from the deformed substrate, resulting in the interfacial debonding of the coating segments. The crack density firstly increased with the increasing tensile strain and then reached saturation. Decreasing deformation

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2016-03-24

    Mar 24, 2016 ... national non-governmental organization (NGO) ”Arc en Ciel„. This. NGO, which is familiar with research activities, identified the MSM community leaders in the .... whom there is an emotional attachment) in both homosexual and heterosexual populations [14, 19]. Like other reports from. Cameroon [19] and ...

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2012-01-11

    Jan 11, 2012 ... 1MPH Programme, Department of Community Medicine, University of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe, 2Department of Epidemiology and Disease Control,. Ministry ... Pan African Medical Journal. 2012; 11: ..... Mufuta Tshimanga: Had oversight of all the stages of the research and critically reviewed the final draft for.

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-08-25

    Aug 25, 2011 ... euthanasia were also queried. Data was analyzed using Epidata, SPSS 16.0 and Microsoft Excel. Results: Thirty-eight (97.4%) of thirty-nine institutions reported using animals for education and/or research. Thirty (76.9%) institutions reported using analgesics or anesthetics on a regular basis. Thirteen ...

  9. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-02-01

    Feb 1, 2016 ... University Hospital, DK-5000 Odense, Denmark, 3Center for Global Health, Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5000. Odense .... BHP is a Danish-Guinean Demographic Surveillance Site with a study-area .... variables such as age groups, previous military duty, history of.

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research. May 2016, Vol. 8, No. 1 AJHPE 37. Students who enrol in occupational therapy (OT) at the. University of Kwa Zulu-Natal (UKZN), Durban, South Africa ... The latter may include becoming familiar with the disintegrating social systems in primary .... They also lacked the skills needed to adapt sessions and failed to ...

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... skills through hands-on application of epidemiology to real public health issues. For the most part, residents carry out research projects in priority areas of the districts they are attached, often under direct supervision of the local or provincial health leaders [2]. In Africa, these programs formed a networking ...

  12. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-03-21

    Mar 21, 2014 ... Published in partnership with the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET). (www.afenet.net). Research ... were intervention strategies for primary health care delivery at the district and community levels ..... to be a gap between policy formation and implementation as only immunization services are.

  13. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-03-05

    Mar 5, 2013 ... food market) [10]. There are few studies that provide data on NCDs from Africa and these are mainly from South Africa [11]. In the same vein, research efforts in The .... males, in view of the relationships between obesity, physical inactivity and .... pronged intervention strategies-epidemiological surveillance,.

  14. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-11-23

    Nov 23, 2015 ... 1Amref Health Africa, P.O Box 2773 Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 2Kilimanjaro Reproductive Health Program, Moshi, Tanzania, 3Population Services. International, Nairobi .... testing, HIV testing history and HIV test results. ..... due to differences in the research designs, nature of population and sample size ...

  15. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-06-22

    Jun 22, 2015 ... collaboration with Makerere University, School of Public Health. We acknowledge The Family Health Research and Development Centre. (FHRDC) Uganda. Supported by Bill & Melinda Gates Institute for. Population & Reproductive Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, ...

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-14

    Apr 14, 2016 ... Methods. Study design: A mixed method cross-sectional design using both quantitative and qualitative research methods as described by. Hanson et al [33] was employed. Settings: The study was based on data from the midterm evaluation that was conducted between August-December 2012 involving ...

  17. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study followed a qualitative research design using semi-structured interviews with full-time SA- or foreign-qualified specialists at. Kimberley Hospital ... average number of weekly hours spent on undergraduate student training ... The best place to learn is at the bedside; a student should see the patient, read up and ...

  18. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the importance of the learning setting (curriculum context), a capability approach to learning (the process), and the production of expert generalists. (the outcome) .... including communication, learning transfer, teamwork, self-confidence, and reciprocal and effective practice.[6-8] Research also shows that PAL provides a.

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-11-14

    Nov 14, 2011 ... Data were collected between February and March 2010 using a questionnaire, designed by the researcher. It comprised two sections; the ..... Bazant ES, Koenig MA, Fotso J-C, Mills S. Women's Use of Private and Government Health Facilities for Childbirth in Nairobi's Informal. Settlements. Stud Fam Plann ...

  20. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research. This article provides a detailed description of the development of an evaluation matrix that represents the organising structure for evaluating the impact of the interdisciplinary health-promotion course on multiple stakeholders. The evaluation was designed to answer the questions relating to the perceptions and ...

  1. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-18

    Mar 18, 2017 ... promote CPD by working in partnership with employers, academic institutions ... SORK, employers and institutions of higher education all have a responsibility towards the culture of lifelong learning. As the ... further approved by the Higher Degrees and Research Ethics Committees of the University of ...

  2. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-08-29

    Aug 29, 2014 ... Page number not for citation purposes ... Pan African Medical Journal – ISSN: 1937- 8688 (www.panafrican-med-journal.com). Published in partnership with the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET). (www.afenet.net). Research .... and education, hence a higher risk of morbidity and mortality and a.

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tions as their reality.[14]. Research context. At Stellenbosch University (SU), Cape Town,. SA, final-year physiotherapy students each spend. 6 weeks at a community site learning to integrate and apply the principles of PHC and community- based rehabilitation. Approximately 5 - 10 clients are seen in their homes per week.

  4. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the classroom.[9] Cognitive learning is achieved when students can make connections among and interpret different aspects of a subject to apply what they have learned in other fields of ... the effect of the field trips on the students' perceptions. ... researcher in higher education teaching and learning facilitated the data-.

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-12-02

    Dec 2, 2015 ... It is an important aspect of quality of life which is often neglected by people in this age group, attending physicians and the society as a whole. The study was aimed at determining ... or a trained research assistant for those who could neither read nor write. Consenting individuals above this age who have ...

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... by Hazarika in a population-based study in India. The researcher noted that patients' preference to the private health facilities was due mainly to their dissatisfaction with the services in the public health facilities [11]. Furthermore, the quality of the services in the private health facilities could also be a major ...

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-11-30

    Nov 30, 2017 ... Authors' contributions. All the authors have read and agreed to the final manuscript. Acknowledgments. The author was supported by a postdoctoral fellowship awarded by the South African National Research Foundation (NRF). The content of this manuscript does not necessarily represent the official views.

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-12-05

    Dec 5, 2017 ... work is properly cited. Pan African Medical Journal – ISSN: 1937- 8688 ... an unfinished business as dozens of studies reveal millions of children worldwide have not yet benefited from the .... regions included in the research site [24]. Results. In the final analysis, three working themes were generated.

  9. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Workshop on {topic}; research project; clinical practical experience. Outputs. Tangible products/by-products of activities (but not whether students learned anything). Certificates of completion; records of actions by participants (i.e. log books); number of students at clinical site. Intermediate outcomes Learning connected to ...

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-05-18

    May 18, 2017 ... available to populations of developing countries [2-5]. In 2013, in. Western and Central Europe and ..... initiation among the infected persons in the community. Addressing stigma and educating ... Lifespan/Tufts/Brown Center for AIDS Research (P30AI042853). Tables. Table 1: Baseline characteristics of ...

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-18

    May 18, 2014 ... Research. Practice within the clinical arena is recognised as the best means of socialising students into the physiotherapy profession[1-5] and is known to ..... A ect. Intervention. Overall preparedness. Fig. 1. Means and 95% CIs of the mean scores of each component (n=58; 9 missing). There is a significant ...

  12. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    YouTube, TED and other podcast websites. Other researchers have also documented their procedures. Corl et al.[5] describe the basic process of producing a podcast, and Jham et al.[6] list a number of universities actively doing podcasts. Besides the lecture podcasts, we have also captured numerous clinical.

  13. Developing and piloting a peer mentoring intervention to reduce teenage pregnancy in looked-after children and care leavers: an exploratory randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezey, Gillian; Meyer, Deborah; Robinson, Fiona; Bonell, Chris; Campbell, Rona; Gillard, Steve; Jordan, Peter; Mantovani, Nadia; Wellings, Kaye; White, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    Looked-after children (LAC) are at greater risk of teenage pregnancy than non-LAC, which is associated with adverse health and social consequences. Existing interventions have failed to reduce rates of teenage pregnancy in LAC. Peer mentoring is proposed as a means of addressing many of the factors associated with the increased risk of teenage pregnancy in this group. To develop a peer mentoring intervention to reduce teenage pregnancy in LAC. Phase I and II randomised controlled trial of a peer mentoring intervention for LAC; scoping exercise and literature search; national surveys of social care professionals and LAC; and focus groups and interviews with social care professionals, mentors and mentees. Three local authorities (LAs) in England. LAC aged 14-18 years (mentees/care as usual) and 19-25 years (mentors). Recruitment and training of mentors; randomisation and matching of mentors to mentees; and 1-year individual peer mentoring. pregnancy in LAC aged 14-18 years. sexual attitudes, behaviour and knowledge; psychological health; help-seeking behaviour; locus of control; and attachment style. A health economic evaluation was also carried out. In total, 54% of target recruitment was reached for the exploratory trial and 13 out of 20 mentors (65%) and 19 out of 30 LAC aged 14-18 years (63%) (recruited during Phases I and II) were retained in the research. The training programme was acceptable and could be manualised and replicated. Recruitment and retention difficulties were attributed to systemic problems and LA lack of research infrastructure and lack of additional funding to support and sustain such an intervention. Mentees appeared to value the intervention but had difficulty in meeting weekly as required. Only one in four of the relationships continued for the full year. A future Phase III trial would require the intervention to be modified to include provision of group and individual peer mentoring; internal management of the project, with support from an

  14. New organic photo-curable nanoimprint resist ≪mr-NIL210≫ for high volume fabrication applying soft PDMS-based stamps

    OpenAIRE

    Messerschmidt, Martin; Greer, Andrew; Schlachter, Florian; Barnett, Julian; Thesen, Manuel W.; Gadegaard, Nikolaj; Grutzner, Gabi; Schleunitz, Arne

    2017-01-01

    Herein, we report on a newly developed and commercialized organic photo-curable Nanoimprint Lithography (NIL) resist, namely mr-NIL210. Since this new NIL resist follows an innovative design concept and contains solely specific monomers with a characteristic chemistry and molecular design, an extended longevity of applied polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) stamps is enabled addressing a crucial key metric for industrial high-volume manufacturing processes. Moreover, the mr-NIL210 is characterized b...

  15. Using the fibre structure of paper to determine authenticity of the documents: analysis of transmitted light images of stamps and banknotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takalo, Jouni; Timonen, Jussi; Sampo, Jouni; Rantala, Maaria; Siltanen, Samuli; Lassas, Matti

    2014-11-01

    A novel method is presented for distinguishing postal stamp forgeries and counterfeit banknotes from genuine samples. The method is based on analyzing differences in paper fibre networks. The main tool is a curvelet-based algorithm for measuring overall fibre orientation distribution and quantifying anisotropy. Using a couple of more appropriate parameters makes it possible to distinguish forgeries from genuine originals as concentrated point clouds in two- or three-dimensional parameter space. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. I Medici e l’incisione: Le origini della collezione di stampe degli Uffizi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baroni, A.

    2008-01-01

    This research focusses on the origins of the print collection of the Medici family, from the reign of Grand Duke Cosimo I to the extinction of the Medici dynasty with the death of the Elettrice Palatina Anna Maria Luisa de’ Medici in 1742. After the investiture of Grand Duke Pietro Leopoldo of

  17. Effect Analysis of Geometric Parameters on Stainless Steel Stamping Multistage Pump by Experimental Test and Numerical Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the efficiency of stainless steel stamping multistage pump, quadratic regression orthogonal test, hydraulic design, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD are used to analyze the effect of pump geometric parameters. Sixteen impellers are designed based on the quadratic regression orthogonal test, which have three factors including impeller outlet slope, impeller blade outlet stagger angle, and impeller blade outlet width. Through quadratic regression equation, the function relationship between efficiency values and three factors is established. The optimal combination of geometric parameters is found through the analysis of the regression equation. To further study the influence of blade thickness on the performance of multistage pump, numerical simulations of multistage pump with different blade thicknesses are carried out. The influence law of blade thickness on pump performance is built from the external characteristics and internal flow field. In conclusion, with the increase of blade thickness, the best efficiency point of the pump shifts to the small flow rate direction, and the vortex regions inside the pump at rated flow gradually increase, which is the main reason that pump efficiency decreases along with the increase of the blade thickness at rated flow.

  18. ‘Postage-stamp PIV’: small velocity fields at 400 kHz for turbulence spectra measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresh, Steven J.; Henfling, John F.; Spillers, Russell W.; Spitzer, Seth M.

    2018-03-01

    Time-resolved particle image velocimetry recently has been demonstrated in high-speed flows using a pulse-burst laser at repetition rates reaching 50 kHz. Turbulent behavior can be measured at still higher frequencies if the field of view is greatly reduced and lower laser pulse energy is accepted. Current technology allows image acquisition at 400 kHz for sequences exceeding 4000 frames but for an array of only 128  ×  120 pixels, giving the moniker of ‘postage-stamp PIV’. The technique has been tested far downstream of a supersonic jet exhausting into a transonic crossflow. Two-component measurements appear valid until 120 kHz, at which point a noise floor emerges whose magnitude is dependent on the reduction of peak locking. Stereoscopic measurement offers three-component data for turbulent kinetic energy spectra, but exhibits a reduced signal bandwidth and higher noise in the out-of-plane component due to the oblique camera images. The resulting spectra reveal two regions exhibiting power-law dependence describing the turbulent decay. The frequency response of the present measurement configuration exceeds nearly all previous velocimetry measurements in high speed flow.

  19. Estimating Bus Loads and OD Flows Using Location-Stamped Farebox and Wi-Fi Signal Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiong Ji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic fareboxes integrated with Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL systems can provide location-stamped records to infer passenger boarding at individual stops. However, bus loads and Origin-Destination (OD flows, which are useful for route planning, design, and real-time controls, cannot be derived directly from farebox data. Recently, Wi-Fi sensors have been used to collect passenger OD flow information. But the data are insufficient to capture the variation of passenger demand across bus trips. In this study, we propose a hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate trip-level OD flow matrices and a period-level OD flow matrix using sampled OD flow data collected by Wi-Fi sensors and boarding data provided by fareboxes. Bus loads on each bus trip are derived directly from the estimated trip-level OD flow matrices. The proposed method is evaluated empirically on an operational bus route and the results demonstrate that it provides good and detailed transit route-level passenger demand information by combining farebox and Wi-Fi signal data.

  20. Development of low-friction and wear-resistant surfaces for low-cost Al hot stamping tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Y.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, advanced surfaces and coatings have been developed using plasma thermochemical treatment, PVD coating, electroless Ni-BN plating and duplex surface engineering to produce low-friction and wear-resistant surfaces for cast iron stamping tools. Their microstructural and nano-mechanical properties were systematically analysed and the tribological behaviour of these new surfaces and coatings were evaluated. The experimental results have shown that under dry sliding condition, the tribological behaviour of aluminium differed great from that of steel regardless of the counterpart material. Highly reactive aluminium had a strong tendency to solder with tool surfaces during dry sliding. However, the lubricity of gray cast irons can be significantly improved by Ni-BN and DLC coatings. The coefficient of friction reduced from about 0.5 for untreated cast irons to about 0.2 sliding against aluminium. Duplex treatment combining plasma nitrocarburising with low-friction coatings showed superior durability than both DLC and Ni-BN coatings.

  1. ABC di corpi: alcuni alfabeti figurati del XVI secolo del Gabinetto Disegni e Stampe della Pinacoteca Nazionale di Bologna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Butera

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Fra le diverse tipologie di motivi ornamentali, gli alfabeti figurati costituiscono un vero e proprio genere a se stante, che attinge al repertorio iconografico del proprio tempo e lo riflette in composizioni dotate di grande fascino e originalità. Per la quantità, la qualità e l’eterogeneità degli esemplari custoditi, il Gabinetto Disegni e Stampe della Pinacoteca Nazionale di Bologna costituisce un caso più unico che raro in Italia, vantando alfabeti figurati che abbracciano ampi confini geografici e cronologici, spaziando dal tardo gotico al XIX secolo. Dopo una breve introduzione sulle vicende collezionistiche di un nucleo grafico così insolito e particolare, l’articolo si concentra su alcuni esemplari di alfabeti figurati del Cinquecento di area transalpina. Partendo dall’alfabeto dei bambini di Hans Weiditz (1521, costruito rispettando le più rigorose regole geometriche, codificate nei coevi trattati rinascimentali, ma anche riflesso del rinato gusto per i fregi all’antica con putti, si passa agli alfabeti di Peter Flötner (1534 e di Jost Amman (1567, dove le lettere sono integralmente costituite da corpi umani, forzati in complicate posture, talvolta persino licenziose. Questi esemplari rappresentano degli interessanti esperimenti calligrafici, dove l’uomo diviene concretamente l’unità di misura dei caratteri dell’alfabeto.

  2. Does transition from an unstable labour market position to permanent employment protect mental health? Results from a 14-year follow-up of school-leavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reine, Ieva; Novo, Mehmed; Hammarström, Anne

    2008-05-13

    Having secure employment, in contrast to being unemployed, is regarded as an important determinant of health. Research and theories about the negative health consequences of unemployment indicated that transition from unemployment to a paid job could lead to improved health. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that obtaining permanent employment after being in an unstable labour market position protects mental health. A 14-year follow-up of all graduates from compulsory school in an industrial town in northern Sweden was performed at ages 16, 18, 21 and 30 years. Complete data on the cohort were collected for 1044 individuals with the aid of a comprehensive questionnaire. The response rate was 96.4%. The health measurement used in this study was the psychological symptoms analysed by multivariate logistic regression. Those who obtained permanent employment were the focus of the analysis. This group consisted of people who were in an unstable labour market position for a year or more between the ages of 25 and 29, and who had acquired a permanent job one year before and at the time of the investigation. After controlling for gender as well as for an indicator of health-related selection, possible confounders and mediators, an association was found between the lower probability of psychological symptoms and obtaining permanent employment (OR = 0.35, 95% CI 0.19-0.63) as well as having permanent employment (OR = 0.22, 95% CI 0.10-0.51). Our findings suggest that transition from an unstable labour market position to permanent employment could be health-promoting, even after controlling for possible confounders and mediators, as well as for an indicator of health-related selection. However, as there are few studies in the field, there is a need for more longitudinal studies in order to further analyse the relationship and to examine possible explanations. The policy implication of our study is that the transformation of unstable labour market

  3. An investigation into the suitability of some etching reagents to restoring obliterated stamped numbers on cast iron engine blocks of cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Wahab, Mohd Farizon; Mohamad Ghani, Nurul Izwani; Kuppuswamy, R

    2012-11-30

    Most of the automotive companies use cast iron for their engine blocks. Restoration of obliterated number on these iron surfaces by chemical etching is known to be quite difficult. Heating of the obliterated surface using oxyacetylene flame is an alternative recovery treatment suggested in literature and used in practice. However chemical etching has been established to be the most sensitive technique for detection of metal deformation present under stamped serial numbers. Hence, the current work investigated the suitability of some common etchants on cast iron surfaces with a view to determining the most suitable one for revealing the obliterated marks. The reagents tested were mostly copper containing Fry's reagent and its modifications. Two cast iron engine blocks (3.29%C and 3.1%C) of two cars--a Proton Saga and a Toyota--were utilized for the experiments. The engine blocks were cut into several small plates and each plate was stamped with some numerical characters at 8 kN load using Instron Table Mounted Universal Testing Machine. The depth of stamping impression varied between 0.2 mm and 0.3 mm. The stamped number was completely ground off manually using a metal file. The grounded surface was then polished smooth using emery papers and etched with a few selected reagents mostly by swabbing. Experimental results showed that a modified Fry's composition consisting of 4 5g CuCl(2), 100 mL HCl, and 180 mL H(2)O restored the number with better contrast at a reasonably shorter time. The above reagent is a slightly modified form of one of the Fry's original compositions--45 g CuCl(2), 180 mL HCl, and 100 mL H(2)O. Quite importantly the proposed reagent restored the original stamped numbers of both Proton and Toyota cars and also a Mitsubishi car that had been obliterated. The most widely used Fry's composition (90 g CuCl(2), 120 mL HCl and 100 mL H(2)O), although recovered the obliterated number, did not cause the desired contrast. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland

  4. A Mechanical, Microstructural, and Damage Study of Various Tailor Hot Stamped Material Conditions Consisting of Martensite, Bainite, Ferrite, and Pearlite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardelcik, Alexander; Vowles, Caryn J.; Worswick, Michael J.

    2018-02-01

    This paper examines the mechanical, microstructural, and damage characteristics of five different material conditions that were created using the tailored hot stamping process with in-die heating. The tailored material conditions, TMC1 to TMC5 (softest-hardest), were created using die temperatures ranging from 700 °C to 400 °C, respectively. The tensile strength (and total elongation) ranged from 615 MPa (0.24) for TMC1 to 1122 MPa (0.11) for TMC5. TMC3 and TMC4 exhibited intermediate strength levels, with almost no increase in total elongation relative to TMC5. FE-SEM microscopy was used to quantify the mixed-phase microstructures, which ranged in volume fractions of ferrite, pearlite, bainite, and martensite. High-resolution optical microscopy was used to quantify void accumulation and showed that the total void area fraction at 0.60 thickness strain was low for TMC1 and TMC5 ( 0.09 pct) and highest for TMC3 (0.31 pct). Damage modes were characterized and revealed that the poor damage behavior of TMC3 (martensite/bainite/ferrite composition) was a result of small martensitic grains forming at grain boundaries and grain boundary junctions, which facilitated void nucleation as shown by the highest measured void density for this particular material condition. The excellent ductility of TMC1 was a result of a large grained ferritic/pearlitic microstructure that was less susceptible to void nucleation and growth. Large titanium nitride (TiN) inclusions were observed in all of the tailored material conditions and it was shown that they noticeably contributed to the total void accumulation, specifically for the TMC3 and TMC4 material conditions.

  5. StaMPS Improvement for Deformation Analysis in Mountainous Regions: Implications for the Damavand Volcano and Mosha Fault in Alborz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Vajedian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR capability to detect slow deformation over terrain areas is limited by temporal decorrelation, geometric decorrelation and atmospheric artefacts. Multitemporal InSAR methods such as Persistent Scatterer (PS-InSAR and Small Baseline Subset (SBAS have been developed to deal with various aspects of decorrelation and atmospheric problems affecting InSAR observations. Nevertheless, the applicability of both PS-InSAR and SBAS in mountainous regions is still challenging. Correct phase unwrapping in both methods is hampered due to geometric decorrelation in particular when using C-band SAR data for deformation analysis. In this paper, we build upon the SBAS method implemented in StaMPS software and improved the technique, here called ISBAS, to assess tectonic and volcanic deformation in the center of the Alborz Mountains in Iran using both Envisat and ALOS SAR data. We modify several aspects within the chain of the processing including: filtering prior to phase unwrapping, topographic correction within three-dimensional phase unwrapping, reducing the atmospheric noise with the help of additional GPS data, and removing the ramp caused by ionosphere turbulence and/or orbit errors to better estimate crustal deformation in this tectonically active region. Topographic correction is done within the three-dimensional unwrapping in order to improve the phase unwrapping process, which is in contrast to previous methods in which DEM error is estimated before/after phase unwrapping. Our experiments show that our improved SBAS approach is able to better characterize the tectonic and volcanic deformation in the center of the Alborz region than the classical SBAS. In particular, Damavand volcano shows an average uplift rate of about 3 mm/year in the year 2003–2010. The Mosha fault illustrates left-lateral motion that could be explained with a fault that is locked up to 17–18 km depths and slips with 2–4 mm

  6. Why do low-income women not use food stamps? Findings from the California Women's Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Lucia

    2008-12-01

    To determine factors associated with Food Stamp Program (FSP) participation in a potentially eligible California population. The California Women's Health Survey is an on-going annual telephone survey that collects data about health-related attitudes and behaviours from a randomly selected sample of women. Statistical procedures included chi2 and logistic regression. California, USA, from 2002 to 2004. A total of 527 FSP female participants and 1405 potentially eligible non-participant females, aged 18 years and older. The following characteristics remained independently and positively related to FSP participation: single mother with children; unemployed; on welfare; on WIC (the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children); and US-born. Women under 25 years and those over 54 years were less likely to participate than women aged 25-54 years. Hispanic/Latino ethnicity was also negatively related to participation. Over 42 % of potentially eligible non-participants cited 'don't need them' as the reason for not applying for FSP, but 34.9 % either do not think they are eligible or do not know how to apply. Potentially eligible non-participants who cite 'don't need them' as a reason for not applying are less likely to be food insecure, to have inadequate income and to use alternative emergency aid, compared to women citing all other reasons. The highest level of need is among those who cite worry about citizenship or stigma as reasons for not applying. Strategies to increase participation in FSP should incorporate messages that change the public's perception of the programme, in addition to simplifying the application process, raising awareness of eligibility criteria and improving customer service.

  7. A Mechanical, Microstructural, and Damage Study of Various Tailor Hot Stamped Material Conditions Consisting of Martensite, Bainite, Ferrite, and Pearlite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardelcik, Alexander; Vowles, Caryn J.; Worswick, Michael J.

    2018-04-01

    This paper examines the mechanical, microstructural, and damage characteristics of five different material conditions that were created using the tailored hot stamping process with in-die heating. The tailored material conditions, TMC1 to TMC5 (softest-hardest), were created using die temperatures ranging from 700 °C to 400 °C, respectively. The tensile strength (and total elongation) ranged from 615 MPa (0.24) for TMC1 to 1122 MPa (0.11) for TMC5. TMC3 and TMC4 exhibited intermediate strength levels, with almost no increase in total elongation relative to TMC5. FE-SEM microscopy was used to quantify the mixed-phase microstructures, which ranged in volume fractions of ferrite, pearlite, bainite, and martensite. High-resolution optical microscopy was used to quantify void accumulation and showed that the total void area fraction at 0.60 thickness strain was low for TMC1 and TMC5 ( 0.09 pct) and highest for TMC3 (0.31 pct). Damage modes were characterized and revealed that the poor damage behavior of TMC3 (martensite/bainite/ferrite composition) was a result of small martensitic grains forming at grain boundaries and grain boundary junctions, which facilitated void nucleation as shown by the highest measured void density for this particular material condition. The excellent ductility of TMC1 was a result of a large grained ferritic/pearlitic microstructure that was less susceptible to void nucleation and growth. Large titanium nitride (TiN) inclusions were observed in all of the tailored material conditions and it was shown that they noticeably contributed to the total void accumulation, specifically for the TMC3 and TMC4 material conditions.

  8. African American School Psychology Program Leavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Sherrie Lynn

    2010-01-01

    This phenomenology used 21 in-depth interviews to explore seven African Americans' experiences at the school psychology programs they left. The purpose was to investigate what experiences contributed to participants' decisions to leave programs; if programs used retention strategies and if so, participants' view of the strategies; and what…

  9. Evaluation of the Possibility of Performing Cold Backward Extrusion of Axisymmetrical Thinwalled Aluminum Die Stampings with Square Section / Ocena Możliwości Wyciskania Przeciwbieżnego Na Zimno Osiowosymetrycznych Wyprasek Z Cienką Ścianką O Przekroju Kwadratowym Z Aluminium

    OpenAIRE

    Miłek T.; Kowalik B.; Kuliński B.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents evaluation of the possibility of performing cold backward extrusion of axisymmetrical thin-walled aluminum (Al 99.50, ENAW-1050A) die stampings with a square section at the strain ε=ln(A0/A1)=2 (where A0 - cross sectional area of the billet, A1 - cross sectional area of the die stamping), and the ratio h1/b=3.6 (where h1 - height of the die stamping in mm, b - width of the base of the die stamping in mm). The analysis was conducted on the basis of the results of computer mo...

  10. [Inequities in access to food stamps and meal vouchers in Brazil: an analysis of the Brazilian Household Budgets Survey, 2008-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canella, Daniela Silva; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique

    2016-03-01

    Food stamps and meal vouchers can determine workers' dietary choices. The study aimed to assess the coverage of these benefits in Brazil and their distribution according to the beneficiaries' socio-demographic and regional characteristics, using data from the Brazilian Household Budgets Survey, 2008-2009. Eligibility criteria were having an occupation and a private or government job, including domestic or temporary work in rural areas. Only 3.2% of eligible individuals reported receiving such benefits. Highest coverage rates were verified with the Southeast region, urban areas, male gender, employment in the private sector, and monthly earnings > five times the minimum wage. The mean monthly amount of such benefits was R$ 177.20 (US$ 100 at the 2009 exchange rate). After adjusting for other variables, the highest amounts were associated with male gender, higher salaries, the Northeast and Central regions, and employment in the public sector. This first analysis of the national coverage of food stamps and meal vouchers showed that a large share of Brazilian workers lack access or have unequal access to such benefits.

  11. Impact of Si on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of 22MnB5 Hot Stamping Steel Treated by Quenching & Partitioning (Q&P)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Bernd M.; Gerber, Thomas; Hatscher, Ansgar; Salvatori, Ilaria; Aranguren, Iñigo; Arribas, Maribel

    2018-01-01

    Based on 22MnB5 hot stamping steel, three model alloys containing 0.5, 0.8, and 1.5 wt pct Si were produced, heat treated by quenching and partitioning (Q&P), and characterized. Aided by DICTRA calculations, the thermal Q&P cycles were designed to fit into industrial hot stamping by keeping partitioning times ≤ 30 seconds. As expected, Si increased the amount of retained austenite (RA) stabilized after final cooling. However, for the intermediate Si alloy the heat treatment exerted a particularly pronounced influence with an RA content three times as high for the one-step process compared to the two-step process. It appeared that 0.8 wt pct Si sufficed to suppress direct cementite formation from within martensite laths but did not sufficiently stabilize carbon-soaked RA at higher temperatures. Tensile and bending tests showed strongly diverging effects of austenite on ductility. Total elongation improved consistently with increasing RA content independently from its carbon content. In contrast, the bending angle was not impacted by high-carbon RA but deteriorated almost linearly with the amount of low-carbon RA.

  12. Rubber stamp templates for improving clinical documentation: A paper-based, m-Health approach for quality improvement in low-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleczka, Bernadette; Musiega, Anita; Rabut, Grace; Wekesa, Phoebe; Mwaniki, Paul; Marx, Michael; Kumar, Pratap

    2018-06-01

    The United Nations' Sustainable Development Goal #3.8 targets 'access to quality essential healthcare services'. Clinical practice guidelines are an important tool for ensuring quality of clinical care, but many challenges prevent their use in low-resource settings. Monitoring the use of guidelines relies on cumbersome clinical audits of paper records, and electronic systems face financial and other limitations. Here we describe a unique approach to generating digital data from paper using guideline-based templates, rubber stamps and mobile phones. The Guidelines Adherence in Slums Project targeted ten private sector primary healthcare clinics serving informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. Each clinic was provided with rubber stamp templates to support documentation and management of commonly encountered outpatient conditions. Participatory design methods were used to customize templates to the workflows and infrastructure of each clinic. Rubber stamps were used to print templates into paper charts, providing clinicians with checklists for use during consultations. Templates used bubble format data entry, which could be digitized from images taken on mobile phones. Besides rubber stamp templates, the intervention included booklets of guideline compilations, one Android phone for digitizing images of templates, and one data feedback/continuing medical education session per clinic each month. In this paper we focus on the effect of the intervention on documentation of three non-communicable diseases in one clinic. Seventy charts of patients enrolled in the chronic disease program (hypertension/diabetes, n=867; chronic respiratory diseases, n=223) at one of the ten intervention clinics were sampled. Documentation of each individual patient encounter in the pre-intervention (January-March 2016) and post-intervention period (May-July) was scored for information in four dimensions - general data, patient assessment, testing, and management. Control criteria included

  13. Research Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research. May 2014, Vol. 6, No. 1 AJHPE 33. Research. Currently, radiography students are faced with the challenge of having to learn factual information, while ... A descriptive exploratory research design was used to collect both ..... Creswell J. Research Design: Quantitative, Qualitative and Mixed Methods Approaches.

  14. Constellation Program Electrical Ground Support Equipment Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Keegan S.

    2010-01-01

    At the Kennedy Space Center, I engaged in the research and development of electrical ground support equipment for NASA's Constellation Program. Timing characteristics playa crucial role in ground support communications. Latency and jitter are two problems that must be understood so that communications are timely and consistent within the Kennedy Ground Control System (KGCS). I conducted latency and jitter tests using Alien-Bradley programmable logic controllers (PLCs) so that these two intrinsic network properties can be reduced. Time stamping and clock synchronization also play significant roles in launch processing and operations. Using RSLogix 5000 project files and Wireshark network protocol analyzing software, I verified master/slave PLC Ethernet module clock synchronization, master/slave IEEE 1588 communications, and time stamping capabilities. All of the timing and synchronization test results are useful in assessing the current KGCS operational level and determining improvements for the future.

  15. Researching research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pais, Alexandre; Valero, Paola

    2012-01-01

    We discuss contemporary theories in mathematics education in order to do research on research. Our strategy consists of analysing discursively and ideologically recent key publications addressing the role of theory in mathematics education research. We examine how the field fabricates its object...... of research by deploying Foucault’s notion of bio-politics - mainly to address the object “learning” - and Žižek’s ideology critique - to address the object “mathematics”. These theories, which have already been used in the field to research teaching and learning, have a great potential to contribute...... to a reflexivity of research on its discourses and effects. Furthermore, they enable us to present a clear distinction between what has been called the sociopolitical turn in mathematics education research and what we call a positioning of mathematics education (research) practices in the Political....

  16. Supporting School Leavers in Areas of Deprivation into Initial Positive Leaver Destinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Stephen; Hall, Stuart; Lowden, Kevin; McClung, Michele; Cameron, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    The contemporary attempts to tackle poverty and child poverty in the United Kingdom have been seriously hindered by the effects of the economic crisis (Hirsch, 2008a; Mooney, 2011). The prevailing discourses of the recession and intergenerational poverty can lead to a view that the effects of child poverty and the consequent detrimental impact on…

  17. Trapping and release of cargo molecules from a micro-stamped mesoporous thin film controlled by Poly(NIPAAm-co-AAm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Melissa M; Raboin, Lorraine; Guardado-Alvarez, Tania M; Zink, Jeffrey I

    2014-05-01

    Materials that utilize the micropatterned structure of a mesoporous silica film to successfully load and release cargo using a thermal sensitive polymer are presented in this paper. Films with pore sizes of ~2 nm and ~5 nm aligned in the pulling direction were synthesized using evaporation induced self-assembly techniques. The pores are exposed using a new method of stamping micropatterns without the use hydrofluoric acid. A well studied temperature dependent polymer (poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-Acrylamide)) was grafted onto the surface of these films to act as a temperature activated gatekeeper. Below the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) the polymer is erect and can block the pore openings, trapping cargo inside the pores. When the temperature is above the LCST the polymer collapses and unblocks the pores, allowing cargo to escape. The loading capacities as well as the reusability of these films were studied.

  18. A new approach for improved time and position measurements for TOF-PET: Time-stamping of the photo-electrons using analogue SiPMs

    CERN Document Server

    Doroud, K

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of the Time-of-Flight (TOF) of the 511 keV gammas brings an important reduction of statistical noise in the PET image, with higher precision time measurements producing clearer images. The common method of coupling a photodetector to scintillating crystals is to have two matching matrices, with a one-to-one coupling between the crystal and the photodetector. We propose a new geometry based on analogue strip SiPMs reading out a scintillator cut into slabs. This technique allows the time stamping of individual photo-electrons and extracts the best time resolution using a specific algorithm. Here we present the results from the first ‘slab module’ test.

  19. A new approach for improved time and position measurements for TOF-PET: Time-stamping of the photo-electrons using analogue SiPMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doroud, K., E-mail: Katayoun.Doroud@cern.ch [CERN Geneva (Switzerland); Williams, M.C.S. [CERN Geneva (Switzerland); INFN, Bologna (Italy)

    2017-03-21

    Measurement of the Time-of-Flight (TOF) of the 511 keV gammas brings an important reduction of statistical noise in the PET image, with higher precision time measurements producing clearer images. The common method of coupling a photodetector to scintillating crystals is to have two matching matrices, with a one-to-one coupling between the crystal and the photodetector. We propose a new geometry based on analogue strip SiPMs reading out a scintillator cut into slabs. This technique allows the time stamping of individual photo-electrons and extracts the best time resolution using a specific algorithm. Here we present the results from the first ‘slab module’ test.

  20. Do children in rural areas still have different access to health care? Results from a statewide survey of Oregon's food stamp population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoe, Jennifer E; Krois, Lisa; Stenger, Rob

    2009-01-01

    To determine if rural residence is independently associated with different access to health care services for children eligible for public health insurance. We conducted a mail-return survey of 10,175 families randomly selected from Oregon's food stamp population (46% rural and 54% urban). With a response rate of 31%, we used a raking ratio estimation process to weight results back to the overall food stamp population. We examined associations between rural residence and access to health care (adjusting for child's age, child's race/ethnicity, household income, parental employment, and parental and child's insurance type). A second logistic regression model controlled for child's special health care needs. Compared with urban children (reference = 1.00), rural children were more likely to have unmet medical care needs (odds ratio [OR] 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-2.04), problems getting dental care (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.03-1.79), and at least one emergency department visit in the past year (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.10-1.81). After adjusting for special health care needs (more prevalent among rural children), there was no rural-urban difference in unmet medical needs, but physician visits were more likely among rural children. There were no statistically significant differences in unmet prescription needs, delayed urgent care, or having a usual source of care. These findings suggest that access disparities between rural and urban low-income children persist, even after adjusting for health insurance. Coupled with continued expansions in children's health insurance coverage, targeted policy interventions are needed to ensure the availability of health care services for children in rural areas, especially those with special needs.

  1. Disability research in the Nordic context – progress and challenges in investment welfare states 1970–2013

    OpenAIRE

    Roulstone, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Disability research and disability studies in the twenty-first century are almost unrecognisable compared to, for example, work that was completed on disability only 20–30 years ago. Disability research and disability studies may still be constructed as different entities: disability research shading into medical and rehabilitation studies, while disability studies is almost entirely concerned with the social aspects of disability. However, the terrain is now firmly stamped by the imprint of ...

  2. Characterization and methodology for calculating the mechanical properties of a TRIP-steel submitted to hot stamping and quenching and partitioning (Q&P)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariza, E.A.; Nishikawa, A.S; Goldenstein, H.; Tschiptschin, A.P.

    2016-01-01

    Thermomechanical simulation of quenching, hot stamping, and quenching and partitioning processes of a high-strength TRIP-assisted steel were carried out in a Gleeble®3S50 thermo-mechanical simulator, coupled to the synchrotron X-ray diffraction line. The microstructures and mechanical properties were analyzed using Field Emission Gun Scanning Electron Microscopy (FEG-SEM), X-ray diffraction, and nanoindentation. The microstructures of thermomechanical treated specimens were modeled using the Object Oriented Finite Element (OOF) technique. The modeled microstructures were then fed into a finite element model to predict the mechanical behavior. By using a reverse algorithm method, the elasto-plastic mechanical properties of different microconstituents were determined. This was done through the analysis of instrumented nanoindentation loading-penetration curves. Tensile properties of the thermomechanical processed steels were measured by tensile testing of subsized specimens cut from samples processed on the Gleeble®3S50. The comparison between the experimental results and those of the reverse algorithm and the OOF modeled microstructure showed quite good agreement.

  3. Characterization and methodology for calculating the mechanical properties of a TRIP-steel submitted to hot stamping and quenching and partitioning (Q&P)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ariza, E.A., E-mail: andersonariza@usp.br [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of São Paulo, Av. Prof. Mello Moraes, 2463, São Paulo, SP CEP 05508-030 (Brazil); Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory, LNNano, CNPEM, Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (Brazil); Nishikawa, A.S; Goldenstein, H. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of São Paulo, Av. Prof. Mello Moraes, 2463, São Paulo, SP CEP 05508-030 (Brazil); Tschiptschin, A.P. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of São Paulo, Av. Prof. Mello Moraes, 2463, São Paulo, SP CEP 05508-030 (Brazil); Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory, LNNano, CNPEM, Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (Brazil)

    2016-08-01

    Thermomechanical simulation of quenching, hot stamping, and quenching and partitioning processes of a high-strength TRIP-assisted steel were carried out in a Gleeble®3S50 thermo-mechanical simulator, coupled to the synchrotron X-ray diffraction line. The microstructures and mechanical properties were analyzed using Field Emission Gun Scanning Electron Microscopy (FEG-SEM), X-ray diffraction, and nanoindentation. The microstructures of thermomechanical treated specimens were modeled using the Object Oriented Finite Element (OOF) technique. The modeled microstructures were then fed into a finite element model to predict the mechanical behavior. By using a reverse algorithm method, the elasto-plastic mechanical properties of different microconstituents were determined. This was done through the analysis of instrumented nanoindentation loading-penetration curves. Tensile properties of the thermomechanical processed steels were measured by tensile testing of subsized specimens cut from samples processed on the Gleeble®3S50. The comparison between the experimental results and those of the reverse algorithm and the OOF modeled microstructure showed quite good agreement.

  4. STUDI BANDING PELAPISAN MATERIAL SKD11 DENGAN METODE PHYSICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION DAN THERMAL DIFUSION PADA KOMPONEN INSERT DIES MESIN STAMPING PRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertus Suryo Bisono

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan pelapisan menggunakan Titanium Alumunium Nitrid (TIAlN dengan metode PVD Coating (Physical Vapour Diposition dan TD (Thermal Difusion  untuk perlakuan permukaan baja perkakas SKD11 sebagai material Insert Die komponen mesin Stamping Press setelah perlakuan hardening. Perlakuan permukaan dimaksudkan untuk meningkatkan kualitas permukaan khususnya kekerasan dan perubahan struktur mikro yang terjadi. Untuk mengetahui tingkat keberhasilan dari perlakuan permukaan tersebut dilakukan dengan memvariasi waktu proses, masing masing 2 sample diproses pada 4 jam, 5 jam dan 6 jam dengan temperatur  proses masing-masing  400ᴼ C. Kemudian satu dari tiap variable sample tersebut di panaskan pada suhu 1000ᴼ C selama 1 jam, pendinginan dilalukan dengan udara bebas tanpa proses quenching Untuk mengetahui hasilnya dilakukan uji kekerasan mikro Vickers, pengamatan struktur mikro Scanning Eectron Microscope (SEM, dan pengujian komposisi dengan Energy Defersif Sepectroscopy (EDS untuk mengetahui tingkat penyerapan material terdifusi. Hasil menunjukan bahwa SKD11 yang dilapisi TiAlN dengan metode PVD selama 6 jam menghasilkan lapisan yang paling keras yaitu 1363 HV dengan ketebalan lapisan 5,3µm. Proses pemanasan 1000⁰C selama 1 jam pada sample mengakibatkan penurunan kekerasan sample dan lapisan permukaan sample menjadi lebih tebal hingga 50µm. Penambahan lapisan diakibatkan oleh terdifusinya atom atom yang menyusun lapisan TiAlN ke dalam substrat serta keluarnya atom atom penyusun lapisan hingga membentuk lapisan kompleks.

  5. Case Study to Illustrate the Potential of Conformal Cooling Channels for Hot Stamping Dies Manufactured Using Hybrid Process of Laser Metal Deposition (LMD and Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Cortina

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hot stamping dies include cooling channels to treat the formed sheet. The optimum cooling channels of dies and molds should adapt to the shape and surface of the dies, so that a homogeneous temperature distribution and cooling are guaranteed. Nevertheless, cooling ducts are conventionally manufactured by deep drilling, attaining straight channels unable to follow the geometry of the tool. Laser Metal Deposition (LMD is an additive manufacturing technique capable of fabricating nearly free-form integrated cooling channels and therefore shape the so-called conformal cooling. The present work investigates the design and manufacturing of conformal cooling ducts, which are additively built up on hot work steel and then milled in order to attain the final part. Their mechanical performance and heat transfer capability has been evaluated, both experimentally and by means of thermal simulation. Finally, conformal cooling conduits are evaluated and compared to traditional straight channels. The results show that LMD is a proper technology for the generation of cooling ducts, opening the possibility to produce new geometries on dies and molds and, therefore, new products.

  6. Stem cell research: cloning, therapy and scientific fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusnak, A J; Chudley, A E

    2006-10-01

    Stem cell research has generated intense excitement, awareness, and debate. Events in the 2005-2006 saw the rise and fall of a South Korean scientist who had claimed to be the first to clone a human embryonic stem cell line. From celebration of the potential use of stem cells in the treatment of human disease to disciplinary action taken against the disgraced scientists, the drama has unfolded throughout the world media. Prompted by an image of therapeutic cloning presented on a South Korean stamp, a brief review of stem cell research and the events of the Woo-suk Hwang scandal are discussed.

  7. Recognition of unnatural variation patterns in metal-stamping process using artificial neural network and statistical features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Norasulaini Abdul; Masood, Ibrahim; Nasrull Abdol Rahman, Mohd

    2016-11-01

    Unnatural process variation (UPV) is vital in quality problem of a metalstamping process. It is a major contributor to a poor quality product. The sources of UPV usually found from special causes. Recently, there is still debated among researchers in finding an effective technique for on-line monitoring-diagnosis the sources of UPV. Control charts pattern recognition (CCPR) is the most investigated technique. The existing CCPR schemes were mainly developed using raw data-based artificial neural network (ANN) recognizer, whereby the process samples were mainly generated artificially using mathematical equations. This is because the real process samples were commonly confidential or not economically available. In this research, the statistical features - ANN recognizer was utilized as the control chart pattern recognizer, whereby process sample was taken directly from an actual manufacturing process. Based on dynamic data training, the proposed recognizer has resulted in better monitoring-diagnosis performance (Normal = 100%, Unnatural = 100%) compared to the raw data- ANN (Normal = 66.67%, Unnatural = 26.97%).

  8. Evaluating the benefits of vaccination when used in combination with stamping-out measures against hypothetical introductions of foot-and-mouth disease into New Zealand: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanson, R L; Rawdon, T; Owen, K; Hickey, K; van Andel, M; Yu, Z D

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the benefits of vaccination against simulated outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in New Zealand, when applied as an additional measure to stamping-out. A simulation modelling approach was used. The study population comprised all known farms in New Zealand with FMD-susceptible livestock. Infection was seeded into three different areas of New Zealand. Transmission mechanisms included direct and indirect contacts, local spread and airborne spread. Efficacies of some of the stamping-out measures were varied. Vaccination strategies involved different start times, size and type of vaccination zone, and species vaccinated. Personnel resources for vaccination were varied as was the herd immunity profile following vaccination. Altogether, 336 models were specified, with 100 iterations conducted for each model. Generalised linear modelling and boosted regression trees were used to evaluate which variables had the biggest effect on the number of infected premises (IP), epidemic duration and area under control. Vaccination, when used as an adjunct to the standard stamping-out programme, significantly reduced the outbreak size. Vaccination reduced the median number of IP by 26 (95% CI=18-35), epidemic duration by 16 (95% CI=13-19) days and area under control by 474 (95% CI=250-699) km 2 when there was no airborne spread; and when there was airborne spread the median reduction was 87 (95% CI=70-105) IP, 32 (95% CI=28-35) days and 898 (95% CI=665-1139) km 2 , respectively. Multivariable analyses showed that starting vaccination 11 days after first detection of FMD produced greater benefits than starting 16 or 21 days after detection. Increasing vaccination zones resulted in increased benefits. Boosted regression tree analyses showed that the most influential variables on the outcome measures were interval to first detection, incursion location, whether there was airborne spread or not and herd immunity profile. This study showed that there are benefits to

  9. Evaluation of the Possibility of Performing Cold Backward Extrusion of Axisymmetrical Thinwalled Aluminum Die Stampings with Square Section / Ocena Możliwości Wyciskania Przeciwbieżnego Na Zimno Osiowosymetrycznych Wyprasek Z Cienką Ścianką O Przekroju Kwadratowym Z Aluminium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miłek T.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents evaluation of the possibility of performing cold backward extrusion of axisymmetrical thin-walled aluminum (Al 99.50, ENAW-1050A die stampings with a square section at the strain ε=ln(A0/A1=2 (where A0 - cross sectional area of the billet, A1 - cross sectional area of the die stamping, and the ratio h1/b=3.6 (where h1 - height of the die stamping in mm, b - width of the base of the die stamping in mm. The analysis was conducted on the basis of the results of computer modelling (FEM and experimental investigations on backward extrusion. The boundary conditions for numerical calculations were determined experimentally with respect to the flow curve and mechanical properties of aluminum. The results of investigations into backward extrusion of thin-walled square-sectioned aluminum die stampings might be used as guidelines to develop a technological process for industrial practice.

  10. Possible Extent and Depth of Salt Contamination in Ground Water Using Geophysical Techniques, Red River Aluminum Site, Stamps, Arkansas, April 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Gregory P.; Kress, Wade; Hobza, Christopher M.; Czarnecki, John B.

    2003-01-01

    A surface-geophysical investigation of the Red River Aluminum site at Stamps, Arkansas, was conducted in cooperation with the Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality to determine the possible extent and depth of saltwater contamination. Water-level measurements indicate the distance to water level below land surface ranges from about 1.2 to 3.9 feet (0.37 to 1.19 meters) in shallow monitor wells and about 10.5 to 17.1 feet (3.20 to 5.21 meters) in deeper monitoring wells. The two-dimensional, direct-current resistivity method identified resistivities less than 5 ohm-meters which indicated possible areas of salt contamination occurring in near-surface or deep subsurface ground water along four resistivity lines within the site. One line located east of the site yielded data that demonstrated no effect of salt contamination. Sections from two of the five data sets were modeled. The input model grids were created on the basis of the known geology and the results and interpretations of borehole geophysical data. The clay-rich Cook Mountain Formation is modeled as 25 ohm-meters and extends from 21 meters (68.9 feet) below land surface to the bottom of the model (about 52 meters (170.6 feet)). The models were used to refine interpretation of the resistivity data and to determine extent of saltwater contamination and depth to the Cook Mountain Formation. Data from the resistivity lines indicate both near-surface and subsurface saltwater contamination. The near-surface contamination appears as low resistivity (less than 5 ohm-meters) on four of the five resistivity lines, extending up to 775 meters (2,542.8 feet) horizontally in a line that traverses the entire site south to north. Model resistivity data indicate that the total depth of saltwater contamination is about 18 meters (59 feet) below land surface. Data from four resistivity lines identified areas containing low resistivity anomalies interpreted as possible salt contamination. A fifth line located just east

  11. ABOUT THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE ISSUES SIGN OF LANGUAGE SYSTEM AND STAMP OF LANGUAGE SYSTEM DİLİN İŞARET SİSTEMİYLE DİLİN DAMGA SİSTEMİ ARASINDAKİ MESELELERİN İLİŞKİSİ HAKKINDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekmağanbetov ŞANJARHAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it is elaborated that ‘stamp system’ which is considered as one of basic issues of linguistics. Stamps of language and some particular features of these stamps are mentioned. In Turkish consideration, there are dimension, size of stamp and the stamp’s being profound and substantive. In modern linguistics, notion of stamp is used instead of notion znak ‘symbol’ in Russian, and notion sign ‘sign’ in English. In the article, after the explanation of the notion of UP (flat universe emerged with worldly basis, it is made mention that language is all associated with the stamp system(s. Bu makalede, genel dil bilimin temel konularından biri kabul edilen dilin ‘damga sistemi’ üzerinde durulmuştur. Dil damgalarından ve bu damgaların belli özelliklerinden söz edilmiştir. Türk’ün düşüncesinde damganın genişliği, büyüklüğü, derin ve anlamlı oluşu vardır. Çağdaş dil biliminde damga kavramı, Rusçada znak ‘simge’, İngilizcede sign ‘işaret’ kavramının yerine kullanılmaktadır. Makalede, dünyevî temel ile ortaya çıkan UP (âlem daire kavramı açıklandıktan sonra dilin damga/lar sistemi üzerine oturtulduğundan söz edilmiştir.

  12. Researcher / Researched: Repositioning Research Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerwald, Agnes May Lin

    2013-01-01

    "Researcher / Researched" calls for a complementary research methodology by proposing autoethnography as both a method and text that crosses the boundaries of conventional and alternative methodologies in higher education. Autoethnography rearticulates the researcher / researched positions by blurring the boundary between them. This…

  13. Profitability of poultry production among school leavers in Anaocha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was undertaken to investigate the profitability of poultry production in Anaocha Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria. Ten poultry farmers were randomly drawn from each of the ten autonomous communities that make up the local Government Area to give a sample size of one hundred. Structured ...

  14. Achievement in Boys' Schools 2010-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Cathy; Berg, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This report explores the achievement of school leavers from state and state-integrated boys' schools. The analysis from 2010 to 2012 shows school leavers from state boys' schools had higher qualifications than their male counterparts who attended state co-educational schools. The research was carried out for the Association of Boys' Schools of New…

  15. Study of mechanical properties on powdermetalurgy aluminium matrix composites fabricated by stamping or extrusion; Estudio de las propiedades mecanicas en materiales compuestos de matriz aluminio pulvimetalurgicos conformados mediante forja o extrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busquets, D.; Gomez, L.; Amigo, V.; Salvador-Moya, M. D.

    2005-07-01

    We have developed composite materials from AA6061 aluminium alloy powders used as matrix and ceramics powders of boron carbide, silicon carbide and boron nitride, used as reinforcements in 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10% vol. by mechanical mixing and milling in planetary mill at 360 rpm vial velocity for 4 h followed of hot stamping and extrusion process on green compacts. Mechanical properties obtained from tensile tests are influenced by the heat treatment, reinforcement fractions and nature. Moreover, these mechanical characteristic are dependent from the processing route. Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy analysis revealed the microstructure of materials and let describe the tripartite relation; structure-processing-properties, of the developed materials. (Author) 20 refs.

  16. Verification of human actions in SBO sequences with LOCA stamps in Westinghouse PWRs; Verificacion de las actuaciones humanas en secuencias de SBO con LOCA de sellos en reactores PWR Westinghouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queral, C.; Mena Rosell, L.; Jimenez Varas, G.

    2013-07-01

    The Fukushima accident has shown the need for tools and methodologies able to analyze human activities and / or capabilities of portable systems that has given the Spanish plants as a result of the stress tests . In this work we have applied the methodology of integrated safety analysis developed by the CSN , to SBO sequences with LOCA stamp. The aim is to show a methodology for testing the performances of the Emergency Operating Procedures and Guides Severe Accident Management. The simulations were performed with the tool SCAIS coupled to MAAP . The results show that there are human activities that may be beneficial in certain sequences but harmful in others. This type of problem is already known and referred to in the GGAS . However, FSR shows a practical way to check human actions cannot be obtained with other methods.

  17. Reinar sobre el papel: sellos de placa de Juana I de Castilla durante la primera regencia de Fernando el Católico (Reigning on paper: stamps plate Joanna of Castile during the first regency of Ferdinand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José García Sánchez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este artículo versa sobre los usos y valores del sello real en los inicios del reinado de Juana I, período de interregno de gran interés desde el punto de vista sigilográfico. Se analiza de qué forma la estrategia política adoptada por el bando fernandino en su lucha por controlar el poder se vio reflejada en sus prácticas sigilográficas y cómo el sello se convirtió en un importante recurso de propaganda. Además, se estudia el sello real insertándolo en su contexto histórico y diplomático, estudiando su papel dentro de las estrategias documentales del partido de Fernando el Católico y su relación con otros elementos del discurso diplomático.Abstact: This article is about the uses and values of the royal seal in periods of interregnum. Specifically focuses on the early reign of Joanna I, moment of great interest from the point of view stamp, because raised to the death of Elizabeth I succession problems were reflected in the form and utilization the royal seal. It analizarde the politics strategy adopted by the fernandino side in their struggle to control the power was reflected in their practices stamps seal an important resource propaganda. In addition, the royal seal insert in its historical context and diplomatic, studying its role in the documentary strategies party Fernando Catholic and its relationship with other elements of diplomatic discourse.

  18. El sello y registro real en Panamá: la Real Audiencia y Cancillería en el siglo XVI (The royal stamp and record in Panamá: Royal Audience and Chancellery in the sixteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Ángeles Sanz García-Muñoz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El presente estudio pretende analizar la historia del sello y registro regio en una realidad espacio-temporal concreta, esto es, como elemento fundamental en la constitución de la Audiencia y Cancillería de Panamá durante el siglo XVI. El protagonista central de esta investigación va a ser el sello en sí mismo, abordando todo lo que pudo afectarle en el seno de esta Audiencia y Cancillería, desde su apertura y remisión a las Indias, hasta su custodia, pasando por el análisis de aquellas personas que fueron responsables del mismo y de los efectos que su uso o simple presencia supusieron en lugares tan apartados. El objetivo último es conocer la función y el uso que, este importante medio de validación documental, tuvo en el gobierno de tan lejanas tierras y en la representación de la monarquía.Abstract: The present study tries to analyze royal stamp and record space-time specific, namely, as a key element in the Audience and Chancellery constitution of Panamá during the sixteenth century. The main character is going to be the stamp itself, approaching everything that could impact within this Audience and Chancellery, since opening and dispatch to Indies, to custody, going through review those who were responsible for it and the effects about their use or simple presence which amounted in places as far apart. The ultimate goal is to understand the role and use this important means of document validation had in the government from so remote lands and the representation of monarchy.

  19. Young people, mental health practitioners and researchers co-produce a Transition Preparation Programme to improve outcomes and experience for young people leaving Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Valerie

    2017-04-20

    In the UK young people attending child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) are required to move on, either through discharge or referral to an adult service, at age 17/18, a period of increased risk for onset of mental health problems and other complex psychosocial and physical changes. CAMHS transitions are often poorly managed with negative outcomes for young people. Better preparation may improve outcomes and experience. This study aimed to co-produce, with young people who had transitioned or were facing transition from CAMHS, a CAMHS Transition Preparation Programme (TPP), deliverable in routine NHS settings. Eighteen young people, aged 17-22, from three UK National Health Service (NHS) mental health foundation trusts participated in creative, participatory research workshops. Seven parents completed short questionnaires. Thirty clinical staff from two trusts took part in workshops to ensure deliverability of young people's ideas. Young people were offered co-research opportunities. Most young people felt anxious, fearful and uncertain on leaving CAMHS and perceived mental health services as uncaring. Participants outlined transition procedures and drafted a range of preparation activities, centred around dedicated Transition Peer Support and a transition booklet, which should be offered to all CAMHS leavers, irrespective of discharge or transfer to an adult service. Preparation should aim to build confidence to help young people take responsibility for themselves and flourish in the adult world: coping or getting through it was not enough. Some clinicians also felt anxious at transition and recognised the potential impact on young people of poor communication and lack of understanding between services. Parents would appreciate help to support their offspring during the transition period. Clinicians cited lack of funding and inflexible NHS procedures and policies as potential barriers to the implementation of young people's ideas. Nine young people

  20. Space and place in researching male early high school leaving in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I reflect on the methodological processes underpinning a dissertation that investigated male learners' reasons for leaving high school early and the strategies they employed to negotiate everyday life. A qualitative case study was conducted with nine male early high school leavers between the ages of 18 and 25, as well as ...

  1. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    The research design used in this study is analytical research design. Moreover, the research approach used in the study was a quantitative approach supplemented or complemented by a qualitative research approach. Subjects of the Study and Sampling Techniques. The study was designed to explore the effect of.

  2. Quality assurance for the research and development of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Myung Seung; Kim, Young Sea; Lee, In Koo

    1990-01-01

    Quality evaluation was carried to analyze the current status of QA activities in the various projects and to devise a proper measures for the improvement of quality system. KAERI QA program evaluation was also performed in cooperation with foreign QA experts (Nutech International, USA) to study the best QA system for KAERI which is performing various nuclear project ranging from nuclear design, manufacturing to basic researches. The acquisition of N-certificate and stamp from ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) was successfully accomplished for the quality system of power reactor system design. The basic study on the QA in R and D, computerization of quality evaluation system was also performed to upgrade the safety and reliability of nuclear projects by the utilization of these advanced quality technologies. (author)

  3. A visibilidade e representação social das religiões nos selos postais brasileiros (The visibility and social representations of religions in Brazil postage stamps.DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2012v10n25p233

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Andres Salcedo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Este trabalho analisa a forma com a qual o selo postal brasileiro contribuiu para a construção de representações da religião católica em relação a outras práticas religiosas. Foi considerado, para isso, a concepção deste artefato enquanto media, texto semiótico e sua estreita relação com o discurso religioso. O corpus é composto por selos postais comemorativos brasileiros emitidos durante o século XX. A sua identificação e análise foi feita a partir do catálogo RHM. Entre o ano de 1900 e 2000, os Correios emitiram 2354 selos postais do tipo comemorativo. A partir da observação e identificação de recorrências religiosas foram compilados 222 selos postais comemorativos. O estudo correlacionou a recorrente temática religiosa com o contexto histórico brasileiro, considerando o declínio do catolicismo como maioria religiosa no país e às representações das práticas religiosas nas mídias. A conclusão indica a influência da Conferência Nacional dos Bispos do Brasil, junto ao Ministério das Comunicações e dos Correios do Brasil, consagrando e enaltecendo a visibilidade de personalidades, eventos e a práxis católica, como um discurso único e superior às demais práticas religiosas. Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Abstract This paper analyses the way in which postal Brazilian stamps have contributed to the construction of representations of the catholic religion regarding other religious practices. In this sense, the conception of these stamps was taken into account as media, semioptical texts in close relation with the religious speech. The corpus is composed by postal commemorative Brazilian stamps issued during the twentieth century. The identification and analyzes of the stamps were made through RHM catalogue.  Between the year of 1900 and 2000, the Brazilian post offices issued 2.354 commemorative postage

  4. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    rts Research Journal. 2015, 4(4): 58-64. ://www.starjournal.org/ ts of Some Species stern Ghats. 577 451, vempu University,. Article Information. Article History: ..... Journal of. Medicinal Plants Research 4(3): 267-270. Johns, T., Duquette, M. (1991). Deficiency of phosphorus in man. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition ...

  5. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    ere analyzed by descriptive statistics, Pearson Product nd factor analysis. Findings showed that 64.3percent of in Ise Ekiti. The mean score of the respondent's age was re married with ... n, storage of watermelon, market price of watermelon and elon disease .... research objectives and research works related to the issues.

  6. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    Faculty of Education and Behavioral Science,. Abstract. The main purpose of this research was to examine th styles, academic self concept, academic motivation and s sample for this research consisted of 136 from stratified random sampling of which 82 males and 54 students consisting grade 9th and 10th. Data analysis w.

  7. A potential relationship between skin hydration and stamp-type microneedle intradermal hyaluronic acid injection in middle-aged male face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Joon; Hong, Ji Yeon; Choi, Sun Young; Park, Kui Young; Kim, Beom Joon

    2016-12-01

    There is an increasing interest in skin rejuvenation using hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers beyond the improvement of deep wrinkles and volume deficiencies, which have been primary research foci in the past. We conducted a pilot study using a sample of six middle-aged male subjects. Using an automatic intradermal injector with 0.020 mL of material contained in each injection point with a total of 100 points, 2 mL of non-cross-HA filler was injected into the entire face at every treatment session. We administered injections of HA for a total of three sessions per subject at 2-week intervals and evaluated the results using a corneometer, TEWL, cutometer, measures of patient satisfaction, and the global aesthetic improvement scale (GAIS). Corneometer values increased steadily at each measurement, while the average value of TEWL increased in comparison with baseline after each application of the procedure. However, values returned to readings similar to those at 4 weeks after complete termination of the procedures. Cutometer values differed between the baseline and after procedures. All patients were assessed as "very much improved" or "much improved" according to GAIS, and all were pleased with the outcomes of treatment in terms of the enhancement of moisture, elasticity, and brightness. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Experimental researches on roadbed structural reinforcement with geogrid on automobile road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudryavtsev Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers experimental and theoretical researches on layers reduction in the pavement base strucure using geogrids on the Amur automobile road (Chita – Khabarovsk. The calculations on transverse elasticity limits are carried out, and some structural designs of a regular pavement and a new one with reduced base layers are offered. A geotechnical modelling with the finite element methods in the software package FEM-models is carried out to evaluate a rational design. The experimental researches on determining the pavement elasticity modulus by the stamp proves both designs being equal in terms of their deformability. The experimental researches on determining the pavement base stress strain behavior caused by the operational loads show a reduction of stresses under the geogrid. The survey of deformations in the embankment and the pavement are presented.

  9. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    . This study focused on assessing the perceptions, prac instruction by primary school teachers. The research type with embedded mixed approach. Data were ga primary school teachers via questionnaire, semi discussion. The reliability ...

  10. Employment, Leaving School, and Psychological Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winefield, Tony

    1985-01-01

    The author sums up the findings of research on the psychological effects of unemployment and of a variety of work experience schemes in which unemployed people participate. The article focuses on school leavers in Australia. (CT)

  11. Artistic research, context research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Benjamín Toledo Castellanos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Some concepts in contemporary art works, dealing with some life aspects and passed through the sensitive and expressive test, are formulated in this paper and shed light on the foundation of researches about singular phenomenons of the existence. For this, it is argued that there are researches belonging to arts, fundamental researches that compromise the certainty of the assumptions where the sense system of a context has its bases (epoch, culture, nation, region. These researches come ahead of the researches of the rational-discursive enunciation fields, given that the last ones haven’t passed any protocol accepted yet by any community. To bring into play the certainty is done by a cognitive movement named by Martin Heidegger unconcealment [Unverborgenheit], and it consist on the interruption of the habituality of the beings who form the (trustworthy family setting to put into perspective the fundamental structures that allow to produce its sense. The unconcealment, typical in art and in creative actions, sets up an event that stops the solidity of the established (social, ethical, technical, scientific, philosophical order, and unleashes conditions for changing the lifestyles hold until then.

  12. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    Science, T. Sci. Technol. Study on Silkworm Bed Cleaning. Abiy Tilahun*, Kedir Shifa, Ah. Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, M. Abstract. Bed cleaning is an important ... DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/star.v4. ISSN: 2226-7522(Print) and .... to them and invariably a part of the feed is left behind on the rearing bed.

  13. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-03-28

    Mar 28, 2013 ... food production in sub-Saharan Africa coun. (Sanchez, 2010). Soil is the most precious vital natural resource and it must be mana. Original Research .... Exchangeable K and Na were measured by fl photometer. Exchangeable acidity determined by saturating the samples with. KCl solution and titrated with ...

  14. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    questionnaires and analyzed using cross tab revealed the transfer of ... informal enterprises with the rural economy. Original Research. 95 ... ise from the formal sectors ew (1994) accepts these is study of the dynamics of lared the informal tailoring inputs from intermediary of and this is economic of inputs. According to.

  15. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    rRNA was amplified in MJ Research PTC-225 Peltier. Thermal Cycler. The 27F primer with the sequence. (AGAGTTTGATCMTGGCTCAG) having 20 bases and primer. 1492R with the sequence. (TACGGYTACCTTGTTACGACTT) having 22 bases was used.1ng of template DNA was added to 20 ng of PCR reaction solution.

  16. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    ISSN: 2226-7522(Print) and 2305-. Science, Technology and Arts Research Journ. Sci. Technol. Arts Res. .... did a study on early grade reading and writing. Accordingly, although students in grades 1-3 have been ..... on reading comprehension, vocabulary and grammar sections were developed from chapters covered. In.

  17. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    When the quantitative method was a dominant approach to address the research problem, the qualitative one was used to substantiate the quantitative data. In this study which was conducted at Bahir Dar. University, subjects of the study included 445 the summer modality secondary education prospective teachers of 10.

  18. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    Thirty Grade 4 experimental pre- and post-test research design to ing strategies and fluency as a result of teacher cy tests, two structured classroom observation sed as data collecting instruments. The quantitative and percentages whereas the qualitative ones were ative and qualitative data indicated improvements in use.

  19. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-05-22

    May 22, 2013 ... and low levels of irrigation, soil degradation, soil erosion, inadequate agricultural research and extension, and constraints in market development. (Alemayehu ..... farm's primary asset. Printed in Australia by BPA Print. Group. Pp. 191. Hazelton Pam and Brian Murphy. (2007). Interpreting Soil. Test Results.

  20. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-06-20

    Jun 20, 2013 ... great value in Ethiopian socio-economic growt requires small capital, promote inter linkages as it is a base for medium and large enterprises, increased domestic saving investment. Also they help for bal development provision of goods and services. Original Research. 123. 3327 (Online) esearch Journal.

  1. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    , fatty makeup of compost and raised the tempera of composting dairy manure and bedding by average of 3.4°C during an 8-wk developm period. BD compost preparation are used to. Original Research. 32. 3327 (Online) esearch Journal.

  2. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-06-25

    Jun 25, 2013 ... the feeding practices (Kassahun, 2000). This involves the use of fodder bank, f trees, agro-industrial by-products such as, seed cake and urea to overcome CP shor. (ILCA, 1990). Supplementation of poor q roughage feed with suitable energy and p. Original Research. 38. 3327 (Online) esearch Journal.

  3. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-03-30

    Mar 30, 2013 ... cience, Technology and Arts Research. Jan-Mar 2013, .... manner. The 1958/9 curriculum marks the second development in English language education. The third English curriculum appeared in 1963-4. The 1967-8 curriculum is the last ... The students continued using it as a. Medium of Instruction from ...

  4. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    antioxidant activity of the stem bark extract was studied assay. Extract was shown to display a dose dependent f ... play an essential role in the primary health care of 80% the world's underdeveloped and developing countri ... Science, Technology and Arts Research Journ. Sci. Technol. Arts Res. J., April-June 2015, 4.

  5. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    Abstract. This study examined the effects of teacher scaff comprehension in Dona Berber Primary School, Ethiopi were selected using purposive sampling. A quasi research design was employed to examine chang strategies and reading comprehension as a pre-and post-reading comprehension tests checklists, and Focus ...

  6. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Kulu. Abstract. There is high wheat yield variation among smallholders in mainly due to socio-economic, farm inputs utiliza characteristics of the farmers. This study identifies the probability of wheat yield tends to be relatively low, med influencing factors. Cross-sectional data ...

  7. The Transition to Full-Time Work of Young People Who Do Not Go to University. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth. Research Report 49

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Gary N.

    2006-01-01

    This report focuses on the transition to full-time employment of young people who do not go to university. The majority of Australia's school leavers do not enroll in university, and it is important to better understand the pathways that they follow. The report uses a substantial longitudinal dataset to map the dynamics of the youth labour market,…

  8. Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI is the nation's leader in cancer research. Learn more about NCI's cancer research areas, key initiatives, progress made in cancer research, and resources for researchers like research tools, specimens and data.

  9. Battery-operated, argon-hydrogen microplasma on hybrid, postage stamp-sized plastic-quartz chips for elemental analysis of liquid microsamples using a portable optical emission spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weagant, Scott; Chen, Vivian; Karanassios, Vassili

    2011-11-01

    A battery-operated, atmospheric pressure, self-igniting, planar geometry Ar-H(2) microplasma for elemental analysis of liquid microsamples is described. The inexpensive microplasma device (MPD) fabricated for this work was a hybrid plastic-quartz structure that was formed on chips with an area (roughly) equal to that of a small-sized postage stamp (MPD footprint, 12.5-mm width by 38-mm length). Plastic substrates were chosen due to their low cost, for rapid prototyping purposes, and for a speedy microplasma device evaluation. To enhance portability, the microplasma was operated from an 18-V rechargeable battery. To facilitate portability even further, it was demonstrated that the battery can be recharged by a portable solar panel. The battery-supplied dc voltage was converted to a high-voltage ac. The ~750-μm (diameter) and 12-mm (long) Ar-H(2) (3% H(2)) microplasma was formed by applying the high-voltage ac between two needle electrodes. Spectral interference from the electrode materials or from the plastic substrate was not observed. Operating conditions were found to be key to igniting and sustaining a microplasma that was simply "warm" to the touch (thus alleviating the need for cooling or other thermal management) and that had a stable background emission. A small-sized (900 μL internal volume) electrothermal vaporization system (40-W max power) was used for microsample introduction. Microplasma background emission in the spectral region between 200 and 850 nm obtained using a portable fiber-optic spectrometer is reported and the effect of the operating conditions is described. Analyte emission from microliter volumes of dilute single-element standard solutions of Cd, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, and Zn is documented. The majority of spectral lines observed for the elements tested were from neutral atoms. The relative lack of emission from ion lines simplified the spectra, thus facilitating the use of a portable spectrometer. Despite the relative spectral

  10. Research about Research

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Conté els articles següents: PhD Selection: Factors to take into account / Natalia Delgado, Tessy Troes, Meghana Sudhindra, and Helena Cuesta -- Portrait of a science disseminator / Beatriz Cabrero Daniel, Alberto Martínez-Rodríguez, Mari Celi Morales Muñoz and Carla Ten Ventura -- Social impact of Artificial Intelligence: Robotics / Kushagra Sharma, Manaswi Mishra, Siddharth Bhardwaj -- Is Interdisciplinary research the way to go? / Adrian Arroyo Perez, Giorgos Neokleous, Pantelis Stylianid...

  11. PEMPHIGUS: A DISEASE STAMPED IN THE SKIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Bicalho Matias

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pemphigus are autoimmune blistering diseases that affect the skin and mucous membranes. The blisters characteristics of pemphigus tend to break, causing painful erosions that easily bleed. This study aimed to identify the experiences involved in the triggering of pemphigus and how patients face the illness and treatment. Material and Methods: The study included 31 patients diagnosed with pemphigus foliaceus and vulgaris, under a standardized pulsetherapy treatment. Data collection was through semi-structured interviews, which were audio-recorded, transcribed and analyzed using a qualitative approach. Results: During the journey in search of the phenomenon, were defined two thematic categories, subdivided into eleven subcategories. Months before the triggering of the illness, patients experienced feelings of losses, familiar conflicts and concerns; also showed an experience permeated by heartache and disappointments. After the first signs of pemphigus, patients experienced a long journey until the correct diagnose; worsening of the lesions after the communication of the diagnosis; feelings of isolation, shame and prejudgment; interruptions of the future plans; lack of information about the disease and treatment; difficult adherence to the pulsetherapy and the appearance of new lesions or worse by stressful events. Discussion: It might be observed that the disease is not just a biological deviation, but also a social deviance, which explicit the need to adapt to the new reality of the disease and face the isolation, prejudgment and shame of living with a stigmatizing disease.

  12. Physiological and Environmental Sensor Skin Stamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future exploration missions will require astronauts to autonomously monitor physiological and atmospheric conditions. Recent technological advances in the developing...

  13. Policy issues for Australia's education systems: Evidence from international and Australian research

    OpenAIRE

    Gary N. Marks; Julie McMillan; John Ainley

    2004-01-01

    Our purpose here is to discuss education policy issues in the context of empirical evidence. We note that many commonly held beliefs about Australian education such as, the relative performance and participation levels of Australian students; the importance of socioeconomic background on educational outcomes both relative to other countries and changes over-time; gender differences in mathematics and science; and the labour market situation of early school leavers; are not supported by empiri...

  14. Research organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bøje; Aagaard, Peter

    in Copenhagen - we argue that a post-rational form of research activity is emerging which revert these features. We term this new type of research "enchanted research", "sciencetainment" and "Mode2-b research". The factors that facilitate this development include the boring style of conventional research...

  15. Research vessels

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.

    The role of the research vessels as a tool for marine research and exploration is very important. Technical requirements of a suitable vessel and the laboratories needed on board are discussed. The history and the research work carried out...

  16. Research organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bøje; Aagaard, Peter

    in Copenhagen - we argue that a post-rational form of research activity is emerging which revert these features. We term this new type of research "enchanted research", "sciencetainment" and "Mode2-b research". The factors that facilitate this development include the boring style of conventional research......, growing competition for research funds, more project funding compared to institutional funding and a demand for accountability. Countervailing forces also exist, however....

  17. Action Research and Interactive Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, lennart; Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard

    2006-01-01

    The authors present trends in Nordic action research. They ask critical questions in the development towards mode 2 and points out alternative roads for a scientific consolidation of action research and interactive research.......The authors present trends in Nordic action research. They ask critical questions in the development towards mode 2 and points out alternative roads for a scientific consolidation of action research and interactive research....

  18. Researcher Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram; Mørck, Line Lerche

    2009-01-01

    involvement by the researcher, which challenges traditional perspectives onresearch and researcher positioning. A key point in this regard is the importance ofconstant awareness of and reflection on the multiple ways in which one's positioningas a researcher influences the research process. Studying the other...

  19. Research Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2019-01-01

    Gunnar Scott Reinbacher (editor) Antology.  Research Design : Validation in Social Sciences. Gunnar Scott Reinbacher: Introduction. Research design and validity. 15p Ole Riis: Creative Research design. 16 p Lennart Nørreklit: Validity in Research Design. 24p Gitte Sommer Harrits: Praxeological...... Scott Reinbacher: Multidisciplinary Research Designs in Problem Based Research. The case of an european project on chronical diseases, the Tandem project (Training Alternmative Networking Skills in Diabetes Management). 15p Niels Nørgaard Kristensen: A qualitative bottom up approach to post modern...... knowledge: An integrated strategy for combining "explaining" and "understanding". 22p Heidi Houlberg Salomonsen & Viola Burau: Comparative research designs. 40p Rasmus Antoft & Heidi Houlberg Salomonsen: Studying organizations by a Pragmatic Research Design: the case of qualitative case study  designs. 31p...

  20. Research circles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Thomsen, Rie; Möller, Jonas

    lifelong guidance policies. This paper presents `research circles´ as a way to develop guidance practices through long-term research relationships between practice and research. Research circles support a bottom up approach to policy development just like ELGPN considers to be necessary and required...... in career guidance development. In the paper we draw on the preliminary findings from an ongoing Nordic project: “The future of career guidance and educational counselling”. Specifically, we explore the career guidance practitioners´ response to research circles as means to professional development. We...... argue that this practicebased way of organizing research facilitates learning, and potentially, qualifies practice. The collaboration between researchers and practitioners in the research circle fosters a joint venture and an academic perspective on practice, which stimulates practitioners to step out...

  1. Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, Frederick H. [Argonne National Laboratory; Jacobson, Norman H.

    1968-09-01

    This booklet discusses research reactors - reactors designed to provide a source of neutrons and/or gamma radiation for research, or to aid in the investigation of the effects of radiation on any type of material.

  2. [Genealogical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Patricia Harlan

    Two Institute papers were concerned with genealogical research. "Manuscripts, Private Papers and Genealogical Research," deals with the handling and evaluation of unpublished and private papers in genealogical research. "The Genealogical Society of the Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter-Day Saints," discusses the Mormon…

  3. Editorial -Research! Research! Research! What are Thou?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Shyam

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Being in field of Orthopaedic research since last 6 years, I have personally been witness to the rapid change in landscape of Othopaedic Research and also medical research in general. The sheer volumes of publications is overwhelming to the extent of being mostly ineffective in providing significant positive addition to the current literature. “There are too many variables” is one of my favorite phrase when I start to explain something to myself. Looking at as many variables as we can think of, makes us understand concepts within the limitations of given variables. Something similar to Ashby’s law that we spoke about in last Editorial [1]. However when we try to apply this to word ‘Research’ the amount of subjective stereotype that is associated with the word defeats all attempt to decipher and communicate clearly. Originally word Research derived from French ‘Researche’ simply means ‘Pursuit of Knowledge’. We as medical practitioners in search of better treatment for our patients are always in pursuit of knowledge. This knowledge is mostly build individually and is learned from individual experience and learning. This is a subjective body of knowledge and this is what makes one surgeon better than another. But is this ‘Research’? Yes it is Research and it serves the main purpose of medical research that is to improve the treatment given to patients. However this is a limited form of research, limited by individual’s ability and capacity. It also does not subject itself to rigorous ‘scientific methods’ and may not be acceptable to a community of ‘Modern Researchers’. Another form of Research of pursuit of knowledge is again from the clinics and from reading journals and books. A collaboration of clinical experience and written word adds a more thoughtful way of pursuing knowledge. This I think is the way majority of medical practitioners acquire knowledge. This keeps them updated and also helps them provide good

  4. Research misconduct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, F.J.; Denison, A.R.

    2003-01-01

    Good research practice is important to the scientific community. An awareness of what constitutes poor practice is important. Various types of research misconduct are defined in this article. The extent of research misconduct in the field of radiology has been assessed by contacting five English language radiology journals. Redundant or duplicate publication has been reported infrequently, Radiology (1), American Journal of Roentgenology (3), Clinical Radiology (3), British Journal of Radiology (2) and European Radiology (1). The issue of how the radiology community might tackle research misconduct is discussed with reference to guidance from the Medical Research Council, the Wellcome Trust and the Committee of Publication Ethics

  5. Descriptive Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigram, Anthony Lewis

    2003-01-01

    Descriptive research is described by Lathom-Radocy and Radocy (1995) to include Survey research, ex post facto research, case studies and developmental studies. Descriptive research also includes a review of the literature in order to provide both quantitative and qualitative evidence of the effect...... starts will allow effect size calculations to be made in order to evaluate effect over time. Given the difficulties in undertaking controlled experimental studies in the creative arts therapies, descriptive research methods offer a way of quantifying effect through descriptive statistical analysis...

  6. Research ethics for clinical researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnett, John D; Neuman, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the history of the development of modern research ethics. The governance of research ethics is discussed and varies according to geographical location. However, the guidelines used for research ethics review are very similar across a wide variety of jurisdictions. The paramount importance of protecting the privacy and confidentiality of research participants is discussed at length. Particular emphasis is placed on the process of informed consent, and step-by-step practical guidelines are described. The issue of research in vulnerable populations is touched upon and guidelines are provided. Practical advice is provided for researchers to guide their interactions with research ethics boards. Issues related to scientific misconduct and research fraud are not dealt with in this paper.

  7. Exam Success at Undergraduate and Graduate-Entry Medical Schools: Is Learning Style or Learning Approach More Important? A Critical Review Exploring Links Between Academic Success, Learning Styles, and Learning Approaches Among School-Leaver Entry ("Traditional") and Graduate-Entry ("Nontraditional") Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, Anne-Marie; Biggerstaff, Deborah L

    2015-01-01

    PHENOMENON: The literature on learning styles over many years has been replete with debate and disagreement. Researchers have yet to elucidate exactly which underlying constructs are measured by the many learning styles questionnaires available. Some academics question whether learning styles exist at all. When it comes to establishing the value of learning styles for medical students, a further issue emerges. The demographics of medical students in the United Kingdom have changed in recent years, so past studies may not be applicable to students today. We wanted to answer a very simple, practical question: what can the literature on learning styles tell us that we can use to help today's medical students succeed academically at medical school? We conducted a literature review to synthesise the available evidence on how two different aspects of learning-the way in which students like to receive information in a learning environment (termed learning "styles") and the motivations that drive their learning (termed learning "approaches")-can impact on medical students' academic achievement. Our review confirms that although learning "styles" do not correlate with exam performance, learning "approaches" do: those with "strategic" and "deep" approaches to learning (i.e., motivated to do well and motivated to learn deeply respectively) perform consistently better in medical school examinations. Changes in medical school entrant demographics in the past decade have not altered these correlations. Optimistically, our review reveals that students' learning approaches can change and more adaptive approaches may be learned. Insights: For educators wishing to help medical students succeed academically, current evidence demonstrates that helping students develop their own positive learning approach using "growth mind-set" is a more effective (and more feasible) than attempting to alter students' learning styles. This conclusion holds true for both "traditional" and graduate

  8. Research Review: Doing Artistic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serig, Dan

    2012-01-01

    In this review, the author focuses on the pragmatic consideration: How do artists do artistic research? Artistic research in the context of this review is about the connections and relationships among three primary domains: (1) the arts; (2) higher education; and (3) arts education. Broadly stated, all artists do research when they do art--whether…

  9. Research Impact and Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oancea, Alis

    2013-01-01

    Based on a 2010-11 study involving senior researchers from seven disciplines, this article explores critically some of the diverse interpretations of impact in different disciplines, sub-fields and modes of research, and researchers' views about how these interpretations articulate with top-down impact agendas and with university structures…

  10. Is operations research really research?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science [23], is concerned with man-made, artificial phenomena. 2.3 Types of research. If one reads almost any book ... may be considered basic research if the practical application is only potential. 3.2 Practice of operations research .... academics to supplement their salaries. For these academics it is of great advantage if.

  11. Research management and research output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Bosch

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A study was conducted at two merged South African higher education institutions to determine which management factors, as identified in a literature study as well as through a factor analysis of survey data, were predictive of the dependent variable 'research output'. Problem investigated: Research output contributes to creating sustainability of knowledge of management sciences and therefore the active management of research is in the interest of progressive universities. Research management related activities are usually associated with measurable targets, detailed plans, rigorous evaluation and decisive action - all of which are observable (perhaps programmable behaviour also referred to as tangible factors. Authors argue that the tangible factors of any successful institution can be copied, technology can be bought, and in theory you should have an instantly thriving research institution. It is, however, clear that although many institutions have exactly the same technology and structure as their successful competitors, they still fail to succeed in increasing research output. Design and Research methodology or approach: A survey was distributed to n=411 and yielded a 49.6% response rate. A confirmatory reliability analysis as well as a factor analysis was conducted. Findings/implications: The empirical model that was derived through a factor analysis strengthens the argument that both tangible and intangible factors exist in a research environment. Tangible and intangible factors play a different role in predicting research output. The tangible factors are predictors of research output for non-research-active academics. The theoretical research output prediction model highlights predictors such as 'professional activities' and 'individual skills and competence' for specific groupings. The theoretical model indicates that the factors that predict research output are largely intrinsic to a researcher but could also be supported by

  12. Operational Research

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, João; Oliveira, José; Pinto, Alberto

    2018-01-01

    This proceedings book presents selected contributions from the XVIII Congress of APDIO (the Portuguese Association of Operational Research) held in Valença on June 28–30, 2017. Prepared by leading Portuguese and international researchers in the field of operations research, it covers a wide range of complex real-world applications of operations research methods using recent theoretical techniques, in order to narrow the gap between academic research and practical applications. Of particular interest are the applications of, nonlinear and mixed-integer programming, data envelopment analysis, clustering techniques, hybrid heuristics, supply chain management, and lot sizing and job scheduling problems. In most chapters, the problems, methods and methodologies described are complemented by supporting figures, tables and algorithms.   The XVIII Congress of APDIO marked the 18th installment of the regular biannual meetings of APDIO – the Portuguese Association of Operational Research. The meetings bring toget...

  13. Researcher positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Khawaja, Iram

    2009-01-01

    abstract  This article focuses on the complex and multi-layered process of researcher positioning, specifically in relation to the politically sensitive study of marginalised and ‘othered' groups such as Muslims living in Denmark. We discuss the impact of different ethnic, religious and racial...... backgrounds, of membership in a minoritised[i] or majoritised group, and the influence of different theoretical and methodological outlooks on our common goal of trying to transcend existing othering and objectifying representations of Muslims in Western societies. This process sometimes entails a direct...... political and personal involvement by the researcher, which challenges traditional perspectives on research and researcher positioning. A key point in this regard is the importance of constant awareness of and reflection on the multiple ways in which one's positioning as a researcher influences the research...

  14. Immunome Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2005-01-01

    Immunology research has been transformed in the post-genomics era, with high throughput molecular biology and information technologies taking an increasingly central role. This has led to the development of a new area of science termed "Immunomics", that encompasses genomic, high throughput and bioinformatic approaches to immunology. In recognition of the increasing importance of this field, Immunome Research is a new Open Access, online journal, that will publish cutting edge research across the field of Immunomics. Immunome Research will publish a wide range of article types including specialty immunology databases, immunology database tools, immunome epitope research, epitope analysis tools, high-throughput technologies (gene sequencing, microarrays, proteomics), white papers, mathematical and theoretical models, and prediction tools. Immunome Research is the official journal of the International Immunomics Society (IIMMS). PMID:16305754

  15. Centering research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katan, Lina Hauge; Baarts, Charlotte

    idea, insofar as the ways students read and write need altering to correspond to the practice of research and prepare students accordingly. In the paper, we discuss therefore the possible challenges of grounding research-based teaching in reading, thinking and writing, as indicated by our empirical......’ exercises tend to dominate the common understandings of research-based learning. Here we address a specific area of inquiry overlooked by previous studies: whether and how reading, thinking and writing indeed share the same learning potentials as the practical foundation for research-based teaching....... In the humanities and social sciences, integrated acts of reading, writing and thinking account for an obvious and substantial overlap in student and researcher practices, creating a clear opportunity for research-based teaching. Moreover, our empirical data point to reading, thinking and writing as quintessential...

  16. Research methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    This book deals with how students should use of research methods in their university projects. It aims at helping students in developing comprehensive research strategies for their projects. It also provides introduction to issues of philosophy of science as applied in the social sciences....... That is it provides them with a fair understanding of the root assumptions that guide researchers in their investigations and how these assumptions inform their theoretical thinking and choice of methods....

  17. Research Review

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous

    1981-01-01

    Research Reviewed: "Global Modeling After Its First Decade"; "Monthly Food Price Forecasts"; "Costs of Marketing Slaughter Cattle: Computerized versus Conventional Auction Systems"; "Survival Strategies for Agricultural Cooperatives"

  18. Plant Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The Land's agricultural research team is testing new ways to sustain life in space as a research participant with Kennedy Space Center's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). The Land, sponsored by Kraft General Foods, is an entertainment, research, and education facility at EPCOT Center, part of Walt Disney World. The cooperative effort is simultaneously a research and development program, a technology demonstration that provides the public to see high technology at work and an area of potential spinoff: the CELSS work may generate Earth use technology beneficial to the hydroponic (soilless growing) vegetable production industries of the world.

  19. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals...... are faring. From the utilitarian perspective, the use of sentient animals in research that may harm them is an ethical issue, but harm done to animals can be balanced by benefit generated for humans and other animals. The animal rights view, when thoroughgoing, is abolitionist as regards the use of animals...

  20. Clinical Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Irene

    2016-01-01

    This paper is about the logic of problem solving and the production of scientific knowledge through the utilisation of clinical research perspective. Ramp-up effectiveness, productivity, efficiency and organizational excellence are topics that continue to engage research and will continue doing so...... for years to come. This paper seeks to provide insights into ramp-up management studies through providing an agenda for conducting collaborative clinical research and extend this area by proposing how clinical research could be designed and executed in the Ramp- up management setting....

  1. Letterform research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2016-01-01

    This paper looks into the history of letterform research and discusses why the discipline has yet to make the big break within design research. By highlighting two of the most popular focus areas (letter distinctiveness and the role of serifs) and by discussing various forms of methodological...... shortcomings, the paper suggests that future research into letterforms should (1) draw on results from the field of reading research (2) be based on test material informed by design knowledge and (3) move away from the former tendency of looking for universal answers....

  2. Researching experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Lisa; Ingemann, Bruno

    , dialogue, moods, values and narratives have been investigated qualitatively with more than sixty informants in a range of projects. The processual methodological insights are put into a theoretical perspective and also presented as pragmatic dilemmas. Researching Experiences is relevant not only...... for students and researchers in media and communication studies but also for practitioners within the fields of media, communication and experience design....... for researching experiences in a variety of settings ranging from the museum, to news photography, and interactive media. The research led to the development of a set of methodological tools and approaches we term the reflexivity lab. The interaction in the experimental situation between the media and body...

  3. Research Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooly, Melinda; Moore, Emilee; Vallejo, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Qualitative research, especially studies in educational contexts, often brings up questions of ethics because the study design involves human subjects, some of whom are under age (e.g. data collected in primary education classrooms). It is not always easy for young researchers to anticipate where ethical issues might emerge while designing their…

  4. Research Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serig, Dan, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This research review is dedicated to the memory of William Safire (1929-2009). A visionary leader, Safire brought other visionaries, researchers, educators, artists, and policymakers together to explore the confluence of arts education and neuroscience. He fostered the new field of neuroeducation in his work as chair of The Dana Foundation in…

  5. Research Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serig, Dan

    2011-01-01

    In this review, the author explores an often-used process in research--the mind map. He uses this method in his own research and artwork. He also uses this extensively with students, particularly master students when they are trying to surround issues in their thesis projects. Mind maps are closely associated with brainstorming, as brainstorming…

  6. Remote Research

    CERN Document Server

    Tulathimutte, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Remote studies allow you to recruit subjects quickly, cheaply, and immediately, and give you the opportunity to observe users as they behave naturally in their own environment. In Remote Research, Nate Bolt and Tony Tulathimutte teach you how to design and conduct remote research studies, top to bottom, with little more than a phone and a laptop.

  7. Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-18

    Jun 18, 2016 ... Published o. ABSTRACT. Recommender systems for research pape years more than 170 research papers,paten. Scientific papers recommender systemsare user which are consistent with the users' tastes and users behaviors.Since the volu recommender systemshave not the ability papers according to ...

  8. Centering research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katan, Lina Hauge; Baarts, Charlotte

    ’ exercises tend to dominate the common understandings of research-based learning. Here we address a specific area of inquiry overlooked by previous studies: whether and how reading, thinking and writing indeed share the same learning potentials as the practical foundation for research-based teaching...... and collected 24 portfolios in which students reflect auto-ethnographically on their educational practices. Analyzing this qualitative material, we explore how researchers and students respectively read and write to develop and advance their thinking in those learning processes that the two groups fundamentally...... findings We then propose a set of experimentally designed curricular frameworks that have been shown to alter student engagement in reading and writing, encouraging their learning to become more research-like. Finally, we return to the literature on research-based teaching, asking how an emphasis...

  9. Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Design Research is a new interdisciplinary research area with a social science orientation at its heart, and this book explores how scientific knowledge can be put into practice in ways that are at once ethical, creative, helpful, and extraordinary in their results. In order to clarify the common...... aspects – in terms of features and approaches – that characterize all strands of research disciplines addressing design, Design Research undertakes an in depth exploration of the social processes involved in doing design, as well as analyses of the contexts for design use. The book further elicits...... ‘synergies from interdisciplinary perspectives’ by discussing and elaborating on differing academic perspectives, theoretical backgrounds, and design concept definitions, and evaluating their unique contribution to a general core of design research. This book is an exciting contribution to this little...

  10. Research report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitley, J.E.

    1990-07-01

    The SURRC (Scottish Universities Research and Reactor Centre) is a multidisciplinary research centre shared by a consortium of Scottish Universities. Funding is jointly by the University Funding Committee and commercially from Research Councils, government departments and industry. The focus of research lies in earth, environmental and biomedical sciences. The research activities are discussed under the following headings: environmental radioactivity and nuclear geochemistry, neutron activation analysis, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, body composition studies, stable isotopes in biological sciences, nuclear physics, luminescence dating and dosimetry radiation effects in electrical insulation, gamma-ray irradiation processing, radiogenic isotopes in geology, stable isotope geology, laser microprobe mass spectrometry for geology and NERC Radiocarbon Laboratory work. There are also reports on the reactor itself; reactor operation, production of radioactive isotopes and application of radioactive tracers. The educational aspects of the Centre, safety aspects, staffing, funding and all publications are reported. (UK)

  11. Survey research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Amy K; Salem, Barbara

    2010-10-01

    Survey research is a unique methodology that can provide insight into individuals' perspectives and experiences and can be collected on a large population-based sample. Specifically, in plastic surgery, survey research can provide patients and providers with accurate and reproducible information to assist with medical decision-making. When using survey methods in research, researchers should develop a conceptual model that explains the relationships of the independent and dependent variables. The items of the survey are of primary importance. Collected data are only useful if they accurately measure the concepts of interest. In addition, administration of the survey must follow basic principles to ensure an adequate response rate and representation of the intended target sample. In this article, the authors review some general concepts important for successful survey research and discuss the many advantages this methodology has for obtaining limitless amounts of valuable information.

  12. Research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchie, Francois

    2015-10-01

    This article proposes an overview of research reactors, i.e. nuclear reactors of less than 100 MW. Generally, these reactors are used as neutron generators for basic research in matter sciences and for technological research as a support to power reactors. The author proposes an overview of the general design of research reactors in terms of core size, of number of fissions, of neutron flow, of neutron space distribution. He outlines that this design is a compromise between a compact enough core, a sufficient experiment volume, and high enough power densities without affecting neutron performance or its experimental use. The author evokes the safety framework (same regulations as for power reactors, more constraining measures after Fukushima, international bodies). He presents the main characteristics and operation of the two families which represent almost all research reactors; firstly, heavy water reactors (photos, drawings and figures illustrate different examples); and secondly light water moderated and cooled reactors with a distinction between open core pool reactors like Melusine and Triton, pool reactors with containment, experimental fast breeder reactors (Rapsodie, the Russian BOR 60, the Chinese CEFR). The author describes the main uses of research reactors: basic research, applied and technological research, safety tests, production of radio-isotopes for medicine and industry, analysis of elements present under the form of traces at very low concentrations, non destructive testing, doping of silicon mono-crystalline ingots. The author then discusses the relationship between research reactors and non proliferation, and finally evokes perspectives (decrease of the number of research reactors in the world, the Jules Horowitz project)

  13. Research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowarski, L.

    1955-01-01

    It brings together the techniques data which are involved in the discussion about the utility for a research institute to acquire an atomic reactor for research purposes. This type of decision are often taken by non-specialist people who can need a brief presentation of a research reactor and its possibilities in term of research before asking advises to experts. In a first part, it draws up a list of the different research programs which can be studied by getting a research reactor. First of all is the reactor behaviour and kinetics studies (reproducibility factor, exploration of neutron density, effect of reactor structure, effect of material irradiation...). Physical studies includes study of the behaviour of the control system, studies of neutron resonance phenomena and study of the fission process for example. Chemical studies involves the study of manipulation and control of hot material, characterisation of nuclear species produced in the reactor and chemical effects of irradiation on chemical properties and reactions. Biology and medicine research involves studies of irradiation on man and animals, genetics research, food or medical tools sterilization and neutron beams effect on tumour for example. A large number of other subjects can be studied in a reactor research as reactor construction material research, fabrication of radioactive sources for radiographic techniques or applied research as in agriculture or electronic. The second part discussed the technological considerations when choosing the reactor type. The technological factors, which are considered for its choice, are the power of the reactor, the nature of the fuel which is used, the type of moderator (water, heavy water, graphite or BeO) and the reflector, the type of coolants, the protection shield and the control systems. In the third part, it described the characteristics (place of installation, type of combustible and comments) and performance (power, neutron flux ) of already existing

  14. Researching Undergraduate Social Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Jane

    2016-01-01

    The experience(s) of undergraduate research students in the social sciences is under-represented in the literature in comparison to the natural sciences or science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM). The strength of STEM undergraduate research learning environments is understood to be related to an apprenticeship-mode of learning supported…

  15. Action Research and Interactive Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    First part of the book is written by senior researchers on specific issues like validity, gender, new forms of organisations, methodologies and methods, earlier and new trends. - The second part of the book is written by doctoral students reporting experiences doing action research in their PhD-projects....

  16. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    home

    2014-06-02

    3372 (Online). Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal. Sci. ..... The reason behind these are geographical location, the nature of the forest. (whether it is moist or dry), altitudinal variation, age of the forest, degree of ...

  17. Aging research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, D.F. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The USNRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research has developed a program for nuclear plant aging research (NPAR) to achieve an understanding of nuclear plant aging, its potential effects on safety, and methods for its detection and mitigation, sufficient for addressing safety and regulatory issues and supporting regulatory decisions on issues. Specifically, the NRC has aggressive research and regulatory programs associated with aging effects on piping, steam generators, containments, structures, and electrical and mechanical systems and components. In addition to safety assessment for the original license period for nuclear power plants, this aging information will be extremely useful in providing technical bases for efficient and effective regulation associated with possible license extension. This paper discusses the major activities of USNRC sponsored aging research program and recommends an approach to manage and handle aging at nuclear power plants

  18. Research Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) research efforts span many topics, methods, and interests. Some projects address the Agencys immediate...

  19. Research Review

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous

    1986-01-01

    Research Reviewed: "Crop Insurance for Agricultural Development: Issues and Experience"; "Linking Macroeconomic and Agricultural Policies for Adjustments with Growth: The Colombian Experience"; "Removal of Price Supports and Supply Controls for U.S. Tobacco: An Economic Analysis of the Impact"

  20. Research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Research needs were identified during working sessions for several potential separation options. These options include sequestering agents, solvent extraction, membranes, solid sorbents, novel approaches, organic separation and destruction methods, and radiation and chemical stability of separation materials

  1. Research Review

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous

    1986-01-01

    Research Reviewed: "Sources of International Comparative Advantage: Theory and Evidence"; "Made in Washington: Food Policy and the Political Expedient"; "The Handbook of Econometrics"; "Farm Equipment Innovations in Eastern and Central Southern Africa"

  2. Research materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Development of techniques required for the preparation and characterization of ultrahigh-purity and controlled-impurity research specimens of interest to ORNL and other ERDA installations is described

  3. Disaster Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Given the tendency of books on disasters to predominantly focus on strong geophysical or descriptive perspectives and in-depth accounts of particular catastrophes, Disaster Research provides a much-needed multidisciplinary perspective of the area. This book is is structured thematically around key...... approaches to disaster research from a range of different, but often complementary academic disciplines. Each chapter presents distinct approaches to disaster research that is anchored in a particular discipline; ranging from the law of disasters and disaster historiography to disaster politics...... and anthropology of disaster. The methodological and theoretical contributions underlining a specific approach to disasters are discussed and illustrative empirical cases are examined that support and further inform the proposed approach to disaster research. The book thus provides unique insights into fourteen...

  4. Researching Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Lisa; Ingemann, Bruno

    , dialogue, moods, values and narratives have been investigated qualitatively with more than sixty informants in a range of projects. The processual methodological insights are put into a theoretical perspective and also presented as pragmatic dilemmas.      Researching Experiences is relevant not only...... for students and researchers in media and communication studies but also for practitioners within the fields of media, communication and experience design....... for researching experiences in a variety of settings ranging from the museum, to news photography, and interactive media. The research led to the development of a set of methodological tools and approaches we term the ReflexivityLab. The interaction in the experimental situation between the media and body...

  5. Air Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  6. Latvian research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The Latvian Council of Science asked the Danish Research Councils and the Danish Academy for Technical Sciences for help in evaluating Latvian scientific research. The background for this request was the Latvian desire to stimulate an approach towards full integration in the European society. Based on reports, site visits and interviews, 19 panels of experts covering all subject areas prepared evaluation reports. These detailed evaluations of actual research projects are included in the publication in addition to general recommendations. The panels recommend that Latvian authorities take into consideration when planning scientific research, especially with regard to those branches which contribute to the industrial development and social and economic sciences, that a balance should be made between long range basic, and short range applied, science activities. Despite the very serious economic conditions in Latvia, it was also advised that immediate measures should be taken to ensure a stable funding of the research system as the future development of Latvian society is dependent on the stability and high quality of its research activities. Other recommendations are given in detail. (AB)

  7. Teaching Practices That Re-Engage Early School Leavers in Further Education: An Australian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Sara; Mitchell, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Re-engaging young adults who have "dropped out" of school is an important and challenging task for educators. The purpose of this study was to explore the teaching practices that encourage young people to re-engage in further learning. Through interviews with teachers and students, the study identified five major interrelated teaching…

  8. Skills Training for School Leavers: Some Alternative Approaches. Current Issues Brief No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Doug

    In the face of escalating youth unemployment, some new approaches are needed for training out-of-school youth in Australia. The current system of apprenticeship has become outmoded because many of the skilled trades that the system prepares young people for will soon be non-existent. One approach to this problem has been implementation of…

  9. Mind the Gap: School Leaver Aspirations and Delayed Pathways to Further and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehlik, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The "gap year" is defined as a time between the end of school and the beginning of further studies in which young people engage in a variety of activities, including paid or voluntary work. "Gapping" is a significant trend globally for young people deferring formal study after completing school, before commencing further or…

  10. Inequalities in School Leavers' Labour Market Outcomes: Do School Subject Choices Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannelli, Cristina; Duta, Adriana

    2018-01-01

    Despite a wide international literature on the effect of vocational and general education on school-to-work transition, relatively little is known about the role of having studied specific subjects in explaining inequalities in young people's labour market outcomes. This paper aims to fill this gap by examining differences in employment chances of…

  11. Academic Feedback in Veterinary Medicine: A comparison of School Leaver and Graduate Entry cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kirsty Jean; McCune, Velda; Rhind, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This study analysed the expectations and experiences of students on a five-year undergraduate ("n"?=?91) and four-year graduate entry ("n"?=?47) veterinary medicine degree programme relating to academic feedback. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used to explore new students' expectations and prior experiences of…

  12. Sunny Prospects: The Non-School-Leaver Segment in South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clermont, Roslyn

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of demand-driven funding following the Bradley Review has seen the progressive removal of constraints on the number of undergraduate places that universities can offer, therefore allowing universities to set their own growth levels. In South Australia, there is little unmet demand for university places. Traditionally, universities…

  13. Motivations of UK students to study abroad: a survey of school-leavers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahrens, J.; King, R.; Skeldon, R.; Dunne, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the attitudes and plans of Year 13 (final-year secondary school or ‘upper sixth form’) pupils towards studying at university abroad. Our main empirical base is a questionnaire survey of more than 1400 Year 13 pupils in a stratified sample of schools and sixth-form colleges, both

  14. Early School Leavers' Attitudes Towards Online Self-Presentation and Explicit Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moekotte, Paulo; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Ritzen, Henk; Simons, Robert-Jan

    2017-01-01

    Active participation in economic and social settings increasingly demands social–communicative skills, i.e., interactive and interpersonal skills, as well as the networking skills to access and use resources provided by online social networks. The development of these skills both depends upon and

  15. Leavers, planners and dwellers : the decision to leave the parental home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baanders, A.N.

    1998-01-01

    Leaving the parental home is one of the most common events in the life course of individuals. It is a normal and natural thing to happen to virtually everyone at some time. However, despite the generality of the event, the transition is not the same for all. Furthermore, the generality of

  16. Proportional reasoning ability of school leavers aspiring to higher education in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Frith

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to reason about numbers in relative terms is essential for quantitative literacy, which is necessary for studying academic disciplines and for critical citizenship. However, the ability to reason with proportions is known to be difficult to learn and to take a long time to develop. To determine how well higher education applicants can reason with proportions, questions requiring proportional reasoning were included in one version of the National Benchmark Test as unscored items. This version of the National Benchmark Test was taken in June 2014 by 5 444 learners countrywide who were intending to apply to higher education institutions. The multiple choice questions varied in terms of the structure of the problem, the context in which they were situated and complexity of the numbers, but all involved only positive whole numbers. The percentage of candidates who answered any particular question correctly varied from 25% to 82%. Problem context and structure affected the performance, as expected. In addition, problems in which the answer was presented as a mathematical expression, or as a sentence in which the reasoning about the relative sizes of fractions was explained, were generally found to be the most difficult. The performance on those questions in which the answer was a number or a category (chosen as a result of reasoning about the relative sizes of fractions was better. These results indicate that in learning about ratio and proportion there should be a focus on reasoning in various contexts and not only on calculating answers algorithmically.

  17. Reproducing advantage : the perspective of English school leavers on studying abroad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    King, R.; Findlay, A.; Ahrens, J.; Dunne, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents results of a questionnaire survey of 1400 Year 13 (final year) school and sixth-form pupils in two contrasting areas of England, which asked them about their thoughts and plans to study at university abroad. Key questions which the survey sought to answer were the following. How

  18. Non-standard employment relations and wages among school-leavers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, M.R.; Wolbers, M.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Non-standard (alternatively, flexible) employment has become common in the Netherlands, and viewed as an important weapon for combating youth unemployment. However, if such jobs are 'bad', non-standard employment becomes a matter of concern. In addition, non-standard employment may hit the least

  19. Researching experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Lisa; Ingemann, Bruno

    In the beginning was - not the word - but the experience. This phenomenological approach provides the basis for this book, which focuses on how a person-in-situation experiences and constructs meaning from a variety of cultural visual events. This book presents video-based processual methods...... for researching experiences in a variety of settings ranging from the museum, to news photography, and interactive media. The research led to the development of a set of methodological tools and approaches we term the reflexivity lab. The interaction in the experimental situation between the media and body......, dialogue, moods, values and narratives have been investigated qualitatively with more than sixty informants in a range of projects. The processual methodological insights are put into a theoretical perspective and also presented as pragmatic dilemmas. Researching Experiences is relevant not only...

  20. Quantitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Roger

    2015-04-01

    This article describes the basic tenets of quantitative research. The concepts of dependent and independent variables are addressed and the concept of measurement and its associated issues, such as error, reliability and validity, are explored. Experiments and surveys – the principal research designs in quantitative research – are described and key features explained. The importance of the double-blind randomised controlled trial is emphasised, alongside the importance of longitudinal surveys, as opposed to cross-sectional surveys. Essential features of data storage are covered, with an emphasis on safe, anonymous storage. Finally, the article explores the analysis of quantitative data, considering what may be analysed and the main uses of statistics in analysis.

  1. Management research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, M.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Management Research center (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The Center research programs include the management of different organizations, such as industry, administrative systems, hospitals and cultural systems. The investigations performed concern the improvement and better knowledge of the new methods of analysis: the role of the speech, the logic conflicts; the crisis development, symptoms and effects; the relationship between the management practices and the prevailing ideas or theories. The approach adopted by the scientists involves the accurate analysis of the essential management activities. The investigations carried out in 1988 are summarized. The published papers, the congress communications and the thesis are listed [fr

  2. Research Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Research on Global Carbon Emission and Sequestration NSFC Funded Project Made Significant Progress in Quantum Dynamics Functional Human Blood Protein Obtained from Rice How Giant Pandas Thrive on a Bamboo Diet New Evidence of Interpersonal Violence from 129,000 Years Ago Found in China Aptamer-Mediated Efficient Capture and Release of T Lymphocytes on Nanostructured Surfaces BGI Study Results on Resequencing 50 Accessions of Rice Cast New Light on Molecular Breeding BGI Reports Study Results on Frequent Mutation of Genes Encoding UMPP Components in Kidney Cancer Research on Habitat Shift Promoting Species Diversification

  3. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    home

    2014-12-23

    3372 (Online). Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal. Sci. Technol. Arts Res. J., Oct-Dec 2014, 3(4): 71-78 ..... However, the reason behind the taste chemistry for the pork in the present study was not clear except.

  4. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    home

    2014-12-22

    3372 (Online). Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal. Sci. Technol. Arts Res. J., Oct-Dec 2014, 3(4): 122-134 ...... species of these two families. The reason behind the fact that samma (Urtica simensis) was cited by most.

  5. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-17

    .starjournal.org ... Soil pH can vary from 7 to 8.3 when only. Original Research. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/star.v2i4.9 ...... to solve fertility management related problems in the area. Thus identification of the reasons behind.

  6. Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-05

    Jun 5, 2016 ... Palladium (Pd) accumulates in many organs and renders many deleterious effects. Although the Pd toxicity has been documented, the precise mechanism of Pd toxicity still needs to be elucidated. In the current research, a hepatotoxicity mechanism of Pd has been investigated. Our findings clearly indicate ...

  7. Research Paper:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shanu

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... Forty years in capsaicin research for sensory pharmacology and physiology. Neuropeptides 38:377-384. Thomas E (2002). Tissue culture studies in Arachis hypogea L. and. Vignaunguiculata (L.) Walp. for micropropagation and cell line selection for amino acid overproduction, Ph.D. Thesis, University of.

  8. Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-01

    Jan 1, 2018 ... ferrocene derivatives and potentially all analogous organometallic compounds. The results confirm the utility of use of square wave voltammetry techniques for measuring octanol-water partition coefficients of ferrocene derivatives. 5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. This research was financed by the laboratory of ...

  9. Research Blog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jautze, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Welcome to my personal research blog. I'm a PhD candidate from the Netherlands who has an interest in language and literature. In the project The Riddle of Literary Quality my colleagues and I explore the assumption that formal characteristics play a role in the aesthetic appreciation of novels. In

  10. Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-11

    Jun 11, 2016 ... This research aimed to study the effects of window position on natural cross ventilation in Vernacular architecture of .... sustainable development and keep construction in accordance with the principles of climate. 2 Qanbari and. Sharif. Qajeh. Pasha, 2013. The use of vernacular architecture in the design of.

  11. Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-25

    Jun 25, 2016 ... This article aims at evaluating the fun oftware which are employed for approximate solution in optimization been produced least squares by usual methods for linear and non enetic algorithm in this research. t Squares, Genetic Algorithm, Linear Model, Nonlinear Model, S dence, e-mail: c.author@mail.com.

  12. original research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jenny

    Original Research: Computer-based learning for the enhancement of breastfeeding training. 2009;22(3) ... Conclusion: It is recommended that validated computer-based breastfeeding training modules be integrated as part of multi-media methods .... training and consultations at community and individual level. 3. 0.

  13. Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-01

    Jan 1, 2016 ... ABSTRACT. One of the hottest issues in the recent environmental research worldwide has become the harmful effects of climate change on the ecosystems and environment due to global warming. Bangladesh is one of the most vulnerable countries not only in the South East Asia but also in the world.

  14. Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 janv. 2017 ... Agronomy Departement, Fac. Lif. 2. Ecology and Biology Department, Fac. 3. National Center for Seed and Plants Contr. Received: 05 September 2016 / Accepted: 1. ABSTRACT. This research was conducted to screen populations of bread wheat (Triticum aesti. The results indicated the presence of suffic.

  15. Research Summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This column features summaries of research articles from 3 recent crisis management publications. The first, "School Shootings and Counselor Leadership: Four Lessons from the Field" summarized by Kristi Fenning, was conducted as the result of the increased demand for trained crisis personnel on school campuses. Survey participants were…

  16. Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-18

    Jun 18, 2016 ... different modes of equations is used in a number of semi-empirical equations. Due to the high pressure, semi-empirical equations can not predict the solubility of solids as well. The cubic equations of state have been used by many researchers because of their simplicity, but these equations face problems ...

  17. Population Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The scope of population research as carried on by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) is set forth in this booklet. Population problems of the world, United States, and the individual are considered along with international population policies based on voluntary family planning programs. NICHD goals for biological…

  18. Energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    Status reports are given for the Danish Trade Ministry's energy research projects on uranium prospecting and extraction, oil and gas recovery, underground storage of district heating, electrochemical energy storage systems, wind mills, coal deposits, coal cambustion, energy consumption in buildings, solar heat, biogas, compost heat. (B.P.)

  19. RESEARCH ARTICLE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    2012; Thomas et al. 2016). As IGF1 plays crucial role in almost all body functions, including, growth, reproduction and metabolism, the current research was designed to investigate the nucleotide sequences ..... Rep. 39, 9801–9807. Koohmaraie M., Shackelford S. D., Wheeler T. L., Lonergan S. M. and Doumit M. E. 1995 A.

  20. Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-18

    Jun 18, 2016 ... ABSTRACT. Users encounter a huge volume of papers i. IEEE Explore, ACM Digital library, Goo make some difficulties for researcher. Recommender systems contain successful their priorities. These systems present a p special kind of relevant data or thei. Recommendersystem based on personaliza.

  1. Research medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Highlights of the research effort during 1978 and 1979 include the development and use of a 280-crystal position tomograph; use of 11 C-labeled methionine in studies of heart metabolism and brain metabolism in humans; and studies of the megakaryocytic cell system

  2. Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-18

    Jun 18, 2016 ... Research Article. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0. International ... and breakthrough for human not only in some location and for some year rather for the ... they are used for the new source for building a new structure.

  3. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    home

    2014-12-21

    Dec 21, 2014 ... ISSN: 2226-7522(Print) and 2305-3372 (Online). Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal. Sci. Technol. Arts Res. J., Oct-Dec 2014, 3(4): 01-09. Journal Homepage: http://www.starjournal.org/. Correlation and Divergence Analysis for Phenotypic Traits in Sesame. (Sesamum indicum L.) Genotypes.

  4. Rainfall Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melber, Leah M.

    2003-01-01

    Presents procedures for weather studies as exciting and relatively simple research projects for students to perform. Expects that students gain an accurate view of the scientific process in addition to real-world experience as they face challenging setbacks and make unexpected discoveries along the way. Includes cross-curricular applications.…

  5. Quantitative research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigram, Anthony Lewis

    2003-01-01

    possible and desirable. It is not just a type of research done in a laboratory, or by PhD students. Some for of reliable measurement can be applied to many clinical situationsto evaluate the effects of therapy over time, or the difference between clients who receive therapy and those who don't. Evaluating...

  6. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    home

    2014-02-18

    Feb 18, 2014 ... ISSN: 2226-7522(Print) and 2305-3327 (Online). Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal. Sci. Technol. Arts Res. J., Jan-March 2014, 3(1): 08-13. Journal Homepage: http://www.starjournal.org/. In Vitro Anticancer Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Euphorbia hirta (L.) Anitha P1*, Geegi PG2, Yogeswari ...

  7. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    home

    2014-03-17

    Mar 17, 2014 ... ISSN: 2226-7522(Print) and 2305-3327 (Online). Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal. Sci. Technol. Arts Res. J., Jan-March 2014, 3(1): 53-56. Journal Homepage: http://www.starjournal.org/. Measurement of Turbid Body Optical Properties Using Attenuation of Laser. Light Intensity Techniques.

  8. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    home

    2014-03-25

    Mar 25, 2014 ... ISSN: 2226-7522(Print) and 2305-3327 (Online). Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal. Sci. Technol. Arts Res. J., Jan-March 2014, 3(1): 84-89. Journal Homepage: http://www.starjournal.org/. Effect of Variety and Storage on the Tuber Quality of Potatoes Cultivated in the Eastern Highlands of ...

  9. Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-13

    Jun 13, 2016 ... emerging drug-resistant pathogens in research programme around the world. This article reviews the .... classes are as follows: a) ß-Lactams (Penicillins, Cephalosporins, Monobactams and Carbapenems) .... Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci (VRE), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans, etc.

  10. Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-01

    Jan 1, 2016 ... One of the hottest issues in the recent environmental research worldwide has become the harmful effects of climate change on the ecosystems and environment due to global warming. Bangladesh is one of the ... atmosphere during the last decades has been extremely important and the ultimate result is.

  11. Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Physics, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran. Published online: 05 June 2016. ABSTRACT. YBCO specimens along with different amounts of ... should trigger a great technological revolution. To enable the emerging new technologies, the superconducting materials with a superior ...

  12. Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-11

    Jun 11, 2016 ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 ... Hence, a lot of researches have done to improve the braces to achieve the ideal behavior. In connection of Gusset plate, with analysis of cycle tensile and pressure forces can address to ...

  13. RESEARCH ARTICLE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    research model. Therefore, the objectives of the current study were: 1/ to determine the complete cDNA sequences of porcine AhR and ARNT; 2/ to compare the AhR and ARNT. cDNA sequences with ... The study was approved by the Local Ethical Commission for Animal Experiments of the. University of Warmia and ...

  14. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    2014-03-15

    Mar 15, 2014 ... Abstract. Article Information. This research paper deals with the development of supplier selection methodology for an organization. In today's dynamic environment supplier selection decision presents organizations with a complex scenario and the age old tradition of selecting suppliers based on solitary ...

  15. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-18

    Sep 18, 2013 ... 1998) and involves the movement of water along evapotranspiration, precipitation, surface runoff, subsurface flow, and groundwater pathways. Evapotranspiration (ET) is usually the largest component of the hydrologic cycle, given that most precipitation that falls on land is returned to the. Original Research ...

  16. Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-01-01

    Jan 1, 2017 ... temperature, Gibbs free energy of dissociation of the γ matrix to form γ′, nucleation rate, effective diffusivity and interfacial energy. Nucleation ... Libraries Resource Directory. We are listed under Research ..... Many authors are of a view that a trade off b/w diffusion and undercooling rule the formation of the ...

  17. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-15

    Dec 15, 2012 ... Department of Special Needs Education, College of Education and Behavioral Sciences,. Haramaya ... (learning to learn). Similarly, Good and Brophy. (2006) reported that one important variable that contributed to students' achievement is the involvement of .... research in the area of active learning.

  18. RESEARCH REPORTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    concluded that self-managing teams tend to increase group performance. How- ever, some researchers have found that group cohesiveness is only positively related to performance if the group's goals include high performance. The type of health facility or work setting did not have a strong relationship with productivity.

  19. RESEARCH ARTICLE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    USER

    RESEARCH ARTICLE. Loss of smooth muscle myosin heavy chain results in the bladder and stomach developing lesion during mouse fetal development in mice. Running title. Bladder and stomach lesion without SM-MHC. MEIJUAN LI, SHILI LI, YU RAO, SHENG CUI, KEMIAN GOU*. State Key Laboratory of ...

  20. RESEARCH ARTICLE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    RESEARCH ARTICLE. Expression analysis of Argonaute, Dicer-like and .... provided a foundation for future functional genomics studies of transcriptional silencing-associated gene families in ..... developmental and stress responses, antiviral immune responses and chromatin structure. These genes can affect the growth, ...